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Sample records for lung weight continuously

  1. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the normal fetal lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Bankier, Alexander; Herold, Christian J.; Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Csapo, Bence; Bammer, Roland

    2008-01-01

    To quantify apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes in fetuses with normal lungs and to determine whether ADC can be used in the assessment of fetal lung development. In 53 pregnancies (20-37th weeks of gestation), we measured ADC on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the apical, middle, and basal thirds of the right lung. ADCs were correlated with gestational age. Differences between the ADCs were assessed. Fetal lung volumes were measured on T2-weighted sequences and correlated with ADCs and with age. ADCs were 2.13 ± 0.44 μm 2 /ms (mean ± SD) in the apex, 1.99 ± 0.42 μm 2 /ms (mean ± SD) in the middle third, and 1.91 ± 0.41 μm 2 /ms (mean ± SD) in the lung base. Neither the individual ADC values nor average ADC values showed a significant correlation with gestational age or with lung volumes. Average ADCs decreased significantly from the lung apex toward the base. Individual ADCs showed little absolute change and heterogeneity. Lung volumes increased significantly during gestation. We have not been able to identify a pattern of changes in the ADC values that correlate with lung maturation. Furthermore, the individual, gravity-related ADC changes are subject to substantial variability and show nonuniform behavior. ADC can therefore not be used as an indicator of lung maturity. (orig.)

  2. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the normal fetal lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Bankier, Alexander; Herold, Christian J.; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria); Csapo, Bence [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Gyneocology, Vienna (Austria); Bammer, Roland [University of Stanford, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2008-04-15

    To quantify apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes in fetuses with normal lungs and to determine whether ADC can be used in the assessment of fetal lung development. In 53 pregnancies (20-37th weeks of gestation), we measured ADC on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the apical, middle, and basal thirds of the right lung. ADCs were correlated with gestational age. Differences between the ADCs were assessed. Fetal lung volumes were measured on T2-weighted sequences and correlated with ADCs and with age. ADCs were 2.13 {+-} 0.44 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms (mean {+-} SD) in the apex, 1.99 {+-} 0.42 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms (mean {+-} SD) in the middle third, and 1.91 {+-} 0.41 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms (mean {+-} SD) in the lung base. Neither the individual ADC values nor average ADC values showed a significant correlation with gestational age or with lung volumes. Average ADCs decreased significantly from the lung apex toward the base. Individual ADCs showed little absolute change and heterogeneity. Lung volumes increased significantly during gestation. We have not been able to identify a pattern of changes in the ADC values that correlate with lung maturation. Furthermore, the individual, gravity-related ADC changes are subject to substantial variability and show nonuniform behavior. ADC can therefore not be used as an indicator of lung maturity. (orig.)

  3. Analytic continuation of weighted Bergman kernels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engliš, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 6 (2010), s. 622-650 ISSN 0021-7824 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190802 Keywords : Bergman kernel * analytic continuation * Toeplitz operator Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.450, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021782410000942

  4. A decade of lung expansion. A review of ventilation-weighted {sup 1}H lung MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjoerstad, Aasmund; Fiehler, Jens; Sedlacik, Jan [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Regier, Marc [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2017-10-01

    In 2006, a novel method for extracting functional ventilation-weighted lung images using MRI was published. The method exploited the naturally occurring density changes in the lung during breathing and the resulting images showed a clear clinical potential. A decade later, the method has been adapted and further developed by several research groups and has led to many encouraging pre-clinical studies, both in animals and in humans. In this paper we show the development of the method and summarize the current state-of-the-art, aiming to both inform and motivate students and researchers with an interest in this exciting field.

  5. A decade of lung expansion. A review of ventilation-weighted 1H lung MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjoerstad, Aasmund; Fiehler, Jens; Sedlacik, Jan; Regier, Marc

    2017-01-01

    In 2006, a novel method for extracting functional ventilation-weighted lung images using MRI was published. The method exploited the naturally occurring density changes in the lung during breathing and the resulting images showed a clear clinical potential. A decade later, the method has been adapted and further developed by several research groups and has led to many encouraging pre-clinical studies, both in animals and in humans. In this paper we show the development of the method and summarize the current state-of-the-art, aiming to both inform and motivate students and researchers with an interest in this exciting field.

  6. Continuous gamma irradiation influence on food intake, body weight, and weight of some rat organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatova, Z [Institute of Neurobiology SAV, Kosice (Czechoslovakia); Sedlakova, A; Ahlers, I; Praslicka, M [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Prirodovedecka Fakulta

    1977-01-01

    Food intake, body weight and weight of some organs were studied in male Wistar rats within 25 days of continuous gamma irradiation at a dose rate of 15.48 x 10/sup -3/ C/kg (6O R) per day in an experimental gamma field. A decrease in food intake and body weight and a decrease in thymus and spleen weights were found during the first week in irradiated rats. The thymus and spleen involutions did not progress within the second week. From the beginning of the third week till the end of the experiment the irradiated animals increased their weight and the food intake was even higher during the last week of irradiation in comparison with controls. The spleen and thymus involutions stopped but the weight remained at the lower level. The relative weight of the adrenal glands in irradiated animals only increased at the end of the period.

  7. Reduced local immune response with continuous positive airway pressure during one-lung ventilation for oesophagectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhage, R. J. J.; Boone, J.; Rijkers, G. T.; Cromheecke, G. J.; Kroese, A. C.; Weijs, T. J.; Borel Rinkes, I. H. M.; van Hillegersberg, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Transthoracic oesophagectomy requires prolonged one-lung ventilation causing systemic and local inflammatory responses. Application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to the collapsed lung potentially reduces pulmonary damage, hypoxia, and consequent inflammation. This

  8. Weight loss and elevated gluconeogenesis from alanine in lung cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Leij-Halfwerk (Susanne); P.C. Dagnelie (Pieter); J.W.O. van den Berg (Willem); J.L.D. Wattimena (Josias); C.H. Hordijk-Luijk; J.H.P. Wilson (Paul)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The role of gluconeogenesis from protein in the pathogenesis of weight loss in lung cancer is unclear. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study gluconeogenesis from alanine in lung cancer patients and to analyze its relation to the degree of weight loss.

  9. SU-E-J-87: Ventilation Weighting Effect On Mean Doses of Both Side Lungs for Patients with Advanced Stage Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, H; Xia, P; Yu, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study ventilation weighting effect on radiation doses to both side lungs for patients with advanced stage lung cancer. Methods: Fourteen patients with advanced stage lung cancer were included in this retrospective study. Proprietary software was developed to calculate the lung ventilation map based on 4DCT images acquired for radiation therapy. Two phases of inhale (0%) and exhale (50%) were used for the lung ventilation calculations. For each patient, the CT images were resampled to the same dose calculation resolution of 3mmx3mmx3mm. The ventilation distribution was then normalized by the mean value of the ventilation. The ventilation weighted dose was calculated by applying linearly weighted ventilation to the dose of each pixel. The lung contours were automatically delineated from patient CT image with lung window, excluding the tumor and high density tissues. For contralateral and ipsilateral lungs, the mean lung doses from the original plan and ventilation weighted mean lung doses were compared using two tail t-Test. Results: The average of mean dose was 6.1 ±3.8Gy for the contralateral lungs, and 26.2 ± 14.0Gy for the ipsilateral lungs. The average of ventilation weighted dose was 6.3± 3.8Gy for the contralateral lungs and 24.6 ± 13.1Gy for the ipsilateral lungs. The statistics analysis shows the significance of the mean dose increase (p<0.015) for the contralateral lungs and decrease (p<0.005) for the ipsilateral lungs. Conclusion: Ventilation weighted doses were greater than the un-weighted doses for contralateral lungs and smaller for ipsilateral lungs. This Result may be helpful to understand the radiation dosimetric effect on the lung function and provide planning guidance for patients with advance stage lung cancer

  10. Weight preserving image registration for monitoring disease progression in lung CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Haseem, Ashraf

    2008-01-01

    We present a new image registration based method for monitoring regional disease progression in longitudinal image studies of lung disease. A free-form image registration technique is used to match a baseline 3D CT lung scan onto a following scan. Areas with lower intensity in the following scan...... the density of lung tissue with respect to local expansion or compression such that the total weight of the lungs is preserved during deformation. Our method provides a good estimation of regional destruction of lung tissue for subjects with a significant difference in inspiration level between CT scans...

  11. Weight preserving image registration for monitoring disease progression in lung CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Lol, Pechin; Ashraf, Haseem; Dirksen, Asger; Nielsen, Mads; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2008-01-01

    We present a new image registration based method for monitoring regional disease progression in longitudinal image studies of lung disease. A free-form image registration technique is used to match a baseline 3D CT lung scan onto a following scan. Areas with lower intensity in the following scan compared with intensities in the deformed baseline image indicate local loss of lung tissue that is associated with progression of emphysema. To account for differences in lung intensity owing to differences in the inspiration level in the two scans rather than disease progression, we propose to adjust the density of lung tissue with respect to local expansion or compression such that the total weight of the lungs is preserved during deformation. Our method provides a good estimation of regional destruction of lung tissue for subjects with a significant difference in inspiration level between CT scans and may result in a more sensitive measure of disease progression than standard quantitative CT measures.

  12. Continuous use of an adaptive lung ventilation controller in critically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-05-05

    May 5, 1995 ... Adaptive lung ventilation (ALV) refers to closed-loop mechanical ventilation designed to work ... optimise the controller performance, the volume controller .... PawEE), vital capacity IYC), an index of airway resistance relative to ...

  13. Vitamin D Depletion in Pregnancy Decreases Survival Time, Oxygen Saturation, Lung Weight and Body Weight in Preterm Rat Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sine Lykkedegn

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest a role of vitamin D in fetal lung development although not studied in preterm animals. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates respiratory insufficiency in preterm rat offspring. Furthermore, the effects of vitamin D depletion on growth and lung surfactant were investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned low vitamin D (VDL or control diet before mating and followed with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OHD determinations. After cesarean section at gestational day 19 (E19 or day 22 (E22, placental weight, birth weight, crown-rump-length (CRL, oxygenation (SaO2 at 30 min and survival time were recorded. The pup lungs were analyzed for phospholipid levels, surfactant protein A-D mRNA and the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR. S-25(OHD was significantly lower in the VDL group at cesarean section (12 vs. 30nmol/L, p<0.0001. Compared to the controls, E19 VDL pups had lower birth weight (2.13 vs. 2.29g, p<0.001, lung weight (0.09 vs. 0.10g, p = 0.002, SaO2 (54% vs. 69%, p = 0.002 as well as reduced survival time (0.50 vs. 1.25h, p<0.0001. At E22, the VDL-induced pulmonary differences were leveled out, but VDL pups had lower CRL (4.0 vs. 4.5cm, p<0.0001. The phospholipid levels and the surfactant protein mRNA expression did not differ between the dietary groups. In conclusion, Vitamin D depletion led to lower oxygenation and reduced survival time in the preterm offspring, associated with reduced lung weight and birth weight. Further studies of vitamin D depletion in respiratory insufficiency in preterm neonates are warranted.

  14. Vitamin D Depletion in Pregnancy Decreases Survival Time, Oxygen Saturation, Lung Weight and Body Weight in Preterm Rat Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkedegn, Sine; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies suggest a role of vitamin D in fetal lung development although not studied in preterm animals. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates respiratory insufficiency in preterm rat offspring. Furthermore, the effects of vitamin D depletion on growth and lung...... surfactant were investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned low vitamin D (VDL) or control diet before mating and followed with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) determinations. After cesarean section at gestational day 19 (E19) or day 22 (E22), placental weight, birth weight, crown......-rump-length (CRL), oxygenation (SaO2) at 30 min and survival time were recorded. The pup lungs were analyzed for phospholipid levels, surfactant protein A-D mRNA and the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). S-25(OH)D was significantly lower in the VDL group at cesarean section (12 vs. 30nmol/L, p

  15. Weight of evidence analysis of lung cancer in Colorado Plateau uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeer, P.G.; Wallace, P.W.; Pereira, A. de B.

    1989-01-01

    The authors use a Bayesian contingency table analysis to assess lung cancer in the Colorado plateau uranium miners. This population is studied by Whittemore, Hornung and BEIR-IV, but none of these includes the radiation dose from hard rock mining that about 38% of the miners have accumulated. The analysis uses 'weight of evidence' which Good applied to the analysis of lung cancer many years ago. The analysis indicates that only in those exposed for a long period and at high exposure rates is the weight of evidence positive with a coefficient of variation less than unity that radiation is associated with the lung cancers. The coefficient of variation is a criterion of the significance of the weight of evidence for the association of the radon exposure in the miners with lung cancer. In the subsequent discussion it is suggested that this approach is similar to the probability of causation, which it is not. (author)

  16. Development and validation of continuous energy adjoint-weighted calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truchet, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    A key issue in nowadays Reactor Physics is to propagate input data uncertainties (e.g. nuclear data, manufacturing tolerances, etc.) to nuclear codes final results (e.g. k(eff), reaction rate, etc.). In order to propagate uncertainties, one typically assumes small variations around a reference and evaluates at first sensitivity profiles. Problem is that nuclear Monte Carlo codes are not - or were not until very recently - able to straightforwardly process such sensitivity profiles, even thought they are considered as reference codes. First goal of this PhD thesis is to implement a method to calculate k(eff)-sensitivity profiles to nuclear data or any perturbations in TRIPOLI-4, the CEA Monte Carlo neutrons transport code. To achieve such a goal, a method has first been developed to calculate the adjoint flux using the Iterated Fission Probability (IFP) principle that states that the adjoint flux at a given phase space point is proportional to the neutron importance in a just critical core after several power iterations. Thanks to our developments, it has been made possible, for the fist time, to calculate the continuous adjoint flux for an actual and complete reactor core configuration. From that new feature, we have elaborated a new method able to forwardly apply the exact perturbation theory in Monte Carlo codes. Exact perturbation theory does not rely on small variations which makes possible to calculate very complex experiments. Finally and after a deep analysis of the IFP method, this PhD thesis also reproduces and improves an already used method to calculate adjoint weighted kinetic parameters as well as reference migrations areas. (author) [fr

  17. Smoking cessation, lung function, and weight gain : a follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Melotti, R; Luczynska, C; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; de Marco, R; Gislason, T; Heinrich, J; Janson, C; Kunzli, N; Leynaert, B; Neukirch, F; Schouten, J; Sunyer, J; Svanes, C; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    2005-01-01

    Background Only one population-based study in one country has reported effects of smoking cessation and weight change on lung function, and none has reported the net effect. We estimated the net benefit of smoking cessation, and the independent effects of smoking and weight change on change in

  18. Histological evaluation of lung cancer with T2-weighted magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Takashi; Matsuura, Yoshifumi; Shioya, Sumie; Ohta, Yasuyo

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the differences in signal intensity of lung cancer tissue and non-cancerous lung tissues on T 2 -weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. MR images were obtained from patients with squamous cell carcinoma (n=6), adenocarcinoma (n=5), small cell carcinoma (n=5), and large cell carcinoma (n=1). To compare the MR signal intensity between tissues, we calculated the signal intensity ratios for tumor/skeletal muscle and lung/skeletal muscle. The MR signal intensity for each tissue was measured with a densitometer and T 2 -weighted MR images with a similar window and a center. The value of the signal intensity ratio for squamous cell carcinoma (3.26±0.76) was greater than those for adenocarcinoma (1.99±0.50, p<0.05), small cell carcinoma (2.35±0.60), large cell carcinoma (2.46), and non-cancerous lung tissues (1.70±0.68, p<0.02). The values of the MR signal intensity ratio for non-cancerous lung tissues were 2.00 for a collapsed lung, 0.93 for a fibrotic lung, and 2.18 for a fibrotic lung with obstructive pneumonia. The results suggest that the MR signal intensity ratio for pathologic tissues/normal skeletal muscle can be a useful indicator for qualitative and quantitative MR imaging diagnosis. (author)

  19. Cigarette smoking and lung cancer: a continuing controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, P R

    1982-09-01

    During the late 1950s Sir Ronald Fisher questioned the already popular, but in his view precipitate, causal interpretation of the association between smoking and lung cancer. His pungently expressed views began a controversy that has smouldered and sometimes flared ever since. The most recent attack on Fisher's constitutional hypothesis was launched by Reif and in this paper I consider the validity of his criticisms. A range of evidence shows that it is not yet possible to distinguish between constitutional and causal-plus-constitutional interpretations although recent studies indicate that a pure causal hypothesis is incapable of explaining the full association as observed in Western populations. Unfortunately, errors of diagnosis and death certification still impede the rigorous testing of adequately formulated hypotheses.

  20. intensity continuous training on lung function and cardiorespiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sci

    exercise, Faculty of Medicine Ibn El Jazzar, University of Sousse, Tunisia. 4. Research Unit (EM2S) .... normolipidemic (fasting triglycerides<1.7 mmol/L), nonobese. ...... Effects of intermittent and continuous training on the blood pressure of ...

  1. Diffusion on Networks and Diffusion Weighted NMR of the Human Lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Niels

    2011-01-01

    of the diffusion propagator to general properties of the underlying graph. Diffusion weighted NMR of the human lung with hyperpolarized noble gases, which over the last decade has been demonstrated to be a very promising way of detecting and quantifying lung diseases like emphysema, represent an obvious...... application of the above mentioned theory, given that the human lung consists of a large network of bifurcating tube like airways. 90-95% of the gas in a human lung resides in the ~30000 pulmonary acini, each of these consists of ~500 airways, which are connected as the edges in a binary tree. We model...... diffusion in the pulmonary acini as diffusion on metric graphs with this structure. The metric graph for each individual pulmonary acinus is embedded in three dimensional space via line segments. By considering an isotropic distribution of acini and a symmetric branching geometry for the line segments...

  2. On the Projective Description of Weighted (LF-Spaces of Continuous Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine V. Komarchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We solve the problem of the topological or algebraic description of countable inductive limits of weighted Fréchet spaces of continuous functions on a cone. This problem is investigated for two families of weights defined by positively homogeneous functions. Weights of this form play the important role in Fourier analysis.

  3. Effect of nasal continuous and biphasic positive airway pressure on lung volume in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Martijn; van der Burg, Pauline S.; Beuger, Sabine; de Jongh, Frans H.; Frerichs, Inez; van Kaam, Anton H.

    2013-01-01

    To monitor regional changes in end-expiratory lung volume (EELV), tidal volumes, and their ventilation distribution during different levels of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) and nasal biphasic positive airway pressure (BiPAP) in stable preterm infants. By using electrical

  4. Lower radiation weighting factor for radon indicated in mechanistic modelling of human lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugmans, M.J.P.; Leenhouts, H.P.

    2002-01-01

    A two-mutation carcinogenesis (TMC) model was fitted to the age-dependent lung cancer incidence in a cohort of Dutch Hodgkin patients treated with radiotherapy. Employing the results of previous TMC analyses of lung cancer due to smoking (by British doctors) and due to exposure to radon (for Colorado miners) a model fit was obtained with an estimate for the low LET radiation effect at the cellular level. This allows risk calculations for lung cancer from low LET radiation. The excess absolute risks are in tune with the values reported in the literature, the excess relative risks differ among the exposed groups. Comparing the cellular radiation coefficients for radon and for low LET radiation leads to an estimated radiation weighting factor for radon of 3 (0.1-6). (author)

  5. An Automated and Continuous Plant Weight Measurement System for Plant Factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Tai; Yeh, Yu-Hui F; Liu, Ting-Yu; Lin, Ta-Te

    2016-01-01

    In plant factories, plants are usually cultivated in nutrient solution under a controllable environment. Plant quality and growth are closely monitored and precisely controlled. For plant growth evaluation, plant weight is an important and commonly used indicator. Traditional plant weight measurements are destructive and laborious. In order to measure and record the plant weight during plant growth, an automated measurement system was designed and developed herein. The weight measurement system comprises a weight measurement device and an imaging system. The weight measurement device consists of a top disk, a bottom disk, a plant holder and a load cell. The load cell with a resolution of 0.1 g converts the plant weight on the plant holder disk to an analog electrical signal for a precise measurement. The top disk and bottom disk are designed to be durable for different plant sizes, so plant weight can be measured continuously throughout the whole growth period, without hindering plant growth. The results show that plant weights measured by the weight measurement device are highly correlated with the weights estimated by the stereo-vision imaging system; hence, plant weight can be measured by either method. The weight growth of selected vegetables growing in the National Taiwan University plant factory were monitored and measured using our automated plant growth weight measurement system. The experimental results demonstrate the functionality, stability and durability of this system. The information gathered by this weight system can be valuable and beneficial for hydroponic plants monitoring research and agricultural research applications.

  6. An Automated and Continuous Plant Weight Measurement System for Plant Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Tai eChen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In plant factories, plants are usually cultivated in nutrient solution under a controllable environment. Plant quality and growth are closely monitored and precisely controlled. For plant growth evaluation, plant weight is an important and commonly used indicator. Traditional plant weight measurements are destructive and laborious. In order to measure and record the plant weight during plant growth, an automated measurement system was designed and developed herein. The weight measurement system comprises a weight measurement device and an imaging system. The weight measurement device consists of a top disk, a bottom disk, a plant holder and a load cell. The load cell with a resolution of 0.1 g converts the plant weight on the plant holder disk to an analogue electrical signal for a precise measurement. The top disk and bottom disk are designed to be durable for different plant sizes, so plant weight can be measured continuously throughout the whole growth period, without hindering plant growth. The results show that plant weights measured by the weight measurement device are highly correlated with the weights estimated by the stereo-vision imaging system; hence, plant weight can be measured by either method. The weight growth of selected vegetables growing in the National Taiwan University plant factory were monitored and measured using our automated plant growth weight measurement system. The experimental results demonstrate the functionality, stability and durability of this system. The information gathered by this weight system can be valuable and beneficial for hydroponic plants monitoring research and agricultural research applications.

  7. Characterization of the best polynomial approximation with a sign-sensitive weight to a continuous function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramazanov, A.-R K

    2005-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions for the best polynomial approximation with an arbitrary and, generally speaking, unbounded sign-sensitive weight to a continuous function are obtained; the components of the weight can also take infinite values, therefore the conditions obtained cover, in particular, approximation with interpolation at fixed points and one-sided approximation; in the case of the weight with components equal to 1 one arrives at Chebyshev's classical alternation theorem.

  8. The impact of birth weight on the level of lung function and lung function decline in the general adult population. The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Sophie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported an association between low birth weight and low adult lung function, but findings have not been consistent. The aim of this study was to investigate whether birth weight is associated with both the level and the decline in adult lung function in general...... population. METHODS: The Danish Inter99 study is a population-based intervention study in adults aged 30-60 years, providing information on birth weight and lung function on 4428 participants. Of these, 2931 participants performed spirometry at baseline and at five-year follow-up. Multiple linear regression...... models were used to examine the association between birth weight and forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) and age-related decline in these variables. Analyses were conducted stepwise including sex, age, adult height, abdominal circumference, birth height, mother...

  9. Constructing inverse probability weights for continuous exposures: a comparison of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Ashley I; Moodie, Erica E M; Auger, Nathalie; Kaufman, Jay S

    2014-03-01

    Inverse probability-weighted marginal structural models with binary exposures are common in epidemiology. Constructing inverse probability weights for a continuous exposure can be complicated by the presence of outliers, and the need to identify a parametric form for the exposure and account for nonconstant exposure variance. We explored the performance of various methods to construct inverse probability weights for continuous exposures using Monte Carlo simulation. We generated two continuous exposures and binary outcomes using data sampled from a large empirical cohort. The first exposure followed a normal distribution with homoscedastic variance. The second exposure followed a contaminated Poisson distribution, with heteroscedastic variance equal to the conditional mean. We assessed six methods to construct inverse probability weights using: a normal distribution, a normal distribution with heteroscedastic variance, a truncated normal distribution with heteroscedastic variance, a gamma distribution, a t distribution (1, 3, and 5 degrees of freedom), and a quantile binning approach (based on 10, 15, and 20 exposure categories). We estimated the marginal odds ratio for a single-unit increase in each simulated exposure in a regression model weighted by the inverse probability weights constructed using each approach, and then computed the bias and mean squared error for each method. For the homoscedastic exposure, the standard normal, gamma, and quantile binning approaches performed best. For the heteroscedastic exposure, the quantile binning, gamma, and heteroscedastic normal approaches performed best. Our results suggest that the quantile binning approach is a simple and versatile way to construct inverse probability weights for continuous exposures.

  10. Magnetic induction pneumography: a planar coil system for continuous monitoring of lung function via contactless measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doga Gursoy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of lung function is of particular interest to the mechanically ventilated patients during critical care. Recent studies have shown that magnetic induction measurements with single coils provide signals which are correlated with the lung dynamics and this idea is extended here by using a 5 by 5 planar coil matrix for data acquisition in order to image the regional thoracic conductivity changes. The coil matrix can easily be mounted onto the patient bed, and thus, the problems faced in methods that use contacting sensors can readily be eliminated and the patient comfort can be improved. In the proposed technique, the data are acquired by successively exciting each coil in order to induce an eddy-current density within the dorsal tissues and measuring the corresponding response magnetic field strength by the remaining coils. The recorded set of data is then used to reconstruct the internal conductivity distribution by means of algorithms that minimize the residual norm between the estimated and measured data. To investigate the feasibility of the technique, the sensitivity maps and the point spread functions at different locations and depths were studied. To simulate a realistic scenario, a chest model was generated by segmenting the tissue boundaries from NMR images. The reconstructions of the ventilation distribution and the development of an edematous lung injury were presented. The imaging artifacts caused by either the incorrect positioning of the patient or the expansion of the chest wall due to breathing were illustrated by simulations.

  11. The diagnostic accuracy of physical examination compared to lung ultrasound for determining lung congestion in hemodialysis patients who have reached their dry weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahardjo, K. D.; Dharmaeizar; Nainggolan, G.; Harimurti, K.

    2017-08-01

    Research has shown that hemodialysis patients with lung congestion have high morbidity and mortality. Patients were assumed to be free of lung congestion if they had reached their post-dialysis dry weight. Most often, to determine if the patient was free of lung congestion, physical examination was used. However, the accuracy of physical examination in detecting lung congestion has not been established. To compare the capabilities of physical examination and lung ultrasound in detection of lung congestion, cross-sectional data collection was conducted on hemodialysis patients. Analysis was done to obtain proportion, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and positive likelihood ratio. Sixty patients participated in this study. The inter observer variation of 20 patients revealed a kappa value of 0.828. When all 60 patients were taken into account, we found that 36 patients (57.1%) had lung congestion. Mild lung congestion was found in 24 (38.1%), and 12 (19%) had a moderate degree of congestion. In the analysis comparing jugular venous pressure to lung ultrasound, we found that sensitivity was 0.47 (0.31-0.63), specificity was 0.73 (0.54-0.86), positive predictive value (PPV) was 0.51 (0.36-0.67), negative predictive value (NPV) was 0.70 (0.49-0.84), positive likelihood ratio (PLR) was 1.75 (0.88-3.47), and the negative likelihood ratio (NLR) was 0.72 (0.47-1.12). In terms of lung auscultation, we found that sensitivity was 0.56 (0.39-0.71), specificity was 0.54 (0.35-0.71), PPV was 0.61 (0.44-0.76), NPV was 0.48 (0.31-0.66), PLR was 1.21 (0.73-2.0), and NLR was 0.82 (0.49-1.38). The results of our study showed that jugular venous distention and lung auscultation examination are not reliable means of detecting lung congestion.

  12. High frequency oscillatory ventilation with lung volume optimization in very low birth weight newborns – a nine-year experience

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    José Nona

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcome of very low birth weight newborns, submitted to high frequency oscillatory ventilation with a strategy of early lung volume optimization. Methods: Descriptive prospective study in a nine-year period, between 1999 January 1st to 2008 January 1st. All the very low birth weight newborns were born in Dr. Alfredo da Costa Maternity, Lisbon, Portugal, were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and submitted to high frequency oscillatory ventilation with early lung volume optimization; these newborns were followed-up since birth and their charts were analyzed periodically until hospital discharge. Rresults: From a total population of 730 very low birth weight inborns, 117 babies died (16% and 613 survived (84%. The median of birth weight was 975 g and the gestational age median was 28 weeks. For the survivors, the median ventilation and oxygenation times were 3 and 18 days, respectively. The incidence of chronic lung disease was 9.5%, with nine newborns discharged on oxygen therapy. The incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage III – IV (total population group was 11.5% and the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity grade 3 or higher was 8.0%. Cconclusions: High frequency oscillatory ventilation with early lung volume optimization strategy reduced the need of respiratory support, and improved pulmonary and global outcomes in very low birth weight infants with respiratory distress syndrome.

  13. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP after lung resection: a randomized clinical trial

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    Ligia dos Santos Roceto

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Noninvasive mechanical ventilation during the postoperative period (PO following lung resection can restore residual functional capacity, improve oxygenation and spare the inspiratory muscles. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP associated with physiotherapy, compared with physiotherapy alone after lung resection. DESIGN AND SETTING: Open randomized clinical trial conducted in the clinical hospital of Universidade Estadual de Campinas. METHOD: Sessions were held in the immediate postoperative period (POi and on the first and second postoperative days (PO1 and PO2, and the patients were reassessed on the discharge day. CPAP was applied for two hours and the pressure adjustment was set between 7 and 8.5 cmH2O. The oxygenation index (OI, Borg scale, pain scale and presence of thoracic drains and air losses were evaluated. RESULTS : There was a significant increase in the OI in the CPAP group in the POi compared to the Chest Physiotherapy (CP group, P = 0.024. In the CP group the OI was significantly lower on PO1 (P = 0,042, than CPAP group. The air losses were significantly greater in the CPAP group in the POi and on PO1 (P = 0.001, P = 0.028, but there was no significant difference between the groups on PO2 and PO3. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the Borg scale in the POi (P < 0.001, but there were no statistically significant differences between the groups regarding the pain score. CONCLUSION: CPAP after lung resection is safe and improves oxygenation, without increasing the air losses through the drains. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01285648

  14. [PARAMOUNT trial: clinical meaning of continuous maintenance therapy in lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridelli, Cesare

    2015-05-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths worldwide across both sex. Patients with Advanced -NSCLC (A-NSCLC) do not have curative treatment options, so the primary endpoint of every therapeutic decision aims to prolong survival, improving or maintain a good Quality of Life (QoL). Histology could represent a positive predictive factor for patients with Non squamous NSCLC (Nsq-NSCLC) respect to pemetrexed treatment. Pemetrexed is an antifolate that inhibits primarily thymidylate synthase (TS), together with dihydrofolate reductase and glycinamide ribonucleotide formyl transferase. Pemetrexed in combination with cisplatin is approved in the first line setting and as monotherapy in the switch or continuous maintenance of Non Squamous A-NSCLC. Maintenance therapy is a widely used therapeutic option in other solid and hematologic malignancies, but in the A-NSCLC represent an innovative approach. The rationale in this new setting of patients is based on the evidence that patients who benefit from an initial induction therapy platinum based may benefit from maintenance therapy with the third generation agent dropping the platinum drug after four to six cycles. We can define two types of maintenance therapy: continuation maintenance and switch maintenance. Major results in prolonging Overall Survival (OS) was reported with the continuation maintenance strategy as in the PARAMOUNT trial.

  15. Diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI in lung cancers. ADC test-retest repeatability

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    Weller, Alex; Papoutsaki, Marianthi Vasiliki; Blackledge, Matthew; DeSouza, Nandita M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK Cancer Imaging Centre, Surrey (United Kingdom); Waterton, John C. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas University, Milan (Italy); Stroobants, Sigrid [Universiteit Antwerpen, Antwerpen (Belgium); Kuijer, Joost [Vrije Universiteit Medisch Centrum, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Morgan, Veronica [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-11-15

    To determine the test-retest repeatability of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) measurements across institutions and MRI vendors, plus investigate the effect of post-processing methodology on measurement precision. Thirty malignant lung lesions >2 cm in size (23 patients) were scanned on two occasions, using echo-planar-Diffusion-Weighted (DW)-MRI to derive whole-tumour ADC (b = 100, 500 and 800 s/mm{sup -2}). Scanning was performed at 4 institutions (3 MRI vendors). Whole-tumour volumes-of-interest were copied from first visit onto second visit images and from one post-processing platform to an open-source platform, to assess ADC repeatability and cross-platform reproducibility. Whole-tumour ADC values ranged from 0.66-1.94x10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (mean = 1.14). Within-patient coefficient-of-variation (wCV) was 7.1% (95% CI 5.7-9.6%), limits-of-agreement (LoA) -18.0 to 21.9%. Lesions >3 cm had improved repeatability: wCV 3.9% (95% CI 2.9-5.9%); and LoA -10.2 to 11.4%. Variability for lesions <3 cm was 2.46 times higher. ADC reproducibility across different post-processing platforms was excellent: Pearson's R{sup 2} = 0.99; CoV 2.8% (95% CI 2.3-3.4%); and LoA -7.4 to 8.0%. A free-breathing DW-MRI protocol for imaging malignant lung tumours achieved satisfactory within-patient repeatability and was robust to changes in post-processing software, justifying its use in multi-centre trials. For response evaluation in individual patients, a change in ADC >21.9% will reflect treatment-related change. (orig.)

  16. The effects of electronic cigarette emissions on systemic cotinine levels, weight and postnatal lung growth in neonatal mice.

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    Sharon A McGrath-Morrow

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarette (E-cigarettes emissions present a potentially new hazard to neonates through inhalation, dermal and oral contact. Exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes may cause significant systemic absorption in neonates due to the potential for multi-route exposure. Systemic absorption of nicotine and constituents of E-cigarette emissions may adversely impact weight and lung development in the neonate. To address these questions we exposed neonatal mice to E-cigarette emissions and measured systemic cotinine levels and alveolar lung growth.Neonatal mice were exposed to E-cigarettes for the first 10 days of life. E-cigarette cartridges contained either 1.8% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG or PG vehicle alone. Daily weights, plasma and urine cotinine levels and lung growth using the alveolar mean linear intercept (MLI method were measured at 10 days of life and compared to room air controls. Mice exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG had a 13.3% decrease in total body weight compared to room air controls. Plasma cotinine levels were found to be elevated in neonatal mice exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG E-cigarettes (mean 62.34± 3.3 ng/ml. After adjusting for sex and weight, the nicotine exposed mice were found to have modestly impaired lung growth by MLI compared to room air control mice (p<.054 trial 1; p<.006 trial 2. These studies indicate that exposure to E-cigarette emissions during the neonatal period can adversely impact weight gain. In addition exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes can cause detectable levels of systemic cotinine, diminished alveolar cell proliferation and a modest impairment in postnatal lung growth.

  17. The effects of electronic cigarette emissions on systemic cotinine levels, weight and postnatal lung growth in neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A; Hayashi, Madoka; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Malinina, Alla; Collaco, Joseph M; Neptune, Enid; Klein, Jonathan D; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Breysse, Patrick; Lazarus, Philip; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarette (E-cigarettes) emissions present a potentially new hazard to neonates through inhalation, dermal and oral contact. Exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes may cause significant systemic absorption in neonates due to the potential for multi-route exposure. Systemic absorption of nicotine and constituents of E-cigarette emissions may adversely impact weight and lung development in the neonate. To address these questions we exposed neonatal mice to E-cigarette emissions and measured systemic cotinine levels and alveolar lung growth. Neonatal mice were exposed to E-cigarettes for the first 10 days of life. E-cigarette cartridges contained either 1.8% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG) or PG vehicle alone. Daily weights, plasma and urine cotinine levels and lung growth using the alveolar mean linear intercept (MLI) method were measured at 10 days of life and compared to room air controls. Mice exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG had a 13.3% decrease in total body weight compared to room air controls. Plasma cotinine levels were found to be elevated in neonatal mice exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG E-cigarettes (mean 62.34± 3.3 ng/ml). After adjusting for sex and weight, the nicotine exposed mice were found to have modestly impaired lung growth by MLI compared to room air control mice (pE-cigarette emissions during the neonatal period can adversely impact weight gain. In addition exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes can cause detectable levels of systemic cotinine, diminished alveolar cell proliferation and a modest impairment in postnatal lung growth.

  18. Continuity of midwifery care and gestational weight gain in obese women: a randomised controlled trial

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    Patterson Denise

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increased prevalence of obesity in pregnant women in Australia and other developed countries is a significant public health concern. Obese women are at increased risk of serious perinatal complications and guidelines recommend weight gain restriction and additional care. There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of dietary and physical activity lifestyle interventions in preventing adverse perinatal outcomes and new strategies need to be evaluated. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the effect of continuity of midwifery care on restricting gestational weight gain in obese women to the recommended range. The secondary aims of the study are to assess the impact of continuity of midwifery care on: women's experience of pregnancy care; women's satisfaction with care and a range of psychological factors. Methods/Design A two arm randomised controlled trial (RCT will be conducted with primigravid women recruited from maternity services in Victoria, Australia. Participants will be primigravid women, with a BMI≥30 who are less than 17 weeks gestation. Women allocated to the intervention arm will be cared for in a midwifery continuity of care model and receive an informational leaflet on managing weight gain in pregnancy. Women allocated to the control group will receive routine care in addition to the same informational leaflet. Weight gain during pregnancy, standards of care, medical and obstetric information will be extracted from medical records. Data collected at recruitment (self administered survey and at 36 weeks by postal survey will include socio-demographic information and the use of validated scales to measure secondary outcomes. Discussion Continuity of midwifery care models are well aligned with current Victorian, Australian and many international government policies on maternity care. Increasingly, midwifery continuity models of care are being introduced in low risk maternity care, and

  19. Initiating and continuing behaviour change within a weight gain prevention trial: a qualitative investigation.

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    Samantha Kozica

    Full Text Available Preventing obesity is an international health priority. In Australia, young women who live in rural communities are at high risk of unhealthy weight gain. Interventions which engage young women and support sustainable behaviour change are needed and comprehensive evaluation of such interventions generates knowledge for population scale-up. This qualitative sub-study aims to identify enablers and barriers to behaviour change initiation and continuation within a community weight gain prevention program.In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants 6 months after baseline. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed independently by two investigators via thematic analysis.A total of 28 women with a mean age of 39.9±6.2years and a BMI of 28.6±5.2kg/m2 were purposively recruited from the larger cohort (n = 649 that participated in the prevention trial.Four behaviour change groups emerged were identified from participant interviews: (i no change, (ii relapse, (iii intermittent and (iv continued change. Factors influencing behaviour change initiation and continuation included realistic program expectations and the participant's ability to apply the core program elements including: setting small, achievable behaviour change goals, problem solving and using self-management techniques. Personal knowledge, skills, motivation, self-efficacy, accountability and perceived social and environmental barriers also affected behaviour change. Satisfaction with personal program progress and the perceived amount of program supports required to achieve ongoing behaviour change varied amongst participants. Women who relapsed expressed a desire for more intensive and regular support from health professionals, identified more barriers unrelated to the program, anticipated significant weight loss and had lower satisfaction with their progress.Initiating and continuing behaviour change is a complex

  20. Initiating and continuing behaviour change within a weight gain prevention trial: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozica, Samantha; Lombard, Catherine; Teede, Helena; Ilic, Dragan; Murphy, Kerry; Harrison, Cheryce

    2015-01-01

    Preventing obesity is an international health priority. In Australia, young women who live in rural communities are at high risk of unhealthy weight gain. Interventions which engage young women and support sustainable behaviour change are needed and comprehensive evaluation of such interventions generates knowledge for population scale-up. This qualitative sub-study aims to identify enablers and barriers to behaviour change initiation and continuation within a community weight gain prevention program. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants 6 months after baseline. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed independently by two investigators via thematic analysis. A total of 28 women with a mean age of 39.9±6.2years and a BMI of 28.6±5.2kg/m2 were purposively recruited from the larger cohort (n = 649) that participated in the prevention trial. Four behaviour change groups emerged were identified from participant interviews: (i) no change, (ii) relapse, (iii) intermittent and (iv) continued change. Factors influencing behaviour change initiation and continuation included realistic program expectations and the participant's ability to apply the core program elements including: setting small, achievable behaviour change goals, problem solving and using self-management techniques. Personal knowledge, skills, motivation, self-efficacy, accountability and perceived social and environmental barriers also affected behaviour change. Satisfaction with personal program progress and the perceived amount of program supports required to achieve ongoing behaviour change varied amongst participants. Women who relapsed expressed a desire for more intensive and regular support from health professionals, identified more barriers unrelated to the program, anticipated significant weight loss and had lower satisfaction with their progress. Initiating and continuing behaviour change is a complex process. Our

  1. Normalisation of surfactant protein -A and -B expression in the lungs of low birth weight lambs by 21 days old.

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    Jia Yin Soo

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR induced by placental restriction (PR in the sheep negatively impacts lung and pulmonary surfactant development during fetal life. Using a sheep model of low birth weight (LBW, we found that there was an increase in mRNA expression of surfactant protein (SP-A, -B and -C in the lung of LBW lambs but no difference in the protein expression of SP-A or -B. LBW also resulted in increased lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein (LAMP-3 mRNA expression, which may indicate an increase in either the density of type II Alveolar epithelial cells (AEC or maturity of type II AECs. Although there was an increase in glucocorticoid receptor (GR and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD-1 mRNA expression in the lung of LBW lambs, we found no change in the protein expression of these factors, suggesting that the increase in SP mRNA expression is not mediated by increased GC signalling in the lung. The increase in SP mRNA expression may, in part, be mediated by persistent alterations in hypoxia signalling as there was an increase in lung HIF-2α mRNA expression in the LBW lamb. The changes in the hypoxia signalling pathway that persist within the lung after birth may be involved in maintaining SP production in the LBW lamb.

  2. ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE IN CHILDREN: AN APPLICATION TO CONTINUOUS LUNG FUNCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study is to estimate an unbiased exposure effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on children's continuous lung function. A majority of the evidence from health studies suggests that ETS exposure in early life contributes significantly to childhood ...

  3. Como minimizar a lesão pulmonar no prematuro extremo: propostas Strategies to minimize lung injury in extremely low birth weight infants

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    Cleide Suguihara

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma revisão das principais causas da nova displasia broncopulmonar e as estratégias utilizadas para diminuir sua incidência nos prematuros extremos. FONTES DOS DADOS: Para essa revisão, pesquisas foram feitas na MEDLINE (1996 a outubro de 2004, no Cochrane Database, em resumos da Society for Pediatric Research e recentes conferências sobre o tema. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A tecnologia e os novos conhecimentos científicos têm aumentado significantemente a sobrevida de prematuros extremos. Esse aumento da sobrevida resultou em aumento da incidência de displasia broncopulmonar. Atualmente, a displasia broncopulmonar é mais freqüentemente observada em recém-nascidos OBJECTIVE: To review the main causes of new bronchopulmonary dysplasia and the strategies utilized to decrease its incidence in extremely low birth weight infants. DATA SOURCES: For this review a MEDLINE search from 1966 to October 2004, the Cochrane Database, abstracts from the Society for Pediatric Research and recent meetings on the topic were used. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: The survival of extremely low birth weight infants has increased significantly due to improvement in both scientific knowledge and technology. This improvement in survival has therefore resulted in an increased incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The characteristics of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low birth weight infants, the so called "new" bronchopulmonary dysplasia are quite different from the classic bronchopulmonary dysplasia described by Northway. This new bronchopulmonary dysplasia has a multifactorial etiology, which includes volutrauma, atelectrauma, oxygen toxicity and lung inflammation. Therapy such as prenatal corticosteroids, exogenous surfactant, nasal continuous positive airway pressure, new mechanical ventilation modalities and gentle ventilation have been used in attempts to decrease lung injury severity. CONCLUSIONS: In order to prevent lung injury in

  4. The continuous end-state comfort effect: weighted integration of multiple biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbort, Oliver; Butz, Martin V

    2012-05-01

    The grasp orientation when grasping an object is frequently aligned in anticipation of the intended rotation of the object (end-state comfort effect). We analyzed grasp orientation selection in a continuous task to determine the mechanisms underlying the end-state comfort effect. Participants had to grasp a box by a circular handle-which allowed for arbitrary grasp orientations-and then had to rotate the box by various angles. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed both that the rotation's direction considerably determined grasp orientations and that end-postures varied considerably. Experiments 3 and 4 further showed that visual stimuli and initial arm postures biased grasp orientations if the intended rotation could be easily achieved. The data show that end-state comfort but also other factors determine grasp orientation selection. A simple mechanism that integrates multiple weighted biases can account for the data.

  5. Analysis of artefacts and detail resolution of lung MRI with breath-hold T1-weighted gradient-echo and T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequences with respiratory triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, J.; Reuter, M.; Both, M.; Grimm, J.; Heller, M.; Muhle, C.; Graessner, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate feasibility and limitations of two MR sequences for imaging of the lung using a semi-quantitative rating scale. Ten healthy volunteers were assessed with a breath-hold T1-weighted gradient-recalled-echo (TR/TE=129/2.2 ms, matrix 173 x 256) and a T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence with respiratory triggering (TR/TE=3000-5000/120 ms, matrix 270 x 512) in axial 6-mm slices. The T1-weighted GRE protocol included a pre-saturation pulse over the mediastinal structures. Artefacts and resolution of vessel/airway structures in each lung segment were evaluated by two observers (10 volunteers, 180 segments). Cardiac and vessel pulsation artefacts predominated on T1-weighted GRE, respiration artefacts on T2-weighted TSE (lingula and middle lobe). Pre-saturation of the mediastinum reduced pulsation artefacts on T1-weighted GRE. T1-weighted GRE images were improved by bright flow signal of vessels, whereas image quality of T2-weighted TSE was reduced by black-blood effects in central parts of the lung. Delineation of lung periphery and the mediastinum was superior with T2-weighted TSE. Segmental/sub-segmental vessels (up to fourth/fifth order) and bronchi (up to third order) were identified. All 180 lung segments were imaged in diagnostic quality with at least one of the two sequences (T1-weighted GRE not diagnostic in 9 of 180, T2-weighted TSE in 4 of 180). Both sequences were found to be complementary: superior identification of gross lung anatomy with T1-weighted GRE and higher detail resolution in the periphery and the mediastinum with T2-weighted TSE. (orig.)

  6. Efficacy of Continuing Education in Improving Pharmacists' Competencies for Providing Weight Management Service: Three-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarayani, Amir; Rashidian, Arash; Gholami, Kheirollah; Torkamandi, Hassan; Javadi, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Weight management is a new public health role for community pharmacists in many countries. Lack of expertise is one of the key barriers to counseling obese patients. We evaluated the comparative efficacy of three alternative continuing education (CE) meetings on weight management. Methods: We designed a randomized controlled trial…

  7. Chorioamnionitis and lung damage in the extremely low birth weight infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rocha

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Some experimental work suggests that exposure to intrauterine infection is associated, not only, with lung maturation and a reduced risk of respiratory distress syndrome, but also, with delayed alveolarization and increased risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Aim: To evaluate the association between histological chorioamnionitis and lung disease in extremely low birth weight preterm infants. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 63 less than 1000 g birthweight, appropriated for gestational age neonates, delivered at three tertiary medical centers in the north of Portugal, between 2001 and 2002. The association between histological chorioamnionitis and lung damage (respiratory distress syndrome and bronchopulmonary dysplasia was evaluated through the calculation of crude and adjusted odds ratio. Results: There were 32 newborns from mothers with histological chorioamnionitis and 31 without the condition. The association between histological chorioamnionitis and respiratory distress syndrome was OR 0.23 (95% CI 0.01 – 2.51. The association between chorioamnionitis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia was OR 1.61 (95% CI 0.38 – 6.97. The association between histological chorioamnionitis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia when adjusted for gestational age, multiple birth and C-section revealed no statistical significance: OR 2.66 (95% CI 0.36 – 19.60 for chorioamnionitis without funisitis or vasculitis and OR 1.68 (95% CI 0.25 – 11.18 for funisitis and/or vasculitis. Conclusion: In this study we could not confirm a decreased risk of respiratory distress syndrome nor an increased risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low birth weight preterm neonates with histological chorioamnionitis. Resumo: Alguns estudos experimentais sugerem que a exposição a infecção intra-uterina associa-se, não só, a maturação pulmonar e menor risco de doença das membranas hialinas, mas também a atraso na forma

  8. Do intermittent diets provide physiological benefits over continuous diets for weight loss? A systematic review of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, Radhika V; Roekenes, Jessica A; Zibellini, Jessica; Zhu, Benjamin; Gibson, Alice A; Hills, Andrew P; Wood, Rachel E; King, Neil A; Byrne, Nuala M; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2015-12-15

    Energy restriction induces physiological effects that hinder further weight loss. Thus, deliberate periods of energy balance during weight loss interventions may attenuate these adaptive responses to energy restriction and thereby increase the efficiency of weight loss (i.e. the amount of weight or fat lost per unit of energy deficit). To address this possibility, we systematically searched MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, PubMed and Cinahl and reviewed adaptive responses to energy restriction in 40 publications involving humans of any age or body mass index that had undergone a diet involving intermittent energy restriction, 12 with direct comparison to continuous energy restriction. Included publications needed to measure one or more of body weight, body mass index, or body composition before and at the end of energy restriction. 31 of the 40 publications involved 'intermittent fasting' of 1-7-day periods of severe energy restriction. While intermittent fasting appears to produce similar effects to continuous energy restriction to reduce body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass and improve glucose homeostasis, and may reduce appetite, it does not appear to attenuate other adaptive responses to energy restriction or improve weight loss efficiency, albeit most of the reviewed publications were not powered to assess these outcomes. Intermittent fasting thus represents a valid--albeit apparently not superior--option to continuous energy restriction for weight loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of nodal staging with lean body mass based and with total body weight based in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. Y.; Chung, J. K.; Kang, W. J.; So, Y.; Lee, D. S.; Lee, M. C.

    2004-01-01

    The standardized uptake (SUV) is semiquantitative evaluation parameter in positron emission tomography (PET). But there is no consensus about the application or process of SUV measurement. In this study, we used measured lean body mass (LBM) and total weight for application in SUV measurement. Also we compared the each nodal staging with SUV between measured LBM, and total weight, in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Total 21 patients with lung cancer were enrolled (M:F=17:4, age 45[+-]8 years). PET-CT was done before operation with Gemini (Philips, Milpitas, U.S.). Each image was reconstructed twice with measured weight and lean body mass. Maximum SUVs of 103 dissected lymph nodes were measured and compared with histological result. For the deciding on the cut off value, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was done. 14 lymph nodes in the 103 dissected lymph nodes were metastatic lesions. From the ROC analysis, the cut off value of SUV was 1.7 with measured LBM and 2.3 with total weight. With measured LBM, Sensitivity and specificity were 92.5%. 78.2% and area under curve was 0.881. With total weight, sensitivity and specificity was 92.5% and 77%, Area under curve was 0.859. The normalization of SUV could be done with measured LBM. With the normalization of SUV with LBM, the nodal staging of NSCLC using SUV could be more accurate than using total weight in the reconstruction and measurement of SUV for lymph node lesions

  10. Chest circumference and birth weight are good predictors of lung function in preschool children from an e-waste recycling area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Li, Weiqiu; Huo, Xia

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between birth weight, chest circumference, and lung function in preschool children from e-waste exposure area. A total of 206 preschool children from Guiyu (an e-waste recycling area) and Haojiang and Xiashan (the reference areas) in China were recruited and required to undergo physical examination, blood tests, and lung function tests during the study period. Birth outcome such as birth weight and birth height were obtained by questionnaire. Children living in the e-waste-exposed area have a lower birth weight, chest circumference, height, and lung function when compare to their peers from the reference areas (all p value <0.05). Both Spearman and partial correlation analyses showed that birth weight and chest circumference were positively correlated with lung function levels including forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ). After adjustment for the potential confounders in further linear regression analyses, birth weight, and chest circumference were positively associated with lung function levels, respectively. Taken together, birth weight and chest circumference may be good predictors for lung function levels in preschool children.

  11. Continuing weight-loss effect after topiramate discontinuation in obese persons with schizophrenia: a pilot open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C-S; Yang, F-W; Huang, S-Y; Ho, P-S

    2014-07-01

    Few studies have investigated the likelihood of weight maintenance in obese persons with schizophrenia after their initial successful weight loss. This pilot open-label study examined the efficacy of topiramate in weight loss and the trajectory of weight changes after topiramate discontinuation. This study enrolled 10 obese persons with schizophrenia. A 4-month treatment phase was started, followed by a 12-month discontinuation phase. Body weight was measured as the primary outcome every month. Secondary outcomes included leptin levels, fasting glucose, lipid profiles, and insulin resistance index. After the 4-month addition of topiramate, participants lost 1.79 kg of their body weight (95% CI=-3.03 to -0.56, p=0.005). The maximum weight reduction was 4.32 kg, occurring when topiramate had been discontinued for 12 months (95% CI=-6.41 to -2.24, p<0.001). The continuing weight-loss effect after topiramate discontinuation might have resulted from topiramate's potential to improve leptin functioning. These findings demonstrate that topiramate's weight-loss effect could not only persist during its administration, but also continue to improve after its discontinuation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Validity of clinical outcome measures to evaluate ankle range of motion during the weight-bearing lunge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Emily A; Docherty, Carrie L

    2017-07-01

    To determine the concurrent validity of standard clinical outcome measures compared to laboratory outcome measure while performing the weight-bearing lunge test (WBLT). Cross-sectional study. Fifty participants performed the WBLT to determine dorsiflexion ROM using four different measurement techniques: dorsiflexion angle with digital inclinometer at 15cm distal to the tibial tuberosity (°), dorsiflexion angle with inclinometer at tibial tuberosity (°), maximum lunge distance (cm), and dorsiflexion angle using a 2D motion capture system (°). Outcome measures were recorded concurrently during each trial. To establish concurrent validity, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients (r) were conducted, comparing each dependent variable to the 2D motion capture analysis (identified as the reference standard). A higher correlation indicates strong concurrent validity. There was a high correlation between each measurement technique and the reference standard. Specifically the correlation between the inclinometer placement at 15cm below the tibial tuberosity (44.9°±5.5°) and the motion capture angle (27.0°±6.0°) was r=0.76 (p=0.001), between the inclinometer placement at the tibial tuberosity angle (39.0°±4.6°) and the motion capture angle was r=0.71 (p=0.001), and between the distance from the wall clinical measure (10.3±3.0cm) to the motion capture angle was r=0.74 (p=0.001). This study determined that the clinical measures used during the WBLT have a high correlation with the reference standard for assessing dorsiflexion range of motion. Therefore, obtaining maximum lunge distance and inclinometer angles are both valid assessments during the weight-bearing lunge test. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for Motion Management in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy to the Lung: A Controlled Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Jeffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Tel Aviv (Israel); Lawrence, Yaacov R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Appel, Sarit; Landau, Efrat; Ben-David, Merav A.; Rabin, Tatiana; Benayun, Maoz; Dubinski, Sergey; Weizman, Noam; Alezra, Dror; Gnessin, Hila; Goldstein, Adam M.; Baidun, Khader [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Tel Aviv (Israel); Segel, Michael J.; Peled, Nir [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Symon, Zvi, E-mail: symonz@sheba.health.gov.il [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2015-10-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on tumor motion, lung volume, and dose to critical organs in patients receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung tumors. Methods and Materials: After institutional review board approval in December 2013, patients with primary or secondary lung tumors referred for SBRT underwent 4-dimensional computed tomographic simulation twice: with free breathing and with CPAP. Tumor excursion was calculated by subtracting the vector of the greatest dimension of the gross tumor volume (GTV) from the internal target volume (ITV). Volumetric and dosimetric determinations were compared with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. CPAP was used during treatment if judged beneficial. Results: CPAP was tolerated well in 10 of the 11 patients enrolled. Ten patients with 18 lesions were evaluated. The use of CPAP decreased tumor excursion by 0.5 ± 0.8 cm, 0.4 ± 0.7 cm, and 0.6 ± 0.8 cm in the superior–inferior, right–left, and anterior–posterior planes, respectively (P≤.02). Relative to free breathing, the mean ITV reduction was 27% (95% confidence interval [CI] 16%-39%, P<.001). CPAP significantly augmented lung volume, with a mean absolute increase of 915 ± 432 cm{sup 3} and a relative increase of 32% (95% CI 21%-42%, P=.003), contributing to a 22% relative reduction (95% CI 13%-32%, P=.001) in mean lung dose. The use of CPAP was also associated with a relative reduction in mean heart dose by 29% (95% CI 23%-36%, P=.001). Conclusion: In this pilot study, CPAP significantly reduced lung tumor motion compared with free breathing. The smaller ITV, the planning target volume (PTV), and the increase in total lung volume associated with CPAP contributed to a reduction in lung and heart dose. CPAP was well tolerated, reproducible, and simple to implement in the treatment room and should be evaluated further as a novel strategy for motion management in radiation therapy.

