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Sample records for lung weight change

  1. Association of the relative change in weight and body mass index with lung function in teenagers and adults with cystic fibrosis: Influence of gender and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Megías, Marta; Guisado Vasco, Pablo; González Albarrán, Olga; Lamas Ferreiro, Adelaida; Máiz Carro, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Nutritional status is a prognostic factor in cystic fibrosis. Prevention of nutritional impairment and weigh loss are major clinical objectives because they are associated with worsening of lung function and increased mortality. To identify a potential relationship of clinical nutrition parameters, and their relative changes, with lung function (FEV1%) in a cohort of adolescent and adult patients with CF. A retrospective analysis of 64 patients older than 14years. Weight, height, BMI, and lung function data were collected at a period of disease stability, both in the year of the first abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and in the previous year. Relative changes in weight and BMI, and their relationship with FEV1%, were determined by linear regression and ANOVA tests; influence of gender and diabetes was also assessed. Mean age of the series (28 females and 36 males) was 26.8years. Normal glucose tolerance (NGT) was found in 26.7%, while 18.3% had diabetes without impaired fasting glucose (CFRD without FPG). Mean BMI was 20.32, with a mean weight of 53.53kg; 32.8% had BMI<18.5, and only 4.7% were overweight. Overall, a positive relative change in weight (≥6%) was associated with an increase in FEV1% (9.31%), as compared to those with a greater weight loss (at least 2%), who had a 12.09% fall in FEV1. Patients with CFRD without FPG had poorer lung function if they had a negative relative change in weight by at least 2% as compared to NGT. In patients with CF, a relative weight gain is positively associated to FEV1%, while a relative weight loss of at least 2% has a significant negative impact on lung function. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the normal fetal lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Bankier, Alexander; Herold, Christian J.; Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Csapo, Bence; Bammer, Roland

    2008-01-01

    To quantify apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes in fetuses with normal lungs and to determine whether ADC can be used in the assessment of fetal lung development. In 53 pregnancies (20-37th weeks of gestation), we measured ADC on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the apical, middle, and basal thirds of the right lung. ADCs were correlated with gestational age. Differences between the ADCs were assessed. Fetal lung volumes were measured on T2-weighted sequences and correlated with ADCs and with age. ADCs were 2.13 ± 0.44 μm 2 /ms (mean ± SD) in the apex, 1.99 ± 0.42 μm 2 /ms (mean ± SD) in the middle third, and 1.91 ± 0.41 μm 2 /ms (mean ± SD) in the lung base. Neither the individual ADC values nor average ADC values showed a significant correlation with gestational age or with lung volumes. Average ADCs decreased significantly from the lung apex toward the base. Individual ADCs showed little absolute change and heterogeneity. Lung volumes increased significantly during gestation. We have not been able to identify a pattern of changes in the ADC values that correlate with lung maturation. Furthermore, the individual, gravity-related ADC changes are subject to substantial variability and show nonuniform behavior. ADC can therefore not be used as an indicator of lung maturity. (orig.)

  3. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the normal fetal lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Bankier, Alexander; Herold, Christian J.; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria); Csapo, Bence [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Gyneocology, Vienna (Austria); Bammer, Roland [University of Stanford, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2008-04-15

    To quantify apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes in fetuses with normal lungs and to determine whether ADC can be used in the assessment of fetal lung development. In 53 pregnancies (20-37th weeks of gestation), we measured ADC on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the apical, middle, and basal thirds of the right lung. ADCs were correlated with gestational age. Differences between the ADCs were assessed. Fetal lung volumes were measured on T2-weighted sequences and correlated with ADCs and with age. ADCs were 2.13 {+-} 0.44 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms (mean {+-} SD) in the apex, 1.99 {+-} 0.42 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms (mean {+-} SD) in the middle third, and 1.91 {+-} 0.41 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms (mean {+-} SD) in the lung base. Neither the individual ADC values nor average ADC values showed a significant correlation with gestational age or with lung volumes. Average ADCs decreased significantly from the lung apex toward the base. Individual ADCs showed little absolute change and heterogeneity. Lung volumes increased significantly during gestation. We have not been able to identify a pattern of changes in the ADC values that correlate with lung maturation. Furthermore, the individual, gravity-related ADC changes are subject to substantial variability and show nonuniform behavior. ADC can therefore not be used as an indicator of lung maturity. (orig.)

  4. Radiodiagnosis of lung picture changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenetskij, M.S.; Lezova, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    The roentgenological picture of changes of the lung picture in the case of different pathological states in the lungs and the heart, is described. A developed diagnostic algorithm for the syndrome of lung picture change and the rules of its application are given. 5 refs.; 9 figs

  5. Impact of Weight Change During the Course of Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy on Outcomes in Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients: Retrospective Analysis of 425 Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topkan, Erkan; Parlak, Cem; Selek, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We retrospectively investigated the impact of weight change (WC) during concurrent chemoradiation therapy (C-CRT) on clinical outcomes of stage 3B non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 425 patients treated with C-CRT were included. All patients received 60 to 66 Gy of thoracic radiation therapy concurrently with 1 to 3 cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy. Pre- and posttreatment weight measurements on first and last days of C-CRT were used for WC. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 = weight loss (WL); group 2 = weight preservation/gain (WP) for comparative analyses. Results: Following C-CRT, 252 patients (59.3%) experienced WL, while 89 patients (20.9%) and 84 patients (19.8%) showed WP or WG. At median 24.2 months of follow-up, 142 patients (33.4%) were alive (84 WP [48.6%] and 58 WL [23.0%]), and 58 (13.6%) of them were free of disease progression (41 [23.7%] for WP and 17 [6.7%] for WL). Median overall survival (OS), locoregional progression-free survival (LRPFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and distant metastases-free survival (DMFS) for the entire population were 22.8, 14.4, 10.6, and 11.7 months, respectively. Intergroup comparisons between WP and WL cohorts revealed significantly superior OS, LRPFS, PFS, and DMFS in WP patients (P<.05 for each). On multivariate analyses, only WL and advanced T stage were associated with poor prognosis (P<.05). Conclusions: Present results in 425 stage 3B NSCLC patients demonstrated that WL during C-CRT is strongly associated with inferior survival outcomes compared to WP. This emerging finding might be useful by forming an encouraging basis for future investigations in facilitating a way to improve the outcomes of these patients experiencing WL during C-CRT

  6. Aging changes in the lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004011.htm Aging changes in the lungs To use the sharing ... out (exhaled). Watch this video about: Gas exchange AGING CHANGES IN YOUR BODY AND THEIR AFFECTS ON ...

  7. Weight Changes in General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This PhD thesis is about weight changes. What determines long-term weight changes in the adult general population? Is it possible that weight loss may not always be healthy? The present clinical guidelines for general practice advice most overweight persons and patients with type 2 ...... lifestyle changes like for instance Mediterranean diet and increased exercise....

  8. A decade of lung expansion. A review of ventilation-weighted {sup 1}H lung MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjoerstad, Aasmund; Fiehler, Jens; Sedlacik, Jan [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Regier, Marc [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2017-10-01

    In 2006, a novel method for extracting functional ventilation-weighted lung images using MRI was published. The method exploited the naturally occurring density changes in the lung during breathing and the resulting images showed a clear clinical potential. A decade later, the method has been adapted and further developed by several research groups and has led to many encouraging pre-clinical studies, both in animals and in humans. In this paper we show the development of the method and summarize the current state-of-the-art, aiming to both inform and motivate students and researchers with an interest in this exciting field.

  9. A decade of lung expansion. A review of ventilation-weighted 1H lung MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjoerstad, Aasmund; Fiehler, Jens; Sedlacik, Jan; Regier, Marc

    2017-01-01

    In 2006, a novel method for extracting functional ventilation-weighted lung images using MRI was published. The method exploited the naturally occurring density changes in the lung during breathing and the resulting images showed a clear clinical potential. A decade later, the method has been adapted and further developed by several research groups and has led to many encouraging pre-clinical studies, both in animals and in humans. In this paper we show the development of the method and summarize the current state-of-the-art, aiming to both inform and motivate students and researchers with an interest in this exciting field.

  10. Smoking cessation, lung function, and weight gain : a follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Melotti, R; Luczynska, C; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; de Marco, R; Gislason, T; Heinrich, J; Janson, C; Kunzli, N; Leynaert, B; Neukirch, F; Schouten, J; Sunyer, J; Svanes, C; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    2005-01-01

    Background Only one population-based study in one country has reported effects of smoking cessation and weight change on lung function, and none has reported the net effect. We estimated the net benefit of smoking cessation, and the independent effects of smoking and weight change on change in

  11. Weight Changes in General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus

    2017-06-01

    This PhD thesis is about weight changes. What determines long-term weight changes in the adult general population? Is it possible that weight loss may not always be healthy? The present clinical guidelines for general practice advice most overweight persons and patients with type 2 diabetes to lose weight. Are the guidelines based on firm evidence?   METHODS: The back-bone of the thesis is constituted by three scientific articles based on three different population based cohort studies. Multivariable modeling and other epidemiological methods were used.   RESULTS: Article 1 examined weight changes in the general population in relation to smoking status, and proposed a graphical 'smoking cessation weight change model', demonstrating the importance of time, age and smoking status in relation to long-term weight changes. Article 2 suggested new methods to improve the processing of dietary data. It was demonstrated how median imputation for missing values and assumptions about standard portion sizes were inferior to stochastic methods conditioning on information about physiology of the individual. Article 3 evaluated the influence of prospectively planned intentional weight loss on long-term morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therapeutic intentional weight loss supervised by a medical doctor was not associated with reduced morbidity or mortality. In the general population the dietary intake of fructose and soft drinks sweetened with sugar was not associated with weight change over 9 years. Weight gain rates were large in young adults and incrementally smaller in middle aged adults. Subjects more than 60 years lost weight on average. Historical weight data suggest that the body weight increases throughout life to the age of 60-65years. A study with simulated data indicates that bias in baseline BMI may misleadingly have favored weight loss in earlier cohort studies of intentional weight loss and mortality.   DISCUSSION: The findings regarding

  12. [Lung abscess: changes in treatment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clottu, E; Nicod, L P

    2015-11-18

    Lung abscess occurs in very pleomorphic according to germs initially involved. The mechanism commonly found is an aspiration of the oropharyngeal flora in patients with disorders of consciousness or swallowing. The infection is polymicrobial, with presence of anaerobic germs in 2/3 of the cases. The support consists of a prolonged antibiotic treatment, as well as anaerobic until resolution or stability of the radiological image. In case of prolonged toxic state, drainage of the abscess is to be discussed especially if there is no airways drainage. Surgical sanctions is rarely needed regardless of the size of the abscess, unless underlying carcinoma is present.

