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Sample records for lupinus uncinatus schldl

  1. Phyto stabilization of cadmium contaminated soils by Lupinus uncinatus Schldl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsan, M.; Santamaria-Delgado, K.; Vazquez-Alarcon, A.; Alderete-Chavez, A.; Cruz de la, N.; Jaen-Contreras, D.; Augustine Molumeli, P.

    2009-01-01

    Phyto remediation offers the benefits of being in situ, low cost and environmentally sustainable. Lupinus species is starting to generate interest for phyto remediation of soils showing intermediate metal pollution. The aim of this study was to explore the accumulating behavior and tolerance of Lupinus uncessant Schldl. towards increasing Cd concentrations in soil. For this purpose the effects of different Cd treatments on plant growth, survival, metal tolerance, Cd accumulation and distribution in various plant organs were investigated. An 18 week pot trial was performed under greenhouse conditions. Cd was added as CdCl 2 .2 1 /2H 2 O at the rate of 0, 3, 6 and 9 mg Cd kg - 1 soil at three different occasions (after 4th, 12th and 15th week of plant growth) with four replicates. The Cd treatments applied, thus, were 9, 18 and 27 mg kg - 1. Cd inhibited plant height and number of leaves and induced a significant change in dry matter yield of roots, stems and leaves. Metal tolerance indices of 88, 82 and 49% were obtained for 9, 18 and 27 mg Cd kg - 1 treatments. The maximal shoot Cd concentration (stem+leaves) of 540 mg Cd kg - 1 dry matter was found at 27 mg Cd kg - 1 treatment. The poor translocation of Cd from roots to shoot was evident from shoot:root ratios <1. The present work is the first report about the growth performance of L. uncinatus under Cd stress, its degree of tolerance and pattern of Cd accumulation in response to varying Cd treatments in soil suggesting the use of L. uncinatus for phyto stabilization and revegetation of Cd polluted soils. (Author)

  2. Análisis comparativo de bradyrhizobia aislados de Lupinus angustifolius y Lupinus mariae-josephi.

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Pablo; Duran Wendt, David Ricardo; Rey Navarro, Luis; Ruiz Argüeso, Tomas-Andres

    2010-01-01

    Los altramuces (Lupinus sp.) son leguminosas con alto contenido proteico y alto valor en alimentación animal. Todas las especies de Lupinus que crecen en la Península Ibérica, incluida L. angustifolius, requieren suelos ácidos, excepto L- mariae-josephi, una especie recientemente descrita, que excepcíonalmente crece en suelos alcalinos. Se han analizado las relaciones filogenéticas entre bacterias endosimbióticas (rizobios) de L. mariae-josephi y de L. angustifolius y su posición evoluti...

  3. Exudation of organic acids by Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius as affected by phosphorus supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Werner; Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    In phytomining and phytoremediation research mixed cultures of bioenergy crops with legumes hold promise to enhance availability of trace metals and metalloids in the soil plant system. This is due to the ability of certain legumes to mobilize trace elements during acquisition of nutrients making these elements available for co-cultured species. The legumes achieve this element mobilization by exudating carboxylates and enzymes as well as by lowering the pH value in the rhizosphere. The aim of our research was to determine characteristics and differences in the exudation of Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius regarding to quantitative as to qualitative aspects. Especially the affection by phosphorus (P) supply was a point of interest. Thus we conducted laboratory batch experiments, wherein the plants were grown over four weeks under controlled light, moisture and nutritional conditions on sand as substrate. Half of the plants were supplied with 12 mg P per kg substrate, the other half were cultivated under a total lack of P. After cultivation the plants were transferred from the cultivation substrate into a 0,05 mmolṡL-1 CaCl2 solution. After two hours the plants were removed, moist and dry mass off shoots and roots were measured together with the root length (Tennants' method). Concentrations of exudated carboxylates in the CaCl2 solution were determined via IC (column: Metrosept OrganicAcids, eluent 0.5 molṡL-1 H2SO4 + 15% acetone, pH=3; 0.5 mLṡmin-1). As a result four different organic acids were identified (citric acid, fumaric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid) in concentration ranges of 0.15 mgṡL-1 (fumaric acid) to 9.21 mgṡL-1 (citric acid). Lupinus angustifolius showed a higher exudation rate (in nmol per cm root length per hour) than Lupinus albus in the presence of phosphorus (e.g. regarding citric acid: 1.99 vs 0.64 nmolṡ(gṡh)-1). However, as the root complexity and length of L. albus were far higher than of L. angustifolius, the total

  4. Compositional changes in (iso)flavonoids and estrogenic activity of three edible Lupinus species by germination and Rhizopus-elicitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aisyah, Siti; Vincken, Jean Paul; Andini, Silvia; Mardiah, Zahara; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The effects of germination and elicitation on (iso)flavonoid composition of extracts from three edible lupine species (Lupinus luteus, Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius) were determined by RP-UHPLC-MS. n The total (iso)flavonoid content of lupine increased over 10-fold upon

  5. Induced mutation in Lupinus mutabilis sweet in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerrate V, A.; Manrique Chavez, A.; Camarena, F.M.; Nakaodo Nakaodo, J.; Del Carpio R, G.

    1984-01-01

    Mutagenesis of Lupinus mutabilis was started at the UNA LM (Peru) to obtain mutants with low alkaloid content and early germination. Varieties SCG 25 and Lib 020 were irradiated with gamma radiation. The optimum dose for the SCG 25 variety was 15 Krad and for Lib 020 15 to 20 Krad. The relation between the plant height and radiation dose fits the quadratic polynomial model

  6. The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of the narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasprzak, A.; Šafář, Jan; Janda, Jaroslav; Doležel, Jaroslav; Wolko, B.; Naganowska, B.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2006), s. 396-407 ISSN 1425-8153 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : BAC * genomic DNA library * Lupinus angustifolius L. Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.238, year: 2006

  7. Managing technological aspects of Lupinus mutabilis from a food sovereignty perspective in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvajal Larenas, F.E.

    2013-01-01

    The present thesis deals with the technological aspects of the debittering process of lupin in a food sovereignty framework. Of all investigated lupin species,Lupinus mutabilishas the best nutritional composition, which is similar to that of soya bean (Glycine max). Lupins can

  8. Effect of processing on the diffusion of alkaloids and quality of lupinus mutabilis sweet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvajal Larenas, F.E.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Koziol, M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Cold water processing by soaking, cooking and washing has been used for hundreds of years to produce debittered lupine in the Andean region. The process of debittering lupine (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) was investigated at semi-industrial village-scale and laboratory scale in Ecuador. The process took

  9. 78 FR 17600 - Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... lupines. It has a dark brown color with a sweet odor and is 60% biodegradable within 14 days after... of carcinogenicity in lupin-treated animals, and no signs of toxicity or decreases in body weight... (Lupinus angustifolius) by rats for up to 700 days: Effects on body composition and organ weights. British...

  10. Development of molecular cytogenetics and physical mapping of ribosomal RNA genes in Lupinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Naganowska, B.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Swiecicki, W. K.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 46, - (2003), s. 211-215 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/03/0595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : fluorescent in situ hybridization * Lupinus sp. * rRNA genes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.919, year: 2003

  11. EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO TÉRMICO NA DIGESTIBILIDADE, SOLUBILIDADE E ÍNDICE DE ATIVIDADE DE UREASE EM TREMOÇO (LUPINUS ALBUS E LUPINUS ANGUSTIFOLIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Pereira MONTEIRO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Entre as diversas leguminosas estudadas, o tremoço é uma fonte de proteína vegetal de grande potencial para uso na alimentação humana. As espécies dessa leguminosa são originárias do Mediterrâneo e da America do Sul e as mais cultivadas são o Lupinus albus (tremoço branco e o Lupinus angustifolius (tremoço azul. Entretanto, existem fatores antinutricionais presentes nessa leguminosa que precisam ser inativados. Essas substâncias interferem negativamente na digestibilidade proteica e um grande conteúdo delas pode implicar em menor biodisponibilidade da proteína. Este trabalho baseia-se na premissa de que o tratamento térmico adequado dado aos grãos de tremoço promove a inativação dos fatores antinutricionais presentes nessa leguminosa, melhorando, assim, sua digestibilidade. Foram aplicados dois tratamentos térmicos de 100oC por 60 minutos e 150oC por 30 minutos nos grãos do tremoço. Os tratamentos térmicos foram efi cazes para inativação da atividade de urease. A solubilidade não apresentou diferença signifi cativa após tratamento térmico, passando de 79% a 75%. A média da digestibilidade verdadeira encontrada para o Lupinus albus foi de 90,89%, enquanto o Lupinus angustifolius foi de 89,3%. Ao comparar as duas digestibilidades, observou-se que a digestibilidade in vivo se mostrou signifi cativamente maior (p<0,05 que a digestibilidade in vitro após aplicação de tratamento térmico par o Lupinus albus. Pode-se concluir que o tratamento térmico foi efi ciente para inibir a atividade da enzima uréase e que o binômio tempo-temperatura utilizado não foi excessivo a ponto de diminuir a solubilidade.

  12. Anatomía foliar y del pecíolo de cuatro especies de Lupinus (Fabaceae Foliar and petiole anatomy of four species of Lupinus (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Zamora-Natera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe y compara la anatomía foliar y del pecíolo de 4 especies del género Lupinus (L. aschenbornii S.Schauer, L. exaltatus Zucc., L. montanus Kunth y L. reflexus Rose que se distribuyen en un gradiente altitudinal en el Parque Nacional Nevado de Colima. Las hojas se fijaron en campo y se procesaron mediante la técnica de inclusión en parafina. Parte de las láminas se deshidrataron para caracterizar la superficie foliar por medio del microscopio electrónico de barrido. Las especies comparten la epidermis papilosa de paredes anticlinales con diferentes grados de ondulación, estomas anomocíticos, tricomas simples lineares y mesofilo bifacial. Los folíolos de L. montanus son glabros en la superficie abaxial, las estrías cuticulares sobre las células localizadas en la base de los tricomas es un rasgo característico de L. montanus y de L. reflexus. Las diferencias encontradas en espesor de la lámina y del mesofilo así como la abundancia de ceras epicuticulares pueden estar influenciadas por el ambiente. Distintivamente, el número y distribución de haces vasculares en los pecíolos difieren entre las 4 especies y podrían ser de utilidad para diferenciarlas si estos resultados se confirman al estudiar un mayor número de especies de Lupinus.The aims of this study were to describe and compare the foliar and petiole anatomy of 4 species of Lupinus (L. aschenbornii S.Schauer, L. exaltatus Zucc., L. montanus Kunth, and L. reflexus Rose distributed in an elevation gradient at Parque Nacional Nevado de Colima. Leaves were fixed in the field and prepared using the paraffin embedding technique. In addition, part of the blades was dehydrated to describe leaf surface through the scanning electron microscope. The 4 species shared a papillose epidermis with undulated anticlinal walls in different degrees, stomata anomocytic, simple unicellular trichomes, and bifacial mesophyll. Leaflets of L. montanus are glabrous on the abaxial surface

  13. Occurrence of H2-Uptake Hydrogenases in Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) and Their Expression in Nodules of Lupinus spp. and Ornithopus compressus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Jesús; Villa, Ana; Chamber, Manuel; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás

    1989-01-01

    Fifty-four strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) from worldwide collections were screened by a colony hybridization method for the presence of DNA sequences homologous to the structural genes of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum hydrogenase. Twelve strains exhibited strong colony hybridization signals, and subsequent Southern blot hybridization experiments showed that they fell into two different groups on the basis of the pattern of EcoRI fragments containing the homology to the hup probe. All strains in the first group (UPM860, UPM861, and 750) expressed uptake hydrogenase activity in symbiosis with Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus, and Ornithopus compressus, but both the rate of H2 uptake by bacteroids and the relative efficiency of N2 fixation (RE = 1 - [H2 evolved in air/acetylene reduced]) by nodules were markedly affected by the legume host. L. angustifolius was the less permissive host for hydrogenase expression in symbiosis with the three strains (average RE = 0.76), and O. compressus was the more permissive (average RE = 1.0). None of the strains in the second group expressed hydrogenase activity in lupine nodules, and only one exhibited low H2-uptake activity in symbiosis with O. compressus. The inability of these putative Hup+ strains to induce hydrogenase activity in lupine nodules is discussed on the basis of the legume host effect. Among the 42 strains showing no homology to the B. japonicum hup-specific probe in the colony hybridization assay, 10 were examined in symbiosis with L. angustifolius. The average RE for these strains was 0.51. However, one strain, IM43B, exhibited high RE values (higher than 0.80) and high levels of hydrogenase activity in symbiosis with L. angustifolius, L. albus, and L. luteus. In Southern blot hybridization experiments, no homology was detected between the B. japonicum hup-specific DNA probe and total DNA from vegetative cells or bacteroids from strain IM43B even under low stringency hybridization

  14. Chemical and nutritional changes in bitter and sweet lupin seeds (Lupinus albus L.) during bulgur production

    OpenAIRE

    Yorgancilar, Mustafa; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2012-01-01

    In this research, bitter and sweet Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds were used in bulgur production. The proximate chemical compositions and the contents of phytic acid, mineral, amino acid and fatty acid of raw material and processed lupin seeds as bulgur were determined. The sensory properties of bulgur samples were also researched. Bulgur process decreased ash, fat and phytic acid content of lupin seeds while significant increase (p 

  15. Rhizostabilization of metals in soils using Lupinus luteus inoculated with the metal resistant rhizobacterium Serratia sp. MSMC541.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aafi, N; Brhada, F; Dary, M; Maltouf, A Filali; Pajuelo, E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this work was to test Lupinus luteus plants, inoculated with metal resistant rhizobacteria, in order to phytostabilise metals in contaminated soils. The resistance to heavy metals of strains isolated from nodules of Lupinus plants was evaluated. The strain MSMC541 showed multi-resistance to several metals (up to 13.3 mM As, 2.2 mM Cd, 2.3 mM Cu, 9 mM Pb and 30 mM Zn), and it was selected for further characterization. Furthermore, this strain was able to biosorb great amounts of metals in cell biomass. 16S rDNA sequencing positioned this strain within the genus Serratia. The presence of arsenic resistance genes was confirmed by southern blot and PCR amplification. A rhizoremediation pot experiment was conducted using Lupinus luteus grown on sand supplemented with heavy metals and inoculated with MSMC541. Plant growth parameters and metal accumulation were determined in inoculated vs. non-inoculated Lupinus luteus plants. The results showed that inoculation with MSMC541 improved the plant tolerance to metals. At the same time, metal translocation to the shoot was significantly reduced upon inoculation. These results suggest that Lupinus luteus plants, inoculated with the metal resistant strain Serratia sp. MSMC541, have a great potential for phytostabilization of metal contaminated soils.

  16. Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Panter, Kip E; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-11-01

    Calves with congenital defects born to cows that have grazed teratogenic Lupinus spp. during pregnancy can suffer from what is termed crooked calf syndrome. Crooked calf syndrome defects include cleft palate, spinal column defects and limb malformations formed by alkaloid-induced inhibition of fetal movement. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that there are differences in fetal activity of fetuses carried by Holstein verses Angus heifers orally dosed with 1.1 g/kg dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus. Fetal activity was monitored via transrectal ultrasonography and maternal serum was analyzed for specific lupine alkaloids. There were more (P Angus heifers at eight and 12 h after oral dosing. In addition to serum alkaloid toxicokinetic differences, the Holstein heifers had significantly lower serum concentrations of anagyrine at 2, 4, and 8 h after oral dosing than Angus heifers. Holstein heifers also had significantly greater serum concentrations of lupanine at 12, 18 and 24 h after dosing than the Angus heifers. These results suggest that there are breed differences in susceptibility to lupine-induced crooked calf syndrome. These differences may also be used to discover genetic markers that identify resistant animals, thus facilitating selective breeding of resistant herds. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Lost crops of the Incas: Origins of domestication of the Andean pulse crop tarwi, Lupinus mutabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Guy W; Nevado, Bruno; Eastwood, Ruth J; Contreras-Ortiz, Natalia; Reynel, Carlos; Madriñán, Santiago; Filatov, Dmitry A; Hughes, Colin E

    2016-09-01

    The Andean highlands are a hotspot of domestication, yet our understanding of the origins of early Andean agriculture remains fragmentary. Key questions of where, when, how many times, and from what progenitors many Andean crops were domesticated remain unanswered. The Andean lupine crop tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis) is a regionally important pulse crop with exceptionally high seed protein and oil content and is the focus of modern breeding efforts, but its origins remain obscure. A large genome-wide DNA polymorphism data set was generated using nextRADseq to infer relationships among more than 200 accessions of Andean Lupinus species, including 24 accessions of L. mutabilis and close relatives. Phylogenetic and demographic analyses were used to identify the likely progenitor of tarwi and elucidate the area and timing of domestication in combination with archaeological evidence. We infer that tarwi was domesticated once in northern Peru, most likely in the Cajamarca region within, or adjacent to the extant distribution of L. piurensis, which is the most likely wild progenitor. Demographic analyses suggest that tarwi split from L. piurensis around 2600 BP and suffered a classical domestication bottleneck. The earliest unequivocal archaeological evidence of domesticated tarwi seeds is from the Mantaro Valley, central Peru ca. 1800 BP. A single origin of tarwi from L. piurensis in northern Peru provides a robust working hypothesis for the domestication of this regionally important crop and is one of the first clear-cut examples of a crop originating in the highlands of northern Peru. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  18. Iron bioavailability of Lupinus rotundiflorus seeds and roots in low-iron-diet treated rats

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    Elia Herminia VALDÉS MIRAMONTES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate iron bioavailability of roots and cooked seeds of Lupinus rotundiflorus for human consumption using a low-iron-diet rat model. Methods A hemoglobin depletion–repletion test was performed using rats. A standard diet containing 8mg kg-1 of iron was used. Three experimental diets were prepared based on the standard diet: 2.3g of root flour added to D1, 21.5g cooked seed flour added to D2, and 0.03g of ferrous sulfate added to D3 (control diet, adjusting iron concentration of the diets to 24mg kg-1. Hemoglobin regeneration efficiency was used to measure iron bioavailability. Results Hemoglobin regeneration efficiency showed values of 13.80+2.49%, 13.70+1.60% and 18.38+1.56 in D1, D2 and D3 respectively, and biological relative values of 72.8, 75.08, and 100.00% (.<0.05. Conclusion Roots and cooked seeds of Lupinus rotundiflorus showed potential iron bioavailability, despite being a vegetal source, which could also encourage the study of other species of lupin as a source of iron.

  19. Symbiotic efficiency and genetic characteristics of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain UFSM LA 1.3 isolated from Lupinus albescens (H. et Arn)

    OpenAIRE

    Stroschein, Marcos Roberto Dobler; Eltz, Flávio Luiz Foletto; Antoniolli, Zaida Inês; Lupatini, Manoeli; Vargas, Luciano Kaiser; Giongo, Adriana; Pontelli, Mateus Padoin

    2010-01-01

    Legume species belonging to the genus Lupinus are annual herb plants. The majority of them are indigenous to the Americas. They are known for nitrogen-fixing symbioses with soil bacteria collectively called rhizobia. The aim of this study was to characterize a rhizobium strain isolated from Lupinus albescens using phenotypic, symbiotic and molecular approaches. Strain UFSM LA 1.3 was tested in vitro according to several parameters: colony size, color and growing rate; acid or alkaline reactio...

  20. Chemical and nutritional changes in bitter and sweet lupin seeds (Lupinus albus L.) during bulgur production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorgancilar, Mustafa; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2014-07-01

    In this research, bitter and sweet Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds were used in bulgur production. The proximate chemical compositions and the contents of phytic acid, mineral, amino acid and fatty acid of raw material and processed lupin seeds as bulgur were determined. The sensory properties of bulgur samples were also researched. Bulgur process decreased ash, fat and phytic acid content of lupin seeds while significant increase (p sweet lupin bulgurs were found as 18.8% and 21.3%, respectively. Generally sweet lupin seeds/bulgurs showed rich essential amino acids composition than that of bitter seeds/bulgurs. Linoleic and linolenic acid content of the lupin was negatively affected by bulgur process. Bitter lupin bulgur received lower scores in terms of taste, odor and overall acceptability than sweet lupin bulgur in sensory evaluation. Sweet lupin bulgur can be used as new legume-based product with high nutritional and sensorial properties.

  1. Electrical properties of Lupinus angustifolius L. stem. II. Accommodation and anode break excitation

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    Tadeusz Zawadzki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Under electrical stimulation of Lupinus stem phenomena of accommodation and anode break excitation appear. Their characteristic is the same as in the axon or nerve. Only their duration is about 103-104 longer in plants. The constant characterizing the rate of accommodation was calculated. A limiting threshold value was found beyond which excitation occurs, irrespective of the rate of stimulus rise (voltage gradient. The accommodation rate is approximately constant, whereas the range of accommodation varies and is dependent on the difference between the rheobase value and the limiting threshold value. Hence plants with a low rheobase are characterized by a wider range of accommodation. It is suggested that the changes in potential (including AP recorded on the stem surface are connected with changes of the potential on cell membranes (Sibaoka, 1962.

  2. Macromolecular composition of phloem exudate from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.

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    Mann Anthea J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the legume genus Lupinus exude phloem 'spontaneously' from incisions made to the vasculature. This feature was exploited to document macromolecules present in exudate of white lupin (Lupinus albus [L.] cv Kiev mutant, in particular to identify proteins and RNA molecules, including microRNA (miRNA. Results Proteomic analysis tentatively identified 86 proteins from 130 spots collected from 2D gels analysed by partial amino acid sequence determination using MS/MS. Analysis of a cDNA library constructed from exudate identified 609 unique transcripts. Both proteins and transcripts were classified into functional groups. The largest group of proteins comprised those involved in metabolism (24%, followed by protein modification/turnover (9%, redox regulation (8%, cell structural components (6%, stress and defence response (6% with fewer in other groups. More prominent proteins were cyclophilin, ubiquitin, a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, a group of proteins that comprise a glutathione/ascorbate-based mechanism to scavenge oxygen radicals, enzymes of glycolysis and other metabolism including methionine and ethylene synthesis. Potential signalling macromolecules such as transcripts encoding proteins mediating calcium level and the Flowering locus T (FT protein were also identified. From around 330 small RNA clones (18-25 nt 12 were identified as probable miRNAs by homology with those from other species. miRNA composition of exudate varied with site of collection (e.g. upward versus downward translocation streams and nutrition (e.g. phosphorus level. Conclusions This is the first inventory of macromolecule composition of phloem exudate from a species in the Fabaceae, providing a basis to identify systemic signalling macromolecules with potential roles in regulating development, growth and stress response of legumes.

  3. Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in Lupinus albus L. germplasm and its implication for association mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed; Mamidi, Sujan; Ahsan, Rubina; Kianian, Shahryar F; Coyne, Clarice J; Hamama, Anwar A; Narina, Satya S; Bhardwaj, Harbans L

    2012-08-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) has been around since 300 B.C. and is recognized for its ability to grow on poor soils and application as green manure in addition to seed harvest. The seed has very high levels of protein (33-47 %) and oil (6-13 %). It also has many secondary metabolites that are potentially of nutraceutical value to animals and humans. Despite such a great potential, lupins role in modern agriculture began only in the twentieth century. Although a large collection of Lupinus germplasm accessions is available worldwide, rarely have they been genetically characterized. Additionally, scarce genomic resources in terms of recombinant populations and genome information have been generated for L. albus. With the advancement in association mapping methods, the natural populations have the potential to replace the recombinant populations in gene mapping and marker-trait associations. Therefore, we studied the genetic similarity, population structure and marker-trait association in a USDA germplasm collection for their current and future application in this crop improvement. A total of 122 PI (Plant Inventory) lines were screened with 18 AFLP primer pairs that generated 2,277 fragments. A subset of 892 polymorphic markers with MAF >0.05 (minor allele frequency) were used for association mapping. The cluster analysis failed to group accessions on the basis of their passport information, and a weak structure and low linkage disequilibrium (LD) were observed indicating the usefulness of the collection for association mapping. Moreover, we were also able to identify two markers (a p value of 1.53 × 10(-4) and 2.3 × 10(-4)) that explained 22.69 and 20.5 % of seed weight variation determined using R (LR) (2) . The implications of lack of geographic clustering, population structure, low LD and the ability of AFLP to map seed weight trait using association mapping and the usefulness of the PI collections in breeding programs are discussed.

  4. Congenital skeletal malformations and cleft palate induced in goats by ingestion of Lupinus, Conium and Nicotiana species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, K E; Keeler, R F; Bunch, T D; Callan, R J

    1990-01-01

    Three piperidine alkaloid containing plants, Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock), Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco) and Lupinus formosus (lunara lupine), induced multiple congenital contractures (MCC) and palatoschisis in goat kids when their dams were gavaged with the plant during gestation days 30-60. The skeletal abnormalities included fixed extension or flexure of the carpal, tarsal, and fetlock joints, scoliosis, lordosis, torticollis and rib cage abnormalities. Clinical signs of toxicity included those reported in sheep, cattle and pigs--ataxia, incoordination, muscular weakness, prostration and death. One quinolizidine alkaloid containing plant, Lupinus caudatus (tailcup lupine), on the other hand, which is also known to cause MCC in cows, caused only slight signs of toxicity in pregnant goats and no teratogenic effects in their offspring.

  5. Symbiotic efficiency and genetic characteristics of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain UFSM LA 1.3 isolated from Lupinus albescens (H. et Arn) Eficiência simbiótica e características genéticas da estirpe UFSM LA 1.3 de Bradyrhizobium sp. isolado de Lupinus albescens (H. et Arn)

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Roberto Dobler Stroschein; Flávio Luiz Foletto Eltz; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Manoeli Lupatini; Luciano Kaiser Vargas; Adriana Giongo; Mateus Padoin Pontelli

    2010-01-01

    Legume species belonging to the genus Lupinus are annual herb plants. The majority of them are indigenous to the Americas. They are known for nitrogen-fixing symbioses with soil bacteria collectively called rhizobia. The aim of this study was to characterize a rhizobium strain isolated from Lupinus albescens using phenotypic, symbiotic and molecular approaches. Strain UFSM LA 1.3 was tested in vitro according to several parameters: colony size, color and growing rate; acid or alkaline reactio...

  6. Identification and characterisation of seed storage protein transcripts from Lupinus angustifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goggin Danica E

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In legumes, seed storage proteins are important for the developing seedling and are an important source of protein for humans and animals. Lupinus angustifolius (L., also known as narrow-leaf lupin (NLL is a grain legume crop that is gaining recognition as a potential human health food as the grain is high in protein and dietary fibre, gluten-free and low in fat and starch. Results Genes encoding the seed storage proteins of NLL were characterised by sequencing cDNA clones derived from developing seeds. Four families of seed storage proteins were identified and comprised three unique α, seven β, two γ and four δ conglutins. This study added eleven new expressed storage protein genes for the species. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of NLL conglutins with those available for the storage proteins of Lupinus albus (L., Pisum sativum (L., Medicago truncatula (L., Arachis hypogaea (L. and Glycine max (L. permitted the analysis of a phylogenetic relationships between proteins and demonstrated, in general, that the strongest conservation occurred within species. In the case of 7S globulin (β conglutins and 2S sulphur-rich albumin (δ conglutins, the analysis suggests that gene duplication occurred after legume speciation. This contrasted with 11S globulin (α conglutin and basic 7S (γ conglutin sequences where some of these sequences appear to have diverged prior to speciation. The most abundant NLL conglutin family was β (56%, followed by α (24%, δ (15% and γ (6% and the transcript levels of these genes increased 103 to 106 fold during seed development. We used the 16 NLL conglutin sequences identified here to determine that for individuals specifically allergic to lupin, all seven members of the β conglutin family were potential allergens. Conclusion This study has characterised 16 seed storage protein genes in NLL including 11 newly-identified members. It has helped lay the foundation for efforts to use

  7. Escarificación artificial y natural de la semilla de Lupinus bilineatus Benth

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    J. M. Martínez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de Lupinus colonizan áreas incendiadas y fijan N. En otros países las especies de este género se emplean en plantaciones forestales y sistemas agroforestales. Sus semillas presentan latencia física. En el presente estudio se realizó el análisis de semillas y se evaluó la germinación de Lupinus bilineatus Benth. considerando los siguientes factores y niveles: escarificación (natural: fuego, humo; artificial: inmersión en ácido sulfúrico durante 10, 20, 30 y 40 min y control, régimen de temperatura día/noche en cámaras de ambiente controlado (15/10, 20/15, 25/20, 30/25 °C y luz (con y sin. El diseño experimental fue en bloques al azar, con los bloques anidados dentro del factor temperatura. Se realizó un análisis de varianza mixto (con el procedimiento mixto de SAS y la prueba de Tukey. La pureza fue 97.1 %, el peso 66,666.7 semillas·kg-1, el contenido de humedad (base anhidra 7.1 % y la viabilidad 98 % (prueba de tetrazolio. Para la germinación, resultó significativa (P=0.0101 la interacción entre tratamiento escarificatorio, temperatura y luz. La máxima germinación (82.5 % se registró para semilla escarificada químicamente durante 30 o 40 min, a 25/20 °C y con luz. A mayor tiempo de escarificación química, mayor porcentaje de germinación. A 20/15 °C y con luz, la germinación posterior a la escarificación con fuego (38.5 % superó al control (18.5 %. Generalmente el control mostró valores de germinación menores a 30 % en los diferentes tratamientos, denotando latencia física con diferentes intensidades en el lote. Destaca la eficiencia de la escarificación química para cesar la latencia.

  8. Caracterización de semillas de lupino (Lupinus mutabilis sembrado en los Andes de Colombia

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    Ortega-David Eduar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se identificaron las propiedades físicas, composicionales y fisicoquímicas de la semilla de Lupino (Lupinus mutabilis cultivado en Nariño (Andes de Colombia. Su composición se determinó realizando análisis proximales de semilla completa, tegumento y cotiledones. Además se determinó el contenido de minerales y su composición elemental. Se estableció cuantitativamente el contenido de alcaloides presentes y su perfil composicional. Se determinaron propiedades físicas como la forma y el tamaño de la semilla. Se determinaron las propiedades fisicoquímicas como la capacidad de retención de agua y el pH. Las cantidades de nutrientes de la semilla son menores que los valores reportados en la literatura. Se presenta una variación en cuanto al perfil de alcaloides, siendo la esparteína la segunda sustancia de mayor presencia. La hidratación de la semilla conduce a un incremento de 1.72 veces su tamaño original. Se puede sugerir que la proteína posee afinidad hidrofílica evidenciada por la elevada capacidad de retención de agua de la semilla. La identificación de estas propiedades permite reconocer el potencial de la semilla para su futuro aprovechamiento.

  9. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of plant S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (Lupinus luteus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Bujacz, Grzegorz; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2008-01-01

    Single crystals of recombinant S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from L. luteus in complex with adenosine diffract X-rays to 1.17 Å resolution at 100 K. The crystals are tetragonal, space group P4 3 2 1 2, and contain one copy of the dimeric enzyme in the asymmetric unit. By degrading S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, which is a byproduct of S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methylation reactions, S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHase) acts as a regulator of cellular methylation processes. S-Adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from the leguminose plant yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus), LlSAHase, which is composed of 485 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 55 kDa, has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystals of LlSAHase in complex with adenosine were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 20%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 10%(v/v) 2-propanol as precipitants in 0.1 M Tris–HCl buffer pH 8.0. The crystals were tetragonal, space group P4 3 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 122.4, c = 126.5 Å and contained two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit, corresponding to the functional dimeric form of the enzyme. Atomic resolution (1.17 Å) X-ray diffraction data have been collected using synchrotron radiation

  10. Ethylene-dependent effects on generative organ abscission of Lupinus luteus

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    Kamil Frankowski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The abscission of certain organs from the plant is part of the fulfilment of its developmental programs. The separation process occurs in a specialized abscission zone usually formed at the base of detached organ. The changing level of phytohormones, particularly ethylene, is the element responsible for coordinating anatomical and physiological transformation that accompanies organ abscission. The application of ethylene (ET on Lupinus luteus stimulates flower abortion. However, the treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC – direct ET precursor – does not cause such a strong physiological response. In turn, when applied on the pedicels both ET biosynthesis (2-aminoethoxyvinylglycine; AVG and action (norbornadiene; NBD inhibitors reversed the stimulatory effect of ET on generative organ separation. In order to determine ET role in the flower abscission process in L. luteus, we identified the sequences coding for synthase (LlACS and oxidase (LlACO of ACC and measured their expression levels. Abscission zone activation is accompanied by a considerable increase both in LlACS and LlACO cDNAs and also ACC content, which is specifically localized in the dividing cells at the base of the flower being detached. Obtained results suggest that ET is a strong stimulator of flower abortion in L. luteus.

  11. Iron plaque formed under aerobic conditions efficiently immobilizes arsenic in Lupinus albus L roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno, Teresa; Peñalosa, Jesús M; Santner, Jakob; Puschenreiter, Markus; Prohaska, Thomas; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a non-threshold carcinogenic metalloid. Thus, human exposure should be minimised, e.g. by chemically stabilizing As in soil. Since iron is a potential As immobiliser, it was investigated whether root iron plaque, formed under aerobic conditions, affects As uptake, metabolism and distribution in Lupinus albus plants. White lupin plants were cultivated in a continuously aerated hydroponic culture containing Fe/EDDHA or FeSO4 and exposed to arsenate (5 or 20 μM). Only FeSO4 induced surficial iron plaque in roots. LA-ICP-MS analysis accomplished on root sections corroborated the association of As to this surficial Fe. Additionally, As(V) was the predominant species in FeSO4-treated roots, suggesting less efficient As uptake in the presence of iron plaque. Fe/EDDHA-exposed roots neither showed such surficial FeAs co-localisation nor As(V) accumulation; in contrast As(III) was the predominant species in root tissue. Furthermore, FeSO4-treated plants showed reduced shoot-to-root As ratios, which were >10-fold lower compared to Fe/EDDHA treatment. Our results highlight the role of an iron plaque formed in roots of white lupin under aerobic conditions on As immobilisation. These findings, to our knowledge, have not been addressed before for this plant and have potential implications on soil remediation (phytostabilisation) and food security (minimising As in crops). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcript and proteomic analysis of developing white lupin (Lupinus albus L. roots

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    Watson Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White lupin (Lupinus albus L. roots efficiently take up and accumulate (heavy metals, adapt to phosphate deficiency by forming cluster roots, and secrete antimicrobial prenylated isoflavones during development. Genomic and proteomic approaches were applied to identify candidate genes and proteins involved in antimicrobial defense and (heavy metal uptake and translocation. Results A cDNA library was constructed from roots of white lupin seedlings. Eight thousand clones were randomly sequenced and assembled into 2,455 unigenes, which were annotated based on homologous matches in the NCBInr protein database. A reference map of developing white lupin root proteins was established through 2-D gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting. High quality peptide mass spectra were obtained for 170 proteins. Microsomal membrane proteins were separated by 1-D gel electrophoresis and identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of 74 proteins were putatively identified by the peptide mass fingerprinting and the LC-MS/MS methods. Genomic and proteomic analyses identified candidate genes and proteins encoding metal binding and/or transport proteins, transcription factors, ABC transporters and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic enzymes. Conclusion The combined EST and protein datasets will facilitate the understanding of white lupin's response to biotic and abiotic stresses and its utility for phytoremediation. The root ESTs provided 82 perfect simple sequence repeat (SSR markers with potential utility in breeding white lupin for enhanced agronomic traits.

  13. The reaction of Lupinus angustifolius L. root meristematic cell nucleoli to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerzak, Lucja; Glińska, Sława; Godlewski, Mirosław

    2011-04-01

    The effect of 2-48 h treatment of Lupinus angustifolius L. roots with lead nitrate at the concentration of 10(-4) M on the nucleoli in meristematic cells was investigated. In the lead presence the number of ring-shaped as well as segregated nucleoli increased especially after 12-48 h of treatment, while spindle-shaped nucleoli appeared after 24 h and 48 h. Lead presence also increased the frequency of cells with silver-stained particles in the nucleus and the number of these particles especially from the 12th hour of treatment. It was accompanied by significant decline of nucleolar area. Analysis of these cells in transmission electron microscope confirmed the presence of ring-shaped and segregated nucleoli. Moreover, electron microscopy revealed compact structure nucleoli without granular component. Additionally, one to three oval-shaped fibrillar structures attached to nucleolus or lying free in the nucleoplasm were visible. The possible mechanism of lead toxicity to the nucleolus is briefly discussed.

  14. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of plant S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (Lupinus luteus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof [Center for Biocrystallographic Research, Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan (Poland); Department of Crystallography, Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan (Poland); Bujacz, Grzegorz [Center for Biocrystallographic Research, Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan (Poland); Faculty of Food Chemistry and Biotechnology, Technical University of Lodz (Poland); Jaskolski, Mariusz, E-mail: mariuszj@amu.edu.pl [Center for Biocrystallographic Research, Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan (Poland); Department of Crystallography, Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan (Poland)

    2008-07-01

    Single crystals of recombinant S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from L. luteus in complex with adenosine diffract X-rays to 1.17 Å resolution at 100 K. The crystals are tetragonal, space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, and contain one copy of the dimeric enzyme in the asymmetric unit. By degrading S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, which is a byproduct of S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methylation reactions, S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHase) acts as a regulator of cellular methylation processes. S-Adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from the leguminose plant yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus), LlSAHase, which is composed of 485 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 55 kDa, has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystals of LlSAHase in complex with adenosine were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 20%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 10%(v/v) 2-propanol as precipitants in 0.1 M Tris–HCl buffer pH 8.0. The crystals were tetragonal, space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 122.4, c = 126.5 Å and contained two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit, corresponding to the functional dimeric form of the enzyme. Atomic resolution (1.17 Å) X-ray diffraction data have been collected using synchrotron radiation.

  15. Morphogenic responses of three explants of Lupinus montanus (H.B.K. cultured in vitro

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    Gabriel Ramírez-González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El necrosamiento y la respuesta morfogénica de explantes de cotiledón, epicótilo e hipocótilo de plántulas de Lupinus montanus (H.B.K. germinadas in vitro se evaluaron para establecer las condiciones básicas de micropropagación. El necrosamiento se evaluó en medio MS con 0.40 mg·litro-1 de tiamina, 100 mg·litro-1 de mioinositol, 3 % de sacarosa y 7 g·litro-1 de agar-agar y distintas dosis de carbón activado (CA y ácido cítrico. Los tratamientos con CA (50 mg·litro-1 y 100 mg·litro-1 fueron los mejores en el control del necrosamiento (P = 0.001; el cotiledón tuvo mayor nivel de necrosamiento ( 70 % a diferencia del cotiledón, cuya respuesta fue primordialmente callogénica (50 %. El epicótilo cultivado en medio MS con 3.0 μM de AIA y 1.0 μM de BA tuvo el mayor número de brotes (10 y altura (11.4 ± 2.6 cm.

  16. Alkaloid profile, antibacterial and allelopathic activities of Lupinus jaimehintoniana B.L. Turner (Fabaceae

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    Ruiz-González Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we describe some aspects of the ethnobotanical use and the first alkaloid profile of Lupinus jaimehintoniana, the 5 to 8 m high arboreous lupine. Five quinolizidine alkaloids identified as sparteine, 5,6-dehydrolupanine, lupanine, nuttalline, and d-thermopsine, were characterized by the respective elution order according to their electronic impact spectra, lupanine being the most abundant in the four different tissues analyzed. Simultaneously, an antibacterial assessment of the four corresponding crude methanolic extracts, as well as the four semi-purified alkaloids was performed on specific Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains. These experiments resulted in MIC ranges of 37-61 µg mL-1 and 130-146 µg mL-1, respectively. for both bacterial species. Finally, the allelopathic activity of these extracts on the germination of Lactuca sativa seeds was demonstrated to be in the range of 50-300 µg mL-1 for both semi-purified alkaloid and methanolic extracts.

  17. The Effect of Lupin (Lupinus Angustifolius Supplementation on Adaptation of Ewes after Short Transport Stress

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    Sopková D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle transportation represents acute stress to animals with release of catecholamines and glucocorticoids from the adrenal gland resulting in impaired metabolic state. Such changes in metabolism may be reduced by the application of suitable feed supplement. The aim of this study was to test the effects of lupin supplementation applied after 1-hour transportation. Ewes in the control group (n = 7 were fed on trefoil-grass silage and hay, while the diet of the experimental group (n = 7 was supplemented with lupin groats (Lupinus angustifolius, var. SONET; 500 g per head per day for 8 days. In both groups, blood was collected on the day of transportation and on Days 6 and 11 thereafter. Total blood parameters were assayed using spectrophotometry and fractions of protein, cholesterol, and lactate dehydrogenase using agarose electrophoresis. Lupin increased the albumin: globulin (ALB : GLB ratio and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB concentration and reduced serum cholesterol and lactate, however it had no effect on body weight, body condition score (BCS, plasma glucose, serum protein, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or alkaline phosphatise (ALP. Lupin may therefore be used as suitable feed supplement for sheep at times of high nutrient requirement.

  18. Potencial del tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) como futura fuente proteínica y avances de su desarrollo agroindustrial

    OpenAIRE

    Suca, G. R.; suca, C. A.

    2016-01-01

    El principal fortaleza de las leguminosas es la de sostener la producción global de proteínas, mitigando la falta de fuentes de proteínas de origen animal. Entre las legumbres, el tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) es una de las fuentes más importantes de proteínas, especialmente en los países andinos. Además, las plantas de tarwi permiten la fijación de nitrógeno atmosférico y puede ser usado como cultivo rotativo en una agricultura ambientalmente sostenible. Sus semillas contienen más proteína...

  19. Native bradyrhizobial symbionts of Lupinus mariae-josephae, a unique endemism thriving in alkaline soils in Eastern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Duran Wendt, David Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Lupinus mariae-josephae (Lmj) es una especie de lupino endémica de una pequeña y específica área de Comunidad Valenciana (Este de España), donde prospera en suelos alcalinoscalcáreos, un hábitat singular para los altramuces, que crecen preferentemente en suelos ácidos o neutros. Esto hace de Lmj una especie de lupino única. Cuando se inició este trabajo, la extensión conocida de este endemismo abarcaba unos 700 kilómetros cuadrados, confinados en la provincia de Valencia. En esta área, Lmj pr...

  20. EVALUACIÓN DEL PAICO Chenopodium ambrosioides Y CHOCHO Lupinus mutabilis SWEET COMO ANTIPARASITARIOS GASTROINTESTINALES EN BOVINOS JÓVENES

    OpenAIRE

    Clavijo López, Francisco; Barrera Mosquera, Víctor; Rodríguez Iturralde, Luis; Mosquera Andrade, Jorge; Yánez Ortiz, Iván; Godoy Ortiz, Germán; Grijalva Olmedo, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Las infestaciones parasitarias son una de las principales causas de enfermedades y pérdidas de la productividad en las explotaciones ganaderas en Ecuador, por lo que se hace necesario establecer mecanismos para reducirlas a través del uso de tratamientos alternativos a los químicos. En este estudio se evaluó el suministro del extracto acuoso del paico (Chenopodium ambrosioides) y del extracto fitoquímico de chocho (Lupinus mutábilis Sweet) en el control de parásitos gastrointestinales en bov...

  1. Do species differ in their ability to coexist with the dominant alien Lupinus polyphyllus? A comparison between two distinct invaded ranges and a native range

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejda, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 17, jun 2013 (2013), s. 39-55 ISSN 1619-0033 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1112; GA ČR GA206/07/0668 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : lupinus polyphyllus * invasive alien species * native range Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  2. Purification and partial characterization of storage proteins in Lupinus angustifolius seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millán, Francisco

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Lupinus angustifolius seed proteins have been purified by sequential dialysis and ion exchange chromatography, and their amino acid composition has been studied in order to determine their nutritional value as sources of essential amino acids. Albumins include a great variety of proteins. Globulins were resolved in α, β and δ conglutins. Conglutin α is the main protein in the seeds of L. angustifolius, representing 76.6% of the total. While lysine was found to be the limiting amino acid in L. Angustifolius seed proteins as a whole, tyrosine was the limiting amino acid in albumins, and methione and lysine were limiting in globulins. Lysine, methionine and histidine were limiting amino acids in  α conglutin.Se ha realizado una purificación por diálisis secuencial y cromatografía de intercambio iónico de las proteínas de la semilla de L. angustifolius, y su composición en aminoácidos ha sido estudiada para determinar su valor nutricional como fuentes de aminoácidos esenciales. Las albúminas están compuestas por una compleja mezcla de proteínas. Las globulinas se resolvieron en conglutinas α, β y δ. La conglutina  α es la proteína más abundante en las semillas de L. angustifolius representando el 76.6% del total. Las proteínas de la semilla de L. angustifolius son limitantes en lisina. Las albúminas son limitantes en tirosina y las globulinas en metionina y lisina. La α conglutina es limitante en lisina, metionina e histidina.

  3. Kinship rivalry does not trigger specific allocation strategies in Lupinus angustifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milla, Rubén; del Burgo, Ainhoa Vélez; Escudero, Adrián; Iriondo, Jose M

    2012-07-01

    Research on the ability of plants to recognize kin and modify plant development to ameliorate competition with coexisting relatives is an area of very active current exploration. Empirical evidence, however, is insufficient to provide a sound picture of this phenomenon. An experiment was designed to assess multi-trait phenotypic expression in response to competition with conspecifics of varied degrees of genealogical relatedness. Groups of siblings, cousins and strangers of Lupinus angustifolius were set in competition in a pots assay. Several whole-plant and organ-level traits, directly related to competition for above- and below-ground resources, were measured. In addition, group-level root proliferation was measured as a key response trait to relatedness to neighbours, as identified in previous work. No major significant phenotypic differences were found between individuals and groups that could be assigned to the gradient of relatedness used here. This occurred in univariate models, and also when multi-trait interactions were evaluated through multi-group comparisons of Structural Equation Models. Root proliferation was higher in phenotypically more heterogeneous groups, but phenotypic heterogeneity was independent of the relatedness treatments of the experiment, and root proliferation was alike in the neighbourhoods of siblings, cousins and strangers. In contrast to recent findings in other species, genealogical relatedness to competing neighbours has a negligible impact on the phenotypic expression of individuals and groups of L. angustifolius. This suggests that kin recognition needs further exploration to assess its generality, the ecological scenarios where it might have been favoured or penalized by natural selection, and its preponderance in different plant lineages.

  4. How do two Lupinus species respond to temperature along an altitudinal gradient in the Venezuelan Andes? ¿Cómo responden dos especies de Lupinus a la temperatura en un gradiente altitudinal en los Andes venezolanos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERMÍN RADA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature determines plant formations and species distribution along altitudinal gradients. Plants in the tropical high Andes, through different physiological and morphological characteristics, respond to freezing night temperatures and high daytime energy inputs which occur anytime of the year. The main objective of this study was to characterize day and night temperature related responses of two Lupinus species with different altitudinal ranges (L. meridanus, 1,800-3,600 and L. eromonomos, 3,700-4,300 m of altitude. Are there differences in night low temperature resistance mechanisms between the species along the gradient? How do these species respond, in terms of optimum temperature for photosynthesis, to increasing altitude? Lupinus meridanus shows frost avoidance, in contrast to L. eromonomos, which tolerates freezing at higher altitudes. Optimum temperature for photosynthesis decreases along the gradient for both species. Maximum C0(2 assimilation rates were higher in L. meridanus, while L. eromonomos showed decreasing C0(2 assimilation rates at the higher altitude. In most cases, measured daily leaf temperature is always within the 80 % of optimum for photosynthesis. L. meridanus7 upper distribution limit seems to be restricted by cold resistance mechanisms, while L. eromonomos7 to a combination of both cold resistance and to C0(2 assimilation responses at higher altitudes.La temperatura determina las formaciones vegetales y la distribución de especies a lo largo de gradientes altitudinales. Las plantas en los altos Andes tropicales, a través de diferentes características morfológicas y fisiológicas, responden a temperaturas congelantes nocturnas y altas entradas energéticas durante el día en cualquier momento del año. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue caracterizar las respuestas relacionadas con temperaturas diurnas y nocturnas en dos especies de Lupinus con diferente distribución altitudinal (L. meridanus, 1

  5. Supercritical fluid extraction and chromatographic analysis (HRGC-FID and HRGC-MS of Lupinus spp. alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nossack Ana C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The alkaloid extracts from Lupinus spp., obtained by conventional methods (maceration/sonication - solid phase extraction; maceration/sonication - liquid-liquid extraction and SFE (supercritical fluid extraction using CO2 and modified CO2 (CO2/MeOH, CO2/EtOH, CO2/iPrOH and CO2/H2O were analysed by HRGC-FID (high resolution gas chromatography - flame ionization detector and HRGC-MS (high resolution gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The HRGC-FID quantitative analyses were performed with an internal standard method for quantification of lupanine, multiflorine and a spartein-like alkaloid. HRGC-MS allowed identification of the chemical constituents (alkaloids and other compounds from these extracts.