  14. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for Motion Management in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy to the Lung: A Controlled Pilot Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, Jeffrey D.; Lawrence, Yaacov R.; Appel, Sarit; Landau, Efrat; Ben-David, Merav A.; Rabin, Tatiana; Benayun, Maoz; Dubinski, Sergey; Weizman, Noam; Alezra, Dror; Gnessin, Hila; Goldstein, Adam M.; Baidun, Khader; Segel, Michael J.; Peled, Nir; Symon, Zvi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on tumor motion, lung volume, and dose to critical organs in patients receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung tumors. Methods and Materials: After institutional review board approval in December 2013, patients with primary or secondary lung tumors referred for SBRT underwent 4-dimensional computed tomographic simulation twice: with free breathing and with CPAP. Tumor excursion was calculated by subtracting the vector of the greatest dimension of the gross tumor volume (GTV) from the internal target volume (ITV). Volumetric and dosimetric determinations were compared with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. CPAP was used during treatment if judged beneficial. Results: CPAP was tolerated well in 10 of the 11 patients enrolled. Ten patients with 18 lesions were evaluated. The use of CPAP decreased tumor excursion by 0.5 ± 0.8 cm, 0.4 ± 0.7 cm, and 0.6 ± 0.8 cm in the superior–inferior, right–left, and anterior–posterior planes, respectively (P≤.02). Relative to free breathing, the mean ITV reduction was 27% (95% confidence interval [CI] 16%-39%, P<.001). CPAP significantly augmented lung volume, with a mean absolute increase of 915 ± 432 cm 3 and a relative increase of 32% (95% CI 21%-42%, P=.003), contributing to a 22% relative reduction (95% CI 13%-32%, P=.001) in mean lung dose. The use of CPAP was also associated with a relative reduction in mean heart dose by 29% (95% CI 23%-36%, P=.001). Conclusion: In this pilot study, CPAP significantly reduced lung tumor motion compared with free breathing. The smaller ITV, the planning target volume (PTV), and the increase in total lung volume associated with CPAP contributed to a reduction in lung and heart dose. CPAP was well tolerated, reproducible, and simple to implement in the treatment room and should be evaluated further as a novel strategy for motion management in radiation therapy

  15. The "Lung": a software-controlled air accumulator for quasi-continuous multi-point measurement of agricultural greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Martin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the design and testing of a flexible bag ("Lung" accumulator attached to a gas chromatographic (GC analyzer capable of measuring surface-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange fluxes in a wide range of environmental/agricultural settings. In the design presented here, the Lung can collect up to three gas samples concurrently, each accumulated into a Tedlar bag over a period of 20 min or longer. Toggling collection between 2 sets of 3 bags enables quasi-continuous collection with sequential analysis and discarding of sample residues. The Lung thus provides a flexible "front end" collection system for interfacing to a GC or alternative analyzer and has been used in 2 main types of application. Firstly, it has been applied to micrometeorological assessment of paddock-scale N2O fluxes, discussed here. Secondly, it has been used for the automation of concurrent emission assessment from three sheep housed in metabolic crates with gas tracer addition and sampling multiplexed to a single GC.

    The Lung allows the same GC equipment used in laboratory discrete sample analysis to be deployed for continuous field measurement. Continuity of measurement enables spatially-averaged N2O fluxes in particular to be determined with greater accuracy, given the highly heterogeneous and episodic nature of N2O emissions. We present a detailed evaluation of the micrometeorological flux estimation alongside an independent tuneable diode laser system, reporting excellent agreement between flux estimates based on downwind vertical concentration differences. Whilst the current design is based around triplet bag sets, the basic design could be scaled up to a larger number of inlets or bags and less frequent analysis (longer accumulation times where a greater number of sampling points are required.

  16. A continuous 4D motion model from multiple respiratory cycles for use in lung radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, Jamie R.; Blackall, Jane M.; Tarte, Segolene; Chandler, Adam C.; Hughes, Simon; Ahmad, Shahreen; Landau, David B.; Hawkes, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory motion causes errors when planning and delivering radiotherapy treatment to lung cancer patients. To reduce these errors, methods of acquiring and using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) datasets have been developed. We have developed a novel method of constructing computational motion models from 4DCT. The motion models attempt to describe an average respiratory cycle, which reduces the effects of variation between different cycles. They require substantially less memory than a 4DCT dataset, are continuous in space and time, and facilitate automatic target propagation and combining of doses over the respiratory cycle. The motion models are constructed from CT data acquired in cine mode while the patient is free breathing (free breathing CT - FBCT). A ''slab'' of data is acquired at each couch position, with 3-4 contiguous slabs being acquired per patient. For each slab a sequence of 20 or 30 volumes was acquired over 20 seconds. A respiratory signal is simultaneously recorded in order to calculate the position in the respiratory cycle for each FBCT. Additionally, a high quality reference CT volume is acquired at breath hold. The reference volume is nonrigidly registered to each of the FBCT volumes. A motion model is then constructed for each slab by temporally fitting the nonrigid registration results. The value of each of the registration parameters is related to the position in the respiratory cycle by fitting an approximating B spline to the registration results. As an approximating function is used, and the data is acquired over several respiratory cycles, the function should model an average respiratory cycle. This can then be used to calculate the value of each degree of freedom at any desired position in the respiratory cycle. The resulting nonrigid transformation will deform the reference volume to predict the contents of the slab at the desired position in the respiratory cycle. The slab model predictions are then concatenated to

  17. Pharmacokinetics of Gefitinib in a Patient with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Undergoing Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teppei Yamaguchi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A 72-year-old man undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD for chronic renal failure and who had undergone right upper lobectomy for lung adenocarcinoma (pT2aN0M0 2 years ago was admitted for recurrence of lung cancer presenting as multiple brain metastases. An epidermal growth factor receptor mutation analysis of his lung cancer revealed a deletion of 15 nucleotides (E746-A750 in exon 19. After whole-brain radiotherapy, we started daily administration of 250 mg gefitinib under the continuation of CAPD and performed a pharmacokinetic analysis. We speculated that the plasma concentration of gefitinib reached the steady state at least by day 16 after the start of gefitinib (626.6 ng/ml at trough level. On day 46, the plasma concentration was 538.4 ng/ml at trough level and the concentration in the peritoneal dialysis fluid was 34.6 ng/ml, suggesting that CAPD appeared to have little effect on the pharmacokinetics of gefitinib. During gefitinib therapy, there were no significant adverse events except for grade 2 diarrhea. Gefitinib could be safely administered to a patient undergoing CAPD.

  18. Continuous and discrete best polynomial degree reduction with Jacobi and Hahn weights

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2016-03-02

    We show that the weighted least squares approximation of Bézier coefficients with Hahn weights provides the best polynomial degree reduction in the Jacobi L2L2-norm. A discrete analogue of this result is also provided. Applications to Jacobi and Hahn orthogonal polynomials are presented.

  19. Continuous and discrete best polynomial degree reduction with Jacobi and Hahn weights

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    We show that the weighted least squares approximation of Bézier coefficients with Hahn weights provides the best polynomial degree reduction in the Jacobi L2L2-norm. A discrete analogue of this result is also provided. Applications to Jacobi

  20. Prediction of Early Response to Chemotherapy in Lung Cancer by Using Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether change of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC value could predict early response to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Materials and Methods. Twenty-five patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer underwent chest MR imaging including DWI before and at the end of the first cycle of chemotherapy. The tumor’s mean ADC value and diameters on MR images were calculated and compared. The grouping reference was based on serial CT scans according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Logistic regression was applied to assess treatment response prediction ability of ADC value and diameters. Results. The change of ADC value in partial response group was higher than that in stable disease group (P=0.004. ROC curve showed that ADC value could predict treatment response with 100% sensitivity, 64.71% specificity, 57.14% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value, and 82.7% accuracy. The area under the curve for combination of ADC value and longest diameter change was higher than any parameter alone (P≤0.01. Conclusions. The change of ADC value may be a sensitive indicator to predict early response to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Prediction ability could be improved by combining the change of ADC value and longest diameter.

  1. Weight history from birth through childhood and youth in relation to adult lung function, in Danish juvenile obese and non-obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bua, J; Prescott, E; Schack-Nielsen, L

    2005-01-01

    ) and who participated in a follow-up examination in 1981-1983 (age range: 25-48 y). Birth weight, childhood weight and height measurements from 7 to 13 y of age were obtained from school health records. Current BMI and lung function were assessed at follow-up. SETTING: Copenhagen and adjacent regions......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of birth weight, body mass index (BMI) during childhood and youth, and current BMI with adult lung function. DESIGN: Population-based longitudinal study of juvenile obese and non-obese men, who were identified at draft board examination (age range: 19-27 y......, Denmark. SUBJECTS: In total, 193 juvenile obese men at draft board examination and 205 randomly selected nonobese controls from the same population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lung function measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and forced vital capacity (FVC), adjusted for age and height...

  2. Association of the relative change in weight and body mass index with lung function in teenagers and adults with cystic fibrosis: Influence of gender and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Megías, Marta; Guisado Vasco, Pablo; González Albarrán, Olga; Lamas Ferreiro, Adelaida; Máiz Carro, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Nutritional status is a prognostic factor in cystic fibrosis. Prevention of nutritional impairment and weigh loss are major clinical objectives because they are associated with worsening of lung function and increased mortality. To identify a potential relationship of clinical nutrition parameters, and their relative changes, with lung function (FEV1%) in a cohort of adolescent and adult patients with CF. A retrospective analysis of 64 patients older than 14years. Weight, height, BMI, and lung function data were collected at a period of disease stability, both in the year of the first abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and in the previous year. Relative changes in weight and BMI, and their relationship with FEV1%, were determined by linear regression and ANOVA tests; influence of gender and diabetes was also assessed. Mean age of the series (28 females and 36 males) was 26.8years. Normal glucose tolerance (NGT) was found in 26.7%, while 18.3% had diabetes without impaired fasting glucose (CFRD without FPG). Mean BMI was 20.32, with a mean weight of 53.53kg; 32.8% had BMI<18.5, and only 4.7% were overweight. Overall, a positive relative change in weight (≥6%) was associated with an increase in FEV1% (9.31%), as compared to those with a greater weight loss (at least 2%), who had a 12.09% fall in FEV1. Patients with CFRD without FPG had poorer lung function if they had a negative relative change in weight by at least 2% as compared to NGT. In patients with CF, a relative weight gain is positively associated to FEV1%, while a relative weight loss of at least 2% has a significant negative impact on lung function. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Spirometry and volumetric capnography in lung function assessment of obese and normal-weight individuals without asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mariana S; Mendes, Roberto T; Marson, Fernando A L; Zambon, Mariana P; Antonio, Maria A R G M; Paschoal, Ilma A; Toro, Adyléia A D C; Severino, Silvana D; Ribeiro, Maria A G O; Ribeiro, José D

    To analyze and compare lung function of obese and healthy, normal-weight children and adolescents, without asthma, through spirometry and volumetric capnography. Cross-sectional study including 77 subjects (38 obese) aged 5-17 years. All subjects underwent spirometry and volumetric capnography. The evaluations were repeated in obese subjects after the use of a bronchodilator. At the spirometry assessment, obese individuals, when compared with the control group, showed lower values of forced expiratory volume in the first second by forced vital capacity (FEV 1 /FVC) and expiratory flows at 75% and between 25 and 75% of the FVC (p11 years (p<0.05). Even without the diagnosis of asthma by clinical criteria and without response to bronchodilator use, obese individuals showed lower FEV 1 /FVC values and forced expiratory flow, indicating the presence of an obstructive process. Volumetric capnography showed that obese individuals had higher alveolar tidal volume, with no alterations in ventilation homogeneity, suggesting flow alterations, without affecting lung volumes. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of intermittent versus continuous energy restriction on weight loss, maintenance and cardiometabolic risk: A randomized 1-year trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundfør, T M; Svendsen, M; Tonstad, S

    2018-07-01

    Long-term adherence to conventional weight-loss diets is limited while intermittent fasting has risen in popularity. We compared the effects of intermittent versus continuous energy restriction on weight loss, maintenance and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with abdominal obesity and ≥1 additional component of metabolic syndrome. In total 112 participants (men [50%] and women [50%]) aged 21-70 years with BMI 30-45 kg/m 2 (mean 35.2 [SD 3.7]) were randomized to intermittent or continuous energy restriction. A 6-month weight-loss phase including 10 visits with dieticians was followed by a 6-month maintenance phase without additional face-to-face counselling. The intermittent energy restriction group was advised to consume 400/600 kcal (female/male) on two non-consecutive days. Based on dietary records both groups reduced energy intake by ∼26-28%. Weight loss was similar among participants in the intermittent and continuous energy restriction groups (8.0 kg [SD 6.5] versus 9.0 kg [SD 7.1]; p = 0.6). There were favorable improvements in waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol with no difference between groups. Weight regain was minimal and similar between the intermittent and continuous energy restriction groups (1.1 kg [SD 3.8] versus 0.4 kg [SD 4.0]; p = 0.6). Intermittent restriction participants reported higher hunger scores than continuous restriction participants on a subjective numeric rating scale (4.7 [SD 2.2] vs 3.6 [SD 2.2]; p = 0.002). Both intermittent and continuous energy restriction resulted in similar weight loss, maintenance and improvements in cardiovascular risk factors after one year. However, feelings of hunger may be more pronounced during intermittent energy restriction. www.clinicaltrials.govNCT02480504. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine

  5. The TiltMeter app is a novel and accurate measurement tool for the weight bearing lunge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cylie M; Caserta, Antoni J; Haines, Terry P

    2013-09-01

    The weight bearing lunge test is increasing being used by health care clinicians who treat lower limb and foot pathology. This measure is commonly established accurately and reliably with the use of expensive equipment. This study aims to compare the digital inclinometer with a free app, TiltMeter on an Apple iPhone. This was an intra-rater and inter-rater reliability study. Two raters (novice and experienced) conducted the measurements in both a bent knee and straight leg position to determine the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was also established. Allied health practitioners were recruited as participants from the workplace. A preconditioning stretch was conducted and the ankle range of motion was established with the weight bearing lunge test position with firstly the leg straight and secondly with the knee bent. The measurement device and each participant were randomised during measurement. The intra-rater reliability and inter-rater reliability for the devices and in both positions were all over ICC 0.8 except for one intra-rater measure (Digital inclinometer, novice, ICC 0.65). The inter-rater reliability between the digital inclinometer and the tilmeter was near perfect, ICC 0.96 (CI: 0.898-0.983); Concurrent validity ICC between the two devices was 0.83 (CI: -0.740 to 0.445). The use of the Tiltmeter app on the iPhone is a reliable and inexpensive tool to measure the available ankle range of motion. Health practitioners should use caution in applying these findings to other smart phone equipment if surface areas are not comparable. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Percutaneous evacuation of diffuse pulmonary interstitial emphysema by lung puncture in a baby with extremely low birth weight: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Masahiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a serious complication of mechanical ventilation and can become life-threatening if progression occurs. Therapeutic lung puncture is a treatment option for severe pulmonary interstitial emphysema but has a limited use in babies with extremely low birth weight. We present a case of pulmonary interstitial emphysema in a Japanese baby (1-day-old boy with extremely low birth weight. The emphysema was successfully decompressed by therapeutic lung puncture performed with a trocar catheter. Case presentation The baby was born with a weight of 420g, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the lowest reported birth weight among babies with pulmonary interstitial emphysema. A chest X-ray on postnatal day 2 revealed pulmonary interstitial emphysema, which gradually progressed to diffuse pseudocystic changes. His condition became life-threatening despite the use of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and lateral decubitus positioning. We evacuated the pulmonary interstitial emphysema by lung puncture with a trocar catheter to avoid respiratory and cardiovascular collapse. This resulted in adequate evacuation of the emphysema and a dramatic improvement in his clinical condition. Conclusions Therapeutic lung puncture performed with a trocar catheter is beneficial in babies with extremely low birth weight and diffuse pulmonary interstitial emphysema. This treatment option may be broadly applicable, especially in an emergency situation.

  7. Temporary threshold shifts from exposures to equal equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    the assumptions made using the A-weighting curve for the assessment of hearing damage. By modifying exposure ratings to compensate for the build-up of energy at mid and high-frequencies (above 1 kHz) due to the presence of the listener in the sound field and for the levels below an effect threshold that does...... not induce changes in hearing (equivalent quiet levels), ratings of the sound exposure that reflect the observed temporary changes in auditory function can be obtained.......According to existing methods for the assessment of hearing damage, signals with the same A-weighted equivalent level should pose the same hazard to the auditory system. As a measure of hazard, it is assumed that Temporary Thresholds Shifts (TTS) reflect the onset of alterations to the hearing...

  8. Continuous versus bolus intragastric tube feeding for preterm and low birth weight infants with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Robyn; Foster, Jann P; Psaila, Kim

    2014-07-17

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is a particularly common condition in preterm and low birth weight infants. These infants are also more likely to have excessive regurgitation, as they do not have a fully developed antireflux mechanism. Preterm and low birth weight infants who are unable to suck oral feeds are required to be fed via an intragastric tube for varying lengths of time. Intragastric tube feeding can be delivered by the intermittent bolus or continuous feeding method. Use of continuous or intermittent bolus intragastric feeding may have a positive or negative effect on the incidence or severity of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. To determine whether continuous or intermittent bolus intragastric tube feeding reduces the number of episodes and the duration of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) in preterm and low birth weight infants.We intended to perform subgroup analyses for gestational age; birth weight; age in days from birth at full enteral feeding via intragastric tube (breast vs bottle); frequency of intermittent bolus feed; and type of medication for treatment of GORD (only if medication prescribed and given similarly to both intervention groups). We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Group as described in The Cochrane Library (www.thecochranelibrary.com) to search for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 9), MEDLINE (1966 to September 2013), EMBASE (1980 to September 2013) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to September 2013). We also searched previous reviews, including cross-references, abstracts and conference and symposia proceedings of the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand and the Pediatric Academic Societies (American Pediatric Society/Society for Pediatric Research and European Society for Paediatric Research) from 1990 to 2012. Published and unpublished RCTs and quasi

  9. Effect of different levels of continuous positive airway pressure on the 99mTc-DTPA lung clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulciane Nunes Paiva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Positive airway pressure continues (CPAP produces significant hemodynamic changes that may influence the variability of breathing pattern and heart rate, acting as an additional therapy to prevent atelectasis and to combat hypoxia. The rate of inhaled 99 m Technetiumdiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA, along with changes in the lung epithelium cause an increase in the rate of clearance of this compound. The aim of this study was evaluate the pulmonary clearance rate of 99mTechnetium Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA through the use of different levels of CPAP. Methods: It was a quasi-experimental study involving 17 healthy individuals with normal lung functional. 99mTc-DTPA, as aerosol, was nebulized for 3 minutes with the individual in a sitting position. The pulmonary clearance rate was assessed through pulmonary scintigraphy under spontaneous breathing and under 20 and 10 cmH2 O CPAP in the sitting position. The clearance rate was expressed as the half-time (T½ that is the time for the activity to decrease to 50% of the peak value. Results: 20 cmH2 O CPAP produced significant reduction of the T½ of 99mTc-DTPA in the sitting position (p=0.005. However, 10 cmH2 O CPAP did not alter the T½ of DTPA in the same positions. Conclusion: High levels of continuos positive pressure in normal lungs resulted in faster 99mTc-DTPA clearance moreover, 10 cmH2 O did not alter its clearance rate. KEYWORDS: Noninvasive ventilation. Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate. Radionuclide Imaging.

  10. Lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, G.L.; Blankenship, W.J.; Burdine, J.A. Jr.; DeNardo, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    At present no simple statement can be made relative to the role of radionuclidic lung studies in the pediatric population. It is safe to assume that they will be used with increasing frequency for research and clinical applications because of their sensitivity and ready applicability to the pediatric patient. Methods comparable to those used in adults can be used in children older than 4 years. In younger children, however, a single injection of 133 Xe in solution provides an index of both regional perfusion and ventilation which is easier to accomplish. This method is particularly valuable in infants and neonates because it is rapid, requires no patient cooperation, results in a very low radiation dose, and can be repeated in serial studies. Radionuclidic studies of ventilation and perfusion can be performed in almost all children if the pediatrician and the nuclear medicine specialist have motivation and ingenuity. S []ontaneous pulmonary vascular occlusive disease which occurs in infants and pulmonary emboli in children are easily detected using radionuclides. The pathophysiologic defects of pulmonary agenesis, bronchopulmonary sequestration, and foreign body aspiration may be demonstrated by these techniques. These techniques also appear to be useful in following patients with bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, congenital emphysema, and postinfection pulmonary abnormalities. (auth)

  11. Adipose tissue transcriptome reflects variations between subjects with continued weight loss and subjects regaining weight 6 mo after caloric restriction independent of energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Márquez-Quinõnes, Adriana; Mutch, David M.; Debard, Cyrille

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood.......The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood....

  12. Continuous Plasma Treatment of Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) Fibres for Adhesion Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodoru, Steluta; Kusano, Yukihiro; Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2009-01-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge in Ar, He, He/O2, N2 or O2 at atmospheric pressure was used for the continuous plasma treatment of UHMWPE fibres. The influence of the input power of the discharge and the gas flow rate on surface modification is studied with the aim of adhesion improvement. Surface...

  13. Inter-relationships between single carbon units' metabolism and resting energy expenditure in weight-losing patients with small cell lung cancer. Effects of methionine supply and chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, H; Hansen, O P; Simonsen, L

    1994-01-01

    The one-carbon unit metabolism was investigated in 8 weight-losing patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCLC). At diagnosis, 6 of the 8 patients had elevated formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) excretion after a histidine load, suggesting a lack of one-carbon units. In accordance...

  14. Inter-relationships between single carbon units' metabolism and resting energy expenditure in weight-losing patients with small cell lung cancer. Effects of methionine supply and chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, H; Hansen, O P; Simonsen, L

    1994-01-01

    The one-carbon unit metabolism was investigated in 8 weight-losing patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCLC). At diagnosis, 6 of the 8 patients had elevated formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) excretion after a histidine load, suggesting a lack of one-carbon units. In accordance, a signifi...

  15. Chest circumference and birth weight are good predictors of lung function in preschool children from an e-waste recycling area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Li, Weiqiu; Huo, Xia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between birth weight, chest circumference, and lung function in preschool children from e-waste exposure area. A total of 206 preschool children from Guiyu (an e-waste recycling area) and Haojiang and Xiashan (the reference areas) in

  16. High Adherence to CPAP Treatment Does Not Prevent the Continuation of Weight Gain among Severely Obese OSAS Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllylä, Minna; Kurki, Samu; Anttalainen, Ulla; Saaresranta, Tarja; Laitinen, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients benefit from continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in a dose-response manner. We determined adherence and weight control, as well as their predictors, among long-term CPAP users. Methods: Cohort of 1,023 OSAS patients had used CPAP on average of 6.6 ± 1.2 years. BMI was determined at baseline and at follow-up visits. There were 7.4 ± 1.7 BMI and 6.5 ± 1.8 CPAP usage measurements per patient on average. Using the Bayesian hierarchical model, we determined the patients' individual trends of BMI and adherence development. Patients with significantly increasing or decreasing trends were identified at the posterior probability level of > 90%. Results: The mean age in the cohort was 55.6 ± 9.8 years, BMI 33.5 ± 6.4 kg/m2, apnea-hypopnea index 33.7 ± 23.1, and CPAP usage 6.0 ± 1.8 h/day. The majority of patients had no significant change in BMI (mean annual weight gain 0.04 ± 0.29 kg/m2) or CPAP adherence (mean annual increase 11.4 ± 7.0 min/day). However, at the individual level, 10% of the patients showed significant annual weight gain (0.63 ± 0.35 kg/m2) during the 5-year follow-up period. At baseline these patients were already more severely obese (mean BMI 40.0 ± 5.9 kg/m2) despite being younger (mean 50.9 ± 9.5 years) than the rest of the cohort. Conclusions: In the majority of CPAP-treated OSAS patients, weight did not significantly change but gained slightly slower than in age-matched population in general. However, in 10% of patients, high adherence to CPAP treatment did not prevent the continuation of weight gain. These patients present a high-risk group for OSAS-related multimorbidity later in life. Citation: Myllylä M, Kurki S, Anttalainen U, Saaresranta T, Laitinen T. High adherence to CPAP treatment does not prevent the continuation of weight gain among severely obese OSAS patients. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(4):519–528. PMID:26888588

  17. A retrospective study to determine if there is a gender-related difference in weight loss in non-small cell lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, L.; Hodson, I.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if male non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients undergoing radiation therapy experience greater weight loss than female patients. A secondary objective was to demonstrate that a specific gender could be targeted earlier during treatment for nutritional consultations. Weight and nutritional consultation data were retrospectively collected from 40 patient charts. The sample had an equal number of males and females with similar patient characteristics. It was found that, on average, males lost more weight than females during radiation therapy and at follow-up. An independent samples t-test showed that the difference was statistically significant. Men had more weight loss than women during radiation therapy, suggesting men are at a greater risk for nutritional problems. Furthermore, more men that women experienced their maximum weight loss before receiving a nutritional consultation. Thus, males with NSCLC should be targeted earlier for dietary consultations to help maintain their weight. (author)

  18. Microstructural Evolution of Al-1Fe (Weight Percent) Alloy During Accumulative Continuous Extrusion Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Guan, Ren-Guo; Tie, Di; Shang, Ying-Qiu; Jin, Hong-Mei; Li, Hong-Chao

    2018-04-01

    As a new microstructure refining method, accumulative continuous extrusion forming (ACEF) cannot only refine metal matrix but also refine the phases that exist in it. In order to detect the refinements of grain and second phase during the process, Al-1Fe (wt pct) alloy was processed by ACEF, and the microstructural evolution was analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results revealed that the average grain size of Al-1Fe (wt pct) alloy decreased from 13 to 1.2 μm, and blocky Al3Fe phase with an average length of 300 nm was granulated to Al3Fe particle with an average diameter of 200 nm, after one pass of ACEF. Refinement of grain was attributed to continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX), and the granulation of Al3Fe phase included the spheroidization resulting from deformation heat and the fragmentation caused by the coupling effects of strain and thermal effect. The spheroidization worked in almost the entire deformation process, while the fragmentation required strain accumulation. However, fragmentation contributed more than spheroidization. Al3Fe particle stimulated the formation of substructure and retarded the migration of recrystallized grain boundary, but the effect of Al3Fe phase on refinement of grain could only be determined by the contrastive investigation of Al-1Fe (wt pct) alloy and pure Al.

  19. The modular modality frame model: continuous body state estimation and plausibility-weighted information fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfeld, Stephan; Butz, Martin V

    2013-02-01

    Humans show admirable capabilities in movement planning and execution. They can perform complex tasks in various contexts, using the available sensory information very effectively. Body models and continuous body state estimations appear necessary to realize such capabilities. We introduce the Modular Modality Frame (MMF) model, which maintains a highly distributed, modularized body model continuously updating, modularized probabilistic body state estimations over time. Modularization is realized with respect to modality frames, that is, sensory modalities in particular frames of reference and with respect to particular body parts. We evaluate MMF performance on a simulated, nine degree of freedom arm in 3D space. The results show that MMF is able to maintain accurate body state estimations despite high sensor and motor noise. Moreover, by comparing the sensory information available in different modality frames, MMF can identify faulty sensory measurements on the fly. In the near future, applications to lightweight robot control should be pursued. Moreover, MMF may be enhanced with neural encodings by introducing neural population codes and learning techniques. Finally, more dexterous goal-directed behavior should be realized by exploiting the available redundant state representations.

  20. Doppler Temperature Coefficient Calculations Using Adjoint-Weighted Tallies and Continuous Energy Cross Sections in MCNP6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Matthew Alejandro

    The calculation of the thermal neutron Doppler temperature reactivity feedback co-efficient, a key parameter in the design and safe operation of advanced reactors, using first order perturbation theory in continuous energy Monte Carlo codes is challenging as the continuous energy adjoint flux is not readily available. Traditional approaches of obtaining the adjoint flux attempt to invert the random walk process as well as require data corresponding to all temperatures and their respective temperature derivatives within the system in order to accurately calculate the Doppler temperature feedback. A new method has been developed using adjoint-weighted tallies and On-The-Fly (OTF) generated continuous energy cross sections within the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP6) transport code. The adjoint-weighted tallies are generated during the continuous energy k-eigenvalue Monte Carlo calculation. The weighting is based upon the iterated fission probability interpretation of the adjoint flux, which is the steady state population in a critical nuclear reactor caused by a neutron introduced at that point in phase space. The adjoint-weighted tallies are produced in a forward calculation and do not require an inversion of the random walk. The OTF cross section database uses a high order functional expansion between points on a user-defined energy-temperature mesh in which the coefficients with respect to a polynomial fitting in temperature are stored. The coefficients of the fits are generated before run- time and called upon during the simulation to produce cross sections at any given energy and temperature. The polynomial form of the OTF cross sections allows the possibility of obtaining temperature derivatives of the cross sections on-the-fly. The use of Monte Carlo sampling of adjoint-weighted tallies and the capability of computing derivatives of continuous energy cross sections with respect to temperature are used to calculate the Doppler temperature coefficient in a research

  1. Body Shape and Weight Loss as Motivators for Breastfeeding Initiation and Continuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalla, Sophie C; Witcomb, Gemma L; Haycraft, Emma

    2017-07-11

    Breastfeeding rates in the UK are low. Efforts to promote breastfeeding typically include the known health benefits for mother and child, many of which are not immediate. Gaining immediate benefits can be effective motivators of behaviour. Body-related changes resulting from breastfeeding could be an immediate benefit. This study explored breastfeeding mothers' reports of body-related changes as benefits of breastfeeding. Mothers (N = 182) who currently, or had recently, breastfed an infant completed a survey detailing their infant feeding choices and the perceived benefits of breastfeeding on their bodies. Half of the mothers felt that breastfeeding had a positive effect on their body. Benefits were grouped into five themes: (1) Returning to pre-pregnancy body shape; (2) Health benefits; (3) Physical benefits; (4) Eating benefits; (5) Psychological benefits. These themes highlight the numerous body-related benefits that mothers identified as resulting from breastfeeding and suggest that immediate, personal, and appearance-related gains of breastfeeding are highly valued. These findings indicate that interventions would likely benefit from emphasising the more immediate physical and psychological benefits of breastfeeding, alongside the health and bonding benefits, as a way to promote breastfeeding initiation and continuation in more women. This may be particularly effective for groups such as young mothers, where breastfeeding rates are low and whose emphasis on body image may be greater.

  2. Body Shape and Weight Loss as Motivators for Breastfeeding Initiation and Continuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie C. Schalla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding rates in the UK are low. Efforts to promote breastfeeding typically include the known health benefits for mother and child, many of which are not immediate. Gaining immediate benefits can be effective motivators of behaviour. Body-related changes resulting from breastfeeding could be an immediate benefit. This study explored breastfeeding mothers’ reports of body-related changes as benefits of breastfeeding. Mothers (N = 182 who currently, or had recently, breastfed an infant completed a survey detailing their infant feeding choices and the perceived benefits of breastfeeding on their bodies. Half of the mothers felt that breastfeeding had a positive effect on their body. Benefits were grouped into five themes: (1 Returning to pre-pregnancy body shape; (2 Health benefits; (3 Physical benefits; (4 Eating benefits; (5 Psychological benefits. These themes highlight the numerous body-related benefits that mothers identified as resulting from breastfeeding and suggest that immediate, personal, and appearance-related gains of breastfeeding are highly valued. These findings indicate that interventions would likely benefit from emphasising the more immediate physical and psychological benefits of breastfeeding, alongside the health and bonding benefits, as a way to promote breastfeeding initiation and continuation in more women. This may be particularly effective for groups such as young mothers, where breastfeeding rates are low and whose emphasis on body image may be greater.

  3. Continuous glucose profiles in obese and normal-weight pregnant women on a controlled diet: metabolic determinants of fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Kristin A; Gerard, Lori; Jensen, Dalan R; Kealey, Elizabeth H; Hernandez, Teri L; Reece, Melanie S; Barbour, Linda A; Bessesen, Daniel H

    2011-10-01

    We sought to define 24-h glycemia in normal-weight and obese pregnant women using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) while they consumed a habitual and controlled diet both early and late in pregnancy. Glycemia was prospectively measured in early (15.7 ± 2.0 weeks' gestation) and late (27.7 ± 1.7 weeks' gestation) pregnancy in normal-weight (n = 22) and obese (n = 16) pregnant women on an ad libitum and controlled diet. Fasting glucose, triglycerides (early pregnancy only), nonesterified fatty acids (FFAs), and insulin also were measured. The 24-h glucose area under the curve was higher in obese women than in normal-weight women both early and late in pregnancy despite controlled diets. Nearly all fasting and postprandial glycemic parameters were higher in the obese women later in pregnancy, as were fasting insulin, triglycerides, and FFAs. Infants born to obese mothers had greater adiposity. Maternal BMI (r = 0.54, P = 0.01), late average daytime glucose (r = 0.48, P fasting insulin (r = 0.49, P fasting triglycerides (r = 0.67, P fasting FFAs (r = 0.54, P obese women without diabetes have higher daytime and nocturnal glucose profiles than normal-weight women despite a controlled diet both early and late in gestation. Body fat in infants, not birth weight, was related to maternal BMI, glucose, insulin, and FFAs, but triglycerides were the strongest predictor. These metabolic findings may explain higher rates of infant macrosomia in obese women, which might be targeted in trials to prevent excess fetal growth.

  4. Growth, lung function, and physical activity in schoolchildren who were very-low-birth-weight preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winck, Aline Dill; Heinzmann-Filho, João Paulo; Schumann, Deise; Zatti, Helen; Mattiello, Rita; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Stein, Renato Tetelbom

    2016-01-01

    To compare somatic growth, lung function, and level of physical activity in schoolchildren who had been very-low-birth-weight preterm infants (VLBWPIs) or normal-birth-weight full-term infants. We recruited two groups of schoolchildren between 8 and 11 years of age residing in the study catchment area: those who had been VLBWPIs (birth weight prematuros com muito baixo peso e escolares nascidos a termo e com peso adequado. Foram recrutados escolares com idade de 8 a 11 anos residentes na mesma área de abrangência do estudo: prematuros e com peso < 1.500 g e controles (nascidos a termo e com peso ≥ 2.500 g). Foram obtidas medidas antropométricas e espirométricas e aplicado um questionário sobre a atividade física. Além disso, foram coletadas informações do período perinatal/neonatal dos recém-nascidos com muito baixo peso (RNMBP) de seus prontuários médicos. Dos 93 escolares avaliados, 48 crianças no grupo RNMBP e 45 no grupo controle. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos em relação às características antropométricas e nutricionais ou aos parâmetros de função pulmonar. Não foram encontradas associações entre as variáveis perinatais/neonatais e parâmetros da função pulmonar dos escolares no grupo RNMBP. Embora sem diferença significativa em relação aos níveis de atividade física, o grupo RNMBP apresentou uma tendência de ser mais ativo que o grupo controle. Nos escolares aqui estudados o crescimento e a função pulmonar parecem não ser afetados por prematuridade, peso ao nascimento ou nível de atividade física.

  5. A comparison of the disconnection technique with continuous bronchial suction for lung deflation when using the Arndt endobronchial blocker during video-assisted thoracoscopy: A randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tahan, Mohamed R

    2015-06-01

    to 10) respectively; P = 0.90] and intraoperative hypoxaemia (3.5 vs. 0%, respectively; P = 0.32). No patient in the bronchial suction group needed further manoeuvres to collapse the surgical lung. Moreover, the presence of COPD showed a significant positive correlation with the time to total lung collapse (Spearman r = 0.564; P < 0.001). The use of continuous bronchial suction through the lumen of the Arndt blocker offers an effective method to accelerate lung collapse. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02030795.

  6. Apparent diffusion coefficient values of diffusion-weighted imaging for distinguishing focal pulmonary lesions and characterizing the subtype of lung cancer: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Guohua; Jia, Zhiyun; Deng, Houfu [Sichuan University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, West China Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2016-02-15

    The potential performance of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for distinguishing malignant and benign pulmonary lesions, further characterizing the subtype of lung cancer was assessed. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, EBSCO, and three Chinese databases were searched to identify eligible studies on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of focal pulmonary lesions. ADC values of malignant and benign lesions were extracted by lesion type and statistically pooled based on a linear mixed model. Further analysis for subtype of lung cancer was also performed. The methodological quality was assessed using the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies tool. Thirty-four articles involving 2086 patients were included. Malignant pulmonary lesions have significantly lower ADC values than benign lesions [1.21 (95 % CI, 1.19-1.22) mm{sup 2}/s vs. 1.76 (95 % CI, 1.72-1.80) mm{sup 2}/s; P < 0.05]. There is a significant difference between ADC values of small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (P < 0.05), while the differences were not significant among histological subtypes of lung cancer. The methodological quality was relatively high, and the data points from Begg's test indicated that there was probably no obvious publication bias. The ADC value is helpful for distinguishing malignant and benign pulmonary lesions and provides a promising method for differentiation of SCLC from NSCLC. (orig.)

  7. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure versus Mechanical Ventilation on the Fist Day of Life in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Dustin D.; O’Donnell, Elizabeth; Kornhauser, Mike; Dysart, Kevin; Greenspan, Jay; Aghai, Zubair H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine differences in the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants managed successfully on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) versus mechanical ventilation on the first day of life (DOL). Study Design This is a retrospective analysis of the Alere neonatal database for infants born between January 2009 and December 2014, weighing ≤ 1,500 g. Baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes were compared between the two groups. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to control the variables that differ in bivariate analysis. Results In this study, 4,629 infants (birth weight 1,034 ± 290 g, gestational age 28.1 ± 2.5 weeks) met the inclusion criteria. The successful use of early CPAP was associated with a significant reduction in BPD or death (p CPAP on the first DOL in VLBW infants is associated with a reduced risk of BPD or death. PMID:27057767

  8. Long term effects of a continuous and intermittent aerobic exercise on weight changes and body fat percentage in overweight and obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Z

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and sedentary lifestyle are growing problem. The global community's concern is to find the best strategy to obtain a more efficient process of weight reduction, increase physical activity, and minimize weight regain level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of a short-term intervention on weight changes.Methods: The present study is a one-year follow-up study of a 12-week intervention during which the 15 individuals in the intermittent group performed 40 minutes exercise in three bouts per day; however, the 15 participants of the continuous group did the same but 40 minutes continuously. The 15 participants in the control group had no exercise prescription. After one year, weight changes, body fat percentage, and BMI were re-evaluated in the groups.Results: After adjusting the baseline weight, patterns of change in the mean weights from the end of the third month to the twelfth month were different across groups (P=0.02. After significant weight loss in the intermittent group, the mean weight in this group increased by 2.32 kilograms during the period, although not statistically significant. No increase was observed in the control group’s mean weight (P=1.00. In the continuous group, the mean weight increased statistically (P=0.048, 3.63 kilograms.Conclusion: It seems that long-term effects of moderate intensity intermittent aerobic exercise in overweight and obese women on weight control are more efficient than those of continuous exercise. However, for a change in lifestyle and prevention of weight regain, longer follow-ups are required.

  9. Weight-bearing recommendations after operative fracture treatment-fact or fiction? Gait results with and feasibility of a dynamic, continuous pedobarography insole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Benedikt J; Veith, Nils T; Rollmann, Mika; Orth, Marcel; Fritz, Tobias; Herath, Steven C; Holstein, Jörg H; Pohlemann, Tim

    2017-08-01

    Rehabilitation after lower-extremity fractures is based on the physicians' recommendation for non-, partial-, or full weight-bearing. Clinical studies rely on this assumption, but continuous compliance or objective loading rates are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the compliance to weight-bearing recommendations by introducing a novel, pedobarography system continuously registering postoperative ground forces into ankle, tibial shaft and proximal femur fracture aftercare and test its feasibility for this purpose. In this prospective, observational study, a continuously measuring pedobarography insole was placed in the patients shoe during the immediate post-operative aftercare after ankle, tibial shaft and intertrochanteric femur fractures. Weight-bearing was ordered as per the institutional standard and controlled by physical therapy. The insole was retrieved after a maximum of six weeks (28 days [range 5-42 days]). Non-compliance was defined as a failure to maintain, or reach the ordered weight-bearing within 30%. Overall 30 patients were included in the study. Fourteen (47%) of the patients were compliant to the weight-bearing recommendations. Within two weeks after surgery patients deviated from the recommendation by over 50%. Sex, age and weight did not influence the performance (p > 0.05). Ankle fracture patients (partial weight-bearing) showed a significantly increased deviation from the recommendation (p = 0.01). Our study results show that, despite physical therapy training, weight-bearing compliance to recommended limits was low. Adherence to the partial weight-bearing task was further decreased over time. Uncontrolled weight-bearing recommendations should thus be viewed with caution and carefully considered as fiction. The presented insole is feasible to determine weight bearing continuously, could immediately help define real-time patient behaviour and establish realistic, individual weight-bearing recommendations.

  10. Long-term administration of a small molecular weight catalytic metalloporphyrin antioxidant, AEOL 10150, protects lungs from radiation-induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbani, Zahid N.; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Huang Jie; Day, Brian J.; Alexander, Elaine; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether administration of a catalytic antioxidant, Mn(III) tetrakis(N,N'-diethylimidazolium-2-yl) porphyrin, AEOL 10150, with superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic properties, reduces the severity of radiation-induced injury to the lung from single-dose irradiation (RT) of 28 Gy. Methods and Materials: Rats were randomly divided into four different dose groups (0, 1, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day of AEOL 10150), receiving either short-term (1 week) or long-term (10 weeks) drug administration via osmotic pumps. Rats received single-dose irradiation (RT) of 28 Gy to the right hemithorax. Breathing rates, body weights, blood samples, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess lung damage. Results: There was no significant difference in any of the study endpoints between the irradiated controls and the three groups receiving RT and short-term administration of AEOL 10150. For the long-term administration, functional determinants of lung damage 20 weeks postradiation were significantly worse for RT + phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and RT + 1 mg/kg/day of AEOL 10150 as compared with the irradiated groups treated with higher doses of AEOL 10150 (10 or 30 mg/kg/day). Lung histology at 20 weeks revealed a significant decrease in structural damage and collagen deposition in rats receiving 10 or 30 mg/kg/day after radiation in comparison to the RT + PBS and 1 mg/kg/day groups. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a significant reduction in macrophage accumulation, oxidative stress, and hypoxia in rats receiving AEOL 10150 (10 or 30 mg/kg/day) after lung irradiation compared with the RT + PBS and 1 mg/kg/day groups. Conclusions: The chronic administration of a novel catalytic antioxidant, AEOL 10150, demonstrates a significant protective effect from radiation-induced lung injury. AEOL 10150 has its primary impact on the cascade of events after irradiation, and adding the drug before irradiation and its short-term administration have no significant

  11. Preterm birth and low birth weight continue to increase the risk of asthma from age 7 to 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Melanie C; D Olhaberriague, Ana López-Polín; Burgess, John A; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John L; Johns, David P; Abramson, Michael J; Walters, E Haydn; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2017-08-01

    Perinatal events can influence the development of asthma in childhood but current evidence is contradictory concerning the effects on life-time asthma risk. To assess the relationship between birth characteristics and asthma from childhood to adulthood. All available birth records for the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) cohort, born in 1961 were obtained from the Tasmanian State Archives and Tasmanian hospitals. Low birth weight (LBW) was defined as less than 2500 grams. Preterm birth was defined as delivery before 37 weeks' gestation. Small for gestational age (SGA) was defined as a birth weight below the 10 th percentile for a given gestational age. Multivariate logistic and cox regression were used to examine associations between birth characteristics and lifetime risk of current and incident asthma, adjusting for confounders. The prevalence of LBW was 5.2%, SGA was 13.8% and preterm was 3.3%. LBW (OR = 1.65, 95%CI 1.12,2.44) and preterm birth (OR = 1.81, 95%CI 0.99, 3.31) were both associated with an increased risk of current asthma between the ages of 7 to 43 years. There was no association between SGA and current asthma risk. However, SGA was associated with incident asthma (HR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.00, 1.74), and there was an interaction with sex (p value = 0.08), with males having a greater risk of incident asthma (HR = 1.70, 95%CI 1.16-2.49) than females (HR = 1.04, 95%CI 0.70-1.54). Preterm birth and LBW were associated with an increased risk of current asthma into middle-age. These findings are the first to demonstrate the continuing impact of these characteristics on asthma risk into middle-age.

  12. Asynchrony in respiratory movements between the pulmonary lobes in patients with COPD: continuous measurement of lung density by 4-dimensional dynamic-ventilation CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamashiro T

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tsuneo Yamashiro,1 Hiroshi Moriya,2 Shin Matsuoka,3 Yukihiro Nagatani,4 Maho Tsubakimoto,1 Nanae Tsuchiya,1 Sadayuki Murayama1 On behalf of the ACTIve Study Group 1Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa, Japan; 2Department of Radiology, Ohara General Hospital, Fukushima-City, Fukushima, Japan; 3Department of Radiology, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan; 4Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga, Japan Purpose: Four-dimensional dynamic-ventilation CT imaging demonstrates continuous movement of the lung. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between interlobar synchrony in lung density and spirometric values in COPD patients and smokers, by measuring the continuous changes in lung density during respiration on the dynamic-ventilation CT. Materials and methods: Thirty-two smokers, including ten with COPD, underwent dynamic-ventilation CT during free breathing. CT data were continuously reconstructed every 0.5 sec. Mean lung density (MLD of the five lobes (right upper [RU], right middle [RM], right lower [RL], left upper [LU], and left lower [LL] was continuously measured by commercially available software using a fixed volume of volume of interest which was placed and tracked on a single designated point in each lobe. Concordance between the MLD time curves of six pairs of lung lobes (RU-RL, RU-RM, RM-RL, LU-LL, RU-LU, and RL-LL lobes was expressed by cross-correlation coefficients. The relationship between these cross-correlation coefficients and the forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1.0/FVC values was assessed by Spearman rank correlation analysis. Results: In all six pairs of the pulmonary lobes, the cross-correlation coefficients of the two MLD curves were significantly positively correlated with FEV1.0/FVC (ρ =0.60–0.73, P<0.001. The mean value of the six

  13. Continuation maintenance therapy with S-1 in chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced squamous cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Seiichiro; Karayama, Masato; Inui, Naoki; Fujisawa, Tomoyuki; Enomoto, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Yutaro; Kuroishi, Shigeki; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Yokomura, Koshi; Koshimizu, Naoki; Toyoshima, Mikio; Imokawa, Shiro; Asada, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Masafumi; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Suda, Takafumi

    2016-08-01

    Objectives Maintenance therapy is a standard therapeutic strategy in non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer. However, there is no consensus regarding the benefit of maintenance therapy for patients with squamous cell lung cancer. We assessed maintenance therapy with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine agent, following induction therapy with carboplatin and S-1 in patients with squamous cell lung cancer. Methods In this phase II trial, chemotherapy-naïve patients with squamous cell lung cancer were enrolled to induction therapy with four cycles of carboplatin (at an area under the curve of 5 on day 1) and S-1 (80 mg/m(2)/day on days 1-14) in a 28-day cycle. Patients who achieved disease control after induction therapy received maintenance therapy with S-1 in a 21-day cycle until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival after administration of maintenance therapy. Results Fifty-one patients were enrolled in the study. The median progression-free survival from the start of maintenance therapy was 3.0 months (95 % confidence interval, 2.5-3.5). The most common toxicities associated with maintenance therapy were anemia, thrombocytopenia, and fatigue, but they were not severe. Conclusion S-1 maintenance therapy might be a feasible treatment option in patients with squamous cell lung cancer.

  14. FDG-PET/CT and diffusion-weighted imaging for resected lung cancer: correlation of maximum standardized uptake value and apparent diffusion coefficient value with prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuda, Katsuo; Funasaki, Aika; Sekimura, Atsushi; Motono, Nozomu; Matoba, Munetaka; Doai, Mariko; Yamada, Sohsuke; Ueda, Yoshimichi; Uramoto, Hidetaka

    2018-04-09

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is useful for detecting malignant tumors and the assessment of lymph nodes, as FDG-PET/CT is. But it is not clear how DWI influences the prognosis of lung cancer patients. The focus of this study is to evaluate the correlations between maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of FDG-PET/CT and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of DWI with known prognostic factors in resected lung cancer. A total of 227 patients with resected lung cancers were enrolled in this study. FEG-PET/CT and DWI were performed in each patient before surgery. There were 168 patients with adenocarcinoma, 44 patients with squamous cell carcinoma, and 15 patients with other cell types. SUVmax was a factor that was correlated to T factor, N factor, or cell differentiation. ADC of lung cancer was a factor that was not correlated to T factor, or N factor. There was a significantly weak inverse relationship between SUVmax and ADC (Correlation coefficient r = - 0.227). In analysis of survival, there were significant differences between the categories of sex, age, pT factor, pN factor, cell differentiation, cell type, and SUVmax. Univariate analysis revealed that SUVmax, pN factor, age, cell differentiation, cell type, sex, and pT factor were significant factors. Multivariate analysis revealed that SUVmax and pN factor were independent significant prognostic factors. SUVmax was a significant prognostic factor that is correlated to T factor, N factor, or cell differentiation, but ADC was not. SUVmax may be more useful for predicting the prognosis of lung cancer than ADC values.

  15. Long-term quasi-continuous oxygen saturation levels obtained from sternal photoplethysmography on patients with obstructive lung diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chreiteh, Shadi; Saadi, Dorthe Bodholt; Belhage, Bo

    2016-01-01

    the sternum of patients admitted to the hospital with obstructive lung diseases. Due to the lack of a gold standard reference that is suitable for long-term monitoring without interfering with the patient's activity level, we extracted reliable segments based on knowledge from the basic pulse oximeter theory...

  16. Stage-independent, single lead EEG sleep spindle detection using the continuous wavelet transform and local weighted smoothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanas, Athanasios; Clifford, Gari D

    2015-01-01

    Sleep spindles are critical in characterizing sleep and have been associated with cognitive function and pathophysiological assessment. Typically, their detection relies on the subjective and time-consuming visual examination of electroencephalogram (EEG) signal(s) by experts, and has led to large inter-rater variability as a result of poor definition of sleep spindle characteristics. Hitherto, many algorithmic spindle detectors inherently make signal stationarity assumptions (e.g., Fourier transform-based approaches) which are inappropriate for EEG signals, and frequently rely on additional information which may not be readily available in many practical settings (e.g., more than one EEG channels, or prior hypnogram assessment). This study proposes a novel signal processing methodology relying solely on a single EEG channel, and provides objective, accurate means toward probabilistically assessing the presence of sleep spindles in EEG signals. We use the intuitively appealing continuous wavelet transform (CWT) with a Morlet basis function, identifying regions of interest where the power of the CWT coefficients corresponding to the frequencies of spindles (11-16 Hz) is large. The potential for assessing the signal segment as a spindle is refined using local weighted smoothing techniques. We evaluate our findings on two databases: the MASS database comprising 19 healthy controls and the DREAMS sleep spindle database comprising eight participants diagnosed with various sleep pathologies. We demonstrate that we can replicate the experts' sleep spindles assessment accurately in both databases (MASS database: sensitivity: 84%, specificity: 90%, false discovery rate 83%, DREAMS database: sensitivity: 76%, specificity: 92%, false discovery rate: 67%), outperforming six competing automatic sleep spindle detection algorithms in terms of correctly replicating the experts' assessment of detected spindles.

  17. Stage-independent, single lead EEG sleep spindle detection using the continuous wavelet transform and local weighted smoothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios eTsanas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep spindles are critical in characterizing sleep and have been associated with cognitive function and pathophysiological assessment. Typically, their detection relies on the subjective and time-consuming visual examination of electroencephalogram (EEG signal(s by experts, and has led to large inter-rater variability as a result of poor definition of sleep spindle characteristics. Hitherto, many algorithmic spindle detectors inherently make signal stationarity assumptions (e.g. Fourier transform-based approaches which are inappropriate for EEG signals, and frequently rely on additional information which may not be readily available in many practical settings (e.g. more than one EEG channels, or prior hypnogram assessment. This study proposes a novel signal processing methodology relying solely on a single EEG channel, and provides objective, accurate means towards probabilistically assessing the presence of sleep spindles in EEG signals. We use the intuitively appealing continuous wavelet transform (CWT with a Morlet basis function, identifying regions of interest where the power of the CWT coefficients corresponding to the frequencies of spindles (11-16 Hz is large. The potential for assessing the signal segment as a spindle is refined using local weighted smoothing techniques. We evaluate our findings on two databases: the MASS database comprising 19 healthy controls and the DREAMS sleep spindle database comprising eight participants diagnosed with various sleep pathologies. We demonstrate that we can replicate the experts’ sleep spindles assessment accurately in both databases (MASS database: sensitivity: 84%, specificity: 90%, false discovery rate 83%, DREAMS database: sensitivity: 76%, specificity: 92%, false discovery rate: 67%, outperforming six competing automatic sleep spindle detection algorithms in terms of correctly replicating the experts’ assessment of detected spindles.