  13. Lung function and postural changes during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørregaard, O; Schultz, P; Ostergaard, A; Dahl, R

    1989-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of postural changes on lung function in pregnant women during the first, second, third trimester and post partum. A significant decrease in FRC, PEF and FEV1 was observed as a result of the postural changes. Arterial oxygenation, MVV and DLCO remained largely the same.

  14. Weight loss and elevated gluconeogenesis from alanine in lung cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Leij-Halfwerk (Susanne); P.C. Dagnelie (Pieter); J.W.O. van den Berg (Willem); J.L.D. Wattimena (Josias); C.H. Hordijk-Luijk; J.H.P. Wilson (Paul)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The role of gluconeogenesis from protein in the pathogenesis of weight loss in lung cancer is unclear. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study gluconeogenesis from alanine in lung cancer patients and to analyze its relation to the degree of weight loss.

  15. An Analysis of Weight Change in Filters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reilly, Matthew; Fultz, George; Gschwender, Lois

    2006-01-01

    ... to evaluate possible sources of error. Many sources of weight change exist, including particulate and water accumulation from air, buildup of static electricity causing interference with the metal microbalance pan, and removal...

  16. Cognitive and brain structural changes in a lung cancer population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó, Marta; Root, James C; Vaquero, Lucía; Ripollés, Pablo; Jové, Josep; Ahles, Tim; Navarro, Arturo; Cardenal, Felipe; Bruna, Jordi; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    No study has examined structural brain changes specifically associated with chemotherapy in a lung cancer population. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess differences in brain structure between small-cell lung cancer patients (C+) following chemotherapy, non-small-cell lung cancer patients (C-) before chemotherapy and healthy controls (HC). Twenty-eight small-cell lung cancer patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment and a structural magnetic resonance imaging, including T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging to examine gray matter density and white matter (WM) integrity, respectively, 1 month following completion of platinum-based chemotherapy. This group was compared with 20 age and education-matched non-small-cell lung cancer patients before receiving chemotherapy and 20 HC. Both C+ and C- groups exhibited cognitive impairment compared with the HC group. The C+ group performed significantly worse than HC in verbal fluency and visuospatial subtests; C- performed significantly worse than both C+ and HC in verbal memory. Voxel-based morphometry analysis revealed lower gray matter density in the insula and parahippocampal gyrus bilaterally, and left anterior cingulate cortex in C+ compared with HC. Diffusion tensor imaging indices showed focal decreased WM integrity in left cingulum and bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus in the C+ group and more widespread decreased integrity in the C- group compared with the HC group. This study demonstrates that lung cancer patients exhibit cognitive impairment before and after chemotherapy. Before the treatment, C- showed verbal memory deficits as well as a widespread WM damage. Following treatment, the C+ group performed exhibited lower visuospatial and verbal fluency abilities, together with structural gray matter and WM differences in bilateral regions integrating the paralimbic system.

  17. SU-E-J-87: Ventilation Weighting Effect On Mean Doses of Both Side Lungs for Patients with Advanced Stage Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, H; Xia, P; Yu, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study ventilation weighting effect on radiation doses to both side lungs for patients with advanced stage lung cancer. Methods: Fourteen patients with advanced stage lung cancer were included in this retrospective study. Proprietary software was developed to calculate the lung ventilation map based on 4DCT images acquired for radiation therapy. Two phases of inhale (0%) and exhale (50%) were used for the lung ventilation calculations. For each patient, the CT images were resampled to the same dose calculation resolution of 3mmx3mmx3mm. The ventilation distribution was then normalized by the mean value of the ventilation. The ventilation weighted dose was calculated by applying linearly weighted ventilation to the dose of each pixel. The lung contours were automatically delineated from patient CT image with lung window, excluding the tumor and high density tissues. For contralateral and ipsilateral lungs, the mean lung doses from the original plan and ventilation weighted mean lung doses were compared using two tail t-Test. Results: The average of mean dose was 6.1 ±3.8Gy for the contralateral lungs, and 26.2 ± 14.0Gy for the ipsilateral lungs. The average of ventilation weighted dose was 6.3± 3.8Gy for the contralateral lungs and 24.6 ± 13.1Gy for the ipsilateral lungs. The statistics analysis shows the significance of the mean dose increase (p<0.015) for the contralateral lungs and decrease (p<0.005) for the ipsilateral lungs. Conclusion: Ventilation weighted doses were greater than the un-weighted doses for contralateral lungs and smaller for ipsilateral lungs. This Result may be helpful to understand the radiation dosimetric effect on the lung function and provide planning guidance for patients with advance stage lung cancer

  18. The Murine Lung Microbiome Changes During Lung Inflammation and Intranasal Vancomycin Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfod, Kenneth Klingenberg; Vrankx, Katleen; Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Hengameh Chloé; Hansen, Jitka Stilund; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Larsen, Søren Thor; Ouwenhand, Arthur C.; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki

    2015-01-01

    Most microbiome research related to airway diseases has focused on the gut microbiome. This is despite advances in culture independent microbial identification techniques revealing that even healthy lungs possess a unique dynamic microbiome. This conceptual change raises the question; if lung diseases could be causally linked to local dysbiosis of the local lung microbiota. Here, we manipulate the murine lung and gut microbiome, in order to show that the lung microbiota can be changed experimentally. We have used four different approaches: lung inflammation by exposure to carbon nano-tube particles, oral probiotics and oral or intranasal exposure to the antibiotic vancomycin. Bacterial DNA was extracted from broncho-alveolar and nasal lavage fluids, caecum samples and compared by DGGE. Our results show that: the lung microbiota is sex dependent and not just a reflection of the gut microbiota, and that induced inflammation can change lung microbiota. This change is not transferred to offspring. Oral probiotics in adult mice do not change lung microbiome detectible by DGGE. Nasal vancomycin can change the lung microbiome preferentially, while oral exposure does not. These observations should be considered in future studies of the causal relationship between lung microbiota and lung diseases. PMID:26668669

  19. Weight preserving image registration for monitoring disease progression in lung CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Haseem, Ashraf

    2008-01-01

    We present a new image registration based method for monitoring regional disease progression in longitudinal image studies of lung disease. A free-form image registration technique is used to match a baseline 3D CT lung scan onto a following scan. Areas with lower intensity in the following scan...... the density of lung tissue with respect to local expansion or compression such that the total weight of the lungs is preserved during deformation. Our method provides a good estimation of regional destruction of lung tissue for subjects with a significant difference in inspiration level between CT scans...

  20. Weight changes in euthyroid patients undergoing thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Nsouli-Maktabi, Hala

    2011-12-01

    Thyroidectomized patients frequently report weight gain resistant to weight loss efforts, identifying their thyroidectomy as the event precipitating subsequent weight gain. We wished to determine whether recently thyroidectomized euthyroid patients gained more weight over 1 year than matched euthyroid patients with preexisting hypothyroidism. We performed a retrospective chart review of subjects receiving medical care at an academic medical center. One hundred twenty patients had their weight and thyroid status documented after thyroidectomy and achievement of euthyroidism on thyroid hormone replacement, and one year later. Three additional groups of 120 patients with preexisting hypothyroidism, no thyroid disease, and thyroid cancer were matched for age, gender, menopausal status, height, and weight. Anthropometric data were documented at two time points 1 year apart. We compared the weight changes and body mass index changes occurring over a 1-year period in the four groups. Patients with recent postsurgical hypothyroidism gained 3.1 kg during the year, whereas matched patients with preexisting hypothyroidism gained 2.2 kg. The patients without thyroid disease and those with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism gained 1.3 and 1.2 kg, respectively. The weight gain in the thyroidectomized group was significantly greater than that in the matched hypothyroid group (p-value 0.004), the group without thyroid disease (p-value 0.001), and the patients with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism (p-value 0.001). Within the thyroidectomized group, the weight gain in menopausal women was greater than in either premenopausal women (4.4 vs. 2.3 kg, p-value 0.007) or men (4.4 vs. 2.5 kg, p-value 0.013). Patients who had undergone thyroidectomy in the previous year did, in fact, gain more weight than their matched counterparts with preexisting hypothyroidism. In addition, all patients with hypothyroidism, even though treated to achieve euthyroidism, experienced more weight gain than both

  1. Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram Quist, Helle; Christensen, Ulla; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial...... factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. METHODS: A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses...... predicted weight loss among men. Associations were generally weak, with the exception of quality of leadership, age, and cohabitation. CONCLUSION: This study of a single occupational group suggested a few new risk factors for weight change outside the traditional work stress models....