  6. Intercropping with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.); a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    In recent studies root-soil interactions of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) have drawn special attention to researchers due to its particularly high potential to increase bioavailability of phosphorous (P) and trace nutrients in soils. In mixed cultures, white lupine has the ability to mobilize P and trace nutrients in soil in excess of its own need and make this excess available for other intercropped companion species. While improved acquisition of P and improved yield parameters have mostly been documented in cereal-lupine intercrops, compared to sole crops, only a few recent studies have evidenced similar effects for trace elements e.g. Fe, Zn and Mn. In this preliminary study we tried to obtain more information about the mobilization of trace elements due to intercropping under field conditions. We hypothesize, that processes that lead to a better acquisition of trace nutrients might also affect other trace elements what could be useful for phytoremediation and phytomining research. Here we report the results of a semi-field experiment were we investigated the effects of an intercropping of white lupine with oat (Avena sativa L.) on the concentrations of trace metals in shoots of oat. We investigated the effects on 12 trace elements, including 4 elements with relevance for plant nutrition (P, Fe, Mn, Zn) and 8 trace elements, belonging to the group of metalloids, lanthanides and actinides with high relevance in phytoremediation (Cd, Pb Th, U) and phytomining research (Sc, La, Nd, Ge). The experiment was carried out on a semi-field lysimer at the off-site soil recycling and remediation center in Hirschfeld (Saxony, Germany). To test the intercropping-dependent mobilization of trace metals in soil and enhanced uptake of elements by oat, white lupine and oat were cultivated on 20 plots (4 m² each) in monocultures and mixed cultures and two different white lupin /oat-ratios (11% and 33%, respectively) applying various treatments. The geometrical arrangement of

  7. Multiple Continental Radiations and Correlates of Diversification in Lupinus (Leguminosae): Testing for Key Innovation with Incomplete Taxon Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Christopher S.; Eastwood, Ruth J.; Miotto, Silvia T. S.; Hughes, Colin E.

    2012-01-01

    Replicate radiations provide powerful comparative systems to address questions about the interplay between opportunity and innovation in driving episodes of diversification and the factors limiting their subsequent progression. However, such systems have been rarely documented at intercontinental scales. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis of multiple radiations in the genus Lupinus (Leguminosae), which exhibits some of the highest known rates of net diversification in plants. Given that incomplete taxon sampling, background extinction, and lineage-specific variation in diversification rates can confound macroevolutionary inferences regarding the timing and mechanisms of cladogenesis, we used Bayesian relaxed clock phylogenetic analyses as well as MEDUSA and BiSSE birth–death likelihood models of diversification, to evaluate the evolutionary patterns of lineage accumulation in Lupinus. We identified 3 significant shifts to increased rates of net diversification (r) relative to background levels in the genus (r = 0.18–0.48 lineages/myr). The primary shift occurred approximately 4.6 Ma (r = 0.48–1.76) in the montane regions of western North America, followed by a secondary shift approximately 2.7 Ma (r = 0.89–3.33) associated with range expansion and diversification of allopatrically distributed sister clades in the Mexican highlands and Andes. We also recovered evidence for a third independent shift approximately 6.5 Ma at the base of a lower elevation eastern South American grassland and campo rupestre clade (r = 0.36–1.33). Bayesian ancestral state reconstructions and BiSSE likelihood analyses of correlated diversification indicated that increased rates of speciation are strongly associated with the derived evolution of perennial life history and invasion of montane ecosystems. Although we currently lack hard evidence for “replicate adaptive radiations” in the sense of convergent morphological and ecological trajectories among species in different

  8. Alterations in carbon and nitrogen metabolism induced by water deficit in the stems and leaves of Lupinus albus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, C; Chaves, M M; Ricardo, C P

    2001-05-01

    Water deficit (WD) in Lupinus albus L. brings about tissue-specific responses that are dependent on stress intensity. Carbohydrate metabolism is very sensitive to changes in plant water status. Six days from withholding water (DAW), sucrose, glucose and fructose levels of the leaf blade had already increased over 5-fold, and the activities of SS and INV(A) had increased c. 1.5-2 times. From 9 DAW on, when stress intensity was more pronounced, these effects were reversed with fructose and glucose concentrations as well as INV(A) activity dropping in parallel. The stem (specifically the stele) responded to the stress intensification with striking increases in the concentration of sugars, N and S, and in the induction of thaumatin-like-protein and an increase in chitinase and peroxidase. At 13 DAW, the plants lost most of the leaves but on rewatering they fully recovered. Thus, the observed changes appear to contribute to a general mechanism of survival under drought, the stem playing a key role in that process.

  9. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic effect of trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and lupinus albus (lupine) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noaman, E; Mansour, S Z; Ibrahim, N K [Radiation Biology Dept., National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-07-01

    Alloxan induced diabetic rats were used to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of Trigonella Foenum graecum (Fenugreek) and Lupinus Albus (Lupine). The parameters measured during the 45 days oral administration of seeds powder suspension of either Fenugreek or Lupine (1 g/ kg body wt) included: blood glucose, body wt, reduced glutathione content, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TEARS), and percentage of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA), plasma insulin and liver free fatty acids. Fenugreek and Lupine resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose and HbA; restored insulin normal range, ameliorated the contents of glutathione and reduced the increase in the content of plasma TBARS. Lupine at dose of 1 g/ kg body wt exhibited better glucose reduction, restored body wt and free fatty acids concentration than Fenugreek. Diabetes mellitus is the most common disease associated with carbohydrate metabolism, affecting about 200 million people worldwide. Extracts of various plant materials capable of decreasing blood sugar have been tested in experimental animal models (Bopanna and Rathod, 1997). Many unknown and lesser known plants are used in traditional medicinal practices in Egypt. The medicinal values of these plants are not much known to the scientific world. Although herbal medicines have long been used effectively in treating many diseases throughout the world, the mechanism of most of the herbals used has not been defined. Many traditional plant treatments for diabetes are also used, but most of the evidence for their beneficial effects is anecdotal (Jelodar et al., 2005)

  10. Characterization and mapping of LanrBo: a locus conferring anthracnose resistance in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kristin; Dieterich, Regine; Nelson, Matthew N; Kamphuis, Lars G; Singh, Karam B; Rotter, Björn; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Winter, Peter; Wehling, Peter; Ruge-Wehling, Brigitte

    2015-10-01

    A novel and highly effective source of anthracnose resistance in narrow-leafed lupin was identified. Resistance was shown to be governed by a single dominant locus. Molecular markers have been developed, which can be used for selecting resistant genotypes in lupin breeding. A screening for anthracnose resistance of a set of plant genetic resources of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) identified the breeding line Bo7212 as being highly resistant to anthracnose (Colletotrichum lupini). Segregation analysis indicated that the resistance of Bo7212 is inherited by a single dominant locus. The corresponding resistance gene was given the designation LanrBo. Previously published molecular anchor markers allowed us to locate LanrBo on linkage group NLL-11 of narrow-leafed lupin. Using information from RNAseq data obtained with inoculated resistant vs. susceptible lupin entries as well as EST-sequence information from the model genome Lotus japonicus, additional SNP and EST markers linked to LanrBo were derived. A bracket of two LanrBo-flanking markers allows for precise marker-assisted selection of the novel resistance gene in narrow-leafed lupin breeding programs.

  11. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic effect of trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and lupinus albus (lupine) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noaman, E.; Mansour, S.Z.; Ibrahim, N.K.

    2007-01-01

    Alloxan induced diabetic rats were used to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of Trigonella Foenum graecum (Fenugreek) and Lupinus Albus (Lupine). The parameters measured during the 45 days oral administration of seeds powder suspension of either Fenugreek or Lupine (1 g/ kg body wt) included: blood glucose, body wt, reduced glutathione content, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TEARS), and percentage of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA), plasma insulin and liver free fatty acids. Fenugreek and Lupine resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose and HbA; restored insulin normal range, ameliorated the contents of glutathione and reduced the increase in the content of plasma TBARS. Lupine at dose of 1 g/ kg body wt exhibited better glucose reduction, restored body wt and free fatty acids concentration than Fenugreek. Diabetes mellitus is the most common disease associated with carbohydrate metabolism, affecting about 200 million people worldwide. Extracts of various plant materials capable of decreasing blood sugar have been tested in experimental animal models (Bopanna and Rathod, 1997). Many unknown and lesser known plants are used in traditional medicinal practices in Egypt. The medicinal values of these plants are not much known to the scientific world. Although herbal medicines have long been used effectively in treating many diseases throughout the world, the mechanism of most of the herbals used has not been defined. Many traditional plant treatments for diabetes are also used, but most of the evidence for their beneficial effects is anecdotal (Jelodar et al., 2005)

  12. Plant nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidate hydrolase; simple purification from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) seeds and properties of homogeneous enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guranowski, Andrzej; Wojdyła, Anna M; Rydzik, Anna M; Stepiński, Janusz; Jemielity, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate (NH₂-pA) is an uncommon natural nucleotide of poorly understood biochemistry and function. We studied a plant enzyme potentially involved in the catabolism of NH₂-pA. A fast and simple method comprising extraction of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) seed-meal with a low ionic strength buffer, ammonium sulfate and acetone fractionations, removal of contaminating proteins by heat denaturation, and affinity chromatography on AMP-agarose, yielded homogenous nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidase. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that the lupin hydrolase exhibits closest similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana Hint1 protein. The substrate specificity of the lupin enzyme, in particular its ability to split the P-S bond in adenosine 5'-phosphorothioate, is typical of known Hint1 proteins. Adenosine 5'-phosphofluoride and various derivatives of guanosine 5'-phosphoramidate were also substrates. Neither common divalent metal cations nor 10 mM EDTA or EGTA affected the hydrolysis of NH₂-pA. The enzyme functions as a homodimer (2 x 15,800 Da). At the optimum pH of 7.0, the K(m) for NH₂-pA was 0.5 µM and k(cat) 0.8 s⁻¹ (per monomer active site). The properties of the lupin nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidase are compared with those of its counterparts from other organisms.

  13. Oxalate contributes to the resistance of Gaillardia grandiflora and Lupinus sericeus to a phytotoxin produced by Centaurea maculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Tiffany L; Bais, Harsh Pal; Stull, Valerie J; Callaway, Ragan M; Thelen, Giles C; Ridenour, Wendy M; Bhamidi, Suresh; Stermitz, Frank R; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2006-03-01

    Centaurea maculosa Lam. is a noxious weed in western North America that produces a phytotoxin, (+/-)-catechin, which is thought to contribute to its invasiveness. Areas invaded by C. maculosa often result in monocultures of the weed, however; in some areas, North American natives stand their ground against C. maculosa and show varying degrees of resistance to its phytotoxin. Two of these resistant native species, Lupinus sericeus Pursh and Gaillardia grandiflora Van Houtte, were found to secrete increased amounts of oxalate in response to catechin exposure. Mechanistically, we found that oxalate works exogenously by blocking generation of reactive oxygen species in susceptible plants and reducing oxidative damage generated in response to catechin. Furthermore, field experiments show that L. sericeus indirectly facilitates native grasses in grasslands invaded by C. maculosa, and this facilitation can be correlated with the presence of oxalate in soil. Addition of exogenous oxalate to native grasses and Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh grown in vitro alleviated the phytotoxic effects of catechin, supporting the field experiments and suggesting that root-secreted oxalate may also act as a chemical facilitator for plant species that do not secrete the compound.

  14. Transferencia de algunos marcadores moleculares microsatélites de la familia Fabaceae en tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. Chirinos-Arias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de analizar la transferencia de 15 iniciadores microsatélites de la familia Fabaceae en Lupinus mutabilis Sweet “tarwi”, escogidos por presentar transferibilidad entre especies y géneros, por su alto índice de contenido polimórfico (PIC y alto grado de heterocigosidad observada y esperada. Se extrajo el ADN de 300 plantas de tarwi, se estandarizaron las condiciones PCR haciendo gradientes de los diferentes componentes del master mix. Para el screening se corrieron los iniciadores en gel de agarosa 3% con algunas muestras. Finalmente se amplificó la población y se corrieron en gel de poliacrilamida 6% por su mayor resolución. Sólo el 6,67% de iniciadores amplificaron pero resultaron ser monomórficos, por lo que no pueden usarse en caracterización molecular. Se propone ocho iniciadores microsatélites para tarwi, los cuales deben ser probados en condiciones de laboratorio.

  15. VARIACIÓN GENÉTICA INTERPOBLACIONAL E INTRAPOBLACIONAL EN Lupinus elegans H. B. K. CON MARCADORES MOLECULARES (RAPD’s).

    OpenAIRE

    ALEJANDRE MELENA, NANCY

    2012-01-01

    Lupinus elegans HBK. es una especie representativa de la Flora del Centro-Occidente de México. Esta especie se utiliza en proyectos de restauración de bosques de coníferas en la Meseta Purépecha porque crea microambientes para el establecimiento de especies de Pinus, además de fijar nitrógeno y mejorar las condiciones del suelo empobrecido. En este estudio se evalúa la variación genética de poblaciones de L. elegans por medio de RAPD. Se colectaron un total de 159 individuos en...

  16. Use of lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, and stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, as feed additives to prevent Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, E; Austin, B

    2010-05-01

    Feeding rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with 1% lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, or stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, for 14 days led to reductions in mortality after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, there was significant enhancement in serum bactericidal activity, respiratory burst and lysozyme activity in the treatment groups compared to the controls. Use of lupin and mango led to the highest number of red blood and white blood cells in recipient fish, with use of stinging nettle leading to the highest haematocrit and haemoglobin values; the highest value of mean corpuscular volume and haemoglobin was in the control groups and those fed with stinging nettle.

  17. Conservation of Endangered Lupinus mariae-josephae in Its Natural Habitat by Inoculation with Selected, Native Bradyrhizobium Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Albert; Fos, Simón; Laguna, Emilio; Durán, David; Rey, Luis; Rubio-Sanz, Laura; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    Lupinus mariae-josephae is a recently discovered endemism that is only found in alkaline-limed soils, a unique habitat for lupines, from a small area in Valencia region (Spain). In these soils, L. mariae-josephae grows in just a few defined patches, and previous conservation efforts directed towards controlled plant reproduction have been unsuccessful. We have previously shown that L. mariae-josephae plants establish a specific root nodule symbiosis with bradyrhizobia present in those soils, and we reasoned that the paucity of these bacteria in soils might contribute to the lack of success in reproducing plants for conservation purposes. Greenhouse experiments using L. mariae-josephae trap-plants showed the absence or near absence of L. mariae-josephae-nodulating bacteria in “terra rossa” soils of Valencia outside of L. mariae-josephae plant patches, and in other “terra rossa” or alkaline red soils of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands outside of the Valencia L. mariae-josephae endemism region. Among the bradyrhizobia able to establish an efficient symbiosis with L. mariae-josephae plants, two strains, LmjC and LmjM3 were selected as inoculum for seed coating. Two planting experiments were carried out in consecutive years under natural conditions in areas with edapho-climatic characteristics identical to those sustaining natural L. mariae-josephae populations, and successful reproduction of the plant was achieved. Interestingly, the successful reproductive cycle was absolutely dependent on seedling inoculation with effective bradyrhizobia, and optimal performance was observed in plants inoculated with LmjC, a strain that had previously shown the most efficient behavior under controlled conditions. Our results define conditions for L. mariae-josephae conservation and for extension to alkaline-limed soil habitats, where no other known lupine can thrive. PMID:25019379

  18. Preparation, characterization of silver phyto nanoparticles and their impact on growth potential of Lupinus termis L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma A. Al-Huqail

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study reports rapid and easy method for synthesis of eco-friendly silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Coriandrum sativum leaves extract as a reducing and covering agent. The bio-reductive synthesis of AgNPs was monitored using a scanning double beam UV-vis spectrophotometer. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was used to characterize the morphology of AgNPs obtained from plant extracts. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns of AgNPs indicate that the structure of AgNPs is the face centered cubic structure of metallic silver. The surface morphology and topography of the AgNPs were examined by scanning electron microscopy and the energy dispersive spectrum revealed the presence of elemental silver in the sample. The silver phyto nanoparticles were collected from plant extract and tested growth potential and metabolic pattern in (Lupinus termis L. seedlings upon exposure to different concentrations of AgNPs. The seedlings were exposed to various concentrations of (0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mg L−1 AgNPs for ten days. Significant reduction in shoot and root elongation, shoot and root fresh weights, total chlorophyll and total protein contents were observed under the higher concentrations of AgNPs. Exposure to 0.5 mg L−1 of AgNPs decreased sugar contents and caused significant foliar proline accumulation which considered as an indicator of the stressful effect of AgNPs on seedlings. AgNPs exposure resulted in a dose dependent decrease in different growth parameters and also caused metabolic disorders as evidenced by decreased carbohydrates and protein contents. Further studies needed to find out the efficacy, longevity and toxicity of AgNPs toward photosynthetic system and antioxidant parameters to improve the current investigation.

  19. Metabolism of excised embryos of Lupinus luteus L. VI. An electrophoretic analysis of some dehydrogenases in cultured embryos as compared with the normal seedling axes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Czosnowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrophoretic patterns (disc electrophoresis of the studied dehydrogenases: glucose-6-phosphate - (A, malate - (B, glutamate - (C, alcohol - (D and lactate dehydrogenase (E, in the axial organs of isolated Lupinus luteus embryos and seedlings cultivated over 12 days are characterized by great similarities. With time, after the third day of cultivation the patterns begin to become less deyeloped. Analyses performed during the first 10 hours of imbibition of seed parts indicate that the maximal development of isozyme patterns occurs during the third hour after which the patterns become poorer. The most uniform type of pattern. and the lowest number of isozymes was shown by glutamate dehydrogenase, the richest pattern was shown by malate dehydrogenase. No band common for a 11 the 27 experimental elements was found.

  20. Structure, expression profile and phylogenetic inference of chalcone isomerase-like genes from the narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L. genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucja ePrzysiecka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lupins, like other legumes, have a unique biosynthesis scheme of 5-deoxy-type flavonoids and isoflavonoids. A key enzyme in this pathway is chalcone isomerase (CHI, a member of CHI-fold protein family, encompassing subfamilies of CHI1, CHI2, CHI-like (CHIL, and fatty acid-binding (FAP proteins. Here, two Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin CHILs, LangCHIL1 and LangCHIL2, were identified and characterized using DNA fingerprinting, cytogenetic and linkage mapping, sequencing and expression profiling. Clones carrying CHIL sequences were assembled into two contigs. Full gene sequences were obtained from these contigs, and mapped in two L. angustifolius linkage groups by gene-specific markers. Bacterial artificial chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization approach confirmed the localization of two LangCHIL genes in distinct chromosomes. The expression profiles of both LangCHIL isoforms were very similar. The highest level of transcription was in the roots of the third week of plant growth; thereafter, expression declined. The expression of both LangCHIL genes in leaves and stems was similar and low. Comparative mapping to reference legume genome sequences revealed strong syntenic links; however, LangCHIL2 contig had a much more conserved structure than LangCHIL1. LangCHIL2 is assumed to be an ancestor gene, whereas LangCHIL1 probably appeared as a result of duplication. As both copies are transcriptionally active, questions arise concerning their hypothetical functional divergence. Screening of the narrow-leafed lupin genome and transcriptome with CHI-fold protein sequences, followed by Bayesian inference of phylogeny and cross-genera synteny survey, identified representatives of all but one (CHI1 main subfamilies. They are as follows: two copies of CHI2, FAPa2 and CHIL, and single copies of FAPb and FAPa1. Duplicated genes are remnants of whole genome duplication which is assumed to have occurred after the divergence of Lupinus, Arachis

  1. (Lupinus albus) SEEDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-08-08

    Aug 8, 2010 ... lupin samples indicated that lupins can be used as a raw material for various food ... lupin seeds can be utilized for milk and meat imitation products. ... estimated by multiplying the percentage of crude protein, crude fat and ...

  2. Lupinus albus L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uovspc

    2013-08-28

    Aug 28, 2013 ... quality (Prusakova et al., 1999) and the induction of resis- tance towards .... 5434 Afr. J. Biotechnol. rate of monoculture yeast (Saccharomyces cerivisiae) and its effect .... detected under UV-light at 254 and 365 nm, stained with 10% (v/v) ethanolic ..... mutants showed that they play an essential role in main-.

  3. Lupinus albus L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uovspc

    2013-08-28

    Aug 28, 2013 ... Subsequently, the ethanol treated seed material was suspended in distilled .... rate of monoculture yeast (Saccharomyces cerivisiae) and its effect on seed ...... Trienoic fatty acids and plant tolerance of high temperature. Sci.

  4. Symbiotic efficiency and genetic characteristics of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain UFSM LA 1.3 isolated from Lupinus albescens (H. et Arn Eficiência simbiótica e características genéticas da estirpe UFSM LA 1.3 de Bradyrhizobium sp. isolado de Lupinus albescens (H. et Arn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Dobler Stroschein

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Legume species belonging to the genus Lupinus are annual herb plants. The majority of them are indigenous to the Americas. They are known for nitrogen-fixing symbioses with soil bacteria collectively called rhizobia. The aim of this study was to characterize a rhizobium strain isolated from Lupinus albescens using phenotypic, symbiotic and molecular approaches. Strain UFSM LA 1.3 was tested in vitro according to several parameters: colony size, color and growing rate; acid or alkaline reaction in yeast mannitol media supplemented with bromothymol blue; gum production. Molecular characterization was evaluated by PCR technique using primers BOX A1-R and sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic region (ITS. ITS sequencing fragments showed genetic similarity with Bradyrhizobium sp. The polymorphism observed by BOX-PCR have shown that strain differs from the reference strain SEMIA 928 and SEMIA 938. The symbiotic efficiency under axenic conditions of UFSM LA 1.3 was 94.6%, without statistical differences compared to the mineral nitrogen fertilized control, to which was applied solution of 400 mg of ammonium nitrate.Espécies de leguminosas pertencentes ao gênero Lupinus são plantas herbáceas anuais. A maioria é originária das Américas. Estas plantas estabelecem simbioses com bactérias do solo que realizam fixação biológica de nitrogênio coletivamente chamada de rizóbios. Caracterizou-se uma estirpe isolada de Lupinus albescens por meio de características fenotípicas, simbióticas e moleculares. A estirpe UFSM LA 1.3 foi testada in vitro de acordo com os parâmetros: tamanho de colônia; cor e taxa de crescimento; reação ácida ou básica em meio levedura manitol suplementado com azul de bromotimol; produção de goma. A caracterização molecular foi feita pela técnica de PCR usando os oligonucleotídeos BOX A1-R e seqüenciamento da região ITS. A análise da seqüência dos fragmentos da região intergênica (ITS 16S-26S r

  5. The influence of abscisic acid on the ethylene biosynthesis pathway in the functioning of the flower abscission zone in Lupinus luteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmowicz, Emilia; Frankowski, Kamil; Kućko, Agata; Świdziński, Michał; de Dios Alché, Juan; Nowakowska, Anna; Kopcewicz, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Flower abscission is a highly regulated developmental process activated in response to exogenous (e.g. changing environmental conditions) and endogenous stimuli (e.g. phytohormones). Ethylene (ET) and abscisic acid (ABA) are very effective stimulators of flower abortion in Lupinus luteus, which is a widely cultivated species in Poland, Australia and Mediterranean countries. In this paper, we show that artificial activation of abscission by flower removal caused an accumulation of ABA in the abscission zone (AZ). Moreover, the blocking of that phytohormone's biosynthesis by NDGA (nordihydroguaiaretic acid) decreased the number of abscised flowers. However, the application of NBD - an inhibitor of ET action - reversed the stimulatory effect of ABA on flower abscission, indicating that ABA itself is not sufficient to turn on the organ separation. Our analysis revealed that exogenous ABA significantly accelerated the transcriptional activity of the ET biosynthesis genes ACC synthase (LlACS) and oxidase (LlACO), and moreover, strongly increased the level of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) - ET precursor, which was specifically localized within AZ cells. We cannot exclude the possibility that ABA mediates flower abscission processes by enhancing the ET biosynthesis rate. The findings of our study will contribute to the overall basic knowledge on the phytohormone-regulated generative organs abscission in L. luteus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. The First Genetic and Comparative Map of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.): Identification of QTLs for Anthracnose Resistance and Flowering Time, and a Locus for Alkaloid Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huyen T. T.; Ellwood, Simon R.; Adhikari, Kedar; Nelson, Matthew N.; Oliver, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract We report the first genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.). An F8 recombinant inbred line population developed from Kiev mutant × P27174 was mapped with 220 amplified fragment length polymorphism and 105 gene-based markers. The genetic map consists of 28 main linkage groups (LGs) that varied in length from 22.7 cM to 246.5 cM and spanned a total length of 2951 cM. There were seven additional pairs and 15 unlinked markers, and 12.8% of markers showed segregation distortion at P anthracnose resistance, flowering time, and alkaloid content allowed loci governing these traits to be defined. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with significant effects were identified for anthracnose resistance on LG4 and LG17, and two QTLs were detected for flowering time on the top of LG1 and LG3. Alkaloid content was mapped as a Mendelian trait to LG11. PMID:17526914

  7. Effects of intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on the mobility of target elements for phytoremediation and phytomining in soil solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate how intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) affects the mobile fractions of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Th, U, Sc, La, Nd, Ge) in soil solution. Oat and white lupin were cultivated in monocultures and mixed cultures with differing oat/white lupin ratios (11% and 33% lupin, respectively). Temporal variation of soil solution chemistry was compared with the mobilization of elements in the rhizosphere of white lupin and concentrations in plant tissues. Relative to the monocrops, intercropping of oat with 11% white lupin significantly increased the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, La and Nd in soil solution as well as the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, Sc, La and Nd in tissues of oat. Enhanced mobility of the mentioned elements corresponded to a depletion of elements in the rhizosphere soil of white lupin. In mixed cultures with 33% lupin, concentrations in soil solution only slightly increased. We conclude that intercropping with 11% white lupin might be a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research enhancing mobility of essential trace metals as well as elements with relevance for phytoremediation (Pb, Th) and phytomining (La, Nd, Sc) in soil.

  8. The genomes of three Bradyrhizobium sp. isolated from root nodules of Lupinus albescens grown in extremely poor soils display important genes for resistance to environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granada, Camille E; Vargas, Luciano K; Sant'Anna, Fernando Hayashi; Balsanelli, Eduardo; Baura, Valter Antonio de; Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio de; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi de; Falcon, Tiago; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2018-05-17

    Lupinus albescens is a resistant cover plant that establishes symbiotic relationships with bacteria belonging to the Bradyrhizobium genus. This symbiosis helps the development of these plants in adverse environmental conditions, such as the ones found in arenized areas of Southern Brazil. This work studied three Bradyrhizobium sp. (AS23, NAS80 and NAS96) isolated from L. albescens plants that grow in extremely poor soils (arenized areas and adjacent grasslands). The genomes of these three strains were sequenced in the Ion Torrent platform using the IonXpress library preparation kit, and presented a total number of bases of 1,230,460,823 for AS23, 1,320,104,022 for NAS80, and 1,236,105,093 for NAS96. The genome comparison with closest strains Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA6 and Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA110 showed important variable regions (with less than 80% of similarity). Genes encoding for factors for resistance/tolerance to heavy metal, flagellar motility, response to osmotic and oxidative stresses, heat shock proteins (present only in the three sequenced genomes) could be responsible for the ability of these microorganisms to survive in inhospitable environments. Knowledge about these genomes will provide a foundation for future development of an inoculant bioproduct that should optimize the recovery of degraded soils using cover crops.

  9. In vitro fermentation of lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) and broad beans (Vicia faba): dynamic modulation of the intestinal microbiota and metabolomic output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón, Patricia; Gullón, Beatriz; Tavaria, Freni; Vasconcelos, Marta; Gomes, Ana Maria

    2015-10-01

    Broad beans (Vicia faba) and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) are legumes rich in a wide range of compounds, which may represent a useful dietary approach for modulating the human gut microbiome. In this work, after in vitro digestion, legume samples were used as carbon sources in anaerobic batch cultures to evaluate their impact on the intestinal microbiota composition and on their metabolic products. The fermentations were monitored by a decrease in pH, generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactate and the changes in the dynamic bacterial populations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The total SCFA at the end of fermentation was 81.52 mM for lupin seeds and 78.41 mM for broad beans accompanied by a decrease of the pH for both legumes. The microbial groups that increased significantly (P spp., Lactobacillus-Enterococcus, Atopobium, Bacteroides-Pretovella, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia intestinalis. This impact on the intestinal microbiota suggests that lupin seeds and broad beans may be used in the development of novel functional foods, which can be included in dietary strategies for human health promotion.

  10. Composición química de “oca” (Oxalis tuberosa), ‘arracacha’ (Arracaccia xanthorriza) y ‘tarwi’ (Lupinus mutabilis). Formulación de una mezcla base para productos alimenticios

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Elizabeth Pagador Flores; Misael Ydilbrando Villacorta González; María Elena León Marroú

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo formular una mezcla base a partir de cultivos nativos, la cual una vez estandarizada, se constituye en materia prima de alto valor nutricional para su utilización en la elaboración de productos alimenticios como: purés, papillas y productos de panificación, entre otros. Se seleccionaron tres cultivos andinos: un tubérculo, “oca” (Oxalis tuberosa); una raíz, ‘arracacha’ (Arracaccia xanthorriza) y una leguminosa, ‘tarwi’ (Lupinus mutabilis). Se realizaron ...

  11. Nitrate levels and stages of growth in hypernodulating mutants of Lupinus albus. II. Enzymatic activity and transport of N in the xylem sap Diferentes níveis de nitrato e estágio de crescimento em mutantes hipernodulantes de Lupinus albus II. Atividade enzimática e transporte de N na seiva do xilema

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    Hélio Almeida Burity

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic study and transport of N in the xylem sap was carried out with a view to observing the influence of different nitrate levels and growth stages of the plant in chemically treated mutants of Lupinus albus. Several stresses induce a reduction in plant growth, resulting in the accumulation of free amino acids, amides or ureides, not only in the shoot, but also in the roots and nodules. Although enzyme activity is decisive in avoiding products that inhibit nitrogenase by ammonium, little is known about the mechanism by which the xylem carries these products. However, this process may be the key to the function of avoiding the accumulation of amino acids in the cells of infected nodules. The behaviour of the enzymes nitrate reductase (NR, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, glutamine synthetase (GS and nitrogen compounds derived from fixation, such as N-a-amino, N-ureides and N-amide in mutant genotypes were observed. The NR enzyme activity was highly influenced by the application of nitrate showing much higher values than those in the non-application of nitrate, independently of genotype, being that the NR, the best evaluation period was in the tenth week. The L-62 genotype characterized with nitrate- resistance, clearly showed that the enzyme PEPC is inhibited by presence of nitrate. The L-135 genotype (nod- fix- showed GS activity extremely low, thus demonstrating that GS is an enzyme highly correlated with fixation. With regard to the best growth stage for GS, Lupinus albus should be evaluated in the seventh week.O estudo enzimático e o transporte de N na seiva do xilema foi realizado visando observar a influência de diferentes níveis de nitrato e estágios de crescimento da planta em mutantes tratadas quimicamente. Vários estresses induzem a redução no crescimento da planta da qual resulta na acumulação de aminoácidos livres, amidas ou ureídos, tanto na parte aérea como nas raízes e nódulos. A atividade de enzimas

  12. Effects of seed density and proximity to refuge habitat on seed predation rates for a rare and a common Lupinus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Eleanor A; Patten, Melissa V; Knight, Tiffany M

    2017-03-01

    Biotic interactions such as seed predation can play a role in explaining patterns of abundance among plant species. The effect of seed predation will depend on how the strength of predation differs across species and environments, and on the degree to which seed loss at one life-cycle phase increases fitness at another phase. Few studies have simultaneously quantified predispersal and postdispersal predation in co-occurring rare and common congeners, despite the value of estimating both for understanding causes of rarity. We quantified predispersal seed predation on the rare, herbaceous species Lupinus tidestromii (Fabaceae) and its common, shrubby congener L. chamissonis across multiple years in the same community. We experimentally measured postdispersal seed predation at two seed densities and locations near or far from an exotic grass housing high densities of deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus ), their primary, native seed predator. The common L. chamissonis had the lowest predispersal seed predation of the two lupine species, potentially because of its height: its high racemes received less predation than those low to the ground. By contrast, the same species experienced higher postdispersal seed predation, and at predators traveled long distances away from refuge habitat to consume their seeds. Across both plant species, mice preferentially predated high-density seed sources. Our results show differences in the magnitude and direction of seed predation between the species across different life-cycle phases. We demonstrated possible roles of proximity to refuge habitat, seed density, and seed size in these patterns. Congeneric comparisons would benefit from a comprehensive framework that considers seed predation across different life-cycle phases and the environmental context of predation. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  13. Bocadito con alto contenido proteico: un extruido a partir de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet y camote (Ipomoea batatas L.

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    Katherine Pérez Ramos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo la elaboración de un bocadito extruido de elevado tenor proteico, a partir de quinua ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd., tarwi ( Lupinus mutabilis Sweet y fécula de camote ( Ipomoea batatas L.. Para su formulación se aplicó el método de diseño de mezclas usando la herramienta computacional - estadíst ica Design Expert® versión 7.0, siendo las variables independientes las harinas de quinua, tarwi y fécula de camote; y las variables dependientes el contenido de proteína, índice de expansión, densidad aparente y dureza de los extruidos. La formulación ópt ima se determinó aplicando la prueba de deseabilidad basada en los modelos de regresión ajustado, dicha formulación se obtuvo maximizando el contenido de proteína e índice de expansión; y minimizando la dureza y densidad aparente de los extruidos. La formu lación óptima tuvo un porcentaje de quinua, tarwi y fécula de camote de 57%, 26% y 17 % respectivamente. El análisis fisicoquímico de la fórmula óptima dio como resultado 20,16% de proteína, 2,19 de índice de expansión, 0,220 g/cm 3 densidad aparente y 9,31 N de dureza. La calidad proteica de la formulación óptima fue determinada mediante los ensayos de digestibilidad verdadera y valor biológico verdadero en ratas, obteniéndose 83,5% y 62,9% respectivamente.

  14. Do species differ in their ability to coexist with the dominant alien Lupinus polyphyllus? A comparison between two distinct invaded ranges and a native range

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    Martin Hejda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The community-level impacts of invasive plants are likely to vary depending on the character of native species of the target communities and their ability to thrive within the stands of the dominant alien invader. Therefore, I examined the response of native species richness to the cover of the dominant alien Lupinus polyphyllus in two distinct invaded ranges: Czech Republic (Central Europe and New Zealand. I compared the relation between native species richness and the cover of the dominant alien L. polyphyllus with that in its native range, Pacific Northwest, USA.In the native range, I found no response of native species richness to the cover of L. polyphyllus. In the Czech Republic (central Europe, the richness of native species related to it negativelly, but the relation was only marginally significant. Contrary to that, the richness of species native to New Zealand related to the cover of L. polyphyllus strongly negatively and the negative relation was significantly stronger than that of species native to Europe.Of the two invaded ranges, species native to New Zealand have been documented to be much more vulnerable to the conditions associated with the invasion and dominance of L. polyphyllus, compared to species native to central Europe. This principle has been shown both across these two invaded ranges and in New Zealand, where the aliens of european origin successfully coexist with the dominant invasive alien L. polyphyllus. Similarly, species in the native range of L. polyphyllus showed no relation to its cover, indicating their ability to thrive even in dense stands of this dominant species.

  15. FORMULAÇÃO DE EXTRATO AQUOSO DE TREMOÇO BRANCO (LUPINUS ALBUS L. ADICIONADO DE SUCO DE PITANGA UTILIZANDO METODOLOGIA DE SUPERFÍCIE DE RESPOSTA

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    Juliana Aparecida BOTARO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verifi car, através da metodologia de superfície de resposta, as melhores condições para a utilização simultânea de extrato aquoso de tremoço branco (Lupinus albus L. e de suco de pitanga (Eugenia unifl ora L. no desenvolvimento de uma bebida. Para tanto, as variáveis independentes foram representadas pelo volume de extrato aquoso de tremoço (mL e pelo volume de suco de pitanga (mL. As variáveis dependentes (respostas foram obtidas através de teste sensorial de aceitação (“aparência”, “aroma”, “sabor” e “impressão global”. A otimização conjunta das variáveis apontou o ensaio 2 (50mL de extrato aquoso de tremoço e 30mL de suco de pitanga do planejamento experimental como sendo o ótimo. Pode-se concluir que foi possível obter uma bebida com características sensoriais atrativas, utilizando extrato aquoso de tremoço e suco de pitanga. O uso da metodologia de superfície de resposta possibilitou a determinação de regiões de máxima aceitação para cada atributo avaliado na formulação da bebida contendo extrato aquoso de tremoço branco e suco de pitanga com um número mínimo de ensaios.

  16. Identifying Stable Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Normalisation in Gene Expression Studies of Narrow-Leafed Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L..

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    Candy M Taylor

    Full Text Available Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is currently one of the most popular, high-throughput and sensitive technologies available for quantifying gene expression. Its accurate application depends heavily upon normalisation of gene-of-interest data with reference genes that are uniformly expressed under experimental conditions. The aim of this study was to provide the first validation of reference genes for Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin, a significant grain legume crop using a selection of seven genes previously trialed as reference genes for the model legume, Medicago truncatula. In a preliminary evaluation, the seven candidate reference genes were assessed on the basis of primer specificity for their respective targeted region, PCR amplification efficiency, and ability to discriminate between cDNA and gDNA. Following this assessment, expression of the three most promising candidates [Ubiquitin C (UBC, Helicase (HEL, and Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB] was evaluated using the NormFinder and RefFinder statistical algorithms in two narrow-leafed lupin lines, both with and without vernalisation treatment, and across seven organ types (cotyledons, stem, leaves, shoot apical meristem, flowers, pods and roots encompassing three developmental stages. UBC was consistently identified as the most stable candidate and has sufficiently uniform expression that it may be used as a sole reference gene under the experimental conditions tested here. However, as organ type and developmental stage were associated with greater variability in relative expression, it is recommended using UBC and HEL as a pair to achieve optimal normalisation. These results highlight the importance of rigorously assessing candidate reference genes for each species across a diverse range of organs and developmental stages. With emerging technologies, such as RNAseq, and the completion of valuable transcriptome data sets, it is possible that other

  17. The regulatory network of cluster-root function and development in phosphate-deficient white lupin (Lupinus albus) identified by transcriptome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengrui; Straub, Daniel; Yang, Huaiyu; Kania, Angelika; Shen, Jianbo; Ludewig, Uwe; Neumann, Günter

    2014-07-01

    Lupinus albus serves as model plant for root-induced mobilization of sparingly soluble soil phosphates via the formation of cluster-roots (CRs) that mediate secretion of protons, citrate, phenolics and acid phosphatases (APases). This study employed next-generation sequencing to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind these complex adaptive responses at the transcriptome level. We compared different stages of CR development, including pre-emergent (PE), juvenile (JU) and the mature (MA) stages. The results confirmed that the primary metabolism underwent significant modifications during CR maturation, promoting the biosynthesis of organic acids, as had been deduced from physiological studies. Citrate catabolism was downregulated, associated with citrate accumulation in MA clusters. Upregulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway reflected the accumulation of phenolics. Specific transcript expression of ALMT and MATE transporter genes correlated with the exudation of citrate and flavonoids. The expression of transcripts related to nucleotide degradation and APases in MA clusters coincided with the re-mobilization and hydrolysis of organic phosphate resources. Most interestingly, hormone-related gene expression suggested a central role of ethylene during CR maturation. This was associated with the upregulation of the iron (Fe)-deficiency regulated network that mediates ethylene-induced expression of Fe-deficiency responses in other species. Finally, transcripts related to abscisic acid and jasmonic acid were upregulated in MA clusters, while auxin- and brassinosteroid-related genes and cytokinin receptors were most strongly expressed during CR initiation. Key regulations proposed by the RNA-seq data were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and some physiological analyses. A model for the gene network regulating CR development and function is presented. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  18. Diverse accumulation of several dehydrin-like proteins in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), Arabidopsis thaliana and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) mitochondria under cold and heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurek, Michal

    2010-08-18

    Dehydrins represent hydrophilic proteins acting mainly during cell dehydration and stress response. Dehydrins are generally thermostable; however, the so-called dehydrin-like (dehydrin-related) proteins show variable thermolability. Both groups immunoreact with antibodies directed against the K-segment of dehydrins. Plant mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins are poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to extend previous reports on plant dehydrins by comparing the level of immunoprecipitated dehydrin-like proteins in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), Arabidopsis thaliana and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) mitochondria under cold and heat stress. All the analyzed plant species showed constitutive accumulation of thermostable mitochondrial putative dehydrins ranging from 50 to 70 kDa. The mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins observed in cauliflower and Arabidopsis ranged from 10 to 100 kDa and in lupin imbibed seeds and hypocotyls--from 20 to 90 kDa. Cold treatment increased mainly the accumulation of 10-100 kDa cauliflower and Arabidopsis dehydrin-like proteins, in the patterns different in cauliflower leaf and inflorescence mitochondria. However, in lupin mitochondria, cold affected mainly 25-50 kDa proteins and seemed to induce the appearance of some novel dehydrin-like proteins. The influence of frost stress on cauliflower leaf mitochondrial dehydrin- like proteins was less significant. The impact of heat stress was less significant in lupin and Arabidopsis than in cauliflower inflorescence mitochondria. Cauliflower mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins are localized mostly in the mitochondrial matrix; it seems that some of them may interact with mitochondrial membranes. All the results reveal an unexpectedly broad spectrum of dehydrin-like proteins accumulated during some abiotic stress in the mitochondria of the plant species analyzed. They display only limited similarity in size to those reported previously in maize, wheat and rye

  19. Isolation and characterization of two plant growth-promoting bacteria from the rhizoplane of a legume (Lupinus albescens in sandy soil Isolamento e caracterização de duas bactérias promotoras de crescimento vegetal do rizoplano de uma leguminosa (Lupinus albescens de solo arenoso

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    Adriana Giongo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two bacterial strains that amplified part of the nifH gene, RP1p and RP2p, belonging to the genus Enterobacter and Serratia, were isolated from the rhizoplane of Lupinus albescens. These bacteria are Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, facultative anaerobic, and fast-growing; the colonies reach diameters of 3-4 mm within 24 h of incubation at 28 ºC. The bacteria were also able to grow at temperatures as high as 40 ºC, in the presence of high (2-3 % w/v NaCl concentrations and pH 4 -10. Strain RP1p was able to utilize 10 of 14 C sources, while RP2p utilized nine. The isolates produced siderophores and indolic compounds, but none of them was able to solubilize phosphate. Inoculation of L. albescens with RP1p and RP2p strains resulted in a significant increase in plant dry matter, indicating the plant-growth-promoting abilities of these bacteria.Duas linhagens bacterianas que apresentaram amplificação de parte do gene nifH, RP1p e RP2p, pertencentes aos gêneros Enterobacter e Serratia, foram isoladas do rizoplano de Lupinus albescens. Essas bactérias são Gram-negativas, com formato de bastonete, móveis, anaeróbias facultativas e apresentam multiplicação rápida, com colônias alcançando diâmetros de 3-4 mm em 24 h de incubação a 28 ºC. RP1p e RP2p também foram capazes de multiplicação em temperaturas elevadas, como 40 ºC, na presença de alta concentração de NaCl (2-3 % v/v e em valores de pH que variaram de 4 a 10. A linhagem RP1p foi capaz de utilizar 10 das 14 fontes de carbono avaliadas, enquanto a linhagem RP2p utilizou nove. Os isolados produziram sideróforos e compostos indólicos, mas foram incapazes de solubilizar fosfatos. A inoculação de L. albescens com as linhagens RP1p e RP2p resultou em aumento significativo do peso das plantas secas, o que demonstra que essas bactérias apresentam propriedades que favorecem o crescimento vegetal.

  20. Raw and extruded pea (Pisum sativum and lupin (Lupinus albusvar. Multitalia seeds as protein sources in weaned piglets’ diets: effect on growth rate and blood parameters

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    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 42 days trial was carried out using 140 piglets weaned at 28 days of age. The piglets were allocated according to  weight and sex to the 5 dietary treatments with 7 replicates for each treatments (4 pens x 4 castrated males and 3 pens  x 4 females. The piglets were fed according to the following experimental design: 1 control diet (CTR with soybean  meal (SBM 44% c.p. as protein source; 2 CRT diets with 200 g/kg of raw pea (Pisum sativum (RP; 3 CTR diet with  200 g/kg extruded pea (EP; 4 CRT diet with 170 g/kg raw lupin (Lupinus albusvar. Multitalia (RL; 5 CTR diet with  170 g/kg of extruded lupin (EL. During the trial, animals were weighed at 0 - 21 and 42 days from the start of the trial.  Feed intake was monitored and feed conversion ratio was calculated for the periods 0-21 d and 22-42 d. At the end of  the trial, blood samples were taken for 14 animals for each dietary treatment (2 animals per replicate and analysed for  total protein, urea and liver activity (ALT, AST and ALP parameters. Average daily weight gain and feed intake did not  differ according to dietary treatments whereas during the total experimental period (0-42 d, feed conversion ratio was  higher for EP vsCTR diet (2.35 vs2.09, respectively; P   compared with diets containing the raw ingredients did not differ. Feed conversion ratio for the RP was numerically high-  er than for the EP (2.35 vs2.16 and 2.76 vs2.32, respectively during 22-42 d and 0-42 d periods. Blood parameters  did not show significant difference among dietary treatments except for higher total protein for CTR diet vsRL diet, EL  and RP (67.3 vs62.2, 62.8 and 63.6 g/l, respectively; PvsRL  and RL (4.7 vs3.7 and 3.8 mmol/l respectively; P 

  1. Digestion of polysaccharides, protein and lipids by adult cockerels fed on diets containing a pectic cell-wall material from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) cotyledon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, B; Leclercq, B

    1985-11-01

    1. The cell-wall material of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) cotyledon is characterized by low contents of cellulose (47 g/kg) and lignin (17 g/kg) and a high content of pectic substances (710 g/kg). The digestion of lupin cell-wall material by adult cockerels was estimated using gas-liquid chromatographic analyses of alditol acetates derived from polysaccharide sugars. The analyses were performed in the destarched water-insoluble fractions of feed and excreta. Digestibility measurements were carried out using a 3 d balance period including a 2 d feeding period and a 24 h final starvation period. 2. In the first experiment, six animals were given a diet containing 510 g white lupin cotyledon flour/kg which was the only source of protein and cell walls in the diet. The apparent digestibility of cell-wall components was near zero. 3. In the second experiment, three diets were prepared by diluting a fibre-free basal diet (diet A) by a semi-purified cell-wall preparation introduced at two different levels: 100 g/kg (diet B) and 200 g/kg (diet C). The semi-purified cell walls were prepared from the white lupin cotyledon flour used in the first experiment. The true digestibilities of polysaccharides measured in birds given diets B and C were near zero. It is suggested that the measurement of the neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) content according to Van Soest & Wine (1967) is not a suitable procedure for estimating the undigestible fibre content in poultry nutrition as the cell-wall pectic substances are not included in the NDF measurement. 4. Addition of the semi-purified cell-wall preparation (Expt 2) resulted in a slight decrease in the apparent protein digestibility. This decrease might be explained by the addition of undigestible cell-wall protein. 5. Addition of the semi-purified cell-wall preparation (Expt 2) had no effect on the apparent lipid digestibility. 6. The metabolizable energy values of the basal diet fraction of diets B and C were calculated assuming that

  2. The Effect of Lupinus albus and Calcium Chloride on Growth Performance, Body Composition, Plasma Biochemistry and Meat Quality of Male Pigs Immunized Against Gonadotrophin Releasing Factor

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    Karen Moore

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and ninety-four pigs were used to assess the effect of two ingredients (Lupinus albus (albus lupins or a combination of calcium chloride and sodium tri-polyphosphate (mineral salts on growth performance, body composition and objective meat quality of pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (immunocastrates and entire male pigs in the late finishing phase. Pigs fed mineral salts ate less feed than those fed the control diet with no effect on growth rate (p > 0.05, backfat (p > 0.05 or fat deposition (p > 0.05. Pigs fed albus lupins had a reduced feed intake (p < 0.001 for all time periods, lower growth rate (p < 0.001 for all time periods, lower backfat (p < 0.005 and decreased fat deposition (p < 0.001 for all time periods compared to those fed the control diet or mineral salts. From day (d 0–28 pigs fed mineral salts had a better feed conversion ratio (p = 0.001 than those fed albus lupins who in turn had an improved feed conversion compared to the control diet. Immunocastrates had thicker backfat than entire males at the end of the experiment (p < 0.001, however, feeding albus lupins to immunocastrated males reduced backfat thickness to similar to entire males fed the control diet (p = 0.01. With the exception of the increased muscle pH at 45 minutes post-exsanguination in mineral salts and albus lupins compared with the control diet (p = 0.03 there was no effect of diet on objective pork quality. Pork from IC males had a higher ultimate pH (p < 0.001, was lighter (L*; p = 0.003, more yellow (p = 0.008 and had a higher drip loss (p < 0.001 compared to entire males. Albus lupins show potential in reducing the increase in feed intake and backfat associated with immunocastration. Mineral salts may be useful in situations where a reduction in feed intake and an improvement in feed conversion is desired and reducing fat deposition is not the objective.