  18. Diagnosing lung nodules on oncologic MR/PET imaging: Comparison of fast T1-weighted sequences and influence of image acquisition in inspiration and expiration breath-hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwenzer, Nina F.; Seith, Ferdinand; Gatidis, Sergios; Brendle, Cornelia; Schmidt, Holger; Pfannenberg, Christina A; LaFougère, Christian; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Schraml, Christina [University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    First, to investigate the diagnostic performance of fast T1-weighted sequences for lung nodule evaluation in oncologic magnetic resonance (MR)/positron emission tomography (PET). Second, to evaluate the influence of image acquisition in inspiration and expiration breath-hold on diagnostic performance. The study was approved by the local Institutional Review Board. PET/CT and MR/PET of 44 cancer patients were evaluated by 2 readers. PET/CT included lung computed tomography (CT) scans in inspiration and expiration (CTin, CTex). MR/PET included Dixon sequence for attenuation correction and fast T1-weighted volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences (volume interpolated breath-hold examination acquired in inspiration [VIBEin], volume interpolated breath-hold examination acquired in expiration [VIBEex]). Diagnostic performance was analyzed for lesion-, lobe-, and size-dependence. Diagnostic confidence was evaluated (4-point Likert-scale; 1 = high). Jackknife alternative free-response receiver-operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis was performed. Seventy-six pulmonary lesions were evaluated. Lesion-based detection rates were: CTex, 77.6%; VIBEin, 53.3%; VIBEex, 51.3%; and Dixon, 22.4%. Lobe-based detection rates were: CTex, 89.6%; VIBEin, 58.3%; VIBEex, 60.4%; and Dixon, 31.3%. In contrast to CT, inspiration versus expiration did not alter diagnostic performance in VIBE sequences. Diagnostic confidence was best for VIBEin and CTex and decreased in VIBEex and Dixon (1.2 ± 0.6; 1.2 ± 0.7; 1.5 ± 0.9; 1.7 ± 1.1, respectively). The JAFROC figure-of-merit of Dixon was significantly lower. All patients with malignant lesions were identified by CTex, VIBEin, and VIBEex, while 3 patients were false-negative in Dixon. Fast T1-weighted VIBE sequences allow for identification of patients with malignant pulmonary lesions. The Dixon sequence is not recommended for lung nodule evaluation in oncologic MR/PET patients. In contrast to CT, inspiration versus

  19. Diagnosing Lung Nodules on Oncologic MR/PET Imaging: Comparison of Fast T1-Weighted Sequences and Influence of Image Acquisition in Inspiration and Expiration Breath-Hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwenzer, Nina F.; Seith, Ferdinand; Gatidis, Sergios [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); Brendle, Cornelia [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); Schmidt, Holger; Pfannenberg, Christina A. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); Fougère, Christian la [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); Nikolaou, Konstantin; Schraml, Christina [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    First, to investigate the diagnostic performance of fast T1-weighted sequences for lung nodule evaluation in oncologic magnetic resonance (MR)/positron emission tomography (PET). Second, to evaluate the influence of image acquisition in inspiration and expiration breath-hold on diagnostic performance. The study was approved by the local Institutional Review Board. PET/CT and MR/PET of 44 cancer patients were evaluated by 2 readers. PET/CT included lung computed tomography (CT) scans in inspiration and expiration (CTin, CTex). MR/PET included Dixon sequence for attenuation correction and fast T1-weighted volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences (volume interpolated breath-hold examination acquired in inspiration [VIBEin], volume interpolated breath-hold examination acquired in expiration [VIBEex]). Diagnostic performance was analyzed for lesion-, lobe-, and size-dependence. Diagnostic confidence was evaluated (4-point Likert-scale; 1 = high). Jackknife alternative free-response receiver-operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis was performed. Seventy-six pulmonary lesions were evaluated. Lesion-based detection rates were: CTex, 77.6%; VIBEin, 53.3%; VIBEex, 51.3%; and Dixon, 22.4%. Lobe-based detection rates were: CTex, 89.6%; VIBEin, 58.3%; VIBEex, 60.4%; and Dixon, 31.3%. In contrast to CT, inspiration versus expiration did not alter diagnostic performance in VIBE sequences. Diagnostic confidence was best for VIBEin and CTex and decreased in VIBEex and Dixon (1.2 ± 0.6; 1.2 ± 0.7; 1.5 ± 0.9; 1.7 ± 1.1, respectively). The JAFROC figure-of-merit of Dixon was significantly lower. All patients with malignant lesions were identified by CTex, VIBEin, and VIBEex, while 3 patients were false-negative in Dixon. Fast T1-weighted VIBE sequences allow for identification of patients with malignant pulmonary lesions. The Dixon sequence is not recommended for lung nodule evaluation in oncologic MR/PET patients. In contrast to CT, inspiration versus

  20. Comparison of quantitative regional ventilation-weighted fourier decomposition MRI with dynamic fluorinated gas washout MRI and lung function testing in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaireit, Till F; Gutberlet, Marcel; Voskrebenzev, Andreas; Freise, Julia; Welte, Tobias; Hohlfeld, Jens M; Wacker, Frank; Vogel-Claussen, Jens

    2018-06-01

    Ventilation-weighted Fourier decomposition-MRI (FD-MRI) has matured as a reliable technique for quantitative measures of regional lung ventilation in recent years, but has yet not been validated in COPD patients. To compare regional fractional lung ventilation obtained by ventilation-weighted FD-MRI with dynamic fluorinated gas washout MRI ( 19 F-MRI) and lung function test parameters. Prospective study. Twenty-seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, median age 61 [54-67] years) were included. For FD-MRI and for 19 F-MRI a spoiled gradient echo sequence was used at 1.5T. FD-MRI coronal slices were acquired in free breathing. Dynamic 19 F-MRI was performed after inhalation of 25-30 L of a mixture of 79% fluorinated gas (C 3 F 8 ) and 21% oxygen via a closed face mask tubing using a dedicated coil tuned to 59.9 MHz. 19 F washout times in numbers of breaths ( 19 F-n breaths ) as well as fractional ventilation maps for both methods (FD-FV, 19 F-FV) were calculated. Slices were matched using a landmark driven algorithm, and only corresponding slices with an overlap of >90% were coregistered for evaluation. The obtained parameters were correlated with each other using Spearman's correlation coefficient (r). FD-FV strongly correlated with 19 F-n breaths on a global (r = -0.72, P Fourier decomposition-MRI is a promising noninvasive, radiation-free tool for quantification of regional ventilation in COPD patients. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:1534-1541. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Lung Development and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    The onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can arise either from failure to attain the normal spirometric plateau or from an accelerated decline in lung function. Despite reports from numerous big cohorts, no single adult life factor, including smoking, accounts for this accelerated decline. By contrast, five childhood risk factors (maternal and paternal asthma, maternal smoking, childhood asthma and respiratory infections) are strongly associated with an accelerated rate of lung function decline and COPD. Among adverse effects on lung development are transgenerational (grandmaternal smoking), antenatal (exposure to tobacco and pollution), and early childhood (exposure to tobacco and pollution including pesticides) factors. Antenatal adverse events can operate by causing structural changes in the developing lung, causing low birth weight and prematurity and altered immunological responses. Also important are mode of delivery, early microbiological exposures, and multiple early atopic sensitizations. Early bronchial hyperresponsiveness, before any evidence of airway inflammation, is associated with adverse respiratory outcomes. Overlapping cohort studies established that spirometry tracks from the preschool years to late middle age, and those with COPD in the sixth decade already had the worst spirometry at age 10 years. Alveolar development is now believed to continue throughout somatic growth and is adversely impacted by early tobacco smoke exposure. Genetic factors are also important, with genes important in lung development and early wheezing also being implicated in COPD. The inescapable conclusion is that the roots of COPD are in early life, and COPD is a disease of childhood adverse factors interacting with genetic factors.

  2. Comparison of two dimensional and three dimensional radiotherapy treatment planning in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy weekend less

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Elena M.; Joy Williams, Frances; Ethan Lyn, Basil; Aird, Edwin G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer being treated with continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy weekend less (CHARTWEL) were planned and treated with a three dimensional (3D) conformal protocol and comparison made with two dimensional (2D) planning, as used previously, to compare past practice and methods. Patients and methods: Twenty-four patients were planned initially using 3D and then replanned using a 2D system. The 2D plans were transferred onto the 3D system and recalculated. Dose volume histograms could then be constructed of planning target volumes for phases 1 and 2 (PTV 1 and 2, respectively), lung and spinal cord for the 2D plans and compared with the 3D plans. Results: There was a significantly lower absolute dose to the isocentre with 2D compared to 3D planning with dose reductions of 3.9% for phase 1, 4.4% for phase 2 and 4.7% for those treated with a single phase. Maximum dose to spinal cord was greater in 17 of the 24 2D plans with a median dose reduction of 0.82 Gy for 3D (P=0.04). The percentage volume of whole lung receiving ≥20 Gy (V 20 ) was greater in 16 of the 24 2D plans with a median reduction in V 20 of 2.4% for 3D (P=0.03). Conclusions: A lower dose to tumour was obtained using 2D planning due to the method of dose calculation and spinal cord and lung doses were significantly higher

  3. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in comparison to integrated [18F]-FDG PET/CT for N-staging in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauls, Sandra; Schmidt, Stefan A.; Juchems, Markus S.; Klass, Oliver; Luster, Markus; Reske, Sven Norbert; Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Feuerlein, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to prospectively determine the diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using MRI in the staging of thoracic lymph nodes in patients with lung cancer, and to compare the performance to that of PET/CT. Patients and Method 20 consecutive patients (pts) with histologically proven lung cancer were included in this study. In all pts FDG-PET/CT was routinely performed to stage lung carcinoma. Additionally, MRI (1.5 T) was performed including native T1w, T1w post contrast medium, T2w, and DWI sequences. Regarding the N stage based on the results of the PET/CT there were 5 patients with N0, 3 patients with N1, 5 patients with N2 and 7 patients with N3. Image analysis was performed by two radiologists (R1 and R2), respectively. The reviewers had to chose between 1 (at least one lymph node within a station is malignant) or 0 (no lymph nodes suspicious for malignancy). First the T1 post contrast sequence was analyzed. In a second step the DWI sequence (b = 800) was analyzed. Both steps were performed in a blinded fashion. Results MR imaging with or without DWI only agreed with the results of the PET/CT regarding the N stage in 80% of the patients—15% were understaged and 5% overstaged. There was excellent interobserver agreement; the N-staging result only differed in 1 patient for DWI, resulting in correlation coefficients of 0.98 for DWI and 1.0 for MRI. Compared to PET-CT MRI overstaged one and understaged 4 patients, while DWI overstaged one and understaged 3 patients. This resulted in correlation coefficients of 0.814 (R1 and R2) for MRI and 0.815 (R1) and 0.804 (R2) for DWI. Regarding the ADC values there were no significant differences between ipsilateral hilar (1.03 mm 2 /s ± 0.13), subcarinal (0.96 mm 2 /s ± 0.24), ipsilateral mediastinal (1.0 mm 2 /s ± 0.18), contralateral mediastinal (0.93 mm 2 /s ± 0.23) and supraclavicular (0.9 mm 2 /s ± 0.23) lymph nodes. Conclusion Diffusion-weighted imaging does not

  4. Continuous indomethacin infusion may be less effective than bolus infusions for ductal closure in very low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, NKS; Jagroep, FK; Jaarsma, AS; Elzenga, NJ; Bos, AF

    The effectiveness of continuous indomethacin (INDO) infusion versus bolus infusions for closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was investigated. The study design was an open-label case series (continuous INDO) with historic controls matched for gestational age (bolus INDO). Ductal closure rates

  5. Chronic lung disease in very low birth weight infants: Persistence and improvement of a quality improvement process in a tertiary level neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birenbaum, H J; Pfoh, E R; Helou, S; Pane, M A; Marinkovich, G A; Dentry, A; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Updegraff, L; Arnold, C; Liverman, S; Cawman, H

    2016-05-19

    We previously demonstrated a significant reduction in our incidence of chronic lung disease in our NICU using potentially better practices of avoiding delivery room endotracheal intubation and using early nasal CPAP. We sought to demonstrate whether these improvements were sustained and or improved over time. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of infants 501-1500 grams born at our hospital between 2005 and 2013. Infants born during the 2005-2007, 2008-2010 and 2011-2013 epochs were grouped together, respectively. Descriptive analysis was conducted to determine the number and percent of maternal and neonatal characteristics by year grouping. Chi-squared tests were used to determine whether there were any statistically significant changes in characteristics across year groupings.. Two outcome variables were assessed: a diagnosis of chronic lung disease based on the Vermont Oxford Network definition and being discharged home on supplemental oxygen. There was a statistically significant improvement in the incidence of chronic lung disease in infants below 27 weeks' gestation in the three year period in the 2011-2013 cohort compared with those in the 2005-2007 cohort. We also found a statistically significant improvement in the number of infants discharged on home oxygen with birth weights 751-1000 grams and infants with gestational age less than 27 weeks in the 2011-2013 cohort compared to the 2005-2007 cohort. We demonstrated sustained improvement in our incidence of CLD between 2005 and 2013. We speculate that a multifaceted strategy of avoiding intubation and excessive oxygen in the delivery room, the early use of CPAP, as well as the use of volume targeted ventilation, when needed, may help significantly reduce the incidence of CLD.

  6. Cerebral staging of lung cancer: is one single contrast-enhanced T1-weighted three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence sufficient?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohana, Mickael; Jeung, Mi-Young; Roy, Catherine [Nouvel Hopital Civil-Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Radiologie B/Radiology Department, Strasbourg (France); Bazille, Gauthier [Clinique Saint Anne-Groupe Radiologique MIM, Strasbourg (France)

    2014-08-15

    Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard for cerebral staging in thoracic oncology. We hypothesize that a minimalist examination, consisting of a single contrast-enhanced T1-weighted three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence (CE 3D-GRE), would be sufficient for the cerebral staging of nonsymptomatic lung cancer patients. Seventy nonsymptomatic patients (50 % men; 62 years ± 10.2) referred for cerebral staging of a lung cancer were retrospectively included. All underwent a standard 3 T MRI examination with T1, FLAIR, T2* GRE, diffusion, and CE 3D-GRE sequences, for a total examination time of 20 min. The sole CE 3D-GRE (acquisition time: 6 min) was extracted and blindly interpreted by two radiologists in search of brain metastases. Hemorrhagic features of potential lesions and relevant incidental findings were also noted. Discrepant cases were reviewed by a third reader. The full MRI examination and follow-up studies were used as a reference to calculate sensitivity and specificity of the sole CE 3D-GRE. Thirty-eight point six percent (27 out of 70) of the patients had brain metastases. Performances and reader's agreement with the sole CE 3D-GRE sequence were excellent for the diagnosis of brain metastases (sensitivity = 96.3 %, specificity = 100 %, κ = 0.91) and incidental findings (sensitivity = 85.7 %, specificity = 100 %, κ = 0.62) but insufficient for the identification of hemorrhages within the metastases (sensitivity = 33.3 %, specificity = 85.7 %, κ = 0.47). In the specific case of lung cancer, cerebral staging in nonsymptomatic patients can be efficiently achieved with a minimalistic protocol consisting of a single CE 3D-GRE sequence, completed if positive with a T2* sequence for hemorrhagic assessment, thus halving appointment delays. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of connectivity map-discovered celastrol as a radiosensitizing agent in a murine lung carcinoma model: Feasibility study of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Young Jun

    Full Text Available This study was designed to identify potential radiosensitizing (RS agents for combined radio- and chemotherapy in a murine model of human lung carcinoma, and to evaluate the in vivo effect of the RS agents using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI. Radioresistance-associated genes in A549 and H460 cells were isolated on the basis of their gene expression profiles. Celastrol was selected as a candidate RS by using connectivity mapping, and its efficacy in lung cancer radiotherapy was tested. Mice inoculated with A549 carcinoma cells were treated with single ionizing radiation (SIR, single celastrol (SC, or celastrol-combined ionizing radiation (CCIR. Changes in radiosensitization over time were assessed using DW-MRI before and at 3, 6, and 12 days after therapy initiation. The tumors were stained with hematoxylin and eosin at 6 and 12 days after therapy. The percentage change in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC value in the CCIR group was significantly higher than that in the SC and SIR group on the 12th day (Mann-Whitney U-test, p = 0.05; Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.05. A significant correlation (Spearman's rho correlation coefficient of 0.713, p = 0.001 was observed between the mean percentage tumor necrotic area and the mean ADC values after therapy initiation. These results suggest that the novel radiosensitizing agent celastrol has therapeutic effects when combined with ionizing radiation (IR, thereby maximizing the therapeutic effect of radiation in non-small cell lung carcinoma. In addition, DW-MRI is a useful noninvasive tool to monitor the effects of RS agents by assessing cellularity changes and sequential therapeutic responses.

  8. Use of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MR imaging for assessment of treatment response to invasive fungal infection in the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chenggong; Xiong, Wei; Wu, Yuankui; Li, Caixia; Xu, Yikai [Southern Medical University, Department of Medical Imaging Center, Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Xu, Jun; Wei, Qi; Feng, Ru; Liu, Qifa [Southern Medical University, Department of Hematology, Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Chan, Queenie [Philips Healthcare, New Territories, Hon Kong (China)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) -derived parameters and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) could act as imaging biomarkers for predicting antifungal treatment response. Forty-six consecutive patients (mean age, 33.9 ± 13.0 y) with newly diagnosed invasive fungal infection (IFI) in the lung according to EORTC/MSG criteria were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 3.0 T using 11 b values (0-1000 sec/mm{sup 2}). ADC, pseudodiffusion coefficient D*, perfusion fraction f, and the diffusion coefficient D were compared between patients with favourable (n=32) and unfavourable response (n=14). f values were significantly lower in the unfavourable response group (12.6%±4.4%) than in the favourable response group (30.2%±8.6%) (Z=4.989, P<0.001). However, the ADC, D, and D* were not significantly different between the two groups (P>0.05). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed f to be a significant predictor for differentiation, with a sensitivity of 93.8% and a specificity of 92.9%. IVIM-MRI is potentially useful in the prediction of antifungal treatment response to patients with IFI in the lung. Our results indicate that a low perfusion fraction f may be a noninvasive imaging biomarker for unfavourable response. (orig.)

  9. Health-related quality of life of mothers of very low birth weight children at the age of five: results from the Newborn Lung Project Statewide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Whitney P; Litzelman, Kristin; Spear, Hilary A; Wisk, Lauren E; Levin, Nataliya; McManus, Beth M; Palta, Mari

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in mothers of 5-year-old very low birth weight (VLBW) and normal birth weight (NBW) children, with a focus on the role of stress. This cohort study is ancillary to the Newborn Lung Project. A telephone interview collected information on symptoms of stress and HRQoL from 297 mothers of VLBW children and 290 mothers of NBW children who were enrolled in the Newborn Lung Project Statewide Cohort Study. Staged multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between caregiver status and maternal HRQoL and the role stress played in this relationship. Additional multiple regression analyses were also used to evaluate the correlates of poor maternal HRQoL among VLBW mothers. Mothers of VLBW children experienced worse physical and mental HRQoL than mothers of NBW children. Adjusted analyses showed that physical HRQoL was significantly different between these mothers (β: -1.87, P = 0.001); this relationship was attenuated by maternal stress. Among the mothers of VLBW children, stress significantly contributed to adverse HRQoL outcomes when children were aged five. Child behavior problems at the age of two were also associated with worse subsequent maternal mental HRQoL (β: -0.18, P = 0.004), while each week of neonatal intensive care unit stay was associated with worse physical HRQoL (β: -0.26, P = 0.02). Caring for a VLBW child is negatively associated with the HRQoL of mothers; this relationship might be, in part, explained by maternal stress. Addressing maternal stress may be an important way to improve long-term HRQoL.

  10. Impact of Weight Change During the Course of Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy on Outcomes in Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients: Retrospective Analysis of 425 Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topkan, Erkan; Parlak, Cem; Selek, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We retrospectively investigated the impact of weight change (WC) during concurrent chemoradiation therapy (C-CRT) on clinical outcomes of stage 3B non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 425 patients treated with C-CRT were included. All patients received 60 to 66 Gy of thoracic radiation therapy concurrently with 1 to 3 cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy. Pre- and posttreatment weight measurements on first and last days of C-CRT were used for WC. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 = weight loss (WL); group 2 = weight preservation/gain (WP) for comparative analyses. Results: Following C-CRT, 252 patients (59.3%) experienced WL, while 89 patients (20.9%) and 84 patients (19.8%) showed WP or WG. At median 24.2 months of follow-up, 142 patients (33.4%) were alive (84 WP [48.6%] and 58 WL [23.0%]), and 58 (13.6%) of them were free of disease progression (41 [23.7%] for WP and 17 [6.7%] for WL). Median overall survival (OS), locoregional progression-free survival (LRPFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and distant metastases-free survival (DMFS) for the entire population were 22.8, 14.4, 10.6, and 11.7 months, respectively. Intergroup comparisons between WP and WL cohorts revealed significantly superior OS, LRPFS, PFS, and DMFS in WP patients (P<.05 for each). On multivariate analyses, only WL and advanced T stage were associated with poor prognosis (P<.05). Conclusions: Present results in 425 stage 3B NSCLC patients demonstrated that WL during C-CRT is strongly associated with inferior survival outcomes compared to WP. This emerging finding might be useful by forming an encouraging basis for future investigations in facilitating a way to improve the outcomes of these patients experiencing WL during C-CRT

  11. Cross Coating Weight Control by Electromagnetic Strip Stabilization at the Continuous Galvanizing Line of ArcelorMittal Florange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelton, Nicolas; Lopès, Catherine; Sordini, Henri

    2016-08-01

    In hot dip galvanizing lines, strip bending around the sink roll generates a flatness defect called crossbow. This defect affects the cross coating weight distribution by changing the knife-to-strip distance along the strip width and requires a significant increase in coating target to prevent any risk of undercoating. The already-existing coating weight control system succeeds in eliminating both average and skew coating errors but cannot do anything against crossbow coating errors. It has therefore been upgraded with a flatness correction function which takes advantage of the possibility of controlling the electromagnetic stabilizer. The basic principle is to split, for every gage scan, the coating weight cross profile of the top and bottom sides into two, respectively, linear and non-linear components. The linear component is used to correct the skew error by realigning the knives with the strip, while the non-linear component is used to distort the strip in the stabilizer in such a way that the strip is kept flat between the knives. Industrial evaluation is currently in progress but the first results have already shown that the strip can be significantly flattened between the knives and the production tolerances subsequently tightened without compromising quality.

  12. Estimating 4D-CBCT from prior information and extremely limited angle projections using structural PCA and weighted free-form deformation for lung radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Wendy; Zhang, You; Yin, Fang-Fang; Ren, Lei

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using structural-based principal component analysis (PCA) motion-modeling and weighted free-form deformation to estimate on-board 4D-CBCT using prior information and extremely limited angle projections for potential 4D target verification of lung radiotherapy. A technique for lung 4D-CBCT reconstruction has been previously developed using a deformation field map (DFM)-based strategy. In the previous method, each phase of the 4D-CBCT was generated by deforming a prior CT volume. The DFM was solved by a motion model extracted by a global PCA and free-form deformation (GMM-FD) technique, using a data fidelity constraint and deformation energy minimization. In this study, a new structural PCA method was developed to build a structural motion model (SMM) by accounting for potential relative motion pattern changes between different anatomical structures from simulation to treatment. The motion model extracted from planning 4DCT was divided into two structures: tumor and body excluding tumor, and the parameters of both structures were optimized together. Weighted free-form deformation (WFD) was employed afterwards to introduce flexibility in adjusting the weightings of different structures in the data fidelity constraint based on clinical interests. XCAT (computerized patient model) simulation with a 30 mm diameter lesion was simulated with various anatomical and respiratory changes from planning 4D-CT to on-board volume to evaluate the method. The estimation accuracy was evaluated by the volume percent difference (VPD)/center-of-mass-shift (COMS) between lesions in the estimated and "ground-truth" on-board 4D-CBCT. Different on-board projection acquisition scenarios and projection noise levels were simulated to investigate their effects on the estimation accuracy. The method was also evaluated against three lung patients. The SMM-WFD method achieved substantially better accuracy than the GMM-FD method for CBCT estimation using extremely

  13. Weight Gain in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients During Treatment With Split-Course Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Is Associated With Superior Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gielda, Benjamin T., E-mail: Benjamin_gielda@rush.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Mehta, Par [Department of Radiation Oncology at Rush Copley Medical Center, Aurora, IL (United States); Khan, Atif [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Marsh, James C.; Zusag, Thomas W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Warren, William H. [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Fidler, Mary Jo [Section of Medical Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Abrams, Ross A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Bonomi, Philip [Section of Medical Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Liptay, Michael; Faber, L. Penfield [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Background: Preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is an accepted treatment for potentially resectable, locally advanced, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We reviewed a decade of single institution experience with preoperative split-course CRT followed by surgical resection to evaluate survival and identify factors that may be helpful in predicting outcome. Methods and Materials: All patients treated with preoperative split-course CRT and resection at Rush University Medical Center (RUMC) between January 1999 and December 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Endpoints included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), local-regional progression-free survival (LRPFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). Patient and treatment related variables were assessed for correlation with outcomes. Results: A total of 54 patients were analyzed, 76% Stage IIIA, 18% Stage IIIB, and 6% oligometastatic. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate was 31.5%, and the absence of nodal metastases (pN0) was 64.8%. Median OS and 3-year actuarial survival were 44.6 months and 50%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed initial stage (p < 0.01) and percent weight change during CRT (p < 0.01) significantly correlated with PFS/OS. On multivariate analysis initial stage (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.18-4.90; p = 0.02) and percent weight change (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.67-0.93; p < 0.01) maintained significance with respect to OS. There were no cases of Grade 3+ esophagitis, and there was a single case of Grade 3 febrile neutropenia. Conclusions: The strong correlation between weight change during CRT and OS/PFS suggests that this clinical parameter may be useful as a complementary source of predictive information in addition to accepted factors such as pathological response.

  14. A hybrid breath hold and continued respiration-triggered technique for time-resolved 3D MRI perfusion studies in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintze, C.; Stemmer, A.; Bock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of lung cancer perfusion is impaired by respiratory motion. Imaging times for contrast agent wash-out studies often exceed breath hold capabilities, and respiration triggering reduces temporal resolution. Temporally resolved volume acquisition of entire tumors is required to assess heterogeneity. Therefore, we developed and evaluated an MR measurement technique that exceeds a single breath hold, and provides a variable temporal resolution during acquisition while suspending breath-dependent motion. 20 patients with suspected lung cancer were subjected to perfusion studies using a spoiled 3D gradient echo sequence after bolus injection of 0.07 mmol/kg body weight of Gd-DTPA. 10 acquisitions in expiratory breath hold were followed by 50 navigator-triggered acquisitions under free breathing. Post-processing allowed for co-registration of the 3D data sets. An ROI-based visualization of the signal-time curves was performed. In all cases motion-suspended, time-resolved volume data sets (40 x 33 x 10 cm 3 , voxel size: 2.1 x 2.1 x 5.0 mm 3 ) were generated with a variable, initially high temporal resolution (2.25 sec) that was synchronized with the breath pattern and covered up to 8(1)/(2) min. In 7 / 20 cases a remaining offset could be reduced by rigid co-registration. The tumors showed fast wash-in, followed by rapid signal decay (8 / 20) or a plateau. The feasibility of a perfusion study with hybrid breath hold and navigator-triggered time-resolved 3D MRI which combines high initial temporal resolution during breath hold with a long wash-out period under free breathing was demonstrated. (orig.)

  15. Protein synthesis in the growing rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, J.; Chrin, L.

    1986-01-01

    Developmental control of protein synthesis in the postnatal growth of the lung has not been systematically studied. In male Fischer 344 rats, lung growth continues linearly as a function of body weight (from 75 to 450 g body weight). To study total protein synthesis in lungs of growing rats, we used the technique of constant intravenous infusion of tritiated leucine, an essential amino acid. Lungs of sacrificed animals were used to determine the leucine incorporation rate into newly synthesized protein. The specific radioactivity of the leucine associated with tRNA extracted from the same lungs served as an absolute index of the precursor leucine pool used for lung protein synthesis. On the basis of these measurements, we were able to calculate the fractional synthesis rate (the proportion of total protein destroyed and replaced each day) of pulmonary proteins for each rat. Under the conditions of isotope infusion, leucyl-tRNA very rapidly equilibrates with free leucine of the plasma and of the extracellular space of the lung. Infusions lasting 30 minutes or less yielded linear rates of protein synthesis without evidence of contamination of lung proteins by newly labeled intravascular albumin. The fractional synthesis rate is considerably higher in juvenile animals (55% per day) than in adult rats (20% per day). After approximately 12 weeks of age, the fractional synthesis rate remains extremely constant in spite of continued slow growth of the lung. It is apparent from these data that in both young and adult rats the bulk of total protein synthesis is devoted to rapidly turning over proteins and that less than 4 percent of newly made protein is committed to tissue growth

  16. Early Caffeine Prophylaxis and Risk of Failure of Initial Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ravi M; Zimmerman, Kanecia; Carlton, David P; Clark, Reese; Benjamin, Daniel K; Smith, P Brian

    2017-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that early caffeine treatment on the day of birth, compared with later treatment in very low birth weight (VLBW, caffeine in the first week of life. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression to compare the risk of CPAP failure, defined as invasive mechanical ventilation or surfactant therapy on DOL 1-6, by timing of caffeine treatment as either early (initiation on DOL 0) or routine (initiation on DOL 1-6). We identified 11 133 infants; 4528 (41%) received early caffeine and 6605 (59%) received routine caffeine. Median gestational age was lower in the early caffeine group, 29 weeks (25th, 75th percentiles; 28, 30) vs the routine caffeine group, 30 weeks (29, 31); P caffeine groups: 22% vs 21%; adjusted OR = 1.05 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.18). Early caffeine treatment on the day of birth was not associated with a decreased risk of CPAP failure in the first week of life for VLBW infants initially treated with CPAP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mothers of Very Low Birth Weight Children at School Age: Quality of Life Outcomes from the Newborn Lung Project Statewide Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Whitney P.; Litzelman, Kristin; Spear, Hilary A.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Levin, Nataliya; McManus, Beth M.; Palta, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to: (1) determine the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in mothers of five year old very low birth weight (VLBW) and normal birth weight (NBW) children; (2) determine what extent stress mediates the relationship between case status and maternal HRQoL; and (3) examine the pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, birth, and child health-related factors in predicting maternal HRQoL among mothers of five year old VLBW children. Methods A telephone interview was administered to 297 mothers of VLBW children and 290 mothers of NBW children who were enrolled in the Newborn Lung Project Statewide Cohort Study. Results Mothers of VLBW children experienced worse physical and mental HRQoL than mothers of NBW children (52.8 versus 55.3 points, p<0.0001, and 48.9 versus 50.5 points, p=0.02, respectively). Adjusted analyses showed that maternal mental HRQoL was similar between cases and controls while physical HRQoL when children were age five was significantly different between cases and controls (Beta:−2.02, p=0.0006); this relationship was mediated by maternal stress. Among mothers of VLBW children, stress significantly contributed to adverse HRQoL outcomes when children were age five. Child behavior problems at age two were also associated with worse subsequent maternal mental HRQoL (Beta: −1.8 per SD, p=0.004), while each week of neonatal intensive care unit stay was associated with worse physical HRQoL (Beta: −0.26, p=0.02). Conclusions While caring for a VLBW child negatively impacts the HRQoL of mothers, this relationship was partially explained by maternal stress. Addressing maternal stress may be an important way to improve long-term HRQoL. PMID:22161725

  18. Changes in HbA1c and Weight Following Transition to Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Therapy in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sanjeev N; Andersen, Henrik Ullits; Abrahamson, Martin J; Wolpert, Howard A; Hommel, Eva E; McMullen, William; Ridderstråle, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Historically, intensive insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes (T1D) has improved glycemic control at the risk of adverse weight gain. The impact of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy (CSII) on weight in the current era remains unknown. We assessed changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and weight in adults with T1D transitioning to CSII at 2 diabetes centers in Denmark and the United States. Patients with T1D, aged ≥18 years, managed with multiple daily injections (MDI) who transitioned to CSII between 2002 and 2013 were identified using electronic health record data from the Steno Diabetes Center (n = 600) and Joslin Diabetes Center (n = 658). Changes in HbA1c and weight after 1 year was assessed overall and by baseline HbA1c cut points. Multivariate regression assessed correlates of HbA1c reduction. In adults with T1D transitioning to CSII, clinically significant HbA1c reductions were found in patients with baseline HbA1c 8.0-8.9% (Steno, -0.7%; Joslin, -0.4%) and baseline HbA1c ≥9.0% (Steno, -1.1%; Joslin, -0.9%) ( P HbA1c ≥9% at Steno (1.1 ± 0.3 kg, P HbA1c reduction was associated with higher HbA1c, older age, female sex at Steno ( R 2 = .28, P HbA1c at Joslin ( R 2 = .19, P HbA1c without a negative impact on weight 1 year after transitioning from MDI to CSII.

  19. American Lung Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... see if you should get screened. Learn more EDUCATION ADVOCACY RESEARCH Our vision is a world free of lung disease The American Lung Association is ... by lung disease. Help us continue to deliver education, advocacy and research to those who need it. $250 $100 $50 Your best gift Donate now Learn More ... nonprofit software

  20. Lung growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Suchita; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2007-12-01

    Human lung growth starts as a primitive lung bud in early embryonic life and undergoes several morphological stages which continue into postnatal life. Each stage of lung growth is a result of complex and tightly regulated events governed by physical, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors. Fetal lung liquid and fetal breathing movements are by far the most important determinants of lung growth. Although timing of the stages of lung growth in animals do not mimic that of human, numerous animal studies, mainly on sheep and rat, have given us a better understanding of the regulators of lung growth. Insight into the genetic basis of lung growth has helped us understand and improve management of complex life threatening congenital abnormalities such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia and pulmonary hypoplasia. Although advances in perinatal medicine have improved survival of preterm infants, premature birth is perhaps still the most important factor for adverse lung growth.

  1. Unexpandable lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Marco F; Ferreiro, Lucía; Valdés, Luis

    2013-02-01

    Unexpandable lung is a mechanical complication by which the lung does not expand to the chest wall, impeding a normal apposition between the two pleural layers. The main mechanism involved is the restriction of the visceral pleura due to the formation of a fibrous layer along this pleural membrane. This happens because of the presence of an active pleural disease (lung entrapment), which can be resolved if proper therapeutic measures are taken, or a remote disease (trapped lung), in which an irreversible fibrous pleural layer has been formed. The clinical suspicion arises with the presence of post-thoracocentesis hydropneumothorax or a pleural effusion that cannot be drained due to the appearance of thoracic pain. The diagnosis is based on the analysis of the pleural liquid, the determination of pleural pressures as we drain the effusion and on air-contrast chest CT. As both represent the continuity of one same process, the results will depend on the time at which these procedures are done. If, when given a lung that is becoming entrapped, the necessary therapeutic measures are not taken, the final result will be a trapped lung. In this instance, most patients are asymptomatic or have mild exertional dyspnea and therefore they do not require treatment. Nevertheless, in cases of incapacitating dyspnea, it may be necessary to use pleural decortication in order to resolve the symptoms. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Triple synchronous primary lung cancer: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Ayyadurai, Puvanalingam; Thanha, Luong; Khaja, Misbahuddin

    2017-09-01

    Multiple primary lung cancer may present in synchronous or metachronous form. Synchronous multiple primary lung cancer is defined as multiple lung lesions that develop at the same time, whereas metachronous multiple primary lung cancer describes multiple lung lesions that develop at different times, typically following treatment of the primary lung cancer. Patients with previously treated lung cancer are at risk for developing metachronous lung cancer, but with the success of computed tomography and positron emission tomography, the ability to detect both synchronous and metachronous lung cancer has increased. We present a case of a 63-year-old Hispanic man who came to our hospital for evaluation of chest pain, dry cough, and weight loss. He had recently been diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in the right upper lobe, with a poorly differentiated carcinoma favoring squamous cell cancer based on bronchoalveolar lavage of the right lower lobe for which treatment was started. Later, bronchoscopy incidentally revealed the patient to have an endobronchial lesion that turned out to be mixed small and large cell neuroendocrine lung cancer. Our patient had triple synchronous primary lung cancers that histologically were variant primary cancers. Triple synchronous primary lung cancer management continues to be a challenge. Our patient's case suggests that multiple primary lung cancers may still occur at a greater rate than can be detected by high-resolution computed tomography.

  3. Evaluation of gefitinib efficacy according to body mass index, body surface area, and body weight in patients with EGFR-mutated advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hisao; Kuwako, Tomohito; Kaira, Kyoichi; Masuda, Tomomi; Miura, Yosuke; Seki, Kaori; Sakurai, Reiko; Utsugi, Mitsuyoshi; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Sunaga, Noriaki; Tomizawa, Yoshio; Ishihara, Shinichi; Ishizuka, Takao; Mogi, Akira; Hisada, Takeshi; Minato, Koichi; Takise, Atsushi; Saito, Ryusei; Yamada, Masanobu

    2017-03-01

    In patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated, advanced, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), common gefitinib-sensitive EGFR mutations that predict a greater response to therapy include the exon 19 deletion and L858R point mutation. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether body surface area (BSA), body weight (BW), and body mass index (BMI) affect gefitinib efficacy in such patients. The medical charts of 138 consecutive patients with advanced NSCLC harboring sensitive EGFR mutations, who underwent gefitinib treatment, were reviewed. The median BSA and BW were used as cutoff values to evaluate their impact on gefitinib efficacy. BMI was categorized as underweight (<18.5 kg/m 2 ), normal (18.5-25 kg/m 2 ), and overweight (≥25 kg/m 2 ). The median BSA and BW were 1.48 m 2 and 53 kg, respectively. The overall response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were 65.2%, 12.2, and 24.2 months, respectively. There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes according to BSA, BW, or BMI alone. Subgroup analysis based on the mutation type and BSA revealed no significant differences in PFS between the groups; however, the median OS in those with exon 19 deletion combined with low BSA was significantly favorable compared with the other groups. Gefitinib efficacy in patients with NSCLC harboring sensitive EGFR mutations did not differ according to BSA, BW, and BMI. However, OS was superior in patients with both the exon 19 deletion and low BSA.

  4. Intermittent v. continuous energy restriction: differential effects on postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism following matched weight loss in overweight/obese participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Rona; Johnston, Kelly L; Collins, Adam L; Robertson, M Denise

    2018-03-01

    The intermittent energy restriction (IER) approach to weight loss involves short periods of substantial (>70 %) energy restriction (ER) interspersed with normal eating. Studies to date comparing IER to continuous energy restriction (CER) have predominantly measured fasting indices of cardiometabolic risk. This study aimed to compare the effects of IER and CER on postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism following matched weight loss. In all, twenty-seven (thirteen male) overweight/obese participants (46 (sem 3) years, 30·1 (sem 1·0) kg/m2) who were randomised to either an IER intervention (2638 kJ for 2 d/week with an overall ER of 22 (sem 0·3) %, n 15) or a CER intervention (2510 kJ below requirements with overall ER of 23 (sem 0·8) %) completed the study. Postprandial responses to a test meal (over 360 min) and changes in anthropometry (fat mass, fat-free mass, circumferences) were assessed at baseline and upon attainment of 5 % weight loss, following a 7-d period of weight stabilisation. The study found no statistically significant difference in the time to attain a 5 % weight loss between groups (median 59 d (interquartile range (IQR) 41-80) and 73 d (IQR 48-128), respectively, P=0·246), or in body composition (P≥0·437). For postprandial measures, neither diet significantly altered glycaemia (P=0·266), whereas insulinaemia was reduced comparatively (P=0·903). The reduction in C-peptide tended (P=0·057) to be greater following IER (309 128 (sem23 268) to 247781 (sem20 709) pmol×360 min/l) v. CER (297 204 (sem25 112) to 301 655 (sem32 714) pmol×360 min/l). The relative reduction in TAG responses was greater (P=0·045) following IER (106 (sem30) to 68 (sem 15) mmol×360 min/l) compared with CER (117 (sem 43) to 130 (sem 31) mmol×360 min/l). In conclusion, these preliminary findings highlight underlying differences between IER and CER, including a superiority of IER in reducing postprandial lipaemia, which now warrant targeted mechanistic evaluation

  5. Induction Chemotherapy and Continuous Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy (CHART) for Patients With Locally Advanced Inoperable Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: The MRC INCH Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, Matthew; Nankivell, Matthew; Lyn, Ethan; Falk, Stephen; Pugh, Cheryl; Navani, Neal; Stephens, Richard; Parmar, Mahesh

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Recent clinical trials and meta-analyses have shown that both CHART (continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy) and induction chemotherapy offer a survival advantage over conventional radical radiotherapy for patients with inoperable non-small cell-lung cancer (NSCLC). This multicenter randomized controlled trial (INCH) was set up to assess the value of giving induction chemotherapy before CHART. Methods and Materials: Patients with histologically confirmed, inoperable, Stage I-III NSCLC were randomized to induction chemotherapy (ICT) (three cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by CHART) or CHART alone. Results: Forty-six patients were randomized (23 in each treatment arm) from 9 UK centers. As a result of poor accrual, the trial was closed in December 2007. Twenty-eight patients were male, 28 had squamous cell histology, 34 were Stage IIIA or IIIB, and all baseline characteristics were well balanced between the two treatment arms. Seventeen (74%) of the 23 ICT patients completed the three cycles of chemotherapy. All 42 (22 CHART + 20 ICT) patients who received CHART completed the prescribed treatment. Median survival was 17 months in the CHART arm and 25 months in the ICT arm (hazard ratio of 0.60 [95% CI 0.31-1.16], p = 0.127). Grade 3 or 4 adverse events (mainly fatigue, dysphagia, breathlessness, and anorexia) were reported for 13 (57%) CHART and 13 (65%) ICT patients. Conclusions: This small randomized trial indicates that ICT followed by CHART is feasible and well tolerated. Despite closing early because of poor accrual, and so failing to show clear evidence of a survival benefit for the additional chemotherapy, the results suggest that CHART, and ICT before CHART, remain important options for the treatment of inoperable NSCLC and deserve further study.

  6. Altered Knee and Ankle Kinematics During Squatting in Those With Limited Weight-Bearing–Lunge Ankle-Dorsiflexion Range of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Karli E.; Begalle, Rebecca L.; Frank, Barnett S.; Zinder, Steven M.; Padua, Darin A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Ankle-dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM) may influence movement variables that are known to affect anterior cruciate ligament loading, such as knee valgus and knee flexion. To our knowledge, researchers have not studied individuals with limited or normal ankle DF-ROM to investigate the relationship between those factors and the lower extremity movement patterns associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury. Objective: To determine, using 2 different measurement techniques, whether knee- and ankle-joint kinematics differ between participants with limited and normal ankle DF-ROM. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Forty physically active adults (20 with limited ankle DF-ROM, 20 with normal ankle DF-ROM). Main Outcome Measure(s): Ankle DF-ROM was assessed using 2 techniques: (1) nonweight-bearing ankle DF-ROM with the knee straight, and (2) weight-bearing lunge (WBL). Knee flexion, knee valgus-varus, knee internal-external rotation, and ankle DF displacements were assessed during the overhead-squat, single-legged squat, and jump-landing tasks. Separate 1-way analyses of variance were performed to determine whether differences in knee- and ankle-joint kinematics existed between the normal and limited groups for each assessment. Results: We observed no differences between the normal and limited groups when classifying groups based on nonweight-bearing passive-ankle DF-ROM. However, individuals with greater ankle DF-ROM during the WBL displayed greater knee-flexion and ankle-DF displacement and peak knee flexion during the overhead-squat and single-legged squat tasks. In addition, those individuals also demonstrated greater knee-varus displacement during the single-legged squat. Conclusions: Greater ankle DF-ROM assessed during the WBL was associated with greater knee-flexion and ankle-DF displacement during both squatting tasks as well as greater knee-varus displacement during

  7. Long-term exposure to tenofovir continuously decrease renal function in HIV-1-infected patients with low body weight: results from 10 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Kawasaki, Yohei; Tanaka, Noriko; Mizushima, Daisuke; Aoki, Takahiro; Watanabe, Koji; Kinai, Ei; Honda, Haruhito; Yazaki, Hirohisa; Tanuma, Junko; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Teruya, Katsuji; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Oka, Shinichi

    2014-08-24

    To investigate the effect of long-term tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) use on renal function, especially in patients with low body weight who are vulnerable to TDF nephrotoxicity. A single-center, observational study in Tokyo, Japan. We performed a 10 years cohort study of 792 HIV-1-infected patients. The effect of long-term TDF use on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was investigated on treatment-naive patients who started TDF-containing antiretroviral therapy (n = 422) and those who started abacavir-containing antiretroviral therapy as control (n = 370). Three renal endpoints were examined by the logistic regression model: decrement in eGFR of higher than 10 ml/min per 1.73 m relative to the baseline, more than 25% decrement in eGFR, and eGFR lower than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m at least 3 months apart. The loss in eGFR was estimated using linear mixed models for repeated measures. The median weight at baseline was 63 kg. TDF use increased the risk of all three renal outcomes compared with the control group: higher than 10 ml/min per 1.73 m decrement in eGFR [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.45-3.14, P decrement (adjusted OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.50-2.90, P < 0.001), and eGFR lower than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m at least 3 months apart (adjusted OR = 3.9, 95% CI 1.62-9.36, P = 0.002). The cumulative mean loss relative to the control after 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years of TDF exposure was -3.8, -3.6, -5.5, -6.6, and -10.3 ml/min per 1.73 m, respectively, indicating that the loss in eGFR increased over time (P < 0.001). In this cohort of patients with low body weight, TDF exposure increased the risk of renal dysfunction. Furthermore, the loss in eGFR relative to the control increased continuously up to 5 years.

  8. Inflammation-associated gene transcription and expression in mouse lungs induced by low molecular weight compounds from fungi from the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J D; Sun, M; Gilyan, A; Roy, J; Rand, T G

    2010-01-05

    Few metabolites from fungi found indoors have been tested for inflammatory mediators endpoints in primary cultures of alveolar macrophages or in vivo. In this study, mice were intratracheally instilled with a single dose comprising 4x10(-5)moletoxin/kg lung wt dose of either atranone C, brevianamide, cladosporin, mycophenolic acid, neoechinulin A & B, sterigmatocystin or TMC-120A. These toxins are from fungi common on damp building materials. The dose used was comparable to the estimated doses of possible human exposure. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histology and Alcian Blue/Periodic Acid Schiff (AB/PAS) histochemistry were used to evaluate lungs for time course (4h and 12h post-exposure (PE)) inflammatory and toxic changes. Reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR based arrays were also employed to evaluate time course inflammation-associated gene transcription in lung tissues of the different toxins. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to probe MIP-2 and Tnf-alpha protein expression in treatment lungs to determine whether responses correspond with gene transcription data. Both histology and histochemistry revealed that toxin exposed lungs at 12h PE showed evidence of inflammation. H&E revealed that bronchioli were lined with irregularly thickened and sometimes sloughing epithelium and bronchiolar spaces supported infiltration of leukocytes, cellular and mucus-like debris while alveolar spaces supported swollen macrophages and modest amorphous debris accumulations. All toxin-instilled lungs exhibited copious mucus production and alveolar macrophages with red stained cytoplasm on bronchiolar surfaces, especially at 12h PE. Array analysis of 83 inflammation-associated genes extracted from lung tissue demonstrated a number of patterns, compared to controls. 82 genes assayed at 4h PE and 75 genes at 12h PE were significantly altered (por =1.5-fold or cladosporin, atranone C and TMC-120. The results further confirm the inflammatory nature of metabolites/toxins from such fungi can

  9. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer

  10. Bubble vs conventional continuous positive airway pressure for prevention of extubation failure in preterm very low birth weight infants: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sucheta; Thukral, Anu; Sankar, M Jeeva; Sreenivas, V; Deorari, Ashok K; Paul, Vinod K; Agarwal, Ramesh

    2012-09-01

    To compare the efficacy of bubble and conventional nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in preventing extubation failure (EF) in preterm infants. Infants of gestation ≤32 wk and birth weight <1500 g, ready for initial extubation within first wk of life were randomly allocated to either bubble (n = 16) or conventional (n = 16) CPAP. A standardized protocol was used for extubation. Bubble CPAP was delivered by Fischer and Paykel equipment using short binasal prongs and conventional CPAP was delivered by a ventilator using Argyle short binasal prongs. CPAP was initiated at a pressure of 4-6 cm of H(2)O and FiO(2) of 0.4-0.5 and adjusted to maintain normal saturation (90-93%) and comfortable breathing. Primary outcome was EF, defined as need for mechanical ventilation within 72 h of extubation. Baseline characteristics including birth weight (g; 1027 ± 243 vs. 1018 ± 227; p = 0.83), gestation (wk; 28.7 ± 1.8 vs. 28.4 ± 1.6; p = 0.30), infants <28 wk gestation (6 vs. 7, p = 0.72) were comparable between the two groups. Respiratory distress syndrome was the indication for ventilation in 13 (81%) and 14 (87%) infants on bubble CPAP and conventional CPAP groups respectively. (p = 0.99). There was no difference in the EF rates between the bubble (n = 4) and conventional CPAP (n = 9) groups. (RR 0.49; 95% CI 0.20-1.2; p = 0.14). Median time to extubation failure was also comparable between the two groups (h; median [range]: 29 [14-49] vs. 17 [7-28]; p = 0.35). The possibility that bubble CPAP may be associated with reduced EF as suggested in this pilot study requires further investigation in an adequately powered multicentric study.

  11. Nutritional state and lung disease in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, W

    1992-10-01

    The life expectancy of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is largely dependent on the severity and progress of the pulmonary involvement associated with the disease. Many data support the view that malnutrition and deterioration of lung function are closely interrelated and interdependent, with each affecting the other, leading to a spiral decline in both. The occurrence of malnutrition appears to be associated with poor lung function and poor survival, and conversely prevention of malnutrition appears to be associated with better lung function and improved survival. Nutritional intervention may lead to an improvement in body weight, lung function and exercise tolerance, provided that the intervention is combined with exercise training in order to increase both respiratory and other muscle mass. These improvements can be preserved when patients have the stamina to continue with a high-energy, high-fat diet and daily exercise training at home.

  12. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ann G; Cote, Michele L

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the most common causes of cancer death despite understanding the major cause of the disease: cigarette smoking. Smoking increases lung cancer risk 5- to 10-fold with a clear dose-response relationship. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among nonsmokers increases lung cancer risk about 20%. Risks for marijuana and hookah use, and the new e-cigarettes, are yet to be consistently defined and will be important areas for continued research as use of these products increases. Other known environmental risk factors include exposures to radon, asbestos, diesel, and ionizing radiation. Host factors have also been associated with lung cancer risk, including family history of lung cancer, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and infections. Studies to identify genes associated with lung cancer susceptibility have consistently identified chromosomal regions on 15q25, 6p21 and 5p15 associated with lung cancer risk. Risk prediction models for lung cancer typically include age, sex, cigarette smoking intensity and/or duration, medical history, and occupational exposures, however there is not yet a risk prediction model currently recommended for general use. As lung cancer screening becomes more widespread, a validated model will be needed to better define risk groups to inform screening guidelines.

  13. Lung Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at increased risk of sudden lung ...

  14. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Become An Advocate Volunteer Ways To Give Lung Cancer www.lung.org > Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > ... Cancer Learn About Lung Cancer What Is Lung Cancer Lung Cancer Basics Causes & Risk Factors Lung Cancer Staging ...

  15. Bystander Effects Induced by Continuous Low-Dose-Rate 125I Seeds Potentiate the Killing Action of Irradiation on Human Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.H.; Jia, R.F.; Yu, L.; Zhao, M.J.; Shao, C.L.; Cheng, W.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate bystander effects of low-dose-rate (LDR) 125 I seed irradiation on human lung cancer cells in vitro. Methods and Materials: A549 and NCI-H446 cell lines of differing radiosensitivity were directly exposed to LDR 125 I seeds irradiation for 2 or 4 Gy and then cocultured with nonirradiated cells for 24 hours. Induction of micronucleus (MN), γH2AX foci, and apoptosis were assayed. Results: After 2 and 4 Gy irradiation, micronucleus formation rate (MFR) and apoptotic rate of A549 and NCI-H446 cells were increased, and the MFR and apoptotic rate of NCI-H446 cells was 2.1-2.8 times higher than that of A549 cells. After coculturing nonirradiated bystander cells with 125 I seed irradiated cells for 24 hours, MFR and the mean number of γH2AX foci/cells of bystander A549 and NCI-H446 cells were similar and significantly higher than those of control (p 125 I seeds could induce bystander effects, which potentiate the killing action on tumor cells and compensate for the influence of nonuniform distribution of radiation dosage on therapeutic outcomes

  16. Unusual case of a lung abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Duduzile; Godbole, Gauri; Chiodini, Peter L; Phillips, Russell

    2013-04-16

    A 56-year-old Caucasian lady presented with a short history of pleuritic chest pain on the background of a 2-month history of fever, chills, 10-kg weight loss and cough with brown sputum after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. She had persistent eosinophilia and was diagnosed with a lung abscess as seen on chest x-ray. She did not respond to standard intravenous broad spectrum antibacterial medication and her chest CT scan showed a moderate pleural collection in continuity with the abscess. She also underwent bronchoscopy, the microscopy of the bronchial washings revealing eggs of the trematode Fasciola. The bacterial and fungal cultures of the washings were sterile. She had visited Turkey in the previous year but did not remember consuming any watercress or aquatic plants. She was successfully treated with two doses of the antiparasitic agent triclabendazole. Ectopic Fasciola can be a rare cause of a lung abscess.

  17. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Pediatrics, Aurora, CO (United States); The Children' s Hospital, Rick Wilson Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Aurora, CO (United States); Hayes, Kari [The Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Bourland, Wendy [Children' s Hospital at St. Francis, Warren Clinic, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  18. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy; Hayes, Kari; Bourland, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for 18 F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  19. Lung protein leakage in feline septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schützer, K M; Larsson, A; Risberg, B; Falk, A

    1993-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore lung microvascular leakage of protein and water in a feline model of septic shock, using a double isotope technique with external gamma camera detection and gravimetric lung water measurements. The experiments were performed on artificially ventilated cats. One group of cats (n = 8) was given an infusion of live Escherichia coli bacteria, and another group (n = 5) served as a control group receiving saline. Plasma transferrin was radiolabeled in vivo with indium-113m-chloride, and erythrocytes were labeled with technetium-99m. The distribution of these isotopes in the lungs was continuously measured with a gamma camera. A normalized slope index (NSI) was calculated, indicative of the transferrin accumulation corrected for changes in local blood volume that reflect protein leakage. In the septic group there was a protein leakage after bacterial infusion, with a NSI of 39 x 10(-4) +/- 5 x 10(-4) min-1 (mean +/- SEM), and the PaO2 diminished from 21 +/- 1 to 9.5 +/- 1 kPa. In control cats a slight protein leakage with a NSI of 9 +/- 10(-4) +/- 2 x 10(-4) min-1 was detected, probably caused by the operative procedure, but PaO2 did not change. Wet-to-dry-weight ratios of postmortem lungs were not significantly different between the groups. It was concluded that an intravenous infusion of live E. coli bacteria induces a lung capillary protein leakage without increased lung water and a concomitantly disturbed gas exchange.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Cost-effectiveness of continuation maintenance pemetrexed after cisplatin and pemetrexed chemotherapy for advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer: estimates from the perspective of the Chinese health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaohui; Peng, Liubao; Li, Jianhe; Chen, Gannong; Tan, Chongqing; Wang, Siying; Wan, Xiaomin; Ouyang, Lihui; Zhao, Ziying

    2013-01-01

    Continuation maintenance treatment with pemetrexed is approved by current clinical guidelines as a category 2A recommendation after induction therapy with cisplatin and pemetrexed chemotherapy (CP strategy) for patients with advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the cost-effectiveness of the treatment remains unclear. We completed a trial-based assessment, from the perspective of the Chinese health care system, of the cost-effectiveness of maintenance pemetrexed treatment after a CP strategy for patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. A Markov model was developed to estimate costs and benefits. It was based on a clinical trial that compared continuation maintenance pemetrexed therapy plus best supportive care (BSC) versus placebo plus BSC after a CP strategy for advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the stability of the model. The model base case analysis suggested that continuation maintenance pemetrexed therapy after a CP strategy would increase benefits in a 1-, 2-, 5-, or 10-year time horizon, with incremental costs of $183,589.06, $126,353.16, $124,766.68, and $124,793.12 per quality-adjusted life-year gained, respectively. The most sensitive influential variable in the cost-effectiveness analysis was the utility of the progression-free survival state, followed by proportion of patients with postdiscontinuation therapy in both arms, proportion of BSC costs for PFS versus progressed survival state, and cost of pemetrexed. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicated that the cost-effective probability of adding continuation maintenance pemetrexed therapy to BSC was zero. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses revealed that the Markov model was robust. Continuation maintenance of pemetrexed after a CP strategy for patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC is not cost-effective based on a recent clinical trial. Decreasing the price or adjusting the dosage of pemetrexed may be a better option

  1. Air pollution during pregnancy and lung development in the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korten, Insa; Ramsey, Kathryn; Latzin, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution exposure has increased extensively in recent years and there is considerable evidence that exposure to particulate matter can lead to adverse respiratory outcomes. The health impacts of exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period is especially concerning as it can impair organogenesis and organ development, which can lead to long-term complications. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy affects respiratory health in different ways. Lung development might be impaired by air pollution indirectly by causing lower birth weight, premature birth or disturbed development of the immune system. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy has also been linked to decreased lung function in infancy and childhood, increased respiratory symptoms, and the development of childhood asthma. In addition, impaired lung development contributes to infant mortality. The mechanisms of how prenatal air pollution affects the lungs are not fully understood, but likely involve interplay of environmental and epigenetic effects. The current epidemiological evidence on the effect of air pollution during pregnancy on lung function and children's respiratory health is summarized in this review. While evidence for the adverse effects of prenatal air pollution on lung development and health continue to mount, rigorous actions must be taken to reduce air pollution exposure and thus long-term respiratory morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sleeping Well Trial: Increasing the effectiveness of treatment with continuous positive airway pressure using a weight management program in overweight adults with obstructive sleep apnoea-A stepped wedge randomised trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truby, Helen; Edwards, Bradley A; O'Driscoll, Denise M; Young, Alan; Ghazi, Ladan; Bristow, Claire; Roem, Kerryn; Bonham, Maxine P; Murgia, Chiara; Day, Kaitlin; Haines, Terry P; Hamilton, Garun S

    2018-05-24

    The majority of adults diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are overweight or obese. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most common effective therapy for OSA. However, adherence declines over time with only 50% of patients prescribed CPAP continuing to use it long term. Furthermore, a recent prospective analysis indicated that those more adherent with CPAP therapy have enhanced weight gain trajectories which in turn may negatively impact their OSA. The Sleeping Well Trial aims to establish whether the timing of starting a lifestyle weight loss intervention impacts on weight trajectory in those with moderate-severe OSA treated at home with CPAP, while testing the potential for smart phone technology to improve adherence with lifestyle interventions. A stepped wedge design with randomisation of individuals from 1 to 6 months post-enrolment, with 5 months of additional prospective follow up after completion of the stepped wedge. This design will investigate the effect of the 6-month lifestyle intervention on people undergoing CPAP on body weight, body composition and health-related quality of life. This trial tests whether the timing of supporting the patient through a weight loss intervention is important in obtaining the maximum benefit of a lifestyle change and CPAP usage, and identify how best to support patients through this critical period. The protocol (v1) is registered prospectively with the International Clinical Trials Registry (CTR) ACTRN12616000203459 (public access). Any amendments to protocol will be documented via the CTR. Recruitment commenced in March 2016 with data collection scheduled to finish by May 2018. © 2018 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  3. A Randomized Trial of Low-Flow Oxygen versus Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Preterm Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiring, Christian; Steensberg, Jesper; Bjerager, Mia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) stabilizes the residual volume and may decrease the risk of 'atelectotrauma', potentially promoting lung development in neonates. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether replacing nCPAP by low-flow O2 by nasal cannula affects lung function...... the a/A pO2 ratio or weight gain negatively. Thus, prolonged nCPAP seems not to have a positive effect on lung function at 28 days of life and replacement by low-flow O2 could reduce the cost of equipment and increase the ease of nursing....