  2. Gestational Weight Gain and Interpregnancy Weight Change in Adolescent Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Emily; Armson, B Anthony; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; MacSween, Kayla; Woolcott, Christy

    2017-06-01

    To examine the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and interpregnancy weight change (IPWC) in adolescent mothers (younger than 20 years), and to determine if this association differs from adult women (aged 20-35 years). Retrospective cohort study. We included 3055 adolescents and 17,090 adult women with singleton pregnancies recorded in the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database with a subsequent pregnancy occurring between 2003 and 2014. GWG in the first pregnancy was categorized as below, within, or above the current Institute of Medicine recommendations. IPWC was defined as the difference between the prepregnancy weights of the 2 pregnancies. Analyses were adjusted for parity, body mass index in the first pregnancy, and time between pregnancies. Relative to adolescents with GWG within the recommendations, those who gained below had a 2.7 kg (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.9) lower mean IPWC whereas those who gained above had a 4.2 kg (95% CI, 3.3-5.1) higher mean IPWC. Smaller differences in IPWC between GWG categories were observed in adult women; relative to those with GWG within the recommendations, adults who gained below had a 1.3 kg (95% CI, 0.9-1.7) lower mean IPWC and those who gained above had a 2.9 kg (95% CI, 2.6-3.2) higher mean IPWC. Mean IPWC differed across GWG categories and the differences were greater in adolescents than in adult women. This difference should be considered when assessing whether specific GWG recommendations are needed for adolescents. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Weight preserving image registration for monitoring disease progression in lung CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Lol, Pechin; Ashraf, Haseem; Dirksen, Asger; Nielsen, Mads; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2008-01-01

    We present a new image registration based method for monitoring regional disease progression in longitudinal image studies of lung disease. A free-form image registration technique is used to match a baseline 3D CT lung scan onto a following scan. Areas with lower intensity in the following scan compared with intensities in the deformed baseline image indicate local loss of lung tissue that is associated with progression of emphysema. To account for differences in lung intensity owing to differences in the inspiration level in the two scans rather than disease progression, we propose to adjust the density of lung tissue with respect to local expansion or compression such that the total weight of the lungs is preserved during deformation. Our method provides a good estimation of regional destruction of lung tissue for subjects with a significant difference in inspiration level between CT scans and may result in a more sensitive measure of disease progression than standard quantitative CT measures.

  4. Lung function changes in wildland firefighters working at prescribed burns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Hall, Daniel, B.; Naeher, L,P.

    2011-10-01

    Although decline in lung function across workshift has been observed in wildland firefighters, measurements have been restricted to days when they worked at fires. Consequently, such results could have been confounded by normal circadian variation associated with lung function. We investigated the across-shift changes in lung function of wildland firefighters, and the effect of cumulative exposure on lung function during the burn season.

  5. Vitamin D Depletion in Pregnancy Decreases Survival Time, Oxygen Saturation, Lung Weight and Body Weight in Preterm Rat Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sine Lykkedegn

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest a role of vitamin D in fetal lung development although not studied in preterm animals. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates respiratory insufficiency in preterm rat offspring. Furthermore, the effects of vitamin D depletion on growth and lung surfactant were investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned low vitamin D (VDL or control diet before mating and followed with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OHD determinations. After cesarean section at gestational day 19 (E19 or day 22 (E22, placental weight, birth weight, crown-rump-length (CRL, oxygenation (SaO2 at 30 min and survival time were recorded. The pup lungs were analyzed for phospholipid levels, surfactant protein A-D mRNA and the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR. S-25(OHD was significantly lower in the VDL group at cesarean section (12 vs. 30nmol/L, p<0.0001. Compared to the controls, E19 VDL pups had lower birth weight (2.13 vs. 2.29g, p<0.001, lung weight (0.09 vs. 0.10g, p = 0.002, SaO2 (54% vs. 69%, p = 0.002 as well as reduced survival time (0.50 vs. 1.25h, p<0.0001. At E22, the VDL-induced pulmonary differences were leveled out, but VDL pups had lower CRL (4.0 vs. 4.5cm, p<0.0001. The phospholipid levels and the surfactant protein mRNA expression did not differ between the dietary groups. In conclusion, Vitamin D depletion led to lower oxygenation and reduced survival time in the preterm offspring, associated with reduced lung weight and birth weight. Further studies of vitamin D depletion in respiratory insufficiency in preterm neonates are warranted.

  6. Vitamin D Depletion in Pregnancy Decreases Survival Time, Oxygen Saturation, Lung Weight and Body Weight in Preterm Rat Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkedegn, Sine; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies suggest a role of vitamin D in fetal lung development although not studied in preterm animals. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates respiratory insufficiency in preterm rat offspring. Furthermore, the effects of vitamin D depletion on growth and lung...... surfactant were investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned low vitamin D (VDL) or control diet before mating and followed with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) determinations. After cesarean section at gestational day 19 (E19) or day 22 (E22), placental weight, birth weight, crown......-rump-length (CRL), oxygenation (SaO2) at 30 min and survival time were recorded. The pup lungs were analyzed for phospholipid levels, surfactant protein A-D mRNA and the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). S-25(OH)D was significantly lower in the VDL group at cesarean section (12 vs. 30nmol/L, p

  7. Normalisation of surfactant protein -A and -B expression in the lungs of low birth weight lambs by 21 days old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yin Soo

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR induced by placental restriction (PR in the sheep negatively impacts lung and pulmonary surfactant development during fetal life. Using a sheep model of low birth weight (LBW, we found that there was an increase in mRNA expression of surfactant protein (SP-A, -B and -C in the lung of LBW lambs but no difference in the protein expression of SP-A or -B. LBW also resulted in increased lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein (LAMP-3 mRNA expression, which may indicate an increase in either the density of type II Alveolar epithelial cells (AEC or maturity of type II AECs. Although there was an increase in glucocorticoid receptor (GR and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD-1 mRNA expression in the lung of LBW lambs, we found no change in the protein expression of these factors, suggesting that the increase in SP mRNA expression is not mediated by increased GC signalling in the lung. The increase in SP mRNA expression may, in part, be mediated by persistent alterations in hypoxia signalling as there was an increase in lung HIF-2α mRNA expression in the LBW lamb. The changes in the hypoxia signalling pathway that persist within the lung after birth may be involved in maintaining SP production in the LBW lamb.

  8. Weight of evidence analysis of lung cancer in Colorado Plateau uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeer, P.G.; Wallace, P.W.; Pereira, A. de B.

    1989-01-01

    The authors use a Bayesian contingency table analysis to assess lung cancer in the Colorado plateau uranium miners. This population is studied by Whittemore, Hornung and BEIR-IV, but none of these includes the radiation dose from hard rock mining that about 38% of the miners have accumulated. The analysis uses 'weight of evidence' which Good applied to the analysis of lung cancer many years ago. The analysis indicates that only in those exposed for a long period and at high exposure rates is the weight of evidence positive with a coefficient of variation less than unity that radiation is associated with the lung cancers. The coefficient of variation is a criterion of the significance of the weight of evidence for the association of the radon exposure in the miners with lung cancer. In the subsequent discussion it is suggested that this approach is similar to the probability of causation, which it is not. (author)

  9. Late regional density changes of the lung after radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagane, Randi; Danielsen, Turi; Fossa, Sophie Dorothea; Lokkevik, Erik; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: To investigate density changes in lung tissue, 3-4 years after postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer, based on dose dependence and regional differences. Material and methods: Sixty-one breast cancer patients, who had received computed tomography (CT) based postoperative radiotherapy, were included. CT scans were performed 35-51 months after start of radiotherapy. Dose information and CT scans from before and after radiotherapy were geometrically aligned in order to analyse changes in air-filled fraction (derived from CT density) as a function of dose for different regions of the lung. Results: Dose-dependent reduction of the air-filled fraction was shown to vary between the different regions of the lung. For lung tissue receiving about 50 Gy, the largest reduction in air-filled fraction was found in the cranial part of the lung. An increased air-filled fraction was observed for lung tissue irradiated to doses below 20 Gy, indicating compensatory response. Conclusions: The treatment-induced change in whole-lung density is a weighted response, involving the different regions, the irradiated volumes, and dose levels to these volumes. Simplistic models may therefore not be appropriate for describing the whole-lung dose-volume-response relationship following inhomogeneous irradiation

  10. Histological evaluation of lung cancer with T2-weighted magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Takashi; Matsuura, Yoshifumi; Shioya, Sumie; Ohta, Yasuyo

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the differences in signal intensity of lung cancer tissue and non-cancerous lung tissues on T 2 -weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. MR images were obtained from patients with squamous cell carcinoma (n=6), adenocarcinoma (n=5), small cell carcinoma (n=5), and large cell carcinoma (n=1). To compare the MR signal intensity between tissues, we calculated the signal intensity ratios for tumor/skeletal muscle and lung/skeletal muscle. The MR signal intensity for each tissue was measured with a densitometer and T 2 -weighted MR images with a similar window and a center. The value of the signal intensity ratio for squamous cell carcinoma (3.26±0.76) was greater than those for adenocarcinoma (1.99±0.50, p<0.05), small cell carcinoma (2.35±0.60), large cell carcinoma (2.46), and non-cancerous lung tissues (1.70±0.68, p<0.02). The values of the MR signal intensity ratio for non-cancerous lung tissues were 2.00 for a collapsed lung, 0.93 for a fibrotic lung, and 2.18 for a fibrotic lung with obstructive pneumonia. The results suggest that the MR signal intensity ratio for pathologic tissues/normal skeletal muscle can be a useful indicator for qualitative and quantitative MR imaging diagnosis. (author)

  11. Association Between RT-Induced Changes in Lung Tissue Density and Global Lung Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jinli; Zhang Junan; Zhou Sumin; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Foltz, Rodney J.; Hollis, Donna R.; Light, Kim L.; Wong, Terence Z.; Kelsey, Christopher R.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the association between radiotherapy (RT)-induced changes in computed tomography (CT)-defined lung tissue density and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods and Materials: Patients undergoing incidental partial lung RT were prospectively assessed for global (PFTs) and regional (CT and single photon emission CT [SPECT]) lung function before and, serially, after RT. The percent reductions in the PFT and the average changes in lung density were compared (Pearson correlations) in the overall group and subgroups stratified according to various clinical factors. Comparisons were also made between the CT- and SPECT-based computations using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Between 1991 and 2004, 343 patients were enrolled in this study. Of these, 111 patients had a total of 203 concurrent post-RT evaluations of changes in lung density and PFTs available for the analyses, and 81 patients had a total of 141 concurrent post-RT SPECT images. The average increases in lung density were related to the percent reductions in the PFTs, albeit with modest correlation coefficients (range, 0.20-0.43). The analyses also indicated that the association between lung density and PFT changes is essentially equivalent to the corresponding association with SPECT-defined lung perfusion. Conclusion: We found a weak quantitative association between the degree of increase in lung density as defined by CT and the percent reduction in the PFTs.