  3. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  4. Phytoremediation of soils co-contaminated by organic compounds and heavy metals: bioassays with Lupinus luteus L. and associated endophytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Ginés, M J; Hernández, A J; Pérez-Leblic, M I; Pastor, J; Vangronsveld, J

    2014-10-01

    In the central part of the Iberian Peninsula there are old sealed landfills containing soils co-contaminated by several heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, As, Cr, Fe, Al, Mn) and organic pollutants of different families (hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides and other organochlorinated compounds, phenols and volatile compounds), which this work will address. We have focused on phytoremedial plants that are able to deal with this type of complex pollution, not only species that tolerate the joint effect of heavy metals in the soil, but also those that can take advantage of associated bacteria to efficiently break down organic compounds. This study was carried out with Lupinus luteus and its endophytes in two greenhouse experiments: A) growing in a substrate artificially contaminated with benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and B) using real co-contaminated landfill soils. Endophytes of roots and shoots were isolated in both bioassays. Plant growth-promotion tests and organic pollutant tolerance and degradation tests were conducted on all strains isolated in bioassay A), and on those proving to be pure cultures from bioassay B). The selected landfill is described as are isolation and test procedures. Results indicate that plants did not show toxicity symptoms when exposed to BaP but did when grown in landfill soil. Some endophytes demonstrated plant growth-promotion capacity and tolerance to BaP and other organic compounds (diesel and PCB commercial mixtures). A few strains may even have the capacity to metabolize those organic pollutants. The overall decline in plant growth-promotion capacity in those strains isolated from the landfill soil experiment, compared with those from the bioassay with BaP, may indicate that lupin endophytes are not adapted to metal concentration in roots and shoots and fail to grow. As a result, most isolated root endophytes must have colonized root tissues from the soil. While preliminary degradation tests

  5. EXTRAÇÃO, ISOLAMENTO E FRACIONAMENTO DA PROTEÍNA DE TREMOÇO (LUPINUS ALBUS VAR. MULTOLUPA

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    VALDIR AUGUSTO NEVES

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as características de solubilidade da proteína de tremoço (Lupinus albus, var. Multolupa. Extração protéica de 84,6% foi obtida com o aumento da relação massa de farinha/ volume de extrator. A solubilidade protéica com o pH mostrou uma curva típica de globulinas com um mínimo entre os pHs 4 e 6. O efeito do aumento da concentração de NaCI até 1,0 M elevou a solubilidade na faixa do pH, no entanto reduziu na faixa de pHs ácidos. O tipo e a concentração de sais e pHs da solução afetaram a solubilidade protéica. O fracionamento com diferentes solventes solubilizou até 87,82% do nitrogênio da farinha de tremoço, e o nitrogênio solúvel em sal correspondeu a até 69% do total. A fração globulina representou 43,42% do total de proteínas, enquanto albumínas, prolaminas, glutelinas e resíduo insolúvel corresponderam a 10,77%, 0,49%, 16,29% e 8,59%, respectivamente. A cromatografia em Sepharose CL-6B mostrou a presença de um pico majoritário e dois componentes menores para a globulina total; e na cromatografia em Sephacryl S-300 HR, três componentes foram observados. A eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida, da fração do tubo pico do componente majoritário eluído na coluna de Sephacryl, mostrou uma única banda de proteína. O conteúdo de açúcares das proteínas foi distinto para fração albumina e globulma

  6. Composición química de “oca” (Oxalis tuberosa, ‘arracacha’ (Arracaccia xanthorriza y ‘tarwi’ (Lupinus mutabilis. Formulación de una mezcla base para productos alimenticios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena León Marroú

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo formular una mezcla base a partir de cultivos nativos, la cual una vez estandarizada, se constituye en materia prima de alto valor nutricional para su utilización en la elaboración de productos alimenticios como: purés, papillas y productos de panificación, entre otros. Se seleccionaron tres cultivos andinos: un tubérculo, “oca” (Oxalis tuberosa; una raíz, ‘arracacha’ (Arracaccia xanthorriza y una leguminosa, ‘tarwi’ (Lupinus mutabilis. Se realizaron por triplicado análisis bromatológicos, de minerales y vitaminas. Se formularon 8 mezclas bases a diferentes proporciones de cultivos nativos. Se seleccionó la mezcla base identificada como M7 en proporción 1:1:2 (oca:arracacha:tarwi por presentar mayor valor nutricional.

  7. Composición química de “oca” (Oxalis tuberosa, ‘arracacha’ (Arracaccia xanthorriza y ‘tarwi’ (Lupinus mutabilis. Formulación de una mezcla base para productos alimenticios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Elizabeth Pagador Flores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo formular una mezcla base a partir de cultivos nativos, la cual una vez estandarizada, se constituye en materia prima de alto valor nutricional para su utilización en la elaboración de productos alimenticios como: purés, papillas y productos de panificación, entre otros. Se seleccionaron tres cultivos andinos: un tubérculo, “oca” (Oxalis tuberosa; una raíz, ‘arracacha’ (Arracaccia xanthorriza y una leguminosa, ‘tarwi’ (Lupinus mutabilis. Se realizaron por triplicado análisis bromatológicos, de minerales y vitaminas. Se formularon 8 mezclas bases a diferentes proporciones de cultivos nativos. Se seleccionó la mezcla base identificada como M7 en proporción 1:1:2 (oca:arracacha:tarwi por presentar mayor valor nutricional.

  8. Fragmentation effect in the leaf morphometry and environment of Quercus germana Schldl. & Cham. (Fagaceae in Xalapa, Veracruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantli Martínez-Munguía

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercus germana es una especie endémica del bosque mesófilo de montaña de México. La presión de selección que la fragmentación y los cambios ambientales ejercen, sugieren diferenciación fenotípica. Por lo anterior, la relación de la diferenciación foliar de Q. germana con la fragmentación y las condiciones ambientales se evaluó en seis sitios del bosque mesófilo de Xalapa, Veracruz. Para ello, se colectaron 10 hojas de las ramas nones de 30 individuos por sitio; se midieron 10 características morfométricas foliares y siete ambientales. Los análisis de varianza se realizaron con el modelo linear generalizado; se utilizó un análisis discriminante, se construyeron árboles de ligamiento UPGMA y se proyectaron las poblaciones tridimensionalmente. Las distancias de Mahalanobis se compararon con una prueba de Mantel para estimar la relación morfométrica y ambiental. Las variables morfológicas que mejor separan los sitios son mucrones, nervaduras y tamaño del peciolo. Ambientalmente, las variables más discriminantes son luz, temperatura y pérdida de humedad. La prueba de Mantel no mostró relación entre las diferencias morfométricas y ambientales (r = 0.090, P = 0.306. Las subpoblaciones de Q. germana son morfológicamente diferentes a pesar de la distancia corta que las separa, lo cual indica que posiblemente son afectadas por la fragmentación aún sin influencia ambiental.

  9. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum, faba beans (Vicia fabavar. minor and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as protein sources in broiler diets: effect of extrusion on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extrusion of pea seeds (Pisum sativum (PS, faba bean (Vicia faba, variety minor (FB and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (LS on broiler performance were evaluated. Four hundred sixty two 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomly assigned to seven dietary treatments (3 pens per treatment/22 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the base diet (control diet was corn (48.8%, 53.7% and 57%, solvent-extracted soy- bean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, corn oil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The amounts of PS, FB and LS used on an as fed basis were: PS and extruded PS (EPS: 353 (1-10d-old, 356 (11-28d-old and 350 (29- 42d-old g/kg; FB and extruded FB (EFB: 479 (1-10d-old, 497 (11-28d-old and 500 (29-42d old g/kg; LS and extrud- ed LS (ELS: 360 (1-10d-old and 300 (11-42d-old g/kg. High levels of pea (350 g/kg and faba bean (500 g/kg did not show negative effects on body weight gain (BWG and bird feed intake compared to control. Lupin at the 300 g/kg level reduced (P< 0.05 the BWG during the finishing period (22 to 42 d, however the effect disappeared over the whole experimental period (1-42 d compared to the control group. The ELS group had a lower (P< 0.01 feed intake com- pared to the control group and to the LS group. The feed conversion rate (FCR was similar among groups for the whole experimental period; however during the grower period the FCR was higher (P< 0.05 for the PS, FB and EFB groups com- pared to the control group. Birds consuming the PS diet had a reduced (P< 0.05 eviscerated carcass yield compared to the control group. The breast meat percent yield was higher (P< 0.01 for birds consuming the FB and EFB diets compared to the control

  10. Application of next-generation sequencing for rapid marker development in molecular plant breeding: a case study on anthracnose disease resistance in Lupinus angustifolius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Huaan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last 30 years, a number of DNA fingerprinting methods such as RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, DArT, have been extensively used in marker development for molecular plant breeding. However, it remains a daunting task to identify highly polymorphic and closely linked molecular markers for a target trait for molecular marker-assisted selection. The next-generation sequencing (NGS technology is far more powerful than any existing generic DNA fingerprinting methods in generating DNA markers. In this study, we employed a grain legume crop Lupinus angustifolius (lupin as a test case, and examined the utility of an NGS-based method of RAD (restriction-site associated DNA sequencing as DNA fingerprinting for rapid, cost-effective marker development tagging a disease resistance gene for molecular breeding. Results Twenty informative plants from a cross of RxS (disease resistant x susceptible in lupin were subjected to RAD single-end sequencing by multiplex identifiers. The entire RAD sequencing products were resolved in two lanes of the 16-lanes per run sequencing platform Solexa HiSeq2000. A total of 185 million raw reads, approximately 17 Gb of sequencing data, were collected. Sequence comparison among the 20 test plants discovered 8207 SNP markers. Filtration of DNA sequencing data with marker identification parameters resulted in the discovery of 38 molecular markers linked to the disease resistance gene Lanr1. Five randomly selected markers were converted into cost-effective, simple PCR-based markers. Linkage analysis using marker genotyping data and disease resistance phenotyping data on a F8 population consisting of 186 individual plants confirmed that all these five markers were linked to the R gene. Two of these newly developed sequence-specific PCR markers, AnSeq3 and AnSeq4, flanked the target R gene at a genetic distance of 0.9 centiMorgan (cM, and are now replacing the markers previously developed by a traditional DNA

  11. Effect of Scarification, Self-Inhibition, and Sowing Depth on Seed Germination of Lupinus campestris Efecto de la Escarificación, Autoinhibición y Profundidad de Siembra sobre la Germinación de Semillas de Lupinus campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gutiérrez Nava

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Lupinus campestris Schltdl. & Cham. grows in shallow fields and disturbed areas of Central Mexico. It has potential to improve soil fertility and as fodder. Seeds of L. campestris show dormancy, and the technology needed to increase its potential use requires information about conditions favouring seed germination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seed germination responseof L. campestris under controlled (laboratory and natural field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, 2 yr old seeds had a maximum germination percentage (50% when they were scarified with sulphuric acid for 90 min prior to sowing and when laboratory light (0.5 µmol m-2 s-1 was maintained during the diurnal period. Without scarification, only about 3% of the seeds germinated. Light in laboratory resulted in an increased seed germination as compared to darkness condition. In the field experiment 1 yr old seeds were used testing the following treatments: (a seed scarification (seeds scarified by 30 min immersion in sulphuric acid vs. not scarified, (b presence or absence of plants of L. campestris in plots before field experiments, and (c sowing depth (on soil surface and at 3 cm deep. The scarified seeds showed a germination percentage range between 50 and 64%, whereas non-scarified seeds had 9 to 16% germination. The seeds sowed in plots with or without plants of L. campestris (before the experiment germinated similarly, indicating no evidence of self-inhibition of germination. Three conclusions come out: (1 Scarification treatment with sulphuric acid effectively breaks dormancy in L. campestris seeds; (2 Direct sowing of scarified seeds (on the soil surface or at 3 cm depth resulted in a range of 50-64% of germination under field conditions; and (3 no evidence was obtained for self-inhibition or a positive interaction between preceding vegetation and seed germination of L. campestris.Lupinus campestris Schltdl. & Cham. crece en campos en descanso y

  12. Effects of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on digestive value of white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez, Patricio; Borquez, Aliro; Dantagnan, Patricio; Hernández, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    A digestibility trial was conducted to assess the effect of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on the apparent digestibility of nutrients in white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal when fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Six ingredients, whole lupin seed meal (LSM), dehulled LSM, dehulled LSM steam-cooked for 15 or 45 min (SC15 and SC45, respectively) and LSM microwave-irradiated at 375 or 750 W (MW375 and MW750, respectively), were evaluated for digestibility of dry matter, crude protein (CP), lipids, nitrogen-free extractives (NFE) and gross energy (GE). The diet-substitution approach was used (70% reference diet + 30% test ingredient). Faeces from each tank were collected using a settlement column. Dehulled LSM showed higher levels of proximate components (except for NFE and crude fibre), GE and phosphorus in comparison to whole LSM. Furthermore, SC15, SC45, MW375 and MW750 showed slight variations of chemical composition in comparison to dehulled LSM. Results from the digestibility trial indicated that dehulled LSM, SC15, SC45 and MW375 are suitable processing methods for the improvement of nutrients' apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) in whole LSM. MW750 showed a lower ADC of nutrients (except for CP and lipids for rainbow trout) in comparison with MW350 for rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, suggesting a heat damage of the ingredient when microwave-irradiation exceeded 350 W.

  13. Effect of food matrix and thermal processing on the performance of a normalised quantitative real-time PCR approach for lupine (Lupinus albus) detection as a potential allergenic food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Caterina; Costa, Joana; Gondar, Cristina; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2018-10-01

    Lupine is widely used as an ingredient in diverse food products, but it is also a source of allergens. This work aimed at proposing a method to detect/quantify lupine as an allergen in processed foods based on a normalised real-time PCR assay targeting the Lup a 4 allergen-encoding gene of Lupinus albus. Sensitivities down to 0.0005%, 0.01% and 0.05% (w/w) of lupine in rice flour, wheat flour and bread, respectively, and 1 pg of L. albus DNA were obtained, with adequate real-time PCR performance parameters using the ΔCt method. Both food matrix and processing affected negatively the quantitative performance of the assay. The method was successfully validated with blind samples and applied to processed foods. Lupine was estimated between 4.12 and 22.9% in foods, with some results suggesting the common practice of precautionary labelling. In this work, useful and effective tools were proposed for the detection/quantification of lupine in food products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Desarrollo de un Protocolo de propagación in vitro de Geranium chilloense Wild. ex Kuth. Y Lupinus pubescens Benth. Para la obtención de plantas completas, para la primera etapa de restauración de las quebradas de Quito

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides Silva, Thaly Gabriela; Córdova Muñoz, Adriana Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Geranium chilloense Willd. ex Kunth known as geranio de los Chillos, is an ornamental plant, native of Los Andes it can be found in a wild way in the ravines of the Metropolitan District of Quito and it is part of the history of the native flora of Quito since has been described from the Alexander Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland expedition in 1802. Lupinus pubescens Benth, also known as Ashpa chocho or Allpa chocho, is an herbaceous, native and ornamental plant due to the beauty of his flowers, de...

  15. Lupin seed (Lupinus albus and Lupinus luteus) as a protein source for fermentation use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jul, L.B.; Flengmark, Poul Kristiansen; Gylling, M.

    2003-01-01

    and substances known to inhibit or activate fermentation processes. For three chosen varieties (Juno, Borsaja (yellow lupins) and Amiga (white lupin)) fermentation tests were performed each year in laboratory fermentors. Three different fermentation models were applied: production of amylase by Aspergillus...... led to yields similar to those of soybean meal as a protein source though there were minor differences between the model fermentations with regard to the best protein source. The conclusion of the fermentation tests is that dehulled and ground lupin seed is a suitable substitute for soybean meal...... oryzae and by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and production of protease by B. amyloliquefaciens. In all cases the fermentation yields were compared with the yields of similar fermentations carried out with soybean meal as the source of protein. The use of lupins as a protein source in fermentation trials...

  16. A triglyceride from Lupinus albus L. seed with biostimulatory properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two in vitro bio-assay procedures were employed to appraise the in vitro biostimulatory properties of semi-purified fractions as well as pure compounds contained in it. The highly active ethyl acetate extract was fractionated further by means of adsorption column chromatography resulting in eighty five fractions that were ...

  17. Hereditary dwarfism in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L

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    Tadeusz Kazimierski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A dwarf plant was found in the F4 generation of a hybrid between two yellow lupin subspecies. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the dwarf grwoth is conditioned by one recessive factor which was named nanus. This factor acts pleiotroipically since it reduces the height, changes the morphological structure and some anatomical traits and reduces fertility in the dwarf plants. It is believed that in the chromosome with translocation a gene block arose in the F4, plant. These genes acting as a compact system cause dwarfism, changes in the anatomical structure and reduce fertility.

  18. An evaluation of fababean ( Vicia faba ) and lupin ( Lupinus albus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out to compare fababean with lupin crop residues for summer grazing by young Merino wethers. The crude protein (CP) and dry matter (DM) degradability as well as chemical composition of fababean and lupin seed and stalks were also determined. Sheep which utilized both crop residues ...

  19. Production of Lupinus angustifolius protein hydrolysates with improved functional properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millán, Francisco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein hydrolysates wer e obtained from lupin flour and from the purified globulin α -conglutin, and their functional properties were studied. Hydrolysis with alcalase for 60 minutes yielded degrees of hydrolysis ranging from 4 % to 11 % for lupin flour, and from 4 % to 13% for α -conglutin. Protein solubility, oil absorption, foam capacity and stability, emulsifying activity, and emulsion stability of hydrolysates with 6% degree of hydrolysis were determined and compared with the properties of the original flour. The protein hydrolysates showed better functional properties than the original proteins. Most importantly, the solubility of the α -conglutin and L. angustifolius flour hydrolysates was increased by 43 % and 52 %, respectively. Thus, lupin seed protein hydrolysates have improved functional properties and could be used in the elaboration of a variety of products such as breads, cakes, and salad dressings.Se obtuvieron hidrolizados proteicos de la harina del altramuz y de la globulina α - conglutina purificada y se estudiaron sus propiedades funcionales. La hidrólisis con alcalasa durante 60 minutos produjo hidrolizados con grados de hidrólisis entre el 4 % y el 11 % para la harina y entre el 4 % y el 13 % para la α - conglutina. Se estudió en un hidrolizado con un 6 % de grado de hidrólisis la solubilidad proteica, absorción de aceite, capacidad y estabilidad espumante y actividad y estabilidad emulsificante. Los hidrolizados proteicos mostraron mejores propiedades funcionales que las proteínas originales. Más aún, la solubilidad de los hidrolizados de α - conglutina y la harina se incrementó en un 43 % y 52 % respectivamente. Así pues, hidrolizados de proteínas de semilla de lupino presentan mejores propiedades funcionales y podrían usarse en la elaboración de productos como pan, dulces, salsas o cremas.

  20. FERMENTABLE SUGARS FROM Lupinus rotundiflorus BIOMASS BY HYDROCHLORIC ACID HYDROLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Ruiz-López

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It is of general interest to produce fermentable carbohydrates from plant biomass. However, obtaining monosaccharides requires some effort, due to the intricate structure of the cell wall lignocellulosic complex. The aim of this study was to apply a simple two-stage hydrolysis process, using only concentrated hydrochloric acid, to generate fermentable carbohydrates from L. rotundiflorus biomass. First and second stage acid concentrations were 32% and 42.6%. Total monosaccharide yields with respect to dry matter after the first stage, second stage, and the overall process, were 27.5%, 21.0% and 48.4%, respectively. Xylose was the main first stage carbohydrate in the hydrolysate, followed by glucose, arabinose, and galactose. After the second stage only glucose and a small amount of xylose were detected. The polysaccharide hydrolysis was eased by overall low lignin content. Some advantages of this method were the use of a single hydrolyzing agent and that most of the polysaccharides were hydrolyzed in reasonably high yields. The acceptable yield, relative simplicity, the use of most of the biomass along with the wide availability, low cost of the chemicals, and the ample supply of lupines, would facilitate the scaling of these laboratory studies to pilot and industrial levels.

  1. Modelling of the aqueous debittering process of Lupinus mutabilis Sweet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvajal-Larenas, F.E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the process of lupin debittering by soaking, cooking and washing in water using a newly designed hydroagitator. The effect on alkaloids content, solids in the product, final weight, processing time and water and energy consumption were expressed in a mathematical model for

  2. Lupinus mutabilis in Ecuador with special emphasis on anthracnose resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falconi, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Tailoring Food Sciences to Endogenous Patterns of Local Food Supply for Future Nutrition (TELFUN) project aimed to support people to choose their own way of producing, processing, and consuming local foods that fit best in their local conditions. The central research question was: how do

  3. An evaluation of fababean (Vicia faba) and lupin (Lupinus albus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sheep which utilized both crop residues gained in live mass ... live masses than sheep which grazed lupin crop residues at the fourth week .... model of 0rskov & McDonald (1979): p .... Production Laboratory are thanked for chemical analyses.

  4. Rotational and nematicidal effect of lupine (Lupinus albus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... Key words: Lupine, lupine seed extract, nematodes, nematicidal effect. INTRODUCTION ... alternative in winter and dry land production systems where other ... effects on germination and seedling growth of lettuce. Yorgancilar ...

  5. De identiteit van Portulaca advena Reichg. & Von Poellnitz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geesink, R.

    1969-01-01

    Portulaca advena Reichg. & Von Poellnitz (1939), based on adventive specimens collected near Erp, prov. N.-Brabant, Netherlands, and afterwards cultivated in a garden at Nijmegen, appears to be identical with the South American P. papulosa Schldl. (1853). The adventive species of Portulaca found in

  6. Biochemical and nutritional studies of lupin (Lupinus jermis) seed cultivated in the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elamin, Malik El Mubarak Mohamed

    1996-12-01

    Two lupin varieties (Rubatab and Dongola) purchased from the local market were used in this study. Physical properities showed that the weight and volume of cv.Dongola were higher than those of cv.Rubatab while thickness and density of cv.Rubatab were higher than those of cv.Dongola. Moisture content ranged from 4.4 to 5.7%. Fiber content ranged from 8.8 to 10.9% of whole seed and for kernels and testa it ranged from 0.9 to 1.8% and from 45 to 47% respectively. The ash content ranged from 1.3 to 1.9%. Oil content ranged from 9.9 to 10.9% in whole seed (raw, debittered) and in kernels ranged from 11.5 to 12.0% while the testa had very low oil content (0.6-1.1 %). Protein content ranged from 49.4 to 50.4 % for raw whole seed and was 47.1 to 50.4 % for debittered whole seeds. For kernels it ranged from 56 to 59%. The protien content of testa ranged from 5.6 to 9.3%. Carbohydrates content was about 23% for raw whole seed and ranged from 25 to 26% for debittered whole seed. It ranged from 21 to 24% for kernels and increased to 39% in testa. Calorific value for 100 g of whole seed ranged from 381 to 433 kcal. It decreased in testa ranging from 187 to193 kcal. In this study both varieties did not contain antinutritional factors e.g. trypsin inhibitors. The tannins content and phytate was very low presumably due to debittering. Fatty acid composition of lupin seed oil showed that it is composed of ten fatty acids presented by Oleic (52-60%), Linoleic acid (16-19%), Palmatic (10-11%)and palmitoleic, lauric, myristeic, largeric, lenolenic, arrashidic acids. The mineral content of lupin seed showed Ca 0.1%, K 0.4-0.5%. Mg 0.2-0.3%. Zn 107-135 μg/g. Pb 9-10 μg/g. In this study lupin proteins were fractionated by two methods: Mendel-osborne method and landry and moureaux. Protein fractions obtained by the first method were allbumin which ranged from 3.1 to 24.8%, globulin ranged 1.9 to 3%, gluelin raanged from 13.2 to 62% The landry and moureaux method gave globulins in the range of 24 to 66.4%, albmin ranged from 1.1 to 3.2%, glutelin (G2) ranged from 1.0 to 14.6%, glutelin (G 3 ) ranged form 5.3 to 63.1. debittring increased glutelin and decreased albumin and globulin fractions. In vitro protein digestibility of total lupin proteins ranged from 73.9 to 81.0% for cv. rubatab and ranged from 97 to 77% for whole seed and 96% for kernels showing a significant decrease as a result of debittiring. For cv. dongola it increased 45 to 87.7% in whole seed (raw and debittered) and from 61.2 to 78.9% for kernels. IVPD of albumin decreased significantly P≤0.05 for cv rubatab ranged from 78 to 33% for whole seed (raw and debittered) and 29% for kernels. For cv. dongola it ranged from 92.4 to 69.7% for kernels. IVPD of glutelin (G 1 ) for whole seed (raw and debittered ), decreased signifacntly P≤0.05 for cv. rubatab it ranged from 64.4 to 53.5% and from 55 to 48.9% for kernels. For cv. dongola it decreased significantly from 58.9 to 74.2%. IVPD of glutelin (G 3 ) of cv. rubatab ranged from 74.6 to 79.7% for whole seed ( raw and debittered ) and for kernels it ranged from 61 to 57%. For cv. dongola increased significantly (P≤0.05) from 63.7 to 91%. IVPD of glutelin (G 3 ) for cv. rubatab increased significantly from 45.1 to 88.5% for whole seed. For kernels it decreased significantly (P≤0.05) from 94.0 to 78.7%. For cv. dongola for whole seed (raw and debittered) it was significantly increased from 35.5 to 76.7% and for kernels was decreased significantly (P≤0.05) from 78..7 to 75%. Results indicated that IVPD of glubulin of cv.rubatab and albumin and G 1 - glutelin for both cultivars decreased significantly (P≤0.055) due to debittering. The glubulin, prolamin and G 2 - glutelin for cv. dongola increased significantly (P≤0.05). IVPD of G3- glutelin increased significantly (P≤0.05) for both cultivars as a result of debittering

  7. Introduction of novel legume crops in Serbia: White lupin (Lupinus albus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The renewed interest in introducing white lupin in Serbia is its high crude protein content in grain dry matter of nearly 400 g kg-1, which makes it a potential supplement for soybean meal in animal feeding. The only collection of white and other lupins in Serbia is maintained at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, with about 200 accessions of 10 species, containing about 70 accessions of white lupin. The accessions with high tolerance to alkaline soil reaction of about pH=8 in a carbonated chernozem in Novi Sad regularly formed two orders of pods and grains and produced grain yields of more than 5 t ha-1, 45 t ha-1 of green forage and 8 t ha-1 of forage dry matter. The first Serbian white lupin breeding programme carried out at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad has resulted in developing cultivars Vesna and Panorama, registered in 2008. .

  8. Ruminal degradation of aerial biomass and seeds of wild species of Lupinus

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo-Pérez, Maricela; Lagunes-Espinoza, Luz del C; Ramos-Juárez, Jesús; López-Upton, Javier; Aranda-Ibáñez, Emilio M; Vargas-Villamil, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Ruminal degradation of dry matter (DMD) and crude protein (CPD) for aerial biomass at the flowering stage and for the seeds of L. campestris, L. exaltatus, L. hintonii and L. montanus was determined using the nylon bag technique with two fistulated steers in five incubation times (3, 9, 12, 24 and 48 h), including a sample of soybean paste (SP). The data obtained were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS for repeated measures. The results showed interactions between species and incubation time fo...

  9. Seed Hydropriming and Smoke Water Significantly Improve Low-Temperature Germination of Lupinus angustifolius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Płażek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed imbibition under cold temperature is dangerous when dry seeds have relatively low water content. The aim of this study was to investigate germination of 20 lines/cultivars of narrow-leaf lupine at 7 °C (cold and 13 °C (control under the influence of smoke water and following seed hydropriming for 3 h at 20 °C. The efficacy of individual treatments was examined with regard to seed protection during low-temperature germination. Based on seed germination, vigour at cold was evaluated four days after sowing by means of hypocotyl length, the studied lines/cultivars were divided into three groups with low, high and very high germination rates. Germination vigour correlated with cell membrane permeability, dehydrogenase activity and abscisic acid (ABA content and was analysed in the seeds one day after sowing. Gibberellin content did not correlate with germination vigour. The seeds of weakly germinating lines/cultivars had the highest cell permeability and ABA content as well as the lowest amylolytic activity at both studied temperatures. Additionally, the vigour of weakly germinating seeds at 7 °C correlated with dehydrogenase activity. Three-hour hydropriming was the most effective for seed germination under cold due to reduced cell membrane permeability and ABA level. Stimulating effects of smoke water on germination under cold could be explained by enhanced dehydrogenase activity.

  10. Shaping of the fungal communities isolated from yellow lupin seeds (Lupinus luteus L. throughout storage time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the experiment were seeds of two traditional cultivars of yellow lupin (Juno and Amulet cultivated in 1999 in two crop-rotation with 20% and 33% yellow lupine contribution. The quantitative and qualitative composition of the fungal community colonizing the seeds were determined in the laboratory conditions after 0.5-, 1.5- and 2.5-year of storage time. In total 1077 fungal colonies were isolated from the lupin seeds. Fungi representing the species of Penicillium - 29.3%, Alternaria alternata - 26.7% and Rhizopus nigricans - 12.7% were isolated most widely. Among the fungi pathogenic to lupin, the species of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (16.3% isolates was dominant. The crop rotation with 20% lupin reduced the number of fungal colonies colonizing the seeds including the pathogens from the species of C. gloeosporioides. Seed disinfection decreased the total number of fungal colonies isolated from both cultivars. Higher number of C. gloeosporioides isolates was found in the combination with disinfected seeds. More fungal colonies were obtained from seeds of cv. Amulet than from those of cv. Juno. The storage duration had an effect on the population and the composition of species of fungi isolated from seeds of yellow lupine. With longer storage population of Penicillium spp. and Rhizopus spp. increased, whereas the population of C. gloeosporioides decreased.

  11. Effects of water and nitrogen availability on nitrogen contribution by the legume, Lupinus argenteus Pursh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Goergen; Jeanne C. Chambers; Robert Blank

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing species contribute to ecosystem nitrogen budgets, but background resource levels influence nodulation, fixation, and plant growth. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine the separate and interacting effects of water and N availability on biomass production, tissue N concentration, nodulation, nodule activity, and rhizodeposition of ...

  12. Biochemical and nutritional studies of lupin (Lupinus jermis) seed cultivated in the Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elamin, Malik El Mubarak Mohamed [Department of Biochemistry and Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1996-12-01

    Two lupin varieties (Rubatab and Dongola) purchased from the local market were used in this study. Physical properities showed that the weight and volume of cv.Dongola were higher than those of cv.Rubatab while thickness and density of cv.Rubatab were higher than those of cv.Dongola. Moisture content ranged from 4.4 to 5.7%. Fiber content ranged from 8.8 to 10.9% of whole seed and for kernels and testa it ranged from 0.9 to 1.8% and from 45 to 47% respectively. The ash content ranged from 1.3 to 1.9%. Oil content ranged from 9.9 to 10.9% in whole seed (raw, debittered) and in kernels ranged from 11.5 to 12.0% while the testa had very low oil content (0.6-1.1 %). Protein content ranged from 49.4 to 50.4 % for raw whole seed and was 47.1 to 50.4 % for debittered whole seeds. For kernels it ranged from 56 to 59%. The protien content of testa ranged from 5.6 to 9.3%. Carbohydrates content was about 23% for raw whole seed and ranged from 25 to 26% for debittered whole seed. It ranged from 21 to 24% for kernels and increased to 39% in testa. Calorific value for 100 g of whole seed ranged from 381 to 433 kcal. It decreased in testa ranging from 187 to193 kcal. In this study both varieties did not contain antinutritional factors e.g. trypsin inhibitors. The tannins content and phytate was very low presumably due to debittering. Fatty acid composition of lupin seed oil showed that it is composed of ten fatty acids presented by Oleic (52-60%), Linoleic acid (16-19%), Palmatic (10-11%)and palmitoleic, lauric, myristeic, largeric, lenolenic, arrashidic acids. The mineral content of lupin seed showed Ca 0.1%, K 0.4-0.5%. Mg 0.2-0.3%. Zn 107-135 {mu}g/g. Pb 9-10 {mu}g/g. In this study lupin proteins were fractionated by two methods: Mendel-osborne method and landry and moureaux. Protein fractions obtained by the first method were allbumin which ranged from 3.1 to 24.8%, globulin ranged 1.9 to 3%, gluelin raanged from 13.2 to 62% The landry and moureaux method gave globulins in the range of 24 to 66.4%, albmin ranged from 1.1 to 3.2%, glutelin (G2) ranged from 1.0 to 14.6%, glutelin (G {sup 3}) ranged form 5.3 to 63.1. debittring increased glutelin and decreased albumin and globulin fractions. In vitro protein digestibility of total lupin proteins ranged from 73.9 to 81.0% for cv. rubatab and ranged from 97 to 77% for whole seed and 96% for kernels showing a significant decrease as a result of debittiring. For cv. dongola it increased 45 to 87.7% in whole seed (raw and debittered) and from 61.2 to 78.9% for kernels. IVPD of albumin decreased significantly P{<=}0.05 for cv rubatab ranged from 78 to 33% for whole seed (raw and debittered) and 29% for kernels. For cv. dongola it ranged from 92.4 to 69.7% for kernels. IVPD of glutelin (G {sup 1}) for whole seed (raw and debittered ), decreased signifacntly P{<=}0.05 for cv. rubatab it ranged from 64.4 to 53.5% and from 55 to 48.9% for kernels. For cv. dongola it decreased significantly from 58.9 to 74.2%. IVPD of glutelin (G {sup 3}) of cv. rubatab ranged from 74.6 to 79.7% for whole seed ( raw and debittered ) and for kernels it ranged from 61 to 57%. For cv. dongola increased significantly (P{<=}0.05) from 63.7 to 91%. IVPD of glutelin (G {sup 3}) for cv. rubatab increased significantly from 45.1 to 88.5% for whole seed. For kernels it decreased significantly (P{<=}0.05) from 94.0 to 78.7%. For cv. dongola for whole seed (raw and debittered) it was significantly increased from 35.5 to 76.7% and for kernels was decreased significantly (P{<=}0.05) from 78..7 to 75%. Results indicated that IVPD of glubulin of cv.rubatab and albumin and G {sup 1} {sup -} glutelin for both cultivars decreased significantly (P{<=}0.055) due to debittering. The glubulin, prolamin and G {sup 2} {sup -} glutelin for cv. dongola increased significantly (P{<=}0.05). IVPD of G3- glutelin increased significantly (P{<=}0.05) for both cultivars as a result of debittering. 163 refs. , 9 tabs. , 4 figs.

  13. Studies on soluble carbohydrates in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. seeds of different age

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    Kazimierz Zalewski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow lupin seeds cv. Juno were stored under laboratory conditions for 2 month, 4, 6 and 8 years. Eighteen soluble carbohydrates were identified in embryonic axes and cotyledons of different age seeds. The concentration of soluble carbohydrates in analysed seeds ranged from 25 to 34% of dry mass. Axes contained more carbohydrates than cotyledons. Stachyose dominated in axes, and verbascose - in cotyledons. Other detected galactosides were: galactinol, galactosyl pinitols and galactosyl chiro-inositols (fagopyritols, but their content was several-fold lower than that of RFOs (in both axes and cotyledons tissues. The concentration of soluble carbohydrates indicated, that sucrose to RFOs mass ratio, or other changes in sugars composition are not indicators of seed storage.

  14. Lupin seed meal (Lupinus albus cv. Buttercup) as a source of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (teen 'n 8%-insluitingspell) as gedeeltelike vervanger vir volvetsojabone, te evalueer. Die ... lupins, digestibility, N retention, growth, alkaloids, pigs. Introduction. Lupin-seed has been used extensively in pig diets ... meal, but at higher levels both growth rate and feed conversion efficiency were significantly depressed. Feed.

  15. The development rythm of the flowerbud in some Papilionaceae species. Part I. Gametogenesis in Lupinus elegans (H.B.K. and Lupinus mutabilis (Sweet. in reference to flewerbud development

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    Wanda Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The developmental rhythm of the bud in the species investigated was found to remain the same within each species, independently of the year and environmental conditions, (glasshouse, field in which they were fixed.

  16. Do rhizospheric processes linked to P nutrition participate in U absorption by Lupinus albus grown in hydroponics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailliez, Antoine; Pierrisnard, Sylvie; Camilleri, Virginie; Keller, Catherine; Henner, Pascale

    2013-10-01

    Phosphate (P) is an essential element for plant development but is generally present in limiting amount in the soil solution. Plant species have developed different mechanisms promoting the solubilization of this element in soils to ensure a sufficient supply for their growth. One of these mechanisms is based on the ability of certain species such as L. albus to exude large amounts of citrate through specific tertiary roots called cluster-roots. Uranium (U) is an ubiquitous contaminant known firstly for its chemical toxicity and secondly for its high affinity for P with which it forms low-soluble complexes in soils. We highlight the effects of P-U interaction on the physiology of L. albus and particularly on citrate exudation, and the impact of this root process on the phytoavailability of U and its accumulation in plants in a hydroponic study. Different levels of P (1 and 100 μM) and U (0 and 20 μM) have been tested. Our results show no toxicity of U on the development of L. albus with an adequate P supply, whereas the effects of P starvation are amplified by the presence of U in the growth medium, except for the production of cluster-roots. Citrate exudation is totally inhibited by U in a low-P environment whereas it increases in the presence of U when its toxicity is lowered by the addition of P. The differences observed in terms of toxicity and accumulation are partly explained by the microphotographs obtained by electron microscopy (TEM-EDX): in the absence of P, U penetrates deep into the roots and causes lethal damages, whereas in presence of P, we observe the formation of U-P complexes which limit the internalization of the pollutant and so its toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Do rhizospheric processes linked to P nutrition participate in U absorption by Lupinus albus grown in hydroponics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tailliez, Antoine; Pierrisnard, Sylvie; Camilleri, Virginie; Keller, Catherine; Henner, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate (P) is an essential element for plant development but is generally present in limiting amount in the soil solution. Plant species have developed different mechanisms promoting the solubilization of this element in soils to ensure a sufficient supply for their growth. One of these mechanisms is based on the ability of certain species such as L. albus to exude large amounts of citrate through specific tertiary roots called cluster-roots. Uranium (U) is an ubiquitous contaminant known firstly for its chemical toxicity and secondly for its high affinity for P with which it forms low-soluble complexes in soils. We highlight the effects of P–U interaction on the physiology of L. albus and particularly on citrate exudation, and the impact of this root process on the phytoavailability of U and its accumulation in plants in a hydroponic study. Different levels of P (1 and 100 μM) and U (0 and 20 μM) have been tested. Our results show no toxicity of U on the development of L. albus with an adequate P supply, whereas the effects of P starvation are amplified by the presence of U in the growth medium, except for the production of cluster-roots. Citrate exudation is totally inhibited by U in a low-P environment whereas it increases in the presence of U when its toxicity is lowered by the addition of P. The differences observed in terms of toxicity and accumulation are partly explained by the microphotographs obtained by electron microscopy (TEM-EDX): in the absence of P, U penetrates deep into the roots and causes lethal damages, whereas in presence of P, we observe the formation of U–P complexes which limit the internalization of the pollutant and so its toxicity. -- Highlights: • The behavior of white lupine ±P and ±U exposure is studied in hydroponics. • The toxicity of 20 μM U is the strongest under low-P-condition. • P starvation induces citrate exudation only in P deficient plant not exposed to U. • U promotes exudation of citrate in P-sufficient plants. • With P, U is not internalized within the root cells thereby reducing U uptake

  18. Assessment of Bioavailable Concentrations of Germanium and Rare Earth Elements in the Rhizosphere of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Fischer, Ronny; Moschner, Christin; Székely, Balázs

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of Germanium (Ge) and Rare Earth Elements in soils are estimated at 1.5 mg kg -1 (Ge), 25 mg kg -1 (La) and 20 mg kg -1 (Nd), which are only roughly smaller than concentrations of Pb and Zn. Germanium and rare earth elements are thus not rare but widely dispersed in soils and therefore up to date, only a few minable deposits are available. An environmental friendly and cost-effective way for Ge and rare earth element production could be phytomining. However, the most challenging part of a phytomining of these elements is to increase bioavailable concentrations of the elements in soils. Recent studies show, that mixed cultures with white lupine or other species with a high potential to mobilize trace metals in their rhizosphere due to an acidification of the soil and release of organic acids in the root zone could be a promising tool for phytomining. Complexation of Ge and rare earth elements by organic acids might play a key role in controlling bioavailability to plants as re-adsorption on soil particles and precipitation is prevented and thus, concentrations in the root zone of white lupine increase. This may also allow the complexes to diffuse along a concentration gradient to the roots of mixed culture growing species leading to enhanced plant uptake. However, to optimize mixed cultures it would be interesting to know to which extend mobilization of trace metals is dependent from chemical speciation of elements in soil due to the interspecific interaction of roots. A method for the identification of complexes of germanium and rare earth elements with organic acids, predominantly citric acid in the rhizosphere of white lupine was developed and successfully tested. The method is based on coupling of liquid chromatography with ICP-MS using a zic-philic column (SeQuant). As a preliminary result, we were able to show that complexes of germanium with citric acid exist in the rhizosphere of white lupin, what may contribute to the bioavailability of this element. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany. The authors are grateful to students and laboratory assistants contributing in the field work and sample preparation.

  19. Vegetative growth of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. ‘Autumn Bliss’ with vermicompost application intercropped with lupine (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoc Jara-Peña

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out with objective to determine the response of red raspberry to vermicompost application and lupine (intercropped or not in the phase of vegetative growth under greenhouse conditions in Montecillo, Mexico. In the experiment 11 treatments were studied with 9 replications per treatment, with a complete factorial (5 × 2 plus an additional treatment consisting of a chemical fertilization with N100 P80 K80. As vegetable material adventitious buds of raspberry were used, statistically significant differences were found between treatments in number of leaves, plant height, cane diameter, fresh and dry matter in raspberry. The biggest response was obtained with 90 and 120 g pot–1 of vermicompost. In general, the lupine intercropped with raspberry permitted a slight competion but favored the biggest development in the foliar area.

  20. Enrichment of gluten-free cakes with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) or buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, Hacer; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of debittered lupin flour (LF) and whole buckwheat flour (BF) on the nutritional and sensory quality of gluten-free cake was studied. LF (10, 20, 30 and 40%) and BF (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were partially replaced with corn starch and rice flour mixture (1:1 w/w) in the gluten-free cake recipe. LF increased the protein, calcium, iron, manganese, phosphorus and zinc contents of the cakes, while BF caused a significant increase (P cakes. According to the overall acceptability rating, it was concluded that gluten-free cake could be produced with satisfactory results by the addition of LF and BF up to 30% and 10%, respectively.

  1. NODULATION OF YELLOW LUPIN (Lupinus luteus L. DEPENDING ON THE FORECROP, SEED INOCULATION WITH Bradyrhizobium lupini AND GENISTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz PRUSIŃSKI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A strict two-factor field ‘Mister’ yellow lupin experiment was made in a split-plot design in poor rye complex soil (soil valuation class IVb at the Experiment Station of the Faculty of Agriculture and Biotechnology, the University of Technology and Life Sciences at Mochełek over 2008-2011. The experiment design covered 2 factors: growing yellow lupin after intercrops of ‘Bardena’ white mustard and ‘Pastar’ winter rye as well as seed inoculation with Bradyrhizobium lupini with or without genistein added. Growing intercrops in the poor rye complex soil considerably decreased neither the Nmin content in early spring nor the size of nodulation in yellow lupin. After lupin harvest, slightly more Nmin was noted for the treatments where intercrops were applied, especially rye in the 0-30 cm layer. The weather pattern, especially moisture conditions, pointed to a special sensitivity of nodulation to water deficit or excess in the rhizosphere. The method of preparing seeds for sowing did not play a greater role in developing the Nmin content in both soil profile layers analysed. White mustard showed a negative effect on the dry weight of nodules and the total N content in the plants and the seeds of yellow lupin as well as created the least favourable conditions for the survival and the capacity for symbiosis by symbiotic bacteria remaining in soil after lupin harvest. The state of yellow lupin plant nitrogen nutrition did not depend on the experimental factors.

  2. Maize-common bean/lupine intercrop productivity and profitability in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phaseolus vulgaris L.), narrow-leaf lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.), and white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) with maize (Zea mays L.) were conducted under two intercrop planting arrangements (IPA), single row of legume in between maize rows and ...

  3. THE EFFECTS OF SELF-POLLINATION AND MATERNAL RESOURCES ON REPRODUCTION AND OFFSPRING PERFORMANCE IN THE WILD LUPINE, LUPINUS PERENNIS (FABACEAE). (R826596)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. Análisis de la Variabilidad Genética entre treinta accesiones de tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet usando marcadores moleculares ISSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. Chirinos-Arias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de realizar el análisis de variabilidad genética inter-accesión de treinta accesiones de tarwi (L. mutabilis Sweet pertenecientes al Banco de Germoplasma del Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agraria (INIA. Se extrajo el ADN de 300 plantas, se construyeron bulks, se estandarizó el protocolo de amplificación de los marcadores moleculares Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR, de los cuales se eligió a los más polimórficos y nítidos para corrida en gel de acrilamida. Encontrándose 255 bandas con 8 iniciadores ISSR. El análisis de la variabilidad genética con estos iniciadores comprobó una alta variabilidad genética de las muestras en estudio. Observándose también un polimorfismo relativamente alto para una especie autógama como L. mutabilis. Finalmente los fenogramas mostraron una relación con la ubicación geográfica, posiblemente debido al flujo génico in situ debido al intercambio o venta de semillas en ferias o mercados aledaños a la zona de colecta.

  5. Initial water deficit effects on Lupinus albus photosynthetic performance, carbon metabolism, and hormonal balance: metabolic reorganization prior to early stress responses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pinheiro, C.; António, C.; Dobrev, Petre; Vaňková, Radomíra; Wilson, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 14 (2011), s. 4965-4974 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Carbon metabolism * hormone balance * LC-MS Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.364, year: 2011

  6. Bridging the Gap to Non-toxic Fungal Control: Lupinus-Derived Blad-Containing Oligomer as a Novel Candidate to Combat Human Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Pinheiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The lack of antifungal drugs with novel modes of action reaching the clinic is a serious concern. Recently a novel antifungal protein referred to as Blad-containing oligomer (BCO has received regulatory approval as an agricultural antifungal agent. Interestingly its spectrum of antifungal activity includes human pathogens such as Candida albicans, however, its mode of action has yet to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that BCO exerts its antifungal activity through inhibition of metal ion homeostasis which results in apoptotic cell death in C. albicans. HIP HOP profiling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a panel of signature strains that are characteristic for common modes of action identified hypersensitivity in yeast lacking the iron-dependent transcription factor Aft1 suggesting restricted iron uptake as a mode of action. Furthermore, global transcriptome profiling in C. albicans also identified disruption of metal ion homeostasis as a potential mode of action. Experiments were carried out to assess the effect of divalent metal ions on the antifungal activity of BCO revealing that BCO activity is antagonized by metal ions such as Mn2+, Zn2+, and Fe2+. The transcriptome profile also implicated sterol synthesis as a possible secondary mode of action which was subsequently confirmed in sterol synthesis assays in C. albicans. Animal models for toxicity showed that BCO is generally well tolerated and presents a promising safety profile as a topical applied agent. Given its potent broad spectrum antifungal activity and novel multitarget mode of action, we propose BCO as a promising new antifungal agent for the topical treatment of fungal infections.

  7. Bridging the Gap to Non-toxic Fungal Control: Lupinus-Derived Blad-Containing Oligomer as a Novel Candidate to Combat Human Pathogenic Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana M.; Carreira, Alexandra; Prescott, Thomas A. K.; Ferreira, Ricardo B.; Monteiro, Sara A.