  4. Spleen-lung interface as diagnostic information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuca, S.A.; Kolodny, G.M.

    1975-01-01

    Left anterior, lateral, and posterior views on 50 consecutive /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid lung scans were examined. Normal patients had continuity of activity between the left lung and the spleen on all three views. Patients with subphrenic abscess or large left pleural effusions showed no continuity between lung and spleen activity on any view, while other abnormalities, most commonly cardiomegaly, accounted for lack of lung-spleen continuity on the anterior view only. It is suggested that in all combined /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid lung studies, the left side be examined as well as the right for abnormalities adjacent to the left diaphragm. (auth)

  5. Lung scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalenz, Roberto.

    1994-01-01

    A review of lung scintigraphy, perfusion scintigraphy with SPECT, lung ventilation SPECT, blood pool SPECT. The procedure of lung perfusion studies, radiopharmaceutical, administration and clinical applications, imaging processing .Results encountered and evaluation criteria after Biello and Pioped. Recommendations and general considerations have been studied about relation of this radiopharmaceutical with other pathologies

  6. Comparison of STIR turbo SE imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging of the lung: capability for detection and subtype classification of pulmonary adenocarcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Hisanobu; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Onishi, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Keiko; Nogami, Munenobu; Takenaka, Daisuke; Sugimura, Kazuro [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Aoyama, Nobukazu [Kobe University Hospital, Division of Radiology, Kobe (Japan); Nishio, Wataru [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular, Thoracic and Pediatric Surgery, Kobe (Japan); Ohbayashi, Chiho [Hyogo Cancer Center, Division of Pathology, Akashi (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for detection and subtype classification in pulmonary adenocarcinomas through comparison with short TI inversion recovery turbo spin-echo imaging sequence (STIR). Thirty-two patients (mean age, 65.2 years) with 33 adenocarcinomas (mean diameter, 27.6 mm) were enrolled in this study. The detection rates of both sequences were compared. The ADC values on DWI and the contrast ratio (CR) between cancer and muscle on STIR were measured and those were compared across subtype classifications. Finally, ROC-based positive tests were performed to differentiate subtype classifications, and differentiation capabilities were compared. The DWI detection rate [85% (28/33)] was significantly lower than that of STIR [100% (33/33), P < 0.05]. The ADC values showed no significant difference regarding subtype classification; however, the CRs of bronchio-alveolar carcinomas (BACs) were significantly lower than those of other types (P < 0.05). When threshold values for differentiating BACs from others were adapted, the sensitivity and accuracy of DWI were significantly lower than those of STIR (P < 0.05). For differentiating adenocarcinomas with mixed subtypes from those with no BA component, there were no significant differences between the two sequences. STIR is more sensitive for detection and subtype classification than DWI. (orig.)

  7. Hybrid [{sup 18}F]-FDG PET/MRI including non-Gaussian diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI): Preliminary results in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heusch, Philipp [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Köhler, Jens [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Medical Oncology, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Wittsack, Hans-Joerg [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Heusner, Till A., E-mail: Heusner@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Buchbender, Christian [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Poeppel, Thorsten D. [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Nensa, Felix; Wetter, Axel [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Gauler, Thomas [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Medical Oncology, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Hartung, Verena [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Lanzman, Rotem S. [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of non-Gaussian DWI as part of a FDG-PET/MRI protocol in patients with histologically proven non-small cell lung cancer. Material and methods: 15 consecutive patients with histologically proven NSCLC (mean age 61 ± 11 years) were included in this study and underwent whole-body FDG-PET/MRI following whole-body FDG-PET/CT. As part of the whole-body FDG-PET/MRI protocol, an EPI-sequence with 5 b-values (0, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 s/mm{sup 2}) was acquired for DWI of the thorax during free-breathing. Volume of interest (VOI) measurements were performed to determine the maximum and mean standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}; SUV{sub mean}). A region of interest (ROI) was manually drawn around the tumor on b = 0 images and then transferred to the corresponding parameter maps to assess ADC{sub mono}, D{sub app} and K{sub app}. To assess the goodness of the mathematical fit R{sup 2} was calculated for monoexponential and non-Gaussian analysis. Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to compare SUV values and diffusion coefficients. A Student's t-test was performed to compare the monoexponential and non-Gaussian diffusion fitting (R{sup 2}). Results: T staging was equal between FDG-PET/CT and FDG-PET/MRI in 12 of 15 patients. For NSCLC, mean ADC{sub mono} was 2.11 ± 1.24 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, D{sub app} was 2.46 ± 1.29 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s and mean K{sub app} was 0.70 ± 0.21. The non-Gaussian diffusion analysis (R{sup 2} = 0.98) provided a significantly better mathematical fitting to the DWI signal decay than the monoexponetial analysis (R{sup 2} = 0.96) (p < 0.001). SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean} of NSCLC was 13.5 ± 7.6 and 7.9 ± 4.3 for FDG-PET/MRI. ADC{sub mono} as well as D{sub app} exhibited a significant inverse correlation with the SUV{sub max} (ADC{sub mono}: R = −0.67; p < 0.01; D{sub app}: R = −0.69; p < 0.01) as well as with SUV{sub mean} assessed by FDG-PET/MRI (ADC{sub mono}: R

  8. A Comparative Study of Rat Lung Decellularization by Chemical Detergents for Lung Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tebyanian

    2017-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Decellularized lung tissue can be used in the laboratory to study various aspects of pulmonary biology and physiology and also, these results can be used in the continued improvement of engineered lung tissue.

  9. Lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G

    1977-01-01

    The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...... breathing in the sitting position ranged from 0.25 to 0.37 g.cm-3. Subnormal values were found in patients with emphsema. In patients with pulmonary congestion and edema, lung density values ranged from 0.33 to 0.93 g.cm-3. The lung density measurement correlated well with the findings in chest radiographs...... but the lung density values were more sensitive indices. This was particularly evident in serial observations of individual patients....

  10. What Is Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shareable Graphics Infographics “African-American Men and Lung Cancer” “Lung Cancer Is the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ...

  11. Abscess in the Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Lung and Airway Disorders Abscess in the Lungs Abscess in the Lungs Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Resources ... here for the Professional Version Abscess in the Lungs Abscess in the Lungs A lung abscess is a ...

  12. Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghfoor, Irfan; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Since tobacco smoking is the cause in vast majority of cases, the incidence of lung cancer is expected to rise in those countries with high or rising incidence of tobacco smoking. Even though population at a risk of developing lung cancer are easily identified, mass screening for lung cancer is not supported by currently available evidence. In case of non-small cell lung cancer, a cure may be possible with surgical resection followed by post-operative chemotherapy in those diagnosed at an early stage. A small minority of patients who present with locally advanced disease may also benefit from preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to down stage the tumor to render it potentially operable. In a vast majority of patients, however, lung cancer presents at an advanced stage and a cure is not possible with currently available therapeutic strategies. Similarly small cell lung cancer confined to one hemi-thorax may be curable with a combination of chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation, if complete remission is achieved at the primary site. Small cell lung cancer that is spread beyond the confines of one hemi-thorax is however, considered incurable. In this era of molecular targeted therapies, new agents are constantly undergoing pre-clinical and clinical testing with the aim of targeting the molecular pathways thought to involved in etiology and pathogenesis of lung cancer. (author)

  13. Elevated Extravascular Lung Water Index (ELWI) as a Predictor of Failure of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Via Helmet (Helmet-CPAP) in Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure After Major Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo Calvo, Francisco Javier; Bejarano Ramirez, Natalia; Uña Orejon, Rafael; Villazala Garcia, Ruben; Yuste Peña, Ana Sofia; Belda, Francisco Javier

    2015-11-01

    NIV is increasingly used for prevention and treatment of respiratory complications and failure. Some of them are admitted to the PACU with advanced hemodynamic monitors which allow quantification of Extravascular Lung Water (EVLW) by transpulmonary thermodilution technique (TPTD) and Pulmonary Vascular Permeability (PVP) providing information on lung edema. The objective of this study was to ascertain if EVLW Index and PVP Index may predict failure (intubation) or success (non-intubation) in patients developing acute respiratory failure (ARF) in the postoperative period following major abdominal surgery, where the first line of treatment was non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure via a helmet. Hemodynamic variables, EVLWI and PVPI were monitored with a transpulmonary thermodilution hemodynamic monitor device (PiCCO™) before and after the application of CPAP. Avoidance of intubation was observed in 66% of patients with Helmet-CPAP. In these patients after the first hour of application of CPAP, PaO2/FiO2 ratio significantly increased (303.33±65.2 vs. 141.6±14.6, P<.01). Before starting Helmet-CPAP values of EVLWI and PVPI were significantly lower in non-intubated patients (EVLWI 8.6±1.08 vs. 11.8±0.99ml/kg IBW, P<.01 and PVPI 1.7±0.56 vs. 3.0±0.88, P<.01). An optimal cut-off value for EVLWI was established at 9.5, and at 2.45 for PVPI (sensitivity of 0.7; specificity of 0.9, P<.01). In this type of patient the physiological parameters that predict the failure of Helmet-CPAP with the greatest accuracy were the value of the EVLWI and PVPI before Helmet-CPAP institution and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio and the respiratory rate after one hour of CPAP. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  15. Relative biological effectiveness if alpha radiation for human lung exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmoshenko, I.; Kirdin, I.; Zhukovsky, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The concept of RBE, which introduced by ICRP and ICRU about 50 years ago to compare biological effects of ionizing radiation of different types, still continues to be the essential element of current and projected radiation protection systems in terms of deriving quantities (quality factor and radiation weighting factor). For example, RBE for the stochastic effects induction has to be considered for appropriate radiation weighting of the absorbed dose while estimating equivalent dose. Simulation of lung cancer radiation risk for the cases of inhalation of radon progeny and incorporation of plutonium in lung in comparison with external reference radiation allows assessment of RBE for alpha-radiation. Specific radiation risk models were developed by results of the direct epidemiological studies and used for such simulation. Simulation included published risk models for nuclear workers of the Mayak facilities in the former Soviet Union exposed to incorporated plutonium (Kreisheimer et al., 2003; Gilbert et al., 2004) and underground miners exposed to radon progenies (BEIR VI, 1999). Additionally lung cancer risk model was developed for a case of population indoor radon exposure. Lung cancer risk related to external exposure is estimated using the risk model develop ed using data of Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. By results of lifetime lung cancer risk simulation using Monte Carlo approach estimated median value of RBE in case of indoor radon exposure is 1.5 (with 90% range 0.4 to 7). In case of the two models developed by BEIR VI for lung cancer risk due to radon exposure in underground miners the median values of RBE are 2.1 and 4.4 (with 90% ranges 0.3 to 17 and 0.7 to 45) respectively.Two different models for lung cancer risk related to plutonium exposure resulted in close estimates of RBE: median value of 12 and 13 (with 90% range 4 to 104 and 4 to 136) respectively. Considerable discrepancy between RBE

  16. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Prevention Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  17. Occupational lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlow, Bryant

    2011-01-01

    Chest radiography and high-resolution computed tomography are indispensable tools in the detection, classification and characterization of occupational lung diseases that are caused by inhaling mineral particles such as asbestos, silicon-containing rock dust and other tissue-damaging antigens, nanomaterials and toxins. Radiographic evidence of occupational lung disease is interpreted with a patient's clinical signs and symptoms and a detailed occupational history in mind because of high variability in radiographic findings. This Directed Reading reviews the history, epidemiology, functional anatomy, pathobiology and medical diagnostic imaging of occupational lung diseases associated with inhalation of fine particulates in the workplace. This article is a Directed Reading. Your access to Directed Reading quizzes for continuing education credit is determined by your CE preference. For access to other quizzes, go to www.asrt.org/store.

  18. Rare lung cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzinec, P.

    2013-01-01

    The RARECARE Project (Rare Cancers in the Europe) supported by the European Union defined the rare cancers by the incidence rate of less than 6/100 000. There are several variants of lung cancer which are rare according to this definition. From the clinical point of view the most interesting are the rare adenocarcinomas and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. There are important differences in the diagnostic probability of EGFR and ALK mutations in the mutinous and non-mucin ous adenocarcinomas, in the signet ring cell adenocarcinomas, and large cell carcinomas. The optimal chemotherapy for neuroendocrine large cell carcinomas remains undefined. There is only very limited number of clinical trials aimed on the rare lung cancers and actually none phase III trial. Rare lung cancers continue to be a challenge both for the laboratory and the clinical research. (author)

  19. Weight Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Weight Management English English Español Weight Management Obesity is a chronic condition that affects more ... Liver (NASH) Heart Disease & Stroke Sleep Apnea Weight Management Topics About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe ...

  20. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, R; Wung, J T

    1998-01-01

    Progress in neonatal intensive care is closely linked to improvements in the management of respiratory failure in small infants. This applies to the care of the preterm infants with immature lungs, and also to treatment of the preterm or full term infants with specific diseases that are associated with respiratory failure. Respiratory distress of the newborn continues to account for significant morbidity in the intensive care unit. The spectrum of disease ranges from mild distress to severe respiratory failure requiring varying degrees of support. The current modalities of ventilatory assistance range from the more benign continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to conventional mechanical ventilation, and on to high frequency ventilation. It is a reasonable supposition that the type of ventilatory assistance provided to these infants should be graded according to the severity of the disease. However, the principal objective in selecting the mode of respiratory support should be to use a modality which results in minimal volo- or barotrauma to the infant. The following detailed description on CPAP explains its physiological effects, delivery system, indications for use, application, maintenance, and associated complications. The equipment described is simple to use, has a greater cost benefit, and has a more universal application, which is of help to smaller units including those in the developing parts of the world. We have also included our institutional clinical experience of CPAP usage in very low birth weight infants from the periods before and after commercial availability of surfactant in the United States.

  1. Lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, H.K.; Kang, M.W.; Park, J.M.; Yang, W.J.; Shinn, K.S.; Bahk, Y.W.

    1993-01-01

    Lung abscess was successfully treated with percutaneous drainage in 5 of 6 patients. Complete abscess resolution occurred in 4 patients, partial resolution in one, and no response in one. The duration of drainage ranged from 7 to 18 days (mean 15.5 days) in successful cases. The failure of drainage in one neurologicall impaired patient was attributed to persistent aspiration. In 2 patients, concurrent pleural empyema was also cured. CT provided the anatomic details necessary for choosing the puncture site and avoiding puncture of the lung parenchyma. Percutaneous catheter drainage is a safe and effective method for treating lung abscess. (orig.)

  2. Lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causing chemicals such as uranium, beryllium, vinyl chloride, nickel chromates, coal products, mustard gas, chloromethyl ethers, gasoline, and diesel exhaust Exposure to radon gas Family history of lung cancer ...

  3. Lung surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Robotic surgery may also be used. Lung surgery using ... Center-Shreveport, Shreveport, LA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  4. Diffusion weighted MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): Does the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) correlate with tracer uptake (SUV)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regier, M.; Derlin, T.; Schwarz, D.; Laqmani, A.; Henes, F.O.; Groth, M.; Buhk, J.-H.; Kooijman, H.; Adam, G.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: To investigate the potential correlation of the apparent diffusion coefficient assessed by diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and glucose metabolism determined by the standardized uptake value (SUV) at 18F-FDG PET/CT in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and methods: 18F-FDG PET/CT and DWI (TR/TE, 2000/66 ms; b-values, 0 and 500 s/mm 2 ) were performed in 41 consecutive patients with histologically verified NSCLC. Analysing the PET-CT data calculation of the mean (SUV mean ) and maximum (SUV max ) SUV was performed. By placing a region-of-interest (ROI) encovering the entire tumor mean (ADC mean ) and minimum ADC (ADC min ) were determined by two independent radiologists. Results of 18F-FDG PET-CT and DWI were compared on a per-patient basis. For statistical analysis Pearson's correlation coefficient, Bland–Altman and regression analysis were assessed. Results: Data analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation of the ADC min and SUV max (r = −0.46; p = 0.032). Testing the correlation of the ADC min and SUV max for each histological subtype separately revealed that the inverse correlation was good for both adenocarcinomas (r = −0.47; p = 0.03) and squamouscell carcinomas (r = −0.71; p = 0.002), respectively. No significant correlation was found for the comparison of ADC min and SUV mean (r = −0.29; p = 0.27), ADC mean vs. SUV mean (r = −0.28; p = 0.31) or ADC mean vs. SUV max (r = −0.33; p = 0.23). The κ-value of 0.88 indicated a good agreement between both observers. Conclusion: This preliminary study is the first to verify the relation between the SUV and the ADC in NSCLC. The significant inverse correlation of these two quantitative imaging approaches points out the association of metabolic activity and tumor cellularity. Therefore, DWI with ADC measurement might represent a new prognostic marker in NSCLC

  5. Independent lung ventilation in a newborn with asymmetric acute lung injury due to respiratory syncytial virus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Nardo Matteo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Independent lung ventilation is a form of protective ventilation strategy used in adult asymmetric acute lung injury, where the application of conventional mechanical ventilation can produce ventilator-induced lung injury and ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Only a few experiences have been published on the use of independent lung ventilation in newborn patients. Case presentation We present a case of independent lung ventilation in a 16-day-old infant of 3.5 kg body weight who had an asymmetric lung injury due to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. We used independent lung ventilation applying conventional protective pressure controlled ventilation to the less-compromised lung, with a respiratory frequency proportional to the age of the patient, and a pressure controlled high-frequency ventilation to the atelectatic lung. This was done because a single tube conventional ventilation protective strategy would have exposed the less-compromised lung to a high mean airways pressure. The target of independent lung ventilation is to provide adequate gas exchange at a safe mean airways pressure level and to expand the atelectatic lung. Independent lung ventilation was accomplished for 24 hours. Daily chest radiograph and gas exchange were used to evaluate the efficacy of independent lung ventilation. Extubation was performed after 48 hours of conventional single-tube mechanical ventilation following independent lung ventilation. Conclusion This case report demonstrates the feasibility of independent lung ventilation with two separate tubes in neonates as a treatment of an asymmetric acute lung injury.

  6. Número e peso de perfilhos no pasto de capim-braquiária sob lotação contínua = Number and weight of tillers in signalgrass pasture under continuous stocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar a relação entre o número e o peso de categorias de perfilhos em pasto de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk sob lotação contínua com bovinos. O pasto foi manejado com altura média de aproximadamente 25 cm. Foram avaliadas quatro alturas de plantas no mesmo pasto (10, 20, 30 e 40 cm, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com duas repetições. Os números de perfilhos vegetativos, vivos e totais reduziram linearmente com a altura da planta. O número de perfilho reprodutivo aumentou de forma linear com a altura da planta (de 8 para 84 perfilhos m-2 quando se comparam plantas de 10 a 40 cm. Os pesos dos perfilhos vegetativos e reprodutivos incrementaram linearmente com a altura da planta. O peso do perfilho vegetativo (0,316 g, em média foi menor do que o peso do perfilho reprodutivo (0,401 g, em média. A relação entre o número e o peso do perfilho vegetativo foi linear e negativa, enquanto que essa relação, para o perfilho reprodutivo, foi linear e positiva. Em locais com plantas altas há menor número de perfilhos vegetativos, bem como maior número de perfilhos reprodutivos e mortos. Nos locais mais altos do pasto de B. decumbens os perfilhos são mais pesados.The experiment was conducted to study the relationship between the number and weight of tiller categories in Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pasture managed under continuous stocking with cattle. The pasture was managed with an average height of about 25 cm. Plants offour different heights (10, 20, 30 and 40 cm were evaluated by means of the randomized block design with two replications. The number of vegetative tillers, both live and total, reduced linearly according to the plant height. The number of reproductive tillers increased linearly according to pasture plant height (from 8 to 84 tillers m-2 when comparing plants 10 to 40 cm high. Vegetative and reproductive tiller weight increased linearly according to pasture plant height. Vegetative tiller

  7. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(21)-1 - Black lung trusts-certain terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Black lung trusts-certain terms. 1.501(c)(21)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(c)(21)-1 Black lung trusts... insurer or guarantor of the liabilities of another. (c) Black Lung Acts. The term Black Lung Acts includes...

  8. Lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorichter, S.

    2009-01-01

    The term lung function is often restricted to the assessment of volume time curves measured at the mouth. Spirometry includes the assessment of lung volumes which can be mobilised with the corresponding flow-volume curves. In addition, lung volumes that can not be mobilised, such as the residual volume, or only partially as FRC and TLC can be measured by body plethysmography combined with the determination of the airway resistance. Body plethysmography allows the correct positioning of forced breathing manoeuvres on the volume-axis, e.g. before and after pharmacotherapy. Adding the CO single breath transfer factor (T LCO ), which includes the measurement of the ventilated lung volume using He, enables a clear diagnosis of different obstructive, restrictive or mixed ventilatory defects with and without trapped air. Tests of reversibility and provocation, as well as the assessment of inspiratory mouth pressures (PI max , P 0.1 ) help to classify the underlying disorder and to clarify treatment strategies. For further information and to complete the diagnostic of disturbances of the ventilation, diffusion and/or perfusion (capillar-)arterial bloodgases at rest and under physical strain sometimes amended by ergospirometry are recommended. Ideally, lung function measurements are amended by radiological and nuclear medicine techniques. (orig.) [de

  9. Randomized Phase II trial of paclitaxel and carboplatin followed by gemcitabine switch-maintenance therapy versus gemcitabine and carboplatin followed by gemcitabine continuation-maintenance therapy in previously untreated advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minami Seigo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, maintenance chemotherapy is increasingly being recognized as a new treatment strategy to improve the outcome of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. However, the optimal maintenance strategy is still controversial. Gemcitabine is a promising candidate for single-agent maintenance therapy because of little toxicity and good tolerability. We have conducted a randomized phase II study to evaluate the validity of single-agent maintenance chemotherapy of gemcitabine and to compare continuation- and switch-maintenance. Methods Chemonaïve patients with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC were randomly assigned 1:1 to either arm A or B. Patients received paclitaxel (200 mg/m2, day 1 plus carboplatin (AUC 6 mg/mL/min, day 1 every 3 weeks in arm A, or gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2, days 1 and 8 plus carboplatin (AUC 5 mg/mL/min, day1 every 3 weeks in arm B. Non-progressive patients following 3 cycles of induction chemotherapy received maintenance gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2, days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks. (Trial registration: UMIN000008252 Results The study was stopped because of delayed accrual at interim analysis. Of the randomly assigned 50 patients, 49 except for one in arm B were evaluable. Median progression-free survival (PFS was 4.6 months for arm A vs. 3.5 months for arm B (HR = 1.03; 95% CI, 0.45–2.27; p = 0.95 and median overall survival (OS was 15.0 months for arm A vs. 14.8 months for arm B (HR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.40–1.51; p = 0.60, showing no difference between the two arms. The response rate, disease control rate, and the transit rate to maintenance phase were 36.0% (9/25, 64.0% (16/25, and 48% (12/25 for arm A vs. 16.7% (4/24, 50.0% (12/24, and 33% (8/24 for arm B, which were also statistically similar between the two arms (p = 0.13, p = 0.32, and p = 0.30, respectively. Both induction regimens were tolerable, except that more patients experienced peripheral neuropathy in arm A. Toxicities during

  10. Open lung biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - open lung ... An open lung biopsy is done in the hospital using general anesthesia . This means you will be asleep and ... The open lung biopsy is done to evaluate lung problems seen on x-ray or CT scan .

  11. Lung Cancer: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional support team today. Learn More . Find more lung cancer resources. Learn More Donate Today! What is Lung ... to Give How Your Support Helps Events Lung Cancer Awareness © Lung Cancer Alliance. The information presented in this website ...

  12. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Screening Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  13. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  14. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  15. [Lung scintigraphy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schümichen, Carl; Schmidt, Matthias; Krause, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    The S1 guideline for lung scintigraphy has been updated and extended in order to emphasize the advantages oft the method in detecting acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in the periphery oft the lung (subsegmental PE), in underlying subacute and chronic pulmonary disorders, as well as in detecting chronic LE (CTEPH). Method of choice is ventilation / perfusion (V/P) SPECT or V/P SPECT/CT with even higher specificity. Because of its high sensitivity, a threshold (V/P mismatch in at least one segment or two subsegments) is introduced to avoid overtreatment. In case of a change in the therapeutic approach (observation only instead of anticoaculation) the threshold can be omitted. New data concerning the clinical and therapeutical impact of subsegmental PE are included, the chapters open questions have been extented. Other indications for V/P SPECT (secondary diagnoses, abnormalities in pulmonary perfusion, prediction of postoperative lung function) are presented with new data. Schattauer GmbH.

  16. Lung radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Indication or main clinical use of Lung radiopharmaceuticals is presented and clasification of radiopharmaceuticals as ventilation and perfusion studies. Perfusion radiopharmaceuticals, main controls for administration quality acceptance. Clearence after blood administration and main clinical applications. Ventilation radiopharmaceuticals, gases and aerosols, characteristics of a ideal radioaerosol, techniques of good inhalation procedure, clinical applications. Comparison of several radiopharmaceuticals reflering to retention time as 50% administered dose, percent administered dose at 6 hours post inhalation, blood activity at 30 and 60 minutes post inhalation, initial lung absorbed dose, cumulated activity.Kinetic description of two radiopharmaceuticals, 99mTcDTPA and 99mTc-PYP

  17. Cigarette Smoke Exposure during Pregnancy Alters Fetomaternal Cell Trafficking Leading to Retention of Microchimeric Cells in the Maternal Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelgesang, Anja; Scapin, Cristina; Barone, Caroline; Tam, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure causes chronic oxidative lung damage. During pregnancy, fetal microchimeric cells traffic to the mother. Their numbers are increased at the site of acute injury. We hypothesized that milder chronic diffuse smoke injury would attract fetal cells to maternal lungs. We used a green-fluorescent-protein (GFP) mouse model to study the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on fetomaternal cell trafficking. Wild-type female mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for about 4 weeks and bred with homozygote GFP males. Cigarette smoke exposure continued until lungs were harvested and analyzed. Exposure to cigarette smoke led to macrophage accumulation in the maternal lung and significantly lower fetal weights. Cigarette smoke exposure influenced fetomaternal cell trafficking. It was associated with retention of GFP-positive fetal cells in the maternal lung and a significant reduction of fetal cells in maternal livers at gestational day 18, when fetomaternal cell trafficking peaks in the mouse model. Cells quickly clear postpartum, leaving only a few, difficult to detect, persisting microchimeric cells behind. In our study, we confirmed the postpartum clearance of cells in the maternal lungs, with no significant difference in both groups. We conclude that in the mouse model, cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy leads to a retention of fetal microchimeric cells in the maternal lung, the site of injury. Further studies will be needed to elucidate the effect of cigarette smoke exposure on the phenotypic characteristics and function of these fetal microchimeric cells, and confirm its course in cigarette smoke exposure in humans. PMID:24832066

  18. Histochemical alterations in one lung ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kingsley; Gribbin, Elizabeth; Emanuel, Steven; Orndorff, Rebecca; Walker, Jean; Weese, James; Fallahnejad, Manucher

    2007-01-01

    One lung ventilation is a commonly performed surgical procedure. Although there have been several reports showing that one-lung ventilation can cause pathophysiological alterations such as pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction and intrapulmonary shunting, there have been virtually no reports on the effects of one-lung ventilation on lung histology. Yorkshire pigs (11-17 kg) were anesthetized, a tracheotomy performed and a tracheal tube inserted. The chest was opened and one lung ventilation (OLV), was induced by clamping of the right main bronchus. OLV was continued for 60 min before the clamp was removed and two lung ventilation (TLV) started. TLV was continued for 30 to 60 min. Blood and lung biopsies were taken immediately before OLV, 30 min and 60 min of OLV and after restoration of TLV. Histological analyses revealed that the non-ventilated lung was totally collapsed during OLV. On reventilation, there was clear evidence of vascular congestion and alveolar wall thickening at 30 min after TLV. At 60 min of TLV, there was still vascular congestion. Serum nitrite levels (as an index of nitric oxide production) showed steady decline over the course of the experimental period, reaching a significantly low level on reventilation (compared with baseline levels before OLV). Lung MPO activity (marker of neutrophil sequestration) and serum TNFalpha levels were not raised during the entire experimental period. These results suggest that there was lung vascular injury after OLV, which was associated with reduced levels of nitric oxide production and not associated with an inflammatory response.

  19. Comparison of lung preservation solutions in human lungs using an ex vivo lung perfusion experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel L. Medeiros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Experimental studies on lung preservation have always been performed using animal models. We present ex vivo lung perfusion as a new model for the study of lung preservation. Using human lungs instead of animal models may bring the results of experimental studies closer to what could be expected in clinical practice. METHOD: Brain-dead donors whose lungs had been declined by transplantation teams were used. The cases were randomized into two groups. In Group 1, Perfadex®was used for pulmonary preservation, and in Group 2, LPDnac, a solution manufactured in Brazil, was used. An ex vivo lung perfusion system was used, and the lungs were ventilated and perfused after 10 hours of cold ischemia. The extent of ischemic-reperfusion injury was measured using functional and histological parameters. RESULTS: After reperfusion, the mean oxygenation capacity was 405.3 mmHg in Group 1 and 406.0 mmHg in Group 2 (p = 0.98. The mean pulmonary vascular resistance values were 697.6 and 378.3 dyn·s·cm-5, respectively (p =0.035. The mean pulmonary compliance was 46.8 cm H20 in Group 1 and 49.3 ml/cm H20 in Group 2 (p =0.816. The mean wet/dry weight ratios were 2.06 and 2.02, respectively (p=0.87. The mean Lung Injury Scores for the biopsy performed after reperfusion were 4.37 and 4.37 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 1.0, and the apoptotic cell counts were 118.75/mm² and 137.50/mm², respectively (p=0.71. CONCLUSION: The locally produced preservation solution proved to be as good as Perfadex®. The clinical use of LPDnac may reduce costs in our centers. Therefore, it is important to develop new models to study lung preservation.

  20. Lung Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Severity of the recipient's lung disease Recipient's overall health Likelihood that the transplant will be successful Immediately before ... will begin within days of your surgery. Your health care team will likely work with you to design an exercise program that's right for you. Your doctor may ...

  1. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  2. Technology and outcomes assessment in lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusen, Roger D

    2009-01-15

    Lung transplantation offers the hope of prolonged survival and significant improvement in quality of life to patients that have advanced lung diseases. However, the medical literature lacks strong positive evidence and shows conflicting information regarding survival and quality of life outcomes related to lung transplantation. Decisions about the use of lung transplantation require an assessment of trade-offs: do the potential health and quality of life benefits outweigh the potential risks and harms? No amount of theoretical reasoning can resolve this question; empiric data are needed. Rational analyses of these trade-offs require valid measurements of the benefits and harms to the patients in all relevant domains that affect survival and quality of life. Lung transplant systems and registries mainly focus outcomes assessment on patient survival on the waiting list and after transplantation. Improved analytic approaches allow comparisons of the survival effects of lung transplantation versus continued waiting. Lung transplant entities do not routinely collect quality of life data. However, the medical community and the public want to know how lung transplantation affects quality of life. Given the huge stakes for the patients, the providers, and the healthcare systems, key stakeholders need to further support quality of life assessment in patients with advanced lung disease that enter into the lung transplant systems. Studies of lung transplantation and its related technologies should assess patients with tools that integrate both survival and quality of life information. Higher quality information obtained will lead to improved knowledge and more informed decision making.

  3. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by

  4. The Role of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy in the Management of Respiratory Distress in Extremely Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Sekar, Kris

    2006-01-01

    The use of mechanical ventilation for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in low birth weight infants may cause barotrauma, volutrauma, and chronic lung disease. Different continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) delivery systems exist, each with its own practical and clinical advantages and disadvantages. CPAP can be used as either a primary or an adjunctive respiratory support for RDS. Research demonstrates that CPAP decreases the incidence of respiratory failure after ex...

  5. Early diagnosis of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherrer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Unanimity does not exist about the utility and organisation of screening procedures for early diagnosis of lung cancer. We describe a low cost structue of screening, requiring only a minimum of compliance from the elderly smoker and ex-smoker. At 4 months interval, radiographs, sputum cytologies and eventual fiberbronchoscopies are realized in all that elderly smokers and ex-smokers which begin to present one of the first early lung cancer signs or symptoms (loss of weight, hemoptoe, thoracic pain and others). (orig.) [de

  6. SU-G-JeP1-06: Correlation of Lung Tumor Motion with Tumor Location Using Electromagnetic Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muccigrosso, D; Maughan, N; Parikh, P [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Schultejans, H; Bera, R [Lindbergh High School, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: It is well known that lung tumors move with respiration. However, most measurements of lung tumor motion have studied long treatment times with intermittent imaging; those populations may not necessarily represent conventional LINAC patients. We summarized the correlation between tumor motion and location in a multi-institutional trial with electromagnetic tracking, and identified the patient cohort that would most benefit from respiratory gating. Methods: Continuous electromagnetic transponder data (Varian Medical, Seattle, WA) of lung tumor motion was collected from 14 patients (214 total fractions) across 3 institutions during external beam radiation therapy in a prospective clinical trial (NCT01396551). External intervention from the clinician, such as couch shifts, instructed breath-holds, and acquisition pauses, were manually removed from the 10 Hz tracking data according to recorded notes. The average three-dimensional displacement from the breathing cycle’s end-expiratory to end-inhalation phases (peak-to-peak distance) of the transponders’ isocenter was calculated for each patient’s treatment. A weighted average of each isocenter was used to assess the effects of location on motion. A total of 14 patients were included in this analysis, grouped by their transponders’ location in the lung: upper, medial, and lower. Results: 8 patients had transponders in the upper lung, and 3 patients each in the medial lobe and lower lung. The weighted average ± standard deviation of all peak-to-peak distances for each group was: 1.04 ± 0.39 cm in the lower lung, 0.56 ± 0.14 cm in the medial lung, and 0.30 ± 0.06 cm in the upper lung. Conclusion: Tumors in the lower lung are most susceptible to excessive motion and daily variation, and would benefit most from continuous motion tracking and gating. Those in the medial lobe might be at moderate risk. The upper lobes have limited motion. These results can guide different motion management strategies

  7. The lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macey, D.J.; Marshall, R.

    1982-01-01

    Currently emission tomography of the lungs is only practical for perfusion images with sup(99m)Tc microaggregates and ventilation images with sup(81m)Kr. The following topics are touched on: the rotating gamma camera single photon ECT system, spatial resolution and linearity, resolution in phantom studies, area and volume studies, quantitation studies, with particular reference to the authors' experience of perfusion and ventilation in investigations of pulmonary embolism. (U.K.)

  8. [The effects of postconditioning with propofol on Toll-like receptor 4 expression in the lung tissue of rat with acute lung injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Fu; Tong, Xin; Luan, Ting; Zang, Bin

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the effect of postconditioning with propofol on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in the lung tissue in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) rats. Thirty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to control group, ALI group, and propofol postcondition group (each n=10). The model of ALI was reproduced by intravenous injection of LPS (8 mg/kg for 30 minutes) into the rats, equivalent normal saline was injected into the rats of control group. The rats were postconditioned with propofol injected intravenously by 20 mg/kg bolus dose and then continuously by 40 mg×kg(-1)×h(-1) with a constant speed for 1 hour. The rats were sacrificed 6 hours after drug injection. Lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio and lung permeability index (LPI) was taken. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was detected using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method and TLR4 mRNA expression in lung tissue was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The lung W/D ratio, LPI, TLR4 mRNA and TNF-α in BALF were all increased in ALI group compared with control group [lung W/D ratio: 5.30±0.28 vs. 4.21±0.14, LPI (×10(-3)): 8.7±2.2 vs. 3.3±2.0, TLR4 mRNA: 2.451±0.028 vs. 0.998±0.021, TNF-α: 643.46±62.31 ng/L vs. 120.43±12.65 ng/L, all Pwaterfall-like inflammatory reaction.

  9. Hyperlucent lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Gutierrez, Florana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel E.

    2007-01-01

    Unilateral hyperlucent lung is also known as Swyer-James Syndrome, Macleod Syndrome or lobular or unilateral emphysema. It is an uncommon disease characterized by lung or unilateral lobe hiperlucency associated to an air trapping upon expiration. As regards to etiology, this syndrome is considered to be an acquired disease that appears secondary to respiratory infections during the early years of life, probably bronchiolitis and/ or viral pneumonia. The clinical presentation varies among patients. Some of them are asymptomatic, others present a history of recurrent episodes of pulmonary infections from early years of life or present effort dyspnea. The diagnosis is usually made accidentally by a chest radiograph in a child with history of respiratory infections or in an adult during a routine chest x- ray in an asymptomatic person. It is important to differentiate this syndrome from other causes of unilateral pulmonary hiperlucency on conventional chest x-rays. Few cases of Swyer-James Syndrome in children have been reported, it is presented the clinical case of a patient who had a parainfluenza 3 bronchopneumonia when he was a month and eighteen days of age. The differential diagnosis of this syndrome should be done with other thoracic entities that diminish the radiological pulmonary unilateral density. A case of a child who is the bearer of hyperlucent lung is described. (author) [es

  10. Static inflation attenuates ischemia/reperfusion injury in an isolated rat lung in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Shang Jyh; Wang, David; Yeh, Diana Yu-Wung; Hsu, Kang; Hsu, Yung Hsiang; Chen, Hsing I

    2004-08-01

    Ischemia (I)/reperfusion (R) lung injury is an important clinical issue in lung transplantation. In the present study, we observed the effects of lung static inflation, different perfusates, and ventilatory gas with nitrogen or oxygen on the I/R-induced pulmonary damage. A total of 96 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The lung was isolated in situ. In an isolated lung, the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), lung weight gain (LWG), lung weight (LW)/body weight (BW) ratio, and protein concentration in BAL fluid (PCBAL) were measured or calculated to evaluate the degree of lung injury. Histologic examinations with hematoxylin-eosin staining were performed. I/R caused lung injury, as reflected by increases in Kfc, LWG, LW/BW, and PCBAL. The histopathologic picture revealed the presence of hyaline membrane formation and the infiltration of inflammatory cells. These values were significantly attenuated by static lung inflation. The I/R lung damage appeared to be less in the lung perfused with whole blood than in the lung perfused with an isotonic solution. Therapy with ventilatory air (ie, nitrogen or oxygen) did not alter the I/R lung damage. The data suggest that lung inflation is protective to I/R injury, irrespective of the type of ventilatory air used for treatment. The preservation of the lung for transplantation is better kept at a static inflation state and perfused with whole blood instead of an isotonic physiologic solution.

  11. New estimates for human lung dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Christine; Sidavasan, Sivalal; Kramer, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The currently used lung dimensions in dosimetry were originally estimated in the 1940s from Army recruits. This study provides new estimates of lung dimensions based on images acquired from a sample from the general population (varying age and sex). Building accurate models, called phantoms, of the human lung requires that the spatial dimensions (length, width, and depth) be quantified, in addition to volume. Errors in dose estimates may result from improperly sized lungs as the counting efficiency of externally mounted detectors (e.g., in a lung counter) is dependent on the position of internally deposited radioactive material (i.e., the size of the lung). This study investigates the spatial dimensions of human lungs. Lung phantoms have previously been made in one of two sizes. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Torso Phantom (LLNL) has deep, short lungs whose dimensions do not comply well with the data published in Report 23 (Reference Man) issued by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute Torso Phantom(JAERI), has longer, shallower lungs that also deviate from the ICRP values. However, careful examination of the ICRP recommended values shows that they are soft. In fact, they have been dropped from the ICRP's Report 89 which updates Report 23. Literature surveys have revealed a wealth of information on lung volume, but very little data on the spatial dimensions of human lungs. Better lung phantoms need to be constructed to more accurately represent a person so that dose estimates may be quantified more accurately in view of the new, lower, dose limits for occupationally exposed workers and the general public. Retrospective chest images of 60 patients who underwent imaging of the chest- lungs as part of their healthy persons occupational screening for lung disease were chosen. The chosen normal lung images represent the general population). Ages, gender and weight of the

  12. Protective ventilation reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth in lung tissue in a porcine pneumonia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, Jesper; Nyberg, Axel; Lipcsey, Miklos; Melhus, Åsa; Larsson, Anders; Sjölin, Jan; Castegren, Markus

    2017-08-31

    Mechanical ventilation with positive end expiratory pressure and low tidal volume, i.e. protective ventilation, is recommended in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the effect of protective ventilation on bacterial growth during early pneumonia in non-injured lungs is not extensively studied. The main objectives were to compare two different ventilator settings on Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth in lung tissue and the development of lung injury. A porcine model of severe pneumonia was used. The protective group (n = 10) had an end expiratory pressure of 10 cm H 2 O and a tidal volume of 6 ml x kg -1 . The control group (n = 10) had an end expiratory pressure of 5 cm H 2 O and a tidal volume of 10 ml x kg -1 . 10 11 colony forming units of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were inoculated intra-tracheally at baseline, after which the experiment continued for 6 h. Two animals from each group received only saline, and served as sham animals. Lung tissue samples from each animal were used for bacterial cultures and wet-to-dry weight ratio measurements. The protective group displayed lower numbers of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (p protective group was unchanged (p protective ventilation with lower tidal volume and higher end expiratory pressure has the potential to reduce the pulmonary bacterial burden and the development of lung injury.

  13. Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  14. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  15. Metastatic tumors of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenologic semiotics of lung metastases and their complications, as well as peculiarities of lung metastases of separate localization tumours are presented. Definition table for primary tumour by roentgenologic aspect of lung metastases is given

  16. How Lungs Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > How Lungs Work How Lungs Work The Respiratory System Your lungs are part of the respiratory system, ... your sense of smell. The Parts of the Respiratory System and How They Work Airways SINUSES are hollow ...

  17. Protecting Your Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung capacity. Specific breathing exercises can also help improve your lung function if you have certain lung diseases, like COPD. Exercise and breathing techniques are also great for improving your mood and helping you relax. Public Health and Your ...

  18. Lung regeneration by fetal lung tissue implantation in a mouse pulmonary emphysema model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyama, Koh; Sakiyama, Shoji; Yoshida, Mitsuteru; Kenzaki, Koichiro; Toba, Hiroaki; Kawakami, Yukikiyo; Okumura, Kazumasa; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Kondo, Kazuya; Tangoku, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The mortality and morbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are high. However, no radical therapy has been developed to date. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether fetal mouse lung tissue can grow and differentiate in the emphysematous lung. Fetal lung tissue from green fluorescent protein C57BL/6 mice at 16 days' gestation was used as donor material. Twelve-month-old pallid mice were used as recipients. Donor lungs were cut into small pieces and implanted into the recipient left lung by performing thoracotomy under anesthesia. The recipient mice were sacrificed at day 7, 14, and 28 after implantation and used for histological examination. Well-developed spontaneous pulmonary emphysema was seen in 12-month-old pallid mice. Smooth and continuous connection between implanted fetal lung tissue and recipient lung was recognized. Air space expansion and donor tissue differentiation were observed over time. We could clearly distinguish the border zones between injected tissue and native tissue by the green fluorescence of grafts. Fetal mouse lung fragments survived and differentiated in the emphysematous lung of pallid mice. Implantation of fetal lung tissue in pallid mice might lead to further lung regeneration research from the perspective of respiratory and exercise function. J. Med. Invest. 63: 182-186, August, 2016.

  19. Lung PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chest PET scan; Lung positron emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging; ... Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  20. Extravascular Lung Water and Acute Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Maharaj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury carries a high burden of morbidity and mortality and is characterised by nonhydrostatic pulmonary oedema. The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of accurate quantification of extravascular lung water in diagnosis, management, and prognosis in “acute lung injury” and “acute respiratory distress syndrome”. Several studies have verified the accuracy of both the single and the double transpulmonary thermal indicator techniques. Both experimental and clinical studies were searched in PUBMED using the term “extravascular lung water” and “acute lung injury”. Extravascular lung water measurement offers information not otherwise available by other methods such as chest radiography, arterial blood gas, and chest auscultation at the bedside. Recent data have highlighted the role of extravascular lung water in response to treatment to guide fluid therapy and ventilator strategies. The quantification of extravascular lung water may predict mortality and multiorgan dysfunction. The limitations of the dilution method are also discussed.

  1. Early weight loss predicts weight loss treatment response regardless of binge-eating disorder status and pretreatment weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rachel D; Ivezaj, Valentina; Pittman, Brian P; Grilo, Carlos M

    2018-04-10

    Individuals seeking weight loss treatment have diverse pretreatment weight trajectories, and once enrolled, individuals' response to weight loss treatments also varies greatly and may be influenced by the presence of binge-eating disorder (BED). Reported average weight losses may obscure these considerable differences. This study examined whether BED status and different weight-related change variables are associated with successful weight loss treatment outcomes in a controlled treatment study. Participants (N = 89) with overweight/obesity, with and without BED, participated in a 3-month weight loss trial in primary care with 3- and 12-month follow-ups. We tested the prognostic significance of four weight-related change variables (the last supper, early weight loss, pretreatment weight trajectory, weight suppression) on outcomes (weight loss-overall, weight loss-"subsequent," weight loss during second half of treatment). Early weight loss was positively associated with weight loss-overall at post-treatment, and at 3-month and 12-month follow-up. Early weight loss was positively associated with weight loss-subsequent at post-treatment only. No other weight-related variables were significantly associated with weight loss. Models including BED status and treatment condition were not significant. Participants with early weight loss were more likely to continue losing weight, regardless of BED status or treatment condition. The results highlight the importance of early dedication to weight loss treatment to increase the likelihood of positive outcomes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Gender Differences in Weight Loss: Evidence from a NHS Weight Management Service

    OpenAIRE

    BHOGAL, Manpal Singh; Langford, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Provides evidence that men lose more weight than women when enrolled on a weight loss intervention.\\ud •\\ud Men lose more weight than women from their initial assessment up to 12-months.\\ud •\\ud Men maintain their weight and continue to lose more weight postintervention compared to women.

  3. "Open lung ventilation optimizes pulmonary function during lung surgery".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, John B; Robinson, Lary A; Steighner, Michael L; Thrush, David; Reich, Richard R; Räsänen, Jukka O

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated an "open lung" ventilation (OV) strategy using low tidal volumes, low respiratory rate, low FiO2, and high continuous positive airway pressure in patients undergoing major lung resections. In this phase I pilot study, twelve consecutive patients were anesthetized using conventional ventilator settings (CV) and then OV strategy during which oxygenation and lung compliance were noted. Subsequently, a lung resection was performed. Data were collected during both modes of ventilation in each patient, with each patient acting as his own control. The postoperative course was monitored for complications. Twelve patients underwent open thoracotomies for seven lobectomies and five segmentectomies. The OV strategy provided consistent one-lung anesthesia and improved static compliance (40 ± 7 versus 25 ± 4 mL/cm H2O, P = 0.002) with airway pressures similar to CV. Postresection oxygenation (SpO2/FiO2) was better during OV (433 ± 11 versus 386 ± 15, P = 0.008). All postoperative chest x-rays were free of atelectasis or infiltrates. No patient required supplemental oxygen at any time postoperatively or on discharge. The mean hospital stay was 4 ± 1 d. There were no complications or mortality. The OV strategy, previously shown to have benefits during mechanical ventilation of patients with respiratory failure, proved safe and effective in lung resection patients. Because postoperative pulmonary complications may be directly attributable to the anesthetic management, adopting an OV strategy that optimizes lung mechanics and gas exchange may help reduce postoperative problems and improve overall surgical results. A randomized trial is planned to ascertain whether this technique will reduce postoperative pulmonary complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevention of reperfusion lung injury by lidocaine in isolated rat lung ventilated with higher oxygen levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lidocaine, an antiarrhythmic drug has been shown to be effective against post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in heart. However, its effect on pulmonary reperfusion injury has not been investigated. AIMS: We investigated the effects of lidocaine on a postischaemic reperfused rat lung model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lungs were isolated and perfused at constant flow with Krebs-Henseilet buffer containing 4% bovine serum albumin, and ventilated with 95% oxygen mixed with 5% CO2. Lungs were subjected to ischaemia by stopping perfusion for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion for 10 minutes. Ischaemia was induced in normothermic conditions. RESULTS: Postischaemic reperfusion caused significant (p < 0.0001 higher wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure compared to control lungs. Lidocaine, at a dose of 5mg/Kg b.w. was found to significantly (p < 0.0001 attenuate the increase in the wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure observed in post-ischaemic lungs. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine is effective in preventing post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in isolated, perfused rat lung.

  5. Social causes of low birth weight.

    OpenAIRE

    Kogan, M D

    1995-01-01

    The manifest importance of reducing the incidence of low birth weight is most obvious for the first year of life: low birth weight is the single most important factor affecting infant morbidity and mortality. However, there is growing evidence that the adverse consequences of low birth weight continue throughout the life cycle. This review deals primarily with social causes of low birth weight.

  6. 7 CFR 981.9 - Kernel weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kernel weight. 981.9 Section 981.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.9 Kernel weight. Kernel weight means the weight of kernels, including...

  7. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Carla F

    2017-06-30

    The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  8. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla F. Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials.

  9. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    Based on the own experience and world literatures, contribution of radiation in the treatment of lung cancer was reviewed and discussed. Although the patients with advanced cancer were referred to radiation usually, the results of radiotherapy were superior to those by chemotherapy. Of course the radiotherapy was a local one, radiation combined with chemotherapy was highly recommended, besides systemic administration of chemotherapeutics, special methods such as bronchial arterial infusion (BAI) and chemoembolization would be more favourable in selected patients. Treatment of undifferentiated small cell carcinoma was becoming more dependent on chemotherapy, radiation showed as excellent local control as ever. To treat locally extended cancer patients with involvement of the thoracic wall and Pancoast's syndrome, external radiation alone were not successful, interstitial radiation or a single exposure with a large dose during the thoracotomy would be promising. Finally, data indicated that aged and poor risk patients in early stage of cancer might be treated by radiation instead of unjustifiable operation. (author)

  10. Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such diets limit your nutritional intake, can be unhealthy, and tend to fail in the long run. The key to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight isn't about short-term dietary changes. It's about a lifestyle that includes healthy eating, regular physical activity, and ...

  11. Business continuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breunhoelder, Gert

    2002-01-01

    This presentation deals with the following keypoints: Information Technology (IT) Business Continuity and Recovery essential for any business; lessons learned after Sept. 11 event; Detailed planning, redundancy and testing being the key elements for probability estimation of disasters

  12. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  13. 26 CFR 53.4951-1 - Black lung trusts-taxes on self-dealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Black lung trusts-taxes on self-dealing. 53... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Black Lung Benefit Trust Excise Taxes § 53.4951-1 Black lung trusts—taxes on self-dealing. (a) In general. Section 4951...

  14. 26 CFR 53.4952-1 - Black lung trusts-taxes on taxable expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Black lung trusts-taxes on taxable expenditures... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Black Lung Benefit Trust Excise Taxes § 53.4952-1 Black lung trusts—taxes on taxable expenditures. (a) In general. Section...

  15. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LUNG CANCER MINI-SERIES #2 Staging of Lung Cancer Once your lung cancer is diagnosed, staging tells you and your health care provider about ... at it under a microscope. The stages of lung cancer are listed as I, II, III, and IV ...

  16. Lung needle biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have certain lung diseases such as emphysema. Usually, a collapsed lung after a biopsy does not need treatment. But ... any type Bullae (enlarged alveoli that occur with emphysema) Cor pulmonale (condition ... of the lung High blood pressure in the lung arteries Severe ...

  17. Continuous tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.

    1978-04-01

    A tokamak configuration is proposed that permits the rapid replacement of a plasma discharge in a ''burn'' chamber by another one in a time scale much shorter than the elementary thermal time constant of the chamber first wall. With respect to the chamber, the effective duty cycle factor can thus be made arbitrarily close to unity minimizing the cyclic thermal stress in the first wall. At least one plasma discharge always exists in the new tokamak configuration, hence, a continuous tokamak. By incorporating adiabatic toroidal compression, configurations of continuous tokamak compressors are introduced. To operate continuous tokamaks, it is necessary to introduce the concept of mixed poloidal field coils, which spatially groups all the poloidal field coils into three sets, all contributing simultaneously to inducing the plasma current and maintaining the proper plasma shape and position. Preliminary numerical calculations of axisymmetric MHD equilibria in continuous tokamaks indicate the feasibility of their continued plasma operation. Advanced concepts of continuous tokamaks to reduce the topological complexity and to allow the burn plasma aspect ratio to decrease for increased beta are then suggested

  18. Niacinamide mitigated the acute lung injury induced by phorbol myristate acetate in isolated rat's lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chia-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA is a strong neutrophil activator and has been used to induce acute lung injury (ALI. Niacinamide (NAC is a compound of B complex. It exerts protective effects on the ALI caused by various challenges. The purpose was to evaluate the protective effects of niacinamide (NAC on the PMA-induced ALI and associated changes. Methods The rat's lungs were isolated in situ and perfused with constant flow. A total of 60 isolated lungs were randomized into 6 groups to received Vehicle (DMSO 100 μg/g, PMA 4 μg/g (lung weight, cotreated with NAC 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/g (lung weight. There were 10 isolated lungs in each group. We measured the lung weight and parameters related to ALI. The pulmonary arterial pressure and capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc were determined in isolated lungs. ATP (adenotriphosphate and PARP [poly(adenosine diphophate-ribose polymerase] contents in lung tissues were detected. Real-time PCR was employed to display the expression of inducible and endothelial NO synthases (iNOS and eNOS. The neutrophil-derived mediators in lung perfusate were determined. Results PMA caused increases in lung weight parameters. This agent produced pulmonary hypertension and increased microvascular permeability. It resulted in decrease in ATP and increase in PARP. The expression of iNOS and eNOS was upregulated following PMA. PMA increased the neutrophil-derived mediators. Pathological examination revealed lung edema and hemorrhage with inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemical stain disclosed the presence of iNOS-positive cells in macrophages and endothelial cells. These pathophysiological and biochemical changes were diminished by NAC treatment. The NAC effects were dose-dependent. Conclusions Our results suggest that neutrophil activation and release of neutrophil-derived mediators by PMA cause ALI and associated changes. NO production through the iNOS-producing cells plays a detrimental

  19. Niacinamide mitigated the acute lung injury induced by phorbol myristate acetate in isolated rat's lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Chih; Hsieh, Nan-Kuang; Liou, Huey Ling; Chen, Hsing I

    2012-03-01

    Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) is a strong neutrophil activator and has been used to induce acute lung injury (ALI). Niacinamide (NAC) is a compound of B complex. It exerts protective effects on the ALI caused by various challenges. The purpose was to evaluate the protective effects of niacinamide (NAC) on the PMA-induced ALI and associated changes. The rat's lungs were isolated in situ and perfused with constant flow. A total of 60 isolated lungs were randomized into 6 groups to received Vehicle (DMSO 100 μg/g), PMA 4 μg/g (lung weight), cotreated with NAC 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/g (lung weight). There were 10 isolated lungs in each group. We measured the lung weight and parameters related to ALI. The pulmonary arterial pressure and capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) were determined in isolated lungs. ATP (adenotriphosphate) and PARP [poly(adenosine diphophate-ribose) polymerase] contents in lung tissues were detected. Real-time PCR was employed to display the expression of inducible and endothelial NO synthases (iNOS and eNOS). The neutrophil-derived mediators in lung perfusate were determined. PMA caused increases in lung weight parameters. This agent produced pulmonary hypertension and increased microvascular permeability. It resulted in decrease in ATP and increase in PARP. The expression of iNOS and eNOS was upregulated following PMA. PMA increased the neutrophil-derived mediators. Pathological examination revealed lung edema and hemorrhage with inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemical stain disclosed the presence of iNOS-positive cells in macrophages and endothelial cells. These pathophysiological and biochemical changes were diminished by NAC treatment. The NAC effects were dose-dependent. Our results suggest that neutrophil activation and release of neutrophil-derived mediators by PMA cause ALI and associated changes. NO production through the iNOS-producing cells plays a detrimental role in the PMA-induced lung injury. ATP is beneficial

  20. Definition and outpatient management of the very low-birth-weight infant with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groothuis, Jessie R; Makari, Doris

    2012-04-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), also known as chronic lung disease of prematurity, is the major cause of pulmonary disease in infants. The pathophysiology and management of BPD have evolved over the past four decades as improved neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) modalities have increased survival rates. The likelihood for developing BPD increases with the degree of prematurity and reaches 25-35% in very low-birth-weight and extremely low-birth-weight infants. BPD affects many organ systems, and infants with BPD are at increased risk for rehospitalization and numerous complications following NICU discharge. The management of BPD and medically related problems, particularly during the first 2 years of life, remains a continuing challenge for parents and healthcare providers. It is important that a multidisciplinary team consisting of the neonatologist/attending physician, primary care physician, and other specialized support staff work in concert and meet regularly to provide continuity of care and accurate patient assessments.