  12. Early weight loss predicts weight loss treatment response regardless of binge-eating disorder status and pretreatment weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rachel D; Ivezaj, Valentina; Pittman, Brian P; Grilo, Carlos M

    2018-04-10

    Individuals seeking weight loss treatment have diverse pretreatment weight trajectories, and once enrolled, individuals' response to weight loss treatments also varies greatly and may be influenced by the presence of binge-eating disorder (BED). Reported average weight losses may obscure these considerable differences. This study examined whether BED status and different weight-related change variables are associated with successful weight loss treatment outcomes in a controlled treatment study. Participants (N = 89) with overweight/obesity, with and without BED, participated in a 3-month weight loss trial in primary care with 3- and 12-month follow-ups. We tested the prognostic significance of four weight-related change variables (the last supper, early weight loss, pretreatment weight trajectory, weight suppression) on outcomes (weight loss-overall, weight loss-"subsequent," weight loss during second half of treatment). Early weight loss was positively associated with weight loss-overall at post-treatment, and at 3-month and 12-month follow-up. Early weight loss was positively associated with weight loss-subsequent at post-treatment only. No other weight-related variables were significantly associated with weight loss. Models including BED status and treatment condition were not significant. Participants with early weight loss were more likely to continue losing weight, regardless of BED status or treatment condition. The results highlight the importance of early dedication to weight loss treatment to increase the likelihood of positive outcomes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Progressive multiple cystic changes in both lungs in a patient treated with gefitinib for lung adenocarcinoma with multiple lung metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yon Ju; Chun, Eun Mi; Lee, Soon Nam; Shim, Sung Shin

    2014-01-01

    Gefitinib is regarded as a relatively safe agent for the treatment of an advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Pulmonary toxicity such as interstitial lung disease associated with gefitinib is uncommon with an estimated all time incidence around 1% worldwide. Moreover, a case of gefitinib associated with pulmonary cystic changes has not been reported yet. In this report we present a case of progressive multiple air cystic changes in both lungs in a patient with NSCLC and intrapulmonary metastases who underwent a gefitinib therapy.

  14. Radiation pneumonitis: generalised lung changes detected by radionuclide imaging following focal lung irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.; Sephton, R.; Irving, L.; Crennan, E.

    1992-01-01

    The usefulness of a nuclear imaging technique as a means of detecting radiation-induced lung injury is examined. The technique involves the patient inhaling modified technegas TM , a gas-like radiotracer which is an ultra fine particulate dispersion. This crosses the alveolar-capillary membrane and the clearance rate of the tracer from the lungs is presumed to reflect membrane permeability. A case of a patient who, after receiving localised radiotherapy and chemotherapy for lung cancer, developed symptoms and signs of radiation pneumonitis is reported. Pre- and post-radiotherapy investigations using the nuclear technique showed acceleration of rates of tracer clearance from both lungs, consistent with generalised changes in alveolar-capillary membrane permeability. It is suggested that the symptoms of radiation pneumonitis may in part result from pathophysiologic changes in nonirradiated lung which may appear radiologically normal. 4 refs., 2 figs

  15. Diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI in lung cancers. ADC test-retest repeatability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, Alex; Papoutsaki, Marianthi Vasiliki; Blackledge, Matthew; DeSouza, Nandita M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK Cancer Imaging Centre, Surrey (United Kingdom); Waterton, John C. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas University, Milan (Italy); Stroobants, Sigrid [Universiteit Antwerpen, Antwerpen (Belgium); Kuijer, Joost [Vrije Universiteit Medisch Centrum, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Morgan, Veronica [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-11-15

    To determine the test-retest repeatability of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) measurements across institutions and MRI vendors, plus investigate the effect of post-processing methodology on measurement precision. Thirty malignant lung lesions >2 cm in size (23 patients) were scanned on two occasions, using echo-planar-Diffusion-Weighted (DW)-MRI to derive whole-tumour ADC (b = 100, 500 and 800 s/mm{sup -2}). Scanning was performed at 4 institutions (3 MRI vendors). Whole-tumour volumes-of-interest were copied from first visit onto second visit images and from one post-processing platform to an open-source platform, to assess ADC repeatability and cross-platform reproducibility. Whole-tumour ADC values ranged from 0.66-1.94x10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (mean = 1.14). Within-patient coefficient-of-variation (wCV) was 7.1% (95% CI 5.7-9.6%), limits-of-agreement (LoA) -18.0 to 21.9%. Lesions >3 cm had improved repeatability: wCV 3.9% (95% CI 2.9-5.9%); and LoA -10.2 to 11.4%. Variability for lesions <3 cm was 2.46 times higher. ADC reproducibility across different post-processing platforms was excellent: Pearson's R{sup 2} = 0.99; CoV 2.8% (95% CI 2.3-3.4%); and LoA -7.4 to 8.0%. A free-breathing DW-MRI protocol for imaging malignant lung tumours achieved satisfactory within-patient repeatability and was robust to changes in post-processing software, justifying its use in multi-centre trials. For response evaluation in individual patients, a change in ADC >21.9% will reflect treatment-related change. (orig.)

  16. Weight Control: Attitudes of Dieters and Change Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Ellen S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Survey explores attitudes toward weight loss/weight control among 2 groups of change agents--40 dietitians and 42 fitness instructors--and among 96 people trying to lose weight. Significant differences were found in terms of importance in weight control of diet, drugs, exercise, religion, and will power; in importance of being of normal weight;…

  17. College Freshman Stress and Weight Change: Differences by Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economos, Christina D.; Hildebrandt, M. Lise; Hyatt, Raymond R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine how stress and health-related behaviors affect freshman weight change by gender. Methods: Three hundred ninety-six freshmen completed a 40-item health behavior survey and height and weight were collected at baseline and follow-up. Results: Average weight change was 5.04 lbs for males, 5.49 lbs for females. Weight gain was…

  18. A "small-changes" workplace weight loss and maintenance program: examination of weight and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Caryn; Schofield, Grant M; Hopkins, Will G

    2012-10-01

    To compare the effect of "small-changes" and "usual care" workplace interventions on weight loss and to investigate the effect of small changes with or without maintenance on weight and health outcomes. Overweight/obese employees at two New Zealand worksites received a 12-month usual-care intervention (n = 53), followed by a 12-month small-changes intervention (n = 102). Small changes comprised a 12-week component, followed by 9 months of maintenance, implemented at only one worksite. Magnitudes of effects were assessed via a threshold of -5% (weight loss) and standardization (health outcomes). Small changes showed beneficial weight loss relative to usual care in both worksites. For small-changes interventions, worksites reduced weight (12 weeks) and maintained lost weight (12 months). One in every three participants lost 5% or more weight. Some improvements in health outcomes were shown. Regardless of maintenance, the small-changes intervention was successful in sustaining weight loss.

  19. Diffusion on Networks and Diffusion Weighted NMR of the Human Lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Niels

    2011-01-01

    of the diffusion propagator to general properties of the underlying graph. Diffusion weighted NMR of the human lung with hyperpolarized noble gases, which over the last decade has been demonstrated to be a very promising way of detecting and quantifying lung diseases like emphysema, represent an obvious...... application of the above mentioned theory, given that the human lung consists of a large network of bifurcating tube like airways. 90-95% of the gas in a human lung resides in the ~30000 pulmonary acini, each of these consists of ~500 airways, which are connected as the edges in a binary tree. We model...... diffusion in the pulmonary acini as diffusion on metric graphs with this structure. The metric graph for each individual pulmonary acinus is embedded in three dimensional space via line segments. By considering an isotropic distribution of acini and a symmetric branching geometry for the line segments...

  20. Weight change and incident diabetes: addressing an unresolved issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-van der Bruggen, M.A.M.; Spijkerman, A.M.W.; Baal, van P.H.M.; Baan, C.A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Picavet, H.S.J.; A, van der A.D.; Verschuren, W.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of weight change on diabetes incidence remains unclear. To clarify the role of weight change as a risk factor for diabetes, the authors assessed the association between weight change and diabetes incidence conditional upon either initial or attained body mass index (BMI). They used 7,837

  1. Early structural changes in sheep lung following thoracic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerry-Force, M.L.; Perkett, E.A.; Brigham, K.L.; Meyrick, B.

    1988-01-01

    Using a large animal model of radiation lung injury--the sheep exposed to bilateral thoracic irradiation--we have recently shown the development of sustained pulmonary hypertension during the first 4 weeks following radiation. This is the period prior to the onset of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. In the present study, we have examined biopsy and autopsy lung tissue from these same sheep and assessed the sequential changes in lung morphology. Six unanesthetized sheep received bilateral thoracic irradiation (a total of 15 Gy); control sheep were sham irradiated. Lung biopsy tissue was taken prior to and at weekly or biweekly intervals during the 4 weeks immediately following radiation. The lungs were also removed at autopsy for light and electron microscopic examination. Our results show early (Week 1) interstitial and progressive intraalveolar edema accompanied by endothelial and epithelial injury. A gradual increase in number of interstitial mononuclear cells was evident from Week 1, both in the lung tissue and in perivascular cuffs. The number of peripheral lung interstitial mononuclear cells was twice baseline from Week 3 and included accumulation of lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and intravascular macrophages. The increased numbers of mononuclear cells paralleled the development of chronic pulmonary hypertension, perhaps suggesting their involvement in the pathogenesis of this disease. Alternatively, it may be that increased mononuclear cell number represents a stage of lung repair

  2. Weight Changes following the Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The association between recent and more distant weight changes before and after the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes has been little researched. The aim of this study is to determine the influence of patients’ weight history before diabetes diagnosis on the observed 6-year weight changes after...... diagnosis. Methods: A clinical cohort study combined with self-reported past weight history. In total 885 patients aged ≥40 years and newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes were included. Body weight was measured immediately after diabetes diagnosis and again at the 6-year follow up examination...... weight change after diagnosis. Conclusions: During the first on average 5.7 years after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, patients generally follow a course of declining average weight, and these weight developments are related primarily to recent weight changes, body mass index, and age, but not to the more...