    2017-01-01

    The lack of antifungal drugs with novel modes of action reaching the clinic is a serious concern. Recently a novel antifungal protein referred to as Blad-containing oligomer (BCO) has received regulatory approval as an agricultural antifungal agent. Interestingly its spectrum of antifungal activity includes human pathogens such as Candida albicans, however, its mode of action has yet to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that BCO exerts its antifungal activity through inhibition of metal ion homeostasis which results in apoptotic cell death in C. albicans. HIP HOP profiling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a panel of signature strains that are characteristic for common modes of action identified hypersensitivity in yeast lacking the iron-dependent transcription factor Aft1 suggesting restricted iron uptake as a mode of action. Furthermore, global transcriptome profiling in C. albicans also identified disruption of metal ion homeostasis as a potential mode of action. Experiments were carried out to assess the effect of divalent metal ions on the antifungal activity of BCO revealing that BCO activity is antagonized by metal ions such as Mn2+, Zn2+, and Fe2+. The transcriptome profile also implicated sterol synthesis as a possible secondary mode of action which was subsequently confirmed in sterol synthesis assays in C. albicans. Animal models for toxicity showed that BCO is generally well tolerated and presents a promising safety profile as a topical applied agent. Given its potent broad spectrum antifungal activity and novel multitarget mode of action, we propose BCO as a promising new antifungal agent for the topical treatment of fungal infections. PMID:28702011

  8. Evaluation of Induced Mutants Using Irradiation and Chemical Mutagen in Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) for Earliness and Yield and Its Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragsb, A.I.; Boshra, S. A.; Mehany, A. L.; Darwish, A. A.; Khattab, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted in 2001 / 2002, 2002 /2003 and 2003/ 2004 seasons at the Experimental Farm of Nuclear Res. Center, Inshas. The objectives were to evaluate 23 induced mutants with gamma rays and EMS and two local cultivars Giza 1 and Giza 2 in the three generations (M3, M4, and M5) for earliness and seed yield and its components. The results were: It was found that earliness was observed for mutants 5, 11, 17, 21 and 22 as compared with Giza 1 and Giza 2 in the three generations with a maximum value of 19 days earlier than Giza 2. Highly significant increase for number of pods / plant was found for mutants 8, 15 and 19 as compared with the two local cultivars in the three generations. A considerable increase for no of seeds/plant was noticed only for mutant lines 8 and 15 as compared with the two local cultivars. A remarkable increase for seed index was only found for mutant lines 6, 12 and 21 as compared with the two local cultivars in the three generations. A considerable increase for seed yield / plant was revealed for mutant lines 1, 4, 7, 8, 15 and 19 as compared with the two local cultivars in the three generations.

  9. DETERMINACIÓN DEL POTENCIAL NUTRITIVO Y FUNCIONAL DE GALLETAS Y COMPOTAS PREPARADOS A BASE DE CHOCHO (Lupinus bogotensis, CEBADA (Hordeum vulgare Y ZANAHORIA (Daucus carota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Sanaguano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto nutricional de las combinaciones  de chocho, cebada y zanahoria a través de análisis de minerales como: potasio calcio, fósforo y hierro; así como  el  análisis de proteína, cenizas,  sólidos totales y  vitamina A. Considerando de esta manera, la interacción de los componentes del alimento para cada uno de los tratamientos. Se aprovechó estos productos  agrícolas debido a que son muy cultivados en la provincia de Bolívar, la experimentación se la realizó en los laboratorios de Biología Molecular ubicados en el campus Agropecuario Laguacoto II, mediante análisis de minerales, bromatológicos, vitamina A. Se determinó que la combinación del tratamiento 7 (T7 es el mejor debido a que cumple con las especificaciones de comparación  nutrición infantil de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Como es el caso del potasio, proteína y vitamina A. Sensorialmente este tratamiento es el más aceptado por niños, recalcando que los resultados fueron tabulados  y su comparación de significancia fue de (p>0.05

  10. FERMENTATION BY Lactobacillus paracasei OF GALACTOOLIGOSACCHARIDES AND LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT CARBOHYDRATES EXTRACTED FROM SQUASH (Curcubita maxima AND LUPIN (Lupinus albus SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Palacio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro prebiotic activity of galactooligosaccharides (GOS and low-molecular-weight carbohydrates (LMWC extracted from lupin and squash seeds on the growth of Lactobacillus paracasei BGP1 was studied. To this end, the change in cell density after 24 h of L. paracasei growth on 1% (w/v glucose, 1% (w/v raffinose, 1% (w/v commercial inulin GR, 1% (w/v lupin extract, and 1% (w/v squash extract relative to the change in cell density of a mixture of enteric strains under the same culture conditions were evaluated. Additionally, the principal components of GOS and LMWC in the extracts were identified using Thin Layer Chromatography. The highest prebiotic activity score was for L. paracasei grown on squash extract (0.55±0.03, followed by lupin extract (0.49±0.02, inulin (0.38±0.05 and raffinose (0.37±0.05. These results will contribute to selecting plant species as potential sources of prebiotic ingredients for the development of functional foods.

  11. Effect of a traditional processing method on the chemical composition of local white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seed in North-Western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeheyis, Likawent; Kijora, Claudia; Wink, Michael; Peters, Kurt J

    2011-01-01

    The effect of a traditional Ethiopian lupin processing method on the chemical composition of lupin seed samples was studied. Two sampling districts, namely Mecha and Sekela, representing the mid- and high-altitude areas of north-western Ethiopia, respectively, were randomly selected. Different types of traditionally processed and marketed lupin seed samples (raw, roasted, and finished) were collected in six replications from each district. Raw samples are unprocessed, and roasted samples are roasted using firewood. Finished samples are those ready for human consumption as snack. Thousand seed weight for raw and roasted samples within a study district was similar (P > 0.05), but it was lower (P seed sample from Mecha was lower (P 0.05). The crude protein and crude fat contents of finished samples within a study district were higher (P seed samples. The crude ash content of raw and roasted lupin samples within a study district was higher (P processing method of lupin seeds in Ethiopia has a positive contribution improving the crude protein and crude fat content, and lowering the alkaloid content of the finished product. The study showed the possibility of adopting the traditional processing method to process bitter white lupin for the use as protein supplement in livestock feed in Ethiopia, but further work has to be done on the processing method and animal evaluation.

  12. Isolamento da globulina majoritária, digestibilidade in vivo e in vitro das proteínas do tremoço-doce (Lupinus albus L., var. Multolupa Isolation of major globulin, in vivo and in vitro digestibility of proteins from sweet lupin (Lupinus albus L. var. Multolupa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Augusto Neves

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do trabalho foram isolar, purificar e estudar algumas propriedades da fração globulina majoritária de tremoço-doce, var. Multolupa; assim como avaliar as características de digestibilidade da farinha e frações isoladas. As frações protéicas foram separadas por fracionamento diferencial com uso de diferentes solventes. A globulina majoritária de tremoço-doce foi isolada, purificada por cromatografia em Q-Sepharose, revelando um único pico de proteína. Apresentou um peso molecular de 162,5 ± 10,0 kDa, determinado por cromatografia em Sephacryl S-300, e subunidades entre 20-70 kDa em PAGE-SDS. A solubilidade em função do pH e concentrações de NaCl revelaram curva típica dessa fração. A digestibilidade da proteína da farinha e das frações albumina, globulina e glutelina foi avaliada por experimentos in vitro e in vivo e se revelou alta para a fração globulina, seguida pela glutelina, albumina e farinha. A digestibilidade in vivo da fração globulina, tanto aparente quanto verdadeira, não diferiu significativamente daquela determinada para a caseína. Apesar da alta digestibilidade da fração majoritária e frações protéicas, a utilização como única fonte de proteína nas dietas revelou valores baixos de RPLR (razão protéica líquida relativa, indicando ser insuficiente para sustentar o crescimento dos animais, comparativamente à caseína.The aim of the present work was to isolate, purify and study some properties of the major globulin fraction from sweet lupin, var. Multolupa; as well as to evaluate the digestibility features of flour and isolated fractions. The protein fractions were separated by differential fractionation with different solvents. The lupin major globulin was isolated, purified by Q-Sepharose chromatography when it showed only one protein peak. The major protein presented a molecular weight of 162.5 ± 10.0 kDa, determined on Sephacryl S-300 chromatography; and subunits between 20 to 70 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The protein solubility in relation to pH and NaCl concentrations showed a typical S-like curve for globulins. The flour and the isolated protein fractions, albumins, globulins and glutelins were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The in vitro and in vivo digestibility assays revealed a high digestibility for the globulin, followed by glutelin, albumin and the flour. The globulin in vivo digestibility did not differ significantly from that obtained to casein. Despite the high digestibility encountered for the major protein fraction and protein fractions, the use as the only protein source in the diets revealed low values for RNPR (relative net protein ratio, showing it to be insufficient in terms of sustaining the growth of animals, comparatively to casein.

  13. Estudo de dose adequada da droga RO42-1611 (Arteflene) no tratamento da malária por Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, Rita do Socorro Uchôa

    1997-01-01

    A resistência crescente do P. falciparum aos antimaláricos habitualmente empregados, torna urgente a avaliação de novas drogas. O Ro 42-1611 é um antimalárico derivado da planta chinesa Arlabotrys uncinatus. Usado apenas na África em três trabalhos no tratamento da malária por P. falciparum, tem sua ação desconhecida em sul-americanos com esta doença. Apesar do efeito antimalárico ter sido comprovado, ainda não se encontrou a dose adequada para o tratamento supressivo do P. falciparum. Avalia...

  14. Energy efficiency for establishment and management of cover crops; Eficiencia energetica na implantacao e manejo de plantas de cobertura do solo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, R.; Gamero, C.A.; Boller, W.

    2000-07-01

    An experiment was conducted in Botucatu, SP, Brazil to evaluate the energy balance involved in the establishment and management of cover crops and also to determine specific heating seeds and biomass of different species of cover crops. Black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb), forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg) and lupinus (Lupinus angustifolius L.) were grown in a randomized block design, in twelve replicates. Oat showed higher energy production as compared to lupinus, while higher specific heat were determined for forage radish seeds and also for lupinus and oat biomass. While fuel and fertilizers were the most important energy inputs for the establishment and management of oat and forage radish, seeds and fuel were the most used energy input for lupinus. (author)

  15. Identification of a low digestibility δ-Conglutin in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) seed meal for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by coupling 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Adrián; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Iván J

    2013-01-01

    The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain δconglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein.

  16. Identification of a Low Digestibility ?-Conglutin in Yellow Lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) Seed Meal for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) by Coupling 2D-PAGE and Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Ogura, Takahiro; Hern?ndez, Adri?n; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Iv?n J.

    2013-01-01

    The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase ...

  17. Presencia de sistemas de secreción de patógenos en bacterias endosimbióticas aisladas de Lupinus de la península Ibérica

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor, Víctor; Iglesias, Ana Isabel; Duran Wendt, David Ricardo; Rey Navarro, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Los rizobios son bacterias endosimbióticas capaces de fijar nitrógeno en estructuras especializadas de leguminosas. Esta simbiosis es altamente específica y depende, entre otros factores, de la capacidad de los rizobios de secretar proteínas efectoras a las células vegetales. Se han descrito diferentes sistemas de secreción en patógenos animales y vegetales y posteriormente también se han encontrado en algunos rizobios. En este trabajo se presenta el estudio de varios sistemas de secreción id...

  18. Identification of a Low Digestibility δ-Conglutin in Yellow Lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) Seed Meal for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) by Coupling 2D-PAGE and Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Adrián; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Iván J.

    2013-01-01

    The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain δconglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein. PMID:24278278

  19. Identification of a low digestibility δ-Conglutin in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. seed meal for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. by coupling 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ogura

    Full Text Available The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain δconglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein.

  20. The first complete chloroplast genome of the Genistoid legume Lupinus luteus: evidence for a novel major lineage-specific rearrangement and new insights regarding plastome evolution in the legume family

    OpenAIRE

    Martin , Guillaume E.; Rousseau-Gueutin , Mathieu; Cordonnier , Solenn; Lima , Oscar; Michon-Coudouel , Sophie; Naquin , Delphine; Ferreira De Carvalho , Julie; Aïnouche , Malika L.; Salmon , Armel; Aïnouche , Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    support from the 'Plate-forme Génomique Environnementale et Fonctionnelle' (OSUR: INEE-CNRS) and the Genouest Bioinformatic Plateform (University of Rennes 1); International audience; † Background and Aims To date chloroplast genomes are available only for members of the non-protein amino acidaccumulating clade (NPAAA) Papilionoid lineages in the legume family (i.e. Millettioids, Robinoids and the 'inverted repeat-lacking clade', IRLC). It is thus very important to sequence plastomes from oth...

  1. Avaliação de algumas propriedades funcionais das farinhas de tremoço doce (Lupinus albus e feijão guandu (Cajanus cajan (L Millsp e sua utilização na produção de fiambre Evaluation of some functional properties of lupin sweet flour (Lupinus albus and faba bean flour (Cajanus cajan (L Millsp and their utilization in cooked ham production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Castilho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O aumento na demanda de alimentos no mundo tem motivado pesquisadores a buscarem fontes alternativas a fim de enriquecer nutricionalmente alimentos industrializados e torná-los viáveis economicamente às populações menos favorecidas. O tremoço doce e o feijão guandu são leguminosas com elevado conteúdo proteico e grande potencial de utilização no enriquecimento nutricional de alimentos industrializados, além de desempenharem funcionalidades. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho permitiram observar que a farinha de tremoço doce é capaz de absorver de 172 a 186% do seu peso em água e de ~62% em óleo, enquanto que a farinha de feijão guandu absorve cerca de 100% de seu peso em água e 50% em óleo. Boa atividade e estabilidade foram observadas para as emulsões obtidas com estas farinhas, indicando potencial de aplicação na produção de embutidos. Objetivou-se neste trabalho, avaliar algumas propriedades funcionais das farinhas de tremoço doce e feijão guandu e sua utilização na fabricação de fiambres. Os fiambres foram elaborados no Laboratório de Controle de Qualidade de Alimentos da Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas da Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP, na cidade de Araraquara, com o intuito de oferecer um alimento enriquecido nutricionalmente. Quando comparados ao fiambre elaborado com a adição de concentrado proteico de soja, estes fiambres não apresentaram diferenças significativas nos atributos sensoriais aparência, cor, aroma, textura e impressão global, embora tivessem pouca aceitabilidade sensorial.The increase in food demand worldwide has motivated researchers to seek alternative food crops to nutritionally enrich industrialized foods and make them economically viable to poorer populations. Sweet lupin and faba bean are high protein content legumes of great potential for nutritional enrichment of industrialized foods, besides performing a functional purpose. The results obtained in this work enabled to identify that sweet lupin flour is able to absorb 172 to 186% of its weight in water, and ~62% in oil, while faba bean flour absorbs ~100% of its weight in water, and ~50% in oil. The emulsions obtained with both flours showed good activity and stability, suggesting a good application potential in the production of sausages. In the present work, some functional properties of the sweet lupin and faba bean flours were analyzed, including use in the production of cooked ham. The cooked ham was elaborated in the Quality Control Laboratory of foods in the Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty in the University of São Paulo State (UNESP in Araraquara (SP, Brazil, offering an enriched food nutritionally. When compared to cooked hams prepared with the addition of soy protein, the experimental hams presented no significant sensorial differences, such as appearance, color, flavor, texture and overall impression, however they had had little sensorial acceptability.

  2. Effects of agrochemical measures on plutonium 239,240 and americium 24 accumulation in some legume plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budkevich, T.A.; Zabolotnyj, A.I.; Kudryashov, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    During 1998-2000 in field experiments at territories contaminated with transuranic elements (TUE) the mineral fertilizers were studied as means of decreasing the TUE accumulation in legume plants ( Lupinus luteus L., Lupinus angustifolius L., Trifolium pratense L., Medicago sativa L.). Under the action of lime Pu 239, 240 and Am 241 accumulation in green parts and seeds of Lupinus decreased in 1,5-5 times, and in overground mass of legume grasses in 1,5-2,5 times. The combined action of PK-fertilizes and lime didn't decrease TUE transfer into legume plants

  3. 78 FR 48898 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Regional Office (see ADDRESSES section) or send them via electronic mail (email) to: [email protected] scrub lupine (Lupinus aridorum) for the purpose of seed harvesting, germ plasm storage, and germination...

  4. A comparison of different legume seeds as protein supplement to optimise the use of low quality forages by ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yánez-Ruiz, David R; Martin-Garcia, Antonio I; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2009-01-01

    The potential of different legume seeds species, including recently new developed varieties (Vicia faba: a commercial variety and varieties Alameda, Palacio and Baraka; Lupinus angustifolius; Pisum sativum and Cicer arietinum: varieties Fardon and Zegr ) as protein supplements to low quality...

  5. Phyto remediation of PAH contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petruzzelli, G.; Pedron, F.; Barbafieri, M.; Cervelli, St.; Vigna Guidi, G.

    2005-01-01

    Phyto-remediation may enhance degradation of organic compounds promoting an adequate substrate for microbial growth. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of two plant species, Lupinus albus and Zea mais, in the bio-remediation of a PAH contaminated soil. This soil has been collected in a contaminated industrial area in Italy characterized by PAH concentrations up to 16000 mg/Kg. Microcosms experiments were carried out by planting Lupinus albus and Zea mais in the polluted soil; controls without plants were run separately. Growing period lasted by three months. Plants favoured PAH biodegradation by percentages of 32% with Lupinus albus and 22% with Zea mais, with respect to non vegetated microcosms. (authors)

  6. Influence of long-term fertilization on soil enzyme activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Dora SAMUEL

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil enzyme activities (actual and potential dehydrogenase, catalase, acid and alkaline phosphatase were determined in the 0–10, 10–20, and 20–30 cm layers of a brown luvic soil submitted to a complex fertilization experiment with different types of green manure. It was found that each activity decreased with increasing sampling depth. It should be emphasized that greenmanuring of maize led to a significant increase in each of the five enzymatic activities determined. The enzymatic indicators of soil quality calculated from the values of enzymatic activities showed the order: lupinus + rape + oat > lupinus > vetch + oat + ryegrass > lupinus + oat + vetch > unfertilized plot. This order means that by determination of enzymatic activities valuable information can be obtained regarding fertility status of soils. There were significant correlations of soil enzyme activities with chemical properties.

  7. Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Report/Statement. Appendices. Monterey Peninsula Water Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    device and trapping facility near the face cf the 8 3 88089 A3-7 FIGURE 3-3 -7/ .7-U mv I 1 . - a Cach agua Creek Site Are a V 0 2.5 5 I I 1L KilometersI...succulentus succulent annual lupine Madia gracilis gumweed Madia madioides woodland madia Madia sativa Chile tarweed Marah fabaceus manroot Medicago...Lupinus nanus ssp. nanus sky lupine Lupinus succulentus succulent annual lupine Madia gracilis gumweed Madia sativa Chile tarweed I Marah fabaceus

  8. A new potyvirus identified in Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sarkisova, Tatiana; Petrzik, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2009), s. 143 ISSN 0001-723X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500510558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Coat protein * Lupinus polyphyllus * Phylogenesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.746, year: 2009

  9. Sensitization to lupine flour: is it clinically relevant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, N. W.; van Maaren, M. S.; Vlieg-Boersta, B. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.; de Groot, H.; Gerth van Wijk, R.

    2010-01-01

    Lupinus angustifolius (blue lupine) is used for human and animal consumption. Currently, the lupine content in bread varies from 0% to 10% and from 0.5% to 3% in pastry. Although lupine flour is present in many products, anaphylaxis on lupine flour is rarely seen. The aim of our study was to

  10. Sensitization to lupine flour : is it clinically relevant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, N. W.; van Maaren, M. S.; Vlieg-Boersta, B. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.; de Groot, H.; van Wijk, R. Gerth

    2010-01-01

    Background Lupinus angustifolius (blue lupine) is used for human and animal consumption. Currently, the lupine content in bread varies from 0% to 10% and from 0.5% to 3% in pastry. Although lupine flour is present in many products, anaphylaxis on lupine flour is rarely seen. Objective The aim of our

  11. Plasma membrane H+-ATPase-dependent citrate exudation from cluster roots of phosphate-deficient white lupin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomasi, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Espen, Luca

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is able to grow on soils with sparingly available phosphate (P) by producing specialized structures called cluster roots.To mobilize sparingly soluble P forms in soils, cluster roots release substantial amounts of carboxylates and concomitantly acidify the ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241294 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available , putative / stearoyl-ACP desaturase, putative similar to Acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] desaturase from Lupinus luteus GI:4704824, Ascl...epias syriaca GI:1762436, Ricinus communis SP|P22337; contains Pfam profile PF03405 Fatty acid desaturase 1e-97 ...

  13. Towards Sustainable Production of Protein-Rich Foods: Appraisal of Eight Crops for Western Europe. Part II: Analysis of the Technological Aspects of the Production Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaving Dijkstra, D.; Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Increased production of plant protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods which can replace meat in the human diet to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses on the environment. The suitability of lupin (Lupinus spp.), pea (Pisum sativum), quinoa (Chenopodium

  14. Intermittent grazing: A management tool to reduce the impact of lupine-induced Crooked Calf Syndrome (CCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lupinus genus is a large group of legumes, some of which cause a congenital condition in cattle referred to as “Crooked Calf Syndrome” (CCS). Only Lupines that contain the alkaloids anagyrine or ammodendrine are problematic to cattle producers. The syndrome is manifest by a series of multiple ...

  15. The Actions of Piperidine Alkaloids at Fetal Muscle-Type and Autonomic-Type Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperidine alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Conium maculatum, Nicotiana spp., and Lupinus spp. A pharmacodynamic comparison was made of the alkaloids ammodendrine, anabasine, anabaseine, and coniine in; SH-SY5Y cells which express autonomic-type nicotinic acetylcholine recept...

  16. Crooked Calf Syndrome: Managing Lupines on Rangelands of the Channel Scablands of East-Central Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Crooked calf syndrome”, the contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate caused by velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) on the channel Scablands of east-central Washington State are the same as those defects induced by Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) and Nicotiana spp. (wild tobacco) in rum...

  17. Fitomejoramiento y racionalidad social

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez Flores, A.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.; Jongerden, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo argumenta que los resultados no intencionales de la generación
    de un cultivar de lupino (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) se forjaron en el mismo momento en que se concibió y organizó el proyecto de fitomejoramiento. Más específicamente la racionalidad social, inmersa en los programas de

  18. Effect of Sprouting on invitro digestibility of some locally consumed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    Functional properties of lipid seed oil. (Lupinus metabilis) proteins and protein concentration. Journal of Food Science. 47: 491-. 497. (Taugo, L.C., Donangelo, C.M., Taugo, N.M.F. and. Knudsen-Bach, K.E. (2000)). Effect of heat treatment on nutritional quality of germinated legume seed J. Agric. Food Chem. 48: 2082-.

  19. Separation and Measurement of Plant Alkaloid Enantiomers by RP-HPLC Analysis of their Fmoc-Alanine Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants often synthesize secondary metabolites that are enantiomers. Enantiomers can cause very different physiological responses. Ammodendrine (1) and anabasine (2) are teratogens that can cause congenital malformations in livestock and enantiomeric forms of each have been found in Lupinus spp. an...

  20. Structure and Function of Nucleoside Hydrolases from Physcomitrella patens and Maize Catalyzing the Hydrolysis of Purine, Pyrimidine, and Cytokinin Ribosides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopečná, M.; Blaschke, H.; Kopečný, D.; Vigouroux, A.; Končitíková, R.; Novák, Ondřej; Kotland, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Moréra, S.; von Schwartzenberg, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 163, č. 4 (2013), s. 1568-1583 ISSN 0032-0889 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : LUPIN LUPINUS-LUTEUS * ADENOSINE NUCLEOSIDASE * CRITHIDIA-FASCICULATA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.394, year: 2013

  1. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences - Vol 12, No 1 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Locally Distilled Medicinal Spirit From a Brew Containing Lupinus albus Seeds in Renovascular Hypertensive Guines-Pigs · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Cherinet Ambaye, Tesfaye Tolessa, Abebe Abera, Hassen Taha Sherief, Dawit Abebe, ...

  2. Antihypertensive Activity of Residue From “Gebto Arekei”. Locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antihypertensive Activity of Residue From “Gebto Arekei”. Locally Distilled Medicinal Spirit From a Brew Containing Lupinus albus Seeds in Renovascular Hypertensive Guines-Pigs. Cherinet Ambaye, Tesfaye Tolessa, Abebe Abera, Hassen Taha Sherief, Dawit Abebe, Kelbessa Urga ...

  3. Antihypertensive Activity of Residue From “Gebto Arekei",

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pretea brev containing Lupinus albus seeds is assumed to represent one of the forms se his plant in the traditional treatment of hypertension. The present work was aaraken to see the effect of “ Gebto Arekei on blood pressure of renovascular hypertensive guinea-pigs and evaluate its traditional medicinal use. METHODS: ...

  4. Anagyrine desensitization of peripheral nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. A potential biomarker of quinolizidine alkaloid teratogenesis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagyrine, a teratogenic quinolizidine alkaloid found in certain Lupinus spp., has been proposed to undergo metabolism by pregnant cattle to a piperidine alkaloid which acts inhibit fetal movement, the putative mechanism behind crooked calf syndrome. The objective of this study was to test the hypot...

  5. Synchrotron-Based Techniques Shed Light on Mechanisms of Plant Sensitivity and Tolerance to High Manganese in the Root Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant species differ in response to high available manganese (Mn), but the mechanisms of sensitivity and tolerance are poorly understood. In solution culture, greater than or equal to 30 µM Mn decreased the growth of soybean (Glycine max), but white lupin (Lupinus albu...

  6. The effect of dehulling and a-glactosidase supplementation on the ileal digestibility of lupin based diets in broiler chickens and adult roosters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mieczkowska, A.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Smulikowski, S.

    2005-01-01

    Two hundred fifty six broiler chickens, 22-days-old, allocated to four groups of four replicate pens with 16 birds each, and six adult ileostomized roosters were used. Four diets containing maize starch and 550 g/kg whole or 458 g/kg dehulled lupin seeds (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Amulet) as the only

  7. Can butterflies evade fire? Pupa location and heat tolerance in fire prone habitats of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The imperiled frosted elfin butterfly, Callophrys irus Godart, is restricted to frequently disturbed habitats where its larval host plants, Lupinus perennis L. and Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. Br. occur. C. irus pupae are noted to reside in both leaf litter and soil, which may allow them to escape dir...

  8. Evaluation of thermal, chemical, and mechanical seed scarification methods for 4 Great Basin lupine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covy D. Jones; Mikel R. Stevens; Von D. Jolley; Bryan G. Hopkins; Scott L. Jensen; Dave Turner; Jason M. Stettler

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of most Great Basin lupine (Lupinus spp. [Fabaceae]) species are physically dormant and thus, difficult to establish in uniform stands in seed production fields. We designed this study to examine 5 seed scarification techniques, each with 11 levels of application (including a non-scarified control), to reduce the physical seed dormancy of longspur lupine...

  9. The occurrence and development of peat mounds on King George Island (Maritime Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Fabiszewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On King George Island, South Shetlands Islands, a type of peat formation has been discovered which has not previously been reported from the Antarctic. These formations are in shape of mounds up to 7x 15 m in area, with a peat layer of about I m thick. About twenty five cm below the surface there is a layer of permanently frozen peat. The mounds are covered by living mosses (Polytrichum alpinum and Drepanocladus uncinatus, Antarctic hair grass (Deschampsia antarctica and lichens. Erosion fissures occurring on the surface are evidence of contemporary drying and cessation of the mound's growth. The initial phase of the development of the mounds began with a community dominated by Calliergidium austro-stramineum and Deschampsia antarctica, and their further development has been due to peat accumulation formed almost entirely by Calliergidium. The location of the mounds is near a penguin rookery, which clearly conditioned the minerotrophic character of these formations, as compared with the "moss peat banks" formed by Chorisodontium aciphyllum and Polytrichum al-pestre. Moreover, the peat mounds differ from the latter in several ways, e.g. rate of growth and floristic composition. Radiocarbon dating of peat from the base of one mound gave an age of 4090±60 years B.P. This suggests that the age of the tundra on King George Island is about 5000-4000 years.

  10. Rickettsia species in fleas collected from small mammals in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špitalská, Eva; Boldiš, Vojtech; Mošanský, Ladislav; Sparagano, Olivier; Stanko, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological and epizootiological studies of Rickettsia felis and other Rickettsia spp. are very important, because their natural cycle has not yet been established completely. In total, 315 fleas (Siphonaptera) of 11 species of Ceratophyllidae, Hystrichopsyllidae and Leptopsyllidae families were tested for the presence of Rickettsia species and Coxiella burnetii with conventional and specific quantitative real-time PCR assays. Fleas were collected from five rodent hosts (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus agrarius, Microtus subterraneus, Microtus arvalis) and three shrew species (Sorex araneus, Neomys fodiens, Crocidura suaveolens) captured in Eastern and Southern Slovakia. Overall, Rickettsia spp. was found in 10.8% (34/315) of the tested fleas of Ctenophthalmus agyrtes, Ctenophthalmus solutus, Ctenophthalmus uncinatus and Nosopsyllus fasciatus species. Infected fleas were coming from A. flavicollis, A. agrarius, and M. glareolus captured in Eastern Slovakia. C. burnetii was not found in any fleas. R. felis, Rickettsia helvetica, unidentified Rickettsia, and rickettsial endosymbionts were identified in fleas infesting small mammals in the Košice region, Eastern Slovakia. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in C. solutus male flea collected from A. agrarius in Slovakia.

  11. Organismos edáficos como bioindicadores da recuperação de solos degradados por arenização no Bioma Pampa Edaphic organisms as bioindicators of restoration of degraded soils by arenização on the Bioma Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Moreira Rovedder

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Os organismos edáficos, por sua sensibilidade a alterações no meio, têm sido utilizados como indicadores de modificações nos níveis de qualidade do solo, as quais podem ser promovidas por degradação ou agradação. Em Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul, foram caracterizadas populações de organismos edáficos como bioindicadores dos efeitos da degradação por arenização e da recuperação por revegetação com Lupinus albescens Hook. & Arn., fabácea natural do Bioma Pampa. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de solo com cobertura natural de Lupinus albescens (TN, área arenizada que recebeu revegetação com Lupinus albescens há um ano (T1, área arenizada que recebeu revegetação com Lupinus albescens há três anos (T3, solo arenizado (SA e campo nativo (CN. As coletas foram feitas em fevereiro e maio de 2006, com armadilhas PROVID. Foram determinados os parâmetros: abundância de organismos em nível de Ordem, riqueza de organismos e índices de diversidade e igualdade de Shannon. A arenização reduziu o desenvolvimento das populações edáficas, enquanto a estratégia de revegetação mostrou efeitos positivos na recolonização da área. O grupo Collembola destacou-se como bioindicador dos efeitos dos processos de degradação e recuperação. O índice de diversidade de Shannon não foi adequado para a avaliação dos efeitos da arenização quando analisado isoladamente.Edaphic organisms are sensible to environment alterations and have been used as indicators of soil quality changes. These modifications can be promoted by degradation or agradation events. The study area is located in Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul. It was analyzed the role of epigeic soil fauna as bioindicator of soil degradation by arenização and its restoration by revegetation with Lupinus albescens Hook. & Arn., a native fabaceous of Bioma Pampa. The treatments were constituted of soil under natural covering with Lupinus albescens, degraded area recovered with

  12. Phytoremediation of Pharmaceuticals - Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kotyza, J. (Jan); Soudek, P. (Petr); Kafka, Z.; Vaněk, T. (Tomáš)

    2010-01-01

    Phytoremediation of selected pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen) using Armoracia rusticana and Linum usitatissimum cell cultures and by hydroponically cultivated Lupinus albus, Hordeum vulgaris, and Phragmites australis plants in laboratory conditions is described. During in vitro experiments, the best results for acetaminophen were achieved using Armoracia rusticana hairy root cultures, where 100% of the starting amount was removed from the media during eight days. To...

  13. Effects of 24-epibrassinolide and green light on plastid gene transcription and cytokinin content of barley leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Efimova, N.V.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Kusnetsov, V.; Litvinovskaya, R. P.; Zlobin, Y.L.; Dobrev, Petre; Vedenicheva, N.P.; Savchuk, A. L.; Karnachuk, R. A.; Kudryakova, N.V.; Kuznetsov, V. D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120, APR (2017), s. 32-40 ISSN 0039-128X Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : lupinus-luteus cotyledons * arabidopsis-thaliana * de-etiolation * abscisic-acid * brassinosteroid biosynthesis * plant development * hormonal balance * mutant * expression * growth * Brassinosteroids * Cytokinin * Gene expression * Green light * Hordeum vulgare * Transcription Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.282, year: 2016

  14. Molecular strategies towards anthracnose resistance in lupin

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the project was to develop a strategy towards anthracnose resistance in lupin using molecular techniques. Colletotrichum species are considered to be major plant pathogens of cereals and legumes around the world, causing significant crop losses. Colletotrichum acutatum causes anthracnose disease on lupin. Sweet white lupin (Lupinus albus) is a high protein grain crop that could alleviate protein shortage in South Africa, since it has the highest protein levels (34-45%) compared to ...

  15. Evaluation of legumes and poultry manure for the early protection of burnt soils Evaluación de leguminosas y gallinaza para la protección temprana de suelos quemados Avaliaçao da utilizaçao de leguminosas e estrume de galináceos na protecção precoce de solos queimados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín González Prieto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Organic amendments combined with the sowing of gramineous grasses are effective for the early protection of burnt soils (BS but cannot restore soil N status to pre-fire level; this has led to interest in combining their use with N2 fixer legumes. The effectiveness of applying poultry manure (PM; 2 Mg ha-1 and sowing legumes (Lotus corniculatus, Lupinus polyphyllus and Trifolium repens for the early protection of BS was compared with that of applying PM + Lolium perenne and growing these four species without PM in a 3-month pot experiment, which also included a control consisting of an unburnt soil (US. In US, the shoot and root biomass increased as follows: Trifolium ~ Lotus << Lolium < Lupinus. Compared with those grown in US, plants grown in BS were smaller and weaker in three species (Lupinus, Lolium and Trifolium. The reverse was true for the four species grown in BS+PM, which showed the benefits of PM addition. In all the treatments, plant N uptake, which prevents soil-N losses, increased as follows: Trifolium ~ Lotus < Lupinus < Lolium. The lack of nodules observed suggested that none of the legumes fixed atmospheric-N2.

    Las enmiendas orgánicas combinadas con la siembra de gramíneas son efectivas para la protección temprana de los suelos quemados (SQ, pero insuficientes para restaurar el estatus pre-incendio del N-edáfico, lo cual deriva en el interés de emplear dichas enmiendas en combinación con leguminosas fijadoras de N2. La utilidad de la gallinaza (G, 2 Mg ha-1 y la siembra de leguminosas (Lotus corniculatus, Lupinus polyphyllus y Trifolium repens para la protección temprana de SQ se comparó con la de G + Lolium perenne y esas cuatro especies sin G en una experiencia en invernadero durante tres meses que tambi

  16. Progressive white matter microstructure damage in male chronic heroin dependent individuals: a DTI and TBSS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To investigate the WM microstructure deficits in heroin dependent individuals (HDIs with different length of heroin dependence, and to investigate whether these WM deficits can be related to the duration of heroin use and to decision-making deficits in HDIs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty-six HDIs [including eighteen sHDIs (duration of heroin dependent is less than 10 years and eighteen lHDIs (duration of dependent is between 10:20 years] and sixteen healthy controls participated in this study. Whole brain voxel-wise analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, axial diffusivity (Da and radial diffusivity (Dr were performed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS to localize abnormal WM regions among groups. TBSS demonstrated that sHDIs had significantly lower FA than controls in right orbito-frontal WM, bilateral temporal WM and right parietal WM. The lHDIs had significantly lower FA throughout the brain compared with the controls and sHDIs. The lHDIs had significantly lower Da than controls in bilateral inferior frontaloccipital fasciculus, bilateral splenium of corpus callosum, left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and had significantly higher Dr than controls in bilateral uncinatus fasciculus, bilateral inferior frontaloccipital fasciculus and bilateral cortical spinal fasciculus. Volume-of-interest (VOI analyses detect the changes of diffusivity indices in the regions with FA abnormalities revealed by control vs sHDIs. In most VOIs, FA reductions were caused by the increase in Dr as well as the decrease in Da. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between FA and behavioral measures in HDIs and controls available. Significantly positively correlations were found between the FA values in the right orbital-frontal WM, right parietal WM and IGT performance. CONCLUSIONS: The extent and severity of WM integrity deficits in HDIs was associated with the length of heroin dependent. Furthermore

  17. Phytotoxity of herbicides and their impact on productivity and quality of carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdevich, I.M.; Podolyak, A.G.; Zhdanovich, V.P.

    2006-01-01

    The decision of protein problem on contaminated by radionuclides territories as a result of the accident on Chernobyl NPP is not possible without increase of the sowing areas legumes crops (peas, lupine, vetch and soybean). Introduction in agricultural production of contaminated regions of republic high yielding crops with a low level of accumulation radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr (pisum sativum L. - Aist, Polesskij, Gomelskaya, Agat – green mass: coefficient of radionuclides entering from soil to plants Cp137Cs 0,05-0.07, Cp90Sr 5,10-7,08; grain: Cp137Cs 0,07-0,10, CpSr90 1,24-1,37) lupinus luteus - Zhemchug, Adradzhennya, Vyatich, Rannij - green mass: Cp137Cs-0,19-0,35, Cp 90Sr-3,57-5,31; grain: Cp137Cs-0,60-0,90, Cp90Sr-3,06-3,68) will allow to obtain agricultural production (grain and gren mass) being up to the requirements of the Republican allowable levels of the contents of cesium-137 and strontium -90 in agricultural raw material and forages on arable lands at their higher density of radioactive contamination: 137Cs - 925-1480 kBq/square m (25-40 Ci/square km); 90Sr- 11,1-37,0 kBq/square m (0,30-1,0 Ci/square km). The increase in gathering of digesting protein up to 2010 should be reached due to perfection of structure of areas under crops (increase in their share in structure of a grain wedge up to 10-15%) and increase of their productivity (up to 25-30 c/ha of grain and 300-350 c/ha of green mass) due to perfection of technologies of cultivation. High-quality distinctions on accumulation 137Cs make at lupinus angustifolius - up to 3 times, at peas sowing and lupinus luteus - up to 2 times, on accumulation 90Sr at lupinus angustifolius - up to 3,5 times, at pisum sativum L. and lupinus luteus - up to 2 times

  18. Proteomics for exploiting diversity of lupin seed storage proteins and their use as nutraceuticals for health and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco; Keller, Jean; Ley, José; Sanchez-Lucas, Rosa; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V; Aïnouche, Abdelkader

    2016-06-30

    Lupins have a variety of both traditional and modern uses. In the last decade, reports assessing the benefits of lupin seed proteins have proliferated and, nowadays, the pharmaceutical industry is interested in lupin proteins for human health. Modern genomics and proteomics have hugely contributed to describing the diversity of lupin storage genes and, above all, proteins. Most of these studies have been centered on few edible lupin species. However, Lupinus genus comprises hundreds of species spread throughout the Old and New Worlds, and these resources have been scarcely explored and exploited. We present here a detailed review of the literature on the potential of lupin seed proteins as nutraceuticals, and the use of -omic tools to analyze seed storage polypeptides in main edible lupins and their diversity at the Lupinus inter- and intra-species level. In this sense, proteomics, more than any other, has been a key approach. Proteomics has shown that lupin seed protein diversity, where post-translational modifications yield a large number of peptide variants with a potential concern in bioactivity, goes far beyond gene diversity. The future extended use of second and third generation proteomics should definitely help to go deeper into coverage and characterization of lupin seed proteome. Some important topics concerning storage proteins from lupin seeds are presented and analyzed in an integrated way in this review. Proteomic approaches have been essential in characterizing lupin seed protein diversity, which goes far beyond gene diversity since the protein level adds to the latter differential proteolytic cleavage of conglutin pro-proteins and a diverse array of glycosylation forms and sites. Proteomics has also proved helpful for screening and studying Lupinus germplasm with the future aim of exploiting and improving food production, quality, and nutritional values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ileal digestibility of sunfl ower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    .05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P pea to be a high-digestible protein source relative to sunfl ower......The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T...

  20. The nucleotide sequence and organization of nuclear 5S rRNA genes in yellow lupine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuc, K.; Nuc, P.; Pawelkiewicz, J.

    1993-01-01

    We have isolated a genomic clone containing 'Lupinus luteus' 5S ribosomal RNA genes by screening with 5S rDNA probe clones that were hybridized previously with the initiator methionine tRNA preparation (contaminated) with traces of rRNA or its degradation products). The clone isolated contains ten repeat units of 342 bp with 119 bp fragment showing 100% homology to the 5S rRNA from yellow lupine. Sequence analysis indicates only point heterogeneities among the flanking regions of the genes. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs

  1. Grass-clover undersowing affects nitrogen dynamics in a grain legume–cereal arable cropping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in an arable organic cropping system and included a sequence with sole cropped fababean (Vicia faba L.), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and pea–oat intercropping with or without an undersown perennial ryegrass...... N2 fixation and 15N labeling technique to determine the fate of pea and oat residue N recovery in the subsequent crop. The subsequent spring wheat and winter triticale crop yields were not significantly affected by the previous main crop, but a significant effect of catch crop undersowing...

  2. Final Environmental Assessment for Test Area D-84 Waterside Redevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    button Lachnocaulon digynum ST Seepage slopes, wet flatwoods, bogs Low Gulf Coast lupine Lupinus westianus ST Dunes , scrub, sandhills Low Hummingbird...planned monitoring and rrUtigstion measures 3$ described in the toe reques~ and Ibis leau arc: impleme.ntoi Dtscriplion of the Action The purpose of...8217.miliprojfuct.cfin?Id- 13&Code=Pn=ams. Information acressed on NO\\~I I I , 2010. U.S. Anny Cc!]>S of Engineers (L"SACE). 2009. Standard ~ toe Conditions

  3. Molecular genetic diversity and population structure of Ethiopian white lupin landraces: Implications for breeding and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Nasser; Martina, Kyalo; Dagne, Kifle; Wegary, Dagne; Tesfaye, Kassahun

    2017-01-01

    White lupin is one of the four economically important species of the Lupinus genus and is an important grain legume in the Ethiopian farming system. However, there has been limited research effort to characterize the Ethiopian white lupin landraces. Fifteen polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of 212 Ethiopian white lupin (Lupinus albus) landraces and two genotypes from different species (Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus mutabilis) were used as out-group. The SSR markers revealed 108 different alleles, 98 of them from 212 landraces and 10 from out-group genotypes, with an average of 6.5 alleles per locus. The average gene diversity was 0.31. Twenty eight landraces harbored one or more private alleles from the total of 28 private alleles identified in the 212 white lupin accessions. Seventy-seven rare alleles with a frequency of less than 5% were identified and accounted for 78.6% of the total alleles detected. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 92% of allelic diversity was attributed to individual accessions within populations while only 8% was distributed among populations. At 70% similarity level, the UPGMA dendrogram resulted in the formation of 13 clusters comprised of 2 to 136 landraces, with the out-group genotypes and five landraces remaining distinct and ungrouped. Population differentiation and genetic distance were relatively high between Gondar and Ethiopian white lupin populations collected by Australians. A model-based population structure analysis divided the white lupin landraces into two populations. All Ethiopian white lupin landrace populations, except most of the landraces collected by Australians (77%) and about 44% from Awi, were grouped together with significant admixtures. The study also suggested that 34 accessions, as core collections, were sufficient to retain 100% of SSR diversity. These accessions (core G-34) represent 16% of the whole 212

  4. Rumen degradability of some feed legume seeds

    OpenAIRE

    González , Javier; Andrés , Santiago

    2003-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this work was to determine the effective degradability (ED) of CP for different feed legume seeds and the possible relationship with their physical and chemical characteristics. The ED was measured using nylon bags and rumen outflow rate techniques on three rumen cannulated wethers fed at 40 g DM$\\cdot$kg$^{-0.75}$, with a 2:1 (on DM basis) hay to concentrate diet. Nine seed samples of the following legume species were tested: lupin (Lupinus albus L., cultiv...

  5. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 February 2013-31 March 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M C; Atteke, Christiane; Augusto, S C; Bailey, J; Bazaga, Pilar; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Benoit, Laure; Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Born, Céline; Brito, R M; Chen, Hai-kui; Covarrubias, Sara; de Vega, Clara; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Francisco, F O; García, Cristina; Gonçalves, P H P; González, Clementina; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Carla; Hammer, Michael P; Herrera, Carlos M; Itoh, H; Kamimura, S; Karaoglu, H; Kojima, S; Li, Shou-Li; Ling, Hannah J; Matos-Maraví, Pável F; McKey, Doyle; Mezui-M'Eko, Judicaël; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Park, R F; Pozo, María I; Ramula, Satu; Rigueiro, Cristina; Sandoval-Castillo, Jonathan; Santiago, L R; Seino, Miyuki M; Song, Chang-Bing; Takeshima, H; Vasemägi, Anti; Wellings, C R; Yan, Ji; Yu-Zhou, Du; Zhang, Chang-Rong; Zhang, Tian-Yun

    2013-07-01

    This article documents the addition of 142 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agriophyllum squarrosum, Amazilia cyanocephala, Batillaria attramentaria, Fungal strain CTeY1 (Ascomycota), Gadopsis marmoratus, Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata, Liriomyza sativae, Lupinus polyphyllus, Metschnikowia reukaufii, Puccinia striiformis and Xylocopa grisescens. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Amazilia beryllina, Amazilia candida, Amazilia rutila, Amazilia tzacatl, Amazilia violiceps, Amazilia yucatanensis, Campylopterus curvipennis, Cynanthus sordidus, Hylocharis leucotis, Juniperus brevifolia, Juniperus cedrus, Juniperus osteosperma, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus thurifera, Liriomyza bryoniae, Liriomyza chinensis, Liriomyza huidobrensis and Liriomyza trifolii. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011 - 30 November 2011

    KAUST Repository

    Abreu, Aluana Gonç alves; Albaina, A.; Alpermann, Tilman J.; Apkenas, Vanessa E.; Bankhead-Dronnet, Sté phanie; Bergek, Sara; Berumen, Michael L.; Cho, Changhung; Clobert, Jean; Coulon, Auré lie; De Feraudy, D.; Estonba, Andone; Hankeln, Thomas M A; Hochkirch, Axel; Hsu, Tsaiwen; Huang, Tsurngjuhn; Irigoien, Xabier; Iriondo, Mikel; Kay, Kathleen M.; Kinitz, Tim; Kothera, Linda; Le Hé nanff, Maxime; Lieutier, Franç ois; Lourdais, Olivier; Macrini, Camila M T; Manzano, Carmen; Martin, Carine; Morris, Veronica Ruth Franco; Nanninga, Gerrit B.; Pardo, D.; Plieske, Jö rg; Pointeau, Sophie; Prestegaard, Tore; Quack, Markus; Richard, Murielle; Savage, Harry M.; Schwarcz, Kaiser D.; Shade, Jessica; Simms, Ellen L.; Solferini, Vera Nisaka; Stevens, Virginie M.; Veith, Michael W.; Wen, Meijuan; Wicker, Florian; Yost, Jenn M.; Zarraonaindia, Iratxe

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011 - 30 November 2011

    KAUST Repository

    Abreu, Aluana Gonçalves

    2012-02-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. El tarwi o chocho: una de las principales fuentes de proteína vegetal de las comunidades indígenas de los Andes Centrales

    OpenAIRE

    Planchuelo, Ana M.; Fuentes, Esteban P.

    2005-01-01

    El lupino andino (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) conocido también como tarwi o chocho, es una especie de leguminosa nativa de los Andes Centrales. Su domesticación se remonta a los principios de la cultura Nazca y desde ese entonces hasta la actualidad el cultivo está ampliamente difundido en las laderas montañosas y en los altos valles de Ecuador, Perú y Bolivia. La importancia del lupino para las comunidades andinas prehispánicas quedo documentada en pinturas de cerámicas y en tributos encontrado...

  9. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; II: Propiedades de las mezclas

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezal Mezquita, P.; Urtuvia Gatica, V.; Ramírez Quintanilla, V.; Arcos Zavala, R.

    2011-01-01

    Las formulaciones alimenticias de alto contenido proteico, aportado por una mezcla de harinas a partir de dos cultivos andinos, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) y lupino (Lupi-nus albus L), con dos cereales tradicionales maíz (Zea mays L.) y arroz (Oryza sativa L.), conllevaron a la preparación de una 'mezcla dulce' para la elaboración de queques y otra "mezcla postre" saborizada con plátano, que puede ser preparada con agua o con leche, constituyeron una buena alternativa como suplemento al...