  1. Weight suppression predicts total weight gain and rate of weight gain in outpatients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Frances A; Boden, Joseph M; Jordan, Jennifer; McIntosh, Virginia V W; Bulik, Cynthia M; Joyce, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    The present study sought to replicate the finding of Wildes and Marcus, Behav Res Ther, 50, 266-274, 2012 that higher levels of weight suppression at pretreatment predict greater total weight gain, faster rate of weight gain, and bulimic symptoms amongst patients admitted with anorexia nervosa. Participants were 56 women with anorexia nervosa diagnosed by using strict or lenient weight criteria, who were participating in a randomized controlled psychotherapy trial (McIntosh et al., Am J Psychiatry, 162, 741-747, 2005). Thirty-five women completed outpatient treatment and post-treatment assessment. Weight suppression was the discrepancy between highest lifetime weight at adult height and weight at pretreatment assessment. Outcome variables were total weight gain, rate of weight gain, and bulimic symptoms in the month prior to post-treatment assessment [assessed using the Eating Disorders Examination (Fairburn et al., Binge-Eating: Nature, Assessment and Treatment. New York: Guilford, 1993)]. Weight suppression was positively associated with total weight gain and rate of weight gain over treatment. Regression models showed that this association could not be explained by covariates (age at onset of anorexia nervosa and treatment modality). Weight suppression was not significantly associated with bulimic symptoms in the month prior to post-treatment assessment, regardless of whether bulimic symptoms were examined as continuous or dichotomous variables. The present study reinforces the previous finding that weight suppression predicts total weight gain and rate of weight gain amongst patients being treated for anorexia nervosa. Methodological issues may explain the failure of the present study to find that weight suppression predicts bulimic symptoms. Weight suppression at pretreatment for anorexia nervosa should be assessed routinely and may inform treatment planning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Thoracoscopic lung lobectomy for treatment of lung tumors in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Jennifer L; Monnet, Eric; Twedt, David C; Dernell, William S

    2005-01-01

    To report use of thoracoscopic lung lobectomy (TLL) for treatment of lung tumors (LT) in dogs. Retrospective study. Nine dogs. Dogs that had TLL for tumor removal were included. Using general anesthesia and 1-lung ventilation, TLL was performed using a 30-60 mm endoscopic gastrointestinal anastomosis stapler. If the visual field was obscured, lobe resection was completed via thoracotomy. Metastatic and primary LT were resected by thoracoscopic lobectomy in 9 dogs (6 male, 3 female; mean (+/-SD) weight, 29+/-7 kg; mean age, 10.7+/-1.9 years). Six dogs had a solitary mass and 3 dogs had 2 masses within a single lobe. The left caudal lobe was removed in 3 dogs. In 5 dogs, TLL was used alone whereas conversion to thoracotomy was required in 4 dogs because of poor visibility. There were 7 metastatic LT and 2 primary LT. Mean duration of thoracoscopic surgery was 108.8+/-30.3 minutes compared with 150.75+/-55.4 minutes in dogs requiring conversion to thoracotomy. Mean hospitalization was 3.1+/-1.3 days. Provided the visual field is not obscured, TLL can be performed effectively in dogs. Dogs with metastatic or primary LTs should be considered for TLL, particularly for small masses positioned away from the hilus in the left caudal lung lobe.

  3. Do patients with lung cancer benefit from physical exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas Holst; Vinther, Anders; Poulsen, Lise-Lotte

    2011-01-01

    Patients with lung cancer are often burdened by dyspnoea, fatigue, decreased physical ability and loss of weight. Earlier studies of physical exercise of patients with COPD have shown promising results. The aim of this study was to investigate, if a well-documented COPD rehabilitation protocol can...... improve physical fitness and quality of life (QoL) in patients with lung cancer....

  4. Bacterial lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groskin, S.A.; Panicek, D.M.; Ewing, D.K.; Rivera, F.; Math, K.; Teixeira, J.; Heitzman, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective review of patients with bacterial lung abscess was carried out. Demographic, clinical, and radiographical features of this patient group are compared with similar data from patients with empyema and/or cavitated lung carcinoma; differential diagnostic points are stressed. The entity of radiographically occult lung abscess is discussed. Complications associated with bacterial lung abscess are discussed. Current therapeutic options and treatment philosophy for patients with bacterial lung abscess are noted

  5. Continuous Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xu; Tian, Xinmei; Liu, Tongliang; Xu, Fang; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-10-03

    Dropout has been proven to be an effective algorithm for training robust deep networks because of its ability to prevent overfitting by avoiding the co-adaptation of feature detectors. Current explanations of dropout include bagging, naive Bayes, regularization, and sex in evolution. According to the activation patterns of neurons in the human brain, when faced with different situations, the firing rates of neurons are random and continuous, not binary as current dropout does. Inspired by this phenomenon, we extend the traditional binary dropout to continuous dropout. On the one hand, continuous dropout is considerably closer to the activation characteristics of neurons in the human brain than traditional binary dropout. On the other hand, we demonstrate that continuous dropout has the property of avoiding the co-adaptation of feature detectors, which suggests that we can extract more independent feature detectors for model averaging in the test stage. We introduce the proposed continuous dropout to a feedforward neural network and comprehensively compare it with binary dropout, adaptive dropout, and DropConnect on Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research-10, Street View House Numbers, NORB, and ImageNet large scale visual recognition competition-12. Thorough experiments demonstrate that our method performs better in preventing the co-adaptation of feature detectors and improves test performance.

  6. Lung Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two main types of lung cancer are non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Smoking causes most lung cancers, but nonsmokers can also develop lung cancer. Start here to find information on lung cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics on lung cancer.

  7. Continuity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed, self-contained theory of continuous mappings. It is mainly addressed to students who have already studied these mappings in the setting of metric spaces, as well as multidimensional differential calculus. The needed background facts about sets, metric spaces and linear algebra are developed in detail, so as to provide a seamless transition between students' previous studies and new material. In view of its many novel features, this book will be of interest also to mature readers who have studied continuous mappings from the subject's classical texts and wish to become acquainted with a new approach. The theory of continuous mappings serves as infrastructure for more specialized mathematical theories like differential equations, integral equations, operator theory, dynamical systems, global analysis, topological groups, topological rings and many more. In light of the centrality of the topic, a book of this kind fits a variety of applications, especially those that contribute to ...

  8. Continuation calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geron, B.; Geuvers, J.H.; de'Liguoro, U.; Saurin, A.

    2013-01-01

    Programs with control are usually modeled using lambda calculus extended with control operators. Instead of modifying lambda calculus, we consider a different model of computation. We introduce continuation calculus, or CC, a deterministic model of computation that is evaluated using only head

  9. Measurement of lung water with SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, R.Y.L.; Ficken, V.J.; Ekeh, S.U.; Ryals, C.J.; Allen, E.W.; Basmadjian, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of iodoantipyrine (IAP) labeled with radioactive iodine (I-123) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) to measure lung water. I-123 IAP was injected intravenously to six New Zealand White rabbits under anesthesia. After 1 hour, Tc-99m macroaggregates of albumin (MAA) were injected. SPECT imaging was performed in dual-energy mode. After a blood sample was drawn, the animals were sacrificed, and the lungs were removed. Blood samples were assayed for radioactivity. The lungs were weighed, dried, and weighted again to determine water content. The product of area defined by MAA in a tomogram and IAP count rate of central pixels of that region in the corresponding tomogram was taken as the relative amount of IAP in each lung

  10. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  11. Customized bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2013-02-09

    Feb 9, 2013 ... our institution, we modified the existing Bubble CPAP devise using readily available but far less expensive materials. The resultant product is cheap, easily assem- .... Hurd SS, Bryan MH, Cotton RB,. Epstein MF et al. is chronic lung disease in low birth weight infants preventable? Pediatrics 1987; 9. (1):26- ...

  12. Risk considerations related to lung modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, R.; Cross, F.T.

    1989-01-01

    Improved lung models provide a more accurate assessment of dose from inhalation exposures and, therefore, more accurate dose-response relationships for risk evaluation and exposure limitation. Epidemiological data for externally irradiated persons indicate that the numbers of excess respiratory tract carcinomas differ in the upper airways, bronchi, and distal lung. Neither their histogenesis and anatomical location nor their progenitor cells are known with sufficient accuracy for accurate assessment of the microdosimetry. The nuclei of sensitive cells generally can be assumed to be distributed at random in the epithelium, beneath the mucus and tips of the beating cilia and cells. In stratified epithelia, basal cells may be considered the only cells at risk. Upper-airway tumors have been observed in both therapeutically irradiated patients and in Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors. The current International Commission on Radiological Protection Lung-Model Task Group proposes that the upper airways and lung have a similar relative risk coefficient for cancer induction. The partition of the risk weighting factor, therefore, will be proportional to the spontaneous death rate from tumors, and 80% of the weighting factor for the respiratory tract should be attributed to the lung. For Weibel lung-model branching generations 0 to 16 and 17 to 23, the Task Group proposes an 80/20 partition of the risk, i.e., 64% and 16%, respectively, of the total risk. Regarding risk in animals, recent data in rats indicate a significantly lower effectiveness for lung-cancer induction at low doses from insoluble long-lived alpha-emitters than from Rn daughters. These findings are due, in part, to the fact that different regions of the lung are irradiated. Tumors in the lymph nodes are rare in people and animals exposed to radiation.44 references

  13. Depleted uranium and radiation - induced lung cancer and leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    Reports of leukaemias and other cancers among servicemen who took part in the 1991 Gulf war or in the more recent operations in the Balkans are of continuing interest, as is the possibility, however slight, that depleted uranium (DU) is one of the causative factors. This commentary includes the results of a UK epidemiological study on the mortality of Gulf war veterans and , although not containing information on DU exposure, gives data on overall levels of mortality and therefore carries more weight than anecdotal reports. Also included are brief summaries on radiation-induced lung cancer in uranium workers as well as radiation-induced leukaemia in Japanese atomic bomb survivors and patients ankylosing spondylitis treated using x-rays. This commentary concludes with a critique of Iraqi cancer statistics as well as giving information on environmental contamination in Kosovo and the use of DU ammunition. (author)

  14. Neutrophil elastase inhibitor, ONO-5046, modulates acid-induced lung and systemic injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, K; Kudoh, I; Hattori, S; Yamada, H; Ohara, M; Wiener-Kronish, J; Okumura, F

    1997-09-01

    Acid instillation leads to direct lung and to secondary systemic organ injury, probably via activated macrophages and neutrophils. This study investigated the effects of neutrophil elastase on organ injury after unilateral lung acid instillation by administrating a specific neutrophil elastase inhibitor, ONO-5046, before acid instillation. Three groups of anesthetized rabbits (n = 12 in each group) underwent tracheostomies, and instillations were made into their right lower lobe airspaces with either phosphate buffered saline (pH, 7.4; volume, 1.2 ml/kg; n = 12) or HCl (pH, 1.25; volume, 1.2 ml/kg; n = 24). In half of the acid-instilled rabbits, ONO-5046, 10 mg/kg, was given intravenously 15 min before the HCl instillation, and then 10 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1) of the drug was continuously infused throughout the experiment. The other groups of animals received the vehicle intravenously. Anesthesia and mechanical ventilation was continued for 8 h, whereas arterial blood gases were sampled intermittently. Eight hours after saline or acid instillation, the animals were killed, and their lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, and small intestines were harvested. Wet-to-dry weight ratios (W/ D) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) assays of these organs were done, and elastase assays on the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) obtained from each lung also were performed. Pretreatment with ONO-5046 attenuated the physiologic changes seen in the vehicle-treated animals. Significant decreases in W/D of the noninstilled lungs and of the small intestine and normalization of the oxygenation of the experimental animals occurred. The ONO-5046 pretreatment did not affect the neutrophil sequestration in the lungs or in the other organs as determined by neutrophil counts in BALF and by the MPO assays. A neutrophil elastase inhibitor, ONO-5046, administered immediately before acid instillation attenuated the physiologic changes seen in the vehicle-treated animals. The drug blocked neutrophil elastase but

  15. Continuation calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Geron

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Programs with control are usually modeled using lambda calculus extended with control operators. Instead of modifying lambda calculus, we consider a different model of computation. We introduce continuation calculus, or CC, a deterministic model of computation that is evaluated using only head reduction, and argue that it is suitable for modeling programs with control. It is demonstrated how to define programs, specify them, and prove them correct. This is shown in detail by presenting in CC a list multiplication program that prematurely returns when it encounters a zero. The correctness proof includes termination of the program. In continuation calculus we can model both call-by-name and call-by-value. In addition, call-by-name functions can be applied to call-by-value results, and conversely.

  16. Disseminated lung cancer presenting as a rectal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noergaard, Mia M; Stamp, Inger M H; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally, and approximately 50% had metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. A rectal mass and unintended weight loss are common manifestations of rectal cancer. Our case presented with a rectal mass, but workup revealed...... a metastatic lesion from lung cancer. Lung cancer metastases to the lower gastrointestinal tract imply reduced survival compared with the already poor mean survival of stage IV lung cancer. Despite relevant therapy, the patient died 5 months after referral....

  17. N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Excessive Activation Inhibited Fetal Rat Lung Development In Vivo and In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengchang Liao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intrauterine hypoxia is a common cause of fetal growth and lung development restriction. Although N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs are distributed in the postnatal lung and play a role in lung injury, little is known about NMDAR’s expression and role in fetal lung development. Methods. Real-time PCR and western blotting analysis were performed to detect NMDARs between embryonic days (E 15.5 and E21.5 in fetal rat lungs. NMDAR antagonist MK-801’s influence on intrauterine hypoxia-induced retardation of fetal lung development was tested in vivo, and NMDA’s direct effect on fetal lung development was observed using fetal lung organ culture in vitro. Results. All seven NMDARs are expressed in fetal rat lungs. Intrauterine hypoxia upregulated NMDARs expression in fetal lungs and decreased fetal body weight, lung weight, lung-weight-to-body-weight ratio, and radial alveolar count, whereas MK-801 alleviated this damage in vivo. In vitro experiments showed that NMDA decreased saccular circumference and area per unit and downregulated thyroid transcription factor-1 and surfactant protein-C mRNA expression. Conclusions. The excessive activation of NMDARs contributed to hypoxia-induced fetal lung development retardation and appropriate blockade of NMDAR might be a novel therapeutic strategy for minimizing the negative outcomes of prenatal hypoxia on lung development.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Lung cancer Lung cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... cancer, childhood Additional NIH Resources (3 links) National Cancer Institute: Lung Cancer Overview National Cancer Institute: Lung Cancer Prevention ...

  19. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is almost always due to smoking. TREATING LUNG CANCER Lung cancer treatment depends on several factors, including the ... org TARGETING CANCER CARE Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in ...

  20. Conservation of small-airway function by tacrolimus/cyclosporine conversion in the management of bronchiolitis obliterans following lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, M P; Lewis, M E; Llewellyn-Jones, C G; Wilson, I C; Bonser, R S

    2000-12-01

    We studied serial lung function in 11 patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome who were treated with tacrolimus conversion following lung or heart-lung transplantation. Our results show that tacrolimus conversion slows the decline of lung function in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. The attenuation continues for at least 1 year following conversion.

  1. Obesity Prevention and Weight Maintenance After Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander James

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent medical diseases in pets. Outcomes are often disappointing; many animals either fail to reach target weight or regain weight. This article discusses managing obesity, focusing on prevention. It gives guidance on establishing monitoring programs that use regular body weight and condition assessments to identify animals at risk of inappropriate weight gain, enabling early intervention. Weight management in obese animals is a lifelong process. Regular weight and body condition monitoring are key to identifying animals that rebound early, while continuing to feed a therapeutic weight loss diet can help prevent it from happening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth / For Parents / Lungs and Respiratory System ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't ...

  3. Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rule out conditions such as asthma , cystic fibrosis , acid reflux, heart disease, neuromuscular disease, and immune deficiency. Various ... a lung infection. Acid-blocking medicines can prevent acid reflux, which can lead to aspiration. Lung Transplant A ...

  4. Interstitial Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... propranolol (Inderal, Innopran), may harm lung tissue. Some antibiotics. Nitrofurantoin (Macrobid, Macrodantin, others) and ethambutol (Myambutol) can cause lung damage. Anti-inflammatory drugs. Certain anti-inflammatory drugs, such as rituximab ( ...

  5. Eosinophilic Lung Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems characterized by having an increased number of eosinophils (white blood cells) in the lungs. These white ... category of pneumonias that feature increased numbers of eosinophils in the lung tissue. Pneumonia is an inflammatory ...

  6. Sildenafil attenuates pulmonary inflammation and fibrin deposition, mortality and right ventricular hypertrophy in neonatal hyperoxic lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boersma Hester

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition with sildenafil has been used to treat severe pulmonary hypertension and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, a chronic lung disease in very preterm infants who were mechanically ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome. Methods Sildenafil treatment was investigated in 2 models of experimental BPD: a lethal neonatal model, in which rat pups were continuously exposed to hyperoxia and treated daily with sildenafil (50–150 mg/kg body weight/day; injected subcutaneously and a neonatal lung injury-recovery model in which rat pups were exposed to hyperoxia for 9 days, followed by 9 days of recovery in room air and started sildenafil treatment on day 6 of hyperoxia exposure. Parameters investigated include survival, histopathology, fibrin deposition, alveolar vascular leakage, right ventricular hypertrophy, and differential mRNA expression in lung and heart tissue. Results Prophylactic treatment with an optimal dose of sildenafil (2 × 50 mg/kg/day significantly increased lung cGMP levels, prolonged median survival, reduced fibrin deposition, total protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, inflammation and septum thickness. Treatment with sildenafil partially corrected the differential mRNA expression of amphiregulin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, fibroblast growth factor receptor-4 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in the lung and of brain and c-type natriuretic peptides and the natriuretic peptide receptors NPR-A, -B, and -C in the right ventricle. In the lethal and injury-recovery model we demonstrated improved alveolarization and angiogenesis by attenuating mean linear intercept and arteriolar wall thickness and increasing pulmonary blood vessel density, and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH. Conclusion Sildenafil treatment, started simultaneously with exposure to hyperoxia after birth, prolongs survival, increases pulmonary cGMP levels, reduces the pulmonary

  7. Lung nodules after whole lung radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.D.; Mirkin, D.L.; Provisor, A.; Hornback, N.B.; Smith, J.A.; Slabaugh, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    It is essential to recognize radiation pneumonitis after whole lung irradiation, or nodular changes in response to chemotherapy, so that such conditions are not mistaken for tumor metastases, causing grave error in patient management and the possibility of further lung damage

  8. Lung scintigraphy; Centellograma pulmonar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalenz, Roberto

    1994-12-31

    A review of lung scintigraphy, perfusion scintigraphy with SPECT, lung ventilation SPECT, blood pool SPECT. The procedure of lung perfusion studies, radiopharmaceutical, administration and clinical applications, imaging processing .Results encountered and evaluation criteria after Biello and Pioped. Recommendations and general considerations have been studied about relation of this radiopharmaceutical with other pathologies.

  9. SARS – Lung Pathology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dry nonproductive cough – may show minimal lung infiltration. Recovery; * Lungs get fluid in bronchi- droplets infective and +ve for virus in culture and PCR. May also have co-infection with chlamydia/metapneumoviruses. Recovery; * Lung tissue destroyed due to ? immunological/cytokine mediated damage-Recovery ...

  10. Cigarette weight control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, G.F.W.; Bolt, R.C.; Simmons, A.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described for monitoring the weight of a continuous wrapped rod of tobacco formed by a cigarette-making machine. A scanner unit can be used which passes beta-rays from a primary radiation source through the rod. The absorption is measured by comparison of the intensity at a detector on the opposite side of the rod with that at a detector facing another smaller source, the balance unit. This is pre-set so that when the rod weight is correct the detected intensities from the two sources will be equal. It is essential that the scanning station is kept clean otherwise the dust is included in the weight reading and the cigarettes manufactured would be underweight. This can be checked using an artificial cigarette of known weight as a calibration check. In this device a test circuit can be connected to the scanner head and this opens the shutter over the radioactive source when the test is initiated. A warning device is initiated if the reading is beyond predetermined limits and can be made to prevent operation of the cigarette machine if a satisfactory test is not obtained. (U.K.)

  11. Lung-protective ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futier, Emmanuel; Jaber, Samir

    2014-08-01

    To provide the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of prophylactic lung-protective mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery. Evidence is accumulating, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Nonprotective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (>10-12 ml/kg), very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP, ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by the previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung-protective mechanical ventilation. Recent data provide compelling evidence that prophylactic lung-protective mechanical ventilation using lower tidal volume (6-8 ml/kg of predicted body weight), moderate PEEP (6-8 cm H2O), and recruitment maneuvers is associated with improved functional or physiological and clinical postoperative outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. The use of prophylactic lung-protective ventilation can help in improving the postoperative outcome.

  12. Effect of increases in lung volume on clearance of aerosolized solute from human lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, J.D.; Luce, J.M.; Lazar, N.M.; Wu, J.N.; Lipavsky, A.; Murray, J.F.

    1985-10-01

    To study the effect of increases in lung volume on solute uptake, we measured clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-DTPA) at different lung volumes in 19 healthy humans. Seven subjects inhaled aerosols (1 micron activity median aerodynamic diam) at ambient pressure; clearance and functional residual capacity (FRC) were measured at ambient pressure (control) and at increased lung volume produced by positive pressure (12 cmH2O continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)) or negative pressure (voluntary breathing). Six different subjects inhaled aerosol at ambient pressure; clearance and FRC were measured at ambient pressure and CPAP of 6, 12, and 18 cmH2O pressure. Six additional subjects inhaled aerosol at ambient pressure or at CPAP of 12 cmH2O; clearance and FRC were determined at CPAP of 12 cmH2O. According to the results, Tc-DTPA clearance from human lungs is accelerated exponentially by increases in lung volume, this effect occurs whether lung volume is increased by positive or negative pressure breathing, and the effect is the same whether lung volume is increased during or after aerosol administration. The effect of lung volume must be recognized when interpreting the results of this method.

  13. Effect of increases in lung volume on clearance of aerosolized solute from human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, J.D.; Luce, J.M.; Lazar, N.M.; Wu, J.N.; Lipavsky, A.; Murray, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    To study the effect of increases in lung volume on solute uptake, we measured clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-DTPA) at different lung volumes in 19 healthy humans. Seven subjects inhaled aerosols (1 micron activity median aerodynamic diam) at ambient pressure; clearance and functional residual capacity (FRC) were measured at ambient pressure (control) and at increased lung volume produced by positive pressure [12 cmH 2 O continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)] or negative pressure (voluntary breathing). Six different subjects inhaled aerosol at ambient pressure; clearance and FRC were measured at ambient pressure and CPAP of 6, 12, and 18 cmH 2 O pressure. Six additional subjects inhaled aerosol at ambient pressure or at CPAP of 12 cmH 2 O; clearance and FRC were determined at CPAP of 12 cmH 2 O. According to the results, Tc-DTPA clearance from human lungs is accelerated exponentially by increases in lung volume, this effect occurs whether lung volume is increased by positive or negative pressure breathing, and the effect is the same whether lung volume is increased during or after aerosol administration. The effect of lung volume must be recognized when interpreting the results of this method

  14. Chemoradiotherapy for youngster lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Tingfeng; Jiang Guoliang; Fu Xiaolong; Wang Lijuan; Qian Hao; Zhao Sen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To define the clinico-pathologic characteristics and survival of young-robust patients ( 2 vs 70 mg/m 2 , P<0.001), and more cycles of chemotherapy 6 vs 4, P<0.001) were observed in the youngster group. There was no difference between the two groups in family history of cancer, cigarette smoking, weight loss, and KPS. The median survival intervals of all stages (10 months vs 12 months), and the 2-and 5-year survival rates (11.1% vs 23.1% and 3.1% vs 5.4%) were comparable (P=0.090) between them. For stage IIIb, there was a trend that young patients would give better outcome than the older ones with median survivals of 11 months to 9 months and the 2-year survivals of 3.8% to 0% (P=0.071). Conclusions: The different clinico-pathologic features of the young lung cancer patients are confirmed from that of old patients, but without any survival disparity. In order to enhance our understanding and reduce the mis-diagnosis rate, it is rational to define the lung cancer in relative young people as the youngster lung cancer, which may be beneficial to the clinical practice

  15. 67Ga lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.; Pick, R.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with clinical signs of pulmonary embolic disease and lung infiltrates were studied to determine the value of gallium citrate 67 Ga lung scan in differentiating embolic from inflammatory lung disease. In 11 patients without angiographically proved embolism, only seven had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. In seven of these 11 patients, the 67 Ga concentration indicated inflammatory disease. In the 12 patients with angiographically proved embolic disease, six had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. None had an accumulation of 67 Ga in the area of pulmonary infiltrate. Thus, ventilation-perfusion lung scans are of limited value when lung infiltrates are present. In contrast, the accumulation of 67 Ga in the lung indicates an inflammatory process. Gallium imaging can help select those patients with lung infiltrates who need angiography

  16. Mediation of Weight Loss and Weight Loss Maintenance through Dietary Disinhibition and Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JaKa, Meghan M; Sherwood, Nancy E; Flatt, Shirley W; Pacanowski, Carly R; Pakiz, Bilgé; Thomson, Cynthia A; Rock, Cheryl L

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the degree to which eating behaviors, such as disinhibition and restraint, are associated with weight loss and weight loss maintenance could contribute to further refinement of effective weight management intervention strategies. The purpose of this analysis was to examine if these factors mediate weight loss or weight loss maintenance using data from a randomized controlled trial testing a commercial weight loss program that delivered behavioral counseling and structured meal plans including prepackaged foods. Mediation analyses were used to examine whether changes in disinhibition and restraint mediated the relationship between intervention and weight change during initial weight loss (0-6 months), continued weight loss (6-12 months), or weight loss maintenance (12-24 months) phases. Only decreases in disinhibition between baseline and 6 months mediated the intervention effect on initial weight loss. Our results suggest the mediation effects of these eating behaviors are modest and other factors contribute to a larger, more complex long-term weight loss prognosis.

  17. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back to section menu Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ... section Home Healthy Weight Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ...

  18. Role of Aquaporin-4 in Airspace-to-Capillary Water Permeability in Intact Mouse Lung Measured by a Novel Gravimetric Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuanlin; Ma, Tonghui; Matthay, Michael A.; Verkman, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    The mammalian peripheral lung contains at least three aquaporin (AQP) water channels: AQP1 in microvascular endothelia, AQP4 in airway epithelia, and AQP5 in alveolar epithelia. In this study, we determined the role of AQP4 in airspace-to-capillary water transport by comparing water permeability in wild-type mice and transgenic null mice lacking AQP1, AQP4, or AQP1/AQP4 together. An apparatus was constructed to measure lung weight continuously during pulmonary artery perfusion of isolated mouse lungs. Osmotically induced water flux (Jv) between the airspace and capillary compartments was measured from the kinetics of lung weight change in saline-filled lungs in response to changes in perfusate osmolality. Jv in wild-type mice varied linearly with osmotic gradient size (4.4 × 10−5 cm3 s−1 mOsm−1) and was symmetric, independent of perfusate osmolyte size, weakly temperature dependent, and decreased 11-fold by AQP1 deletion. Transcapillary osmotic water permeability was greatly reduced by AQP1 deletion, as measured by the same method except that the airspace saline was replaced by an inert perfluorocarbon. Hydrostatically induced lung edema was characterized by lung weight changes in response to changes in pulmonary arterial inflow or pulmonary venous outflow pressure. At 5 cm H2O outflow pressure, the filtration coefficient was 4.7 cm3 s−1 mOsm−1 and reduced 1.4-fold by AQP1 deletion. To study the role of AQP4 in lung water transport, AQP1/AQP4 double knockout mice were generated by crossbreeding of AQP1 and AQP4 null mice. Jv were (cm3 s−1 mOsm−1 × 10−5, SEM, n = 7–12 mice): 3.8 ± 0.4 (wild type), 0.35 ± 0.02 (AQP1 null), 3.7 ± 0.4 (AQP4 null), and 0.25 ± 0.01 (AQP1/AQP4 null). The significant reduction in P f in AQP1 vs. AQP1/AQP4 null mice was confirmed by an independent pleural surface fluorescence method showing a 1.6 ± 0.2-fold (SEM, five mice) reduced P f in the AQP1/AQP4 double knockout mice vs. AQP1 null mice. These results establish

  19. Monotonicity-based electrical impedance tomography for lung imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liangdong; Harrach, Bastian; Seo, Jin Keun

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a monotonicity-based spatiotemporal conductivity imaging method for continuous regional lung monitoring using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The EIT data (i.e. the boundary current-voltage data) can be decomposed into pulmonary, cardiac and other parts using their different periodic natures. The time-differential current-voltage operator corresponding to the lung ventilation can be viewed as either semi-positive or semi-negative definite owing to monotonic conductivity changes within the lung regions. We used these monotonicity constraints to improve the quality of lung EIT imaging. We tested the proposed methods in numerical simulations, phantom experiments and human experiments.

  20. WE-G-204-07: Automated Characterization of Perceptual Quality of Clinical Chest Radiographs: Improvements in Lung, Spine, and Hardware Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J; Zhang, L; Samei, E

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate more robust methods for automated lung, spine, and hardware detection in AP/PA chest images. This work is part of a continuing effort to automatically characterize the perceptual image quality of clinical radiographs. [Y. Lin et al. Med. Phys. 39, 7019–7031 (2012)] Methods: Our previous implementation of lung/spine identification was applicable to only one vendor. A more generalized routine was devised based on three primary components: lung boundary detection, fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering, and a clinically-derived lung pixel probability map. Boundary detection was used to constrain the lung segmentations. FCM clustering produced grayscale- and neighborhood-based pixel classification probabilities which are weighted by the clinically-derived probability maps to generate a final lung segmentation. Lung centerlines were set along the left-right lung midpoints. Spine centerlines were estimated as a weighted average of body contour, lateral lung contour, and intensity-based centerline estimates. Centerline estimation was tested on 900 clinical AP/PA chest radiographs which included inpatient/outpatient, upright/bedside, men/women, and adult/pediatric images from multiple imaging systems. Our previous implementation further did not account for the presence of medical hardware (pacemakers, wires, implants, staples, stents, etc.) potentially biasing image quality analysis. A hardware detection algorithm was developed using a gradient-based thresholding method. The training and testing paradigm used a set of 48 images from which 1920 51×51 pixel"2 ROIs with and 1920 ROIs without hardware were manually selected. Results: Acceptable lung centerlines were generated in 98.7% of radiographs while spine centerlines were acceptable in 99.1% of radiographs. Following threshold optimization, the hardware detection software yielded average true positive and true negative rates of 92.7% and 96.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Updated segmentation

  1. Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

  2. [Lung protective ventilation - pathophysiology and diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Stefan; Frerichs, Inéz

    2008-06-01

    Mechanical ventilation may lead to lung injury depending on the ventilatory settings (e.g. pressure amplitudes, endexpiratory pressures, frequency) and the length of mechanical ventilation. Particularly in the inhomogeneously injured lungs of ARDS patients, alveolar overextension results in volutrauma, cyclic opening and closure of alveolar units in atelectrauma. Particularly important appears to be the fact that these processes may also cause biotrauma, i.e. the ventilator-induced hyperactivation of inflammatory responses in the lung. These side effects are reduced, but not eliminated with the currently recommended ventilation strategy with a tidal volume of 6 ml/kg idealized body weight. It is our hope that in the future optimization of ventilator settings will be facilated by bedside monitoring of novel indices of respiratory mechanics such as the stress index or the Slice technique, and by innovative real-time imaging technologies such as electrical impedance tomography.

  3. Unilateral facial pain and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakespeare, T.P.; Stevens, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Facial pain in lung cancer patients may be secondary to metastatic disease to the brain or skull base. Since 1983 there have been 19 published reports of hemi-facial pain as a non-metastatic complication of lung carcinoma. This report describes an additional case in whom unilateral face pain preceded the diagnosis of lung cancer by 9 months. A clinical diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia was made after a normal brain CT scan. Later on the patient complained of global lethargy, weight loss and haemoptysis. A chest X-ray disclosed a 6 cm right hilar mass that was further defined with a whole body CT scan. The neural mechanism of the unilateral facial pain is discussed and the literature reviewed. 14 refs., 1 tab

  4. Unilateral facial pain and lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakespeare, T.P.; Stevens, M.J. [Royal North Shore Hospital, Crows Nest, NSW (Australia)

    1996-02-01

    Facial pain in lung cancer patients may be secondary to metastatic disease to the brain or skull base. Since 1983 there have been 19 published reports of hemi-facial pain as a non-metastatic complication of lung carcinoma. This report describes an additional case in whom unilateral face pain preceded the diagnosis of lung cancer by 9 months. A clinical diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia was made after a normal brain CT scan. Later on the patient complained of global lethargy, weight loss and haemoptysis. A chest X-ray disclosed a 6 cm right hilar mass that was further defined with a whole body CT scan. The neural mechanism of the unilateral facial pain is discussed and the literature reviewed. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Lung cancer in elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagnerova, M.

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Europe and USA. The median age of diagnosis is currently 69 years, however this is gradually increasing with the aging population. Patients over age of 70 represent 40 % of all patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Age alone has not been found to be a significant prognostic factor in many malignancies, including lung cancer with performance status and stage being of greater importance. In lung cancer it is also evident that older patients gain equivalent benefit from cancer therapies as their younger counterparts. Elderly patients are under-treated in all aspects of their disease course from histological diagnosis to active therapy with surgical resection, radiotherapy or chemotherapy, irrespective of performance status or co-morbidities. Elderly patients are also underrepresented in lung cancer clinical trials. In this review is presented knowledge about lung cancer in elderly. (author)

  6. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  7. Postoperative complications do not influence the pattern of early lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer in patients at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercegovac, Maja; Subotic, Dragan; Zugic, Vladimir; Jakovic, Radoslav; Moskovljevic, Dejan; Bascarevic, Slavisa; Mujovic, Natasa

    2014-05-19

    The pattern and factors influencing the lung function recovery in the first postoperative days are still not fully elucidated, especially in patients at increased risk. Prospective study on 60 patients at increased risk, who underwent a lung resection for primary lung cancer. complete resection and one or more known risk factors in form of COPD, cardiovascular disorders, advanced age or other comorbidities. Previous myocardial infarction, myocardial revascularization or stenting, cardiac rhythm disorders, arterial hypertension and myocardiopathy determined the increased cardiac risk. The severity of COPD was graded according to GOLD criteria. The trend of the postoperative lung function recovery was assessed by performing spirometry with a portable spirometer. Cardiac comorbidity existed in 55%, mild and moderate COPD in 20% and 35% of patients respectively. Measured values of FVC% and FEV1% on postoperative days one, three and seven, showed continuous improvement, with significant difference between the days of measurement, especially between days three and seven. There was no difference in the trend of the lung function recovery between patients with and without postoperative complications. Whilst pO2 was decreasing during the first three days in a roughly parallel fashion in patients with respiratory, surgical complications and in patients without complications, a slight hypercapnia registered on the first postoperative day was gradually abolished in all groups except in patients with cardiac complications. Extent of the lung resection and postoperative complications do not significantly influence the trend of the lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer.

  8. Nonrespiratory lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isawa, Toyoharu

    1994-01-01

    The function of the lungs is primarily the function as a gas exchanger: the venous blood returning to the lungs is arterialized with oxygen in the lungs and the arterialized blood is sent back again to the peripheral tissues of the whole body to be utilized for metabolic oxygenation. Besides the gas exchanging function which we call ''respiratory lung function'' the lungs have functions that have little to do with gas exchange itself. We categorically call the latter function of the lungs as ''nonrespiratory lung function''. The lungs consist of the conductive airways, the gas exchanging units like the alveoli, and the interstitial space that surrounds the former two compartments. The interstitial space contains the blood and lymphatic capillaries, collagen and elastic fibers and cement substances. The conductive airways and the gas exchanging units are directly exposed to the atmosphere that contains various toxic and nontoxic gases, fume and biological or nonbiological particles. Because the conductive airways are equipped with defense mechanisms like mucociliary clearance or coughs to get rid of these toxic gases, particles or locally produced biological debris, we are usually free from being succumbed to ill effects of inhaled materials. By use of nuclear medicine techniques, we can now evaluate mucociliary clearance function, and other nonrespiratory lung functions as well in vivo

  9. Cervical lung hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightwood, Robin G.; Cleland, W. P.

    1974-01-01

    Lightwood, R. G., and Cleland, W. P. (1974).Thorax, 29, 349-351. Cervical lung hernia. Lung hernias occur in the cervical position in about one third of cases. The remainder appear through the chest wall. Some lung hernias are congenital, but trauma is the most common cause. The indications for surgery depend upon the severity of symptoms. Repair by direct suture can be used for small tears in Sibson's (costovertebral) fascia while larger defects have been closed using prosthetic materials. Four patients with cervical lung hernia are described together with an account of their operations. PMID:4850946

  10. Nonrespiratory lung function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isawa, Toyoharu [Tohoku University Research Institute for Chest Disease and Cancer, Sendai (Japan)

    1994-07-01

    The function of the lungs is primarily the function as a gas exchanger: the venous blood returning to the lungs is arterialized with oxygen in the lungs and the arterialized blood is sent back again to the peripheral tissues of the whole body to be utilized for metabolic oxygenation. Besides the gas exchanging function which we call ''respiratory lung function'' the lungs have functions that have little to do with gas exchange itself. We categorically call the latter function of the lungs as ''nonrespiratory lung function''. The lungs consist of the conductive airways, the gas exchanging units like the alveoli, and the interstitial space that surrounds the former two compartments. The interstitial space contains the blood and lymphatic capillaries, collagen and elastic fibers and cement substances. The conductive airways and the gas exchanging units are directly exposed to the atmosphere that contains various toxic and nontoxic gases, fume and biological or nonbiological particles. Because the conductive airways are equipped with defense mechanisms like mucociliary clearance or coughs to get rid of these toxic gases, particles or locally produced biological debris, we are usually free from being succumbed to ill effects of inhaled materials. By use of nuclear medicine techniques, we can now evaluate mucociliary clearance function, and other nonrespiratory lung functions as well in vivo.

  11. Parasitic diseases of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenologic semiotics of the main parasitic diseases of lungs is described: echinococcosis, paragonimiasis, cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, amebiosis and some rarely met parasitic diseases

  12. Pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer risks in relation to occupational history and asbestos lung burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilham, Clare; Rake, Christine; Burdett, Garry; Nicholson, Andrew G; Davison, Leslie; Franchini, Angelo; Carpenter, James; Hodgson, John; Darnton, Andrew; Peto, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Background We have conducted a population-based study of pleural mesothelioma patients with occupational histories and measured asbestos lung burdens in occupationally exposed workers and in the general population. The relationship between lung burden and risk, particularly at environmental exposure levels, will enable future mesothelioma rates in people born after 1965 who never installed asbestos to be predicted from their asbestos lung burdens. Methods Following personal interview asbestos fibres longer than 5 µm were counted by transmission electron microscopy in lung samples obtained from 133 patients with mesothelioma and 262 patients with lung cancer. ORs for mesothelioma were converted to lifetime risks. Results Lifetime mesothelioma risk is approximately 0.02% per 1000 amphibole fibres per gram of dry lung tissue over a more than 100-fold range, from 1 to 4 in the most heavily exposed building workers to less than 1 in 500 in most of the population. The asbestos fibres counted were amosite (75%), crocidolite (18%), other amphiboles (5%) and chrysotile (2%). Conclusions The approximate linearity of the dose–response together with lung burden measurements in younger people will provide reasonably reliable predictions of future mesothelioma rates in those born since 1965 whose risks cannot yet be seen in national rates. Burdens in those born more recently will indicate the continuing occupational and environmental hazards under current asbestos control regulations. Our results confirm the major contribution of amosite to UK mesothelioma incidence and the substantial contribution of non-occupational exposure, particularly in women. PMID:26715106

  13. Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) / Microwave Ablation (MWA) of Lung Tumors ... and Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors? What are Radiofrequency and Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors? Radiofrequency ablation, ...

  14. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next three ...

  15. Implementation and organization of lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    CT screening for lung cancer is now being implemented in the US and China on a widespread national scale but not in Europe so far. The review gives a status for the implementation process and the hurdles to overcome in the future. It also describes the guidelines and requirements for the structure...... and components of high quality CT screening programs. These are essential in order to achieve a successful program with the fewest possible harms and a possible mortality benefit like that documented in the American National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). In addition the importance of continued research in CT...

  16. Brain abscess mimicking lung cancer metastases; a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Michiko; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Fuchimoto, Yasuko; Ono, Katsuichiro; Ozaki, Shinji; Kimura, Fumiaki; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2013-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman came to us because of staggering, fever, dysarthria, and appetite loss. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed multiple masses with surrounding edema. Chest X-ray and computed tomography demonstrated a mass-like lesion in the left lung and left pleural effusion. Lung cancer and multiple brain metastases were suspected. However, the brain lesions demonstrated a high intensity through diffusion-weighted MRI. The finding was an important key to differentiate brain abscesses from lung cancer metastases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. History of Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabak, Gül; Şenbaklavacı, Ömer

    2016-04-01

    History of lung transplantation in the world can be traced back to the early years of the 20 th century when experimental vascular anastomotic techniques were developed by Carrel and Guthrie, followed by transplantation of thoracic organs on animal models by Demikhov and finally it was James Hardy who did the first lung transplantation attempt on human. But it was not until the discovery of cyclosporine and development of better surgical techniques that success could be achieved in that field by the Toronto Lung Transplant Group led by Joel Cooper. Up to the present day, over 51.000 lung transplants were performed in the world at different centers. The start of lung transplantation in Turkey has been delayed for various reasons. From 1998 on, there were several attempts but the first successful lung transplant was performed at Sureyyapasa Hospital in 2009. Today there are four lung transplant centers in Turkey; two in Istanbul, one in Ankara and another one in Izmir. Three lung transplant centers from Istanbul which belong to private sector have newly applied for licence from the Ministry of Health.

  18. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  19. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detected on a lung CT scan. If your doctor finds another health problem, you may undergo further testing and, possibly, invasive treatments that wouldn't have been pursued if you hadn't had lung cancer ... need to: Inform your doctor if you have a respiratory tract infection. If ...

  20. Lung cancer in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Rodriguez R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Raúl Barrera-Rodriguez,1 Jorge Morales-Fuentes2 1Biochemistry and Environmental Medicine Laboratory, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, 2Lung Cancer Medical Service, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, Tlalpan, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico Both authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Recent biological advances in tumor research provide clear evidence that lung cancer in females is different from that in males. These differences appear to have a direct impact on the clinical presentation, histology, and outcomes of lung cancer. Women are more likely to present with lung adenocarcinoma, tend to receive a diagnosis at an earlier age, and are more likely to be diagnosed with localized disease. Women may also be more predisposed to molecular aberrations resulting from the carcinogenic effects of tobacco, but do not appear to be more susceptible than men to developing lung cancer. The gender differences found in female lung cancer make it mandatory that gender stratification is used in clinical trials in order to improve the survival rates of patients with lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, adenocarcinoma, women, genetic susceptibility, genetic differences, tobacco

  1. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  2. MRI of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich (ed.) [University Clinic Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2009-07-01

    For a long time, only chest X-ray and CT were used to image lung structure, while nuclear medicine was employed to assess lung function. During the past decade significant developments have been achieved in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), enabling MRI to enter the clinical arena of chest imaging. Standard protocols can now be implemented on up-to-date scanners, allowing MRI to be used as a first-line imaging modality for various lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension and even lung cancer. The diagnostic benefits stem from the ability of MRI to visualize changes in lung structure while simultaneously imaging different aspects of lung function, such as perfusion, respiratory motion, ventilation and gas exchange. On this basis, novel quantitative surrogates for lung function can be obtained. This book provides a comprehensive overview of how to use MRI for imaging of lung disease. Special emphasis is placed on benign diseases requiring regular monitoring, given that it is patients with these diseases who derive the greatest benefit from the avoidance of ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  3. Mindfulness Approaches and Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Weight Regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carolyn; Haubenreiser, Megan; Johnson, Madison; Nordby, Kelly; Aggarwal, Surabhi; Myer, Sarah; Thomas, Cathy

    2018-03-01

    There is an urgent need for effective weight management techniques, as more than one third of US adults are overweight or obese. Recommendations for weight loss include a combination of reducing caloric intake, increasing physical activity, and behavior modification. Behavior modification includes mindful eating or eating with awareness. The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature and examine the impact of mindful eating on weight management. The practice of mindful eating has been applied to the reduction of food cravings, portion control, body mass index, and body weight. Past reviews evaluating the relationship between mindfulness and weight management did not focus on change in mindful eating as the primary outcome or mindful eating as a measured variable. This review demonstrates strong support for inclusion of mindful eating as a component of weight management programs and may provide substantial benefit to the treatment of overweight and obesity.

  4. Molecular weight enlargement : a molecular approach to continuous homogeneous catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.C.C.

    2010-01-01

    Homogeneous catalysts play an increasingly important role in organic synthesis today, because of their high activity and selectivity. Usually, precious metals are used in combination with valuable ligands and since metal prices are expected to increase further in the future, methods for their

  5. The role of the occupational therapist in the care of people living with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kahren M

    2016-06-01

    This paper aims to explore the vital role occupational therapists play in enabling people living with lung cancer to continue to actively live. Core assessments and interventions employed by occupational therapists are described in a case study. It will demonstrate how people living with lung cancer can continue to participate in meaningful and chosen life roles, even in the face of functional decline. Skilled management by the occupational therapist of the refractory symptoms of advanced lung cancer supports this participation.

  6. Preemptive hemodynamic intervention restricting the administration of fluids attenuates lung edema progression in oleic acid-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Cano, A; Gracia Romero, M; Monge García, M I; Guijo González, P; Ruiz Campos, J

    2017-04-01

    A study is made of the influence of preemptive hemodynamic intervention restricting fluid administration upon the development of oleic acid-induced lung injury. A randomized in vivo study in rabbits was carried out. University research laboratory. Sixteen anesthetized, mechanically ventilated rabbits. Hemodynamic measurements obtained by transesophageal Doppler signal. Respiratory mechanics computed by a least square fitting method. Lung edema assessed by the ratio of wet weight to dry weight of the right lung. Histological examination of the left lung. Animals were randomly assigned to either the early protective lung strategy (EPLS) (n=8) or the early protective hemodynamic strategy (EPHS) (n=8). In both groups, lung injury was induced by the intravenous infusion of oleic acid (OA) (0.133mlkg -1 h -1 for 2h). At the same time, the EPLS group received 15mlkg -1 h -1 of Ringer lactate solution, while the EPHS group received 30mlkg -1 h -1 . Measurements were obtained at baseline and 1 and 2h after starting OA infusion. After 2h, the cardiac index decreased in the EPLS group (p<0.05), whereas in the EPHS group it remained unchanged. Lung compliance decreased significantly only in the EPHS group (p<0.05). Lung edema was greater in the EPHS group (p<0.05). Histological damage proved similar in both groups (p=0.4). In this experimental model of early lung injury, lung edema progression was attenuated by preemptively restricting the administration of fluids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  7. A Short Period of Ventilation without Perfusion Seems to Reduce Atelectasis without Harming the Lungs during Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lindstedt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the lung function of donors after circulatory deaths (DCDs, ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP has been shown to be a valuable method. We present modified EVLP where lung atelectasis is removed, while the lung perfusion is temporarily shut down. Twelve pigs were randomized into two groups: modified EVLP and conventional EVLP. When the lungs had reached 37°C in the EVLP circuit, lung perfusion was temporarily shut down in the modified EVLP group, and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP was increased to 10 cm H2O for 10 minutes. In the conventional EVLP group, PEEP was increased to 10 cm H2O for 10 minutes with unchanged lung perfusion. In the modified EVLP group, the arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2 was 18.5 ± 7.0 kPa before and 64.5 ± 6.0 kPa after the maneuver (P<0.001. In the conventional EVLP group, the PaO2 was 16.8 ± 3.1 kPa and 46.8 ± 2.7 kPa after the maneuver (P<0.01; P<0.01. In the modified EVLP group, the pulmonary graft weight was unchanged, while in the conventional EVLP group, the pulmonary graft weight was significantly increased. Modified EVLP with normoventilation of the lungs without ongoing lung perfusion for 10 minutes may eliminate atelectasis almost completely without harming the lungs.

  8. Estimation of Lung Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kai; Cao, Kunlin; Du, Kaifang; Amelon, Ryan; Christensen, Gary E.; Raghavan, Madhavan; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    Since the primary function of the lung is gas exchange, ventilation can be interpreted as an index of lung function in addition to perfusion. Injury and disease processes can alter lung function on a global and/or a local level. MDCT can be used to acquire multiple static breath-hold CT images of the lung taken at different lung volumes, or with proper respiratory control, 4DCT images of the lung reconstructed at different respiratory phases. Image registration can be applied to this data to estimate a deformation field that transforms the lung from one volume configuration to the other. This deformation field can be analyzed to estimate local lung tissue expansion, calculate voxel-by-voxel intensity change, and make biomechanical measurements. The physiologic significance of the registration-based measures of respiratory function can be established by comparing to more conventional measurements, such as nuclear medicine or contrast wash-in/wash-out studies with CT or MR. An important emerging application of these methods is the detection of pulmonary function change in subjects undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer. During RT, treatment is commonly limited to sub-therapeutic doses due to unintended toxicity to normal lung tissue. Measurement of pulmonary function may be useful as a planning tool during RT planning, may be useful for tracking the progression of toxicity to nearby normal tissue during RT, and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment post-therapy. This chapter reviews the basic measures to estimate regional ventilation from image registration of CT images, the comparison of them to the existing golden standard and the application in radiation therapy.

  9. Continuous composite riser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slagsvold, L. [ABB Offshore Systems (Norway)

    2002-12-01

    The industry is now looking at developing reserves in waters depths of up to 3000 m (10000 ft). When moving into deeper waters the un-bonded flexible riser becomes very heavy and introduces large hang-off forces on the vessel. We are therefore investigating riser concepts incorporating new materials and with a simpler cross section that can be used for floating production. Advanced composite materials have properties such as, low weight, high strength, good durability and very good fatigue performance. Composite materials are slowly being exploited in the oil industry; they are being prototype tested for drilling risers and small diameter lines. Part of the process for the industry to accept larger diameter production risers made out of composite materials is to understand both the advantages and limitations. A new continuous composite riser system is being developed which capitalizes on the technical benefits of this material while addressing the known constraints. The fully bonded riser is being developed for ultra deep waters and its' characteristics include high temperature (160 deg C), high pressure (500 barg min), light weight, chemical resistant, good insulation, excellent fatigue characteristics and installation by reeling. The concept is based on the use of a thermoplastic liner together with a thermoplastic carbon fibre composite. This paper summarises the ongoing development, which has a goal to manufacture and qualify an 8'' riser, and includes all the steps in a production process from material qualification to the winding process and analytical modelling. (author)

  10. Ischemia and reperfusion of the lung tissues induced increase of lung permeability and lung edema is attenuated by dimethylthiourea (PP69).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K H; Chao, D; Liu, C F; Chen, C F; Wang, D

    2010-04-01

    This study sought to determine whether oxygen radical scavengers of dimethylthiourea (DMTU), superoxide dismutase (SOD), or catalase (CAT) pretreatment attenuated ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced lung injury. After isolation from a Sprague-Dawley rat, the lungs were perfused through the pulmonary artery cannula with rat whole blood diluted 1:1 with a physiological salt solution. An acute lung injury was induced by 10 minutes of hypoxia with 5% CO2-95% N2 followed by 65 minutes of ischemia and then 65 minutes of reperfusion. I/R significantly increased microvascular permeability as measured by the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), lung weight-to-body weight ratio (LW/BW), and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (PCBAL). DMTU pretreatment significantly attenuated the acute lung injury. The capillary filtration coefficient (P<.01), LW/BW (P<.01) and PCBAL (P<.05) were significantly lower among the DMTU-treated rats than hosts pretreated with SOD or CAT. The possible mechanisms of the protective effect of DMTU in I/R-induced lung injury may relate to the permeability of the agent allowing it to scavenge intracellular hydroxyl radicals. However, whether superoxide dismutase or catalase antioxidants showed protective effects possibly due to their impermeability of the cell membrane not allowing scavenging of intracellular oxygen radicals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prenatal and Perinatal Determinants of Lung Health and Disease in Early Life: A National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Workshop Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuck, Tracy A; Levy, Philip T; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia; Jobe, Alan H; Blaisdell, Carol J

    2016-05-02

    Human lung growth and development begins with preconception exposures and continues through conception and childhood into early adulthood. Numerous environmental exposures (both positive and negative) can affect lung health and disease throughout life. Infant lung health correlates with adult lung function, but significant knowledge gaps exist regarding the influence of preconception, perinatal, and postnatal exposures on general lung health throughout life. On October 1 and 2, 2015, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a group of extramural investigators to develop their recommendations for the direction(s) for future research in prenatal and perinatal determinants of lung health and disease in early life and to identify opportunities for scientific advancement. They identified that future investigations will need not only to examine abnormal lung development, but also to use developing technology and resources to better define normal and/or enhanced lung health. Birth cohort studies offer key opportunities to capture the important influence of preconception and obstetric risk factors on lung health, development, and disease. These studies should include well-characterized obstetrical data and comprehensive plans for prospective follow-up. The importance of continued basic science, translational, and animal studies for providing mechanisms to explain causality using new methods cannot be overemphasized. Multidisciplinary approaches involving obstetricians, neonatologists, pediatric and adult pulmonologists, and basic scientists should be encouraged to design and conduct comprehensive and impactful research on the early stages of normal and abnormal human lung growth that influence adult outcome.

  12. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  13. Should I Gain Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Should I Gain Weight? KidsHealth / For Teens / Should I Gain Weight? ... something about it. Why Do People Want to Gain Weight? Some of the reasons people give for ...

  14. Lung adenocarcinoma mimicking pulmonary fibrosis-a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehić, Bakir; Duranović Rayan, Lina; Bilalović, Nurija; Dohranović Tafro, Danina; Pilav, Ilijaz

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is usually presented with cough, dyspnea, pain and weight loss, which is overlapping with symptoms of other lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis shows characteristic reticular and nodular pattern, while lung cancers are mostly presented with infiltrative mass, thick-walled cavitations or a solitary nodule with spiculated borders. If the diagnosis is established based on clinical symptoms and CT findings, it would be a misapprehension. We report a case of lung adenocarcinoma whose symptoms as well as clinical images overlapped strongly with pulmonary fibrosis. The patient’s non-productive cough, progressive dyspnea, restrictive pattern of pulmonary function test and CT scans (showing reticular interstitial opacities) were all indicative of pulmonary fibrosis. The patient underwent a treatment consisting of corticosteroids and antibiotics, to no avail. Histopathology of the lung showed that the patient suffered from mucinous adenocarcinoma. Albeit the immunohistochemical staining was not consistent with lung adenocarcinoma, tumor’s morphological characteristics were consistent, and were used to make the definitive diagnosis. Given the fact that radiography cannot always make a clear-cut difference between pulmonary fibrosis and lung adenocarcinomas, and that clinical symptoms often overlap, histological examination should be considered as gold standard for diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma

  15. Combination contraceptives: effects on weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Maria F; Lopez, Laureen M; Grimes, David A; Carayon, Florence; Schulz, Kenneth F; Helmerhorst, Frans M

    2014-01-29

    Weight gain is often considered a side effect of combination hormonal contraceptives, and many women and clinicians believe that an association exists. Concern about weight gain can limit the use of this highly effective method of contraception by deterring the initiation of its use and causing early discontinuation among users. However, a causal relationship between combination contraceptives and weight gain has not been established. The aim of the review was to evaluate the potential association between combination contraceptive use and changes in weight. In November 2013, we searched the computerized databases CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, POPLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS for studies of combination contraceptives, as well as ClinicalTrials.gov and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). For the initial review, we also wrote to known investigators and manufacturers to request information about other published or unpublished trials not discovered in our search. All English-language, randomized controlled trials were eligible if they had at least three treatment cycles and compared a combination contraceptive to a placebo or to a combination contraceptive that differed in drug, dosage, regimen, or study length. All titles and abstracts located in the literature searches were assessed. Data were entered and analyzed with RevMan. A second author verified the data entered. For continuous data, we calculated the mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the mean change in weight between baseline and post-treatment measurements using a fixed-effect model. For categorical data, such as the proportion of women who gained or lost more than a specified amount of weight, the Peto odds ratio with 95% CI was calculated. We found 49 trials that met our inclusion criteria. The trials included 85 weight change comparisons for 52 distinct contraceptive pairs (or placebos). The four trials with a placebo or no intervention group did not find

  16. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews and l...... are only ameliorated to a minor degree by a healthy diet.......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...