  3. Weight Loss: Ready to Change Your Habits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calories more than you consume each day — through diet and exercise. You might lose weight more quickly if you ... yourself with regular weigh-ins and tracking your diet and activity, which is ... don't have a positive attitude about losing weight, you might not be ready — ...

  4. Efficacy of a "small-changes" workplace weight loss initiative on weight and productivity outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Caryn; Schofield, Grant M; Hopkins, Will G

    2012-10-01

    The effect of weight reduction on workplace productivity is unknown. We have investigated a "small-changes" workplace weight loss intervention on weight and productivity outcomes. Overweight/obese employees at two New Zealand worksites (n = 102) received the 12-week intervention. One site received an extra 9-month weight-maintenance component. Magnitudes of effects on weight and productivity were assessed via standardization. Both groups reduced weight at 12 weeks and maintained lost weight at 12 months. There were small possible improvements in productivity at one worksite and trivial reductions at the other by 12 weeks, with little subsequent change during maintenance in either group. At an individual level, weight change was associated with at most only small improvements or small reductions in productivity. Workplace weight loss initiatives may need to be more intensive or multidimensional to enhance productivity.

  5. Weight Change and Risk of Hyperglycemia in Elderly Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Dragsbæk; Neergaard, Jesper; Christiansen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    Background Hyperglycaemia increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease and stroke, and is influenced by weight. However, the impact of preceding weight change on blood glycemia levels in late-life is less well understood. Aim We studied the interplay between weight change and risk of hype...

  6. Lower radiation weighting factor for radon indicated in mechanistic modelling of human lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugmans, M.J.P.; Leenhouts, H.P.

    2002-01-01

    A two-mutation carcinogenesis (TMC) model was fitted to the age-dependent lung cancer incidence in a cohort of Dutch Hodgkin patients treated with radiotherapy. Employing the results of previous TMC analyses of lung cancer due to smoking (by British doctors) and due to exposure to radon (for Colorado miners) a model fit was obtained with an estimate for the low LET radiation effect at the cellular level. This allows risk calculations for lung cancer from low LET radiation. The excess absolute risks are in tune with the values reported in the literature, the excess relative risks differ among the exposed groups. Comparing the cellular radiation coefficients for radon and for low LET radiation leads to an estimated radiation weighting factor for radon of 3 (0.1-6). (author)

  7. Changes in regional and overall lung function after bronchography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richez, M.; Ravez, P.; Godart, G.; Halloy, J.L.; Robience, Y.

    1980-01-01

    This investigation compares the effects of unilateral bronchography on classical pulmonary function paramerts (spirometry, CO transfer, flowvolume curve, and arterial blood gases)and radioisotopic measurements by means of 99 sup(m)Tc-labeled microspheres and 81 sup(m)Kr. The regional changes of ventilation and perfusion were quantified by a radioisotopic index, which was established for each zone of interest: explored lung and unexplored lung. The quantitative study of regional perfusion and ventilation reveals significant reduction of ventilation for lung bases, but not for lung apices. The radioisotopic measurements show a reduction of perfusion parallel to the reduction of ventilation. There is no significant correlation between traditional pulmonary function parameters and isotopic indices. Radioisotopy proved a sensitive tool for investigation of unilateral alterations. (orig.) [de

  8. Changes in weight control behaviors and hedonic hunger during a 12-week commercial weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Patrick M; Theim, Kelly R; Boeka, Abbe; Johnson, Gail; Miller-Kovach, Karen

    2012-12-01

    Greater use of key self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., self-monitoring of food intake and weight) is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments, although this association is less established within widely-available commercial weight loss programs. Further, high hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may present a barrier to successful behavior change and weight loss, although this has not yet been examined. Adult men and women (N=111, body mass index M±SD=31.5±2.7kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after participating in a 12-week commercial weight loss program. From pre- to post-treatment, reported usage of weight control behaviors improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely associated. A decrease in hedonic hunger was associated with better weight loss. An improvement in reported weight control behaviors (e.g., self-regulatory behaviors) was associated with better weight loss, and this association was even stronger among individuals with high baseline hedonic hunger. Findings highlight the importance of specific self-regulatory behaviors within weight loss treatment, including a commercial weight loss program developed for widespread community implementation. Assessment of weight control behavioral skills usage and hedonic hunger may be useful to further identify mediators of weight loss within commercial weight loss programs. Future interventions might specifically target high hedonic hunger and prospectively examine changes in hedonic hunger during other types of weight loss treatment to inform its potential impact on sustained behavior change and weight control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Body weight changes, haematological and serum biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, platelet, lymphocytes, neutrophil, cholesterol, Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) values of the rams fed ammonium sulphate fortified diets were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the control. Haemoglobin concentration ...

  10. Lung Morphological Changes in Closed Chest Injury (an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Golubev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study lung morphological changes in a closed chest injury model in laboratory animals. Material and methods. Experiments were carried out in 30 male albino nonbred rats weighing 350—380 g. Closed chest injury was simulated, by exposing the chest of anesthetized rats to a 300-g metal cylinder falling from a height of 30 cm. The observation periods were 1, 3, 6, and 24 hours. Results. The signs of evident perivenular edema that was uncharas-teristic to acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by other causes are an important peculiarity of lung morphological changes in this experimental model of closed chest injury. Conclusion. The experimental studies clarified the pattern of lung morphological changes in the early period after closed chest injury. Key words: closed chest injury, pulmonary edema.

  11. Can model weighting improve probabilistic projections of climate change?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeisaenen, Jouni; Ylhaeisi, Jussi S. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 48, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-10-15

    Recently, Raeisaenen and co-authors proposed a weighting scheme in which the relationship between observable climate and climate change within a multi-model ensemble determines to what extent agreement with observations affects model weights in climate change projection. Within the Third Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) dataset, this scheme slightly improved the cross-validated accuracy of deterministic projections of temperature change. Here the same scheme is applied to probabilistic temperature change projection, under the strong limiting assumption that the CMIP3 ensemble spans the actual modeling uncertainty. Cross-validation suggests that probabilistic temperature change projections may also be improved by this weighting scheme. However, the improvement relative to uniform weighting is smaller in the tail-sensitive logarithmic score than in the continuous ranked probability score. The impact of the weighting on projection of real-world twenty-first century temperature change is modest in most parts of the world. However, in some areas mainly over the high-latitude oceans, the mean of the distribution is substantially changed and/or the distribution is considerably narrowed. The weights of individual models vary strongly with location, so that a model that receives nearly zero weight in some area may still get a large weight elsewhere. Although the details of this variation are method-specific, it suggests that the relative strengths of different models may be difficult to harness by weighting schemes that use spatially uniform model weights. (orig.)

  12. Percutaneous evacuation of diffuse pulmonary interstitial emphysema by lung puncture in a baby with extremely low birth weight: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Masahiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a serious complication of mechanical ventilation and can become life-threatening if progression occurs. Therapeutic lung puncture is a treatment option for severe pulmonary interstitial emphysema but has a limited use in babies with extremely low birth weight. We present a case of pulmonary interstitial emphysema in a Japanese baby (1-day-old boy with extremely low birth weight. The emphysema was successfully decompressed by therapeutic lung puncture performed with a trocar catheter. Case presentation The baby was born with a weight of 420g, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the lowest reported birth weight among babies with pulmonary interstitial emphysema. A chest X-ray on postnatal day 2 revealed pulmonary interstitial emphysema, which gradually progressed to diffuse pseudocystic changes. His condition became life-threatening despite the use of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and lateral decubitus positioning. We evacuated the pulmonary interstitial emphysema by lung puncture with a trocar catheter to avoid respiratory and cardiovascular collapse. This resulted in adequate evacuation of the emphysema and a dramatic improvement in his clinical condition. Conclusions Therapeutic lung puncture performed with a trocar catheter is beneficial in babies with extremely low birth weight and diffuse pulmonary interstitial emphysema. This treatment option may be broadly applicable, especially in an emergency situation.

  13. Influence of lung CT changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD on the human lung microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Engel

    Full Text Available Changes in microbial community composition in the lung of patients suffering from moderate to severe COPD have been well documented. However, knowledge about specific microbiome structures in the human lung associated with CT defined abnormalities is limited.Bacterial community composition derived from brush samples from lungs of 16 patients suffering from different CT defined subtypes of COPD and 9 healthy subjects was analyzed using a cultivation independent barcoding approach applying 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragment amplicons.We could show that bacterial community composition in patients with changes in CT (either airway or emphysema type changes, designated as severe subtypes was different from community composition in lungs of patients without visible changes in CT as well as from healthy subjects (designated as mild COPD subtype and control group (PC1, Padj = 0.002. Higher abundance of Prevotella in samples from patients with mild COPD subtype and from controls and of Streptococcus in the severe subtype cases mainly contributed to the separation of bacterial communities of subjects. No significant effects of treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids on bacterial community composition were detected within COPD cases with and without abnormalities in CT in PCoA. Co-occurrence analysis suggests the presence of networks of co-occurring bacteria. Four communities of positively correlated bacteria were revealed. The microbial communities can clearly be distinguished by their associations with the CT defined disease phenotype.Our findings indicate that CT detectable structural changes in the lung of COPD patients, which we termed severe subtypes, are associated with alterations in bacterial communities, which may induce further changes in the interaction between microbes and host cells. This might result in a changed interplay with the host immune system.