  10. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; I: Formulación y aceptabilidad

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezal Mezquita, P.; Urtuvia Gatica, V.; Ramírez Quintanilla, V.; Romero Palacios, N.; Arcos Zavala, R.

    2011-01-01

    La revalorización de los cultivos andinos, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) y lupino (Lupinus albus L), para ser utilizados en mezclas alimenticias, con cereales tradicionales como maíz (Zea mays L.) y arroz (Oryza sativa L.), originan mezclas sin gluten que constituyen una buena alternativa para la alimentación de niños menores de 24 meses que sufren la enfermedad celíaca, ya que mejoran la calidad de la proteína, por compensación de los aminoácidos esenciales, e incide en la diversificació...

  11. Phytoremediation of pharmaceuticals--preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyza, Jan; Soudek, Petr; Kafka, Zdenĕk; Vanĕk, Toás

    2010-03-01

    Phytoremediation of selected pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen) using Armoracia rusticana and Linum usitatissimum cell cultures and by hydroponically cultivated Lupinus albus, Hordeum vulgaris, and Phragmites australis plants in laboratory conditions is described. During in vitro experiments, the best results for acetaminophen were achieved using Armoracia rusticana hairy root cultures, where 100% of the starting amount was removed from the media during eight days. Total removal of ibuprofen and diclofenac was achieved using a Linum usitatissimum suspension culture after one and six days, respectively. In the hydroponic arrangement, the best results were achieved for Lupinus, where acetaminophen was totally removed from media during two or four days in concentrations of 0.1 or 0.2 mM, respectively. The best effectiveness of ibuprofen removal (50% of starting amount) was found in case of Phragmites. Effectiveness of all tested plants for diclofenac removal was low. The best removal was achieved using Phragmites in the case of 0.2 mM concentration-67% of the starting amount and Hordeum for 0.1 mM starting concentration, 56%.

  12. Testing of Two Varieties of Lupin Seeds as Substitutes for Soya Extracted Meal in Vegetable Diets Designed for Young Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Suchý

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this experiment was to verify the suitability of two Polish varieties of dehulled lupin seed (the low-protein SONET variety and the high-protein JUNO variety as protein components to replace 50% of soya extract meal in feeding mixtures designed for the feeding of young broilers. The results of this experiment demonstrate that suitable treatment of lupin seed (dehulling may significantly increase its nutritional value. Dehulling provides a product (core in which the level of nitrogen-containing substances is by 27% higher than that in the original seed, providing an important protein component to be added in feeding mixtures for chickens. The experiment has also shown that production performance depends on the particular Lupinus variety used. Chickens fed on the JUNO variety seed (Group E1 reached a live weight of 2.332 kg on Day 40, which is comparable with the control group of chickens (2.337 kg; Group C. However, chickens in Group E2 fed on the SONET variety seed had a conclusively lower average weight (2.280 kg (P Lupinus genus is a major source of the amino acid arginine, which is often deficient in the feeding mixtures.

  13. The effect of elevated cadmium content in soil on the uptake of nitrogen by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciecko, Z.; Kalembasa, S.; Wyszkowski, M.; Rolka, E. [University of Warmia & Mazury Olsztyn, Olsztyn (Poland). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cadmium (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg Cd/kg of soil) contamination in soil with the application of different substances (compost, brown coal, lime and bentonite) on the intake of nitrogen by some plants. The correlations between the nitrogen content in the plants and the cadmium concentration in the soil, as well as the plant yield and the content of micro- and macroelements in the plants were determined. Plant species and cadmium dose determined the effects of soil contamination with cadmium on the content of nitrogen. Large doses of cadmium caused an increase in nitrogen content in the Avena sativa straw and roots and in the Zea mays roots. Soil contamination with cadmium resulted in a decrease of nitrogen content in the Avena sativa grain, in above-ground parts and roots of the Lupinus luteus, in the above-ground parts of the Zea mays and in the above-ground parts and roots of Phacelia tanacaetifolia. Among the experimental different substances, the application of bentonite had the strongest and a usually negative effect on the nitrogen content in plants. The greatest effect of bentonite was on Avena sativa grain, above-ground parts Zea mays and Lupinus luteus and Phacelia tanacaetifolia. The content of nitrogen in the plants was generally positively correlated with the content of the macroelements and some of the microelements, regardless of the substances added to the soil.

  14. Growth responses, biomass partitioning, and nitrogen isotopes of prairie legumes in response to elevated temperature and varying nitrogen source in a growth chamber experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Heather R; Deede, Laura; Powers, Jennifer S

    2012-05-01

    Because legumes can add nitrogen (N) to ecosystems through symbiotic fixation, they play important roles in many plant communities, such as prairies and grasslands. However, very little research has examined the effect of projected climate change on legume growth and function. Our goal was to study the effects of temperature on growth, nodulation, and N chemistry of prairie legumes and determine whether these effects are mediated by source of N. We grew seedlings of Amorpha canescens, Dalea purpurea, Lespedeza capitata, and Lupinus perennis at 25/20°C (day/night) or 28/23°C with and without rhizobia and mineral N in controlled-environment growth chambers. Biomass, leaf area, nodule number and mass, and shoot N concentration and δ(15)N values were measured after 12 wk of growth. Both temperature and N-source affected responses in a species-specific manner. Lespedeza showed increased growth and higher shoot N content at 28°C. Lupinus showed decreases in nodulation and lower shoot N concentration at 28°C. The effect of temperature on shoot N concentration occurred only in individuals whose sole N source was N(2)-fixation, but there was no effect of temperature on δ(15)N values in these plants. Elevated temperature enhanced seedling growth of some species, while inhibiting nodulation in another. Temperature-induced shifts in legume composition or nitrogen dynamics may be another potential mechanism through which climate change affects unmanaged ecosystems.

  15. Understanding rhizosphere processes to enhance phytoextraction of germanium and rare earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Germanium (Ge) and rare earth elements (REEs) are economically valuable raw materials that are not actually rare in terms of concentrations in soils but they are hardly available for plant uptake due to interactions with organic matter (SOM), secondary soil constituents such as Fe/Mn oxides and P bearing soil fractions. Processes in the rhizosphere might influence availability of Ge and REEs in the soil-plant system, since lowering of the pH and presence of carboxylates and siderophores (small molecules that strongly chelate Fe and other elements) strongly influences the chemical speciation of Ge and REEs in soil and consequently this comprehensive knowledge helps us to improve phytomining. In a series of field and greenhouse experiments 16 plant species from the functional groups of grasses, herbs and legumes were tested with regard to their accumulation efficiency of Ge and REEs in shoots. Subsequently, we conducted mixed culture experiments in which inefficient species (e.g. cereals like Avena sativa, Hordeum vulgare, Panicum miliaceum) were cultivated in mixed cultures with efficient species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius). Based on the plant concentrations a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify significant factors that explain the accumulation behavior of different plant species with regard to Ge, REEs, Si, Fe and Mn. In this analysis Mn was used to identify plant species with efficient mechanisms to access sparingly available P-resources in soils. Particularly in nonmycorrhizal species concentrations of Mn in leaves often indicate a carboxylate based P-mobilising strategy. Herbaceous plant species accumulated significantly higher amounts of REEs while grasses accumulated significantly higher amounts of Ge. Concentrations of Ge in shoots of grasses correlated significantly positive with Si, but negatively with concentrations of Mn. Indeed, the results of the PCA clearly show that plants with high Mn concentrations tend to have

  16. Accumulation of germanium and rare earth elements in functional groups of selected energy crops cultivated on two different soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs

    2016-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the uptake of Ge and selected REEs in functional groups of selected crop species. Five species belonging to the functional group of grasses (Hordeum vulgare, Zea mays, Avena sativa, Panicum miliaceum and Phalaris arundinacea) and four species from the group of herbs (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Fagopyrum esculentum and Brassica napus) were cultivated in parallel on two soils with slightly alkaline (soil A: pH = 7.8) and slightly acidic (soil B: pH = 6.8) conditions. After harvest, concentrations of Ge, La, Nd, Gd, Er, P, Fe, Mn and Si in shoot tissues were determined with ICP-MS. Concentrations of Ge were significantly higher in grasses than in herbs. Conversely, concentrations of La and Nd were significantly higher in herbs, than in grasses. Highest concentrations were measured in Brassica napus (REEs) and Zea mays (Ge). Concentrations of Ge significantly correlated with that of Si in the shoots showing low concentrations in herbs and high concentrations in grasses, indicating a common mechanism during the uptake in grasses. Concentrations of REEs correlated significantly with that of Fe, indicating increasing concentrations of REEs with increasing concentrations of Fe. Cultivation of species on the slightly acidic soil significantly increased the uptake Ge in Lupinus albus and Phalaris arundinacea and the uptake of La and Nd in all species except of Phalaris arundinacea. This study demonstrated that commonly used field crops could be regarded as suitable candidates for a phytomining of Ge and REEs, since these species develop high yields of shoots, high concentrations of elements and are widely used in agricultural practice. Under soil conditions where bioavailability of Ge and REEs is expected to be low (soil A) accumulation can be estimated at 1.8 g/ha Ge in Z. mays and 3.7 g/ha REEs (1.5 g/ha La, 1.4 g/ha Nd, 0.6 g/ha Gd, 0.3 g/ha Er), respectively, in B. napus, assuming a constant high efficiency of

  17. URJC GB dataset: Community-based seed bank of Mediterranean high-mountain and semi-arid plant species at Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Patricia; Iriondo, José María

    2014-01-01

    The Germplasm Bank of Universidad Rey Juan Carlos was created in 2008 and currently holds 235 accessions and 96 species. This bank focuses on the conservation of wild-plant communities and aims to conserve ex situ a representative sample of the plant biodiversity present in a habitat, emphasizing priority ecosystems identified by the Habitats Directive. It is also used to store plant material for research and teaching purposes. The collection consists of three subcollections, two representative of typical habitats in the center of the Iberian Peninsula: high-mountain pastures (psicroxerophylous pastures) and semi-arid habitats (gypsophylic steppes), and a third representative of the genus Lupinus. The high-mountain subcollection currently holds 153 accessions (63 species), the semi-arid subcollection has 76 accessions (29 species,) and the Lupinus subcollection has 6 accessions (4 species). All accessions are stored in a freezer at -18 °C in Kilner jars with silica gel. The Germplasm Bank of Universidad Rey Juan Carlos follows a quality control protocol which describes the workflow performed with seeds from seed collection to storage. All collectors are members of research groups with great experience in species identification. Herbarium specimens associated with seed accessions are preserved and 63% of the records have been georreferenced with GPS and radio points. The dataset provides unique information concerning the location of populations of plant species that form part of the psicroxerophylous pastures and gypsophylic steppes of Central Spain as well as populations of genus Lupinus in the Iberian Peninsula. It also provides relevant information concerning mean seed weight and seed germination values under specific incubation conditions. This dataset has already been used by researchers of the Area of Biodiversity and Conservation of URJC as a source of information for the design and implementation of experimental designs in these plant communities. Since

  18. URJC GB dataset: Community-based seed bank of Mediterranean high-mountain and semi-arid plant species at Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alonso

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Germplasm Bank of Universidad Rey Juan Carlos was created in 2008 and currently holds 235 accessions and 96 species. This bank focuses on the conservation of wild-plant communities and aims to conserve ex situ a representative sample of the plant biodiversity present in a habitat, emphasizing priority ecosystems identified by the Habitats Directive. It is also used to store plant material for research and teaching purposes. The collection consists of three subcollections, two representative of typical habitats in the center of the Iberian Peninsula: high-mountain pastures (psicroxerophylous pastures and semi-arid habitats (gypsophylic steppes, and a third representative of the genus Lupinus. The high-mountain subcollection currently holds 153 accessions (63 species, the semi-arid subcollection has 76 accessions (29 species, and the Lupinus subcollection has 6 accessions (4 species. All accessions are stored in a freezer at -18 °C in Kilner jars with silica gel. The Germplasm Bank of Universidad Rey Juan Carlos follows a quality control protocol which describes the workflow performed with seeds from seed collection to storage. All collectors are members of research groups with great experience in species identification. Herbarium specimens associated with seed accessions are preserved and 63% of the records have been georreferenced with GPS and radio points. The dataset provides unique information concerning the location of populations of plant species that form part of the psicroxerophylous pastures and gypsophylic steppes of Central Spain as well as populations of genus Lupinus in the Iberian Peninsula. It also provides relevant information concerning mean seed weight and seed germination values under specific incubation conditions. This dataset has already been used by researchers of the Area of Biodiversity and Conservation of URJC as a source of information for the design and implementation of experimental designs in these plant

  19. Avaliação da nutrição de plantações jovens de eucalipto por análise foliar e métodos não destrutivos Nutrition evaluation in young Eucalyptus plantation by foliar analysis and non-destructive methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Madeira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o crescimento e estado nutritivo de jovens Eucalyptus por análise foliar tradicional (teores de N, P e pigmentos fotossintéticos e com o medidor de clorofila SPAD-502. Efectuou-se uma gestão diferenciada dos resíduos de abate da plantação anterior, com incorporação dos resíduos no solo (I, remoção dos resíduos (R, e distribuição dos resíduos à superfície (S; aplicou-se um fertilizante azotado (IF, RF e SF e introduziuse uma leguminosa do género Lupinus (IL e RL. Não houve diferenças significativas no crescimento entre I, R e S. A aplicação de fertilizante intensificou o crescimento em SF e IF. O teor foliar de N foi no início positivamente afectado pelo Lupinus (IL e RL. Após a primeira aplicação de fertilizante, este teor foi significativamente superior em IF, RF e SF, esbatendo-se a diferença entre tratamentos após as aplicações seguintes; semelhante padrão foi observado para os pigmentos e o SPAD. Os valores de SPAD correlacionaram-se (PThe growth and nutritional state of young Eucalyptus was evaluated by foliar analysis (contents of N, P and photosynthetic pigments and the SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter. An experimental system was used with different harvest residues management, such as incorporation of residues into the soil (I, removal of residues (R, and distribution of residues on the soil surface (S, with N fertiliser application (IF, RF and SF, and with the leguminous Lupinus seeding (IL and RL. No significant differences in growth were found between the I, R and S. Application of fertiliser increased growth in the SF and IF. Initially, foliar N content was positively affected by the leguminous (RL and IL. After the first fertiliser application, a higher N content was observed in the IF, RF and SF, the differences being reduced in the following applications; a similar trend was observed for extracted pigments and SPAD values. Foliar N contents were correlated (P<0.05 with SPAD values. The

  20. Molecular cloning of lupin leghemoglobin cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konieczny, A; Jensen, E O; Marcker, K A

    1987-01-01

    Poly(A)+ RNA isolated from root nodules of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus, var. Ventus) has been used as a template for the construction of a cDNA library. The ds cDNA was synthesized and inserted into the Hind III site of plasmid pBR 322 using synthetic Hind III linkers. Clones containing sequences...... specific for nodules were selected by differential colony hybridization using 32P-labeled cDNA synthesized either from nodule poly(A)+ RNA or from poly(A)+ RNA of uninfected root as probes. Among the recombinant plasmids, the cDNA gene for leghemoglobin was identified. The protein structure derived from...... its nucleotide sequence was consistent with known amino acid sequence of lupin Lb II. The cloned lupin Lb cDNA hybridized to poly(A)+ RNA from nodules only, which is in accordance with the general concept, that leghemoglobin is expressed exclusively in nodules. Udgivelsesdato: 1987-null...

  1. IDENTIFICATION AND OCCURRENCE OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ON SEEDS OF COMMON WETCH, WHITE LUPINE AND SOME WILD LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Miličević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence and occurrence of Fusarium species was examined on the seeds of cultivated legumes – common vetch (Vicia sativa, white lupine (Lupinus albus, and wild legumes: bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, wild alfalfa (Medicago sativa, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis, bird vetch (Vicia cracca and meadow vetchling (Lathyrus pratensis. Thirteen Fusarium species were identified - F. verticillioides, F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum F. oxysporum, F. scirpi, F. semitectum, F. culmorum, F. proliferatum, F. pseudograminearum, F. sporotrichioides, F. sambucinum and F. heterosporum. Species F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum were determined on seeds of the cultivated legumes (common vetch and white lupine. Other 11 Fusarium species were determined on seeds of wild legumes (bird’s-foot trefoil, wild alfalfa, sweet clover and bird vetch among which the most prevalent were species F. avenaceum and F. acuminatum.

  2. Screening of antibacterial and antifungal activities of selected Macedonian wild mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolovska-Nedelkoska Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the development of novel safe antimicrobials of natural origin, macrofungi became attractive for the researchers in the last decade. In this study, antimicrobial potential of methanolic extracts of six wild macromycetes (Boletus lupinus, Flammulina velutypes, Phellinus igniarius, Sarcodon imbricatus, Tricholoma aurantium, Xerocomus ichnusanus was evaluated. In vitro antimicrobial activity was investigated by the microdilution method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined. Testing was conducted against eleven microorganisms, including six strains of bacteria and five species of fungi. Extracts showed selective antimicrobial properties while the activities depended both on the species of microorganism and on the type and concentration of extract. The evaluated extracts demonstrated antimicrobial activity, exhibiting more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of bacteria than on fungi. The highest antibacterial and antifungal activity was observed in methanolic extract of polypore fungus P. igniarius.

  3. Piperidine alkaloids: human and food animal teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Brown, David R

    2012-06-01

    Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogenic piperidine alkaloids include poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), lupine (Lupinus spp.), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) [including wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca)]. There is abundant epidemiological evidence in humans that link maternal tobacco use with a high incidence of oral clefting in newborns; this association may be partly attributable to the presence of piperidine alkaloids in tobacco products. In this review, we summarize the evidence for piperidine alkaloids that act as teratogens in livestock, piperidine alkaloid structure-activity relationships and their potential implications for human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nanostructured liquid crystalline particles as an alternative delivery vehicle for plant agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiminti, Pavani P; Dong, Yao D; Sayer, Chad; Hay, Phillip; Rookes, James E; Boyd, Ben J; Cahill, David M

    2013-03-13

    Agrochemical spray formulations applied to plants are often mixed with surfactants that facilitate delivery of the active ingredient. However, surfactants cause phytotoxicity and off-target effects in the environment. We propose the use of nanostructured liquid crystalline particles (NLCP) as an alternative to surfactant-based agrochemical delivery. For this, we have compared the application of commercial surfactants, di (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate and alkyl dimethyl betaine, with NLCP made from phytantriol, at concentrations of 0.1%, 1% and 5% on the adaxial surface of leaves of four plant species Ttriticum aestivum (wheat), Zea mays (maize), Lupinus angustifolius (lupin), and Arabidopsis thaliana. In comparison with the application of surfactants there was less phytotoxicity on leaves of each species following treatment with NLCP. Following treatment of leaves with NLCP analysis of cuticular wax micromorphology revealed less wax solubilization in the monocot species. The results clearly show that there are advantages in the use of NLCP rather than surfactants for agrochemical delivery.

  5. [Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Acosta Barrientos, E; Rojas Valdivia, G; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed at developing a high content protein beverage from the mixture of liquid extracts of a pseudocereal, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and two legumes: mesquite (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stunz) and lupine (Lupinus albus L.), native from the Andean highlands of the Chilean northern macro-zone, flavored with raspberry pulp, to help in the feeding of children between 2 and 5 years of lower socioeconomic status with nutritional deficiencies. The formulation was defined by linear programming, its composition was determined by proximate analysis and physical, microbiological and sensory acceptance tests were performed. After 90 days of storage time, the beverage got a protein content of 1.36%, being tryptophan the limiting amino acid; for its part, the chromaticity coordinates of CIEL*a*b* color space showed no statistical significant differences (p < 0.05) maintaining the "dark pink" tonality, the viscosity and the sensory evaluation were acceptable for drinking.

  6. Parasitismo larval de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae en el noreste de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina Larval parasitism of Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in north-eastern Buenos Aires province (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Liljesthröm

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available En la interacción huésped-parasitoide las plantas suelen emitir señales capaces de aumentar la eficiencia de los parasitoides. Las larvas de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Walsingham se alimentan endofíticamente de leguminosas herbáceas y constituyen una plaga de la soja (Glycine max Merrill. En este estudio analizamos el parasitismo larval de C. aporema en Melilotus albus Medikus, Galega officinalis L, Lupinus albus L y G. max, en el noreste de Buenos Aires. La densidad larval fue mayor en L. albus (109,2 larvas/m² que en las restantes leguminosas: 3,7; 6,9 y 11,3 en M. albus, G. officinalis y G. max, respectivamente. Sin embargo, el parasitismo y número de especies parasitoides fueron menores en L. albus (9,5% por el ectoparasitoide generalista Bracon sp. que en M. albus (32,6%, Bracon sp. y los endoparasitoides Trathala sp.y Bassus sp.; G. officinalis y G. max (26,4% y 50,6% respectivamente, con Trathala sp. y Bracon sp. en ambas. Lupinus albus fue la única especie vegetal que reaccionó a la alimentación de C. aporema con producción de exudados pegajosos y olorosos que podrían haber repelido los endoparasitoides, actuando como un refugio parcial para C. aporema. Además, al ser positivamente seleccionada por C. aporema, esta leguminosa podría utilizarse como franja trampa para su control en cultivos de soja, de manera compatible con tácticas de control biológico por conservación de enemigos naturales.In host-parasitoid interactions, parasitoid efficiency may be increased by different quantity and quality of plant signals. Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Walsingham is a pest on soybean, with larvae feeding endophitically on various herbaceous leguminosae. In this study we analyzed larval parasitism of C. aporema on Melilotus albus Medikus, Galega officinalis L, Lupinus albus L and Glycine max Merrill in the north-east of the Buenos Aires province. Larval density was higher on L. albus (109,2 larvae/m², than on the other

  7. Turnover of grain legume N rhizodeposits and effect of rhizodeposition on the turnover of crop residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, J.; Buegger, F.; Jensen, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    The turnover of N derived from rhizodeposition of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and the effects of the rhizodeposition on the subsequent C and N turnover of its crop residues were investigated in an incubation experiment (168 days, 15 degrees....... In the experiment the turnover of C and N was compared in soils with and without previous growth of three legumes and with and without incorporation of crop residues. After 168 days, 21% (lupin), 26% (faba bean) and 27% (pea) of rhizodeposition N was mineralised in the treatments without crop residues. A smaller...... amount of 15-17% was present as microbial biomass and between 30 and 55% of mineralised rhizodeposition N was present as microbial residue pool, which consists of microbial exoenzymes, mucous substances and dead microbial biomass. The effect of rhizodeposition on the C and N turnover of crop residues...

  8. Synchronizing legume residue nutrient release with Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) uptake in a Nitrosol of Kabete, Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onwonga, Richard N.; Chepkoech, Caroline; Wahome, R.G.

    fertility improvement for crop production e.g. kales (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) under organic farming systems. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) are leguminous crops commonly intercropped with kales (Genga, 2014) and their influence on crop yield and soil nutrient status...... has been widely studied (Nduku 2014, Genga 2014; Onwonga et al., 2015). There is however a dearth of information with respect to synchronization of nutrient released by legume residues with pattern of nutrient uptake by kales to match their demand. The objective of the current study was therefore...... to assess decomposition and nutrient release rates of chickpea and lupin residues and kale nutrient uptake patterns for better synchrony of nutrient supply and demand....

  9. Dependence of the legume seeds vigour on their maturity and method of harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Grzesiuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several methods were used to study 'the vigour and viability of legume seeds (Pisum sativum L. cv. Hamil, Piston arvense L. cv. Mazurska and Lupinus luteus L. cv. Tomik harvested at three main stages of seed repening (green, wax and full. The seeds were tested immediately after harvest (series A and after two weeks of storage in pods (series B. It was found that: 1 the vigour of ripening legume seeds increases with maturation; 2 post-harvest storage in pods increases the degree of ripeness and. consequently. vigour; 3 seeds attain full vigour later than full viability; 4 seed leachate conductivity method gives erroneous results in assessing the vigour of immature seeds: 5 full vigour of maturing seeds of various degrees of ripeness can be determined by simultaneous application of both biological (eg. seedling growth analysis, VI and biochemical (e.g. total dehydrogenase activity methods.

  10. Sauvetage d'embryons chez les légumineuses alimentaires en général et dans le genre Phaseolus en particulier (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barikissou, E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of embryos rescue in food legumes in general and in the genus Phaseolus in particular. Genetic improvement of Phaseolus vulgaris L. by interspecific hybridization with Phaseolus coccineus L. and Phaseolus polyanthus Greenm., used as female parents, often gives rise to embryo abortion at globular developmental stage. In vitro culture of embryos at cotyledonary and torpedo shaped stages, leads to hybrid plants, but with very low percentages of success. Several investigations of in vitro culture in selfed genotypes of Phaseolus and from embryos at globular or young heart shaped stages have allowed to regenerate some young plantlets. However, problems of rooting and stopping of growth restrict the number of developing plantlets. Analysis of the results achieved from interspecific embryo rescue in others food legumes of the genus Lupinus, Cajanus, Cicer, Lens and Trifolium, helped to identify some solutions to resolve incompatibility problems in Phaseolus.

  11. Chemical and plant tests to assess the viability of amendments to reduce metal availability in mine soils and tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Luis; Gómez, Rocío; Sánchez, Virtudes; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this research was to assess the potential of several industrial wastes to immobilise metals in two polluted soils deriving from an old Pb/Zn mine. Two different approaches were used to assess the performance of different amendments: a chemical one, using extraction by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and a biological one, using Lupinus albus as a bio-indicator. Four amendments were used: inorganic sugar production waste (named 'sugar foam', SF), sludge from a drinking water treatment sludge (DWS), organic waste from olive mill waste (OMW) and paper mill sludge (PMS). Amendment to soil ratios ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 (w/w). All the amendments were capable of significantly decreasing (p mine soils as it led to a decrease in the availability and toxicity of metals and, thus, facilitated the growth of a vegetation layer.

  12. Selective splitting of 3'-adenylated dinucleoside polyphosphates by specific enzymes degrading dinucleoside polyphosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guranowski, Andrzej; Sillero, Antonio; Günther Sillero, María Antonia

    2003-01-01

    Several 3'-[(32)P]adenylated dinucleoside polyphosphates (Np(n)N'p*As) were synthesized by the use of poly(A) polymerase (Sillero MAG et al., 2001, Eur J Biochem.; 268: 3605-11) and three of them, ApppA[(32)P]A or ApppAp*A, AppppAp*A and GppppGp*A, were tested as potential substrates of different dinucleoside polyphosphate degrading enzymes. Human (asymmetrical) dinucleoside tetraphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.17) acted almost randomly on both AppppAp*A, yielding approximately equal amounts of pppA + pAp*A and pA + pppAp*A, and GppppGp*, yielding pppG + pGp*A and pG + pppGp*A. Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) tetraphosphatase acted preferentially on the dinucleotide unmodified end of both AppppAp*A (yielding 90% of pppA + pAp*A and 10 % of pA + pppAp*A) and GppppGp*A (yielding 89% pppG + pGp*A and 11% of pG + pppGp*A). (Symmetrical) dinucleoside tetraphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.41) from Escherichia coli hydrolyzed AppppAp*A and GppppGp*A producing equal amounts of ppA + ppAp*A and ppG + ppGp*A, respectively, and, to a lesser extent, ApppAp*A producing pA + ppAp*A. Two dinucleoside triphosphatases (EC 3.6.1.29) (the human Fhit protein and the enzyme from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus)) and dinucleoside tetraphosphate phosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.53) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae did not degrade the three 3'-adenylated dinucleoside polyphosphates tested.

  13. An RNA-Seq Transcriptome Analysis of Orthophosphate-Deficient White Lupin Reveals Novel Insights into Phosphorus Acclimation in Plants1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Rourke, Jamie A.; Yang, S. Samuel; Miller, Susan S.; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Liu, Junqi; Rydeen, Ariel; Bozsoki, Zoltan; Uhde-Stone, Claudia; Tu, Zheng Jin; Allan, Deborah; Gronwald, John W.; Vance, Carroll P.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus, in its orthophosphate form (Pi), is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. However, the whole-genome molecular mechanisms contributing to plant acclimation to Pi deficiency remain largely unknown. White lupin (Lupinus albus) has evolved unique adaptations for growth in Pi-deficient soils, including the development of cluster roots to increase root surface area. In this study, we utilized RNA-Seq technology to assess global gene expression in white lupin cluster roots, normal roots, and leaves in response to Pi supply. We de novo assembled 277,224,180 Illumina reads from 12 complementary DNA libraries to build what is to our knowledge the first white lupin gene index (LAGI 1.0). This index contains 125,821 unique sequences with an average length of 1,155 bp. Of these sequences, 50,734 were transcriptionally active (reads per kilobase per million reads ≥ 3), representing approximately 7.8% of the white lupin genome, using the predicted genome size of Lupinus angustifolius as a reference. We identified a total of 2,128 sequences differentially expressed in response to Pi deficiency with a 2-fold or greater change and P ≤ 0.05. Twelve sequences were consistently differentially expressed due to Pi deficiency stress in three species, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and white lupin, making them ideal candidates to monitor the Pi status of plants. Additionally, classic physiological experiments were coupled with RNA-Seq data to examine the role of cytokinin and gibberellic acid in Pi deficiency-induced cluster root development. This global gene expression analysis provides new insights into the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the acclimation to Pi deficiency. PMID:23197803

  14. An RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis of orthophosphate-deficient white lupin reveals novel insights into phosphorus acclimation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Jamie A; Yang, S Samuel; Miller, Susan S; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Liu, Junqi; Rydeen, Ariel; Bozsoki, Zoltan; Uhde-Stone, Claudia; Tu, Zheng Jin; Allan, Deborah; Gronwald, John W; Vance, Carroll P

    2013-02-01

    Phosphorus, in its orthophosphate form (P(i)), is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. However, the whole-genome molecular mechanisms contributing to plant acclimation to P(i) deficiency remain largely unknown. White lupin (Lupinus albus) has evolved unique adaptations for growth in P(i)-deficient soils, including the development of cluster roots to increase root surface area. In this study, we utilized RNA-Seq technology to assess global gene expression in white lupin cluster roots, normal roots, and leaves in response to P(i) supply. We de novo assembled 277,224,180 Illumina reads from 12 complementary DNA libraries to build what is to our knowledge the first white lupin gene index (LAGI 1.0). This index contains 125,821 unique sequences with an average length of 1,155 bp. Of these sequences, 50,734 were transcriptionally active (reads per kilobase per million reads ≥ 3), representing approximately 7.8% of the white lupin genome, using the predicted genome size of Lupinus angustifolius as a reference. We identified a total of 2,128 sequences differentially expressed in response to P(i) deficiency with a 2-fold or greater change and P ≤ 0.05. Twelve sequences were consistently differentially expressed due to P(i) deficiency stress in three species, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and white lupin, making them ideal candidates to monitor the P(i) status of plants. Additionally, classic physiological experiments were coupled with RNA-Seq data to examine the role of cytokinin and gibberellic acid in P(i) deficiency-induced cluster root development. This global gene expression analysis provides new insights into the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the acclimation to P(i) deficiency.

  15. Parasitismo larval de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae en el noreste de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo LILJESTHRÖM

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En la interacción huésped-parasitoide las plantas suelen emitir señales capaces de aumentar la eficiencia de los parasitoides. Las larvas de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Walsingham se alimentan endofíticamente de leguminosas herbáceas y constituyen una plaga de la soja (Glycine max Merrill. En este estudio analizamos el parasitismo larval de C. aporema en Melilotus albus Medikus, Galega officinalis L, Lupinus albus L y G. max, en el noreste de Buenos Aires. La densidad larval fue mayor en L. albus (109,2 larvas/m2 que en las restantes leguminosas: 3,7; 6,9 y 11,3 en M. albus, G. officinalis y G. max, respectivamente. Sin embargo, el parasitismo y número de especies parasitoides fueron menores en L. albus (9,5% por el ectoparasitoide generalista Bracon sp. que en M. albus (32,6%, Bracon sp. y los endoparasitoides Trathala sp.y Bassus sp.; G. officinalis y G. max (26,4% y 50,6% respectivamente, con Trathala sp. y Bracon sp. en ambas. Lupinus albus fue la única especie vegetal que reaccionó a la alimentación de C. aporema con producción de exudados pegajosos y olorosos que podrían haber repelido los endoparasitoides, actuando como un refugio parcial para C. aporema. Además, al ser positivamente seleccionada por C. aporema, esta leguminosa podría utilizarse como franja trampa para su control en cultivos de soja, de manera compatible con tácticas de control biológico por conservación de enemigos naturales.

  16. LegumeDB1 bioinformatics resource: comparative genomic analysis and novel cross-genera marker identification in lupin and pasture legume species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolhuijzen, P; Cakir, M; Hunter, A; Schibeci, D; Macgregor, A; Smith, C; Francki, M; Jones, M G K; Appels, R; Bellgard, M

    2006-06-01

    The identification of markers in legume pasture crops, which can be associated with traits such as protein and lipid production, disease resistance, and reduced pod shattering, is generally accepted as an important strategy for improving the agronomic performance of these crops. It has been demonstrated that many quantitative trait loci (QTLs) identified in one species can be found in other plant species. Detailed legume comparative genomic analyses can characterize the genome organization between model legume species (e.g., Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus) and economically important crops such as soybean (Glycine max), pea (Pisum sativum), chickpea (Cicer arietinum), and lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), thereby identifying candidate gene markers that can be used to track QTLs in lupin and pasture legume breeding. LegumeDB is a Web-based bioinformatics resource for legume researchers. LegumeDB analysis of Medicago truncatula expressed sequence tags (ESTs) has identified novel simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers (16 tested), some of which have been putatively linked to symbiosome membrane proteins in root nodules and cell-wall proteins important in plant-pathogen defence mechanisms. These novel markers by preliminary PCR assays have been detected in Medicago truncatula and detected in at least one other legume species, Lotus japonicus, Glycine max, Cicer arietinum, and (or) Lupinus angustifolius (15/16 tested). Ongoing research has validated some of these markers to map them in a range of legume species that can then be used to compile composite genetic and physical maps. In this paper, we outline the features and capabilities of LegumeDB as an interactive application that provides legume genetic and physical comparative maps, and the efficient feature identification and annotation of the vast tracks of model legume sequences for convenient data integration and visualization. LegumeDB has been used to identify potential novel cross-genera polymorphic legume

  17. Phenology and growth in four annual species grown in ambient and elevated CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reekie, E.G. (Acadia Univ., Wolfville, NS (Canada)); Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that changes in phenology with CO{sub 2} are a function of the effect of CO{sub 2} upon growth and to determine if CO{sub 2}-induced changes in phenology can influence competitive outcome. The effect of 350, 525, and 700{mu}l/l CO{sub 2} on Guara brachycarpa, Gailardia pulchella, Oenothera laciniata, and Lupinus texenis was examined. Plants were grown as individuals in 150-, 500-, or 1000-ml pots and in competition in 1000-ml pots. Growth and development were monitored at twice-weekly intervals by recording the number of leaves and noting the presence or absence of stem elongation, branching, flower buds, and open flowers. Elevated CO{sub 2} affected both growth and phenology, but the direction and magnitude of effects varied with species and soil volume. Elevated CO{sub 2} did not appear to affect development through its effect on growth. Those treatments in which there were significant effects of CO{sub 2} did not appear to affect development through its effect on growth. Those treatments in which there were significant effects of CO{sub 2} on growth were generally different from those treatments in which CO{sub 2} affected phenology. Rather than affecting phenology by changing plant size, CO{sub 2} appeared to affect phenology by modifying the size at which plants switched from one stage to the next. The level of CO{sub 2} changed competitive outcome; the importance of Lupinus increased whereas that of Oenothera decreased with increased CO{sub 2}. These changes were more closely related to the effect of CO{sub 2} on growth than its effect on phenology. 19 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Desenvolvimento do Pinus elliottii e do Eucalyptus tereticornis consorciado com plantas de cobertura, em solos degradados por arenização Growth of Pinus elliottii and Eucalyptus tereticornis associated with cover plants, in degraded soils by arenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Moreira Rovedder

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Espécies florestais exóticas têm sido utilizadas para a recuperação de solos degradados, auxiliando no controle da erosão hídrica e eólica. No sudoeste do Rio Grande do Sul, foram testados o Pinus elliotii Engelm. e o Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm., com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento destas espécies e testar sua capacidade na contenção do fenômeno da arenização. Os tratamentos consistiram do plantio das duas espécies sobre o solo degradado por arenização (SD, sobre o campo nativo (C, sobre o campo nativo associado a plantas de cobertura (C + PC e sobre o solo degradado com plantas de cobertura (SD + PC. Como plantas de cobertura, foram testadas a aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schieb. e um tremoço nativo do ecossistema dos campos sulinos, o Lupinus albescens H. et Arn.. Determinaram-se o percentual de sobrevivência inicial, a altura, o diâmetro à altura do colo (DAC e o fator de produtividade (FP das espécies florestais, aos 30 dias, seis meses e 12 meses após plantio. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, e os resultados submetidos ao teste de Duncan, em um nível de 5% de probabilidade de erro. Em relação à sobrevivência inicial, apenas o pínus apresentou diferenças estatísticas, com menor percentual no tratamento C+PC. Os resultados demonstraram que o eucalipto beneficiou-se do consórcio com plantas de cobertura, enquanto o pínus apresentou maior sensibilidade à competição interespecífica.Exotic forest species have been used for soil reclamation, as well as helping in the control of water and wind erosion. In the southwest of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, the Pinus elliotii Engelm. and the Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm., were tested with the objective of evaluating the growth of these species and testing its capacity for reducing the arenization process. The treatments consisted of planting the two species on the degraded soil by arenization (DS, on the native grassfield (C

  19. Potencial de espécies vegetais para a remediação do herbicida trifloxysulfuron-sodium Potential of plant species for remediation of trifloxysulfuron-sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Procópio

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de espécies vegetais na remediação do herbicida trifloxysulfuron-sodium em solos, utilizando o feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris como planta indicadora. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela combinação entre as espécies Calopogonium mucunoides, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, Vicia sativa, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis, Medicago sativa, Dolichus lab lab, Penisetum glaucum, Stylosantes guianensis, Mucuna deeringiana, Mucuna cinereum, Mucuna aterrima, Raphanus sativus e Lupinus albus. Todas as espécies foram semeadas em vasos no dia seguinte à aplicação do trifloxysulfuron-sodium em três doses (0,00; 3,75; e 15,00 g ha-1. Após 80 dias da semeadura, as espécies vegetais foram cortadas na altura do coleto e a parte aérea destas descartada. A seguir, foi realizada a semeadura do feijão (cultivar Pérola. Aos 45 dias após a emergência das plantas de feijão avaliaram-se a altura e a massa seca da parte aérea das plantas. Melhor eficiência na descontaminação do trifloxysulfuron-sodium em solo foi obtida pelas espécies M. aterrima e C. ensiformis.This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of vegetable species in the remediation of the herbicide trifloxysulfuron-sodium in soils using the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris as a bio indicator. The treatments were composed by the combination of the species Calopogonium mucunoides,Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, Vicia sativa, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis, Medicago sativa, Dolichus lab lab, Penisetum glaucum, Stylosantes guianensis, Mucuna deeringiana, Mucuna cinereum, Mucuna aterrima, Raphanus sativus and Lupinus albus, sown in vases the day following application of the herbicide at three doses (0.00; 3.75; and 15.00 g ha-1. Eighty days after sowing, the plants were cut and the shoot discarded, followed by bean ("Perola" cultivar sowing. At 45 days post emergence, bean height and shoot dry matter were

  20. Fitorremediação do herbicida trifloxysulfuron sodium Phytoremediation of the herbicide trifloxysulfuron sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Santos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de espécies vegetais na fitorremediação do herbicida trifloxysulfuron sodium em solos, utilizando o milho como planta indicadora. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela combinação de espécies (Calopogonium muconoides, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, Vicia sativa, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis, Helianthus annus, Dolichus lablab, Pennisetum glaucum, Stylosantes guianensis, Mucuna deeringiana, Mucuna cinereum, Mucuna aterrima, Raphanus sativus e Lupinus albus, semeadas anteriormente à cultura do milho, mais um tratamento controle (sem cultivo prévio e três doses do herbicida trifloxysulfuron sodium (0,00; 3,75; e 15,00 g ha-1. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial, sendo utilizadas três repetições. A semeadura das espécies vegetais nos vasos foi feita no dia seguinte à aplicação do trifloxysulfuron sodium. Após 80 dias da semeadura, as espécies vegetais foram cortadas na altura do coleto, descartando-se a sua parte aérea. A seguir, foi realizada a semeadura do milho (cultivar AG-122. Aos 45 dias após a emergência das plantas de milho foram avaliadas a altura de plantas e a sua biomassa seca da parte aérea. Verificou-se que as espécies M. aterrima e C. ensiformis foram eficientes na descontaminação do herbicida trifloxysulfuron sodium em solo.This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of plant species in the phytoremediation of the herbicide trifloxysulfuron sodium in soils, by using corn crop as a bioindicator. The treatments were composed by the combination of the species (Calopogonium muconoides, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, Vicia sativa, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis, Helianthus annus, Dolichus lablab, Pennisetum glaucum, Stylosantes guianensis, Mucuna deeringiana, Mucuna cinereum, Mucuna aterrima, Raphanus sativus and Lupinus albus sowed before the corn, without previous cultivation (control

  1. Comparison between gradient-dependent hydraulic conductivities of roots using the root pressure probe: the role of pressure propagations and implications for the relative roles of parallel radial pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, Helen; Turner, Neil C; Turner, David W; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2007-07-01

    Hydrostatic pressure relaxations with the root pressure probe are commonly used for measuring the hydraulic conductivity (Lp(r)) of roots. We compared the Lp(r) of roots from species with different root hydraulic properties (Lupinus angustifolius L. 'Merrit', Lupinus luteus L. 'Wodjil', Triticum aestivum L. 'Kulin' and Zea mays L. 'Pacific DK 477') using pressure relaxations, a pressure clamp and osmotic gradients to induce water flow across the root. Only the pressure clamp measures water flow under steady-state conditions. Lp(r) determined by pressure relaxations was two- to threefold greater than Lp(r) from pressure clamps and was independent of the direction of water flow. Lp(r) (pressure clamp) was two- to fourfold higher than for Lp(r) (osmotic) for all species except Triticum aestivum where Lp(r) (pressure clamp) and Lp(r) (osmotic) were not significantly different. A novel technique was developed to measure the propagation of pressure through roots to investigate the cause of the differences in Lp(r). Root segments were connected between two pressure probes so that when root pressure (P(r)) was manipulated by one probe, the other probe recorded changes in P(r). Pressure relaxations did not induce the expected kinetics in pressure in the probe at the other end of the root when axial hydraulic conductance, and probe and root capacitances were accounted for. An electric circuit model of the root was constructed that included an additional capacitance in the root loaded by a series of resistances. This accounted for the double exponential kinetics for intact roots in pressure relaxation experiments as well as the reduced response observed with the double probe experiments. Although there were potential errors with all the techniques, we considered that the measurement of Lp(r) using the pressure clamp was the most unambiguous for small pressure changes, and provided that sufficient time was allowed for pressure propagation through the root. The differences in

  2. A study of the fatty acid and tocochromanol patterns of some Fabaceae (Leguminosae plants from Turkey I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahim, Ahmet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the fatty acid, tocopherol, tocotrienol and plastochromanol-8 contents of some selected Fabaceae (Leguminosae species belonging to different genera (Colutea, Vicia, Lathyrus, Gonocytisus, Lupinus, Hedysarum, Onobrychis, Trigonella from Turkey were determined by using GLC and HPLC techniques. Some of the studied species are endemic to Turkey. The seed oils of different Leguminous taxa contained linoleic, oleic and linolenic acids as their major components. The ratios of these fatty acids in the Leguminous genera were found to be highly variable. Palmitic and stearic acids are the major saturated fatty acids in the seed oils. Vicia and Onobrychis patterns showed high similarity in means of qualitative fatty acid concentration. The tocopherol and tocochromanol patterns of the seed oils were also found to be highly variable among the genera investigated here. The total tocopherols was higher than the total tocotrienols. Alpha and gamma tocopherols were also the highest tocopherols present in the whole species. Beta, gamma and delta-tocotrienols were not found in most of the studied leguminous patterns. The results are discussed in view of renewable sources and chemotaxonomy.En este estudio, los contenidos en ácidos grasos, tocoferoles, tocotrienoles y plastocromanol-8 de algunas especies seleccionadas de Fabaceae (Leguminosae, pertenecientes a diferentes géneros (Colutea, Vicia, Lathyrus, Gonocytisus, Lupinus, Hedysarum, Onobrychis, Trigonella de Turquía, fueron determinadas usando técnicas de GLC y HPLC. Algunas de las especies estudiadas son endémicas de Turquía. Los aceites de semillas de los diferentes taxones de leguminosas contenían los ácidos linoleico, oleico y linolénico como principales componentes. Las proporciones de estos ácidos grasos fueron muy variables entre los géneros de leguminosas. Los ácidos palmítico y esteárico son los principales ácidos grasos saturados en los aceites de semillas. Los patrones

  3. Determination of protein-carbonyls and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis as biomarkers of oxidative-stress in bivalvia and anthozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Stephen Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the investigation of biomarkers of oxidative-stress in the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Dosinia lupinus, together with host and symbiont tissues of the scleractinian Anthozoa Agaricia agaricites. The biomarkers used were assay of total (via spectrophotometry) and individual (via Western blotting; Oxyblot kit) protein-carbonyls (PC=Os) and content of ubiquitin protein conjugates (UPC) via Western blotting (Bivalvia and Anthozoa) and immunohistochemistry (Anthozoa only). Additional assays for Bivalvia were Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); and post γ-irradiation survival rates. Experimental stressors for Bivalvia were increased seawater temperature, H 2 O 2 and 60 Co γ-radiation (latter two were used in vivo and in vitro). Comparisons of clean and polluted marine sites are included. Stressors used for Anthozoa were increased solar irradiation concomitant with elevated seawater temperature. Results and conclusions were as follows: individual samples showed considerable variation, pooling of samples improved consistency. Controls for both biomarkers had detectable background levels in each phylum, against which relatively small differences were assessed. In M. edulis, no measurable differences in PC=Os could be determined when elevated seawater temperature or dilute H 2 O 2 ( 2 O 2 (30% v/v) produced a small difference. 60 Co γ-radiation produced clearer differences via Oxyblot and spectrophotometric assays. Comparison of four different tissues from the two bivalves found considerable species-specific and tissue-specific differences. Post-irradiation mortality between species was significantly different (<0.001), D. lupinus was more susceptible than M. edulis. TEAC values generally showed a decrease following irradiation (except for digestive gland). UPCs were clearly different between tissues and between species. PC=Os can be detected by DNPH-reactivity/Western blotting assay in host A. agaricites. UPCs can be assayed via Western

  4. Determination of protein-carbonyls and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis as biomarkers of oxidative-stress in bivalvia and anthozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Stephen Thomas

    2002-07-01

    This study describes the investigation of biomarkers of oxidative-stress in the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Dosinia lupinus, together with host and symbiont tissues of the scleractinian Anthozoa Agaricia agaricites. The biomarkers used were assay of total (via spectrophotometry) and individual (via Western blotting; Oxyblot kit) protein-carbonyls (PC=Os) and content of ubiquitin protein conjugates (UPC) via Western blotting (Bivalvia and Anthozoa) and immunohistochemistry (Anthozoa only). Additional assays for Bivalvia were Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); and post {gamma}-irradiation survival rates. Experimental stressors for Bivalvia were increased seawater temperature, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation (latter two were used in vivo and in vitro). Comparisons of clean and polluted marine sites are included. Stressors used for Anthozoa were increased solar irradiation concomitant with elevated seawater temperature. Results and conclusions were as follows: individual samples showed considerable variation, pooling of samples improved consistency. Controls for both biomarkers had detectable background levels in each phylum, against which relatively small differences were assessed. In M. edulis, no measurable differences in PC=Os could be determined when elevated seawater temperature or dilute H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (<30% v/v) stressors were used, nor with between-site comparisons. Concentrated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (30% v/v) produced a small difference. {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation produced clearer differences via Oxyblot and spectrophotometric assays. Comparison of four different tissues from the two bivalves found considerable species-specific and tissue-specific differences. Post-irradiation mortality between species was significantly different (<0.001), D. lupinus was more susceptible than M. edulis. TEAC values generally showed a decrease following irradiation (except for digestive gland). UPCs were clearly different between tissues and

  5. A Bayesian framework to estimate diversification rates and their variation through time and space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestro Daniele

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of species diversity are the result of speciation and extinction processes, and molecular phylogenetic data can provide valuable information to derive their variability through time and across clades. Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo methods offer a promising framework to incorporate phylogenetic uncertainty when estimating rates of diversification. Results We introduce a new approach to estimate diversification rates in a Bayesian framework over a distribution of trees under various constant and variable rate birth-death and pure-birth models, and test it on simulated phylogenies. Furthermore, speciation and extinction rates and their posterior credibility intervals can be estimated while accounting for non-random taxon sampling. The framework is particularly suitable for hypothesis testing using Bayes factors, as we demonstrate analyzing dated phylogenies of Chondrostoma (Cyprinidae and Lupinus (Fabaceae. In addition, we develop a model that extends the rate estimation to a meta-analysis framework in which different data sets are combined in a single analysis to detect general temporal and spatial trends in diversification. Conclusions Our approach provides a flexible framework for the estimation of diversification parameters and hypothesis testing while simultaneously accounting for uncertainties in the divergence times and incomplete taxon sampling.