  17. Radiotherapy dose compensation for lung patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piyaratna, N.; Arnold, A.; Metcalfe, P.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to provide a more homogeneous dose distribution in the target volume from compensated anterior and posterior fields while the healthy lung is spared by de-weighting the lateral fields. A compensation computation which used linear iterations to compute the most homogeneous dose distribution across the target volume was applied to produce optimum compensator designs. The equivalent tissue-air ratio (E-TAR) inhomogeneity correction was applied for the computations using a GE target series 11 planning computer. The compensators designed were tested for accuracy in a modified water/lung phantom using a scanning diode and an anthropomorphic phantom using thermoluminescent dosimeters. A comparison has been made between the compensated and uncompensated plans for the first nine patients who we have treated with this technique. The dose profiles produced by the computation agreed with the prediction of the computed isodose plans to within ± 2% at the target depth. The thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-measured results in the anthropomorphic phantom agreed with the planning computer within ± 3%. A comparison of nine compensated plans of radiotherapy patients for large-volume targets in the lung region showed a maximum variation in the target to be 19% uncompensated versus 10% compensated. By providing compensated treatment fields from anterior and posterior treatment portals, a homogeneous dose that conforms well to the target volume is provided. As an added bonus, this enables the lateral lung fields to be significantly de-weighted and the healthy lung is spared considerable dose. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  18. A nomograph method for assessing body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A E; McKay, D A; Cutlip, M B

    1976-03-01

    The ratio of weight/height emerges from varied epidemiological studies as the most generally useful index of relative body mass in adults. The authors present a nomograph to facilitate use of this relationship in clinical situations. While showing the range of weight given as desirable in life insurance studies, the scale expresses relative weight as a continuous variable. This method encourages use of clinical judgment in interpreting "overweight" and "underweight" and in accounting for muscular and skeletal contributions to measured mass.

  19. American Lung Association's radon public information program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurdy, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    The American Lung Association (ALA), the nation's oldest voluntary health organization, is dedicated to the conquest of lung disease and the promotion of lung health. The objective of the ALA Radon Public Information Program is to reduce public exposure to elevated indoor radon levels through implementing grassroots-based radon public awareness campaigns by 22 local ALA groups. The program, which is funded by a grant from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was initiated in December 1989; the first phase will continue until May, 1991. Activities of local Lung Associations include distribution of free or reduced-cost radon kits; presenting programs in elementary and secondary schools; presenting information on TV news series and talk shows, and on radio Public Service Announcements and talk shows; presenting articles and feature stories in the print media; holding conferences, workshops, and displays at fairs and other exhibitions; distributing radon fact sheets through libraries and utility company mailings; and distributing videos through video chains and libraries. The local Lung Associations also serve as promoters for the EPA/Advertising Council Radon Public Service Announcement Campaign. We will highlight the activities of the groups in communicating radon health risks to the public; we will describe the results obtained and will attempt to evaluate the merits of the various approaches on the basis of the initial results

  20. Drug induced lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia; Eisenhuber, Edith

    2010-01-01

    There is an ever increasing number of drugs that can cause lung disease. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis, since the clinical symptoms are mostly nonspecific. Various HRCT patterns can be correlated - though with overlaps - to lung changes caused by certain groups of drugs. Alternative diagnosis such as infection, edema or underlying lung disease has to be excluded by clinical-radiological means. Herefore is profound knowledge of the correlations of drug effects and imaging findings essential. History of drug exposure, suitable radiological findings and response to treatment (corticosteroids and stop of medication) mostly provide the base for the diagnosis. (orig.)

  1. Disentegrating lung tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamedbekov, Eh.N.; Kyazimova, L.G.; Mamed''yarova, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical and roentgenological appearances of tuberculosis and tumoral lesions of bronchi and lungs are similar. It makes possible of wrong diagnosis of disease. Complications in diagnosis are connected with that fact that increase of frequency of pulmonary carcinoma both in patients with active tuberculosis and in persons with residual posttuberculous changes in respiratory organs is observed. Patients with specific processes in the lungs was presented. Additional X-ray examination was carried out on the base of clinical symptoms and results of X-ray examination. The diagnosis was established: disintegrating blastoma of the right lung with metastases to mediastinum lymph nodes

  2. Insulin and the Lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Suchita; Prakash, Y S; Linneberg, Allan

    2013-01-01

    , molecular understanding is necessary. Insulin resistance is a strong, independent risk factor for asthma development, but it is unknown whether a direct effect of insulin on the lung is involved. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the effect of insulin on cellular components of the lung...... and highlights the molecular consequences of insulin-related metabolic signaling cascades that could adversely affect lung structure and function. Examples include airway smooth muscle proliferation and contractility and regulatory signaling networks that are associated with asthma. These aspects of insulin...

  3. Between strong continuity and almost continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Kohli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As embodied in the title of the paper strong and weak variants of continuity that lie strictly between strong continuity of Levine and almost continuity due to Singal and Singal are considered. Basic properties of almost completely continuous functions (≡ R-maps and δ-continuous functions are studied. Direct and inverse transfer of topological properties under almost completely continuous functions and δ-continuous functions are investigated and their place in the hier- archy of variants of continuity that already exist in the literature is out- lined. The class of almost completely continuous functions lies strictly between the class of completely continuous functions studied by Arya and Gupta (Kyungpook Math. J. 14 (1974, 131-143 and δ-continuous functions defined by Noiri (J. Korean Math. Soc. 16, (1980, 161-166. The class of almost completely continuous functions properly contains each of the classes of (1 completely continuous functions, and (2 al- most perfectly continuous (≡ regular set connected functions defined by Dontchev, Ganster and Reilly (Indian J. Math. 41 (1999, 139-146 and further studied by Singh (Quaestiones Mathematicae 33(2(2010, 1–11 which in turn include all δ-perfectly continuous functions initi- ated by Kohli and Singh (Demonstratio Math. 42(1, (2009, 221-231 and so include all perfectly continuous functions introduced by Noiri (Indian J. Pure Appl. Math. 15(3 (1984, 241-250.

  4. Lung volumes and emphysema in smokers with interstitial lung abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washko, George R; Hunninghake, Gary M; Fernandez, Isis E; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Ross, James C; Estépar, Raúl San José; Lynch, David A; Brehm, John M; Andriole, Katherine P; Diaz, Alejandro A; Khorasani, Ramin; D'Aco, Katherine; Sciurba, Frank C; Silverman, Edwin K; Hatabu, Hiroto; Rosas, Ivan O

    2011-03-10

    Cigarette smoking is associated with emphysema and radiographic interstitial lung abnormalities. The degree to which interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with reduced total lung capacity and the extent of emphysema is not known. We looked for interstitial lung abnormalities in 2416 (96%) of 2508 high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans of the lung obtained from a cohort of smokers. We used linear and logistic regression to evaluate the associations between interstitial lung abnormalities and HRCT measurements of total lung capacity and emphysema. Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 194 (8%) of the 2416 HRCT scans evaluated. In statistical models adjusting for relevant covariates, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with reduced total lung capacity (-0.444 liters; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.596 to -0.292; Ppulmonary disease (COPD) (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.76; P<0.001). The effect of interstitial lung abnormalities on total lung capacity and emphysema was dependent on COPD status (P<0.02 for the interactions). Interstitial lung abnormalities were positively associated with both greater exposure to tobacco smoke and current smoking. In smokers, interstitial lung abnormalities--which were present on about 1 of every 12 HRCT scans--were associated with reduced total lung capacity and a lesser amount of emphysema. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Parker B. Francis Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00608764.).

  5. Lung cancer and inhaled uranium ore dust in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchel, R.E.J.; Jackson, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Using a nose only inhalation system, 187 nine week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to two different concentrations of natural uranium ore dust aerosol (44% U) without significant radon content. Inhalation exposures averaged about 4.2 h/day, 5 days/week for 65 weeks at which point lung uranium burdens in the two groups averaged 0.9 and 1.9 mg/g dry weight. Animals (63) exposed to the air stream without dust served as controls. After inhalation exposure ceased, the rats were allowed to live for their natural lifetime, a maximum of about 900 days after the start of dust inhalation. Lung uranium burdens were measured at the time of death of each animal. Lung burdens were found to decline exponentially after dust inhalation ceased, and the rate of decline was independent of the initial lung burden. All lungs were examined at necropsy and histologically for lung tumors. Lung tumors of lung origin were observed in both exposed groups and in the control group. The frequency of primary malignant lung tumors was 0.016, 0.175 and 0.328 and primary non-malignant lung tumors 0.016, 0.135 and 0.131 in the control low and high aerosol exposed groups respectively. Absorbed dose to the lung was calculated for each animal in the study. The average maximum doses for all the animals exposed to the low or high concentration of dust aerosol were 0.87 Gy and 1.64 Gy respectively. The average risk of malignant lung tumors from inhaled natural uranium ore dust was therefore about 0.20 tumors/animal/Gy. For animals with lung tumors, the average doses were 0.98 and 1.90 in the exposed groups. In both exposed groups, the frequency of primary malignant or non-malignant lung tumors was significantly greater than in the control group (p < 0.02) and the frequency of primary malignant lung tumors in the two exposed group were significantly different from each other (p = 0.05). The frequency of primary lung tumors (malignant and non-malignant) was calculated as a function of dose

  6. Manipulations of core temperatures in ischemia-reperfusion lung injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung; Huang, Kun-Lun; Li, Min-Hui; Hsu, Ching-Wang; Tsai, Shih-Hung; Chu, Shi-Jye

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect of various core temperatures on acute lung injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in our isolated rabbit lung model. Typical acute lung injury was successfully induced by 30 min of ischemia followed by 90 min of reperfusion observation. The I/R elicited a significant increase in pulmonary arterial pressure, microvascular permeability (measured by using the capillary filtration coefficient, Kfc), Delta Kfc ratio, lung weight gain and the protein concentration of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Mild hypothermia significantly attenuated acute lung injury induced by I/R, all parameters having decreased significantly (p<0.05); conversely, mild hyperthermia did not further exacerbate acute lung injury. These experimental data suggest that mild hypothermia significantly ameliorated acute lung injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rabbits.

  7. Mechanisms of Weight Regain following Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomain, Erik Scott; Dirhan, Dara Anne; Valentino, Michael Anthony; Kim, Gilbert Won; Waldman, Scott Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide pandemic and its incidence is on the rise along with associated comorbidities. Currently, there are few effective therapies to combat obesity. The use of lifestyle modification therapy, namely, improvements in diet and exercise, is preferable over bariatric surgery or pharmacotherapy due to surgical risks and issues with drug efficacy and safety. Although they are initially successful in producing weight loss, such lifestyle intervention strategies are generally unsuccessful in achieving long-term weight maintenance, with the vast majority of obese patients regaining their lost weight during followup. Recently, various compensatory mechanisms have been elucidated by which the body may oppose new weight loss, and this compensation may result in weight regain back to the obese baseline. The present review summarizes the available evidence on these compensatory mechanisms, with a focus on weight loss-induced changes in energy expenditure, neuroendocrine pathways, nutrient metabolism, and gut physiology. These findings have added a major focus to the field of antiobesity research. In addition to investigating pathways that induce weight loss, the present work also focuses on pathways that may instead prevent weight regain. Such strategies will be necessary for improving long-term weight loss maintenance and outcomes for patients who struggle with obesity.

  8. MRI investigation of normal fetal lung maturation using signal intensities on different imaging sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Csapo, Bence; Mittermayer, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    To purpose of this paper is to study the relation between normal lung maturation signal and changes in intensity ratios (SIR) and to determine which magnetic resonance imaging sequence provides the strongest correlation of normal lung SIs with gestational age. 126 normal singleton pregnancies (20-37 weeks) were examined with a 1.5 Tesla unit. Mean SIs for lungs, liver, and gastric fluid were assessed on six different sequences, and SIRs of lung/liver (LLSIR) and lung/gastric fluid (LGSIR) were correlated with gestational age for each sequence. To evaluate the feasibility of SIRs in the prediction of the state of the lung maturity, accuracy of the predicted SIRs (D*) was measured by calculating relative residuals (D*-D)/D for each sequence. LLSIRs showed significant changes in every sequence (p<0.05), while LGSIRs only on two sequences. Significant differences were shown for the mean of absolute residuals for both LLSIRs (p<0.001) and for LGSIRs (p=0.003). Relative residuals of LLSIRs were significantly smaller on T1-weighted sequence, whereas they were significantly higher for LGSIRs on FLAIR sequence. Fetal liver seems to be adequate reference for the investigation of lung maturation. T1-weighted sequence was the most accurate for the measurement of the lung SIs; thus, we propose to determine LLSIR on T1-weighted sequence when evaluating lung development. (orig.)

  9. MRI investigation of normal fetal lung maturation using signal intensities on different imaging sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria); Csapo, Bence [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Gyneocology, Vienna (Austria); Mittermayer, Christoph [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Pediatrics, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-03-15

    To purpose of this paper is to study the relation between normal lung maturation signal and changes in intensity ratios (SIR) and to determine which magnetic resonance imaging sequence provides the strongest correlation of normal lung SIs with gestational age. 126 normal singleton pregnancies (20-37 weeks) were examined with a 1.5 Tesla unit. Mean SIs for lungs, liver, and gastric fluid were assessed on six different sequences, and SIRs of lung/liver (LLSIR) and lung/gastric fluid (LGSIR) were correlated with gestational age for each sequence. To evaluate the feasibility of SIRs in the prediction of the state of the lung maturity, accuracy of the predicted SIRs (D*) was measured by calculating relative residuals (D*-D)/D for each sequence. LLSIRs showed significant changes in every sequence (p<0.05), while LGSIRs only on two sequences. Significant differences were shown for the mean of absolute residuals for both LLSIRs (p<0.001) and for LGSIRs (p=0.003). Relative residuals of LLSIRs were significantly smaller on T1-weighted sequence, whereas they were significantly higher for LGSIRs on FLAIR sequence. Fetal liver seems to be adequate reference for the investigation of lung maturation. T1-weighted sequence was the most accurate for the measurement of the lung SIs; thus, we propose to determine LLSIR on T1-weighted sequence when evaluating lung development. (orig.)

  10. Internal-state analysis in layered artificial neural network trained to categorize lung sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, M

    2002-01-01

    In regular use of artificial neural networks, only input and output states of the network are known to the user. Weight and bias values can be extracted but are difficult to interpret. We analyzed internal states of networks trained to map asthmatic lung sound spectra onto lung function parameters.

  11. The tap test- an accurate First-line test for fetal lung maturity testing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the accuracy of near-patient and laboratory- based fetal lung maturity tests in predicting the need for neonatal ventilation. Design. A prospective descriptive study. Subjects. One hundred high-risk obstetric patients where confirmation of fetal lung maturity would initiate delivery. Methods. Fetal weight ...

  12. A comparison of conventional surfactant treatment and partial liquid ventilation on the lung volume of injured ventilated small lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proquitté, Hans; Hartenstein, Sebastian; Wauer, Roland R; Schmalisch, Gerd; Koelsch, Uwe; Rüdiger, Mario

    2013-01-01

    As an alternative to surfactant therapy (ST), partial liquid ventilation (PLV) with perfluorocarbons (PFC) has been considered as a treatment for acute lung injury (ALI) in newborns. The instilled PFC is much heavier than the instilled surfactant and the aim of this study was to investigate whether PLV, compared to ST, increases the end-expiratory volume of the lung (V L ). Fifteen newborn piglets (age <12 h, mean weight 678 g) underwent saline lung lavage to achieve a surfactant depletion. Thereafter animals were randomized to PLV (n = 8), receiving PFC PF5080 (3M, Germany) at 30 mL kg −1 , and ST (n = 7) receiving 120 mg Curosurf®. Blood gases, hemodynamics and static compliance were measured initially (baseline), immediately after ALI, and after 240 min mechanical ventilation with either technique. Subsequently all piglets were killed; the lungs were removed in toto and frozen in liquid N 2 . After freeze-drying the lungs were cut into lung cubes (LCs) with edge lengths of 0.7 cm, to calculate V L . All LCs were weighed and the density of the dried lung tissue was calculated. No statistically significant differences between treatment groups PLV and ST (means ± SD) were noted in body weight (676 ± 16 g versus 679 ± 17 g; P = 0.974) or lung dry weight (1.64 ± 0.29 g versus 1.79 ± 0.48 g; P = 0.48). Oxygenation index and ventilatory efficacy index did not differ significantly between both groups at any time. V L (34.28 ± 6.13 mL versus 26.22 ± 8.1 mL; P < 0.05) and the density of the dried lung tissue (48.07 ± 5.02 mg mL −1 versus 69.07 ± 5.30 mg mL −1 ; P < 0.001), however, differed significantly between the PLV and ST groups. A 4 h PLV treatment of injured ventilated small lungs increased V L by 30% and decreased lung density by 31% compared to ST treatment, indicating greater lung distension after PLV compared to ST. (paper)

  13. Captopril reduces collagen and mast cell accumulation in irradiated rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, W.F.; Molteni, A.; Ts'ao, C.H.; Hinz, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril ameliorates radiation-induced pulmonary endothelial dysfunction in rats. The present study determined whether captopril also reduces collagen (hydroxyproline) accumulation in the lungs of rats sacrificed 2 months after a range of single doses (0-30 Gy) of 60Co gamma rays to the right hemithorax. Captopril was administered in the feed at a regimen of 0, 25, or 50 mg/kg/day continuously after irradiation. Mast cell counts also were obtained from lungs of all animals exposed to 30 Gy. In rats receiving no captopril, there was a radiation dose-dependent increase in right lung hydroxyproline (HP) content and in HP concentration per g wet weight. Captopril produced a drug dose-dependent suppression in this radiation-induced HP accumulation. At a dose of 50 mg/kg/d, captopril reduced the slope of the radiation dose response curve for lung HP content by a factor of 1.7, and completely prevented the increase in HP concentration. At an isoeffect level of 550 micrograms HP per right superior lobe, this dose of captopril exhibited a DRF of 1.7 +/- 0.2. In rats exposed to 30 Gy, moreover, the number of mast cells per mm2 of alveolar cross-sectional surface area decreased from 105 +/- 8 to 100 +/- 7 and 59 +/- 5 in the groups given 0, 25 or 50 mg/kg/d of captopril, respectively, (vs none in sham-irradiated rats). These data are the first to demonstrate that the ACE inhibitor captopril might provide a novel intervention in the pathogenesis of radiation fibrosis

  14. Preanalytics in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Arne; Muley, Thomas; Meister, Michael; Weichert, Wilko

    2015-01-01

    Preanalytic sampling techniques and preparation of tissue specimens strongly influence analytical results in lung tissue diagnostics both on the morphological but also on the molecular level. However, in contrast to analytics where tremendous achievements in the last decade have led to a whole new portfolio of test methods, developments in preanalytics have been minimal. This is specifically unfortunate in lung cancer, where usually only small amounts of tissue are at hand and optimization in all processing steps is mandatory in order to increase the diagnostic yield. In the following, we provide a comprehensive overview on some aspects of preanalytics in lung cancer from the method of sampling over tissue processing to its impact on analytical test results. We specifically discuss the role of preanalytics in novel technologies like next-generation sequencing and in the state-of the-art cytology preparations. In addition, we point out specific problems in preanalytics which hamper further developments in the field of lung tissue diagnostics.

  15. Lung surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - discharge ... milk) for 2 weeks after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and 6 to 8 weeks after open surgery. ...

  16. Lungs in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... must be done in the hospital under general anesthesia. In general, lung biopsy is not required to ... be helpful for some LAM patients who have asthma like symptoms of wheezing and intermittent shortness of ...

  17. Traumatic lung hernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabaza, M. J.; Alcazar, P. P.; Touma, C.

    2001-01-01

    Lung hernia is an uncommon entity that is defined as the protrusion of the lung parenchyma through a defect in the thoracic cavity. It is classified on the basis of its location (cervical, intercostal and diaphragmatic) and etiology (congenital and acquired). Acquired lung hernias can be further grouped as spontaneous, traumatic or pathological, depending on the responsible mechanism. Nearly half of them are secondary to chest trauma, whether penetrating or blunt. We present a case of lung hernia in a patient with penetrating chest trauma. The diagnosis was suspected from the radiographic images and was confirmed by computed tomography. We also review the literature concerning its classification and incidence, diagnostic methods used and treatment. (Author) 9 refs

  18. PEComa of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayabhaskar R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa, also called clear cell ′′sugar′′ tumor of the lung, is a rare benign tumor arising from perivascular epithelioid cells (PECs. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with right lower lobe lesion which turned out to be a clear cell tumor of the lung. An [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG - positron emission tomography (PET scan revealed mild FDG uptake in the lung lesion (SUV< 1 with no active uptake elsewhere in the body. We discuss the clinical, radiologic and immunohistochemical features of clear cell ′′sugar′′ tumor of lung and compare them with published literature.

  19. Arterioscanning of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovskij, B.V.; Rabkin, I.Kh.; Matevosov, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Studied is lung microcirculation by means of introducting radioactive albumin (MAA 131 I introduction through a catheter) in bronchial vessels. Arterioscanning technique and its peculiarities are described in detail. It is established that results of arterioscanning must be estimated taking into account the nature of MAA 131 I distribution and fixation, counting rate and duration of radioactive registration in the range of pathologic neoplasms. It is shown that arterioscanning permits to reveal the 20-80 μm diameter vessels . This method can be one of the most important ones in the early diagnosis of lung cancer. The data on the diagnostic effectiveness of lung bronchial arteriography and arterioscanning in the cases of chronic inflammatory diseases, tuberculosis and some benigh lung tumours and neoplasms are also presented

  20. Lung cancer imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ravenel, James G

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a guide to the diagnosis, staging and overview of the management of lung cancer relevant to practicing radiologists so that they can better understand the decision making issues and provide more useful communication to treating physicians.

  1. Lung Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Trends for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home Lung Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  2. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  3. Effects of repeated cycles of starvation and refeeding on lungs of growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebjami, H; Domino, M

    1992-12-01

    Adult male rats were subjected to four cycles of mild starvation (2 wk) and refeeding (1 wk) and were compared with a fed group. Starvation was induced by giving rats one-third of their measured daily food consumption. During each starvation cycle, rats lost approximately 20% of their body weight. Despite catch-up growth and overall weight gain, starved rats had lower final body weight than fed rats. Lung dry weight and lung volumes were also reduced in the starved group. The mechanical properties of air- and saline-filled lungs did not change significantly with repeated cycles of starvation. Mean linear intercept was similar in the two groups, but alveolar surface area was reduced in the starved rats. Total content of crude connective tissue and concentration per lung dry weight of hydroxyproline and crude connective tissue were reduced in starved rats. We conclude that lung growth is retarded in growing rats subjected to repeated cycles of mild starvation and refeeding, as manifested by smaller lung volume and reduced alveolar surface area. Because alveolar size is unchanged, a reduced number of alveoli is most likely responsible for decreased lung volumes.

  4. Dosimetric lung models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.; Roy, M.

    1986-01-01

    The anatomical and physiological factors that vary with age and influence the deposition of airborne radionuclides in the lung are reviewed. The efficiency with which aerosols deposit in the lung for a given exposure at various ages from birth to adulthood is evaluated. Deposition within the lung is considered in relation to the clearance mechanisms acting in different regions or compartments. The procedure for evaluating dose to sensitive tissues in lung and transfer to other organs that is being considered by the Task Group established by ICRP to review the Lung Model is outlined. Examples of the application of this modelling procedure to evaluate lung dose as a function of age are given, for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings, and for exposure to an insoluble 239 Pu aerosol. The former represents exposure to short-lived radionuclides that deliver relatively high doses to bronchial tissue. In this case, dose rates are marginally higher in children than in adults. Plutonium exposure represents the case where dose is predominantly delivered to respiratory tissue and lymph nodes. In this case, the life-time doses tend to be lower for exposure in childhood. Some of the uncertainties in this modelling procedure are noted

  5. Effects of marijuana smoking on the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkin, Donald P

    2013-06-01

    Regular smoking of marijuana by itself causes visible and microscopic injury to the large airways that is consistently associated with an increased likelihood of symptoms of chronic bronchitis that subside after cessation of use. On the other hand, habitual use of marijuana alone does not appear to lead to significant abnormalities in lung function when assessed either cross-sectionally or longitudinally, except for possible increases in lung volumes and modest increases in airway resistance of unclear clinical significance. Therefore, no clear link to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been established. Although marijuana smoke contains a number of carcinogens and cocarcinogens, findings from a limited number of well-designed epidemiological studies do not suggest an increased risk for the development of either lung or upper airway cancer from light or moderate use, although evidence is mixed concerning possible carcinogenic risks of heavy, long-term use. Although regular marijuana smoking leads to bronchial epithelial ciliary loss and impairs the microbicidal function of alveolar macrophages, evidence is inconclusive regarding possible associated risks for lower respiratory tract infection. Several case reports have implicated marijuana smoking as an etiologic factor in pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum and bullous lung disease, although evidence of a possible causal link from epidemiologic studies is lacking. In summary, the accumulated weight of evidence implies far lower risks for pulmonary complications of even regular heavy use of marijuana compared with the grave pulmonary consequences of tobacco.

  6. Evaluation of Neonatal Lung Volume Growth by Pulmonary Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopper, Melissa A; Walkup, Laura L; Tkach, Jean A; Higano, Nara S; Lim, Foong Yen; Haberman, Beth; Woods, Jason C; Kingma, Paul S

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate postnatal lung volume in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and determine if a compensatory increase in lung volume occurs during the postnatal period. Using a novel pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging method for imaging neonatal lungs, the postnatal lung volumes in infants with CDH were determined and compared with prenatal lung volumes obtained via late gestation magnetic resonance imaging. Infants with left-sided CDH (2 mild, 9 moderate, and 1 severe) were evaluated. The total lung volume increased in all infants, with the contralateral lung increasing faster than the ipsilateral lung (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 3.0 mL/week vs 3.4 ± 2.1 mL/week, P = .005). In contrast to prenatal studies, the volume of lungs of infants with more severe CDH grew faster than the lungs of infants with more mild CDH (Spearman's ρ=-0.086, P = .01). Although the contralateral lung volume grew faster in both mild and moderate groups, the majority of total lung volume growth in moderate CDH came from increased volume of the ipsilateral lung (42% of total lung volume increase in the moderate group vs 32% of total lung volume increase in the mild group, P = .09). Analysis of multiple clinical variables suggests that increased weight gain was associated with increased compensatory ipsilateral lung volume growth (ρ = 0.57, P = .05). These results suggest a potential for postnatal catch-up growth in infants with pulmonary hypoplasia and suggest that weight gain may increase the volume growth of the more severely affected lung. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adenocarcinoma of the lung presenting as retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Saha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal detachment is a rare presentation of lung cancer. A young female presented with blurring of vision in her right eye for the last 10 days without any history of trauma. On indirect ophthalmoscopy, there was a presence of right sided retinal detachment which was treated with oral prednisolone (60 mg/day. After 1 month of continuous treatment, she came back with dry cough left sided chest pain and deterioration of her eye symptoms. Chest X-ray showed left lung mass. Computed tomography guided fine needle aspiration cytology and with immunohistochemistry confirmed adenocarcinoma of the lung. She was treated with 6 cycles of chemotherapy with paclitaxel and gemcitabine.

  8. Weight gain following treatment of hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, J; Daykin, J; Holder, R; Sheppard, M C; Franklyn, J A

    2001-08-01

    Patients frequently express concern that treating hyperthyroidism will lead to excessive weight gain. This study aimed to determine the extent of, and risk factors for, weight gain in an unselected group of hyperthyroid patients. We investigated 162 consecutive hyperthyroid patients followed for at least 6 months. Height, weight, clinical features, biochemistry and management were recorded at each clinic visit. Documented weight gain was 5.42 +/- 0.46 kg (mean +/- SE) and increase in BMI was 8.49 +/- 0.71%, over a mean 24.2 +/- 1.6 months. Pre-existing obesity, Graves' disease causing hyperthyroidism, weight loss before presentation and length of follow-up each independently predicted weight gain. Patients treated with thionamides or radioiodine gained a similar amount of weight (thionamides, n = 87, 5.16 +/- 0.63 kg vs. radioiodine, n = 62, 4.75 +/- 0.57 kg, P = 0.645), but patients who underwent thyroidectomy (n = 13) gained more weight (10.27 +/- 2.56 kg vs. others, P = 0.007). Development of hypothyroidism (even transiently) was associated with weight gain (never hypothyroid, n = 102, 4.57 +/- 0.52 kg, transiently hypothyroid, n = 29, 5.37 +/- 0.85 kg, on T4, n = 31, 8.06 +/- 1.42 kg, P = 0.014). This difference remained after correcting for length of follow-up. In the whole cohort, weight increased by 3.95 +/- 0.40 kg at 1 year (n = 144) to 9.91 +/- 1.62 kg after 4 years (n = 27) (P = 0.008), representing a mean weight gain of 3.66 +/- 0.44 kg/year. We have demonstrated marked weight gain after treatment of hyperthyroidism. Pre-existing obesity, a diagnosis of Graves' disease and prior weight loss independently predicted weight gain and weight continued to rise with time. Patients who became hypothyroid, despite T4 replacement, gained most weight.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of native lung hyperinflation after single lung transplantation for emphysema using three-dimensional computed tomography volumetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, H; Chen, F; Ohsumi, A; Hijiya, K; Takahashi, M; Ohata, K; Yamada, T; Sato, M; Aoyama, A; Bando, T; Date, H

    2014-04-01

    Although double lung transplantation is performed more frequently for emphysema, single lung transplantation (SLT) continues to be performed owing to limited donor organ availability. Native lung hyperinflation (NLH) is a unique complication following SLT for emphysema. Three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) volumetry has been introduced into the field of lung transplantation, which we used to assess NLH in emphysema patients undergoing SLT. The primary purpose of this study was to confirm the effectiveness of 3D-CT volumetry in the evaluation of NLH following SLT for emphysema. In 5 emphysema patients undergoing SLT at Kyoto University Hospital, 3D-CT volumetry data, pulmonary function test results, and clinical and radiological findings were retrospectively evaluated. Three patients did not develop a significant mediastinal shift, whereas the other 2 patients developed a mediastinal shift. In the 3 patients without a mediastinal shift, 3D-CT volumetry did not show a significant increase in native lung volume. These patients had a history of sternotomy prior to lung transplantation and firm adhesion on the mediastinal side was detected during lung transplantation. One of 2 patients with a mediastinal shift developed severe dyspnea with significantly decreased pulmonary function, and 3D-CT volumetry showed a significant increase in the native lung volume. However, the other patient did not show any dyspnea and his native lung volume decreased postoperatively (preoperatively to 6 months postoperatively: +981 mL and -348 mL, respectively). Although bilateral lung transplantation has become preferable for emphysema patients owing to postoperative NLH with SLT, patients with a history of sternotomy prior to lung transplantation might be good candidates for SLT. 3D-CT volumetry may be a useful method for detection of NLH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Número e peso de perfilhos no pasto de capim-braquiária sob lotação contínua - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.10438 Number and weight of tillers in signalgrass pasture under continuous stocking - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.10438

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Mesquita Gomes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar a relação entre o número e o peso de categorias de perfilhos em pasto de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk sob lotação contínua com bovinos. O pasto foi manejado com altura média de aproximadamente 25 cm. Foram avaliadas quatro alturas de plantas no mesmo pasto (10, 20, 30 e 40 cm, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com duas repetições. Os números de perfilhos vegetativos, vivos e totais reduziram linearmente com a altura da planta. O número de perfilho reprodutivo aumentou de forma linear com a altura da planta (de 8 para 84 perfilhos m-2 quando se comparam plantas de 10 a 40 cm. Os pesos dos perfilhos vegetativos e reprodutivos incrementaram linearmente com a altura da planta. O peso do perfilho vegetativo (0,316 g, em média foi menor do que o peso do perfilho reprodutivo (0,401 g, em média. A relação entre o número e o peso do perfilho vegetativo foi linear e negativa, enquanto que essa relação, para o perfilho reprodutivo, foi linear e positiva. Em locais com plantas altas há menor número de perfilhos vegetativos, bem como maior número de perfilhos reprodutivos e mortos. Nos locais mais altos do pasto de B. decumbens os perfilhos são mais pesados.The experiment was conducted to study the relationship between the number and weight of tiller categories in Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pasture managed under continuous stocking with cattle. The pasture was managed with an average height of about 25 cm. Plants of four different heights (10, 20, 30 and 40 cm were evaluated by means of the randomized block design with two replications. The number of vegetative tillers, both live and total, reduced linearly according to the plant height. The number of reproductive tillers increased linearly according to pasture plant height (from 8 to 84 tillers m-2 when comparing plants 10 to 40 cm high. Vegetative and reproductive tiller weight increased linearly according to pasture plant height. Vegetative tiller

  11. Should providers encourage realistic weight expectations and satisfaction with lost weight in commercial weight loss programs? a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Gretchen E; Thomas, Colleen S; Patel, Roshni H; McMullen, Jillian S; Lutes, Lesley D

    2014-01-01

    Attrition is a problem among patients who participate in commercial weight loss programs. One possible explanation is that if patients are unable to reach a weight that they expect to achieve, they may be more likely to drop out of treatment. This study investigated variables associated with attrition among 30 obese patients who completed a liquid meal replacement program (LMR) and enrolled in a 52-week Small Changes Maintenance intervention (SCM). Patients lost a median 18% of body weight during LMR and completed assessments about weight expectations and weight satisfaction pre- and post-SCM. Of the 30 patients who started SCM, 8 (27%) were lost to attrition. Odds of SCM attrition were higher in patients who lost ≤ 18.2% of pre-LMR weight (OR: 12.25, P = 0.035), had lower satisfaction (≤7) pre-SCM (OR: 10.11, P = 0.040), and who expected further weight loss of 9.1 kg or more pre-SCM (OR: 10.11, P = 0.040). SCM completers significantly increased weight loss expectations by a median of 2.3 kg from pre-SCM to post-SCM (WSR P = 0.049) that paralleled weight regained post-SCM (2.7 kg). After completion of a medically-supervised commercial weight loss program, patients with the greatest expectations for further weight loss and the lowest weight satisfaction were more likely to drop out of SCM. Failure to participate in maintenance treatment may lead to regain of greater than half of lost weight over the next year. Among SCM completers, lower expectations for further weight loss and greater weight satisfaction appeared to be associated with continued engagement in maintenance treatment.

  12. The aging lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowery EM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Erin M Lowery,1 Aleah L Brubaker,2 Erica Kuhlmann,1 Elizabeth J Kovacs31Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine at Loyola University Medical Center, 2Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USAAbstract: There are many age-associated changes in the respiratory and pulmonary immune system. These changes include decreases in the volume of the thoracic cavity, reduced lung volumes, and alterations in the muscles that aid respiration. Muscle function on a cellular level in the aging population is less efficient. The elderly population has less pulmonary reserve, and cough strength is decreased in the elderly population due to anatomic changes and muscle atrophy. Clearance of particles from the lung through the mucociliary elevator is decreased and associated with ciliary dysfunction. Many complex changes in immunity with aging contribute to increased susceptibility to infections including a less robust immune response from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Considering all of these age-related changes to the lungs, pulmonary disease has significant consequences for the aging population. Chronic lower respiratory tract disease is the third leading cause of death in people aged 65 years and older. With a large and growing aging population, it is critical to understand how the body changes with age and how this impacts the entire respiratory system. Understanding the aging process in the lung is necessary in order to provide optimal care to our aging population. This review focuses on the nonpathologic aging process in the lung, including structural changes, changes in muscle function, and pulmonary immunologic function, with special consideration of obstructive lung disease in the elderly.Keywords: aging, lung, pulmonary immunology, COPD

  13. A hybrid approach for fusing 4D-MRI temporal information with 3D-CT for the study of lung and lung tumor motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y X; Teo, S-K; Van Reeth, E; Tan, C H; Tham, I W K; Poh, C L

    2015-08-01

    Accurate visualization of lung motion is important in many clinical applications, such as radiotherapy of lung cancer. Advancement in imaging modalities [e.g., computed tomography (CT) and MRI] has allowed dynamic imaging of lung and lung tumor motion. However, each imaging modality has its advantages and disadvantages. The study presented in this paper aims at generating synthetic 4D-CT dataset for lung cancer patients by combining both continuous three-dimensional (3D) motion captured by 4D-MRI and the high spatial resolution captured by CT using the authors' proposed approach. A novel hybrid approach based on deformable image registration (DIR) and finite element method simulation was developed to fuse a static 3D-CT volume (acquired under breath-hold) and the 3D motion information extracted from 4D-MRI dataset, creating a synthetic 4D-CT dataset. The study focuses on imaging of lung and lung tumor. Comparing the synthetic 4D-CT dataset with the acquired 4D-CT dataset of six lung cancer patients based on 420 landmarks, accurate results (average error lung details, and is able to show movement of lung and lung tumor over multiple breathing cycles.

  14. A hybrid approach for fusing 4D-MRI temporal information with 3D-CT for the study of lung and lung tumor motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y. X.; Van Reeth, E.; Poh, C. L., E-mail: clpoh@ntu.edu.sg [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637459 (Singapore); Teo, S.-K. [Institute of High Performance Computing, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Tan, C. H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore 308433 (Singapore); Tham, I. W. K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, National University Cancer Institute, Singapore 119082 (Singapore)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Accurate visualization of lung motion is important in many clinical applications, such as radiotherapy of lung cancer. Advancement in imaging modalities [e.g., computed tomography (CT) and MRI] has allowed dynamic imaging of lung and lung tumor motion. However, each imaging modality has its advantages and disadvantages. The study presented in this paper aims at generating synthetic 4D-CT dataset for lung cancer patients by combining both continuous three-dimensional (3D) motion captured by 4D-MRI and the high spatial resolution captured by CT using the authors’ proposed approach. Methods: A novel hybrid approach based on deformable image registration (DIR) and finite element method simulation was developed to fuse a static 3D-CT volume (acquired under breath-hold) and the 3D motion information extracted from 4D-MRI dataset, creating a synthetic 4D-CT dataset. Results: The study focuses on imaging of lung and lung tumor. Comparing the synthetic 4D-CT dataset with the acquired 4D-CT dataset of six lung cancer patients based on 420 landmarks, accurate results (average error <2 mm) were achieved using the authors’ proposed approach. Their hybrid approach achieved a 40% error reduction (based on landmarks assessment) over using only DIR techniques. Conclusions: The synthetic 4D-CT dataset generated has high spatial resolution, has excellent lung details, and is able to show movement of lung and lung tumor over multiple breathing cycles.

  15. Migration Of Ancylostoma caninum Larvae Into Lungs Of Mice Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two randomly selected groups of Swiss Albino Wistar mice were therefore infected with 1000 infective larvae of Ancylostoma caninum/mouse. Test mice received 250mg Allium sativum/kg body weight daily ... KEY WORDS: Allium sativum, lungs, Ancylostoma caninum. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol.11(2) ...

  16. [Detection of serum proteins in the patients of lung adenocarcinoma by the method of magnetic bead based sample fractionation and MALDI-TOF-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Liu, Lun-Xu; Yuan, Quan; Li, Xiao-Liang; Huang, Na; Yang, Xiao-Dong

    2010-05-01

    To screen the serum proteins related to human lung adenocarcinoma using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) technology. The blood samples were collected from 10 patients of lung adenocarcinoma before and one week after the surgery, while 10 healthy subjects were used as control. The differential protein expression between the two groups and the change of those proteins after surgery were studied by ClinProt magnetic bead enrichment and MALDI-TOF-MS. Six protein peaks were identified, 2 of them were highly expressed protein biomarkers with relative molecular weights of 2661, 2991, and increased after the surgery, 4 of them were lowly expressed protein biomarkers with relative molecular weights of 4091, 4210, 4644, 5336, which continuously decreased after the surgery. ClinProt magnetic bead enrichment and MALDI-TOF-MS is a quick, easy and sensitive method of proteomics. The differential expressed proteins may be the latent tumor marker of lung adenocarcinoma. The alteration of those proteins after surgery might be helpful to assess the therapeutic effect and prognosis.

  17. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  18. Recent lung imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taplin, G.V.; Chopra, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclide lung imaging procedures have been available for 11 years but only the perfusion examination has been used extensively and mainly for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (P.E.). Its ability to reveal localized ischemia makes it a valuable test of regional lung function as well as a useful diagnostic aid in P.E. Although it had been recognized for several years that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can cause lung perfusion defects which may simulate pulmonary embolism, relatively little use has been made of either the radioxenon or the radioaerosol inhalation lung imaging procedures until the last few years as a means of distinguishing P.E. from COPD. In this review emphasis is placed on our recent experience with both of these inhalation procedures in comparison with pulmonary function tests and roentgenography for the early detection of COPD in population studies. Equal emphasis is given to simultaneous aerosol ventilation-perfusion (V/P) imaging for a functional diagnosis of P.E. Two new developments in regional lung diffusion imaging, performed after the inhalation of radioactive gases and/or rapidly absorbed radioaerosols are described. The experimental basis for their potential clinical application in pulmonary embolism detection is presented

  19. Lung cancer screening: Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyea Young

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers

  20. Lung Mass in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washko, George R; Kinney, Gregory L; Ross, James C; San José Estépar, Raúl; Han, MeiLan K; Dransfield, Mark T; Kim, Victor; Hatabu, Hiroto; Come, Carolyn E; Bowler, Russell P; Silverman, Edwin K; Crapo, James; Lynch, David A; Hokanson, John; Diaz, Alejandro A

    2017-04-01

    Emphysema is characterized by airspace dilation, inflammation, and irregular deposition of elastin and collagen in the interstitium. Computed tomographic studies have reported that lung mass (LM) may be increased in smokers, a finding attributed to inflammatory and parenchymal remodeling processes observed on histopathology. We sought to examine the epidemiologic and clinical associations of LM in smokers. Baseline epidemiologic, clinical, and computed tomography (CT) data (n = 8156) from smokers enrolled into the COPDGene Study were analyzed. LM was calculated from the CT scan. Changes in lung function at 5 years' follow-up were available from 1623 subjects. Regression analysis was performed to assess for associations of LM with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) and FEV 1 decline. Subjects with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 1 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had greater LM than either smokers with normal lung function or those with GOLD 2-4 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P smokers: the presence of such nonlinearity must be accounted for in longitudinal computed tomographic studies. Baseline LM predicts the decline in lung function. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Regional Lung Function Profiles of Stage I and III Lung Cancer Patients: An Evaluation for Functional Avoidance Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Schubert, Leah; Diot, Quentin; Waxweiller, Timothy; Koo, Phillip; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Rusthoven, Chad; Gaspar, Laurie; Kavanagh, Brian; Miften, Moyed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The development of clinical trials is underway to use 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation imaging to preferentially spare functional lung in patients undergoing radiation therapy. The purpose of this work was to generate data to aide with clinical trial design by retrospectively characterizing dosimetric and functional profiles for patients with different stages of lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 118 lung cancer patients (36% stage I and 64% stage III) from 2 institutions were used for the study. A 4DCT-ventilation map was calculated using the patient's 4DCT imaging, deformable image registration, and a density-change–based algorithm. To assess each patient's spatial ventilation profile both quantitative and qualitative metrics were developed, including an observer-based defect observation and metrics based on the ventilation in each lung third. For each patient we used the clinical doses to calculate functionally weighted mean lung doses and metrics that assessed the interplay between the spatial location of the dose and high-functioning lung. Results: Both qualitative and quantitative metrics revealed a significant difference in functional profiles between the 2 stage groups (P<.01). We determined that 65% of stage III and 28% of stage I patients had ventilation defects. Average functionally weighted mean lung dose was 19.6 Gy and 5.4 Gy for stage III and I patients, respectively, with both groups containing patients with large spatial overlap between dose and high-function regions. Conclusion: Our 118-patient retrospective study found that 65% of stage III patients have regionally variant ventilation profiles that are suitable for functional avoidance. Our results suggest that regardless of disease stage, it is possible to have unique spatial interplay between dose and high-functional lung, highlighting the importance of evaluating the function of each patient and developing a personalized functional avoidance

  2. Regional Lung Function Profiles of Stage I and III Lung Cancer Patients: An Evaluation for Functional Avoidance Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy, E-mail: yevgeniy.vinogradskiy@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Schubert, Leah; Diot, Quentin; Waxweiller, Timothy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Koo, Phillip [Department of Radiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Castillo, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas (United States); Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Rusthoven, Chad; Gaspar, Laurie; Kavanagh, Brian; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: The development of clinical trials is underway to use 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation imaging to preferentially spare functional lung in patients undergoing radiation therapy. The purpose of this work was to generate data to aide with clinical trial design by retrospectively characterizing dosimetric and functional profiles for patients with different stages of lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 118 lung cancer patients (36% stage I and 64% stage III) from 2 institutions were used for the study. A 4DCT-ventilation map was calculated using the patient's 4DCT imaging, deformable image registration, and a density-change–based algorithm. To assess each patient's spatial ventilation profile both quantitative and qualitative metrics were developed, including an observer-based defect observation and metrics based on the ventilation in each lung third. For each patient we used the clinical doses to calculate functionally weighted mean lung doses and metrics that assessed the interplay between the spatial location of the dose and high-functioning lung. Results: Both qualitative and quantitative metrics revealed a significant difference in functional profiles between the 2 stage groups (P<.01). We determined that 65% of stage III and 28% of stage I patients had ventilation defects. Average functionally weighted mean lung dose was 19.6 Gy and 5.4 Gy for stage III and I patients, respectively, with both groups containing patients with large spatial overlap between dose and high-function regions. Conclusion: Our 118-patient retrospective study found that 65% of stage III patients have regionally variant ventilation profiles that are suitable for functional avoidance. Our results suggest that regardless of disease stage, it is possible to have unique spatial interplay between dose and high-functional lung, highlighting the importance of evaluating the function of each patient and developing a personalized functional

  3. Weighted network modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Illes; Abel, Daniel; Palla, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    The inclusion of link weights into the analysis of network properties allows a deeper insight into the (often overlapping) modular structure of real-world webs. We introduce a clustering algorithm clique percolation method with weights (CPMw) for weighted networks based on the concept of percolating k-cliques with high enough intensity. The algorithm allows overlaps between the modules. First, we give detailed analytical and numerical results about the critical point of weighted k-clique percolation on (weighted) Erdos-Renyi graphs. Then, for a scientist collaboration web and a stock correlation graph we compute three-link weight correlations and with the CPMw the weighted modules. After reshuffling link weights in both networks and computing the same quantities for the randomized control graphs as well, we show that groups of three or more strong links prefer to cluster together in both original graphs

  4. Preventing Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Preventing Weight Gain Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... cancer. Choosing an Eating Plan to Prevent Weight Gain So, how do you choose a healthful eating ...

  5. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Research shows that smoking marijuana may help cancer cells grow. But there is no direct link between ...

  6. General Information about Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  7. Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  8. Weight management in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Olander, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Key learning points:\\ud - Women who start pregnancy in an overweight or obese weight category have increased health risks\\ud - Irrespective of pre-pregnancy weight category, there are health risks associated with gaining too much weight in pregnancy for both mother and baby\\ud - There are currently no official weight gain guidelines for pregnancy in the UK, thus focus needs to be on supporting pregnant women to eat healthily and keep active

  9. On weighted spaces without a fundamental sequence of bounded sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaleru, J.O.

    2001-09-01

    The problem of countably quasibarrelledness of weighted spaces of continuous functions, of which there are no results in the general setting of weighted spaces, is tackled in this paper. This leads to the study of quasibarrelledness of weighted spaces which, unlike that of Ernst and Schnettler, though with a similar approach, we drop the assumption that the weighted space has a fundamental sequence of bounded sets. The study of countably quasibarrelledness of weighted spaces naturally leads to definite results on the weighted (DF)-spaces for those weighted spaces with a fundamental sequence of bounded sets. (author)

  10. Advances in lung ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco Neto, Miguel Jose; Rahal Junior, Antonio; Vieira, Fabio Augusto Cardillo; Silva, Paulo Savoia Dias da; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound examination of the chest has advanced in recent decades. This imaging modality is currently used to diagnose several pathological conditions and provides qualitative and quantitative information. Acoustic barriers represented by the aerated lungs and the bony framework of the chest generate well-described sonographic artifacts that can be used as diagnostic aids. The normal pleural line and A, B, C, E and Z lines (also known as false B lines) are artifacts with specific characteristics. Lung consolidation and pneumothorax sonographic patterns are also well established. Some scanning protocols have been used in patient management. The Blue, FALLS and C.A.U.S.E. protocols are examples of algorithms using artifact combinations to achieve accurate diagnoses. Combined chest ultrasonography and radiography are often sufficient to diagnose and manage lung and chest wall conditions. Chest ultrasonography is a highly valuable diagnostic tool for radiologists, emergency and intensive care physicians. (author)

  11. Mitochondria in Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravamudan, Bharathi; Thompson, Michael A.; Pabelick, Christina M.; Prakash, Y. S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mitochondria are autonomous cellular organelles that oversee a variety of functions such as metabolism, energy production, calcium buffering, and cell fate determination. Regulation of their morphology and diverse activities beyond energy production are being recognized as playing major roles in cellular health and dysfunction. This review is aimed at summarizing what is known regarding mitochondrial contributions to pathogenesis of lung diseases. Emphasis is given to understanding the importance of structural and functional aspects of mitochondria in both normal cellular function (based on knowledge from other cell types) and in development and modulation of lung diseases such as asthma, COPD, cystic fibrosis and cancer. Emerging techniques that allow examination of mitochondria, and potential strategies to target mitochondria in the treatment of lung diseases are also discussed. PMID:23978003

  12. Gradient Weight in Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kevin Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

  13. Gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Peaceman, Alan M

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal care providers are advised to evaluate maternal weight at each regularly scheduled prenatal visit, monitor progress toward meeting weight gain goals, and provide individualized counseling if significant deviations from a woman's goals occur. Today, nearly 50% of women exceed their weight gain goals with overweight and obese women having the highest prevalence of excessive weight gain. Risks of inadequate weight gain include low birthweight and failure to initiate breast-feeding whereas the risks of excessive weight gain include cesarean deliveries and postpartum weight retention for the mother and large-for-gestational-age infants, macrosomia, and childhood overweight or obesity for the offspring. Prenatal care providers have many resources and tools to incorporate weight and other health behavior counseling into routine prenatal practices. Because many women are motivated to improve health behaviors, pregnancy is often considered the optimal time to intervene for issues related to eating habits and physical activity to prevent excessive weight gain. Gestational weight gain is a potentially modifiable risk factor for a number of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials report that diet or exercise interventions during pregnancy can help reduce excessive weight gain. However, health behavior interventions for gestational weight gain have not significantly improved other maternal and neonatal outcomes and have limited effectiveness in overweight and obese women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  15. [Management of Lung Abscess].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, A; Hillejan, L; Ukena, D

    2015-10-01

    A lung abscess is an infectious pulmonary disease characterised by the presence of a pus-filled cavity within the lung parenchyma. The content of an abscess often drains into the airways spontaneously, leading to an air-fluid level visible on chest X-rays and CT scans. Primary lung abscesses occur in patients who are prone to aspiration or in otherwise healthy individuals; secondary lung abscesses typically develop in association with a stenosing lung neoplasm or a systemic disease that compromises immune defences, such as AIDS, or after organ transplantation. The organisms found in abscesses caused by aspiration pneumonia reflect the resident flora of the oropharynx. The most commonly isolated organisms are anaerobic bacteria (Prevotella, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Peptostreptococcus) or streptococci; in alcoholics with poor oral hygiene, the spectrum of pathogens includes Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Actinomyces. Chest radiography and computed tomography (CT) are mandatory procedures in the diagnostic algorithm. Standard treatment for a lung abscess consists of systemic antibiotic therapy, which is based on the anticipated or proven bacterial spectrum of the abscess. In most cases, primary abscesses are successfully treated by calculated empiric antibiotic therapy, with an estimated lethality rate of less than 10 %. Secondary abscesses, despite targeted antimicrobial therapy, are associated with a poor prognosis, which depends on the patient's general condition and underlying disease; lethality is as high as 75 %. Negative prognostic factors are old age, severe comorbidities, immunosuppression, bronchial obstruction, and neoplasms. Surgical intervention due to failure of conservative treatment is required in only 10 % of patients, with a success rate of up to 90 % and postoperative mortality rates ranging between 0 and 33 %. Treatment success after endoscopic or percutaneous drainage is achieved in 73 to 100 % of cases, with an

  16. Lung cancer symptoms and pulse oximetry in the prognostic assessment of patients with lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada Cecilia M

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical oncologists continue to use performance status as a proxy for quality of life (QOL measures, as completion of QOL instruments is perceived as time consuming, may measure aspects of QOL not affected by cancer therapy, and interpretation may be unclear. The pulse oximeter is widely used in clinical practice to predict cardiopulmonary morbidity after lung resection in cancer patients, but little is known on its role outside the surgical setting. We evaluated whether the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale and pulse oximetry may contribute to the evaluation of lung cancer patients who received standard anticancer therapy. Methods We enrolled forty-one consecutive, newly diagnosed, patients with locally advanced or metastatic lung cancer in this study. We developed a survival model with the variables gender, age, histology, clinical stage, Karnofsky performance status, wasting, LCSS symptom scores, average symptom burden index, and pulse oximetry (SpO2. Results Patient and observer-rated scores were correlated, except for the fatigue subscale. The median SpO2 was 95% (range: 86 to 98, was unrelated to symptom scores, and was weakly correlated with observer cough scores. In a multivariate survival model, SpO2 > 90% and patient scores on the LCSS appetite and fatigue subscales were independent predictors of survival. Conclusion LCSS fatigue and appetite rating, and pulse oximetry should be studied further as prognostic factors in lung cancer patients.

  17. Lung Cancer Precision Medicine Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with lung cancer are benefiting from the boom in targeted and immune-based therapies. With a series of precision medicine trials, NCI is keeping pace with the rapidly changing treatment landscape for lung cancer.

  18. Lung commitment in Tuberous Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo B, Jorge A; Araque G, Julio Mario; Camargo P, Carlos B

    1992-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis is a rare hereditary anomaly characterized by hamartomas in many parts of the body. Lung involvement is found in only one of 100 cases. In this case report we present a patient with lung involvement in tuberous sclerosis

  19. Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C O P Y PATIENT EDUCATION | INFORMATION SERIES Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs Marijuana, also known as ... a safe way to smoke marijuana. How can smoking marijuana damage my lungs? Tobacco smoke of any ...

  20. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in women. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Anything that increases your chance ... been studied to see if they decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer. The following screening ...

  1. Can Lung Nodules Be Cancerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung nodules be cancerous? Answers from Eric J. Olson, M.D. Yes, lung nodules can be cancerous, ... to determine if it's cancerous. With Eric J. Olson, M.D. AskMayoExpert. Pulmonary nodules. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo ...

  2. Lung radiopharmaceuticals; Radioformacos pulmonares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, B M [Instituto Nacional de Pediatroa (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    Indication or main clinical use of Lung radiopharmaceuticals is presented and clasification of radiopharmaceuticals as ventilation and perfusion studies. Perfusion radiopharmaceuticals, main controls for administration quality acceptance. Clearence after blood administration and main clinical applications. Ventilation radiopharmaceuticals, gases and aerosols, characteristics of a ideal radioaerosol, techniques of good inhalation procedure, clinical applications. Comparison of several radiopharmaceuticals reflering to retention time as 50% administered dose, percent administered dose at 6 hours post inhalation, blood activity at 30 and 60 minutes post inhalation, initial lung absorbed dose, cumulated activity.Kinetic description of two radiopharmaceuticals, 99mTcDTPA and 99mTc-PYP.