  14. Influence of lung CT changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on the human lung microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Marion; Endesfelder, David; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Kublik, Susanne; Granitsiotis, Michael S; Boschetto, Piera; Stendardo, Mariarita; Barta, Imre; Dome, Balazs; Deleuze, Jean-François; Boland, Anne; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Prasse, Antje; Welte, Tobias; Hohlfeld, Jens; Subramanian, Deepak; Parr, David; Gut, Ivo Glynne; Greulich, Timm; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert; Nowinski, Adam; Gorecka, Dorota; Singh, Dave; Gupta, Sumit; Brightling, Christopher E; Hoffmann, Harald; Frankenberger, Marion; Hofer, Thomas P; Burggraf, Dorothe; Heiss-Neumann, Marion; Ziegler-Heitbrock, Loems; Schloter, Michael; Zu Castell, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Changes in microbial community composition in the lung of patients suffering from moderate to severe COPD have been well documented. However, knowledge about specific microbiome structures in the human lung associated with CT defined abnormalities is limited. Bacterial community composition derived from brush samples from lungs of 16 patients suffering from different CT defined subtypes of COPD and 9 healthy subjects was analyzed using a cultivation independent barcoding approach applying 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragment amplicons. We could show that bacterial community composition in patients with changes in CT (either airway or emphysema type changes, designated as severe subtypes) was different from community composition in lungs of patients without visible changes in CT as well as from healthy subjects (designated as mild COPD subtype and control group) (PC1, Padj = 0.002). Higher abundance of Prevotella in samples from patients with mild COPD subtype and from controls and of Streptococcus in the severe subtype cases mainly contributed to the separation of bacterial communities of subjects. No significant effects of treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids on bacterial community composition were detected within COPD cases with and without abnormalities in CT in PCoA. Co-occurrence analysis suggests the presence of networks of co-occurring bacteria. Four communities of positively correlated bacteria were revealed. The microbial communities can clearly be distinguished by their associations with the CT defined disease phenotype. Our findings indicate that CT detectable structural changes in the lung of COPD patients, which we termed severe subtypes, are associated with alterations in bacterial communities, which may induce further changes in the interaction between microbes and host cells. This might result in a changed interplay with the host immune system.

  15. Weight Watchers on prescription: An observational study of weight change among adults referred to Weight Watchers by the NHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aston Louise M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scale of overweight and obesity in the UK places a considerable burden on the NHS. In some areas the NHS has formed partnerships with commercial companies to offer weight management services, but there has been little evaluation of these schemes. This study is an independent audit of the Weight Watchers NHS Referral scheme and evaluates the weight change of obese and overweight adults referred to Weight Watchers (WW by the NHS. Method Data was obtained from the WW NHS Referral Scheme database for 29,326 referral courses started after 2nd April 2007 and ending before 6th October 2009 [90% female; median age 49 years (IQR 38 - 61 years; median BMI 35.1 kg/m2 (IQR 31.8 - 39.5 kg/m2. Participants received vouchers (funded by the PCT following referral by a healthcare professional to attend 12 WW meetings. Body weight was measured at WW meetings and relayed to the central database. Results Median weight change for all referrals was -2.8 kg [IQR -5.9 - -0.7 kg] representing -3.1% initial weight. 33% of all courses resulted in loss of ≥5% initial weight. 54% of courses were completed. Median weight change for those completing a first course was -5.4 kg [IQR -7.8 - -3.1 kg] or -5.6% of initial weight. 57% lost ≥5% initial weight. Conclusions A third of all patients who were referred to WW through the WW NHS Referral Scheme and started a 12 session course achieved ≥5% weight loss, which is usually associated with clinical benefits. This is the largest audit of NHS referral to a commercial weight loss programme in the UK and results are comparable with other options for weight loss available through primary care.

  16. The impact of birth weight on the level of lung function and lung function decline in the general adult population. The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Sophie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported an association between low birth weight and low adult lung function, but findings have not been consistent. The aim of this study was to investigate whether birth weight is associated with both the level and the decline in adult lung function in general...... population. METHODS: The Danish Inter99 study is a population-based intervention study in adults aged 30-60 years, providing information on birth weight and lung function on 4428 participants. Of these, 2931 participants performed spirometry at baseline and at five-year follow-up. Multiple linear regression...... models were used to examine the association between birth weight and forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) and age-related decline in these variables. Analyses were conducted stepwise including sex, age, adult height, abdominal circumference, birth height, mother...

  17. Change in lung function in never-smokers with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Kobayashi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Never-smokers account for a large proportion of subjects in general population studies on nontuberculous mycobacteria lung disease (NTM-LD. However, the influence of NTM infection on the lung function of never-smokers has not yet been evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine how NTM-LD impairs the lung function in never-smokers, and whether there are an association between successful NTM-LD treatment in radiologic outcomes and improvement in lung function of never-smokers with NTM-LD or not. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of patients (1 who have never smoked during their lifetime; (2 with at least two respiratory specimens from sputum, one bronchial washing sample, or one lung tissue that were culture positive for the same NTM species; and (3 who underwent at least two pulmonary function tests. We enrolled healthy never-smokers as the control group. Results: In 22 never-smokers with NTM-LD, the median forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC at baseline was lower than those in 9 healthy never-smokers [1800 vs 2080 ml (p = 0.23 and 2230 vs 2620 ml (p = 0.06], respectively. The median change in FEV1 in never-smokers with NTM-LD was lower than that in healthy never-smokers [−70 vs 20 ml per year (p = 0.07, respectively]. On univariate analysis, baseline %-predicted FEV1 in never-smokers with NTM-LD was associated with changes in FVC (p = 0.026 and FEV1 (p = 0.013. Anti-NTM treatment was administered for at least 1 year in 19 patients (86.4%. The relationship between worsening chest CT findings and rapid progressive decline in both FVC (p = 0.66 and FEV1 (p = 0.23 were not significant. Conclusion: Never-smokers with NTM-LD showed lung function decline. There was no association between successful NTM-LD treatment in radiologic outcomes and improvement in lung function of never-smokers. Keywords: Lung function, Never-smoker, Nontuberculous mycobacterial

  18. Histomorphologic change of radiation pneumonitis in rat lungs: captopril reduces rat lung injury induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hee

    1999-01-01

    To assess the histomorphologic changes in the rat lung injury induced by radiation, to determine whether captopril reduces the rat lung injury and to evaluate change in TNF-α and TGF β and rat lung damage by radiation and captopril. Right lungs in male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided irradiation alone (10, 20, 30 Gy) or radiation (same dose with radiation alone group) with captopril (500 mg/L). Radiation alone group were sacrificed at twelve hours and eleven weeks after radiation and radiation with captopril group (captopril group) were sacrificed at eleven weeks after radiation with captopril. We examined the light microscope and electron microscopic features in the groups. In radiation alone group, there were patch parenchymal collapse and consolidation at twelve hours after radiation. The increase of radiation dose shows more prominent the severity and broader the affected areas. Eleven weeks after radiation, the severity and areas of fibrosis had increased in proportion to radiation dose given in the radiation alone group. There was notable decrease of lung fibrosis in captopril group than in radiation alone group. The number of mast cells rapidly increased with increase of radiation dose in radiation alone group and the degree of increase of mast cell number and severity of collagen accumulation more decreased in captopril group than in radiation alone group. In radiation alone group expression of TNF-α and TGF-β] increased according to increase of radiation dose at twelve hours after radiation in both group. At eleven weeks after radiation, expression of TGF- P increased according to increase of radiation dose in radiation group but somewhat decreased in captopril group. In the captopril group the collagen deposition increased but less dense than those of radiation alone group. The severity of perivascular thickening, capillary change, the number and degranulation of mast cells more decreased in the captopril group than in the radiation alone group. It

  19. Regional Lung Density Changes After Radiation Therapy for Tumors in and Around Thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jinli; Zhang Junan; Zhou Sumin; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Foltz, Rodney J.; Hollis, Donna R.; Light, Kim L.; Wong, Terence Z.; Kelsey, Christopher R.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To study the temporal nature of regional lung density changes and to assess whether the dose-dependent nature of these changes is associated with patient- and treatment-associated factors. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 118 patients with interpretable pre- and post-radiation therapy (RT) chest computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated. Changes in regional lung density were related to regional dose to define a dose-response curve (DRC) for RT-induced lung injury using three-dimensional planning tools and image fusion. Multiple post-RT follow-up CT scans were evaluated by fitting linear-quadratic models of density changes on dose with time as the covariate. Various patient- and treatment-related factors were examined as well. Results: There was a dose-dependent increase in regional lung density at nearly all post-RT follow-up intervals. The population volume-weighted changes evolved over the initial 6-month period after RT and reached a plateau thereafter (p < 0.001). On univariate analysis, patient age greater than 65 years (p = 0.003) and/or the use of pre-RT surgery (p < 0.001) were associated with significantly greater changes in CT density at both 6 and 12 months after RT, but the magnitude of this effect was modest. Conclusions: There appears to be a temporal nature for the dose-dependent increases in lung density. Nondosimetric clinical factors tend to have no, or a modest, impact on these changes.