  6. Photo Degradation in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

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    T. J. Abodunrin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous TiO2 of 20nm diameter is prepared in-tandem with organic dyes and based on Fluorine –doped SnO2 (FTO, conducting base is produced by hydrothermal process. The prepared mesoporous Cola Acuminata (C.acuminata, Lupinus Arboreus (L.arboreus and Bougainvillea Spectabilis (B.spectabilis films (0.16 cm2 are applied; individually and in combination as interfacial layer in-between nanocrystalline TiO2 (NC- TiO2 and the FTO anode in the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC. Absorbance index (A.I of all three dyes was studied within wavelength range 200-900 nm for a period of 11 months, equivalent to 352 sun exposure. C.acuminata had A.I value 4.00 that decreased to 2.32 under exposure to AM1.5 global conditions. B.spectabilis A.I was 1.19 but decreased to 0.520 within same period of study. Combination of C.acuminata and B.spectabilis gave A.I value 1.40, dye cocktails of C.acuminata, B.spectabilis and L.arboreus gave 2.00 A.I value for same wavelength range. A UV/Vis photo spectrometer was used to determine the prominent peaks and absorbance at such wavelengths. This exponential relationship is subject of our explorative study.

  7. Adaptation of H+-pumping and plasma membrane H+ ATPase activity in proteoid roots of white lupin under phosphate deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feng; Zhu, Yiyong; Müller, Caroline; Zörb, Christian; Schubert, Sven

    2002-05-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) is able to adapt to phosphorus deficiency by producing proteoid roots that release a huge amount of organic acids, resulting in mobilization of sparingly soluble soil phosphate in rhizosphere. The mechanisms responsible for the release of organic acids by proteoid root cells, especially the trans-membrane transport processes, have not been elucidated. Because of high cytosolic pH, the release of undissociated organic acids is not probable. In the present study, we focused on H+ export by plasma membrane H+ ATPase in active proteoid roots. In vivo, rhizosphere acidification of active proteoid roots was vanadate sensitive. Plasma membranes were isolated from proteoid roots and lateral roots from P-deficient and -sufficient plants. In vitro, in comparison with two types of lateral roots and proteoid roots of P-sufficient plants, the following increase of the various parameters was induced in active proteoid roots of P-deficient plants: (a) hydrolytic ATPase activity, (b) Vmax and Km, (c) H+ ATPase enzyme concentration of plasma membrane, (d) H+-pumping activity, (e) pH gradient across the membrane of plasmalemma vesicles, and (f) passive H+ permeability of plasma membrane. In addition, lower vanadate sensitivity and more acidic pH optimum were determined for plasma membrane ATPase of active proteoid roots. Our data support the hypothesis that in active proteoid root cells, H+ and organic anions are exported separately, and that modification of plasma membrane H+ ATPase is essential for enhanced rhizosphere acidification by active proteoid roots.

  8. Biological effects of carbon nanotubes generated in forest wildfire ecosystems rich in resinous trees on native plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Lara-Romero

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have a broad range of applications and are generally considered human-engineered nanomaterials. However, carbon nanostructures have been found in ice cores and oil wells, suggesting that nature may provide appropriate conditions for CNT synthesis. During forest wildfires, materials such as turpentine and conifer tissues containing iron under high temperatures may create chemical conditions favorable for CNT generation, similar to those in synthetic methods. Here, we show evidence of naturally occurring multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs produced from Pinus oocarpa and Pinus pseudostrobus, following a forest wildfire. The MWCNTs showed an average of 10 walls, with internal diameters of ∼2.5 nm and outer diameters of ∼14.5 nm. To verify whether MWCNT generation during forest wildfires has a biological effect on some characteristic plant species of these ecosystems, germination and development of seedlings were conducted. Results show that the utilization of comparable synthetic MWCNTs increased seed germination rates and the development of Lupinus elegans and Eysenhardtia polystachya, two plants species found in the burned forest ecosystem. The finding provides evidence that supports the generation and possible ecological functions of MWCNTs in nature.

  9. Haematological indicators in hybrid mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos with regard to the use of meal from whole white lupin seeds in their diet

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    David Zapletal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to assess the effect of replacing soybean meal with the meal from whole white lupin seeds (Lupinus albus of the Zulika variety in diets on selected haematological indicators in 40-day-old fattened hybrid mallard ducks. A total of 180 Cherry Valley ducks were divided into three groups (E1, E2, and control. The control group was fed a diet containing soybean meal. Soybean meal replaced with 50% and 100% meal of white lupin seeds were used in group E1 and group E2, respectively. At the end of the fattening, 12 ducks (6 males and 6 females were randomly selected from each group for a haematological examination. From the result of this study, it is clear that the effect of the diet was found only on the slightly varying number of white blood cells and on the proportion of monocytes. Ducks of group E2 showed a slight increase in the total number of leukocytes which was accompanied by a decrease in the percentage share of monocytes (P < 0.05. Based on the results, it can be claimed that the replacement of soybean meal with meal from the Zulika variety of whole white lupin seeds in the diet did not have a negative effect on the determined blood indicators. Therefore, whole white lupin seeds were successfully used as the important protein component of the diet for fattening hybrid mallard ducks.

  10. Liking of health-functional foods containing lupin kernel fibre following repeated consumption in a dietary intervention setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ramon S; Baxter, Amynta L; Fryirs, Cathy; Johnson, Stuart K

    2010-10-01

    Liking of a particular food after repeated consumption may be reduced, limiting the effectiveness of health-functional foods requiring on-going consumption to deliver their benefits. This study examined the effect of repeated consumption of foods containing the novel ingredient, Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) kernel fibre (LKFibre) on sensory acceptability in the dietary intervention setting. In a single-blind randomised crossover 4-week intervention, participants consumed both control and equivalent LKFibre-containing products daily on separate interventions separated by a 4-week period on habitual diet. Seven products: muesli, bread, muffin, chocolate brownie, chocolate milk drink, pasta and instant mashed potato were assessed twice (days 4 and 18 of intervention), by 38 participants for appearance, texture, flavour and general acceptability using a structured graphic hedonic scale. Overall the results showed there was no reduction (P=0.594) in general acceptability of LKFibre foods after repeated consumption, suggesting potential for long-term consumption. The control food products were however generally preferred (P<0.001) over the LKFibre foods; the mean difference for general acceptability between being <6% (0.82cm) of the 15cm hedonic scale used, suggesting LKF addition did not severely affect product palatability.

  11. Prick by Prick Induced Anaphylaxis in a Patient with Peanuts and Lupine Allergy: Awareness of Risks and Role of Component Resolved Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Anna; Calabrò, Claudia; Imperatore, Clara; Scala, Guglielmo

    2014-01-01

    A case of anaphylaxis is reported in the course of a prick by prick with Lupinus albus and roasted peanut in a 20-year-old woman. We focused on some main topics. First of all it seems important to underscore the potential risks connected to the practice of the prick-by-prick with fresh foods in allergic patients, especially when testing cross-reactive substances, such as White Lupine, peanuts, or soy. It is important that clinicians who perform prick tests be aware of the risk related with in vivo tests in allergic patients. Second, we discuss the problem of the hidden allergens, such as White Lupine flour, or soy flour which are utilized to improve wheat flour because of their lower cost. Patients with a demonstrated allergy to peanuts should be assessed for lupine allergy and informed about the “hidden allergens” issue. Finally, we believe that component resolved diagnosis, the serum specific IgE against molecular components, that is normally considered a second-level diagnostic step has an important role even as a first line approach at least in some selected cases. PMID:25477973

  12. Nitrogen metabolism in plants using 15N as tracer. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of isotopes in fertilizer efficiency studies on grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, J.; Atkins, C.

    1978-01-01

    Techniques are described for studying the economy of carbon and nitrogen in annual nodulated legumes. Budgets for utilization of net photosynthate are constructed for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.), including expenditure in respiration and dry matter accumulation of plant parts, carbon consumption in growth, respiration and export of fixed nitrogen by nodules, and the provision of recent photosynthate and earlier-fixed carbon to fruits. Sources of nitrogen to fruits are defined, and efficiencies of conversion of net photosynthate to protein of above-ground vegetative parts and of seeds are computed. Consideration is given to the timing of events associated with loss of symbiotic activity after flowering. Literature giving estimates of the respiratory requirements of nitrogen fixation by nodules is reviewed. Rates of respiration of nodules of cowpea, white lupin and pea (Pisum sativum L.) are assessed from a theoretical viewpoint, basing the estimates on ATP requirements for assimilation of N 2 into nitrogenous solutes, and published values for respiration costs in plant tissues. Expressed as CO 2 output per unit of nitrogen assimilated, these estimates greatly exceed the experimentally-observed CO 2 efflux of nodules of the species. This discrepancy is examined in relation to the capacity of nodules to fix CO 2 and the uncertainty of the in vivo requirement of nitrogenase for ATP

  13. Functional and nutraceutical legumes marketed in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Hurrell

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we analyzed data from ethnobotanical surveys of functional and nutraceutical legumes (Leguminosae commercialized in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The surveys took place in outlets of the general commercial circuit and the restricted circuits belonging to Bolivian and Chinese immigrants. We recorded the species, its products, local therapeutic uses, and available published data on biological activity and effects. Nineteen species were found: Arachis hypogaea var. hypogaea, Cicer arietinum, Glycine max, Lablab purpureus, Lens culinaris, Lupinus albus, L. mutabilis, Medicago sativa, Phaseolus lunatus, P. vulgaris, Pisum sativum, Prosopis alba, Tamarindus indica, Trifolium repens, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Vicia faba, Vigna angularis, V. radiata and V. unguiculata var. unguiculata. Most of these species (15 were found in the general commercial circuit, whereas the rest (4 only in the restricted commercial circuits of immigrants, including L. mutabilis, which deserves a wider diffusion. In most cases, the local uses assigned to a surveyed species correspond to the information available in the literature on the species’ biological activity and effects. This paper provides new insights for ethnobotanical studies and highlights the therapeutic relevance of legumes in the study area.

  14. Post-eruption legacy effects and their implications for long-term recovery of the vegetation on Kasatochi Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.; Walker, L.R.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the vegetation of Kasatochi Island, central Aleutian Islands, to provide a general field assessment regarding the survival of plants, lichens, and fungi following a destructive volcanic eruption that occurred in 2008. Plant community data were analyzed using multivariate methods to explore the relationship between pre- and post-eruption plant cover; 5 major vegetation types were identified: Honckenya peploides beach, Festuca rubra cliff shelf, Lupinus nootkatensisFestuca rubra meadow, Leymus mollis bluff ridge (and beach), and Aleuria aurantia lower slope barrens. Our study provided a very unusual glimpse into the early stages of plant primary succession on a remote island where most of the vegetation was destroyed. Plants that apparently survived the eruption dominated early plant communities. Not surprisingly, the most diverse post-eruption community most closely resembled a widespread pre-eruption type. Microhabitats where early plant communities were found were distinct and apparently crucial in determining plant survival. Comparison with volcanic events in related boreal regions indicated some post-eruption pattern similarities. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  15. Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Activities of Wild Boletales Mushrooms from France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Sylvie; Arnould, Stéphanie; Vitou, Manon; Boudard, Frédéric; Guzman, Caroline; Poucheret, Patrick; Fons, Françoise; Rapior, Sylvie

    2018-01-01

    We selected edible and inedible mushrooms growing in the Mediterranean area of France to screen their biological activity: Caloboletus calopus, Rubroboletus lupinus, R. pulchrotinctus, R. satanas, Gyroporus castaneus, Suillus luteus, and Omphalotus olearius. Mushrooms were sequentially extracted using cyclohexane, chloroform, ethanol, and water. The antiproliferative activity against the HCT116 colon adenocarcinoma cell line and the antioxidant properties (DPPH radical scavenging assay, Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) of the Boletales extracts were evaluated and compared. Among the 28 mushroom extracts evaluated, 11 presented antiproliferative activity against HCT116 cells. These activities were not linked to antioxidant capacity. Among the antioxidant extracts, most were aqueous extracts in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, whereas the highest values on the Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH assays were noted for chloroform, ethanol, or aqueous extracts, depending on the mushroom species. Further studies are necessary to identify bioactive compounds and to valorize the mushrooms-for edible species, directly as health foods, or, for inedible mushrooms, as ingredients in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

  16. New ways in enhancing the vital activity of plants in order to increase crop yields and to suppress radionuclide accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.; Kislushko, P.; Znebrakova, I.; Matsko, V.

    1994-01-01

    Soil contamination with long-lived isotopes as a result of Chernobyl nuclear accident necessitates substantially of crop raising procedures. It is found that by optimizing the vital activity processes in plants, is possible to reduce radionuclide uptake. In particular application of Fisher's mineral mix in concentration of 100, 200, 300, g/m 2 to soil decreased the 137 Cs accumulation in green material of lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) 1.1:1.3 and 2.2 times respectively and 1.2:1.1 and 1.1 times, respectively in green material of barley (Hordeum Vulgaris L.). The decrease of 90 Sr accumulation in green material of barley and lupine was similar. On the other hand chloroplasts isolated from showed higher activities of photochemical reactions and the light-dependent ATP enzyme. During the whole growing period of such plants the chlorophyll and protein concentration per wet unit mass were higher than those in control, therefore the high vital activity period in the former case was substantially extended. It has been also found that application of biologically active compounds and trace elements enhances photosynthetic and production activities of plants, reducing level radionuclide accumulation in the harvest. It is found that application of protectants and growth regulators to rye crops also reduces 137 Cs accumulation in green material in booting and earing phases. This finding suggests that this compounds activate the photosynthetic apparatus, reducing level radionuclide accumulation. (author)

  17. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children between 6-24 months; I: formulation and acceptability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

    2011-01-01

    The revaluation of the Andean cultivations, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupin (Lupinus albus L.), to be used in nutritional mixtures, with traditional cereals like corn (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), originate mixtures without gluten which constitute a good alternative for the nutrition of children under 24 months that suffer from celiac disease, since they improve the quality of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, and also impacts in the product's diversification strategy. In the present work, the percentage composition of each flour in the mixture was determined by means of Linear Programming by means of the Solver form from the Excel spreadsheet. Prolamines were determined in the quinua and lupin flours by the ELISA test and the HPLC technique was used in both products obtained called "sweet mix" and "dessert mix", to define the quantity of amino acids with the purpose of providing around the 15% of the proteins required in the day. The flour mixtures selected as optimum, sweet mix, suitable for the preparation of sweet pancakes, as well as for the dessert mix, that by addition of water or milk produce a semi solid dessert, were evaluated after three months of storage, being acceptable their microbiological, bromatological and sensorial requirements, corroborating the results with the good acceptance of the products, prepared from the formulated mixtures, by the children of two Day Care centers of the City of Antofagasta-Chile.

  18. Utilization of induced mutations in improving legumes in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Hegazi, A. M. T.

    1993-01-01

    More than one hundred articles published by Egyptian research workers dealing with the improvement of some seed-legumes through radiation, radioisotopes, chemical mutagens and induced mutations are briefly summarized and discussed from the point of view of a mutation breeder working in this field since 1961. Articles on faba bean (Vicia faba L.), soybean (Glycine Max L.), lentils (Lens culinaris), chick-pea (Cicer arietinum L.), lupin (Lupinus termis), peas=pea (Pisum sativum L.), cowpea (Vigna sinensis, savi), and fenugreek-helba (Trigonella foenum gracum L.) are reviewed. A very few number of promising mutations have been induced. However, none of them are utilized neither in conventional breeding programs nor as cultivars. This may be due to the lack of central plans and organization between efforts or research work being carried in various institutions. Joint plants and cooperation between research institutions, not only in Egypt but also among the Arab countries, are required in this field which may help in closing the wide gab between production and consumption os seed legumes. (author)

  19. Transcriptome sequencing of different narrow-leafed lupin tissue types provides a comprehensive uni-gene assembly and extensive gene-based molecular markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Lars G; Hane, James K; Nelson, Matthew N; Gao, Lingling; Atkins, Craig A; Singh, Karam B

    2015-01-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius L.) is an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognized as a human health food. NLL breeding is directed at improving grain production, disease resistance, drought tolerance and health benefits. However, genetic and genomic studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Here, the generation, de novo assembly and annotation of transcriptome datasets derived from five different NLL tissue types of the reference accession cv. Tanjil are described. The Tanjil transcriptome was compared to transcriptomes of an early domesticated cv. Unicrop, a wild accession P27255, as well as accession 83A:476, together being the founding parents of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. In silico predictions for transcriptome-derived gene-based length and SNP polymorphic markers were conducted and corroborated using a survey assembly sequence for NLL cv. Tanjil. This yielded extensive indel and SNP polymorphic markers for the two RIL populations. A total of 335 transcriptome-derived markers and 66 BAC-end sequence-derived markers were evaluated, and 275 polymorphic markers were selected to genotype the reference NLL 83A:476 × P27255 RIL population. This significantly improved the completeness, marker density and quality of the reference NLL genetic map. PMID:25060816

  20. Actions of piperidine alkaloid teratogens at fetal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Cook, Daniel; Pfister, James A; Kem, William R

    2010-01-01

    Teratogenic alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Conium maculatum L., Nicotiana glauca, Nicotiana tabaccum, and multiple Lupinus spp. Fetal musculoskeletal defects produced by alkaloids from these plants include arthrogyropisis, scoliosis, torticollis, kyposis, lordosis, and cleft palate. A pharmacodynamic comparison of the alkaloids ammodendrine, anabasine, anabaseine, anagyrine, and coniine in SH-SY5Y cells and TE-671 cells was made. These alkaloids and their enantiomers were more effective in depolarizing TE-671 cells which express the human fetal-muscle type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) relative to SH-SY5Y cells which predominately express autonomic nAChRs. The rank order of potency in TE-671 cells was: anabaseine>(+)-anabasine>(-)-anabasine > (+/-)-anabasine>anagyrine>(-)-coniine > (+/-)-coniine>(+)-coniine>(+/-)-ammodendrine>(+)-ammodendrine. The rank order potency in SH-SY5Y cells was: anabaseine>(+)-anabasine>(-)-coniine>(+)-coniine>(+)-ammodendrine>anagyrine>(-)-anabasine>(+/-)-coniine>(+/-)-anabasine>(-)-ammodendrine. The actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs in both cell lines could be distinguished by their maximum effects in depolarizing cell membrane potential. The teratogenic action of these compounds may be related to their ability to activate and subsequently desensitize nAChRs.

  1. Plants that can be Poisonous for Cows. A Review

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    Cristina EL MAHDY

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Romania is blessed with a rich spontaneous flora, but some of the plants are toxic by their consumption in cattle, affecting the health, productions and endangering consumer safety. Sometimes even the consumption of small amounts causes poisoning with a broad extension: from mild, moderate to severe and with chronic or acute manifestations. Plant action is not similar. Taxus Buccata, Eupatorium spp. (E. rugosum, E. urticaefolium, E. ogeratoides are cardiotoxic plants, but, Eupatorium spp. also acts through depression of the central nervous system; Datura stramonium (Jimson weed, Solanum spp. (nightshades, Atropa belladonna (belladonna, are plants with cholinergic blocking; haemolytic anemia is caused by Pteridium aquilinum (Bracken fern and Equisetum (horsetail. The poisoning with cyanogenic principles occurs at Sorghum spp (Johnson grass, sudan grass; Elderberry consumption, Senecio spp. and Hypericum (St John’s wort induces liver toxicity. Plants containing alkaloids outside their toxicity also have teratogenic action: Lupinus spp., Nicotiana spp, Conium maculatum, Veratrum album. However, some of these plants can be used in certain cows’ treatments.

  2. Ultrasound studies of the effects of certain poisonous plants on uterine function and fetal development in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, T D; Panter, K E; James, L F

    1992-05-01

    Ingestion of locoweed (Astragalus spp. and Oxytropis spp.) by pregnant livestock may result in fetal malformations, delayed placentation, reduced placental and uterine vascular development, hydrops amnii, hydrops allantois, abnormal cotyledonary development, interruption of fetal fluid balance, and abortion. Ultrasonography of pregnant sheep fed locoweed demonstrated that abortion was first preceded by changes in fetal heart rate and strength of contraction and structural changes of the cotyledons, followed by increased accumulation of fetal fluid within the placental membranes and death of the fetus. During pregnancy the toxic agent in locoweed (swainsonine) apparently passes through the placental barrier to the fetus and during lactation through the milk to the neonate. Poison-hemlock (Conium maculatum), wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca), and lunara lupine (Lupinus formosus) all contain piperidine alkaloids and induce fetal malformations, including multiple congenital contractures and cleft palate in livestock. Ultrasonography studies of pregnant sheep and goats gavaged with these plants during 30 to 60 d of gestation suggests that the primary cause of multiple congenital contractures and cleft palate is the degree and the duration of the alkaloid-induced fetal immobilization.

  3. Linking development and determinacy with organic acid efflux from proteoid roots of white lupin grown with low phosphorus and ambient or elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, M.; Evans, J.R.

    1999-07-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) was grown in hydroponic culture with 1 {micro}M phosphorus to enable the development of proteoid roots to be observed in conjunction with organic acid exudation. Discrete regions of closely spaced, determinate secondary laterals emerged in near synchrony on the same plant. One day after reaching their final length, citrate exudation occurred over a 3-d pulse. The rate of exudation varied diurnally, with maximal rates during the photoperiod. At the onset of citrate efflux, rootlets had exhausted their apical meristems and had differentiated root hairs and vascular tissues along their lengths. Neither in vitro phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase nor citrate synthase activity was correlated with the rate of citrate exudation. The authors suggest that an unidentified transport process, presumably at the plasma membrane, regulates citrate efflux. Growth with elevated atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] promoted earlier onset of rootlet determinacy by 1 d, resulting in shorter rootlets and citrate export beginning 1 d earlier as a 2-d diurnal pulse. Citrate was the dominant organic acid exported, and neither the rate of exudation per unit length of root nor the composition of exudate was altered by atmospheric [CO{sub 2}].

  4. Boron accumulation and toxicity in hybrid poplar (Populus nigra × euramericana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Rainer; Robinson, Brett H; Menon, Manoj; Lehmann, Eberhard; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Schulin, Rainer

    2011-12-15

    Poplars accumulate high B concentrations and are thus used for the phytomanagement of B contaminated soils. Here, we performed pot experiments in which Populus nigra × euramericana were grown on a substrate with B concentrations ranging from 13 to 280 mg kg(-1) as H(3)BO(3). Salix viminalis, Brassica juncea, and Lupinus albus were grown under some growing conditions for comparison. Poplar growth was unaffected at soil B treatment levels up to 93 mg kg(-1). Growth was progressively reduced at levels of 168 and 280 mg kg(-1). None of the other species survived at these substrate B levels. At leaf B concentrations toxicity. Neutron radiography revealed that chlorotic leaf tissues had B concentrations of 1000-2000 mg kg(-1), while necrotic tissues had >2000 mg kg(-1). Average B concentrations of up to 3500 mg kg(-1) were found in leaves, while spots within leaves had concentrations >7000 mg kg(-1), showing that B accumulation in leaf tissue continued even after the onset of necrosis. The B accumulation ability of P. nigra × euramericana is associated with B hypertolerance in the living tissue and storage of B in dead leaf tissue.

  5. Total and bioavailable arsenic concentration in arid soils and its uptake by native plants from the pre-Andean zones in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, O; Tapia, Y; Pastene, R; Montes, S; Núñez, N; Vélez, D; Montoro, R

    2011-06-01

    Arsenic is the most important contaminant of the environment in northern Chile. Soil samples and plant organs from three native plant species, Pluchea absinthioides, Atriplex atacamensis and Lupinus microcarpus, were collected from arid zones in order to determine the total and bioavailable arsenic concentrations in soils and to assess the bioconcentration factor (BCF) and transport index (Ti) of arsenic in the plants. Total arsenic concentrations in soils (pH 8.3-8.5) where A. atacamensis and P. absinthioides were collected, reached levels considered to be contaminated (54.3 ± 15.4 and 52.9 ± 9.9 mg kg⁻¹, respectively), and these values were approximately ten times higher than in soils (pH 7.6) where L. microcarpus was collected. Bioavailable arsenic ranged from 0.18 to 0.42% of total arsenic concentration. In the three plant species, arsenic concentration in leaves were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than in roots. L. microcarpus showed the highest arsenic concentration in its leaves (9.7 ± 1.6 mg kg⁻¹) and higher values of BCF (1.8) and Ti (6.1), indicating that this species has a greater capacity to accumulate and translocate the metalloid to the leaf than do the other species.

  6. The occurrence of alien species in the settlement areas of the Kampinos National Park and its vicinity (Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirpluk Izabella

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies aimed at the identification of the range and method of spread of alien plant species in settlement areas in Kampinos National Park (KNP and its immediate vicinity were carried out in years 2012-2014. Special emphasis was put on surveying the sites of invasive alien species (IAS, and diagnosing potential threats posed to the natural and semi-natural vegetation of the national park by the IAS present in rural areas. We found 53 alien vascular plant species, including 40 invasive taxa which may potentially pose a threat to the ecosystems of KNP. Species encroaching from settlement areas to semi-natural and natural communities included: Bidens frondosa, Echinocystis lobata, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Juncus tenuis, Lupinus polyphyllus, Reunoutria japonica and Solidago gigantea. Most of them were species from the highest invasiveness (IV and III classes in Poland. Similarity analysis carried out for all investigated localities with regard to all alien species, and only for invasive ones showed a clear division into separate groups: villages within the boundaries of the national park and villages outside the park.

  7. Nonequilibrium free diffusion in seed leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz G., Luis; Riquelme P., Pablo; Guzmán, R.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we use a Schlieren-like Near Field Scattering (SNFS) setup to study nonequilibrium free diffusion behavior of a colloidal solution obtained from seeds leachate. The main objective is to compare the temporal behavior of the diffusion coefficient of seed leachate with an electric conductivity based vigor test. SNFS sizing measurements, based on Mie theory, were carried out to ensure its reliability and sensitivity. Then, we performed a typical nonequilibrium free diffusion experiment of a glycerol-water mixture. In this way, we confirmed that SNFS setup is sensitive to giant concentration fluctuations of nanocolloidal solutions. The results obtained in this stage reproduce properly the data reported elsewhere in literature. Moreover, seed leachate diffuse, in water, in a similar way that glycerol does. In both cases we used the same method (dynamic structure factor) to determine thermo-physical properties. We show that time evolution of diffusion coefficient of Lupinus Albus leachate exhibits three defined regimes as electric conductivity measurements. The results also exhibit a correspondence between the behavior of the diffusion coefficient and electric conductivity values of the two regions in the temporal range studied. Finally, we discuss biological processes involved in germination that could modulate this dependence, and the role played by the electrolytic nature of solutes.

  8. Floristic summary of plant species in the air pollution literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J P

    1996-01-01

    A floristic summary and analysis was performed on a list of the plant species that have been studied for the effects of gaseous and chemical air pollutants on vegetation in order to compare the species with the flora of North America north of Mexico. The scientific names of 2081 vascular plant species were extracted from almost 4000 journal articles stored in two large literature databases on the effects of air pollutants on plants. Three quarters of the plant species studied occur in North America, but this was only 7% of the total North American flora. Sixteen percent and 56% of all North American genera and families have been studied. The most studied genus is Pinus with 70% of the North American species studied, and the most studied family is the grass family, with 12% of the species studied. Although Pinus is ranked 86th in the North American flora, the grass family is ranked third, indicating that representation at the family level is better than at the genus level. All of the top ten families in North America are represented in the top 20 families in the air pollution effects literature, but only one genus (Lupinus) in the top ten genera in North America is represented in the top thirteen genera in the air pollution literature.

  9. Nutritive evaluation of legume seeds for ruminant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Morales, E; Sanz-Sampelayo, M R; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2010-02-01

    Chemical composition, rumen degradability and the effect of particle losses, and intestinal digestibility of protein by using in situ-in vitro and in vitro techniques were stated for beans (Vicia faba), lupin (Lupinus albus), vetch (Vicia sativa) and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) and four diets including those legume seeds. In addition, the apparent digestibility of experimental diets was determined in goats. The legume seeds showed high protein content (206-319 g/kg dry matter). Effective degradability of protein for legumes and diets varied from 0.80 to 0.87 and 0.76 to 0.82, respectively, decreasing to 0.53-0.76 and 0.61-0.67, respectively, when particle loss was taken into account. Different intestinal digestibility values were obtained with both methodologies without significant relationship between them (y = 1.058-0.463x; R(2)=0.068; RSD = 0.140; p = 0.53). There were no differences in the apparent nutrients and energy digestibility among diets (p > 0.05). These legumes can supply rapidly degradable protein for microbial protein synthesis and contribute to the pool of amino acids available for the synthesis of milk protein and for retention in the body.

  10. Optimization of extraction conditions for secondary biomolecules from various plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šibul Filip S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of plant secondary metabolites is an essential step in isolation of natural products. Non-optimized extraction conditions can lead to losses, degradation and modification of the biomolecules. In this paper, the influence of different solvent mixtures, solvent amounts, temperature, extraction time, and procedures for defatting on yield and profile of various classes of secondary metabolites was investigated. Rumex alpinus was used for the extraction of anthraquinones, Glycine max for isoflavonoids, Chaerophyllum bulbosum for flavonoids and phenolic acids, Anthriscus sylvestris for lignans and coumarins, alkaloids were extracted from Lupinus albus and sesquiterpene lactones from Artemisia absinthium. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by use of LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The compromise extraction solvent for all of the examined compounds is 80 % methanol, mixed in ratio 13 : 1 with plant material. Maceration should last for six hours, repeated four times with fresh solvent. Defatting of the extracts does not lead to significant losses of the compounds of interest. It is acceptable to use extraction and evaporation temperature of 60ºC, while the extracts should be stored in the dark, on -20ºC. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172058

  11. Diversity and numbers of root-nodule bacteria (rhizobia in Polish soils

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    Stefan Martyniuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a sand pouch-plant infection method, populations of several species of root-nodule bacteria (rhizobia were enumerated in eighty soils collected throughout Poland. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae (symbionts of pea, faba bean, vetch and R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii (symbionts of clover were detected in 77 and 76 soils, respectively. Most of these soils contained moderate and high numbers of these species of the rhizobia. Symbionts of beans, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, were assessed in 76 soils; of this number 15 soils had no detectable populations of bean rhizobia and in 40 soils high or moderate numbers of these bacteria were found. Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus, root-nodule bacteria of lupine and serradella, were absent in 19 soils, out of 80 tested, and 34 soils were colonised by high or moderate populations of bradyrhizobia. Sinorhizobium meliloti, rhizobia nodulating alfalfa, were sparse in the examined soils; with 56 soil containing no detectable numbers of S. meliloti and only 6 soils harbouring high or moderate populations of this species. The estimated numbers of the rhizobia in the studied soils were also related to some physical and chemical properties of these soils.

  12. In Vivo and In Vitro Activities and ADME-Tox Profile of a Quinolizidine-Modified 4-Aminoquinoline: A Potent Anti-P. falciparum and Anti-P. vivax Blood-Stage Antimalarial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Basilico

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are a prolific source for the identification of new biologically active compounds. In the present work, we studied the in vitro and in vivo antimalarial efficacy and ADME-Tox profile of a molecular hybrid (AM1 between 4-aminoquinoline and a quinolizidine moiety derived from lupinine (Lupinus luteus. The aim was to find a compound endowed with the target product profile-1 (TCP-1: molecules that clear asexual blood-stage parasitaemia, proposed by the Medicine for Malaria Venture to accomplish the goal of malaria elimination/eradication. AM1 displayed a very attractive profile in terms of both in vitro and in vivo activity. By using standard in vitro antimalarial assays, AM1 showed low nanomolar inhibitory activity against chloroquine-sensitive and resistant P. falciparum strains (range IC50 16–53 nM, matched with a high potency against P. vivax field isolates (Mean IC50 29 nM. Low toxicity and additivity with artemisinin derivatives were also demonstrated in vitro. High in vivo oral efficacy was observed in both P. berghei and P. yoelii mouse models with IC50 values comparable or better than those of chloroquine. The metabolic stability in different species and the pharmacokinetic profile in the mouse model makes AM1 a compound worth further investigation as a potential novel schizonticidal agent.

  13. Comparative Study on the Adaptation and Growth Dynamics of the Helix pomatia and Helix aspersa Muller Terrestrial Snails Under Different Feeding Regimes

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    Adrian Toader-Williams

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We used Helix pomatia and Helix aspersa species and measure their growth as the snails were approaching the hibernation season. Helix pomatia 2yo shown a decrease in weight while being raised in enclosed parcels of 4sqm the younger Helix pomatia 1yo as well as Helix aspersa Muller demonstrated the ability to adapt relatively fast to the same conditions. We established 5 experimental lots in a Helix pomatia farm, GPS coordinates N46.606040 E23.599950. Control lot contained Taraxacum officinales, Sonchus oleraceus, Equisetum arvense and Atriplex hortensis, wild flora found within the farm. The other lots contained the same plants as the control lot plus different combinations of imported plants from other areals. The H. pomatia 2yo weight decreased in the control lot by a mean of -3.86% while H. aspersa 1yo marked an increase of +16.89% in the same lot during the same period. The lot containing lupinus polyphyllus delivered snails with weight gain of +24.66% for H. pomatia 2yo and an increase of only +1.98% for H. aspersa 1yo. As a contrast, H. pomatia 2yo gained only +7.72% while H. aspersa 1yo gained +28.89%, in the lot containing Lavanda officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare and Hyssopus officinalis among the other plants.

  14. Effect of winter cover crops on nematode population levels in north Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K-H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    2004-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn (Zea mays), arranged in a randomized complete block design. The cover crops evaluated were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat (P rye or lupine was planted into field plots with histories of five tropical cover crops: soybean (Glycine max), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), and corn. Population densities of M. incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera were affected by previous tropical cover crops (P cover crops present at the time of sampling. Plots planted to sunn hemp in the fall maintained the lowest M. incognita and H. dihystera numbers. Results suggest that winter cover crops tested did not suppress plant-parasitic nematodes effectively. Planting tropical cover crops such as sunn hemp after corn in a triple-cropping system with winter cover crops may provide more versatile nematode management strategies in northern Florida.

  15. Effect of tillage and crop residue management on nematode densities on corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    1994-12-01

    Effects of winter cover crop management on nematode densities associated with a subsequent corn (Zea mays) crop were examined in five sites in north Florida. Two sites had received winter cover crops of lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), and one site each had rye (Secale cereale), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). In each site, five different management regimes were compared: 1) conventional tillage after the cover crop was removed for forage; 2) conventional tillage with the cover crop retained as green manure; 3) no-till with the cover crop mowed and used as a mulch; 4) no-till with the cover crop removed as forage; and 5) fallow. Sites were sampled at corn planting and harvest for estimates of initial (Pi) and final (Pf) nematode population densities, respectively. Whether the cover crop was removed as forage or retained as green manure or mulch had no effect (P > 0.10) on population densities of any plant-parasitic nematode before or after corn at any site. Differences between conventional-till and no-till treatments were significant (P cover crop residues had little consistent effect on nematodes, and these practices should be considered based on agronomic benefits rather than for nematode management.

  16. A label-free internal standard method for the differential analysis of bioactive lupin proteins using nano HPLC-Chip coupled with Ion Trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Francesca; Resta, Donatella; Isak, Ilena; Zanotti, Marco; Arnoldi, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative proteomics based on MS is useful for pointing out the differences in some food proteomes relevant to human nutrition. Stable isotope label-free (SIF) techniques are suitable for comparing an unlimited number of samples by the use of relatively simple experimental workflows. We have developed an internal standard label-free method based on the intensities of peptide precursor ions from MS/MS spectra, collected in data dependent runs, for the simultaneous qualitative characterization and relative quantification of storage proteins of Lupinus albus seeds in protein extracts of four lupin cultivars (cv Adam, Arés, Lucky, Multitalia). The use of an innovative microfluidic system, the HPLC-Chip, coupled with a classical IT mass spectrometer, has allowed a complete qualitative characterization of all proteins. In particular, the homology search mode has permitted to identify single amino acid substitutions in the sequences of vicilins (beta-conglutin precursor and vicilin-like protein). The MS/MS sequencing of substituted peptides confirms the high heterogeneity of vicilins according to the peculiar characteristics of the vicilin-encoding gene family. Two suitable bioinformatics parameters were optimized for the differential analyses of the main bioactive proteins: the "normalized protein average of common reproducible peptides" (N-ACRP) for gamma-conglutin, which is a homogeneous protein, and the "normalized protein mean peptide spectral intensity" (N-MEAN) for the highly heterogenous class of the vicilins.

  17. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children aged 6-24 months; II: properties of the mixtures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Arcos Zavala, R

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional formulations of high protein content, provided by a flour mixture from two Andean cultures, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupino (Lupinus albus L), with two traditional cereals, maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), entailed to the preparation of a "sweet mixture" for the elaboration of "queques" and another "dessert mixture" flavoured with banana, that can be prepared with water or milk, constituted a good alternative as food supplement for the nutrition of children aged 6-24 months who suffer from celiac disease, since they contribute to the quality improvement of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, they are of low cost and allow an increase in availability of products for gluten-intolerant children. Some physical, chemical, rheological, mechanical and fluidity properties, as well as the color of these mixtures for a period of conservation of 90 days were evaluated. At the end of the storage, the sweet mixture turned out to be of "little flow" and the dessert mixture changed from "little flow" to "easy flow". Viscosity for the dessert mixture, with its two types of dilutions, water and milk, presented a behavior of pseudoplastic fluid. It was possible to guess that the time of shelf life of the mixtures would be of 9 months before achieving the rancidity limit (10 mEq of oxigen/kg of fat, which would disqualify the product for consumption). The CIEL*a*b* color coordinates did not show significant differences keeping the colour in "a beige" tonality.

  18. Facilitation and interference of seedling establishment by a native legume before and after wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goergen, Erin; Chambers, Jeanne C

    2012-01-01

    In semi-arid ecosystems, heterogeneous resources can lead to variable seedling recruitment. Existing vegetation can influence seedling establishment by modifying the resource and physical environment. We asked how a native legume, Lupinus argenteus, modifies microenvironments in unburned and burned sagebrush steppe, and if L. argenteus presence facilitates seedling establishment of native species and the non-native annual grass, Bromus tectorum. Field treatments examined mechanisms by which L. argenteus likely influences establishment: (1) live L. argenteus; (2) dead L. argenteus; (3) no L. argenteus; (4) no L. argenteus with L. argenteus litter; (5) no L. argenteus with inert litter; and (6) mock L. argenteus. Response variables included soil nitrogen, moisture, temperature, solar radiation, and seedling establishment of the natives Elymus multisetus and Eriogonum umbellatum, and non-native B. tectorum. In both unburned and burned communities, there was higher spring soil moisture, increased shade and reduced maximum temperatures under L. argenteus canopies. Adult L. argenteus resulted in greater amounts of soil nitrogen (N) only in burned sagebrush steppe, but L. argenteus litter increased soil N under both unburned and burned conditions. Although L. argenteus negatively affected emergence and survival of B. tectorum overall, its presence increased B. tectorum biomass and reproduction in unburned plots. However, L. argenteus had positive facilitative effects on size and survival of E. multisetus in both unburned and burned plots. Our study indicates that L. argenteus can facilitate seedling establishment in semi-arid systems, but net effects depend on the species examined, traits measured, and level of abiotic stress.

  19. Cross-talk interactions of exogenous nitric oxide and sucrose modulates phenylpropanoid metabolism in yellow lupine embryo axes infected with Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morkunas, Iwona; Formela, Magda; Floryszak-Wieczorek, Jolanta; Marczak, Łukasz; Narożna, Dorota; Nowak, Witold; Bednarski, Waldemar

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine cross-talk of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) and sucrose in the mechanisms of synthesis and accumulation of isoflavonoids in embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno. It was verified whether the interaction of these molecules can modulate the defense response of axes to infection and development of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lupini. Sucrose alone strongly stimulated a high level of genistein glucoside in axes pretreated with exogenous nitric oxide (SNP or GSNO) and non-pretreated axes. As a result of amplification of the signal coming from sucrose and GSNO, high isoflavonoids accumulation was observed (+Sn+GSNO). It needs to be stressed that infection in tissues pretreated with SNP/GSNO and cultured on the medium with sucrose (+Si+SNP/+Si+GSNO) very strongly enhances the accumulation of free isoflavone aglycones. In +Si+SNP axes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity was high up to 72h. As early as at 12h in +Si+SNP axes an increase was recorded in gene expression level of the specific isoflavonoid synthesis pathway. At 24h in +Si+SNP axes a very high total antioxidant capacity dependent on the pool of fast antioxidants was noted. Post-infection generation of semiquinone radicals was lower in axes with a high level of sucrose than with a deficit. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. A nontoxic polypeptide oligomer with a fungicide potency under agricultural conditions which is equal or greater than that of their chemical counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Monteiro

    Full Text Available There are literally hundreds of polypeptides described in the literature which exhibit fungicide activity. Tens of them have had attempted protection by patent applications but none, as far as we are aware, have found application under real agricultural conditions. The reasons behind may be multiple where the sensitivity to the Sun UV radiation can come in first place. Here we describe a multifunctional glyco-oligomer with 210 kDa which is mainly composed by a 20 kDa polypeptide termed Blad that has been previously shown to be a stable intermediary product of β-conglutin catabolism. This oligomer accumulates exclusively in the cotyledons of Lupinus species, between days 4 and 12 after the onset of germination. Blad-oligomer reveals a plethora of biochemical properties, like lectin and catalytic activities, which are not unusual per si, but are remarkable when found to coexist in the same protein molecule. With this vast range of chemical characteristics, antifungal activity arises almost as a natural consequence. The biological significance and potential technological applications of Blad-oligomer as a plant fungicide to agriculture, its uniqueness stems from being of polypeptidic in nature, and with efficacies which are either equal or greater than the top fungicides currently in the market are addressed.

  1. Propagule pressure governs establishment of an invasive herb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramula, Satu; Jauni, Miia; van Ooik, Tapio

    2015-10-01

    The success of plant invasions may be limited by the availability of propagules and/or of suitable microsites, with microsite availability being affected by, for example, disturbance and interspecific competition. A mechanistic understanding of the contributions of propagule pressure and microsite limitation to plant invasions is therefore required to minimise future invasions. Here, we investigated the relative roles of propagule pressure, the availability of microsites, and their interaction on the establishment of an invasive herb, Lupinus polyphyllus, in two geographic regions representing different climate and growth conditions in Finland (a more productive southern region and a harsher central region). We carried out a field experiment in 14 L. polyphyllus populations, in which we manipulated both propagule pressure and disturbance. In a complementary greenhouse experiment, we manipulated propagule pressure and interspecific competition. Seedling establishment of L. polyphyllus was higher in the more productive southern region than in the harsher central region. The number of L. polyphyllus seedlings increased with increasing propagule pressure regardless of disturbance or interspecific competition. However, the number of L. polyphyllus seedlings per sown seed (relative establishment) tended to decrease with increasing propagule pressure, indicating that the positive effect of propagule pressure on early invasion is partially counteracted by density-dependent mortality at high seed densities. Our results highlight the dominant role of propagule pressure over disturbance and interspecific competition in the establishment of L. polyphyllus, suggesting that the early stage of invasion is limited by the availability of propagules rather than the availability of suitable microsites.

  2. Influence of green manure in physical and biological properties of soil and productivity in the culture of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alves Cardoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Green manuring is the practice of using plant species in rotation, succession or intercropped with other crops, aiming improvement, maintenance and recovery of physical, chemical and biological soil properties. The objective was to evaluate the influence of different green manures on soil characteristics and productivity of soybean. The experiment was conducted in Maringá (PR in a randomized block design with six treatments and four replications: T1: oat (Avena Sativa, T2: black oat (Avena strigosa, T3: dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, T4: radish (Raphanus sativus L., T5: white lupine (Lupinus albus and T6: control (fallow. At the end of the experiment, relations were established between the green manure used for soybean production, the production of biomass, the development of microorganisms and soil bulk density. The data were analyzed with statistical software and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The coverages provided higher content of dry matter were lupine, black oat and faba bean. Treatments that most influenced the increase of soil microorganisms were lupine, radish and pigeonpea. Regarding productivity, higher values were obtained in treatments with pigeon pea, lupine and oat. The apparent density of the soil, treatment with turnip showed better results.

  3. The eastern Pacific species of Bathygobius (Perciformes: Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P J; Stefanni, S

    2001-07-01

    The circumtropical gobiid genus Bathygobius Bleeker is defined and three Eastern Pacific species are redescribed, with first dorsal fin pattern and postorbital blotches being shown to be additional characters of diagnostic value. Two mainland species are recognised, the Mexican-Panamanian B. ramosus Ginsburg 1947 and the Panamanian B. andrei (Sauvage 1880). B. ramosus is now reported from Clarión Island, Revillagigedos, and also from Cocos Island. Meristic variation of ramosus is tabulated for local populations and PCA analysis of their morphometry suggests regional differentiation in this species, with Tres Marias and Revillagigedos populations clustering away from mainland and Montuosa material. An insular species, B. lineatus (Jenyns 1842) from the Galapagos is defined, with B. arundelii (Garman 1899) from Clipperton Island and B. l. lupinus Ginsburg 1947 from Lobos de Afuera, off Peru, placed as nominal subspecies of lineatus. This species resembles the Indo-west Pacific B. fuscus and Atlantic basin B. soporator more closely than it does ramosus and andrei and may be the product of transpacific dispersal. A similar origin for B. ramosus is discussed but it seems more likely that both B. ramosus and B. andrei have Caribbean sister species.

  4. Antibacterial and Anticandidal Activity of Essential Oils of some Medicinal Plants in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abed, Kawther F

    2007-01-01

    The antibacterial and anticandidal properties of essential oils obtained from 7 plant species used in traditional medicine in Saudi Arabia and other Middle East countries were evaluated for activity against test bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using an agar dilution method. Our results showed that oils from Azadirachta indica, Ziziphus spine, Matricaria chamomilla, Agrimonia eupatoria and Lupinus albus, even at the highest concentration did not inhibit any of the tested organisms. The essential oil extracted from Juniperus communis and Lavandula hybrida plants did not show any antibacterial activities. However, essential oil extracts from Juniperus communis and Lavandula hybrida exhibited varying degrees of growth inhibition of Candida albicans. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were 2.0%( v/v) of Juniper oil and 0.5% (v/v) for Lavender oil against Candida albicans. Our results suggest that the anticandidal properties of Juniper and Lavender oils may be further investigated to explore the possibility of using them in the treatment of candidal infections. (author)

  5. Apparent competition with an invasive plant hastens the extinction of an endangered lupine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangremond, Emily M; Pardini, Eleanor A; Knight, Tiffany M

    2010-08-01

    Invasive plants may compete with native plants by increasing the pressure of native consumers, a mechanism known as "apparent competition." Apparent competition can be as strong as or stronger than direct competition, but the role of apparent competition has rarely been examined in biological invasions. We used four years of demographic data and seed-removal experiments to determine if introduced grasses caused elevated levels of seed consumption on native plant species in a coastal dune system in California, USA. We show that the endangered, coastal dune plant Lupinus tidestromii experiences high levels of pre-dispersal seed consumption by the native rodent Peromyscus maniculatus due to its proximity to the invasive grass, Ammophila arenaria. We use stage-structured, stochastic population models to project that two of three study populations will decline toward extinction under ambient levels of consumption. For one of these declining populations, a relatively small decrease in consumption pressure should allow for persistence. We show that apparent competition with an invasive species significantly decreases the population growth rate and persistence of a native species. We expect that apparent competition is an important mechanism in other ecosystems because invasive plants often change habitat structure and plant-consumer interactions. Possible implications of the apparent-competition mechanism include selective extinction of species preferred by seed consumers in the presence of an invasive species and biological homogenization of communities toward non-preferred native plant species.