  3. Staging of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Patricia M; Carter, Brett W; Betancourt Cuellar, Sonia L; Erasmus, Jeremy J

    2015-06-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Thorough clinical staging of patients with lung cancer is important, because therapeutic options and management are to a considerable degree dependent on stage at presentation. Radiologic imaging is an essential component of clinical staging, including chest radiography in some cases, computed tomography, MRI, and PET. Multiplanar imaging modalities allow assessment of features that are important for surgical, oncologic, and radiation therapy planning, including size of the primary tumor, location and relationship to normal anatomic structures in the thorax, and existence of nodal and/or metastatic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Spot Weight Adaptation for Moving Target in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Paul; Wu, Xiaodong; Blin, Guillaume; Vialette, Stéphane; Flynn, Ryan; Hyer, Daniel; Wang, Dongxu

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a real-time spot weight adaptation method in spot-scanning proton therapy for moving target or moving patient, so that the resultant dose distribution closely matches the planned dose distribution. The method proposed in this study adapts the weight (MU) of the delivering pencil beam to that of the target spot; it will actually hit during patient/target motion. The target spot that a certain delivering pencil beam may hit relies on patient monitoring and/or motion modeling using four-dimensional (4D) CT. After the adapted delivery, the required total weight [Monitor Unit (MU)] for this target spot is then subtracted from the planned value. With continuous patient motion and continuous spot scanning, the planned doses to all target spots will eventually be all fulfilled. In a proof-of-principle test, a lung case was presented with realistic temporal and motion parameters; the resultant dose distribution using spot weight adaptation was compared to that without using this method. The impact of the real-time patient/target position tracking or prediction was also investigated. For moderate motion (i.e., mean amplitude 0.5 cm), D95% to the planning target volume (PTV) was only 81.5% of the prescription (RX) dose; with spot weight adaptation PTV D95% achieves 97.7% RX. For large motion amplitude (i.e., 1.5 cm), without spot weight adaptation PTV D95% is only 42.9% of RX; with spot weight adaptation, PTV D95% achieves 97.7% RX. Larger errors in patient/target position tracking or prediction led to worse final target coverage; an error of 3 mm or smaller in patient/target position tracking is preferred. The proposed spot weight adaptation method was able to deliver the planned dose distribution and maintain target coverage when patient motion was involved. The successful implementation of this method would rely on accurate monitoring or prediction of patient/target motion.

  5. Spot Weight Adaptation for Moving Target in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eMorel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study describes a real-time spot weight adaptation method in spot-scanning proton therapy for moving target or moving patient, so that the resultant dose distribution closely matches the planned dose distribution. Materials and Methods: The method proposed in this study adapts the weight (MU of the delivering pencil beam to that of the target spot it will actually hit during patient/target motion. The target spot a certain delivering pencil beam may hit relies on patient monitoring and/or motion modeling using four-dimensional (4D CT. After the adapted delivery, the required total weight (MU for this target spot is then subtracted from the planned value. With continuous patient motion and continuous spot scanning, the planned doses to all target spots will eventually be all fulfilled. In a proof-of-principle test, a lung case was presented with realistic temporal and motion parameters; the resultant dose distribution using spot weight adaptation was compared to that without using this method. The impact of the real-time patient/target position tracking or prediction was also investigated.Results: For moderate motion (i.e., mean amplitude 0.5 cm, D95% to the planning target volume (PTV was only 81.5% of the prescription (RX dose; with spot weight adaptation PTV D95% achieves 97.7%RX. For large motion amplitude (i.e., 1.5 cm, without spot weight adaptation PTV D95% is only 42.9% of RX; with spot weight adaptation, PTV D95% achieves 97.7%RX. Larger errors in patient/target position tracking or prediction led to worse final target coverage; an error of 3mm or smaller in patient/target position tracking is preferred. Conclusion: The proposed spot weight adaptation method was able to deliver the planned dose distribution and maintain target coverage when patient motion was involved. The successful implementation of this method would rely on accurate monitoring or prediction of patient/target motion.

  6. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate administered during ex-vivo lung perfusion promotes rehabilitation of injured donor rat lungs obtained after prolonged warm ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Francioli

    Full Text Available Damaged lung grafts obtained after circulatory death (DCD lungs and warm ischemia may be at high risk of reperfusion injury after transplantation. Such lungs could be pharmacologically reconditioned using ex-vivo lung perfusion (EVLP. Since acute inflammation related to the activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB is instrumental in lung reperfusion injury, we hypothesized that DCD lungs might be treated during EVLP by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an inhibitor of NF-κB. Rat lungs exposed to 1h warm ischemia and 2 h cold ischemia were subjected to EVLP during 4h, in absence (CTRL group, N = 6 or in presence of PDTC (2.5g/L, PDTC group, N = 6. Static pulmonary compliance (SPC, peak airway pressure (PAWP, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR, and oxygenation capacity were determined during EVLP. After EVLP, we measured the weight gain of the heart-lung block (edema, and the concentration of LDH (cell damage, proteins (permeability edema and of the cytokines IL-6, TNF-α and CINC-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, and we evaluated NF-κB activation by the degree of phosphorylation and degradation of its inhibitor IκBα in lung tissue. In CTRL, we found significant NF-κB activation, lung edema, and a massive release of LDH, proteins and cytokines. SPC significantly decreased, PAWP and PVR increased, while oxygenation tended to decrease. Treatment with PDTC during EVLP inhibited NF-κB activation, did not influence LDH release, but markedly reduced lung edema and protein concentration in BAL, suppressed TNFα and IL-6 release, and abrogated the changes in SPC, PAWP and PVR, with unchanged oxygenation. In conclusion, suppression of innate immune activation during EVLP using the NF-κB inhibitor PDTC promotes significant improvement of damaged rat DCD lungs. Future studies will determine if such rehabilitated lungs are suitable for in vivo transplantation.

  7. LungMAP: The Molecular Atlas of Lung Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardini-Poleske, Maryanne E; Clark, Robert F; Ansong, Charles; Carson, James P; Corley, Richard A; Deutsch, Gail H; Hagood, James S; Kaminski, Naftali; Mariani, Thomas J; Potter, Steven S; Pryhuber, Gloria S; Warburton, David; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Palmer, Scott M; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2017-11-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute is funding an effort to create a molecular atlas of the developing lung (LungMAP) to serve as a research resource and public education tool. The lung is a complex organ with lengthy development time driven by interactive gene networks and dynamic cross talk among multiple cell types to control and coordinate lineage specification, cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, morphogenesis, and injury repair. A better understanding of the processes that regulate lung development, particularly alveologenesis, will have a significant impact on survival rates for premature infants born with incomplete lung development and will facilitate lung injury repair and regeneration in adults. A consortium of four research centers, a data coordinating center, and a human tissue repository provides high-quality molecular data of developing human and mouse lungs. LungMAP includes mouse and human data for cross correlation of developmental processes across species. LungMAP is generating foundational data and analysis, creating a web portal for presentation of results and public sharing of data sets, establishing a repository of young human lung tissues obtained through organ donor organizations, and developing a comprehensive lung ontology that incorporates the latest findings of the consortium. The LungMAP website (www.lungmap.net) currently contains more than 6,000 high-resolution lung images and transcriptomic, proteomic, and lipidomic human and mouse data and provides scientific information to stimulate interest in research careers for young audiences. This paper presents a brief description of research conducted by the consortium, database, and portal development and upcoming features that will enhance the LungMAP experience for a community of users. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Lung volume reduction surgery in bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaplaouras, J; Heckmann, M; Reiss, I; Schaible, T; Waag, K L; Gortner, L

    2003-06-01

    We report on a female preterm infant of 29 wk gestational age, who developed acquired lobar emphysema after prolonged artificial ventilation secondary to respiratory disease syndrome and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The infant underwent atypical segmentectomy at the age of 12 mo because of life-threatening hypoxaemia with pulmonary hypertension and failure of conservative treatment. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) dramatically improved the respiratory function and resulted in adequate weight gain and psychomotor development. In selected cases LVRS can be an option for lobar emphysema in premature infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

  9. Radiodiagnosis of lung picture changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenetskij, M.S.; Lezova, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    The roentgenological picture of changes of the lung picture in the case of different pathological states in the lungs and the heart, is described. A developed diagnostic algorithm for the syndrome of lung picture change and the rules of its application are given. 5 refs.; 9 figs

  10. Thyroid weight with age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raulier-Fabry, C.; Hammer, R.

    1965-01-01

    A large number of data on thyroid weight of euthyroid subjects have been collected from the literature in this study. The most probable average weight of the gland appears to be 20 g in the adult and 2 g in the newborn. A decrease in weight has been observed during the first year of life (1 g at 6 months) and only in the second year of life the initial birth weight is reached again. The weight curve may be considered as consisting of three straight lines: from 2 to 7, from 7 to 18 and from 18 to 25 years, their slopes being respectively 0.6, 0.9 and 0.5 g/year. The variations in weight of the thyroid during adulthood are sufficiently small to consider it as having constant value between 25 and 55 years. The available information points to a negligible weight difference between sexes. (authors) [fr

  11. Can mechanical ventilation strategies reduce chronic lung disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donn, Steven M; Sinha, Sunil K

    2003-12-01

    Chronic lung disease (CLD) continues to be a significant complication in newborn infants undergoing mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure. Although the aetiology of CLD is multifactorial, specific factors related to mechanical ventilation, including barotrauma, volutrauma and atelectrauma, have been implicated as important aetiologic mechanisms. This article discusses the ways in which these factors might be manipulated by various mechanical ventilatory strategies to reduce ventilator-induced lung injury. These include continuous positive airway pressure, permissive hypercapnia, patient-triggered ventilation, volume-targeted ventilation, proportional assist ventilation, high-frequency ventilation and real-time monitoring.

  12. Completely continuous and weakly completely continuous abstract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An algebra A is called right completely continuous (right weakly completely continuous) ... Moreover, some applications of these results in group algebras are .... A linear subspace S(G) of L1(G) is said to be a Segal algebra, if it satisfies the.

  13. Yogurt and weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen

    2014-05-01

    A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed.

  14. Recurrence of lymphangioleiomyomatosis: Nine years after a bilateral lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Khawaja S; Aryan, Zahra; Mehta, Atul C; Akindipe, Olufemi; Budev, Marie

    2016-03-24

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, slowly progressive lethal lung disease primary afflicting young women. LAM is characterized by proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells that target the lungs, causing cystic destruction and eventual respiratory failure leading to death. Recent ten year mortality due to end stage LAM has been reported to be approximately 10%-20%, but may vary. The decline in lung function in LAM is gradual, occurring at a rate of about 3% to 15% per year but can vary from patient to patient. But recently therapy with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors such as sirolimus has shown promising results in the stabilization of lung function and reduction of chylous effusions in LAM. Lung transplantation is a viable option for patients who continue to have decline in lung function despite mTOR therapy. Unique issues that may occur post-transplant in a recipient with LAM include development of chylous effusion and a risk of recurrence. We describe a case of LAM recurrence in a bilateral lung transplant recipient who developed histological findings of LAM nine years after transplantation.

  15. Assessment of lung development in isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia using signal intensity ratios on fetal MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Herold, Christian; Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Csapo, Bence

    2010-01-01

    To investigate developmental changes in the apparently unaffected contralateral lung by using signal intensity ratios (SIR) and lung volumes (LV), and to search for correlation with clinical outcome. Twenty-five fetuses (22-37 weeks' gestation) were examined. Lung/liver signal intensity ratios (LLSIR) were assessed on T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences for both lungs, then together with LV compared with age-matched controls of 91 fetuses by using the U test. Differences in LLSIRs and lung volumes were correlated with neonatal outcomes. LLSIRs in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) were significantly higher in both lungs on T1-weighted images and significantly lower on T2-weighted images, compared with normals (p < 0.05), increasing on T2-weighted imaging and decreasing on T1-weighted imaging during gestation. Total LV were significantly smaller in the CDH group than in controls (p < 0.05). No significant differences in LLSIR of the two lungs were found. Outcomes correlated significantly with total LV, but not with LLSIR. Changes in LLSIR seem to reflect developmental impairment in CDH; however, they provide no additional information in predicting outcome. LV remains the best indicator on fetal MR imaging of neonatal survival in isolated, left-sided CDH. (orig.)

  16. Assessment of lung development in isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia using signal intensity ratios on fetal MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Herold, Christian; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Centre of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria); Csapo, Bence [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Gyneocology, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-04-15

    To investigate developmental changes in the apparently unaffected contralateral lung by using signal intensity ratios (SIR) and lung volumes (LV), and to search for correlation with clinical outcome. Twenty-five fetuses (22-37 weeks' gestation) were examined. Lung/liver signal intensity ratios (LLSIR) were assessed on T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences for both lungs, then together with LV compared with age-matched controls of 91 fetuses by using the U test. Differences in LLSIRs and lung volumes were correlated with neonatal outcomes. LLSIRs in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) were significantly higher in both lungs on T1-weighted images and significantly lower on T2-weighted images, compared with normals (p < 0.05), increasing on T2-weighted imaging and decreasing on T1-weighted imaging during gestation. Total LV were significantly smaller in the CDH group than in controls (p < 0.05). No significant differences in LLSIR of the two lungs were found. Outcomes correlated significantly with total LV, but not with LLSIR. Changes in LLSIR seem to reflect developmental impairment in CDH; however, they provide no additional information in predicting outcome. LV remains the best indicator on fetal MR imaging of neonatal survival in isolated, left-sided CDH. (orig.)

  17. A New Serum Biomarker for Lung Cancer - Transthyretin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyun LIU

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and very few specific biomarkers could be used in clinical diagnosis at present. The aim of this study is to find novel potential serum biomarkers for lung cancer using Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI technique. Methods Serumsample of 227 cases including 146 lung cancer, 13 pneumonia, 28 tuberculous pleurisy and 40 normal individuals were analyzed by CM10 chips. The candidate biomarkers were identified by ESI/MS-MS and database searching, and further confirmed by immunoprecipitation. The same sets of serum sample from all groups were re-measured by ELISA assay. Results Three protein peaks with the molecular weight 13.78 kDa, 13.90 kDa and 14.07 kDa were found significantlydecreased in lung cancer serum compared to the other groups and were all automatically selected as specific biomarkers by Biomarker Wizard software. The candidate biomarkers obtained from 1-D SDS gel bands by matching the molecular weight with peaks on CM10 chips were identified by Mass spectrometry as the native transthyretin (nativeTTR, cysTTR and glutTTR, and the identity was further validated by immunoprecipitation using commercial TTR antibodies. Downregulated of TTR was found in both ELISA and SELDI analysis. Conclusion TTRs acted as the potentially useful biomarkers for lung cancer by SELDI technique.

  18. Indirect measurement of lung density and air volume from electrical impedance tomography (EIT) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebuya, Satoru; Mills, Gary H; Milnes, Peter; Brown, Brian H

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes a method for estimating lung density, air volume and changes in fluid content from a non-invasive measurement of the electrical resistivity of the lungs. Resistivity in Ω m was found by fitting measured electrical impedance tomography (EIT) data to a finite difference model of the thorax. Lung density was determined by comparing the resistivity of the lungs, measured at a relatively high frequency, with values predicted from a published model of lung structure. Lung air volume can then be calculated if total lung weight is also known. Temporal changes in lung fluid content will produce proportional changes in lung density. The method was implemented on EIT data, collected using eight electrodes placed in a single plane around the thorax, from 46 adult male subjects and 36 adult female subjects. Mean lung densities (±SD) of 246 ± 67 and 239 ± 64 kg m(-3), respectively, were obtained. In seven adult male subjects estimates of 1.68 ± 0.30, 3.42 ± 0.49 and 4.40 ± 0.53 l in residual volume, functional residual capacity and vital capacity, respectively, were obtained. Sources of error are discussed. It is concluded that absolute differences in lung density of about 30% and changes over time of less than 30% should be detected using the current technology in normal subjects. These changes would result from approximately 300 ml increase in lung fluid. The method proposed could be used for non-invasive monitoring of total lung air and fluid content in normal subjects but needs to be assessed in patients with lung disease.

  19. Pediatric acute lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahlem, P.; van Aalderen, W. M. C.; Bos, A. P.

    2007-01-01

    Among ventilated children, the incidence of acute lung injury (ALI) was 9%; of that latter group 80% developed the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The population-based prevalence of pediatric ARDS was 5.5 cases/100.000 inhabitants. Underlying diseases in children were septic shock (34%),

  20. Tuberculosis mimicking lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hammen

    2015-01-01

    Our case report presents two patients, who were referred to the Thorax diagnostic centre at the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Odense University Hospital, with presumptive diagnosis of neoplasm and had proved lung TB with no evidence of malignancy instead. In the first case diagnosis was confirmed after thoracotomy, in the second case after bronchoscopy.

  1. Chemoprevention of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Eva; Mao, Jenny T.; Lam, Stephen; Reid, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor. Former smokers are at a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer compared with lifetime never smokers. Chemoprevention refers to the use of specific agents to reverse, suppress, or prevent the process of carcinogenesis. This article reviews the major agents that have been studied for chemoprevention. Methods: Articles of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention trials were reviewed and summarized to obtain recommendations. Results: None of the phase 3 trials with the agents β-carotene, retinol, 13-cis-retinoic acid, α-tocopherol, N-acetylcysteine, acetylsalicylic acid, or selenium has demonstrated beneficial and reproducible results. To facilitate the evaluation of promising agents and to lessen the need for a large sample size, extensive time commitment, and expense, surrogate end point biomarker trials are being conducted to assist in identifying the most promising agents for later-stage chemoprevention trials. With the understanding of important cellular signaling pathways and the expansion of potentially important targets, agents (many of which target inflammation and the arachidonic acid pathway) are being developed and tested which may prevent or reverse lung carcinogenesis. Conclusions: By integrating biologic knowledge, additional early-phase trials can be performed in a reasonable time frame. The future of lung cancer chemoprevention should entail the evaluation of single agents or combinations that target various pathways while working toward identification and validation of intermediate end points. PMID:23649449

  2. Decline and infiltrated lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Arboleda Casas, Felipe; Duarte, Monica; Triana Harker, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the decline and infiltrated lung in a patient of 45 years, with diagnosis of arthritis rheumatoid from the 43 years, asymptomatic, without treatment, married, of the 15 to the 35 years of 3 to 10 cigarettes daily, she refers of 7 months of evolution episodes of moderate dyspnoea with exercises and dry cough with occasional mucous expectoration between others

  3. Lung Cancer Survivorship

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-20

    A lung cancer survivor shares her story about diagnosis, treatment, and community support. She also gives advice for other cancer survivors.  Created: 10/20/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/20/2016.

  4. What Are the Lungs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the muscles that enable breathing. The Respiratory System Figure A shows the location of the respiratory ... buildup in the lung tissues. These sensors are thought to trigger rapid, shallow breathing. Sensors in your ... is a complex process. If injury, disease, or other factors affect any ...

  5. Diffuse infiltrative lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1984-01-01

    The authors discuss their approach to the diagnosis and management of patients with DILD. Gallium scans play a central role in this process. Not only do they help them decide whom to biopsy, but also where to biopsy. The scans can be used for the early detection of disease in a high-risk population, for following the progression and regression of disease, for the regulation of medication, and for the evaluation of therapy. Bronchoalveolar lung lavage appears to be equally sensitive. However, patients are less willing to undergo repeated fiberoptic bronchoscopies than lung scans. Both tests may prove useful, one complementing the other. Gallium imaging has also been utilized by the authors in select patients with questionable diffuse lung infiltrates roentgenographically or with a normal chest roentgenogram, chronic respiratory symptoms, and abnormal pulmonary function studies. An abnormal gallium lung scan in these clinical situations helps them select which patients have a diffuse active pulmonary process meriting transbronchial biopsies. This has proven to be of particular value in the management of older patients

  6. Continuous distending pressure effects on variables contributing to oxygenation in healthy and ARDS model pigs during HFOV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviola, Marianna; Hajny, Ondrej; Roubik, Karel

    2014-10-01

    High frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is an alternative mode of mechanical ventilation. HFOV has been shown to provide adequate ventilation and oxygenation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients and may represent an effective lung-protective ventilation in patients where conventional ventilation is failing. The aim of this study is to evaluate effects of continuous distending pressure (CDP) on variables that contribute to the oxygenation in healthy and ARDS lung model pigs. Methods. In order to simulate a lung disease, lung injury was induced by lavage with normal saline with detergent in three pigs. HFOV ventilation was applied before and after the lung lavage. CDP was stepwise increased by 2 cmH2O, until the maximum CDP (before the lung lavage 32 cmH2O and after the lung lavage 42 cmH2O) and then it was stepwise decreased by 2 cmH2O to the initial value. In this paper we analyzed the following parameters acquired during our experiments: partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2), cardiac output (CO) and mixed venous blood oxygen saturation (SvO2). In order to find how both PaO2 and CO affected SvO2 during the increase of CDP before and after lavage, a nonlinear regression fitting of the response in SvO2 on the predictors (PaO2 and CO) was implemented. Results. Before the lavage, with increasing of CDP, PaO2 remained constant, CO strongly decreased and SvO2 slightly decreased. After the lavage, with increasing of CDP, PaO2 strongly increased, CO decreased and SvO2 increased. So, development of SvO2 followed the PaO2 and CO trends. Changes in PaO2 and CO occur at decisive CDP step and it was much higher after the lung lavage compared to the healthy lungs. The implemented nonlinear model gives a good goodness of fitting in all three pigs. The values of PaO2 and CO estimated coefficients changed at the same decisive step of CDP identified by the trends. Also the algorithm identified a CDP step much higher after the lung lavage

  7. Earl occurring and continuing effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter develops health-risk models for early and continuing effects of exposure to beta or gamma radiation that could be associated with light water nuclear power plant accidents. The main purpose of the chapter is to provide details on each health-risk model and on the data used. Early and continuing effects considered are prodromal symptoms and nonneoplastic diseases that usually occur soon after a brief radiation exposure. These effects are generally associated with relatively high (greater than 1 Gy) absorbed organ doses. For most of the effects considered, there is an absorbed organ dose threshold below which no effects are seen. Some information is provided on health effects observed in victims of the Chernobyl power plant accident. Organs of primary interest, because of their high sensitivity or their potential for receiving large doses, are bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid glands, lungs, skin, gonads, and eyes. Exposure of the fetus is also considered. Additional data and modeling techniques available since publication of the Reactor Safety Study were used to obtain models for morbidity and mortality

  8. Early occurring and continuing effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with health-risk estimates for early and continuing effects of exposure to ionizing radiations that could be associated with light water nuclear power plants accidents. Early and continuing effects considered are nonneoplastic diseases and symptoms that normally occur soon after radiation exposure, but may also occur after years have passed. They are generally associated with relatively high (greater than 1 Gy) doses. For most of the effects considered, there is a practical dose threshold. Organs of primary interest, because of their high sensitivity or the likelihood of receiving a large radiation dose, are bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid glands, lungs, skin, gonads, and eyes. In utero exposure of the fetus is also considered. New data and modeling techniques available since publication of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH 1400, 1975) were used along with data cited in the Study to develop improved health-risk models for morbidity and mortality. The new models are applicable to a broader range of accident scenarios, provide a more detailed treatment of dose protraction effects, and include morbidity effects not considered in the Reactor Safety Study. 115 references, 20 figures, 19 tables

  9. Lung Function before and Two Days after Open-Heart Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Urell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced lung volumes and atelectasis are common after open-heart surgery, and pronounced restrictive lung volume impairment has been found. The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing lung volumes on the second postoperative day. Open-heart surgery patients (n=107, 68 yrs, 80% male performed spirometry both before surgery and on the second postoperative day. The factors influencing postoperative lung volumes and decrease in lung volumes were investigated with univariate and multivariate analyses. Associations between pain (measured by numeric rating scale and decrease in postoperative lung volumes were calculated with Spearman rank correlation test. Lung volumes decreased by 50% and were less than 40% of the predictive values postoperatively. Patients with BMI >25 had lower postoperative inspiratory capacity (IC (33±14% pred. than normal-weight patients (39±15% pred., (P=0.04. More pain during mobilisation was associated with higher decreases in postoperative lung volumes (VC: r=0.33, P=0.001; FEV1: r=0.35, P≤0.0001; IC: r=0.25, P=0.01. Patients with high BMI are a risk group for decreased postoperative lung volumes and should therefore receive extra attention during postoperative care. As pain is related to a larger decrease in postoperative lung volumes, optimal pain relief for the patients should be identified.

  10. Lung Function before and Two Days after Open-Heart Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urell, Charlotte; Westerdahl, Elisabeth; Hedenström, Hans; Janson, Christer; Emtner, Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Reduced lung volumes and atelectasis are common after open-heart surgery, and pronounced restrictive lung volume impairment has been found. The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing lung volumes on the second postoperative day. Open-heart surgery patients (n = 107, 68 yrs, 80% male) performed spirometry both before surgery and on the second postoperative day. The factors influencing postoperative lung volumes and decrease in lung volumes were investigated with univariate and multivariate analyses. Associations between pain (measured by numeric rating scale) and decrease in postoperative lung volumes were calculated with Spearman rank correlation test. Lung volumes decreased by 50% and were less than 40% of the predictive values postoperatively. Patients with BMI >25 had lower postoperative inspiratory capacity (IC) (33 ± 14% pred.) than normal-weight patients (39 ± 15% pred.), (P = 0.04). More pain during mobilisation was associated with higher decreases in postoperative lung volumes (VC: r = 0.33, P = 0.001; FEV(1): r = 0.35, P ≤ 0.0001; IC: r = 0.25, P = 0.01). Patients with high BMI are a risk group for decreased postoperative lung volumes and should therefore receive extra attention during postoperative care. As pain is related to a larger decrease in postoperative lung volumes, optimal pain relief for the patients should be identified.

  11. Studies on diagnosis of lung emphysema by CT image using experimental models and clinical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatani, Seiki

    1998-01-01

    Since the detailed report between the degree of functional disorder in lung emphysema and the analysis of CT image is quite unknown, the present study was attempted to produce the experimental model of lung emphysema with various stages by the administration of papain to the focal lobe in canine lung. Using this model or clinical lung emphysema, the relationship between the degree of destruction of alveolar walls, clinical pulmonary functions and CT images was investigated. CT scan was performed at the level of 50% vital capacity in both experimental models and clinical subjects by using spirometric gating CT. CT density histogram was obtained from CT image which was produced by using the developed software for this purpose. Densitometric parameters, such as mean CT value, %LAA, the peak in the histogram and 5% tile were selected from CT image. Papain solution of 5 mg/kg body weight was cumulatively administered to the left lower lobe in canine lung, resulting in the destruction of lung alveolar walls in parallel to the increasing dosage of papain. There was a significant correlation between not only the increasing dosage of papain, but also %FEV 1.0 and CT densitometric parameters, indicating that the histological changes of alveolar walls and the lung function in lung emphysema could be estimated by analysis of CT image. These experimental and clinical studies suggest that the analysis of CT image can reflect the pathophysiological changes in the lung and be useful for precise clinical diagnosis of lung emphysema. (author)

  12. The mechanical memory of lung myofibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Jenna L; Chaudhry, Sidharth; Sarrazy, Vincent; Koehler, Anne; Hinz, Boris

    2012-04-01

    Fibroblasts differentiate into the highly synthetic and contractile myofibroblast phenotype when exposed to substrates with an elastic modulus corresponding to pathologically stiff fibrotic tissue. Cellular responses to changes in substrate stiffness are typically analyzed after hours or days, which does not enable the monitoring of myofibroblast persistence, a hallmark of fibrosis. To determine long-lasting effects on the fibrotic behavior of lung fibroblasts, we followed a novel approach of explanting and repeatedly passaging fibroblasts on silicone substrates with stiffness representing various states of lung health. Fibrotic activity was determined by assaying for myofibroblast proliferation, cell contractility, expression of α-smooth muscle actin, extracellular matrix and active TGFβ1. As predicted, myofibroblast activity was low on healthy soft substrates and increased with increasing substrate stiffness. However, explanting and mechanically priming lung fibroblasts for 3 weeks on pathologically stiff substrates resulted in sustained myofibroblast activity even after the cells were returned to healthy soft cultures for 2 weeks. Such primed cells retained higher fibrotic activity than cells that had been exclusively cultured on soft substrates, and were not statistically different from cells continuously passaged on stiff surfaces. Inversely, priming lung fibroblasts for 3 weeks on soft substrates partially protected from myofibroblast activation after the shift to stiff substrates. Hence, mechano-sensed information relating to physical conditions of the local cellular environment could permanently induce fibrotic behavior of lung fibroblasts. This priming effect has important implications for the progression and persistence of aggressive fibrotic diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  13. Effects of plutonium redistribution on lung counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.

    1976-01-01

    Early counts of Pu deposition in lungs will tend to overestimate lung contents since calibrations are performed with a uniform distribution and since a more favorable geometry exists in contaminated subjects because the activity is closer to the periphery of the lungs. Although the concentration into the outer regions of the lungs continues as evidenced by the autopsy studies, the counts performed by L X-rays will probably underestimate the lung content; because, simplistically, the geometry several years after exposure consists of a spherical shell with a point of activity in the center. This point of activity represents concentration in the lymph nodes from which the 60 keV gamma of 241 Am will be counted, but from which few of the L X-rays will be counted (this is an example of interorgan distribution). When a correction is made to the L X-ray intensity, the lymph node contribution will tend to increase the amount subtracted while correcting for 241 Am X-rays. It is doubtful that the relative increase in X-ray intensity by concentration in the pleural and sub-pleural regions will compensate for this effect. This will make the plutonium burden disappear while the 241 Am can still be detected. This effect has been observed in a case where counts with an intraesophageal probe indicated a substantial lymph node burden. In order to improve the accuracy of in vivo plutonium measurements, an improved understanding of pulmonary distribution and of distribution effects on in vivo counting are required

  14. Lung function in type 2 diabetes: the Normative Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litonjua, Augusto A; Lazarus, Ross; Sparrow, David; Demolles, Debbie; Weiss, Scott T

    2005-12-01

    Cross-sectional studies have noted that subjects with diabetes have lower lung function than non-diabetic subjects. We conducted this analysis to determine whether diabetic subjects have different rates of lung function change compared with non-diabetic subjects. We conducted a nested case-control analysis in 352 men who developed diabetes and 352 non-diabetic subjects in a longitudinal observational study of aging in men. We assessed lung function among cases and controls at three time points: Time0, prior to meeting the definition of diabetes; Time1, the point when the definition of diabetes was met; and Time2, the most recent follow-up exam. Cases had lower forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) at all time points, even with adjustment for age, height, weight, and smoking. In multiple linear regression models adjusting for relevant covariates, there were no differences in rates of FEV1 or FVC change over time between cases and controls. Men who are predisposed to develop diabetes have decreased lung function many years prior to the diagnosis, compared with men who do not develop diabetes. This decrement in lung function remains after the development of diabetes. We postulate that mechanisms involved in the insulin resistant state contribute to the diminished lung function observed in our subjects.

  15. Volume-Targeted Ventilation in the Neonate: Benchmarking Ventilators on an Active Lung Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Tobias J; Wald, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Mechanically ventilated neonates have been observed to receive substantially different ventilation after switching ventilator models, despite identical ventilator settings. This study aims at establishing the range of output variability among 10 neonatal ventilators under various breathing conditions. Relative benchmarking test of 10 neonatal ventilators on an active neonatal lung model. Neonatal ICU. Ten current neonatal ventilators. Ventilators were set identically to flow-triggered, synchronized, volume-targeted, pressure-controlled, continuous mandatory ventilation and connected to a neonatal lung model. The latter was configured to simulate three patients (500, 1,500, and 3,500 g) in three breathing modes each (passive breathing, constant active breathing, and variable active breathing). Averaged across all weight conditions, the included ventilators delivered between 86% and 110% of the target tidal volume in the passive mode, between 88% and 126% during constant active breathing, and between 86% and 120% under variable active breathing. The largest relative deviation occurred during the 500 g constant active condition, where the highest output machine produced 147% of the tidal volume of the lowest output machine. All machines deviate significantly in volume output and ventilation regulation. These differences depend on ventilation type, respiratory force, and patient behavior, preventing the creation of a simple conversion table between ventilator models. Universal neonatal tidal volume targets for mechanical ventilation cannot be transferred from one ventilator to another without considering necessary adjustments.

  16. Hypo fractionated radiotherapy in advanced lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Carvalho, Heloisa de; Saito, Newton Heitetsu; Gomes, Herbeni Cardoso; Aguilar, Patricia Bailao; Nadalin, Wladimir

    1996-01-01

    Patients with advanced lung cancers have bad prognosis and, many times, are submitted to prolonged and not always efficient treatments. We present a study where 51 patients were treated with hypo fractionated radiotherapy, based on two distinct schemes, according to the performance status and social conditions of each patient: continuous treatment: 30 Gy, 10 fractions of 3 Gy, 5 days/week (37 cases); weekly treatment: 30 Gy, 6 fractions of 5 Gy, once a week (14 cases). Symptoms relief and impact in survival were evaluated. In both groups, we observed improvement of symptoms in about 70% of the occurrences with a medium survival of three months. We conclude that hypo fractionation is an effective palliative treatment for lung cancers, in patients with short life-expectancy and must be considered as a option in advanced cases, in patients with short life-expectancy that deserve some kind of treatment. (author). 37 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Radiation therapy in aged lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Eiji; Tobari, Chitose; Matsui, Kengo; Iio, Masahiro.

    1982-01-01

    The results and problems of radiotherapy were analyzed in 57 lung cancer patients more than 65 years of age (average age: 74.8 years). Of these, 45 (79%) were irradiated with a total dose exceeding 40 Gy. In these patients, the median survival was 13 months for Stages I and II, 6.5 months for Stage III, and 5 months for Stage IV. The results of combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy were better than those of radiotherapy alone. Also, slightly better results were obtained in patients treated with split-course than continuous-course irradiation. In aged lung cancer patients the prognosis was highly influenced by their respiratory function. Double cancers were present in 9 (16%) of the 57 patients. (author)

  18. Providing Continuous Assurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, Jonne; Hulstijn, Joris

    2017-01-01

    It has been claimed that continuous assurance can be attained by combining continuous monitoring by management, with continuous auditing of data streams and the effectiveness of internal controls by an external auditor. However, we find that in existing literature the final step to continuous

  19. Incidental Transient Cortical Blindness after Lung Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncel, Murat; Sunam, Guven Sadi; Varoglu, Asuman Orhan; Karabagli, Hakan; Yildiran, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Transient vision loss after major surgical procedures is a rare clinical complication. The most common etiologies are cardiac, spinal, head, and neck surgeries. There has been no report on vision loss after lung resection. A 65-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with lung cancer. Resection was performed using right upper lobectomy with no complications. Cortical blindness developed 12 hours later in the postoperative period. Results from magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted investigations were normal. The neurologic examination was normal. The blood glucose level was 92 mg/dL and blood gas analysis showed a PO 2 of 82 mm Hg. After 24 hours, the patient began to see and could count fingers, and his vision was fully restored within 72 hours after this point. Autonomic dysfunction due to impaired microvascular structures in diabetes mellitus may induce posterior circulation dysfunction, even when the hemodynamic state is normal in the perioperative period. The physician must keep in mind that vision loss may occur after lung resection due to autonomic dysfunction, especially in older patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:28824977

  20. Statistical lung model for microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.; Hadley, R.T.

    1984-03-01

    To calculate the microdosimetry of plutonium in the lung, a mathematical description is needed of lung tissue microstructure that defines source-site parameters. Beagle lungs were expanded using a glutaraldehyde fixative at 30 cm water pressure. Tissue specimens, five microns thick, were stained with hematoxylin and eosin then studied using an image analyzer. Measurements were made along horizontal lines through the magnified tissue image. The distribution of air space and tissue chord lengths and locations of epithelial cell nuclei were recorded from about 10,000 line scans. The distribution parameters constituted a model of lung microstructure for predicting the paths of random alpha particle tracks in the lung and the probability of traversing biologically sensitive sites. This lung model may be used in conjunction with established deposition and retention models for determining the microdosimetry in the pulmonary lung for a wide variety of inhaled radioactive materials

  1. Telomerase in lung cancer diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovkarova, E.; Stefanovski, T.; Dimov, A.; Naumovski, J.

    2003-01-01

    Background. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein that looks after the telomeric cap of the linear chromosomes maintaining its length. It is over expressed in tumour tissues, but not in normal somatic cells. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the telomerase activity in lung cancer patients as novel marker for lung cancer detection evaluating the influence of tissue/cell obtaining technique. Material and methods. Using the TRAP (telomeric repeat amplification protocol), telomerase activity was determined in material obtained from bronchobiopsy (60 lung cancer patients compared with 20 controls) and washings from transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy performed in 10 patients with peripheral lung tumours. Results. Telomerase activity was detected in 75% of the lung cancer bronchobyopsies, and in 100% in transthoracic needle washings. Conclusions. Measurement of telomerase activity can contribute in fulfilling the diagnosis of lung masses and nodules suspected for lung cancer. (author)

  2. The Danish Lung Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Lung Cancer Registry (DLCR) was established by the Danish Lung Cancer Group. The primary and first goal of the DLCR was to improve survival and the overall clinical management of Danish lung cancer patients. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish primary lung cancer patients since...... 2000 are included into the registry and the database today contains information on more than 50,000 cases of lung cancer. MAIN VARIABLES: The database contains information on patient characteristics such as age, sex, diagnostic procedures, histology, tumor stage, lung function, performance...... the results are commented for local, regional, and national audits. Indicator results are supported by descriptive reports with details on diagnostics and treatment. CONCLUSION: DLCR has since its creation been used to improve the quality of treatment of lung cancer in Denmark and it is increasingly used...

  3. /sup 67/Ga lung scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.; Pick, R.

    1977-03-21

    Twenty-three patients with clinical signs of pulmonary embolic disease and lung infiltrates were studied to determine the value of gallium citrate /sup 67/Ga lung scan in differentiating embolic from inflammatory lung disease. In 11 patients without angiographically proved embolism, only seven had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. In seven of these 11 patients, the /sup 67/Ga concentration indicated inflammatory disease. In the 12 patients with angiographically proved embolic disease, six had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. None had an accumulation of /sup 67/Ga in the area of pulmonary infiltrate. Thus, ventilation-perfusion lung scans are of limited value when lung infiltrates are present. In contrast, the accumulation of /sup 67/Ga in the lung indicates an inflammatory process. Gallium imaging can help select those patients with lung infiltrates who need angiography.

  4. Idiopathic lung fibrosis in an adult Ecuadorian from Riobamba province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remón Ramírez, Leticia; Castro Hayes, Orlando Jesús; Uvidia Cepeda, Galo

    2016-01-01

    The case report of a 52 years patient is presented, exposed to the ashes of Tungurahua volcano in eruption, who went to the Community Family Medicine Department of the Canton Guano, Ecuadorian province of Riobamba, for presenting productive cough in the morning, mucoid of yellowish white coloration, bad general state, evening fever, appetite and weight loss. According to the radiographic and topographic results, he had suggestive signs of lung tuberculosis; direct BAAR sputa and negative cultures. The pathological findings allowed to confirm the diagnosis of idiopathic lung fibrosis. (author)

  5. Predictors of weight maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Saris, W.H.M.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To obtain predictors of weight maintenance after a weight-loss intervention. Research Methods and Procedures: An overall analysis of data from two-long intervention studies [n = 67 women; age: 37.9±1.0 years; body weight (BW): 87.0±1.2 kg; body mass index: 32.1±0.5 kg·m-2; % body fat:

  6. Robustness of weighted networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingeri, Michele; Cassi, Davide

    2018-01-01

    Complex network response to node loss is a central question in different fields of network science because node failure can cause the fragmentation of the network, thus compromising the system functioning. Previous studies considered binary networks where the intensity (weight) of the links is not accounted for, i.e. a link is either present or absent. However, in real-world networks the weights of connections, and thus their importance for network functioning, can be widely different. Here, we analyzed the response of real-world and model networks to node loss accounting for link intensity and the weighted structure of the network. We used both classic binary node properties and network functioning measure, introduced a weighted rank for node importance (node strength), and used a measure for network functioning that accounts for the weight of the links (weighted efficiency). We find that: (i) the efficiency of the attack strategies changed using binary or weighted network functioning measures, both for real-world or model networks; (ii) in some cases, removing nodes according to weighted rank produced the highest damage when functioning was measured by the weighted efficiency; (iii) adopting weighted measure for the network damage changed the efficacy of the attack strategy with respect the binary analyses. Our results show that if the weighted structure of complex networks is not taken into account, this may produce misleading models to forecast the system response to node failure, i.e. consider binary links may not unveil the real damage induced in the system. Last, once weighted measures are introduced, in order to discover the best attack strategy, it is important to analyze the network response to node loss using nodes rank accounting the intensity of the links to the node.

  7. Weighted semiconvex spaces of measurable functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaleru, J.O.

    2001-12-01

    Semiconvex spaces are intermediates between locally convex spaces and the non locally convex topological vector spaces. They include all locally convex spaces; hence it is a generalization of locally convex spaces. In this article, we make a study of weighted semiconvex spaces parallel to weighted locally convex spaces where continuous functions are replaced with measurable functions and N p family replaces Nachbin family on a locally compact space X. Among others, we examine the Hausdorffness, completeness, inductive limits, barrelledness and countably barrelledness of weighted semiconvex spaces. New results are obtained while we have a more elegant proofs of old results. Furthermore, we get extensions of some of the old results. It is observed that the technique of proving theorems in weighted locally convex spaces can be adapted to that of weighted semicovex spaces of measurable functions in most cases. (author)

  8. Maintained intentional weight loss reduces cardiovascular outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterson, I D; Finer, N; Coutinho, W

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes trial showed that sibutramine produced greater mean weight loss than placebo but increased cardiovascular morbidity but not mortality. The relationship between 12-month weight loss and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes is explored. Methods: Overweight....../obese subjects (N = 10 744), =55 years with cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus, received sibutramine plus weight management during a 6-week Lead-in Period before randomization to continue sibutramine (N = 4906) or to receive placebo (N = 4898). The primary endpoint was the time from...... randomization to first occurrence of a primary outcome event (non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest or cardiovascular death). Results: For the total population, mean weight change during Lead-in Period (sibutramine) was -2.54 kg. Post-randomization, mean total weight...

  9. Employers should disband employee weight control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Alfred; Khanna, Vikram; Montrose, Shana

    2015-02-01

    American corporations continue to expand wellness programs, which now reach an estimated 90% of workers in large organizations, yet no study has demonstrated that the main focus of these programs-weight control-has any positive effect. There is no published evidence that large-scale corporate attempts to control employee body weight through financial incentives and penalties have generated savings from long-term weight loss, or a reduction in inpatient admissions associated with obesity or even long-term weight loss itself. Other evidence contradicts the hypothesis that population obesity rates meaningfully retard economic growth or manufacturing productivity. Quite the contrary, overscreening and crash dieting can impact employee morale and even harm employee health. Therefore, the authors believe that corporations should disband or significantly reconfigure weight-oriented wellness programs, and that the Affordable Care Act should be amended to require such programs to conform to accepted guidelines for harm avoidance.

  10. Increased mean lung density: Another independent predictor of lung cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverzellati, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.sverzellati@unipr.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Randi, Giorgia, E-mail: giorgia.randi@marionegri.it [Department of Epidemiology, Mario Negri Institute, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Spagnolo, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.spagnolo@unimore.it [Respiratory Disease Unit, Center for Rare Lung Disease, Department of Oncology, Hematology and Respiratory Disease, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 71, 44124 Modena (Italy); Marchianò, Alfonso, E-mail: alfonso.marchiano@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Radiology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Silva, Mario, E-mail: mac.mario@hotmail.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin, E-mail: Jan-Martin.Kuhnigk@mevis.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Universitaetsallee 29, 28359 Bremen (Germany); La Vecchia, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.lavecchia@marionegri.it [Department of Occupational Health, University of Milan, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Zompatori, Maurizio, E-mail: maurizio.zompatori@unibo.it [Department of Radiology, Cardio-Thoracic Section, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Via Albertoni 15, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Pastorino, Ugo, E-mail: ugo.pastorino@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Surgery, Section of Thoracic Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between emphysema phenotype, mean lung density (MLD), lung function and lung cancer by using an automated multiple feature analysis tool on thin-section computed tomography (CT) data. Methods: Both emphysema phenotype and MLD evaluated by automated quantitative CT analysis were compared between outpatients and screening participants with lung cancer (n = 119) and controls (n = 989). Emphysema phenotype was defined by assessing features such as extent, distribution on core/peel of the lung and hole size. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate independent associations of CT densitometric measurements and pulmonary function test (PFT) with lung cancer risk. Results: No emphysema feature was associated with lung cancer. Lung cancer risk increased with decreasing values of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) independently of MLD (OR 5.37, 95% CI: 2.63–10.97 for FEV{sub 1} < 60% vs. FEV{sub 1} ≥ 90%), and with increasing MLD independently of FEV{sub 1} (OR 3.00, 95% CI: 1.60–5.63 for MLD > −823 vs. MLD < −857 Hounsfield units). Conclusion: Emphysema per se was not associated with lung cancer whereas decreased FEV{sub 1} was confirmed as being a strong and independent risk factor. The cross-sectional association between increased MLD and lung cancer requires future validations.

  11. Lung cancer mimicking lung abscess formation on CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Naohiro; Kawabata, Tsutomu; Gabe, Atsushi; Ichi, Takaharu; Kushi, Kazuaki; Yohena, Tomofumi; Kawasaki, Hidenori; Yamashiro, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Male, 64 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Lung pleomorphic carcinoma Symptoms: Cough • fever - Clinical Procedure: - Specialty: Oncology. Unusual clinical course. The diagnosis of lung cancer is often made based on computed tomography (CT) image findings if it cannot be confirmed on pathological examinations, such as bronchoscopy. However, the CT image findings of cancerous lesions are similar to those of abscesses.We herein report a case of lung cancer that resembled a lung abscess on CT. We herein describe the case of 64-year-old male who was diagnosed with lung cancer using surgery. In this case, it was quite difficult to distinguish between the lung cancer and a lung abscess on CT images, and a lung abscess was initially suspected due to symptoms, such as fever and coughing, contrast-enhanced CT image findings showing a ring-enhancing mass in the right upper lobe and the patient's laboratory test results. However, a pathological diagnosis of lung cancer was confirmed according to the results of a rapid frozen section biopsy of the lesion. This case suggests that physicians should not suspect both a lung abscesses and malignancy in cases involving masses presenting as ring-enhancing lesions on contrast-enhanced CT.

  12. Interplay between the lung microbiome and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qixing; Jiang, Feng; Yin, Rong; Wang, Jie; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Gaochao; Ma, Weidong; Yang, Yao; Xu, Lin; Hu, Jianzhong

    2018-02-28

    The human microbiome confers benefits or disease susceptibility to the human body through multiple pathways. Disruption of the symbiotic balance of the human microbiome is commonly found in systematic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and chronic gastric diseases. Emerging evidence has suggested that dysbiosis of the microbiota may also play vital roles in carcinogenesis at multiple levels, e.g., by affecting metabolic, inflammatory, or immune pathways. Although the impact of the gut microbiome on the digestive cancer has been widely explored, few studies have investigated the interplay between the microbiome and lung cancer. Some recent studies have shown that certain microbes and microbiota dysbiosis are correlated with development of lung cancer. In this mini-review, we briefly summarize current research findings describing the relationship between the lung microbiome and lung cancer. We further discuss the potential mechanisms through which the lung microbiome may play a role in lung carcinogenesis and impact lung cancer treatment. A better knowledge of the interplay between the lung microbiome and lung cancer may promote the development of innovative strategies for early prevention and personalized treatment in lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Waist circumference, BMI, and lung function in 8-year-old children : The PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Wijga, Alet H.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Postma, Dirkje; Gehring, Ulrike; Smit, Henriette A.; Brunekreef, Bert

    Background Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) may be associated with lung function in children, as observed in adults. Methods Height, weight, waist circumference, and lung function (FVC and FEV1) were measured during a medical examination in 1,058 eight-year-old children

  14. Aerosolized 3-bromopyruvate inhibits lung tumorigenesis without causing liver toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Pan, Jing; North, Paula E; Yang, Shoua; Lubet, Ronald A; Wang, Yian; You, Ming

    2012-05-01

    3-Bromopyruvate, an alkylating agent and a well-known inhibitor of energy metabolism, has been proposed as a specific anticancer agent. However, the chemopreventive effect of 3-bromopyruvate in lung tumorigenesis has not been tested. In this study, we investigated the chemopreventive activity of 3-bromopyruvate in a mouse lung tumor model. Benzo(a)pyrene was used to induce lung tumors, and 3-bromopyruvate was administered by oral gavage to female A/J mice. We found that 3-bromopyruvate significantly decreased tumor multiplicity and tumor load by 58% and 83%, respectively, at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight by gavage. Due to the known liver toxicity of 3-bromopyruvate in animal models given large doses of 3-bromopyruvate, confirmed in this study, we decided to test the chemopreventive activity of aerosolized 3-bromopyruvate in the same lung tumor model. As expected, aerosolized 3-bromopyruvate similarly significantly decreased tumor multiplicity and tumor load by 49% and 80%, respectively, at a dose of 10 mg/mL by inhalation. Interestingly, the efficacy of aerosolized 3-bromopyruvate did not accompany any liver toxicity indicating that it is a safer route of administering this compound. Treatment with 3-bromopyruvate increased immunohistochemical staining for cleaved caspase-3, suggesting that the lung tumor inhibitory effects of 3-bromopyruvate were through induction of apoptosis. 3-Bromopyruvate also dissociated hexokinase II from mitochondria, reduced hexokinase activity, and blocked energy metabolism in cancer cells, finally triggered cancer cell death and induced apoptosis through caspase-3, and PARP in human lung cancer cell line. The ability of 3-bromopyruvate to inhibit mouse lung tumorigenesis, in part through induction of apoptosis, merits further investigation of this compound as a chemopreventive agent for human lung cancer.

  15. Skin metastases from lung cancer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajaziti, Laura; Hapçiu, Syzana Rexhepi; Dobruna, Shkendije; Hoxha, Naim; Kurshumliu, Fisnik; Pajaziti, Artina

    2015-04-11

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies, with high mortality rates. It can metastasize in almost all organs, but more often invades hilar nodes, liver, adrenal glands, bones and brain. There are various data on the incidence of lung cancer metastases in the skin. In 1-12% of patients with lung cancer are developed skin metastases. Metastases in the skin may be the first sign of lung cancer. Forty-five years old Albanian male, smoker, was admitted to our department with multiple nodules localized in the skin of the head, neck, back and chest. The nodules measuring 5-15 millimeters in greatest dimension were round and skin-colored, with telangiectasias, firm and tender. They appeared in an eruptive form about two weeks before being admitted at our hospital. In addition, the patient exhibited signs of weight loss, anorexia and fatigue. Excisional biopsy was performed to one of the lesions. Histopathology confirmed metastatic nature of the lesion namely, malignant tumor of neuroendocrine phenotype consistent with small-cell carcinoma. Chest X-ray and computed tomography revealed an expansive process in the 7(th) segment of the left lung, left hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy and a suspicious initial secondary deposit in the left adrenal gland. The patient was referred to the department of oncology for further treatment. After the third cycle of chemotherapy, the magnetic resonance imaging revealed brain metastases. The patient passed away four months after the diagnosis of lung cancer first presented with skin metastases. Metastases in skin may be the first sign of lung cancer. Although rare appearing, we should raise suspicion in cases of atypical lesions in the skin not only of the smokers, but also of the non-smokers. Skin metastases from small-cell lung carcinoma are a poor prognostic indicator. The appearance of multiple skin metastases with other internal metastases shorten the survival time.

  16. MR Differentiation of Lung Cancer from Progressive Massive Fibrosis in Patients with Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jin; Jung, Jung Im; Park, Seog Hee; Lim, Young; Koo, Jung Wan

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the potential of MR to distinguish lung cancer from progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) in patients with coal worker's pneumoconiosis. The study consisted of 9 patients with pathologically proven lung cancer and 26 PMFs in 17 patients. All the patients had radiologic evidence of pneumoconiosis. T1-weighted FLASH images were obtained before and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, and 15 minutes after injection of Gd-DTPA. T2-weighted fast spin-echo images were obtained. The imaging findings were evaluated for enhancement time curve, contrast uptake equivalent (CE), and enhancement factor (EF). On T1WI, there was no significant signal intensity difference between lung cancer and PMF. On T2WI, all lung cancer showed high signal intensity, as opposed to all PMFs which showed low signal intensity except for one PMF. Only one PMF showed high signal intensity on T2WI. For the dynamic contrast study, lung cancer showed faster and slightly stronger enhancement than PMFs. For a delayed image, most of the lung cancers (78%) showed washout, as opposed to a plateau in most of PMFs (73%) (p=0.0153). However, no difference was detected between the EFmax of lung cancer and PMFs (p=0.349). MR is potentially a useful tool in distinguishing lung cancer from PMFs in patients with coal worker's pneumoconiosis

  17. Perioperative lung protective ventilation in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Hashimoto, Soshi; Serpa Neto, Ary; Moine, Pierre; Vidal Melo, Marcos F; Repine, John E

    2015-05-06

    The perioperative use and relevance of protective ventilation in surgical patients is being increasingly recognized. Obesity poses particular challenges to adequate mechanical ventilation in addition to surgical constraints, primarily by restricted lung mechanics due to excessive adiposity, frequent respiratory comorbidities (i.e. sleep apnea, asthma), and concerns of postoperative respiratory depression and other pulmonary complications. The number of surgical patients with obesity is increasing, and facing these challenges is common in the operating rooms and critical care units worldwide. In this review we summarize the existing literature which supports the following recommendations for the perioperative ventilation in obese patients: (1) the use of protective ventilation with low tidal volumes (approximately 8 mL/kg, calculated based on predicted -not actual- body weight) to avoid volutrauma; (2) a focus on lung recruitment by utilizing PEEP (8-15 cmH2O) in addition to recruitment maneuvers during the intraoperative period, as well as incentivized deep breathing and noninvasive ventilation early in the postoperative period, to avoid atelectasis, hypoxemia and atelectrauma; and (3) a judicious oxygen use (ideally less than 0.8) to avoid hypoxemia but also possible reabsorption atelectasis. Obesity poses an additional challenge for achieving adequate protective ventilation during one-lung ventilation, but different lung isolation techniques have been adequately performed in obese patients by experienced providers. Postoperative efforts should be directed to avoid hypoventilation, atelectasis and hypoxemia. Further studies are needed to better define optimum protective ventilation strategies and analyze their impact on the perioperative outcomes of surgical patients with obesity.

  18. The Agreement between Auscultation and Lung Ultrasound in Hemodialysis Patients: The LUST Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torino, Claudia; Gargani, Luna; Sicari, Rosa; Letachowicz, Krzysztof; Ekart, Robert; Fliser, Danilo; Covic, Adrian; Siamopoulos, Kostas; Stavroulopoulos, Aristeidis; Massy, Ziad A; Fiaccadori, Enrico; Caiazza, Alberto; Bachelet, Thomas; Slotki, Itzchak; Martinez-Castelao, Alberto; Coudert-Krier, Marie-Jeanne; Rossignol, Patrick; Gueler, Faikah; Hannedouche, Thierry; Panichi, Vincenzo; Wiecek, Andrzej; Pontoriero, Giuseppe; Sarafidis, Pantelis; Klinger, Marian; Hojs, Radovan; Seiler-Mussler, Sarah; Lizzi, Fabio; Siriopol, Dimitrie; Balafa, Olga; Shavit, Linda; Tripepi, Rocco; Mallamaci, Francesca; Tripepi, Giovanni; Picano, Eugenio; London, Gérard Michel; Zoccali, Carmine

    2016-11-07

    Accumulation of fluid in the lung is the most concerning sequela of volume expansion in patients with ESRD. Lung auscultation is recommended to detect and monitor pulmonary congestion, but its reliability in ESRD is unknown. In a subproject of the ongoing Lung Water by Ultra-Sound Guided Treatment to Prevent Death and Cardiovascular Complications in High Risk ESRD Patients with Cardiomyopathy Trial, we compared a lung ultrasound-guided ultrafiltration prescription policy versus standard care in high-risk patients on hemodialysis. The reliability of peripheral edema was tested as well. This study was on the basis of 1106 pre- and postdialysis lung ultrasound studies (in 79 patients) simultaneous with standardized lung auscultation (crackles at the lung bases) and quantification of peripheral edema. Lung congestion by crackles, edema, or a combination thereof poorly reflected the severity of congestion as detected by ultrasound B lines in various analyses, including standard regression analysis weighting for repeated measures in individual patients (shared variance of 12% and 4% for crackles and edema, respectively) and κ-statistics (κ ranging from 0.00 to 0.16). In general, auscultation had very low discriminatory power for the diagnosis of mild (area under the receiver operating curve =0.61), moderate (area under the receiver operating curve =0.65), and severe (area under the receiver operating curve =0.68) lung congestion, and the same was true for peripheral edema (receiver operating curve =0.56 or lower) and the combination of the two physical signs. Lung crackles, either alone or combined with peripheral edema, very poorly reflect interstitial lung edema in patients with ESRD. These findings reinforce the rationale underlying the Lung Water by Ultra-Sound Guided Treatment to Prevent Death and Cardiovascular Complications in High Risk ESRD Patients with Cardiomyopathy Trial, a trial adopting ultrasound B lines as an instrument to guide interventions aimed at

  19. Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  20. Tumorous interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkel, E.; Meyer, E.; Mundinger, A.; Helwig, A.; Blum, U.; Wuertemberger, G.