  20. [Changes in body weight of the university students at university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Ruiz, María Nelia; Aguinaga Ontonso, Inés; Canga Armayor, Navidad; Guillén-Grima, Francisco; Hermoso de Mendoza, Juana; Serrano Monzo, Inmaculada; Marín Fernández, Blanca

    2015-06-01

    One of the strategies for the prevention of the obesity is the identification of critical periods of gain weight. Some studies confirm gain weight during the university period. The purpose of the present study was to determine the changes in the body weight of the university students in Navarre. Prospective cohort study. Public University of Navarre and the University of Navarre, in Pamplona. Study examined weight change among 452 students attending at university in Pamplona, during first and third course. Four hundred and fifty two students completed the questionnaire. Weight and height were measures and body mass index was calculated. The mean body weight increased 0,600 kg, 1,8 kg for males and no change in body weight was observed in female. 44,7 % of students gained weight (60,8 % of men and 36,8 % of women), and the gain weight was of 3,4 kg. University years are a critical factor for the gain weight, particularly males. Consideration of this, is necessary the development of effective weight gain prevention strategies during the university. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Weight loss methods and changes in eating habits among successful weight losers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soini, Sirpa; Mustajoki, Pertti; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-01-01

    Changes in several lifestyle related factors are required for successful long-term weight loss. Identification of these factors is of major importance from a public health point of view. This study was based upon findings from the Finnish Weight Control Registry (FWCR), a web-based registry. In total, 316 people were recruited and 184 met the study inclusion criteria. The aims of this study were to assess means and typical changes in eating habits associated with successful long-term weight loss. Half of the participants (48%) reported that they lost weight slowly primarily with dietary changes. Self-weighing frequency was high, 92% was weighing themselves at least once a week during the weight loss phase, and 75% during the maintenance phase. Dietary aspects associated with successful weight loss and weight maintenance included an increase in intake of vegetables, a reduction in frequency of eating candies and fast food, regular meal frequency and application of the Plate model. Both slow and fast weight loss may lead to successful long-term results and weight maintenance. A decrease in energy intake was achieved by reducing intake of energy-dense food, applying the Plate model and by regular meal frequency. Key messages Successful long-term weight loss is associated with a reduction in intake of energy-dense food. A more regular meal frequency and a high frequency of self-weighing seem to be helpful.

  2. Prognostic value of weight change in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Almdal, T; Mikkelsen, K L

    2002-01-01

    An association between low body mass index (BMI) and poor prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been found in a number of studies. The prevalence and prognostic importance of weight change in unselected subjects with COPD was examined. Subjects with COPD...... change: in the normal-to-underweight (BMI or = 25), best survival was seen in stable weight. A high proportion of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease experienced a significant weight loss......, which was associated with increased mortality. The results support further intervention studies that aim at avoiding weight loss in normal-to-underweight chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients....

  3. Prediction of Early Response to Chemotherapy in Lung Cancer by Using Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether change of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC value could predict early response to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Materials and Methods. Twenty-five patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer underwent chest MR imaging including DWI before and at the end of the first cycle of chemotherapy. The tumor’s mean ADC value and diameters on MR images were calculated and compared. The grouping reference was based on serial CT scans according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Logistic regression was applied to assess treatment response prediction ability of ADC value and diameters. Results. The change of ADC value in partial response group was higher than that in stable disease group (P=0.004. ROC curve showed that ADC value could predict treatment response with 100% sensitivity, 64.71% specificity, 57.14% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value, and 82.7% accuracy. The area under the curve for combination of ADC value and longest diameter change was higher than any parameter alone (P≤0.01. Conclusions. The change of ADC value may be a sensitive indicator to predict early response to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Prediction ability could be improved by combining the change of ADC value and longest diameter.

  4. Changes in body weight and pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seimon, R V; Espinoza, D; Finer, N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial showed a significantly increased relative risk of nonfatal cardiovascular events, but not mortality, in overweight and obese subjects receiving long-term sibutramine treatment with diet and exercise. We examined the rela......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial showed a significantly increased relative risk of nonfatal cardiovascular events, but not mortality, in overweight and obese subjects receiving long-term sibutramine treatment with diet and exercise. We examined...... the relationship between early changes (both increases and decreases) in pulse rate, and the impact of these changes on subsequent cardiovascular outcome events in both the placebo and sibutramine groups. SUBJECTS/METHODS: 9804 males and females, aged ⩾55 years, with a body mass index of 27-45 kg m(-)(2) were...... included in this current subanalysis of the SCOUT trial. Subjects were required to have a history of cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus with at least one cardiovascular risk factor, to assess cardiovascular outcomes. The primary outcome event (POE) was a composite of nonfatal myocardial...

  5. Body weight changes in elderly psychogeriatric nursing home residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoops, K.T.B.; Slump, E.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Brouwer, M.L.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. This study was undertaken to identify predictors of body weight change in nursing home patients with possible to severe dementia. Methods. For 24 weeks, 108 elderly residents of a nursing home were followed. Body weight was measured every 2 weeks. Other anthropometric characteristics,

  6. Reference chart for relative weight change to detect hypernatraemic dehydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, P. van; Wouwe, J.P. van; Breuning-Boers, J.M.; Buuren, S. van; Verkerk, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The validity of the rule of thumb that infants may have a weight loss of 10% in the first days after birth is unknown. We assessed the validity of this and other rules to detect breast-fed infants with hypernatraemic dehydration. Design: A reference chart for relative weight change was

  7. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F cows in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Burke, J M; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Criollo breeds, such as the Romosinuano, may have similar adaptation. The objectives were to estimate genetic effects in Romosinuano, Angus, and crossbred cows for their weights, weights of their calves, and ratios (calf weight:cow weight and cow weight change:calf weight gain) across lactation and to assess the influence of forage on traits and estimates. Cows ( = 91) were bred to Charolais bulls after their second parity. Calves ( = 214) were born from 2006 to 2009. Cows and calves were weighed in early (April and June), mid- (July), and late lactation (August and October). Animal was a random effect in analyses of calf data; sire was random in analyses of cow records and ratios. Fixed effects investigated included calf age, calf sex, cow age-year combinations, sire breed of cow, dam breed of cow, and interactions. Subsequent analyses evaluated the effect of forage grazed: endophyte-free or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Estimates of maternal heterosis for calf weight ranged from 9.3 ± 4.3 to 15.4 ± 5.7 kg from mid-lactation through weaning ( cow) were -6.8 ± 3.0 and -8.9 ± 4.2 kg for weights recorded in April and June. Calf weights and weight gains from birth were greater ( cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue except in mid-summer. Cow weight change from April to each time was negative for Angus cows and lower ( Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue were heavier ( cows had the lowest ( cow weight change:calf weight gain, indicating an energy-deficit condition. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue had more negative ( cow weight, 7.9 ± 3.0 to 15.8 ± 5.0 kg for cow weight change, and 0.07 ± 0.03 to 0.27 ± 0.1 for cow weight change:calf weight gain. Direct Romosinuano effects ranged from 14.8 ± 4.2 to 49.8 ± 7.7 kg for cow weight change and 0.2 ± 0.04 to 0.51 ± 0.14 for cow weight change:calf weight gain. The adaptive

  8. Perception of climate change in patients with chronic lung disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götschke, Jeremias; Mertsch, Pontus; Bischof, Michael; Kneidinger, Nikolaus; Matthes, Sandhya; Renner, Ellen D.; Schultz, Konrad; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Duchna, Hans-Werner; Behr, Jürgen; Schmude, Jürgen; Huber, Rudolf M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Climate change affects human health. The respective consequences are predicted to increase in the future. Patients with chronic lung disease are particularly vulnerable to the involved environmental alterations. However, their subjective perception and reactions to these alterations remain unknown. Methods In this pilot study, we surveyed 172 adult patients who underwent pulmonary rehabilitation and 832 adult tourists without lung disease in the alpine region about their perception of being affected by climate change and their potential reaction to specific consequences. The patients’ survey also contained the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) to rate the severity of symptoms. Results Most of the patients stated asthma (73.8%), COPD (9.3%) or both (11.0%) as underlying disease while 5.8% suffered from other chronic lung diseases. Patients and tourists feel equally affected by current climate change in general, while allergic subjects in both groups feel significantly more affected (p = 0.04). The severity of symptoms assessed by CAT correlates with the degree of feeling affected (p<0.01). The main disturbing consequences for patients are decreased air quality, increasing numbers of ticks and mosquitos and a rising risk for allergy and extreme weather events such as thunderstroms, while tourists are less disturbed by these factors. Increasing number of heat-days is of little concern to both groups. Conclusion Overall patients are more sensitive to health-related consequences of climate change. Yet, the hazard of heat-days seems underestimated and awareness should be raised. PMID:29045479

  9. Three-year weight change in successful weight losers who lost weight on a low-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Suzanne; Wyatt, Holly; Nassery, Shirine; Dibello, Julia; Fava, Joseph L; Hill, James O; Wing, Rena R

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term weight loss and eating and exercise behaviors of successful weight losers who lost weight using a low-carbohydrate diet. This study examined 3-year changes in weight, diet, and physical activity in 891 subjects (96 low-carbohydrate dieters and 795 others) who enrolled in the National Weight Control Registry between 1998 and 2001 and reported >or=30-lb weight loss and >or=1 year weight loss maintenance. Only 10.8% of participants reported losing weight after a low-carbohydrate diet. At entry into the study, low-carbohydrate diet users reported consuming more kcal/d (mean +/- SD, 1,895 +/- 452 vs. 1,398 +/- 574); fewer calories in weekly physical activity (1,595 +/- 2,499 vs. 2,542 +/- 2,301); more calories from fat (64.0 +/- 7.9% vs. 30.9 +/- 13.1%), saturated fat (23.8 +/- 4.1 vs. 10.5 +/- 5.2), monounsaturated fat (24.4 +/- 3.7 vs. 11.0 +/- 5.1), and polyunsaturated fat (8.6 +/- 2.7 vs. 5.5 +/- 2.9); and less dietary restraint (10.8 +/- 2.9 vs. 14.9 +/- 3.9) compared with other Registry members. These differences persisted over time. No differences in 3-year weight regain were observed between low-carbohydrate dieters and other Registry members in intent-to-treat analyses (7.0 +/- 7.1 vs. 5.7 +/- 8.7 kg). It is possible to achieve and maintain long-term weight loss using a low-carbohydrate diet. The long-term health effects of weight loss associated with a high-fat diet and low activity level merits further investigation.

  10. Major rapid weight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Iepsen, Eva Winning; Lundgren, Julie

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obesity is associated with increased all-cause mortality, but weight loss may not decrease cardiovascular events. In fact, very low calorie diets have been linked to arrhythmias and sudden death. The QT interval is the standard marker for cardiac repolarization, but T-wave morphology...... analysis has been suggested as a more sensitive method to identify changes in cardiac repolarization. We examined the effect of a major and rapid weight loss on T-wave morphology. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six individuals had electrocardiograms (ECG) taken before and after eight weeks of weight loss......A1c (pweight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization. Monitoring of MCS during calorie restriction makes it possible to detect repolarization changes with higher discriminative power than the QT-interval during major rapid weight...