  6. Selection of Green Manure Species for Efficient Absorbtion of Poorly-Available Forms of Soil Phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzini, V. I.; Mendes, F. L. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, EMBRAPA-Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA, (Brazil); Muraoka, T.; Da Silva, E. C. [Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Adu-Gyamfi, J. J. [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    Green manuring is an agronomic practice in which plants or their residues are added to the soil, improving of the soil physical, chemical and biological attributes, and increasing organic matter and fertility levels through nutrient cycling. It is estimated that green manures can increase P bioavailability. The integration of plant species in crop rotations to immobilize P is one of the most promising agronomic measures to improve the availability of P for the main crop. This study aimed to assess 21 species of green manure and a standard plant species (Lupinus albus) on their ability to absorb the available forms of P by the {sup 32}P isotopic dilution technique. It also aimed to determine if the isotopically exchangeable P, the L-values, differed when calculated with or without taking seed N into account. The results were statistically correlated and analyzed by hierarchical clustering (HCA) in order to group similar plant species. Jack bean was the most efficient species in P utilization while the Stylosanthes spp. were the most efficient in P uptake. The seed-derived P affected the P uptake efficiency evaluated by L-value technique. (author)

  7. Protein concentrate production from the biomass contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizhko, V.F.; Shinkarenko, M.P.; Polozhaj, V.V.; Krivchik, O.V.

    1992-01-01

    Coefficients of radionuclides accumulation are determined for traditional and rare forage crops grown on contaminated soils. It is shown that with low concentration of radionuclides in soil minimal level of contamination were found in the biomass of lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) and sainfoin (Onobrychis hybridus L.). Relatively high levels of contamination were found in comfrey (Symphytum asperum Lepech.) and bistort (Polygonum divaricatum L.). Comparatively low accumulation coefficients in case of higher density of soil contamination were observed for white and yellow sweetclovers (Melilotus albus Medik. and M. officinalis (L.) Desr.), while higher values of coefficients were found for bird's-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and alsike clover (t. hybridum L.). Biomass of white sweet-clover and alsike clover has been processed to produce leaf protein concentrate. It is shown that with biomass contamination of 1 kBq/kg and above conventional technology based on thermal precipitation of the protein does not provide production of pure product. More purified protein concentrates are obtained after two-stage processing of the biomass

  8. Soil zymography - A novel technique for mapping enzyme activity in the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Marie

    2014-05-01

    The effect plant roots on microbial activity in soil at the millimeter scale is poorly understood. One reason for this is that spatially explicit methods for the study of microbial activity in soil are limited. Here we present a quantitative in situ technique for mapping the distribution of exoenzymes in soil along with some results about the effects of roots on exoenzyme activity in soil. In the first study we showed that both acid and alkaline phosphatase activity were up to 5.4-times larger in the rhizosphere of Lupinus albus than in the bulk soil. While acid phosphatase activity (produced by roots and microorganisms) was closely associated with roots, alkaline phosphatase activity (produced only by microorganisms) was more widely distributed, leading to a 2.5-times larger area of activity of alkaline than of acid phosphatase. These results indicate a spatial differentiation of different ecophysiological groups of organic phosphorus mineralizing organisms in the rhizosphere which might alleviate a potential competition for phosphorus between them. In a second study cellulase, chitinase and phosphatase activities were analyzed in the presence of living Lupinus polyphyllus roots and dead/dying roots (in the same soils 10, 20 and 30 days after cutting the L. polyphyllus shoots). The activity of all three enzymes was 9.0 to 13.9-times higher at the living roots compared to the bulk soil. Microhotspots of cellulase, chitinase and phosphatase activity in the soil were found up to 60 mm away from the living roots. 10 days after shoot cutting, the areas of high activities of cellulase and phosphatase activity were extend up to 55 mm away from the next root, while the extension of the area of chitinase activity did not change significantly. At the root, cellulase and chitinase activity increased first at the root tips after shoot cutting and showed maximal activity 20 days after shoot cutting. The number and activity of microhotspots of chitinase activity was maximal 10

  9. Ruminal Degradability of Dry Matter and Crude Protein from Moist Dehulled Lupin and Extruded Rapeseed Meal Degradabilidad Ruminal de la Materia Seca y de la Proteína Cruda de Lupino Descascarado y Torta de Raps Extruidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The flow of ruminal undegradable protein (RUP to the small intestine can be increased if ruminal degradation of dietary protein is reduced. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion on ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP from dehulled lupin (Lupinus albus L. (DL and rapeseed (Brassica napus L. meal (RM. Unextruded soybean (Glicine max L. meal (SBM was used as a control. The DL was extruded at 130 ºC with 20% moisture and RM was extruded at 120 ºC with 20% moisture. Ruminal degradability was evaluated in situ by incubating feed samples for 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h of fermentation in the rumen using three rumen-fistulated dairy cows. Values of CP soluble fraction (“a” in SBM, DL, extruded dehulled lupin (EDL, RM, and extruded rapeseed meal (ERM was lower in the extruded feeds (P El flujo de proteína no degradable en el rumen (RUP hacia el intestino delgado puede ser incrementado si se reduce la degradación ruminal de la proteína dietaria. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la extrusión sobre la degradabilidad ruminal de la materia seca (DM y proteína cruda (CP de lupino (Lupinus albus L. descascarado (DL y torta de raps (Brassica napus L. (RM. Se utilizó afrecho de soya (Glicine max L. sin extruir (SBM como control. El DL fue extruido a 130 ºC con 20% de humedad y la RM fue extruida a 120 ºC con 20% de humedad. La degradabilidad ruminal se evaluó in situ incubando las muestras de alimentos a 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 y 48 h de fermentación en tres vacas lecheras con fístula ruminal. Los valores de la fracción soluble de la CP (“a” en SBM, en DL, lupino descascarado extruido (EDL, RM y torta de raps extruida (ERM fue menor en los extruidos (P < 0.05. La fracción lentamente degradable (“b” de SBM, DL, EDL, RM y de ERM fue 858; 593; 622 y 451 y 457 g kg-1, respectivamente, y se incrementó por extrusión (P < 0.05. La extrusión redujo la degradabilidad efectiva

  10. SECAGEM INTERMITENTE E SEUS EFEITOS NA QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA DE SEMENTES DE TREMOÇO AZUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. AHRENS

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Dois modelos de secadores comerciais, um intermitente lento, com a temperatura do ar de secagem a 60oC e a 65oC e outro rápido a 50oC, foram testados para a avaliaç��o da redução do grau de umidade de 20 para 13% e sua influência na qualidade fisiológica das sementes de tremoço azul (Lupinus angustifolius L.. Foram realizados testes de germinação, envelhecimento artificial e emergência em campo, após a secagem, aos três e seis meses de armazenamento. Os testes de germinação e envelhecimento artificial não detectaram diferenças significativas entre a qualidade das sementes secadas nos secadores e das secadas à sombra. Na semeadura aos seis meses, as emergências em campo foram 81%, 89%, 90% e 83% para os secadores intermitente lento a 60oC, a 65oC, para o intermitente rápido a 50oC e para a secagem à sombra, respectivamente. O secador intermitente rápido, onde as sementes passam rapidamente pela câmara de secagem e permanecem maior período na equalização, reduziu em média 1,1 pontos porcentuais por hora o teor de água das sementes e na secagem intermitente lenta a 65oC e a 60oC obteve-se 2,3 e 2,7 pontos porcentuais por hora, portanto mais eficientes que o primeiro, quando comparadas umidades iniciais/finais semelhantes. Conclui-se que o secador intermitente lento apresenta a velocidade de secagem superior ao rápido e que a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de tremoço não é afetada pela secagem nos diferentes secadores.Two commercial intermittent dryers, one slow (60oC and 65oC air temperature and another rapid (50oC, were tested to evaluate the water content decrease (20% to 13% and their influence on the physiological quality of Lupinus angustifolius L. seeds. The seeds were evaluated through physiological analysis (germination, accelerated ageing and field emergence, stored for 3 and 6 months. After six months the field emergence results were 81%, 89%, 90% and 83% for the slow 60oC, 65oC, rapid (50o

  11. Influência da cobertura vegetal do solo na qualidade dos frutos de videira 'Niagara Rosada' Influence of soil cover with grass and leguminous plants on fruit characteristics of table grape variety Niagara Rosada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Bahia Wutke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Devido ao aumento no custo de produção com a utilização de cobertura morta com capim nas ruas da videira 'Niagara Rosada' e à dificuldade para sua aquisição, objetivou-se a possibilidade de substituí-la por plantas de cobertura intercalares. Em experimentos realizados em Indaiatuba e Jundiaí-SP, de 1999-2000 a 2003-2004, instalaram-se seis tratamentos nas entrelinhas, em blocos ao acaso e quatro repetições, constando de área no limpo; vegetação espontânea roçada; cobertura com capim seco de Brachiaria decumbens; cobertura verde de aveia preta (Avena strigosa; cobertura verde de chícharo (Lathyrus sativus; cobertura verde de tremoço (Lupinus albus, de março a outubro, seguidas de cobertura verde de mucuna anã (Mucuna deeringiana de outubro a março. Determinaram-se massa, comprimento e largura do cacho, engaço e bagas, número total de bagas por cacho e diâmetro do pedicelo de bagas, comparando-se os valores médios pelo teste de Duncan ao nível de 5%. Na média dos anos, os resultados com a cobertura verde foram similares ou mais favoráveis que os da cobertura com braquiária seca, podendo-se substituí-la por coberturas vegetais intercalares com gramínea e leguminosas, o ano todo, sem interferência negativa na qualidade comercial dos frutos.Grape vineyard in Southern Brazil utilize a large amount of mulch during autumn-winter season demanding extra efforts and costs, being its acquisition very difficult nowadays. In order to evaluate the possibility of replacing the tradicionally mulch by green cover species in the inter-row strip, two experiments were carried out in Indaiatuba and Jundiaí, SP, Brazil, from 1999/00 to 2003/04, with the table variety Niagara Rosada. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications and six treatments: 1 no weeded area; 2 cut spontaneous local vegetation; 3 mulch of Brachiaria decumbens; 4 green cover of Avena strigosa from March to October followed by green cover of

  12. Seleção de espécies de adubos verdes visando à fitorremediação de diclosulam Selection of green manure species aiming at diclosulam phytoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A Monquero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de adubos verdes tolerantes ao herbicida diclosulam podem ser utilizadas em rotação de culturas para diminuir o efeito fitotóxico subsequente desse herbicida em plantas sensíveis, como o girassol ou milho. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a tolerância de adubos verdes ao diclosulam e a capacidade dessas plantas em diminuir o efeito fitotóxico do herbicida no bioindicador Helianthus annuus. Foram avaliadas, em casa de vegetação, três doses do herbicida diclosulam (0, 0,035 e 0,070 kg i.a. ha-1 em pré-emergência dos adubos verdes Dolichos lablab, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis, Crotalaria juncea, C. breviflora, C. spectabilis, Mucuna deeringiana, M. cinerea, M. aterrima, Lupinus albus, Helianthus annuus, Pennisetum glaucum, Avena strigosa, Raphanus sativus e Calopogonium muconoides. Entre estas espécies, C. cajan, C. ensiformis, M. cinerea e M. aterrima foram selecionadas como as mais tolerantes, sendo avaliadas no campo com o herbicida diclosulam nas doses de 0, 0,035 e 0,070 kg i.a. ha¹, em esquema fatorial 4 x 3 e quatro repetições. A parte aérea dessas plantas foi coletada após 60 dias da emergência, sendo semeado H. annuus como bioindicador do herbicida diclosulam. Os resultados evidenciaram C. cajan como a espécie mais promissora em diminuir o efeito fitotóxico do diclosulam em culturas agrícolas sensíveis.The tolerance of green manure species to diclosulam can be used in crop rotation schemes aiming to reduce the subsequent phytotoxic effect of this herbicide on sensitive plants, such as sunflower or corn plants. This study evaluated the tolerance of green manure to diclosulan and the capacity of these plants in reducing the phytotoxic effect of this herbicide on Helianthus annuus (sunflower. Three rates of diclosulam (0; 0.035, and 0.070 kg a.i. ha-1 were evaluated under greenhouse conditions in pre-emergence of the following green manures: Dolichos lablab, Cajanus cajan, Canavalis ensiformis

  13. Fitomassa e relação C/N em consórcios de sorgo e milho com espécies de cobertura Biomass and C/N ratio in intercrops of sorghum and maize with cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Claudeir Gomes da Silva

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a produtividade de fitomassa, o teor e acúmulo de nitrogênio (N, e a relação carbono/nitrogênio (C/N de monocultivos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor e milho (Zea mays e de seus consórcios com guandu-anão (Cajanus cajan, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, tremoço branco (Lupinus albus, girassol (Helianthus annuus e nabo-forrageiro (Raphanus sativus, manejados em diferentes estádios. O experimento foi conduzido de março a julho de 2008, em Argissolo Vermelho distroférrico de textura média, no sistema plantio direto. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos completos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, e parcelas subdivididas, constituído pelos tratamentos: monocultivos de sorgo e milho e seus respectivos consórcios com guandu-anão, crotalária, girassol, nabo-forrageiro e tremoço branco, nas parcelas; e épocas de corte, aos 60, 90 e 120 dias após a semeadura nas subparcelas. Consórcios de sorgo e milho com outras espécies superaram expressivamente a produtividade de fitomassa de seus monocultivos que ainda acumularam menos N e apresentaram maiores relações C/N na fitomassa. Para aumentar a produtividade de fitomassa, a melhor época de corte é aos 120 dias após a semeadura das culturas de cobertura. O corte aos 90 dias após a semeadura propicia o maior acúmulo de N e as menores relações C/N.The objective of this work was to quantify the biomass production, the content and accumulation of nitrogen (N and the carbon/nitrogen (C/N relation in monocultures of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and corn (Zea mays, and intercrops with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, sun hemp (Crotalaria juncea, white lupine (Lupinus albus, sunflower (Helianthus annuus and turnip forage (Raphanus sativus, managed in different stages. The experiment was carried out from March to July 2008, in a Haplic Acrisol, medium texture, under no-tillage. A randomized complete block design, with four replicates and split plots with the

  14. The influence of narrow-leafed lupin seed fermentation on their chemical composition and ileal digestibility and microbiota in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaworska, Anita; Frankiewicz, Andrzej; Kasprowicz-Potocka, Małgorzata

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to provide a controlled fermentation process of blue lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius, cv. Neptun), monitor the changes in seed composition and determine the influence of the fermentation on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids in growing pigs, compared with raw lupin seeds. The fermentation with bacteria and yeast was conducted for 24 h at 25ºC under aerobic conditions. Seed fermentation increased the contents of CP, fibre, fat and ash and most of the analysed amino acids but reduced the levels of the nitrogen-free extractives. Furthermore, fermentation decreased the contents of raffinose family oligosaccharides and phytic acids but increased the alkaloid content. The AID was estimated on three barrows (mean initial body weight 25 kg), surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. The pigs received three diets, each for 6 d, within three experimental periods (3 × 3 Latin Square design). The diets contained soybean meal (Group SBM), raw lupin seeds (Group RL) or fermented lupin seeds (Group FL) as solely protein sources. Fermentation had a positive impact on the AID of CP and methionine, cysteine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and valine (p fermented lupin seeds did not affect the microbial status of the ileal digesta. Moreover, ammonia content in the caecal digesta did not differ between Groups RL and FL, although it was significantly higher than in Group SBM. It can be concluded that the fermentation process modified the chemical composition of nutrients in seeds, which can influence the digestibility and utilisation of the fermentation product in animal diets compared to raw seeds.

  15. Complete genome sequencing of Agrobacterium sp. H13-3, the former Rhizobium lupini H13-3, reveals a tripartite genome consisting of a circular and a linear chromosome and an accessory plasmid but lacking a tumor-inducing Ti-plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibberg, Daniel; Blom, Jochen; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Kollin, Florian; Rupp, Oliver; Scharf, Birgit; Schneiker-Bekel, Susanne; Sczcepanowski, Rafael; Goesmann, Alexander; Setubal, Joao Carlos; Schmitt, Rüdiger; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2011-08-20

    Agrobacterium sp. H13-3, formerly known as Rhizobium lupini H13-3, is a soil bacterium that was isolated from the rhizosphere of Lupinus luteus. The isolate has been established as a model system for studying novel features of flagellum structure, motility and chemotaxis within the family Rhizobiaceae. The complete genome sequence of Agrobacterium sp. H13-3 has been established and the genome structure and phylogenetic assignment of the organism was analysed. For de novo sequencing of the Agrobacterium sp. H13-3 genome, a combined strategy comprising 454-pyrosequencing on the Genome Sequencer FLX platform and PCR-based amplicon sequencing for gap closure was applied. The finished genome consists of three replicons and comprises 5,573,770 bases. Based on phylogenetic analyses, the isolate could be assigned to the genus Agrobacterium biovar I and represents a genomic species G1 strain within this biovariety. The highly conserved circular chromosome (2.82 Mb) of Agrobacterium sp. H13-3 mainly encodes housekeeping functions characteristic for an aerobic, heterotrophic bacterium. Agrobacterium sp. H13-3 is a motile bacterium driven by the rotation of several complex flagella. Its behaviour towards external stimuli is regulated by a large chemotaxis regulon and a total of 17 chemoreceptors. Comparable to the genome of Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58, Agrobacterium sp. H13-3 possesses a linear chromosome (2.15 Mb) that is related to its reference replicon and features chromosomal and plasmid-like properties. The accessory plasmid pAspH13-3a (0.6 Mb) is only distantly related to the plasmid pAtC58 of A. tumefaciens C58 and shows a mosaic structure. A tumor-inducing Ti-plasmid is missing in the sequenced strain H13-3 indicating that it is a non-virulent isolate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Side-effects of domestication: cultivated legume seeds contain similar tocopherols and fatty acids but less carotenoids than their wild counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Milla, Rubén; Martín-Robles, Nieves; Arc, Erwann; Kranner, Ilse; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2014-12-20

    Lipophilic antioxidants play dual key roles in edible seeds (i) as preservatives of cell integrity and seed viability by preventing the oxidation of fats, and (ii) as essential nutrients for human and animal life stock. It has been well documented that plant domestication and post-domestication evolution frequently resulted in increased seed size and palatability, and reduced seed dormancy. Nevertheless, and surprisingly, it is poorly understood how agricultural selection and cultivation affected the physiological fitness and the nutritional quality of seeds. Fabaceae have the greatest number of crop species of all plant families, and most of them are cultivated for their highly nutritious edible seeds. Here, we evaluate whether evolution of plants under cultivation has altered the integrated system formed by membranes (fatty acids) and lipophilic antioxidants (carotenoids and tocopherols), in the ten most economically important grain legumes and their closest wild relatives, i.e.: Arachis (peanut), Cicer (chickpea), Glycine (soybean), Lathyrus(vetch), Lens (lentil), Lupinus (lupin), Phaseolus (bean), Pisum (pea), Vicia (faba bean) and Vigna (cowpea). Unexpectedly, we found that following domestication, the contents of carotenoids, including lutein and zeaxanthin, decreased in all ten species (total carotenoid content decreased 48% in average). Furthermore, the composition of carotenoids changed, whereby some carotenoids were lost in most of the crops. An undirected change in the contents of tocopherols and fatty acids was found, with contents increasing in some species and decreasing in others, independently of the changes in carotenoids. In some species, polyunsaturated fatty acids (linolenic acid especially), α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol decreased following domestication. The changes in carotenoids, tocopherols and fatty acids are likely side-effects of the selection for other desired traits such as the loss of seed dormancy and dispersal mechanisms, and

  17. Ecological consequences of the expansion of N2-fixing plants in cold biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltbrunner, Erika; Aerts, Rien; Bühlmann, Tobias; Huss-Danell, Kerstin; Magnusson, Borgthor; Myrold, David D.; Reed, Sasha C.; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Körner, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Research in warm-climate biomes has shown that invasion by symbiotic dinitrogen (N2)-fixing plants can transform ecosystems in ways analogous to the transformations observed as a consequence of anthropogenic, atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition: declines in biodiversity, soil acidification, and alterations to carbon and nutrient cycling, including increased N losses through nitrate leaching and emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Here, we used literature review and case study approaches to assess the evidence for similar transformations in cold-climate ecosystems of the boreal, subarctic and upper montane-temperate life zones. Our assessment focuses on the plant genera Lupinus and Alnus, which have become invasive largely as a consequence of deliberate introductions and/or reduced land management. These cold biomes are commonly located in remote areas with low anthropogenic N inputs, and the environmental impacts of N2-fixer invasion appear to be as severe as those from anthropogenic N deposition in highly N polluted areas. Hence, inputs of N from N2 fixation can affect ecosystems as dramatically or even more strongly than N inputs from atmospheric deposition, and biomes in cold climates represent no exception with regard to the risk of being invaded by N2-fixing species. In particular, the cold biomes studied here show both a strong potential to be transformed by N2-fixing plants and a rapid subsequent saturation in the ecosystem’s capacity to retain N. Therefore, analogous to increases in N deposition, N2-fixing plant invasions must be deemed significant threats to biodiversity and to environmental quality.

  18. Phytoremediation capacity of five high andean species from soils contaminated with heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoc Jara-Peña

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available La fitorremediación consiste en el uso de plantas para remediar in situ suelos, sedimentos, agua y aire contaminados por desechos orgánicos, nutrientes o metales pesados, eliminando los contaminantes del ambiente o haciéndolos inocuos. El trabajo fue realizado en condiciones de invernadero en el distrito de Lachaqui, Provincia de Canta, Departamento de Lima, de octubre de 2011 a octubre de 2012. Fueron evaluados veinte tratamientos con un diseño factorial completo 5 x 4: 5 especies alto andinas, y 4 sustratos con 30%, 60%,100% de relave de mina (RM y suelo sin RM. La producción de biomasa disminuyó significativamente en Solanum nitidum, Brassica rapa, Fuertesimalva echinata y Urtica urens y Lupinus ballianus, con el tratamiento de 100% de relave de mina. La mayor eficiencia de acumulación de plomo y zinc fue obtenida en las raíces de Fuertesimalva echinata con el tratamiento de 100% de relave de mina, obteniendo 2015.1 mg de plomo kg-1 MS y 1024.2 mg de zinc kg-1 MS. En las raíces de L. ballianus fue obtenida la más alta acumulación de cadmio, con una concentración de 287.3 mg kg-1 MS con el tratamiento de 100% de relave de mina. Fuertesimalva echinata presentó el mayor índice de tolerancia (IT al tratamiento de 100% de relave de mina, con un IT de 41.5%, pero, S. nitidum y L. ballianus presentaron el mayor IT al tratamiento de 60% de relave de mina con IT de 68.5% y 67.9.

  19. Peculiarities of pulse crops mineral feeding on sod-podzolic sandy soils contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, S.F.; Sedukova, G.V.; Demidovich, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there was analyzed the influence of mineral fertilizers of leguminius crops (blue lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) of Gelena variety and field pea (Pisum arvense) of Alex variety) on yielding capacity, grain and green mass quality, and parameters transit of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides into leguminous products. In course of the experiment there were analyzed six variants of mineral fertilizer application P30K30; P30K90; P30K120; P60K60; P60K90; and P60K120. Variant without any fertilizers was as control. Double superphosphate (46% of P2O5) and potash chloride (60% of K2O) were applied as mineral fertilizers. Research results showed that application of phosphate-potassium fertilizers on sod-podzolic sandy soils moderately supplied with phosphate and potassium made it possible to increase pea and lupine yield. The highest efficiency of application of phosphate-potassium fertilizers was in the ratio of 1 (ðá2ð×5) : 2 (ðÜ2ð×) provided. Fertilizer system did not render substantial influence on indexes of nutritive value of green mass of pea and lupine. There was marked a tendency of increasing of phosphorous in lupine grain after its application in dose of P60. Mineral fertilizer application made it possible to lower 137Cs transit from soil into lupine green mass in 2 times and seeds ÔÇô in 1,5 times. Application of potassium fertilizer in dose of 120 kg/ha proved to be the most efficient for the lowering of 137Cs accumulation in products of the analyzed crops

  20. Trophic Interactions during Primary Succession: Herbivores Slow a Plant Reinvasion at Mount St. Helens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, William F; Bishop, John G

    2000-02-01

    Lupines (Lupinus lepidus var. lobbii), the earliest plant colonists of primary successional habitats at Mount St. Helens, were expected to strongly affect successional trajectories through facilitative effects. However, their effects remain localized because initially high rates of reinvasive spread were short lived, despite widespread habitat availability. We experimentally tested whether insect herbivores, by reducing plant growth and fecundity at the edge of the expanding lupine population, could curtail the rate of reinvasion and whether those herbivores had comparable impacts in the older, more successionally advanced core region. We found that removing insect herbivores increased both the areal growth of individual lupine plants and the production of new plants in the edge region, thereby accelerating the lupine's intrinsic rate of increase at the front of the lupine reinvasion. We found no such impacts of herbivory in the core region, where low plant quality or a complex of recently arrived natural enemies may hold herbivores in check. In the context of invasion theory, herbivore-mediated decreases in lupine population growth rate in the edge region translate into decreased rates of lupine spread, which we quantify here using diffusion models. In the Mount St. Helens system, decreased rate of lupine reinvasion will result in reductions in rates of soil formation, nitrogen input, and entrapment of seeds and detritus that are likely to postpone or alter trajectories of primary succession. If the type of spatial subtleties in herbivore effects we found here are common, with herbivory focused on the edge of an expanding plant population and suppressed or ineffective in the larger, denser central region (where the plants might be more readily noticed and studied), then insect herbivores may have stronger impacts on the dynamics of primary succession and plant invasions than previously recognized.

  1. Putrescine catabolism via DAO contributes to proline and GABA accumulation in roots of lupine seedlings growing under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Legocka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The levels of polyamines (PAs, proline (Pro, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA as well as the activity of diamine oxidase (DAO; EC 1.4.3.6 were studied in the roots of 2-day-old lupine (Lupinus luteus L. ‘Juno’ seedlings treated with 200 mM NaCl for 24 h. The effect of adding 1 mM aminoguanidine (AG, an inhibitor of DAO activity, was also analyzed. It was found that in roots of lupine seedlings growing under salt stress, a negative correlation between Pro accumulation and putrescine (Put content takes place. Pro level increased in roots by about 160% and, at the same time, Put content decreased by about 60%, as a result of ca. twofold increase of DAO activity. The AG added to the seedlings almost totally inhibited the activity of DAO, increased Put accumulation to control level, decreased Pro content by about 25%, and reduced GABA level by about 22%. Addition of 50 mM GABA to the lupine seedlings growing in the presence of AG and NaCl restored Pro content in roots to its level in NaCl-treated plants. In this research, the clear correlation between Put degradation and GABA and Pro accumulation was shown for the first time in the roots of seedlings growing under salt stress. This could be considered as a short-term response of a plant to high salt concentration. Our findings indicate that during intensive Pro accumulation in roots induced by salt stress, the pool of this amino acid is indirectly supported by GABA production as a result of Put degradation.

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal assemblages in native plant roots change in the presence of invasive exotic grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, C.V.; Belnap, J.; D'Antonio, C.; Firestone, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Plant invasions have the potential to significantly alter soil microbial communities, given their often considerable aboveground effects. We examined how plant invasions altered the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of native plant roots in a grassland site in California and one in Utah. In the California site, we used experimentally created plant communities composed of exotic (Avena barbata, Bromus hordeaceus) and native (Nassella pulchra, Lupinus bicolor) monocultures and mixtures. In the Utah semi-arid grassland, we took advantage of invasion by Bromus tectorum into long-term plots dominated by either of two native grasses, Hilaria jamesii or Stipa hymenoides. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing roots were characterized with PCR amplification of the ITS region, cloning, and sequencing. We saw a significant effect of the presence of exotic grasses on the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi colonizing native plant roots. In the three native grasses, richness of mycorrhizal fungi decreased; in the native forb at the California site, the number of fungal RFLP patterns increased in the presence of exotics. The exotic grasses also caused the composition of the mycorrhizal community in native roots to shift dramatically both in California, with turnover of Glomus spp., and Utah, with replacement of Glomus spp. by apparently non-mycorrhizal fungi. Invading plants may be able to influence the network of mycorrhizal fungi in soil that is available to natives through either earlier root activity or differential carbon provision compared to natives. Alteration of the soil microbial community by plant invasion can provide a mechanism for both successful invasion and the resulting effects of invaders on the ecosystem. ?? Springer 2006.

  3. European Origin of Bradyrhizobium Populations Infecting Lupins and Serradella in Soils of Western Australia and South Africa† ‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępkowski, Tomasz; Moulin, Lionel; Krzyżańska, Agnieszka; McInnes, Alison; Law, Ian J.; Howieson, John

    2005-01-01

    We applied a multilocus phylogenetic approach to elucidate the origin of serradella and lupin Bradyrhizobium strains that persist in soils of Western Australia and South Africa. The selected strains belonged to different randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR clusters that were distinct from RAPD clusters of applied inoculant strains. Phylogenetic analyses were performed with nodulation genes (nodA, nodZ, nolL, noeI), housekeeping genes (dnaK, recA, glnII, atpD), and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer sequences. Housekeeping gene phylogenies revealed that all serradella and Lupinus cosentinii isolates from Western Australia and three of five South African narrow-leaf lupin strains were intermingled with the strains of Bradyrhizobium canariense, forming a well supported branch on each of the trees. All nodA gene sequences of the lupin and serradella bradyrhizobia formed a single branch, referred to as clade II, together with the sequences of other lupin and serradella strains. Similar patterns were detected in nodZ and nolL trees. In contrast, nodA sequences of the strains isolated from native Australian legumes formed either a new branch called clade IV or belonged to clade I or III, whereas their nonsymbiotic genes grouped outside the B. canariense branch. These data suggest that the lupin and serradella strains, including the strains from uncultivated L. cosentinii plants, are descendants of strains that most likely were brought from Europe accidentally with lupin and serradella seeds. The observed dominance of B. canariense strains may be related to this species' adaptation to acid soils common in Western Australia and South Africa and, presumably, to their intrinsic ability to compete for nodulation of lupins and serradella. PMID:16269740

  4. European origin of Bradyrhizobium populations infecting lupins and serradella in soils of Western Australia and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepkowski, Tomasz; Moulin, Lionel; Krzyzańska, Agnieszka; McInnes, Alison; Law, Ian J; Howieson, John

    2005-11-01

    We applied a multilocus phylogenetic approach to elucidate the origin of serradella and lupin Bradyrhizobium strains that persist in soils of Western Australia and South Africa. The selected strains belonged to different randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR clusters that were distinct from RAPD clusters of applied inoculant strains. Phylogenetic analyses were performed with nodulation genes (nodA, nodZ, nolL, noeI), housekeeping genes (dnaK, recA, glnII, atpD), and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer sequences. Housekeeping gene phylogenies revealed that all serradella and Lupinus cosentinii isolates from Western Australia and three of five South African narrow-leaf lupin strains were intermingled with the strains of Bradyrhizobium canariense, forming a well supported branch on each of the trees. All nodA gene sequences of the lupin and serradella bradyrhizobia formed a single branch, referred to as clade II, together with the sequences of other lupin and serradella strains. Similar patterns were detected in nodZ and nolL trees. In contrast, nodA sequences of the strains isolated from native Australian legumes formed either a new branch called clade IV or belonged to clade I or III, whereas their nonsymbiotic genes grouped outside the B. canariense branch. These data suggest that the lupin and serradella strains, including the strains from uncultivated L. cosentinii plants, are descendants of strains that most likely were brought from Europe accidentally with lupin and serradella seeds. The observed dominance of B. canariense strains may be related to this species' adaptation to acid soils common in Western Australia and South Africa and, presumably, to their intrinsic ability to compete for nodulation of lupins and serradella.

  5. Identification and characterisation of the IgE-binding proteins 2S albumin and conglutin gamma in almond (Prunus dulcis) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltronieri, P; Cappello, M S; Dohmae, N; Conti, A; Fortunato, D; Pastorello, E A; Ortolani, C; Zacheo, G

    2002-06-01

    Almond proteins can cause severe anaphylactic reactions in susceptible individuals. The aim of this study was the identification of IgE-binding proteins in almonds and the characterisation of these proteins by N-terminal sequencing. Five sera were selected from individuals with a positive reaction to food challenge. Sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting were performed on almond seed proteins. Purified IgE-binding proteins were tested for immunoblot inhibition with sera pre-incubated with extracts of hazelnut and walnut. N-terminal sequences of the 12-, 30- and 45-kD proteins were obtained. The 45- and 30-kD proteins shared the same N terminus, with 60% homology to the conglutin gamma heavy chain from lupine seed (Lupinus albus) and to basic 7S globulin from soybean (Glycine max). The sequences of the N-terminal 12-kD protein and of an internal peptide obtained by endoproteinase digestion showed good homology to 2S albumin from English walnut (Jug r 1). Immunoblot inhibition experiments were performed and IgE binding to almond 2S albumin and conglutin gamma was detected in the presence of cross-reacting walnut or hazelnut antigens. Two IgE-binding almond proteins were N-terminally sequenced and identified as almond 2S albumin and conglutin gamma. Localisation and conservation of IgE binding in a 6-kD peptide obtained by endoproteinase digestion of 2S albumin was shown. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Nutrientes minerais na biomassa da parte aérea em culturas de cobertura de solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borkert Clóvis Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar as quantidades de nutrientes reciclados por cinco espécies vegetais utilizadas como culturas de cobertura do solo e que podem retornar ao solo pela mineralização da biomassa. Foram coletadas de vários experimentos amostras da matéria verde de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb, mucu-napreta (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy, guandu (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp, tremoço (Lupinus albus L. e L. angustifolius L. e ervilhaca (Vicia sativa L.. Foi estimado o rendimento de matéria seca e determinados os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, e, a partir dessas concentrações, foram calculadas a média observada, a média estimada e o intervalo de confiança a 95% para cada nutriente dentro de cada classe de rendimento de matéria seca, em cada espécie vegetal. Os dados foram tabulados dentro de intervalos de classe de rendimento de matéria seca e apresentadas as quantidades estimadas de nutrientes minerais. Foram ajustadas equações para estimar as quantidades desses nutrientes. A aveia-preta e a ervilhaca reciclam grande quantidade de K, e a ervilhaca, a mucu-napreta, o tremoço e o guandu reciclam grande quantidade de N. Todas as espécies reciclam quantidades apreciáveis de Ca, Mg e micronutrientes, porém baixas quantidades de P. A rotação de culturas é um meio de implementar com sucesso o aumento das áreas de lavoura em semeadura direta.

  7. Assisted phytoremediation of a multi-contaminated soil: Investigation on arsenic and lead combined mobilization and removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbafieri, Meri; Pedron, Francesca; Petruzzelli, Gianniantonio; Rosellini, Irene; Franchi, Elisabetta; Bagatin, Roberto; Vocciante, Marco

    2017-12-01

    The removal of contaminants from an earthy matrix by phytoremediation requires the selection of appropriate plant species and a suitable strategy to be effective. In order to set up an assisted phytoremediation intervention related to a disused industrial site affected by an arsenic and lead complex contamination, an extensive experimental investigation on micro and mesocosm scale has been conducted. Particular attention was given to the choice of plant species: using crop plants (Lupinus albus, Helianthus annuus and Brassica juncea) a series of parallel test campaigns have been realized to investigate different scenarios for the reclamation. With regard to the arsenic contamination, which is certainly the most worrying, the possibility of employing a hyper-accumulator species (Pteris vittata) has also been investigated, highlighting advantages and difficulties associated with such an approach. The application of various mobilizing agents in different concentrations was tested, in order to maximize the extraction efficiency of plants in respect of both contaminants, showing the necessity of a chemically assisted approach to promote their uptake and translocation in the shoots. Phosphate addition appears to produce the desired results, positively affecting As phyto-extraction for both hyper-accumulator and crop plants, while minimizing its toxic effects at the investigated concentrations. With regard to Pb, although tests with EDDS have been encouraging, EDTA should be preferred at present due to lower uncertainties about its effectiveness. The performed tests also improved the addition of mobilizing agents, allowing the simultaneous removal of the two metals despite their great diversity (which in general discourages such approach), with significant saving of time and an obvious improvement of the overall process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Indigenous Food Systems and Climate Change: Impacts of Climatic Shifts on the Production and Processing of Native and Traditional Crops in the Bolivian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleman Saxena, Alder; Cadima Fuentes, Ximena; Gonzales Herbas, Rhimer; Humphries, Debbie L

    2016-01-01

    Inhabitants of the high-mountain Andes have already begun to experience changes in the timing, severity, and patterning of annual weather cycles. These changes have important implications for agriculture, for human health, and for the conservation of biodiversity in the region. This paper examines the implications of climate-driven changes for native and traditional crops in the municipality of Colomi, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Data were collected between 2012 and 2014 via mixed methods, qualitative fieldwork, including participatory workshops with female farmers and food preparers, semi-structured interviews with local agronomists, and participant observation. Drawing from this data, the paper describes (a) the observed impacts of changing weather patterns on agricultural production in the municipality of Colomi, Bolivia and (b) the role of local environmental resources and conditions, including clean running water, temperature, and humidity, in the household processing techniques used to conserve and sometimes detoxify native crop and animal species, including potato (Solanum sp.), oca (Oxalis tuberosa), tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis), papalisa (Ullucus tuberosus), and charke (llama or sheep jerky). Analysis suggests that the effects of climatic changes on agriculture go beyond reductions in yield, also influencing how farmers make choices about the timing of planting, soil management, and the use and spatial distribution of particular crop varieties. Furthermore, household processing techniques to preserve and detoxify native foods rely on key environmental and climatic resources, which may be vulnerable to climatic shifts. Although these findings are drawn from a single case study, we suggest that Colomi agriculture characterizes larger patterns in what might be termed, "indigenous food systems." Such systems are underrepresented in aggregate models of the impacts of climate change on world agriculture and may be under different, more direct, and more immediate threat

  9. Indigenous Food Systems and Climate Change: Impacts of climatic shifts on the production and processing of native and traditional crops in the Bolivian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alder eKeleman Saxena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhabitants of the high-mountain Andes have already begun to experience changes in the timing, severity, and patterning of annual weather cycles. These changes have important implications for agriculture, for human health, and for the conservation of biodiversity in the region. This paper examines the implications of climate-driven changes for native and traditional crops in the municipality of Colomi, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Data was collected between 2012 and 2014 via mixed-methods, qualitative fieldwork, including participatory workshops with female farmers and food preparers, semi-structured interviews with local agronomists, and participant observation. Drawing from this data, the paper describes a the observed impacts of changing weather patterns on agricultural production in the municipality of Colomi, Bolivia; and b the role of local environmental resources and conditions, including clean running water, temperature, and humidity, in the household processing techniques used to conserve and sometimes detoxify native crop and animal species, including potato (Solanum sp., oca (Oxalis tuberosa, tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis, papalisa (Ullucus tuberosus, and charkay (llama or sheep jerky. Analysis suggests that the effects of climatic changes on agriculture go beyond reductions in yield, also influencing how farmers make choices about the timing of planting, soil management, the use and spatial distribution of particular crop varieties. Further, household processing techniques to preserve and detoxify native foods rely on key environmental and climatic resources, which may be vulnerable to climatic shifts. While these findings are drawn from a single case-study, we suggest that Colomi agriculture characterizes larger patterns in what might be termed, indigenous food systems. Such systems are underrepresented in aggregate models of the impacts of climate change on world agriculture, and may be under different, more direct, and more immediate threat

  10. Economy of Photosynthate Use in Nitrogen-fixing Legume Nodules: Observations on Two Contrasting Symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layzell, D B; Rainbird, R M; Atkins, C A; Pate, J S

    1979-11-01

    The economy of C use by root nodules was examined in two symbioses, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (cv. Caloona):Rhizobium CB756 and Lupinus albus L. (cv. Ultra):Rhizobium WU425 over a 2-week period in early vegetative growth. Plants were grown in minus N water culture with cuvettes attached to the nodulated zone of their primary roots for collection of evolved CO(2) and H(2). Increments in total plant N and in C and N of nodules, and C:N weight ratios of xylem and phloem exudates were studied by periodic sampling from the plant populations. Itemized budgets were constructed for the partitioning and utilization of C in the two species. For each milligram N fixed and assimilated by the cowpea association, 1.54 +/- 0.26 (standard error) milligrams C as CO(2) and negligible H(2) were evolved and 3.11 milligrams of translocated C utilized by the nodules. Comparable values for nodules of the lupin association were 3.64 +/- 0.28 milligrams C as CO(2), 0.22 +/- 0.05 milligrams H(2), and 6.58 milligrams C. More efficient use of C by cowpea nodules was due to a lesser requirement of C for synthesis of exported N compounds, a smaller allocation of C to nodule dry matter, and a lower evolution of CO(2). The activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in nodule extracts and the rate of (14)CO(2) fixation by detached nodules were greater for the cowpea symbiosis (0.56 +/- 0.06 and 0.22 milligrams C as CO(2) fixed per gram fresh weight per hour, respectively) than for the lupin 0.06 +/- 0.02 and 0.01 milligrams C as CO(2) fixed per gram fresh weight per hour. The significance of the data was discussed in relation to current information on theoretical costs of nitrogenase functioning and associated nodule processes.

  11. INFLUENCIA DEL CULTIVO INTERCALADO EN LA PRODUCCIÓN Y CALIDAD DEL FRUTO DE TOMATE CEREZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Rossi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo determinar la influencia en la cosecha y calidad de los frutos de Solanum lycopersicum L. (1753 cv. cereza [Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. 1768] (tomate en convivencia con cultivos intercalares de cinco Fabaceae, plantas auxiliadoras en la agricultura y dos tratamientos con y sin residuos de cosecha de Zea mayz L. El estudio fue im- plantado en el Polo Centro Sul, Piracicaba-SP. Brasil, en suelo Argisol rojo-amarillo distrófico. El diseño experimental fue en bloque al azar con cinco repeticiones y ocho tratamientos en con- vivencia con plantas de tomate con:1 Sin residuos de ZEAMA-Zea mayz L.;2 Con residuos de ZEAMA- Zea mayz L. cv.cativerde 2; 3 CANEN- Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC.; 4CRO- JU- Crotalaria juncea L.; 5 MUCPR- Mucuna pruriens (L. DC. cv. arbusto (enana o anã; 6 VIGRA- Vigna radiata L. 7 LUPAL- Lupinus albus L.; 8 VIGUN- Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Los resultados mostraron que la producción y calidad de los frutos de tomate fue normal, sin ataque de plagas y no se aplicó ningún agrotóxico. El abono verde, así como la presencia o ausencia de residuos de cosecha de maíz, no interfiere en la temporada de cosecha. En cuanto al análisis de sólidos solubles totales (SST y acidez (pH no difirió entre los tratamientos.

  12. Fertility of the early post-eruptive surfaces of Kasatochi Island volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelson, G. J.; Wang, Bronwen; Ping, C. L.

    2016-01-01

    In the four years after the 2008 eruption and burial of Kasatochi Island volcano, erosion and the return of bird activity have resulted in new and altered land surfaces and initiation of ecosystem recovery. We examined fertility characteristics of the recently deposited pyroclastic surfaces, patches of legacy pre-eruptive surface soil (LS), and a post-eruptive surface with recent bird roosting activity. Pyroclastic materials were found lacking in N, but P, K, and other macronutrients were in sufficient supply for plants. Erosion and leaching are moving mobile P and Fe downslope to deposition fan areas. Legacy soil patches that currently support plants have available-N at levels (10–22 mg N kg-1) similar to those added by birds in a recent bird roosting area. Roosting increased surface available N from 40% that of the LS surface. Laboratory plant growth trials using Lupinus nootkatensis and Leymus mollis indicated that the influence of eroded and redeposited LS in amounts as little as 10% by volume mixed with new pyroclastic materials could aid plant recovery by supplying vital N and soil biota to plants as propagules are introduced to the new surface. Erosion-exposure of fertile pre-eruptive soils and erosion-mixing of pre-eruptive soils with newly erupted materials, along with inputs of nutrients from bird activities, each will exert significant influences on the surface fertility and recovery pattern of the new post-eruptive Kasatochi volcano. For this environment, these influences could help to speed recovery of a more diverse plant community by providing N (LS and bird inputs) as alternatives to relying most heavily on N-fixing plants to build soil fertility.

  13. Re-translocation of boron in broccoli and lupin during early reproductive growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marentes, E; Shelp, B J [Univ. of Guelph, Dept. of Horticultural Science, Guelph, ON (Canada); Vanderpool, R A [USDA, Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, ND (United States); [Spiers, G.A. Univ. of Guelph, Dept. of Land Resource Science, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    1997-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine if boron (B) re-translocation depends on plant-B status and external-B supply. The stable {sup 10}B isotope was supplied to the root system of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck cv. Commander) and lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Ultra) plants to provide a quantitative picture of B distribution during early reproductive development. Regardless of the B regime (i.e. continuous supply with luxury, sufficient or deficient B; transfer at influorescence emergence from either a luxury- or sufficient-B supply to a deficient one) and whether {sup 10}B was acquired before or during influorescence development, a significant proportion of the B recovered in broccoli florest and lupin fruit was {sup 10}B enriched. B acquired during inflorescence development was an important source of B for reproductive structures, but the relative importance of B acquired before and after inflorescence emergence appeared to be species dependent. The occurrence of B re-translocation was not dependent upon the induction of B deficiency. The concentrations of B in phloem exsudates (0.38 to 0.03 mM) were 4- to 23-fold those in xylem sap, and more similar to the concentrations in the reproductive structures (0.86 to 0.07 mM) than those in source leaves (2.4 to 0.19 mM). The decreasing acropetal gradient of tissue-B concentrations with luxury-B supply declined dramatically or was reversed in plants grown with sufficient or deficient B. The data are consistent with B being a phloem-mobile element, and suggest that newly acquired B is particularly important during the early reproductive growth of plants. (au) 36 refs.

  14. Re-translocation of boron in broccoli and lupin during early reproductive growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marentes, E.; Shelp, B.J.; Vanderpool, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine if boron (B) re-translocation depends on plant-B status and external-B supply. The stable 10 B isotope was supplied to the root system of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck cv. Commander) and lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Ultra) plants to provide a quantitative picture of B distribution during early reproductive development. Regardless of the B regime (i.e. continuous supply with luxury, sufficient or deficient B; transfer at influorescence emergence from either a luxury- or sufficient-B supply to a deficient one) and whether 10 B was acquired before or during influorescence development, a significant proportion of the B recovered in broccoli florest and lupin fruit was 10 B enriched. B acquired during inflorescence development was an important source of B for reproductive structures, but the relative importance of B acquired before and after inflorescence emergence appeared to be species dependent. The occurrence of B re-translocation was not dependent upon the induction of B deficiency. The concentrations of B in phloem exsudates (0.38 to 0.03 mM) were 4- to 23-fold those in xylem sap, and more similar to the concentrations in the reproductive structures (0.86 to 0.07 mM) than those in source leaves (2.4 to 0.19 mM). The decreasing acropetal gradient of tissue-B concentrations with luxury-B supply declined dramatically or was reversed in plants grown with sufficient or deficient B. The data are consistent with B being a phloem-mobile element, and suggest that newly acquired B is particularly important during the early reproductive growth of plants. (au) 36 refs

  15. Xylem-to-phloem transfer of boron in broccoli and lupin during early reproductive growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelp, B J; Kitheka, A M; Cauwenberghe, O.R. Van [Univ. of Guelph, Dept. of Horticultural Science, Guelph, ON (Canada); Vanderpool, R A [Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research service, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Spiers, G A [Univ. of Guelph, Dept. of Land Resource Science, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that newly-acquired boron (B) undergoes rapid xylem-to-phloem transfer in plants with restricted mobility. Analysis of the element accumulation and water usage by shoots of intact broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck cv. Commander) and lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Ultra) plants provided with a non-deficient supply of B, revealed that the concentration of various mineral elements (K, P, Mg, Ca, B, Fe, Zn, Mo, Cu, Mn) in xylem sap of intact plants ranged from 0.3 {mu}M to 3.5 mM, with B being present at 2.9-3.5 {mu}M. For each element assayed, the concentration was higher in phloem exudate (1.6 {mu}M to 91 mM) than in xylem sap; B was present at about 0.4 mM. Intact broccoli and lupin plants or detached transpiring broccoli shoots were supplied simultaneously with enriched {sup 10}B, strontium (a xylem marker) and rubidium (a xylem/phloem marker) during early reproductive growth. The contents of these three compounds were determined in foliage and florets or fruits as a function of time (i.e. up to 12 h and 4 days for broccoli and lupin plants, respectively), and the content in florets or fruits was expressed as a percent of the total recovered. In general, the percent recovery of both {sup 10}B and rubidium in florets or fruits was similar and markedly greater than that for strontium, even at the earliest harvest times (within 2 h for broccoli and 1 day for lupin). The data indicate that in plants with restricted B mobility, B is supplied to sink tissues in the phloem, and the extent of B xylem-to-phloem transfer is closely determined by current uptake. (au) 35 refs.