    1990-01-01

    The radiological findings in pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis and in leukemic pulmonary infiltrates mirror the tumor-dependent monomorphic interstitial pathology of lung parenchyma. It is a proven fact that pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis is caused by hematogenous tumor embolization to the lungs; pathogenesis by contiguous lymphangitic spread is the exception. High-resolution CT performed as a supplement to the radiological work-up improves the sensitivity for pulmonary infiltrates in general and thus makes the differential diagnosis decided easier. Radiological criteria cannot discriminate the different forms of leukemia. Plain chest X-ray allows the diagnosis of pulmonary involvement in leukemia due to tumorous infiltrates and of tumor- or therapy-induced complications. It is essential that the radiological findings be interpreted with reference to the stage of tumor disease and the clinical parameters to make the radiological differential diagnosis of opportunistic infections more reliable. (orig.) [de

  1. Lung inflammatory pseudo tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veliz, Elizabeth; Leone, Gaetano; Cano, Fernando; Sanchez, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    The inflammatory pseudo tumor is a non neoplastic process characterized by an irregular growth of inflammatory cells. We described the case of a 38 year-old patient, she went to our institute for a in situ cervix cancer and left lung nodule without breathing symptoms; valued by neumology who did bronchoscopy with biopsy whose result was negative for malignancy. She went to surgery in where we find intraparenquima nodule in felt lingula of approximately 4 cms, we remove it; the result was: Inflammatory pseudotumor. This pathology is a not very frequent, it can develop in diverse regions of the organism, it is frequent in lung. The image tests are not specific for the diagnose, which it is possible only with the biopsy. The treatment is the complete resection. (The author)

  2. Diffuse parenchymal lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tomassetti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Between September 2015 and August 2016 there were >1500 publications in the field of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs. For the Clinical Year in Review session at the European Respiratory Society Congress that was held in London, UK, in September 2016, we selected only five articles. This selection, made from the enormous number of published papers, does not include all the relevant studies that will significantly impact our knowledge in the field of DPLDs in the near future. This review article provides our personal view on the following topics: early diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, current knowledge on the multidisciplinary team diagnosis of DPLDs and the diagnostic role of transbronchial cryobiopsy in this diagnostic setting, insights on the new entity of interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features, and new therapeutic approaches for scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease.

  3. Weighted Bergman Kernels for Logarithmic Weights

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engliš, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2010), s. 781-813 ISSN 1558-8599 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190802 Keywords : Bergman kernel * Toeplitz operator * logarithmic weight * pseudodifferential operator Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.462, year: 2010 http://www.intlpress.com/site/pub/pages/journals/items/pamq/content/vols/0006/0003/a008/

  4. Why does the lung hyperinflate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gary T

    2006-04-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often have some degree of hyperinflation of the lungs. Hyperinflated lungs can produce significant detrimental effects on breathing, as highlighted by improvements in patient symptoms after lung volume reduction surgery. Measures of lung volumes correlate better with impairment of patient functional capabilities than do measures of airflow. Understanding the mechanisms by which hyperinflation occurs in COPD provides better insight into how treatments can improve patients' health. Both static and dynamic processes can contribute to lung hyperinflation in COPD. Static hyperinflation is caused by a decrease in elasticity of the lung due to emphysema. The lungs exert less recoil pressure to counter the recoil pressure of the chest wall, resulting in an equilibrium of recoil forces at a higher resting volume than normal. Dynamic hyperinflation is more common and can occur independent of or in addition to static hyperinflation. It results from air being trapped within the lungs after each breath due to a disequilibrium between the volumes inhaled and exhaled. The ability to fully exhale depends on the degree of airflow limitation and the time available for exhalation. These can both vary, causing greater hyperinflation during exacerbations or increased respiratory demand, such as during exercise. Reversibility of dynamic hyperinflation offers the possibility for intervention. Use of bronchodilators with prolonged durations of action, such as tiotropium, can sustain significant reductions in lung inflation similar in effect to lung volume reduction surgery. How efficacy of bronchodilators is assessed may, therefore, need to be reevaluated.

  5. Body Weight - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Body Weight URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Body Weight - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  6. Concurrent weighted logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Concurrent Weighted Logic (CWL), a multimodal logic for concurrent labeled weighted transition systems (LWSs). The synchronization of LWSs is described using dedicated functions that, in various concurrency paradigms, allow us to encode the compositionality of LWSs. To reflect these......-completeness results for this logic. To complete these proofs we involve advanced topological techniques from Model Theory....

  7. Unexplained Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight is affected by your calorie intake, activity level, overall health, age, nutrient absorption, and economic and social factors. If you're losing weight without trying and you're concerned about it, consult your doctor — as a rule of thumb, losing more than 5 ...

  8. Thyroid and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hypothyroidism in Children and Adolescents Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid and Weight Resources Thyroid and Weight Brochure PDF En Español La Tiroides y el Peso El folleto de La Tiroides y el ...

  9. Adolescent Weight Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort Kjelldgaard, Heidi; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    day) communication with friends through cellphones, SMS messages, or Internet (1.66, 1.03-2.67). In the full population, overweight/obese weight status was associated with not perceiving best friend as a confidant (1.59, 1.11-2.28). No associations were found between weight status and number of close...

  10. Isotopes and atomic weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qinglian

    1990-01-01

    A review of the chemical and mass spectrometric methods of determining the atomic weights of elements is presented. A, special discussion is devoted to the calibration of the mass spectrometer with highly enriched isotopes. It is illustrated by the recent work on europium. How to choose the candidate element for new atomic weight determination forms the last section of the article

  11. Marijuana and Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkin, Donald P

    2018-05-17

    As marijuana smoking prevalence increases in the U.S. concern regarding its potential risks to lung health has also risen, given the general similarity in the smoke contents between marijuana and tobacco. Most studies have found a significant association between marijuana smoking and chronic bronchitis symptoms after adjustment for tobacco. While reports are mixed regarding associations between marijuana smoking and lung function, none has shown a relationship to decrements in forced expired volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and few have found a relationship to a decreased ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC), possibly related to an association between marijuana and an increased FVC. A few studies have found a modest reduction in specific airway conductance in relation to marijuana, probably reflecting endoscopic evidence of bronchial mucosal edema among habitual marijuana smokers. Diffusing capacity in marijuana smokers has been normal and two studies of thoracic high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) have not shown any association of marijuana smoking with emphysema. Although bronchial biopsies from habitual marijuana smokers have shown precancerous histopathological changes, a large cohort study and a pooled analysis of six well-designed case-control studies have not found evidence of a link between marijuana smoking and lung cancer. The immunosuppressive effects of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol raise the possibility of an increased risk of pneumonia, but further studies are needed to evaluate this potential risk. Several cases series have demonstrated pneumothoraces/pneumomediastinum, as well as bullous lung disease, in marijuana smokers, but these associations require epidemiologic studies for firmer evidence of possible causality. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Angiosarcoma of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafino, Monica; Alves, Paula; Almeida, Margarida Mendes de; Garrido, Patricia; Hasmucrai, Direndra; Teixeira, Encarnacao; Sotto-Mayor, Renato, E-mail: mgrafino@gmail.com [Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, EPE, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2016-06-01

    Angiosarcoma is a rare malignant vascular tumor. Pulmonary involvement is usually attributable to metastasis from other primary sites, primary pulmonary angiosarcoma therefore being quite uncommon. We report a case of angiosarcoma with pulmonary involvement, probably primary to the lung, which had gone untreated for more than two years. We describe this rare neoplasm and its growth, as well as the extensive local invasion and hematogenous metastasis at presentation. We also discuss its poor prognosis. (author)

  13. Esophagus and contralateral lung-sparing IMRT for locally advanced lung cancer in the community hospital setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny eKao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The optimal technique for performing lung IMRT remains poorly defined. We hypothesize that improved dose distributions associated with normal tissue sparing IMRT can allow for safe dose escalation resulting in decreased acute and late toxicity. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 82 consecutive lung cancer patients treated with curative intent from 1/10 to 9/14. From 1/10 to 4/12, 44 patients were treated with the community standard of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy or IMRT without specific esophagus or contralateral lung constraints (standard RT. From 5/12 to 9/14, 38 patients were treated with normal tissue-sparing IMRT with selective sparing of contralateral lung and esophagus. The study endpoints were dosimetry, toxicity and overall survival.Results: Despite higher mean prescribed radiation doses in the normal tissue-sparing IMRT cohort (64.5 Gy vs. 60.8 Gy, p=0.04, patients treated with normal tissue-sparing IMRT had significantly lower lung V20, V10, V5, mean lung, maximum esophagus and mean esophagus doses compared to patients treated with standard RT (p≤0.001. Patients in the normal tissue-sparing IMRT group had reduced acute grade ≥3 esophagitis (0% vs. 11%, p<0.001, acute grade ≥2 weight loss (2% vs. 16%, p=0.04, late grade ≥2 pneumonitis (7% vs. 21%, p=0.02. The 2-year overall survival was 52% with normal tissue-sparing IMRT arm compared to 28% for standard RT (p=0.015.Conclusion: These data provide proof of principle that suboptimal radiation dose distributions are associated with significant acute and late lung and esophageal toxicity that may result in hospitalization or even premature mortality. Strict attention to contralateral lung and esophageal dose volume constraints are feasible in the community hospital setting without sacrificing disease control.

  14. Marijuana and lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Manish; Joshi, Anita; Bartter, Thaddeus

    2014-03-01

    Cannabis sativa (marijuana) is used throughout the world, and its use is increasing. In much of the world, marijuana is illicit. While inhalation of smoke generated by igniting dried components of the plant is the most common way marijuana is used, there is concern over potential adverse lung effects. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent studies that explore the impact upon the respiratory system of inhaling marijuana smoke. Smoking marijuana is associated with chronic bronchitis symptoms and large airway inflammation. Occasional use of marijuana with low cumulative use is not a risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The heavy use of marijuana alone may lead to airflow obstruction. The immuno-histopathologic and epidemiologic evidence in marijuana users suggests biological plausibility of marijuana smoking as a risk for the development of lung cancer; at present, it has been difficult to conclusively link marijuana smoking and cancer development. There is unequivocal evidence that habitual or regular marijuana smoking is not harmless. A caution against regular heavy marijuana usage is prudent. The medicinal use of marijuana is likely not harmful to lungs in low cumulative doses, but the dose limit needs to be defined. Recreational use is not the same as medicinal use and should be discouraged.

  15. Reciprocity of weighted networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squartini, Tiziano; Picciolo, Francesco; Ruzzenenti, Franco; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2013-01-01

    In directed networks, reciprocal links have dramatic effects on dynamical processes, network growth, and higher-order structures such as motifs and communities. While the reciprocity of binary networks has been extensively studied, that of weighted networks is still poorly understood, implying an ever-increasing gap between the availability of weighted network data and our understanding of their dyadic properties. Here we introduce a general approach to the reciprocity of weighted networks, and define quantities and null models that consistently capture empirical reciprocity patterns at different structural levels. We show that, counter-intuitively, previous reciprocity measures based on the similarity of mutual weights are uninformative. By contrast, our measures allow to consistently classify different weighted networks according to their reciprocity, track the evolution of a network's reciprocity over time, identify patterns at the level of dyads and vertices, and distinguish the effects of flux (im)balances or other (a)symmetries from a true tendency towards (anti-)reciprocation.

  16. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lung cancer mimicking lung abscess formation on CT images

    OpenAIRE

    Taira, Naohiro; Kawabata, Tsutomu; Gabe, Atsushi; Ichi, Takaharu; Kushi, Kazuaki; Yohena, Tomofumi; Kawasaki, Hidenori; Yamashiro, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 64 Final Diagnosis: Lung pleomorphic carcinoma Symptoms: Cough • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Oncology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: The diagnosis of lung cancer is often made based on computed tomography (CT) image findings if it cannot be confirmed on pathological examinations, such as bronchoscopy. However, the CT image findings of cancerous lesions are similar to those of abscesses.We herein report a case of lung cancer that resemble...

  18. Effects of sevoflurane on ventilator induced lung injury in a healthy lung experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, A; Moreno, A; García, J; Sánchez, C; Santos, M; García, J

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) causes a systemic inflammatory response in tissues, with an increase in IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α in blood and tissues. Cytoprotective effects of sevoflurane in different experimental models are well known, and this protective effect can also be observed in VILI. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of sevoflurane in VILI. A prospective, randomized, controlled study was designed. Twenty female rats were studied. The animals were mechanically ventilated, without sevoflurane in the control group and sevoflurane 3% in the treated group (SEV group). VILI was induced applying a maximal inspiratory pressure of 35 cmH2O for 20 min without any positive end-expiratory pressure for 20 min (INJURY time). The animals were then ventilated 30 min with a maximal inspiratory pressure of 12 cmH2O and 3 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure (time 30 min POST-INJURY), at which time the animals were euthanized and pathological and biomarkers studies were performed. Heart rate, invasive blood pressure, pH, PaO2, and PaCO2 were recorded. The lung wet-to-dry weight ratio was used as an index of lung edema. No differences were found in the blood gas analysis parameters or heart rate between the 2 groups. Blood pressure was statistically higher in the control group, but still within the normal clinical range. The percentage of pulmonary edema and concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 in lung tissue in the SEV group were lower than in the control group. Sevoflurane attenuates VILI in a previous healthy lung in an experimental subclinical model in rats. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Business Continuity Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT BUSINESS CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT PLAN December 2014......maximum 200 words) Navy Supply Systems Command (NAVSUP) lacks a business process framework for the development of Business Continuity Management

  20. Residential ozone and lung function in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braeuner, Elvira V.; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Frederiksen, Marie

    2016-01-01

    elderly non-smokers. Indoor ozone was measured passively in homes, while urban background outdoor ozone was monitored continuously at a fixed monitoring station located on the roof of the 20-m high university H.C. Ørsteds campus building in a park area. Lung function was measured at baseline as well...

  1. VATS anatomic lung resections-the European experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begum, Sofina; Hansen, Henrik Jessen; Papagiannopoulos, Kostas

    2014-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has undergone significant evolution over several decades. Although endoscopic instruments continued to improve, it was not until 1992 that the first VATS lobectomy for lung cancer was performed. Despite significant seeding of such procedure in several...

  2. Lung function; Lungenfunktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorichter, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Abteilung Pneumologie, Freiburg (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The term lung function is often restricted to the assessment of volume time curves measured at the mouth. Spirometry includes the assessment of lung volumes which can be mobilised with the corresponding flow-volume curves. In addition, lung volumes that can not be mobilised, such as the residual volume, or only partially as FRC and TLC can be measured by body plethysmography combined with the determination of the airway resistance. Body plethysmography allows the correct positioning of forced breathing manoeuvres on the volume-axis, e.g. before and after pharmacotherapy. Adding the CO single breath transfer factor (T{sub LCO}), which includes the measurement of the ventilated lung volume using He, enables a clear diagnosis of different obstructive, restrictive or mixed ventilatory defects with and without trapped air. Tests of reversibility and provocation, as well as the assessment of inspiratory mouth pressures (PI{sub max}, P{sub 0.1}) help to classify the underlying disorder and to clarify treatment strategies. For further information and to complete the diagnostic of disturbances of the ventilation, diffusion and/or perfusion (capillar-)arterial bloodgases at rest and under physical strain sometimes amended by ergospirometry are recommended. Ideally, lung function measurements are amended by radiological and nuclear medicine techniques. (orig.) [German] Unter dem Begriff Lungenfunktion wird die Bestimmung der Lungenvolumina am Mund verstanden. Dabei werden die mobilisierbaren Lungenvolumina mit den zugehoerigen Fluss-Volumen-Kurven mittels Spirometrie und Ganzkoerperplethysmographie (GKP) und die nicht (RV) und teilweise mobilisierbaren Lungenvolumina (FRC, TLC) einschliesslich der Atemwegswiderstaende bestimmt. Die GKP ermoeglicht zusaetzlich die korrekte (Volumenachsen-)Positionierung der forcierten Atemmanoever. Dieses erlaubt eine uebersichtlichere graphische Darstellung z. B. vor und nach der Applikation pharmakologisch wirksamer Substanzen. Wird die GKP

  3. Screening for lung cancer: Does MRI have a role?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, Juergen; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Hatabu, Hiroto; Schiebler, Mark L.; Beek, Edwin J.R. van; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • From a technical point of view, the feasibility of using MRI for lung cancer screening is evident. • Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing, standardized protocols are available. • If lung cancer screening becomes effective, there will be an opportunity for MRI as primary screening modality or adjunct to CT. • Validation of better patient outcomes (test effectiveness) for the use of MRI is still missing, therefore. • A simultaneous evaluation of MRI should be embedded into any future prospective lung cancer screening trials. - Abstract: While the inauguration of national low dose computed tomographic (LDCT) lung cancer screening programs has started in the USA, other countries remain undecided, awaiting the results of ongoing trials. The continuous technical development achieved by stronger gradients, parallel imaging and shorter echo time has made lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) an interesting alternative to CT. For the detection of solid lesions with lung MRI, experimental and clinical studies have shown a threshold size of 3–4 mm for nodules, with detection rates of 60–90% for lesions of 5–8 mm and close to 100% for lesions of 8 mm or larger. From experimental work, the sensitivity for infiltrative, non-solid lesions would be expected to be similarly high as that for solid lesions, but the published data for the MRI detection of lepidic growth type adenocarcinoma is sparse. Moreover, biological features such as a longer T2 time of lung cancer tissue, tissue compliance and a more rapid uptake of contrast material compared to granulomatous diseases, in principle should allow for the multi-parametric characterization of lung pathology. Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing. There are now standardized protocols which are easy to implement on current scanner hardware configurations. The image quality has become more robust and currently ongoing studies will help to further contribute experience

  4. Screening for lung cancer: Does MRI have a role?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederer, Juergen, E-mail: Juergen.biederer@uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Lung ResearchCenter (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Radiologie Darmstadt, Gross-Gerau County Hospital, 64521 Gross-Gerau (Germany); Ohno, Yoshiharu [Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Centre, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Hatabu, Hiroto [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Schiebler, Mark L. [Department of Radiology, UW-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Beek, Edwin J.R. van [Clinical Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Vogel-Claussen, Jens [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Hannover (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Lung ResearchCenter (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • From a technical point of view, the feasibility of using MRI for lung cancer screening is evident. • Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing, standardized protocols are available. • If lung cancer screening becomes effective, there will be an opportunity for MRI as primary screening modality or adjunct to CT. • Validation of better patient outcomes (test effectiveness) for the use of MRI is still missing, therefore. • A simultaneous evaluation of MRI should be embedded into any future prospective lung cancer screening trials. - Abstract: While the inauguration of national low dose computed tomographic (LDCT) lung cancer screening programs has started in the USA, other countries remain undecided, awaiting the results of ongoing trials. The continuous technical development achieved by stronger gradients, parallel imaging and shorter echo time has made lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) an interesting alternative to CT. For the detection of solid lesions with lung MRI, experimental and clinical studies have shown a threshold size of 3–4 mm for nodules, with detection rates of 60–90% for lesions of 5–8 mm and close to 100% for lesions of 8 mm or larger. From experimental work, the sensitivity for infiltrative, non-solid lesions would be expected to be similarly high as that for solid lesions, but the published data for the MRI detection of lepidic growth type adenocarcinoma is sparse. Moreover, biological features such as a longer T2 time of lung cancer tissue, tissue compliance and a more rapid uptake of contrast material compared to granulomatous diseases, in principle should allow for the multi-parametric characterization of lung pathology. Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing. There are now standardized protocols which are easy to implement on current scanner hardware configurations. The image quality has become more robust and currently ongoing studies will help to further contribute experience

  5. Smarandache Continued Fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Ibstedt, H.

    2001-01-01

    The theory of general continued fractions is developed to the extent required in order to calculate Smarandache continued fractions to a given number of decimal places. Proof is given for the fact that Smarandache general continued fractions built with positive integer Smarandache sequences baving only a finite number of terms equal to 1 is convergent. A few numerical results are given.

  6. Plants under continuous light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velez Ramirez, A.I.; Ieperen, van W.; Vreugdenhill, D.; Millenaar, F.F.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous light is an essential tool for understanding the plant circadian clock. Additionally, continuous light might increase greenhouse food production. However, using continuous light in research and practice has its challenges. For instance, most of the circadian clock-oriented experiments

  7. Diagnostic Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death in men and women. It is frequently seen among men than in women and male-female ratio is 1.5:1. Common epidemiological factors that increase risk of lung cancer is smoking. Early age to start smoking, high number of smoking cigarettes per a day and depth of inhalation increase risk of lung cancer. 25% of patients with lung cancer are nonsmokers that passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Occupational exposure to substances such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel, beryllium, mustard gas increases the risk of lung cancer. The well defined risk factor is exposure to asbestos. In addition advanced age, diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and genetic predisposition are the risk factors that increases lung cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 749-756

  8. ORDERED WEIGHTED DISTANCE MEASURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeshui XU; Jian CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop an ordered weighted distance (OWD) measure, which is thegeneralization of some widely used distance measures, including the normalized Hamming distance, the normalized Euclidean distance, the normalized geometric distance, the max distance, the median distance and the min distance, etc. Moreover, the ordered weighted averaging operator, the generalized ordered weighted aggregation operator, the ordered weighted geometric operator, the averaging operator, the geometric mean operator, the ordered weighted square root operator, the square root operator, the max operator, the median operator and the min operator axe also the special cases of the OWD measure. Some methods depending on the input arguments are given to determine the weights associated with the OWD measure. The prominent characteristic of the OWD measure is that it can relieve (or intensify) the influence of unduly large or unduly small deviations on the aggregation results by assigning them low (or high) weights. This desirable characteristic makes the OWD measure very suitable to be used in many actual fields, including group decision making, medical diagnosis, data mining, and pattern recognition, etc. Finally, based on the OWD measure, we develop a group decision making approach, and illustrate it with a numerical example.

  9. Integrin αβ3-Targeted Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Chen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of radiolabeled cyclic arginine-glycineaspartic acid (RGD peptide ligands for cell adhesion molecule integrin αβ3-targeted tumor angiogenesis targeting are being developed in our laboratory. In this study, this effort continues by applying a positron emitter 64Cu-labeled PEGylated dimeric RGD peptide radiotracer 64Cu-DOTA-PEG-E[c(RGDyK]2 for lung cancer imaging. The PEGylated RGD peptide indicated integrin αβ3 avidity, but the PEGylation reduced the receptor binding affinity of this ligand compared to the unmodified RGD dimer. The radiotracer revealed rapid blood clearance and predominant renal clearance route. The minimum nonspecific activity accumulation in normal lung tissue and heart rendered high-quality orthotopic lung cancer tumor images, enabling clear demarcation of both the primary tumor at the upper lobe of the left lung, as well as metastases in the mediastinum, contralateral lung, diaphragm. As a comparison, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG scans on the same mice were only able to identify the primary tumor, with the metastatic lesions masked by intense cardiac uptake and high lung background. 64Cu-DOTA-PEGE[c(RGDyK]2 is an excellent positron emission tomography (PET tracer for integrin-positive tumor imaging. Further studies to improve the receptor binding affinity of the tracer and subsequently to increase the magnitude of tumor uptake without comprising the favorable in vivo kinetics are currently in progress.

  10. Early laparotomy after lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Pia; Zemtsovski, Mikhail; Perch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal complications after lung transplantation have been reported with incidence rates ranging from 3% to 51%, but the reasons are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the correlations between pulmonary diseases leading to lung transplantation and early gastrointestinal...... for time on mechanical ventilation. Among pulmonary diseases and demographics of the patients, no other risk factors were identified for laparotomy. CONCLUSIONS: A1AD was the only significant risk factor identified for gastrointestinal complications that required laparotomy within 3 months after lung...

  11. [Lung auscultation--an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgi, Urs; Huber, Lars Christian

    2015-07-01

    The auscultation of the lungs is - among anamnesis - the most important part in the assessment of patients presenting with pulmonary symptoms. The lung auscultation is reproducible, cost efficient and very helpful to distinguish between differential diagnoses, in particular in emergency situations. Detection and description of lung sounds requires experience and should be performed by strict adherence to the internationally accepted terminology. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Interstitial lung disease: Diagnostic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik Saha

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a final common pathway of a broad heterogeneous group of parenchymal lung disorders. It is characterized by progressive fibrosis of the lung leading to restriction and diminished oxygen transfer. Clinically, the presenting symptoms of ILD are non-specific (cough and progressive dyspnea on exertion) and are often attributed to other diseases, thus delaying diagnosis and timely therapy. Clues from the medical history along with the clinical context and radiolo...

  13. Inhibiting Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Rescues Mice from Lethal Influenza Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, Jon M; Krupa, Agnieszka; Booshehri, Laela M; Davis, Sandra A; Matthay, Michael A; Kurdowska, Anna K

    2018-03-08

    Infection with seasonal influenza A virus (IAV) leads to lung inflammation and respiratory failure, a main cause of death in influenza infected patients. Previous experiments in our laboratory indicated that Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) plays a substantial role in regulating inflammation in the respiratory region during acute lung injury (ALI) in mice, therefore we sought to determine if blocking Btk activity had a protective effect in the lung during influenza induced inflammation. A Btk inhibitor (Btk Inh.) Ibrutinib (also known as PCI-32765) was administered intranasally to mice starting 72h after lethal infection with IAV. Our data indicates that treatment with the Btk inhibitor not only reduced weight loss and led to survival, but had a dramatic effect on morphological changes to the lungs of IAV infected mice. Attenuation of lung inflammation indicative of ALI such as alveolar hemorrhage, interstitial thickening, and the presence of alveolar exudate, together with reduced levels of inflammatory mediators TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, KC, and MCP-1 strongly suggest amelioration of the pathological immune response in the lungs to promote resolution of the infection. Finally, we observed that blocking Btk specifically in the alveolar compartment led to significant attenuation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET)s released into the lung in vivo, and NET formation in vitro. Our innovative findings suggest that Btk may be a new drug target for influenza induced lung injury, and in general immunomodulatory treatment may be key in treating lung dysfunction driven by excessive inflammation.

  14. Effect of lung resection on pleuro-pulmonary mechanics and fluid balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salito, C; Bovio, D; Orsetti, G; Salati, M; Brunelli, A; Aliverti, A; Miserocchi, G

    2016-01-15

    The aim of the study was to determine in human patients the effect of lung resection on lung compliance and on pleuro-pulmonary fluid balance. Pre and post-operative values of compliance were measured in anesthetized patients undergoing resection for lung cancer (N=11) through double-lumen bronchial intubation. Lung compliance was measured for 10-12 cm H2O increase in alveolar pressure from 5 cm H2O PEEP in control and repeated after resection. No air leak was assessed and pleural fluid was collected during hospital stay. A significant negative correlation (r(2)=0.68) was found between compliance at 10 min and resected mass. Based on the pre-operative estimated lung weight, the decrease in compliance following lung resection exceeded by 10-15% that expected from resected mass. Significant negative relationships were found by relating pleural fluid drainage flow to the remaining lung mass and to post-operative lung compliance. Following lung re-expansion, data suggest a causative relationship between the decrease in compliance and the perturbation in pleuro-pulmonary fluid balance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Light-weight plastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Hanno; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Sawutti, Alimjan; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Itoh, Masahiro; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2008-11-20

    Plastination is an excellent technique which helps to keep the anatomical specimens in a dry, odourless state. Since the invention of plastination technique by von Hagens, research has been done to improve the quality of plastinated specimens. In this paper, we have described a method of producing light-weight plastinated specimens using xylene along with silicone and in the final step, substitute xylene with air. The finished plastinated specimens were light-weight, dry, odourless and robust. This method requires less use of resin thus making the plastination technique more cost-effective. The light-weight specimens are easy to carry and can easily be used for teaching.

  16. Fatal interstitial lung disease associated with icotinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiexia; Zhan, Yangqing; Ouyang, Ming; Qin, Yinyin; Zhou, Chengzhi; Chen, Rongchang

    2014-12-01

    The most serious, and maybe fatal, yet rare, adverse reaction of gefitinib and erlotinib is drug-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), which has been often described. However, it has been less well described for icotinib, a similar orally small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The case of a 25-year-old female patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who developed fatal ILD is reported here. She denied chemotherapy, and received palliative treatment with icotinib (125 mg po, three times daily) on March 1, 2013. One month after treatment initiation, the patient complained of continuous dry cough and rapid progressive dyspnea. Forty one days after icotinib treatment, icotinib associated ILD was suspected when the patient became increasingly dyspnoeic despite of treatment of pericardial effusion, left pleural effusion and lower respiratory tract infection, and X-ray computed tomography (CT) of chest revealed multiple effusion shadows and ground-glass opacities in bilateral lungs. Then, icotinib was discontinued and intravenous corticosteroid was started (methylprednisolone 40 mg once daily, about 1 mg per kilogram) respectively. Forty three days after icotinib treatment, the patient died of hypoxic respiratory failure. ILD should be considered as a rare, but often fatal side effect associated with icotinib treatment.

  17. Genetic variants affecting cross-sectional lung function in adults show little or no effect on longitudinal lung function decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John, Catherine; Soler Artigas, María; Hui, Jennie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous genetic regions that influence cross-sectional lung function. Longitudinal decline in lung function also includes a heritable component but the genetic determinants have yet to be defined. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine whether...... regions associated with cross-sectional lung function were also associated with longitudinal decline and to seek novel variants which influence decline. METHODS: We analysed genome-wide data from 4167 individuals from the Busselton Health Study cohort, who had undergone spirometry (12 695 observations...... across eight time points). A mixed model was fitted and weighted risk scores were calculated for the joint effect of 26 known regions on baseline and longitudinal changes in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. Potential additional regions of interest were identified and followed up in two independent cohorts. RESULTS...

  18. The dysmorphic lung: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, J.M.; Caceres, J.

    1996-01-01

    Congenital lung malformations are not infrequent and can be discovered in adults. It is, therefore, necessary to know their radiological manifestations in order to avoid diagnostic errors. We classify the congenital lung malformations in two main groups: dysmorphic lung and focal pulmonary malformations. We review the radiological spectrum of dysmorphic lung, based on a classification that emphasises the pulmonary abnormality, adding variants when diaphragmatic or venous abnormalities are present. In our opinion this approach allows for a rational use of advanced imaging techniques (CT, MRI). (orig.). With 13 figs

  19. Lung cancer: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pass, Harvey I

    2005-01-01

    "A comprehensive review of lung cancer, from screening, early detection, and prevention, to management strategies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and multimodality therapy, as well...

  20. The dysmorphic lung: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, J.M. [SDI-UDIAT, Consorci Hospitalari del Parc Tauli, Parc Tauli s/n, E-08208 Barcelona (Spain)]|[Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Caceres, J. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)]|[Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    1996-08-01

    Congenital lung malformations are not infrequent and can be discovered in adults. It is, therefore, necessary to know their radiological manifestations in order to avoid diagnostic errors. We classify the congenital lung malformations in two main groups: dysmorphic lung and focal pulmonary malformations. We review the radiological spectrum of dysmorphic lung, based on a classification that emphasises the pulmonary abnormality, adding variants when diaphragmatic or venous abnormalities are present. In our opinion this approach allows for a rational use of advanced imaging techniques (CT, MRI). (orig.). With 13 figs.

  1. 29 CFR 541.105 - Particular weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particular weight. 541.105 Section 541.105 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS DEFINING AND DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES...

  2. Time-Weighted Balanced Stochastic Model Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahavori, Maryamsadat; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2011-01-01

    A new relative error model reduction technique for linear time invariant (LTI) systems is proposed in this paper. Both continuous and discrete time systems can be reduced within this framework. The proposed model reduction method is mainly based upon time-weighted balanced truncation and a recently...

  3. Simulation to coating weight control for galvanizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; Yan, Zhang; Wu, Kunkui; Song, Lei

    2013-05-01

    Zinc coating weight control is one of the most critical issues for continuous galvanizing line. The process has the characteristic of variable-time large time delay, nonlinear, multivariable. It can result in seriously coating weight error and non-uniform coating. We develop a control system, which can automatically control the air knives pressure and its position to give a constant and uniform zinc coating, in accordance with customer-order specification through an auto-adaptive empirical model-based feed forward adaptive controller, and two model-free adaptive feedback controllers . The proposed models with controller were applied to continuous galvanizing line (CGL) at Angang Steel Works. By the production results, the precise and stability of the control model reduces over-coating weight and improves coating uniform. The product for this hot dip galvanizing line does not only satisfy the customers' quality requirement but also save the zinc consumption.

  4. Antidepressants and Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015;37:46. Blumenthal SR, et al. An electronic health records study of long-term weight gain following antidepressant ... your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy ...

  5. Weight gain - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes Hormone changes or medical problems can also cause unintentional weight gain. This may be due to: Cushing syndrome Underactive thyroid, or low thyroid (hypothyroidism) Polycystic ovary syndrome Menopause Pregnancy Bloating, or swelling ...

  6. Weight and psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Beyond the physical aspects of weight, the psychological mean- ing sees the virtues of ... sion in the development and persistence of adolescent obesity. Pediat- rics 2002 ... or secondary as in mood, anxiety or psychotic disorders. II. a related.

  7. birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including the CRIB (Clinical Risk Index for Babies) score, in a local ... these babies for expensive tertiary care. Subjects. ... patient numbers, the tendency is simply to increase the ... included birth weight, gestational age, 5-minute Apgar score ...

  8. Weight loss and alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Maclean JC. Alcohol consumption and body weight. Health Econ . 2010;19(7):814-832. PMID: 19548203 www. ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  9. Protective effects of edaravone combined puerarin on inhalation lung injury induced by black gunpowder smog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengguan; Li, Ruibing; Liu, Yifan; Liu, Xiaoting; Chen, Wenyan; Xu, Shumin; Guo, Yuni; Duan, Jinyang; Chen, Yihong; Wang, Chengbin

    2015-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the combined effects of puerarin with edaravone on inhalation lung injury induced by black gunpowder smog. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (control group, edaravone group, puerarin group, edaravone combined with puerarin group and inhalation group). The severity of pulmonary injuries was evaluated after inducing acute lung injury. Arterial blood gas, inflammatory cytokines, biochemical, parameters, cell counting, W/D weight ratio and histopathology were analyzed. Results in lung tissues, either edaravone or puerarin treatment alone showed significant protective effects against neutrophil infiltration and tissue injury, as demonstrated by myeloperoxidase activity and histopathological analysis (all pedaravone and puerarin demonstrated additive protective effects on smog-induced lung injury, compared with single treatment. Combination of edaravone and puerarin shows promise as a new treatment option for acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fetal lung development on MRI. Normal course and impairment due to premature rupture of membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprian, G.; Zentrum fuer Anatomie und Zellbiologie der Medizinischen Universitaet Wien; Brugger, P.C.; Helmer, H.; Langer, M.; Balassy, C.; Prayer, D.

    2006-01-01

    A well-organized interplay between many molecular factors as well as mechanical forces influence fetal lung development. At the end of this complex process a sufficiently sized and structurally mature organ should ensure the postnatal survival of the newborn. Besides prenatal ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can now be used to investigate normal and pathological human lung growth in utero. Oligohydramnios, due to premature rupture of membranes (PROM), is an important risk factor for compromised fetal lung growth. In these situations MR volumetry can be used to measure the size of the fetal lung quite accurately. Together with the evaluation of lung signal intensities on T2-weighted sequences, fetuses with pulmonary hypoplasia can be readily detected. (orig.) [de

  11. Pseudo tumors of the lung after lung volume reduction surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oey, Inger F; Jeyapalan, Kanagaratnam; Entwisle, James J; Waller, David A

    2004-03-01

    We describe 2 patients who underwent lung volume reduction surgery, who postoperatively had computed tomographic scans that showed symptomatic mass lesions suggestive of malignancy and an inhaled foreign body. Investigations excluded these conditions with the remaining likely diagnosis of pseudotumor secondary to buttressing material. These potential sequelae of lung volume reduction surgery should be recognized in follow-up investigations.

  12. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  13. Chronic inflammatory and suppurative processes in lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenologic methods of diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, bronchiectatic disease, lung abscess and gangrene, chronic non-specific pneumonia and cancer of lung and other pathalogical changes at chronic processes in lungs are discussed in detail

  14. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Can It Affect the Lungs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheumatoid arthritis: Can it affect the lungs? Can rheumatoid arthritis affect your lungs? Answers from April Chang-Miller, ... know. Arthritis Foundation. http://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/rheumatoid-arthritis/articles/lung-disease-rheumatoid-arthritis.php. Accessed ...

  15. Collapsed Lung: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Pneumothorax - infants (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Collapsed Lung updates ... Lung surgery Pneumothorax - slideshow Pneumothorax - infants Related Health Topics Chest Injuries and Disorders Lung Diseases Pleural Disorders ...

  16. Nutrition support and dietary interventions for patients with lung cancer: current insights

    OpenAIRE

    Kiss, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Nicole Kiss1,2 1Nutrition and Speech Pathology Department, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Department of Cancer Experiences Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Malnutrition and weight loss are prevalent in patients with lung cancer. The impact of malnutrition on patients with cancer, and specifically in patients with lung cancer, has been demonstrated in a large number of studies. Malnutrition has been shown to neg...

  17. Lung cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Kornelia; Kropfmüller, Roland; Schinko, Herwig; Bogner, Stephan; Fellner, Franz; Arzt, Wolfgang; Lamprecht, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    In the 26th week of gestation, a 29-year-old pregnant office employee was referred to the pulmonary department of Linz General Hospital (AKH) under the suspicion of tuberculosis. She complained of a cough with intermittent hemoptysis and pain in the thoracic spine from which she had been suffering the past 9 weeks. A plain chest X-ray showed a dense infiltrate on the right side and multiple smaller shadows in both lungs. Laboratory testing revealed anemia, leukocytosis, and an increase of C-reactive protein. All tests for tuberculosis were negative.A bronchoscopy was performed and biopsies were taken from the right upper and middle lobe. The histopathological examination found cells of an adenocarcinoma. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large tumor and surrounding atelectasis were seen in the right upper and middle lobe, as well as multiple intrapulmonary metastases in both lungs. In addition, not only metastases in the thoracic spine (level Th2/3) but also at other osseous locations and multiple cerebral metastases were detected. The patient received one cycle of chemotherapy consisting of docetaxel and carboplatin (AUC5) in the 27th week of gestation. Additional radiotherapy was applied to the involved thoracic spine. Due to positive epidermal growth factor receptor mutation, therapy with gefitinib 250 mg/day was started 2 days after a Caesarean section (preceded by treatment for fetal lung maturation). A healthy girl was delivered in the 30th week of pregnancy. Staging with computed tomography (CT) after delivery revealed an unstable fracture of Th2 with compression of the spinal cord. Neurosurgery was performed, consisting of a ventral corporectomy of Th1-2 followed by an anterior and posterior osteosynthesis for stabilization. The patient was discharged without neurological deficits within 1 week. Subsequent treatment with gefitinib improved the performance status of the patient, and CT scans of the chest and an MRI of the brain showed the size of

  18. Black lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Coal workers` pneumoconiosis (CWP), often called Black Lung Disease is a occupational disease which results from inhalation of coal mine dust which usually contains small amounts of free crystalline silica. This chapter reviews the current knowledge of the epidemiology and clinical aspects of CWP and how it has been controlled in the USA through the 1969 Coal Mine Act and dust level standards. It describes the sampling methods used. Medical control methods and engineering control of the disease is discussed. Work of the Generic Mineral Technology Center for Respirable Dust is described. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Epithelioid lung haenangioendiothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finozzi, V.; Andrade, E.; Campos, N.; Pizarrosa, C.

    2000-01-01

    The first national case of epithelioid lung haenangioendiothelioma concerned a 60 years old woman. Clinical picture and TC diagnosis showed a vascularized tumor producing persistent haenoptoic expectoration.It is necessary to be acquainted with it for the purpose of a differentiated diagnosis. It is a tumor with specific immunohistochemical markers against factor V III.Treatment consisted of surgical resection. Concerning its classification it is situated at the limit between benign and malignant, prognosis is usually good, but evolution is slow, extending for over 20 years

  20. Immunologic lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    The term immunologic lung disease comprises a broad spectrum of disease. The authors have covered a few entities in which recent studies have been particularly helpful in elucidating pathophysiology though not in uncovering the inciting cause. Common to all of these entities is the problem of finding appropriate methods of defining disease activity and response to treatment. As exemplified by the improved outlook for Goodpasture's syndrome with elucidation of its underlying immunopathology, it is likely that better understanding of the immunologic basis of sarcoid and interstitial disease may be helpful in planning more effective treatment strategies. 44 references

  1. Reduced Lung Cancer Mortality With Lower Atmospheric Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Frutos, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Research has shown that higher altitude is associated with lower risk of lung cancer and improved survival among patients. The current study assessed the influence of county-level atmospheric pressure (a measure reflecting both altitude and temperature) on age-adjusted lung cancer mortality rates in the contiguous United States, with 2 forms of spatial regression. Ordinary least squares regression and geographically weighted regression models were used to evaluate the impact of climate and other selected variables on lung cancer mortality, based on 2974 counties. Atmospheric pressure was significantly positively associated with lung cancer mortality, after controlling for sunlight, precipitation, PM2.5 (µg/m 3 ), current smoker, and other selected variables. Positive county-level β coefficient estimates ( P atmospheric pressure were observed throughout the United States, higher in the eastern half of the country. The spatial regression models showed that atmospheric pressure is positively associated with age-adjusted lung cancer mortality rates, after controlling for other selected variables.

  2. Measurement of lung fluid volumes and albumin exclusion in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pou, N.A.; Roselli, R.J.; Parker, R.E.; Clanton, J.A.; Harris, T.R.

    1989-01-01

    A radioactive tracer technique was used to determine interstitial diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and albumin distribution volume in sheep lungs. 125 I- and/or 131 I-labeled albumin were injected intravenously and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h. 99m Tc-labeled DTPA and 51 Cr-labeled erythrocytes were injected and allowed to equilibrate (2 h and 15 min, respectively) before a lethal dose of thiamylal sodium. Two biopsies (1-3 g) were taken from each lung and the remaining tissue was homogenized for wet-to-dry lung weight and volume calculations. Estimates of distribution volumes from whole lung homogenized samples were statistically smaller than biopsy samples for extravascular water, interstitial 99m Tc-DTPA, and interstitial albumin. The mean fraction of the interstitium (Fe), which excludes albumin, was 0.68 +/- 0.04 for whole lung samples compared with 0.62 +/- 0.03 for biopsy samples. Hematocrit may explain the consistent difference. To make the Fe for biopsy samples match that for homogenized samples, a mean hematocrit, which was 82% of large vessel hematocrit, was required. Excluded volume fraction for exogenous sheep albumin was compared with that of exogenous human albumin in two sheep, and no difference was found at 24 h

  3. Single-Lung Ventilation with Contralateral Lung Deflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallan, Luís Alberto O.; Lisboa, Luiz Augusto F.; Platania, Fernando; Oliveira, Sérgio A.; Stolf, Noedir A.

    2007-01-01

    There are many new alternative methods of minimally invasive myocardial revascularization that can be applied in selected patients who have multivessel coronary artery disease. However, these techniques often require new and expensive equipment. Most multivessel myocardial revascularization is performed via median sternotomy and involves the use of a conventional endotracheal tube. Both lungs are ventilated, and frequently the left pleural cavity is opened. In contrast, single-lung deflation naturally moves the mediastinum within the thorax toward the collapsed lung, without the need to open the pleural cavities. Herein, we describe a simple alternative procedure that facilitates off-pump multivessel coronary artery bypass grafting via complete median sternotomy: single-lung ventilation with contralateral lung deflation. This technique better exposes the more distal right and circumflex coronary artery branches with or without the opening of the pleural cavities. PMID:17622364

  4. Tuberculosis. Lung and extrapulmonary compromise (cutaneous and ganglionar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez Mildred; Neira, Myriam Consuelo; Latorre Pablo; Faisal, Michel

    2000-01-01

    We present the case or a male, 28 year old that consulted for fever, weight loss and axillary ulcer. Clinically had two skin lesions where cutaneous tuberculosis was proven (lupus vulgaris-scrofuloderma). The skin lesions led to the diagnosis of lung tuberculosis and tuberculous adenitis. In this case all the diagnostic criteria for cutaneous tuberculosis were completed: active presence of tuberculosis in another place, positive reaction to tuberculin test, physical signs and appropriate answer to the treatment

  5. Lung development and postnatal survival for rats exposed in utero to a high-boiling coal liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.L.; Hackett, P.L.; Miller, R.A.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The study reported determines postnatal viability and development of survivors following in utero exposure to Harmarville process solvent (HPS), a wide-boiling-range (150 to > 455/sup 0/C) coal liquid. For this study, 0.74 g kg/sup -1/ of the coal liquid was administered (by intragastric intubation) to rats from 12 to 14 dg. Offspring were evaluated for postnatal survival, growth and lung and thymus weights. Fifty-four percent of the exposed pups and 9% of the control pups died between birth and 3 days postpartum. Of the treated pups that died, 10% (6/5; pups/litters) had cleft palate, 27% (17/9) had small lungs and 33% (21/8) had both cleft palate and small lungs. No gross malformations were observed in the remaining 30% of the dead pups. Microscopic examination of lungs from HPS-treated pups revealed no evident histological abnormalities. Body, lung and thymus weights for treated animals that died were significantly less than those of controls. Surviving exposed pups weighed significantly less than control pups from 0.25 to 21 days postpartum and their thymus weights were also depressed through 21 days postpartum. These data suggest that retarded lung growth during prenatal life as a result of in utero exposure to the coal liquid contributes to a significant portion of the observed neonatal mortality. Furthermore, lung weights of survivors, although significantly lower than control values through 7 days postpartum, appeared to have recovered by 21 days postpartum.

  6. Lung abcess in a child: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervan Bekdas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lung abcess is a rarely identified suppurative infection that has air-liquid level bigger 2 cm diameter on pulmonary graphy. It should especially be considered in the case of treatment-refractory pneumonic infections of persons with chronic diseases. In order to point out to the importance of this issue, this study presents a case of pulmonary abcess identified in a patient who was followed up due to mental - motor retardation and rehospitalized atshort intervals. Our patient did not respond to parenteral antibiotic treatment, the thorax CT revealed lung abscess, chest tube insertion when the fever continue. Abscess had disappeared after 3 weeks of treatment with antibiotics.

  7. Cutting Out Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In the field of program transformation, one often transforms programs into continuation-passing style to make their flow of control explicit, and then immediately removes the resulting continuations using defunctionalisation to make the programs first-order. In this article, we show how these two...... transformations can be fused together into a single transformation step that cuts out the need to first introduce and then eliminate continuations. Our approach is calculational, uses standard equational reasoning techniques, and is widely applicable....

  8. Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma in the lung: asymptomatic lung mass with severe anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Qianjun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma, which primarily occurs deep in the extremities, especially in skeletal muscle, or tendon. EMC of the pleura has been described, however, no case of primary EMC arising from lung has been previously reported. We describe herein, a 51-year-old Asian female initially manifested with signs of severe anemia who presented with a lung mass unrelated to pleura that was morphologically typical EMC, with strong immunoreactivity for vimentin and NSE. Two weeks after resection, the anemia was cured. The patient continued with follow-up, without sign of abnormality 32 months after operation. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2882199847396682

  9. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  10. Prognosis in advanced lung cancer--A prospective study examining key clinicopathological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Claribel P; Koinis, Filippos; Fallon, Marie T; Fearon, Kenneth C; Bowden, Jo; Solheim, Tora S; Gronberg, Bjorn Henning; McMillan, Donald C; Gioulbasanis, Ioannis; Laird, Barry J

    2015-06-01

    In patients with advanced incurable lung cancer deciding as to the most appropriate treatment (e.g., chemotherapy or supportive care only) is challenging. In such patients the TNM classification system has reached its ceiling therefore other factors are used to assess prognosis and as such, guide treatment. Performance status (PS), weight loss and inflammatory biomarkers (Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS)) predict survival in advanced lung cancer however these have not been compared. This study compares key prognostic factors in advanced lung cancer. Patients with newly diagnosed advanced lung cancer were recruited and demographics, weight loss, other prognostic factors (mGPS, PS) were collected. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods were used to compare these prognostic factors. 390 patients with advanced incurable lung cancer were recruited; 341 were male, median age was 66 years (IQR 59-73) and patients had stage IV non-small cell (n=288) (73.8%) or extensive stage small cell lung cancer (n=102) (26.2%). The median survival was 7.8 months. On multivariate analysis only performance status (HR 1.74 CI 1.50-2.02) and mGPS (HR 1.67, CI 1.40-2.00) predicted survival (padvanced lung cancer. In combination, these improved survival prediction compared with either alone. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Fractional energy absorption from beta-emitting particles in the rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.

    1977-01-01

    Forty-four male, Fischer-344 rats were exposed nose-only to an aerosol of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to obtain a relatively insoluble lung burden of this material. Twenty-eight rats, ages 12 to 25 weeks with body weights of 183 to 337 grams were analyzed seven to nine days after exposure; lung burdens were 13 to 82 nCi. An additional group of 16 rats was exposed when 12 weeks old and maintained for six months prior to analysis; body weights and lung burdens at six months after exposure ranged from 276 to 368 grams and 16 to 46 nCi, respectively. Lungs were analyzed, inflated and deflated in a 4π beta spectrometer to determine fractional energy absorption for 144 Ce. Over the relatively narrow range of sizes, 0.88 to 1.66 grams, for lungs in this study the average fractional energy absorption and its standard deviation was 0.23 +- 0.078 for the inflated lung and 0.40 +- 0.087 for the deflated lung

  12. Bricklayers and lung cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article ‘Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case–control studies’ in the International Journal of Cancer publishes findings of an epidemiological study (in the frame of a SYNERGY-project) dedicated to the lung cancer risk among bricklayers. The authors conclude that a

  13. Epigenetic Therapy in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen V Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic dysregulation of gene function has been strongly implicated in carcinogenesis and is one of the mechanisms contributing to the development of lung cancer. The inherent reversibility of epigenetic alterations makes them viable therapeutic targets. Here, we review the therapeutic implications of epigenetic changes in lung cancer, and recent advances in therapeutic strategies targeting DNA methylation and histone acetylation.

  14. Microbiome overview in swine lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Maboni Siqueira

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of swine enzootic pneumonia. However other mycoplasma species and secondary bacteria are found as inhabitants of the swine respiratory tract, which can be also related to disease. In the present study we have performed a total DNA metagenomic analysis from the lungs of pigs kept in a field condition, with suggestive signals of enzootic pneumonia and without any infection signals to evaluate the bacteria variability of the lungs microbiota. Libraries from metagenomic DNA were prepared and sequenced using total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. The metagenomic distribution showed a great abundance of bacteria. The most common microbial families identified from pneumonic swine's lungs were Mycoplasmataceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae, whereas in the carrier swine's lungs the most common families were Mycoplasmataceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. Analysis of community composition in both samples confirmed the high prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae. Moreover, the carrier lungs had more diverse family population, which should be related to the lungs normal flora. In summary, we provide a wide view of the bacterial population from lungs with signals of enzootic pneumonia and lungs without signals of enzootic pneumonia in a field situation. These bacteria patterns provide information that may be important for the establishment of disease control measures and to give insights for further studies.

  15. A lung function information system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F.M. Verbraak (Anton); E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); J. de Vries (Julius); J.M. Bogaard (Jan); A. Versprille (Adrian)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract A lung function information system (LFIS) was developed for the data analysis of pulmonary function tests at different locations. This system was connected to the hospital information system (HIS) for the retrieval of patient data and the storage of the lung function

  16. Congenital cystic lung malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoever, B.; Scheer, I.; Bassir, C.; Chaoui, R.; Henrich, W.; Schwabe, M.; Wauer, R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study concerning congenital cystic lung malformations was to evaluate prenatal diagnoses postnatally to determine prognostic factors as well as to define optimized perinatal management. Materials and Methods: The study is based on 45 prenatal ultrasound examinations depicting fetal cystic lung lesions. 32 of the mothers had follow-up examinations. 5 pregnancies were terminated due to CCAM and additional malformations. Complete regression of the lesions was seen prenatally in 8 cases and postnatally in 5 children. Results: Surgical intervention due to respiratory insufficiency was necessary in 4 neonates. According to the imaging results, CCAM was present in 4 cases and sequestration in 7 patients. No correlation between the imaging findings and the surgical results was found in 3 children: One child suffered from rhadomyoid dysplasia, and in the case of the second child, a left-sided hernia of the diaphragm and additional sequestration were detected. The third child showed AV malformation. The cystic lesions of the 14 children operated upon were proven histologically. The degree of accuracy in the present study was high. Conclusion: Precise perinatal management is warranted in order to determine according to the clinical relevance surgical intervention and to prevent complications after the first year of life. This is performed during the neonatal period for respiratory insufficient neonates and within the first year of life for clinically stable children. (orig.)

  17. Lung and oesophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrah-Davies, E.

    1985-01-01

    The author discusses cancer of the lung and oesophagus. The author says lung cancer is increasing and there is no real improvement in the cure rates. It is natural to think of instituting some method of screening the population mostly at risk, in order to detect changes at an earlier stage of development. It seems to be tacitly agreed that screening methods so far known (mass radiography, sputum cytology, and possibly fibre-optic bronchoscopy) are likely to give a poor return, and would certainly be inordinately expensive. The recognition of air pollution as a major problem, and the attempts being made to deal with it, may help. Antismoking propaganda seems to have had little or no value, and it is unlikely that human nature will change and the public will stop smoking en masse. It also seems unlikely that any government will ever attempt to ban cigarettes when the tobacco tax is so lucrative. In short, the outlook at the moment is indeed pessimistic and one can only hope that some unexpected avenue of advance will appear soon

  18. Feasibility and acceptability of e-cigarettes as an aid to quitting smoking among lung cancer patients: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Allison Ford; Lesley Sinclair; Jennifer Mckell; Stephen Harrow; Jennifer Macphee; Andy Morrison; Linda Bauld

    2018-01-01

    Background Many patients diagnosed with lung cancer continue to smoke even though this can make their treatment less effective and increase side effects. E-cigarettes form part of the UK's tobacco harm reduction policy landscape and are, by far, smokers' most popular quit attempt method. This pilot study explores feasibility and acceptability of e-cigarettes to aid smoking cessation among lung cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Methods 27 smokers with stage IV lung cancer we...

  19. Large-scale association analysis identifies new lung cancer susceptibility loci and heterogeneity in genetic susceptibility across histological subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKay, James D; Hung, Rayjean J; Han, Younghun

    2017-01-01

    Although several lung cancer susceptibility loci have been identified, much of the heritability for lung cancer remains unexplained. Here 14,803 cases and 12,262 controls of European descent were genotyped on the OncoArray and combined with existing data for an aggregated genome-wide association ...... receptor, CHRNA2, and the telomere-related genes OFBC1 and RTEL1. Further exploration of the target genes will continue to provide new insights into the etiology of lung cancer....

  20. Potential Application of Viral Empty Capsids for the Treatment of Acute Lung Injury/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    concept for the potential value of SV40 VLPs for the treatment of severe sepsis, justifying further studies in large animals under Intensive Care...at this time. These tests are continuing and will be included in the final manuscript. 4. Lung pathology: Fig. 5. Lung histology . The...left lung was fixed following inflation and stained with H&E for histological study. A. Vehicle only control; B. Vehicle-treated and 2CLP-operated