  16. Xylem-to-phloem transfer of boron in broccoli and lupin during early reproductive growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelp, B.J.; Kitheka, A.M.; Cauwenberghe, O.R. Van; Vanderpool, R.A.; Spiers, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that newly-acquired boron (B) undergoes rapid xylem-to-phloem transfer in plants with restricted mobility. Analysis of the element accumulation and water usage by shoots of intact broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck cv. Commander) and lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Ultra) plants provided with a non-deficient supply of B, revealed that the concentration of various mineral elements (K, P, Mg, Ca, B, Fe, Zn, Mo, Cu, Mn) in xylem sap of intact plants ranged from 0.3 μM to 3.5 mM, with B being present at 2.9-3.5 μM. For each element assayed, the concentration was higher in phloem exudate (1.6 μM to 91 mM) than in xylem sap; B was present at about 0.4 mM. Intact broccoli and lupin plants or detached transpiring broccoli shoots were supplied simultaneously with enriched 10 B, strontium (a xylem marker) and rubidium (a xylem/phloem marker) during early reproductive growth. The contents of these three compounds were determined in foliage and florets or fruits as a function of time (i.e. up to 12 h and 4 days for broccoli and lupin plants, respectively), and the content in florets or fruits was expressed as a percent of the total recovered. In general, the percent recovery of both 10 B and rubidium in florets or fruits was similar and markedly greater than that for strontium, even at the earliest harvest times (within 2 h for broccoli and 1 day for lupin). The data indicate that in plants with restricted B mobility, B is supplied to sink tissues in the phloem, and the extent of B xylem-to-phloem transfer is closely determined by current uptake. (au)

  17. Phylogenies of symbiotic genes of Bradyrhizobium symbionts of legumes of economic and environmental importance in Brazil support the definition of the new symbiovars pachyrhizi and sojae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Marçon; Menna, Pâmela; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Hungria, Mariangela

    2017-07-01

    Bradyrhizobium comprises most tropical symbiotic nitrogen-fixing strains, but the correlation between symbiotic and core genes with host specificity is still unclear. In this study, the phylogenies of the nodY/K and nifH genes of 45 Bradyrhizobium strains isolated from legumes of economic and environmental importance in Brazil (Arachis hypogaea, Acacia auriculiformis, Glycine max, Lespedeza striata, Lupinus albus, Stylosanthes sp. and Vigna unguiculata) were compared to 16S rRNA gene phylogeny and genetic diversity by rep-PCR. In the 16S rRNA tree, strains were distributed into two superclades-B. japonicum and B. elkanii-with several strains being very similar within each clade. The rep-PCR analysis also revealed high intra-species diversity. Clustering of strains in the nodY/K and nifH trees was identical: 39 strains isolated from soybean grouped with Bradyrhizobium type species symbionts of soybean, whereas five others occupied isolated positions. Only one strain isolated from Stylosanthes sp. showed similar nodY/K and nifH sequences to soybean strains, and it also nodulated soybean. Twenty-one representative strains of the 16S rRNA phylogram were selected and taxonomically classified using a concatenated glnII-recA phylogeny; nodC sequences were also compared and revealed the same clusters as observed in the nodY/K and nifH phylograms. The analyses of symbiotic genes indicated that a large group of strains from the B. elkanii superclade comprised the novel symbiovar sojae, whereas for another group, including B. pachyrhizi, the symbiovar pachyrhizi could be proposed. Other potential new symbiovars were also detected. The co-evolution hypotheses is discussed and it is suggested that nodY/K analysis would be useful for investigating the symbiotic diversity of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact scores of invasive plants are biased by disregard of environmental co-variation and non-linearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Thiele

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Prioritisation of high-impact species is becoming increasingly important for management of introduced species (‘neobiota’ because of their growing number of which, however, only a small fraction has substantial impacts. Impact scores for prioritising species may be affected by the type of effect model used. Recent studies have shown that environmental co-variation and non-linearity may be significant for effect models of biological invasions. Here, we test for differences in impact scores between simple and complex effect models of three invasive plant species (Heracleum mantegazzianum, Lupinus polyphyllus, Rosa rugosa.We investigated the effects of cover percentages of the invasive plants on species richness of invaded communities using both simple linear effect models (‘basic models’ and more complex linear or non-linear models including environmental co-factors (‘full models’. Then, we calculated impact scores for each invasive species as the average reduction of species richness predicted by basic and full effect models.All three non-native species had negative effects on species richness, but the full effect models also indicated significant influence of habitat types. Heracleum mantegazzianum had uniform linear effects in all habitats, while effects of L. polyphyllus interacted strongly with habitat type, and R. rugosa showed a marked non-linear relationship. Impact scores were overestimated by basic effect models for H. mantegazzianum and R. rugosa due to disregard of habitat effects and non-linearity, respectively. In contrast, impact of L. polyphyllus was underestimated by the basic model that did not account for the strong interaction of invader cover and habitat type.We conclude that simple linear models will often yield inaccurate impact scores of non-native species. Hence, effect models should consider environmental co-variation and, if necessary, non-linearity of the effects of biological invasions on native ecosystems.

  19. Proteção do solo por plantas de cobertura de ciclo hibernal na região Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Regina Dahlem Ziech

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de plantas de cobertura de ciclo hibernal na proteção do solo, na região Sudoeste do Paraná, em função da taxa de cobertura, da produção de matéria seca (MS, da relação C/N e da manutenção da MS remanescente dos resíduos vegetais na superfície do solo. Foram utilizados como cobertura do solo: aveia-preta (Avena strigosa, azevém (Lolium multiflorum, centeio (Secale cereale, tremoço-branco (Lupinus albus, ervilhaca comum (Vicia sativa, nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus e consórcios entre aveia-preta + ervilhaca comum (A+E e aveia-preta + ervilhaca comum + nabo forrageiro (A+E+N. O experimento foi avaliado durante os anos agrícolas 2010/2011 e 2011/2012. A decomposição das plantas de cobertura foi determinada com uso de bolsas de decomposição ("litter bags". A aveia-preta e os consórcios proporcionaram maiores taxas de cobertura do solo aos primeiros 50 dias após a semeadura, com aporte de MS superior a 2.600 kg ha-1 na superfície do solo. O consórcio entre A+E+N apresentou relação C/N equilibrada e decomposição intermediária em relação ao cultivo solteiro, tendo promovido 1.045 kg ha-1 de palhada sobre o solo, 120 dias após seu manejo. Gramíneas puras e consórcios com gramíneas apresentam maior potencial de proteção do solo

  20. Coberturas mortas de inverno e controle químico sobre plantas daninhas na cultura do milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagoberto Martins

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A escolha correta das culturas para cobertura do solo melhora a sustentabilidade do sistema de cultivo, pois pode potencializar o uso dos herbicidas, reduzir a infestação de plantas daninhas e melhorar o desempenho das culturas. Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de coberturas mortas de inverno e do uso de herbicidas sobre comunidade de plantas daninhas na cultura do milho, foi realizado um estudo no delineamento inteiramente casualizado com os tratamentos dispostos em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. As parcelas, em número de seis, foram compostas pelas seguintes culturas de inverno: Lupinus albus, Lathyrus sativos, Triticum aestivum, Avena strigosa, Raphanus sativus, mais uma testemunha mantida em pousio. As subparcelas em número de três, foram compostas por: 1 - pulverização apenas de herbicida de manejo antes da semeadura do milho; 2 - herbicida de manejo após a semeadura do milho + herbicida residual, e 3 - testemunha sem aplicação de herbicidas. As coberturas mortas de aveia-preta e nabo-forrageiro proporcionam as menores densidades de plantas daninhas e acúmulos de massa seca da comunidade infestante, independente da aplicação ou não de herbicidas. Houve uma maior germinação de B. pilosa nas parcelas mantidas com a cobertura de tremoço, com exceção das subparcelas onde se aplicou herbicida em pré-emergência, o que evidencia um efeito estimulante da cobertura morta. O emprego de algumas espécies na formação da cobertura morta para o plantio direto pode dispensar ou reduzir a quantidade de herbicidas necessária para o controle das plantas daninhas.

  1. Visualization of root water uptake: quantification of deuterated water transport in roots using neutron radiography and numerical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kroener, Eva; Kaestner, Anders; Carminati, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    Our understanding of soil and plant water relations is limited by the lack of experimental methods to measure water fluxes in soil and plants. Here, we describe a new method to noninvasively quantify water fluxes in roots. To this end, neutron radiography was used to trace the transport of deuterated water (D2O) into roots. The results showed that (1) the radial transport of D2O from soil to the roots depended similarly on diffusive and convective transport and (2) the axial transport of D2O along the root xylem was largely dominated by convection. To quantify the convective fluxes from the radiographs, we introduced a convection-diffusion model to simulate the D2O transport in roots. The model takes into account different pathways of water across the root tissue, the endodermis as a layer with distinct transport properties, and the axial transport of D2O in the xylem. The diffusion coefficients of the root tissues were inversely estimated by simulating the experiments at night under the assumption that the convective fluxes were negligible. Inverse modeling of the experiment at day gave the profile of water fluxes into the roots. For a 24-d-old lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in a soil with uniform water content, root water uptake was higher in the proximal parts of lateral roots and decreased toward the distal parts. The method allows the quantification of the root properties and the regions of root water uptake along the root systems. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. El tarwi o chocho: una de las principales fuentes de proteína vegetal de las comunidades indígenas de los Andes Centrales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planchuelo, Ana M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El lupino andino (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet conocido también como tarwi o chocho, es una especie de leguminosa nativa de los Andes Centrales. Su domesticación se remonta a los principios de la cultura Nazca y desde ese entonces hasta la actualidad el cultivo está ampliamente difundido en las laderas montañosas y en los altos valles de Ecuador, Perú y Bolivia. La importancia del lupino para las comunidades andinas prehispánicas quedo documentada en pinturas de cerámicas y en tributos encontrados en tumbas de 100-150 años AC. Diversas técnicas de lavado y de mejoramiento vegetal fueron aplicadas desde la antigüedad para eliminar los alcaloides tóxicos que le confieren el sabor amargo a la planta y los granos. El tarwi, el maíz. los frijoles, los pseudocereales, quinoa y amaranto y la papa junto a otras raíces y tubérculos constituyen la comida básica de muchas culturas andinas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar los componentes nutricionales de los granos del lupino andino para compararlos con los otros constituyentes de la dieta de las comunidades campesinas. Se analizaron por medio de técnicas fitoquímicas distintas variedades de tarwi. Se determinaron los contenidos de proteínas y grasas y los patrones de ácidos grasos. Los resultados muestran que la ingesta de lupinos, que provee un buen balance de proteínas y grasas en combinación con el maíz y los tubérculos, que aportan los hidratos de carbono, forman una dieta balanceada y de alto valor nutricional.

  3. Role of Translocted Signals in Regulating Root Development and Nutrient Uptake in Legumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, C. A. [School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Uptake of nutrients is achieved through the expression and activity of specific carrier/transporter mechanisms localized in the root system and distributed as a consequence of the development of the architecture of the system. Both root system development and the nutrient transport mechanisms are responsive to environmental factors that include nutrient supply and availability, water supply, salinity, soil acidity and compaction together with a wide range of biotic stresses. The response to each may be regulated at the molecular level by both local and systemic signals. These signals include the classical plant growth regulators but also low molecular weight compounds such as sugars and amino acids as well as macromolecules, including peptides, proteins and nucleic acids. Among the latter, recent research has shown that small RNA species and especially small interfering RNAs (siRNA) and microRNAs (miRNA) are potent and effective regulators of gene expression which, in the context of root development as well as nutrient uptake, have central and critical roles. Systemic (translocated) signals that specifically regulate root development and function are less well defined but analyses of phloem exudate in species of lupin (Lupinus albus and L. angustifolius) and species of Brassica and cucurbits have demonstrated that a wide range of macromolecules, including miRNAs, are present and potentially translocated from source organs (principally leaves) to sinks (shoot apical meristems, developing fruits and seeds, roots and nodules). While specific signaling roles for many of these macromolecules are yet to be discovered there are some that have been documented and their regulatory activity in organ development and functioning, as well as in nutrition, confirmed. The following article provides an up to date review and presents the results of recent research using lupin with emphasis on the analysis of small RNAs and their likely role(s) in regulation of root development and

  4. No evidence for Fabaceae Gametophytic self-incompatibility being determined by Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Plantaginaceae S-RNase lineage genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Bruno; Vieira, Jorge; Cunha, Ana E; Vieira, Cristina P

    2015-06-02

    Fabaceae species are important in agronomy and livestock nourishment. They have a long breeding history, and most cultivars have lost self-incompatibility (SI), a genetic barrier to self-fertilization. Nevertheless, to improve legume crop breeding, crosses with wild SI relatives of the cultivated varieties are often performed. Therefore, it is fundamental to characterize Fabaceae SI system(s). We address the hypothesis of Fabaceae gametophytic (G)SI being RNase based, by recruiting the same S-RNase lineage gene of Rosaceae, Solanaceae or Plantaginaceae SI species. We first identify SSK1 like genes (described only in species having RNase based GSI), in the Trifolium pratense, Medicago truncatula, Cicer arietinum, Glycine max, and Lupinus angustifolius genomes. Then, we characterize the S-lineage T2-RNase genes in these genomes. In T. pratense, M. truncatula, and C. arietinum we identify S-RNase lineage genes that in phylogenetic analyses cluster with Pyrinae S-RNases. In M. truncatula and C. arietinum genomes, where large scaffolds are available, these sequences are surrounded by F-box genes that in phylogenetic analyses also cluster with S-pollen genes. In T. pratense the S-RNase lineage genes show, however, expression in tissues not involved in GSI. Moreover, levels of diversity are lower than those observed for other S-RNase genes. The M. truncatula and C. arietinum S-RNase and S-pollen like genes phylogenetically related to Pyrinae S-genes, are also expressed in tissues other than those involved in GSI. To address if other T2-RNases could be determining Fabaceae GSI, here we obtained a style with stigma transcriptome of Cytisus striatus, a species that shows significant difference on the percentage of pollen growth in self and cross-pollinations. Expression and polymorphism analyses of the C. striatus S-RNase like genes revealed that none of these genes, is the S-pistil gene. We find no evidence for Fabaceae GSI being determined by Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and

  5. Bioavailable concentrations of germanium and rare earth elements in soil as affected by low molecular weight organic acids and root exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Tesch, Silke; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    Availability of elements in soil to plant is generally dependent on the solubility and mobility of elements in soil solution which is controlled by soil, elemental properties and plant-soil interactions. Low molecular organic acids or other root exudates may increase mobility and availability of certain elements for plants as an effect of lowering pH in the rhizosphere and complexation. However, these processes take place in a larger volume in soil, therefore to understand their nature, it is also important to know in which layers of the soil what factors modify these processes. In this work the influence of citric acid and root exudates of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on bioavailable concentrations of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and uptake in root and shoot of rape (Brassica napus L.), comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.), common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Two different pot experiments were conducted: (1) the mentioned plant species were treated with nutrient solutions containing various amount of citric acid; (2) white lupin was cultivated in mixed culture (0 % lupin, 33 % lupin) with oat (Avena sativa L.) and soil solution was obtained by plastic suction cups placed at various depths. As a result, addition of citric acid significantly increased germanium concentrations in plant tissue of comfrey and rape and increased translocation of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium from root to shoot. The cultivation of white lupin in mixed culture with oat led to significantly higher concentrations of germanium and increasing concentrations of lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and aboveground plant tissue. In these pots concentrations of citric acid in soil solution were significantly higher than in the control. The results show, that low molecular organic acids exuded by plant roots are of great importance for the mobilization of germanium

  6. Evaluation of fresh and preserved herbaceous field crops for biogas and ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakarinen, A

    2012-07-01

    In the future, various forms of bioenergy will be increasingly required to replace fossil energy. Globally, transportation uses almost one third of fossil energy resources, and it is thus of great importance to find ethically, economically, and environmentally viable biofuels in near future. Fieldgrown biomass, including energy crops and crop residues, are alternatives to supplement other non-food biofuel raw materials. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of five crops, maize (Zea mays L.), fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), faba bean (Vicia faba L.), white lupin (Lupinus albus L.), and Jerusalem artichoke (Heliantus tuborosus L.) cultivated in boreal conditions as raw materials for methane and ethanol. Climate, cultivation requirements, chemical composition, and recalcitrance are some of the parameters to be considered when choosing energy crops for cultivation and for efficient conversion into biofuels. Among the studied crops, protein-rich legumes (faba bean and white lupin) were attractive options for methane, while hemp and Jerusalem artichoke had high theoretical potential for ethanol. Maize was, however, equally suitable for production of both energy carriers. Preservation of crop materials is essential to preserve and supply biomass material throughout the year. Preservation can be also considered as a mild pretreatment prior to biofuel production. Ensiling was conducted on maize, hemp, and faba bean in this work and additionally hemp was preserved in alkali conditions. Ensiling was found to be most beneficial for hemp when converted to methane, increasing the methane yield by more than 50%, whereas preservation with urea increased the energy yield of hemp as ethanol by 39%. Maize, with a high content of water-soluble carbohydrates (20% of DM), required an acid additive in order to preserve the sugars. Interestingly, hydrothermal pretreatment for maize and hemp prior to methane production was less efficient than ensiling. Enzymatic hydrolysis

  7. Suppression of the auxin response pathway enhances susceptibility to Phytophthora cinnamomi while phosphite-mediated resistance stimulates the auxin signalling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Phytophthora cinnamomi is a devastating pathogen worldwide and phosphite (Phi), an analogue of phosphate (Pi) is highly effective in the control of this pathogen. Phi also interferes with Pi starvation responses (PSR), of which auxin signalling is an integral component. In the current study, the involvement of Pi and the auxin signalling pathways in host and Phi-mediated resistance to P. cinnamomi was investigated by screening the Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col-0 and several mutants defective in PSR and the auxin response pathway for their susceptibility to this pathogen. The response to Phi treatment was also studied by monitoring its effect on Pi- and the auxin response pathways. Results Here we demonstrate that phr1-1 (phosphate starvation response 1), a mutant defective in response to Pi starvation was highly susceptible to P. cinnamomi compared to the parental background Col-0. Furthermore, the analysis of the Arabidopsis tir1-1 (transport inhibitor response 1) mutant, deficient in the auxin-stimulated SCF (Skp1 − Cullin − F-Box) ubiquitination pathway was also highly susceptible to P. cinnamomi and the susceptibility of the mutants rpn10 and pbe1 further supported a role for the 26S proteasome in resistance to P. cinnamomi. The role of auxin was also supported by a significant (P < 0.001) increase in susceptibility of blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) to P. cinnamomi following treatment with the inhibitor of auxin transport, TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid). Given the apparent involvement of auxin and PSR signalling in the resistance to P. cinnamomi, the possible involvement of these pathways in Phi mediated resistance was also investigated. Phi (especially at high concentrations) attenuates the response of some Pi starvation inducible genes such as AT4, AtACP5 and AtPT2 in Pi starved plants. However, Phi enhanced the transcript levels of PHR1 and the auxin responsive genes (AUX1, AXR1and AXR2), suppressed the primary root

  8. PR-10 proteins as potential mediators of melatonin-cytokinin cross-talk in plants: crystallographic studies of LlPR-10.2B isoform from yellow lupine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwiak, Joanna; Sikorski, Michal; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2018-04-06

    LlPR-10.2B, a Pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) protein from yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus) was crystallized in complex with melatonin, an emerging important plant regulator and antioxidant. The structure reveals two molecules of melatonin bound in the internal cavity of the protein, plus a very well-defined electron density near the cavity entrance, corresponding to an unknown ligand molecule comprised of two flat rings, which is most likely a product of melatonin transformation. In a separate LlPR-10.2B co-crystallization experiment with an equimolar mixture of melatonin and trans-zeatin, which is a cytokinin phytohormone well recognized as a PR-10-binding partner, a quaternary 1 : 1 : 1 : 1 complex was formed, in which one of the melatonin-binding sites has been substituted with trans-zeatin, whereas the binding of melatonin at the second binding site and binding of the unknown ligand are undisturbed. This unusual complex, when compared with the previously described PR-10/trans-zeatin complexes and with the emerging structural information about melatonin binding by PR-10 proteins, provides intriguing insights into the role of PR-10 proteins in phytohormone regulation in plants, especially with the involvement of melatonin, and implicates the PR-10 proteins as low-affinity melatonin binders under the conditions of elevated melatonin concentration. Atomic coordinates and processed structure factors corresponding to the final models of the LlPR-10.2B/melatonin and LlPR-10.2B/melatonin + trans-zeatin complexes have been deposited with the Protein Data Bank (PDB) under the accession codes 5MXB and 5MXW. The corresponding raw X-ray diffraction images have been deposited in the RepOD Repository at the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling (ICM) of the University of Warsaw, Poland, and are available for download with the following Digital Object Identifiers (DOI): https://doi.org/10.18150/repod.9923638 and https://doi.org/10

  9. A first glimpse of wild lupin karyotype variation as revealed by comparative cytogenetic mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Susek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Insight into plant genomes at the cytomolecular level provides useful information about their karyotype structure, enabling inferences about taxonomic relationships and evolutionary origins. The Old World lupins demonstrate a high level of genomic diversification involving variation in chromosome numbers (2n=32-52, basic chromosome numbers (x=5-7, 9, 13 and in nuclear genome size (2C DNA=0.97-2.68 pg. Lupins comprise both crop and wild species and provide an intriguing system to study karyotype evolution.In order to investigate lupin chromosome structure, heterologous FISH was used. Sixteen BACs that had been generated as chromosome markers for the reference species, Lupinus angustifolius, were used to identify chromosomes in the wild species and explore karyotype variation. While all ‘single-locus’ in L. angustifolius, in the wild lupins these clones proved to be ‘single-locus’, ‘single-locus’ with additional signals, ‘repetitive’ or had no detectable BAC-FISH signal. The diverse distribution of the clones in the targeted genomes suggests a complex evolution history, which possibly involved multiple chromosomal changes such as fusions/fissions and repetitive sequence amplification. Twelve BACs were sequenced and we found numerous transposable elements including DNA transposons as well as LTR and non-LTR retrotransposons with varying quantity and composition among the different lupin species. However, at this preliminary stage, no correlation was observed between the pattern of BAC-FISH signals and the repeat content in particular BACs. Here, we describe the first BAC-based chromosome-specific markers for the wild species: L. cosentinii, L. cryptanthus, L. pilosus, L. micranthus and one New World lupin, L. multiflorus. These BACs could constitute the basis for an assignment of the chromosomal and genetic maps of other lupins, e.g. L. albus and L. luteus. Moreover, we identified karyotype variation that helps illustrate the

  10. The Features of Naturalization of Invasive Fraction of Flora in the Voronezh Region and in Some Regions of the European Part of Russia

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    Vladimirov D.R.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is about naturalization features of invasive fraction of flora in Voronezh and some other regions of the European part of Russia. The summary table represents all invasive and potentially invasive plants of the European part of Russia with their level of naturalization (or invasive status. Invasive fraction of flora in the Voronezh region numbers 120 plants. All of them are on different stages of naturalization process in an anthropogenic areal. Invasive plants represent by agriophyts – 41 (34,1 % species, epecophyts – 75 (62,5 % species and colonophyts-epecophyts – 4 (3,4 % species. Totally there are 201 species of invasive and potentially invasive plants spread within European part of Russia (Northern-West Russia, Ivanovo, Kaluga, Tver, and Voronezh regions. They formed the “black list” of European Russia. 10 species are common to all invasive fractions. These are Acer negundo, Amelanchier x spicata, Aster x salignus, Echinocystis lobata, Elodea canadensis, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens glandulifera, Impatiens parviflora, Juncus tenuis and Lupinus polyphyllus. The analysis of the general list of invasive fractions of European Russia shows that 120 species of the list are invasive or potentially invasive in the Voronezh region (100 and 20 species in accordance, adventives naturalized species – 31, native species – 19, archaeophyts – 2, apophyts – 4. 26 species from the list were not found in the Voronezh region. Apparently, the region is a transit area for many invasive plants, which migrate from South to North, from East to West etc. Not only its natural and climatic potential, but also high level of transformation of local landscapes enabled immigrant-plants to naturalize within the bounds of the region. Furthermore, for many years the Voronezh region was the center of introduction of alien plants. Many of those became a part of invasion fraction of regional flora. In recent decades green building took place of

  11. Genetic variation facilitates seedling establishment but not population growth rate of a perennial invader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shou-Li; Vasemägi, Anti; Ramula, Satu

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the demographic consequences of genetic variation is fundamental to invasion biology. However, genetic and demographic approaches are rarely combined to explore the effects of genetic variation on invasive populations in natural environments. This study combined population genetics, demographic data and a greenhouse experiment to investigate the consequences of genetic variation for the population fitness of the perennial, invasive herb Lupinus polyphyllus. Genetic and demographic data were collected from 37 L. polyphyllus populations representing different latitudes in Finland, and genetic variation was characterized based on 13 microsatellite loci. Associations between genetic variation and population size, population density, latitude and habitat were investigated. Genetic variation was then explored in relation to four fitness components (establishment, survival, growth, fecundity) measured at the population level, and the long-term population growth rate (λ). For a subset of populations genetic variation was also examined in relation to the temporal variability of λ. A further assessment was made of the role of natural selection in the observed variation of certain fitness components among populations under greenhouse conditions. It was found that genetic variation correlated positively with population size, particularly at higher latitudes, and differed among habitat types. Average seedling establishment per population increased with genetic variation in the field, but not under greenhouse conditions. Quantitative genetic divergence (Q(ST)) based on seedling establishment in the greenhouse was smaller than allelic genetic divergence (F'(ST)), indicating that unifying selection has a prominent role in this fitness component. Genetic variation was not associated with average survival, growth or fecundity measured at the population level, λ or its variability. The study suggests that although genetic variation may facilitate plant invasions by

  12. Assessment of Antioxidant Properties of Radiation Processed Lupin Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the radiation processing of lupin seeds (Lupinus albus spp. Giza 2) were carried out at dose levels of 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy. The chemical composition (protein, fat, total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids and fatty acids) and antioxidant properties of its methanolic extracts were assessed. The result showed that there were non-significant changes observed for protein, fat and ash of processed samples as compared with non-irradiated samples. Meanwhile, the crude fiber was decreased linearly as a function of radiation dose. The total phenolic compounds were increased by 9.92%, 11.75% and 13.82% and flavonoids by 2.5%, 7.1% and 7.5% for the 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples, respectively. Regarding lupin fatty acid contents, the results indicated that gamma irradiation up to 10 kGy did not cause important changes in the percentage of the fatty acids. At 7.5 and 10.0 mg/ml of sample concentration, the antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts for 2.5 to 10 kGy irradiated lupin seeds were significantly higher than those of methanolic extracts of the non-irradiated control. Reducing powers of methanolic extracts from lupin irradiated at 2.5 and 5 kGy were comparable except for 10 kGy irradiated lupin seeds, and had more power than methanolic extracts from non-irradiated lupin. The reducing powers of the methanolic extract from 10 kGy irradiated lupin was decreased at all concentrations (from 0.5 to 10 mg/ml) than of methanolic extracts from non-irradiated or irradiated lupin seeds at 2.5 and 5 kGy. At 2.5 mg/ml, all methanolic extracts showed excellent scavenging abilities of 91.6 to 103.27% against DPPH radicals. The scavenging abilities of methanolic extracts from 2.5 to 10 kGy irradiated lupin were better than that of the non-irradiated control at 10 mg/ml. With irradiation at 2.5-10 kGy, lupin seeds showed higher chelating ability on ferrous ions than did the non-irradiated control. It could be concluded that gamma irradiation of lupin

  13. In-vitro screening of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of extracts from Palestinian indigenous flora in relation to the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

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    Mohammed Saleem Ali-Shtayeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cholinesterase inhibitory therapy serves as a strategy for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Several acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs are used for the symptomatic treatment of AD. These compounds have been reported to have adverse effects, including gastrointestinal disturbances. This study was therefore partly aimed at investigating in vitro possible AChEIs in herbal medicines traditionally used in Palestine to treat cognitive disorders, and to point out the role of these plants as potential sources for development of newly potent and safe natural therapeutic agents of AD. Assay of AChE activity plays an important role in vitro characterization of drugs including potential treatments for AD. The most widely used method, is based on Ellman’s method. The reactant used in this method shows chemical reactivity with oxime antidots and thiol leading to false positive reactions. A new alternative assay could be of high interest. Methods: The effect on AChE activity of 92 extracts of 47 medicinal plants were evaluated using a new micro-well plate AChE activity (NA-FB and Ellman’s assays. In addition, antioxidant activity using DPPH was determined. Results: The main advantages of the new method (NA-FB is that the colorimetric change is better observable visually allowing spectrophotometric as well as colorimetric assay, and does not show any chemical reactivity with thiol. 67.4% and 37% of extracts inhibited AChE by >50% using the NA-FB and Ellman’s assays, respectively. Using NA-FB assay, 84 extracts interacted reversibly with the enzyme, of which Mentha spicata (94.8%, Foeniculum vulgare (89.81, and Oxalis pes-caprae (89.21 were most potent, and 8 showed irreversible inhibition of which leaves of Lupinus pilosus (92.02% were most active. Antioxidant activity was demonstrated by 73 extracts Majorana syriaca (IC50 0.21mg/ml, and Rosmarinus officinalis (0.38 were the most active. Conclusions: NA-FB assay has shown to be

  14. Preliminary results of studies on the distribution of invasive alien vascular plant species occurring in semi-natural and natural habitats in NW Poland

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    Popiela Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Western Pomerania, as in other areas of Europe, alien species play an increasingly important role. In particular, invasive plants tend to spread rapidly and in large numbers which may reduce diversity of native species, leading to the phenomenon of “trivialisation of flora”, and transform ecosystems. The list of invasive species (32 taxa includes alien species occurring throughout Western Pomerania, and penetrating natural or semi-natural habitats. The second group consists of potentially invasive species (23 taxa, i.e. those distributed across the area under study and tending to increase the number of their localities in semi-natural and natural habitats, taxa invasive only locally, as well as species with missing data, which does not currently allow including them into the first group. Invasive weeds, as well as some epecophytes and archaeophytes occurring only on anthropogenic sites and tending to spread, were not taken into account. Among hemiagriophytes, the most common and troublesome ones are: Conyza canadensis, Erigeron annuus, Lolium multiflorum, Lupinus polyphyllus, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea. Among holoagriophytes, i.e. the taxa which received the highest naturalisation status, very expansive species, successful in land colonisation, like Acer negundo, Bidens frondosa, B. connata, Clematis vitalba, Elodea canadensis, Epilobium ciliatum, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Padus serotina, Quercus rubra and Robinia pseudoacacia, should be given particular attention. Among the invasive and potentially invasive species, most taxa penetrate plant communities of the Artemisietea and Molinio-Arrhenatheretea class, followed by Querco-Fagetea, Vaccinio-Piceetea, Stellarietea mediae, Salicetea purpurae and Koelerio-Corynophoretea. The number of invasive species is twice as high when compared to the situation of these species in Poland; on the contrary, the number of species inhabiting anthropogenic, semi

  15. Invasion of a Legume Ecosystem Engineer in a Cold Biome Alters Plant Biodiversity

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    Vanessa M. S. Vetter

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant ecosystem engineers are widely used to combat land degradation. However, the ability of those plants to modulate limiting abiotic and biotic resources of other species can cause damage to ecosystems in which they become invasive. Here, we use Lupinus nootkatensis as example to estimate and project the hazardous potential of nitrogen fixing herbaceous plants in a sub-polar oceanic climate. L. nootkatensis was introduced to Iceland in the 1940s to address erosion problems and foster reforestation, but subsequently became a high-latitude invader. In a local field survey, we quantified the impact of L. nootkatensis invasion at three different cover levels (0, 10–50, and 51–100% upon native plant diversity, richness, and community composition of heath-, wood-, and grasslands using a pairwise comparison design and comparisons of means. Afterward, we scaled impacts up to the ecosystem and landscape level by relating occurrences of L. nootkatensis to environmental and human-mediated variables across Iceland using a species distribution model. Plant diversity was significantly deteriorated under high lupine cover levels of the heath- and woodland, but not in the grassland. Plant species richness of the most diverse habitat, the heathland, linearly decreased with lupine cover level. The abundance of small rosettes, cushion plants, orchids, and small woody long-lived plants of the heath declined with invader presence, while the abundance of late successional species and widespread nitrophilous ruderals in wood- and grasslands increased. Distribution modeling revealed 13.3% of Iceland’s land surface area to be suitable lupine habitat. Until 2061–2080, this area will more than double and expand significantly into the Central Highlands due to human mediation and increasingly favorable climatic conditions. Species-rich habitats showed a loss of plant species diversity and richness as well as a change in community composition even in low lupine

  16. Community-specific biogeochemical responses to atmospheric nitrogen deposition in subalpine meadow ecosystems of the Cascade Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinsatte, J. P.; Rochefort, R.; Evans, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated anthropogenic nitrogen (N) emissions result in higher rates of atmospheric N deposition (Ndep) that can saturate sensitive ecosystems. Consequences of increased Ndep include higher emissions of greenhouse gases, eutrophication of watersheds, and deterioration of vegetation communities. Most of the annual N deposition at higher elevations in the Cascades is stored in snowpack until spring snowmelt when it is released as a pulse that can be assimilated by plant and microbial communities, or lost as gaseous emissions or leachate. The relative magnitude of these fluxes is unknown, particularly with accelerated rates of snowpack loss due to climate change. We quantified storage of Ndep in winter snowpack and determined impacts of Ndep on biogeochemical processes in a lush-herbaceous community characterized by Valeriana sitchensis and Lupinus latifolius, a heath-shrub community characterized by Phyllodoce empetriformis and Cassiope mertensiana, and a wet-sedge community dominated by Carex nigricans. These communities were selected to represent early, mid, and late snowmelt vegetation regimes prevalent throughout the Cascades. Ammonium (NH4+) was the dominant form of Ndep in winter snowpack and Ndep rates were higher than anticipated based on nearby National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements. Vegetation N uptake was the dominant N sink in the ecosystem, with the highest growing season uptake occurring in the lush-herbaceous community, while soil N leaching was the dominant N loss, with the lush-herbaceous also having the highest rates. Microbial biomass N fluctuated substantially across the growing season, with high biomass N immediately after snowmelt and again 30 days following snow release. Soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions peaked 30 days following snowmelt for all three communities and were greatest in the wet sedge community. These results indicate that subalpine communities have unique responses to Ndep that vary throughout the growing

  17. Relación entre densidad de hifas de hongos micorrizógenos arbusculares y producción de glomalina con las características físicas y químicas de suelos bajo cero labranza Relationships between arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphal density and glomalin production with physical and chemical characteristics of soils under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO R BORIE

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available La labranza reducida y la cero labranza (CL son las principales prácticas de manejo agrícola que contribuyen a la estabilidad de los suelos. En este estudio se determinó las relaciones existentes entre algunos parámetros micorrícicos, tales como la densidad del micelio extraradical y la produción de glomalina, una proteína exudada por las hifas del hongo, con las propiedades físicas y químicas de un alfisol bajo CL. Se muestrearon suelos en postcosecha a diferentes profundidades (0-50, 50-100 y 100-200 mm desde sitios con manejo de CL durante cuatro (4 CL, siete (7 CL y veinte (20 CL años y también un suelo con pradera natural, como testigo. Los resultados mostraron en todos los suelos a las tres profundidades un incremento del pH, P total, P disponible y carbono orgánico en la medida del incremento en los años con CL. La porosidad decreció sustantivamente en los primeros horizontes del suelo bajo 20 años de CL. La estabilidad al agua de los agregados de suelo se mantuvo similar en todos, con excepción del suelo con 7 CL debido a que Lupinus albus fue el cultivo precedente. La glomalina total y la fácilmente extractable se incrementaron en los suelos desde los 4 a los 20 años bajo CL, lo que representa alrededor del 0.36% de la materia orgánica en el horizonte superficial de este último. Se encontró una estrecha relación entre glomalina total y la fácilmente extractable (r² = 0,97 , entre carbono orgánico y glomalina total (r² = 0,96, entre pH y densidad de las hifas de las micorrizas (r² = 0,72 y entre densidad de hifas y P total (r² = 0,74. No se encontró correlación entre agregados estables al agua y glomalina o densidad del micelio, sugiriendo de que la agregación y estabilización en esos suelos podría estar gobernada por otro tipo de interaccionesReduced and no-tillage (NT are the main management practices contributing to the stability of agricultural land. We investigate the relationships between some

  18. In situ Rumen Degradation Kinetics of High-Protein Forage Crops in Temperate Climates Cinética de Degradación Ruminal in situ en Forrajes de Alto Contenido Proteico en Clima Templado

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    Ximena Valderrama L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional value and in situ degradation kinetics of eight high protein forage crops: alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., forage oat (Avena sativa L., mixed pasture, and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. pasture in early vegetative stages, two forage lupins (Lupinus albus L. in early bloom stages, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. and kale (Brassica napus var. pabularia (DC. Rchb. leaves at root maturity. Dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP degradation kinetics were evaluated by the nylon bag technique through the in situ procedure described by 0rskov and MacDonald (1979 using three ruminally cannulated sheep. Chemical composition of the forage crops showed on average 13.7% DM; 21.4% CP; 31.5% neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 17.7% crude fiber (CF, 80.6% digestibility of organic matter (DOMD and 12.13 MJ kg-1 metabolizable energy (ME. The high total degradability of forage crops reported here (> 87% DM; > 93% CP can be associated with the presence of large quantities of fraction a (> 34% DMa; > 29% CPa and high degradability of fraction b, resulting in low amounts of undegradable fraction (U (7.02% DM and 3.55% CP. Correlations between CPb and DMb degradability (r = 0.79 and CPc and DMc degradation rates (r = 0.78 were high, however differences in c were not explained by differences in CP or NDF contents, nor by the amounts of a or b fractions. Degradation for DM and CP during the first 6 h of incubation was strongly and inversely correlated to b (36 h (r = 0.93 (P El presente estudio se desarrolló con el objetivo de evaluar el valor nutricional y la cinética de degradación in situ de ocho forrajes de alto valor proteico: alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., avena (Avena sativa L., pastos mixtos y pastos de ballica (Lolium multiflorum Lam., en las primeras etapas vegetativas, dos lupinos forrajeros (Lupinus albus L. en etapas inicio de la floración, hojas de remolacha azucarera (Beta vulgaris L. y de col (Brassica

  19. The Pharmacognostic Research of L. luteus L.

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    O. V. Grechana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Genus Lupinus (Tourn. L., belonging to the Legume family Fabaceae, has large polymorphism. Currently there are known over 250 species of lupine. Wild lupine species are found in the Apennine, Iberian and Balkan peninsulas in Asia and also in the islands of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern and eastern coasts ofAfrica. Lupine is one of the oldest cultivated plants. More than four thousand years ago inEgypt, there was a highly developed culture of white lupine. The second branch of the ancient cultures was inSouth America, where another kind of lupine was cultivated – a variable one. InCentral Europe, lupine began to grow in the second half of the XIX century culture as a green manure, and then - as the most valuable forage plant. The first written information about lupine appeared in books of ancient physicians: Hippocrates and a botanist Theophrastus. One recalls lupine as a useful edible and medical cosmetic plant in works of prominent scholars of the ancient world, such as Dioscorides, Avicenna, Galen, Pliny, and others. In folk medicine lupine is used to stimulate appetite, used against boils and moles, as a remedy against worms and pain in the abdomen and liver. With cosmetic purposes it is used for hair growth and against wrinkles. Lupine is used as a fodder crop in different forms: green weight is well ensiled, hay and hay meal are prepared from it, lupine crops are used for green fodder and for pasture, and seed is excellent concentrated food. Main areas of crop areUkraine,Belarus,Russia. L. luteus L. - Yellow lupine was input into culture 130 years ago. Its wild forms are found throughout the Mediterranean coast (Western part of North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, Corsica,Sardinia,Sicily,SouthernItaly,Greece,Asia. Large selection work was carried out with yellow lupine - the protein content in the seeds is 40 % and green mass is 3,5; it has been ranked among the most cultivated species. In addition, its seeds contain up to 5 % of

  20. Enhanced phytoextraction of germanium and rare earth elements - a rhizosphere-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Germanium (Ge) and rare earth elements (REEs) are economically valuable raw materials that have become an integral part of our modern high tech society. While most of these elements are not actually rare in terms of general amounts in the earth's crust, they are rarely found in sufficient abundances in single locations for their mining to be economically viable. The average concentration of Ge in soils is estimated at 1.6 μg g-1. The REEs comprise a group of 16 elements including La, the group of lanthanides and Y that are abundant in the earth crust with concentrations varying from 35 μg g-1 (La), 40 μg g-1 (Nd), 6 μg g-1 (Gd) and 3.5 μg g-1 (Er) to 0.5 μg g-1 in Tm. Thus, a promising chance to improve supply of these elements could be phytomining. Unfortunately, bioavailability of Ge and REEs in soils appears to be low, in particular in neutral or alkaline soils. A sequential dissolution analysis of 120 soil samples taken from the A-horizons of soils in the area of Freiberg (Saxony, Germany) revealed that only 0.2% of total Ge and about 0.5% of La, Nd, Gd and Er of bulk concentrations were easily accessible by leaching with NH4-acetate (pH 7). Most of the investigated elements were bound to Fe-/Mn-oxides and silicates and were therefore only poorly available for plant uptake. Here we report an environmentally friendly approach for enhanced phytoextraction of Ge and REEs from soils using mixed cultures of plant species with efficient mechanisms for the acquisition of nutrients in the rhizosphere. The rhizosphere is characterized as the zone in soil sourrounding a plant root that consists of a gradient in chemical, physical and biological soil properties driven by rhizodeposits like carboxylates and protons. Some species like white lupin (Lupinus albus) are able to excrete large amounts of organic acid anions(predominantly citrate and malate) and show a particularly high potential for the acidification of the rhizosphere. In our experiments, mixed cultures

  1. Identification of invasive and expansive plant species based on airborne hyperspectral and ALS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Kuc, Gabriela; Jóźwiak, Jacek; Demarchi, Luca; Chormański, Jarosław; Marcinkowska-Ochtyra, Adriana; Ochtyra, Adrian; Jarocińska, Anna; Sabat, Anita; Zagajewski, Bogdan; Tokarska-Guzik, Barbara; Bzdęga, Katarzyna; Pasierbiński, Andrzej; Fojcik, Barbara; Jędrzejczyk-Korycińska, Monika; Kopeć, Dominik; Wylazłowska, Justyna; Woziwoda, Beata; Michalska-Hejduk, Dorota; Halladin-Dąbrowska, Anna

    2017-04-01

    . Simultaneously to airborne data acquisitions also botanical surveys were performed covering in total 5680 reference plots for 18 alien invasive and native expansive plant species (1886 in first flight campaign, 1907 in second and 1887 in third). The collected data were used to identify species characteristics such as spectral properties among others (percentage cover, growth stage, discoloration, coexisting species, land use, plant litter). The research includes 10 invasive alien species and 8 native expansive plant species. Amongst plant species selected for the purposes of this study were: Robinia pseudoacacia, Padus serotina, Rumex confertus, Erigeron annuus, Spiraea tomentosa, Solidago spp., Lupinus polyphyllus, Reynoutria spp., Echinocystis lobata and Heracleum spp. as alien invasive species, and Urtica dioica, Filipendula ulmaria, Phragmites australis, Rubus spp, Calamagrostis epigejos, Cirsium arvense, Molinia caerulea, Deschampsia caespitosa as native expansive species. In this study we present the methodology used for identification of invasive alien and expansive native plant species using hyperspectral and airborne laser data with resulting accuracies using different classification methods and exemplary distribution maps. The research within this study will be continued during growing season of the year 2017. Acknowledgements This research has been carried out under the Biostrateg Programme of the Polish National Centre for Research and Development (NCBiR), project No.: DZP/BIOSTRATEG-II/390/2015: The innovative approach supporting monitoring of non-forest Natura 2000 habitats, using remote sensing methods (HabitARS).

  2. Interpretación fitosociológica de la vegetación de las lomas del desierto peruano

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    Antonio Galán de Mera

    2011-06-01

    lomas” constitutes the main originality of the Peruvian and Chilean desert with a high number of endemics that shapes the vicarious associations. in this work, a phytosociological view of sandy environments of the Peruvian coastal desert is presented. According to the Braun-Blanquet method, we have made up 32 phytosociological inventories and added 138 ones from others authors. in each inventory, we have analyzed its floristic composition and ecological parameters, as altitude, soil and geomorphology. All releves were synthesized in a table to deduce the different associations, higher phytosociological units, and the distribution of its flora along the Peruvian coast and the Andean Cordillera. Using the Shannon-Wiener diversity index, the diversity of this flora is discussed making a comparison with historical data about the use of the territory with livestock during pre-inca and inca cultures, and Spanish invasion. As a result, two associations from Southern Peru -Nolanetum scaposo-spathulatae and Palauetum camanensis-weberbaueri-, two alliances -Nolanion humifusae from central Peru, and Nolanion spathulatae from the Southern Peru- and a new order -Tetragonio crystallinae- Plantaginetalia limensis- are described. In Nolanetum scaposo-spathulatae, Dictyophragnus englerianus, Leptoglossis lomana, Nolana scaposa, N. spathulata, Palaua velutina and Tetragonia vestita are the main characteristics, while in Palauetum camanensis-weberbaueri association N. scaposa and P. velutina are replaced by Palaua camanensis and P. weberbaueri. Nolanion humifusae alliance integrates species as Geranium limae, Hymenocallis amancaes, Nolana humifusa, N. latipes, Palaua rhombifolia or Villanova oppositifolia. Likewise, Cistanthe weberbaueri, Cryptantha parviflora, Hoffmannseggia miranda, Lupinus mollendoensis, Nolana confinis, N. pallidula, N. scaposa, N. spathulata, Palaua camanensis, P. velutina, P. weberbaueri, Tetragonia vestita and Weberbauerella brongniartioides are the characteristic species of

  3. Prémiers éléments d'une approche écologique du versant de Pampas-La Florida-San Juan-Huascoy

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    1975-01-01

    et Puya sur les affleurements rocheux -faciès à Schinus molle et Arundinacées dans les fonds de vallée humides, qu'il partage avec les cultures fruitières du 'fundo'. -étage tempéré: il est occupé par une végétation de type maquis à petits buissons et graminées c'est la zone de plus forte pression humaine. Le climat y est tempéré, mais sec du fait de la longue sécheresse hivernale les gels nocturnes sont fréquents en saison sèche. Il regroupe sûrement plusieurs étages qu'il nous est difficile de séparer pour l'instant. On peut néanmoins y distinguer: -une zone basse (en dessous de 3000 m, à Agave Pitcairnia et Fourcroya -une zone moyenne à nombreux ligneux bas, ou domine Calceolaria -une zone supérieure dominée par Lupinus. -étage d'altitude: il s'étend au dessus de 4200, m et est caractérisé par une végétation basse (touffes, coussinets, rosettes basales et un climat froid (moyenne annuelle inférieure à 6ºC et relativement humide (précipitations annuelles supérieures à 600 mm. On y discerne: -une zone basse à Tafalla thuroides, -une zone moyenne à 'Ichu' (Calamagrostis, Festuca, -une zone supérieure, au-dessus de 4500 m, à végétation claire et rase, ou abondent les plantes en coussinet (Pycniphyllum, Baccharis, Opuntia,... Les graminées préfèrent les substrats meubles, laissant les affleurements rocheux aux plantes en coussinet. Les dépressions humides sont le siège de tourbières à Distichia muscoides. Sur l'ensemble du versant, les Composées sont la famille la mieux représentée, avec les Graminées. Les Broméliacées et les Cactacées se rencontrent à toutes les altitudes. Les ligneux hauts sont quasi absents les ligneux bas sont très abondants (buissonnants, rampants, en coussinets,.... Les formes de résistance (chaméphytes en coussinets, géophytes, hémicryptophytes, plantes succulentes, plantes aphylles, grand développement des organes souterrains, .. abondent. Este artículo constituye un primer