  11. Quantitative evaluation of emphysematous changes in the lung by computed tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Yoshinari; Hirayama, Takanobu; Hiratsuka, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Yasushi; Takamoto, Masahiro; Ishibashi, Tsuneo; Shinoda, Atsushi

    1987-01-01

    The present studies were undertaken to quantitatively evaluate emphysematous changes in the lung by CT scan. CT scans were made at inspiration and expiration at three levels (base, mid thorax and apex). Low density lesion ratio (LL %) was measured as the proportion of the area under -950 Housfield Unit in each lung field at expiration. Each value of LL % was determined in 6 lung fields (both lung fields at three levels). The LL % was calculated from the mean of these six values. The results suggest that LL % of the emphysematous lungs shows significant elevation of the values compared with those of normal lungs and lungs with bronchial asthma. (author)

  12. Parental motivation to change body weight in young overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M; Dawson, Anna M; Haszard, Jillian J; Brown, Deirdre A

    2015-07-01

    To determine what factors are associated with parental motivation to change body weight in overweight children. Cross-sectional study. Dunedin, New Zealand. Two hundred and seventy-one children aged 4-8 years, recruited in primary and secondary care, were identified as overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) after screening. Parents completed questionnaires on demographics; motivation to improve diet, physical activity and weight; perception and concern about weight; parenting; and social desirability, prior to being informed that their child was overweight. Additional measures of physical activity (accelerometry), dietary intake and child behaviour (questionnaire) were obtained after feedback. Although all children were overweight, only 42% of parents perceived their child to be so, with 36% indicating any concern. Very few parents (n 25, 8%) were actively trying to change the child's weight. Greater motivation to change weight was observed for girls compared with boys (P = 0.001), despite no sex difference in BMI Z-score (P = 0.374). Motivation was not associated with most demographic variables, social desirability, dietary intake, parenting or child behaviour. Increased motivation to change the child's weight was observed for heavier children (P < 0.001), those who were less physically active (P = 0.002) and more sedentary (P < 0.001), and in parents who were more concerned about their child's weight (P < 0.001) or who used greater food restriction (P < 0.001). Low levels of parental motivation to change overweight in young children highlight the urgent need to determine how best to improve motivation to initiate change.

  13. Equity weighting and the marginal damage costs of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthoff, David [The Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin (Ireland)]|[International Max Planck Research School on Earth System Modelling, Hamburg (Germany)]|[Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg (Germany); Hepburn, Cameron [Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, and James Martin Institute, Said Business School, University of Oxford, and New College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Tol, Richard S.J. [The Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin (Ireland)]|[Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg (Germany)]|[Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]|[Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Climate change will give rise to different impacts in different countries, and different countries have different levels of development. Equity-weighted estimates of the (marginal) impact of greenhouse gas emissions reflect these differences. This paper analyses the impact of equity weighting on the marginal damage cost of carbon dioxide emissions, and reaches four main conclusions. First, equity-weighted estimates are substantially higher than estimates without equity-weights; equity-weights may even change the sign of the social cost estimates. Second, estimates differ by two orders of magnitude depending on the region to which the equity weights are normalised. Third, equity-weighted estimates are sensitive to the resolution of the impact estimates. Depending on the assumed intra-regional income distribution, estimates may be more than twice as high if national rather than regional impacts are aggregated. Fourth, variations in the assumed inequality aversion have different impacts in different scenarios, not only because different scenarios have different emissions and hence warming, but also because different scenarios have different income differences, different growth rates, and different vulnerabilities. (author)

  14. Equity weighting and the marginal damage costs of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthoff, David; Hepburn, Cameron; Tol, Richard S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change will give rise to different impacts in different countries, and different countries have different levels of development. Equity-weighted estimates of the (marginal) impact of greenhouse gas emissions reflect these differences. This paper analyses the impact of equity weighting on the marginal damage cost of carbon dioxide emissions, and reaches four main conclusions. First, equity-weighted estimates are substantially higher than estimates without equity-weights; equity-weights may even change the sign of the social cost estimates. Second, estimates differ by two orders of magnitude depending on the region to which the equity weights are normalised. Third, equity-weighted estimates are sensitive to the resolution of the impact estimates. Depending on the assumed intra-regional income distribution, estimates may be more than twice as high if national rather than regional impacts are aggregated. Fourth, variations in the assumed inequality aversion have different impacts in different scenarios, not only because different scenarios have different emissions and hence warming, but also because different scenarios have different income differences, different growth rates, and different vulnerabilities. (author)

  15. Dietary patterns and changes in body weight in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Matthias B; Fung, Teresa T; Manson, Joann E; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2006-08-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between adherence to dietary patterns and weight change in women. Women (51,670, 26 to 46 years old) in the Nurses' Health Study II were followed from 1991 to 1999. Dietary intake and body weight were ascertained in 1991, 1995, and 1999. A Western pattern, characterized by high intakes of red and processed meats, refined grains, sweets and desserts, and potatoes, and a prudent pattern, characterized by high intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fish, poultry, and salad dressing, were identified with principal component analysis, and associations between patterns and change in body weight were estimated. Women who increased their Western pattern score had greater weight gain (multivariate adjusted means, 4.55 kg for 1991 to 1995 and 2.86 kg for 1995 to 1999) than women who decreased their Western pattern score (2.70 and 1.37 kg for the two time periods), adjusting for baseline lifestyle and dietary confounders and changes in confounders over time (p < 0.001 for both time periods). Furthermore, among women who increased their prudent pattern score, weight gain was smaller (multivariate-adjusted means, 1.93 kg for 1991 to 1995 and 0.66 kg for 1995 to 1999) than among women who decreased their prudent pattern score (4.83 and 3.35 kg for the two time periods) (p < 0.001). The largest weight gain between 1991 and 1995 and between 1995 and 1999 was observed among women who decreased their prudent pattern score while increasing their Western pattern score (multivariate adjusted means, 6.80 and 4.99 kg), whereas it was smallest for the opposite change in patterns (0.87 and -0.64 kg) (p < 0.001). Adoption of a Western dietary pattern is associated with larger weight gain in women, whereas a prudent dietary pattern may facilitate weight maintenance.

  16. Relation between radiation-induced whole lung functional loss and regional structural changes in partial irradiated rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luijk, Peter van; Novakova-Jiresova, Alena; Faber, Hette; Steneker, Marloes N.J.; Kampinga, Harm H.; Meertens, Haarm; Coppes, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity is characterized by dose, region, and time-dependent severe changes in lung morphology and function. This study sought to determine the relation between the structural and functional changes in the irradiated rat lung at three different phases after irradiation. Materials and Methods: Six groups of animals were irradiated to 16-22 Gy to six different lung regions, each containing 50% of the total lung volume. Before and every 2 weeks after irradiation, the breathing rate (BR) was measured, and at Weeks 8, 26, and 38 CT was performed. From the computed tomography scans, the irradiated lung tissue was delineated using a computerized algorithm. A single quantitative measure for structural change was derived from changes of the mean and standard deviation of the density within the delineated lung. Subsequently, this was correlated with the BR in the corresponding phase. Results: In the mediastinal and apex region, the BR and computed tomography density changes did not correlate in any phase. After lateral irradiation, the density changes always correlated with the BR; however, in all other regions, the density changes only correlated significantly (r 2 = 0.46-0.85, p < 0.05) with the BR in Week 26. Conclusion: Changes in pulmonary function correlated with the structural changes in the absence of confounding heart irradiation

  17. Age related changes in steroid receptors on cultured lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barile, F.A.; Bienkowski, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The number of high affinity glucocorticoid receptors (Ro) on human fetal lung fibroblasts decreases as the cells age in vitro, and it has been suggested that these cell systems may be useful models of age-related changes in vivo. They examined the relation between change in Ro with in vitro aging and donor age. Confluent monolayers of lung fibroblasts at various population doubling levels (PDL), were incubated with ( 3 H)-dexamethasone (( 3 H)Dex) either alone or with excess (.01 mM) Dex. Specific binding was calculated as the difference between radioactivity in cells incubated with and without unlabeled Dex; Scatchard plots were used to analyze the data. Ro, measured as fmol ( 3 H)Dex/10 6 cells, for two lines of human fetal cells (HFL-1 and MRC-5) decreased with increasing age in vitro. However, human newborn (CRL-1485) and adult (CCL-201) cells and fetal rabbit cells (FAB-290), showed increases in Ro with continuous passage. For each cell line, the affinity constant (K/sub d/) did not change significantly with passage. They conclude that the direction of changes in steroid receptor levels on cells aging in vitro is influenced by donor age and species. Caution should be used in applying results obtained from model systems to aging organisms

  18. Height, weight, weight change and risk of breast cancer in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Bezerra de Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The relationship between body size and breast cancer still remains controversial in considering menopausal status. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of height, weight and weight changes with breast cancer in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: National Cancer Institute (INCA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ. SAMPLE: 177 incident cases of invasive breast cancer admitted to the main hospital of INCA between May 1995 and February 1996, and 377 controls recruited from among female visitors to the same hospital. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Height and weight were measured and information on maximum weight, weight at ages 18 and 30 years, and potential risk factors were ascertained by interview at the hospital. RESULTS: Height was not related to risk of breast cancer among both pre and postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, women in this study were shorter than in studies that have found a positive association. Premenopausal women in the upper quartile of recent body mass index (BMI and maximum BMI showed a reduced risk of breast cancer (P for trend <= 0.03. Weight loss between ages 18 and 30 years and from 18 years to present was also associated with breast cancer among premenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may merely indicate the known association between leanness and breast cancer. Further studies should explore the role of weight loss on breast cancer risk.

  19. The diagnostic accuracy of physical examination compared to lung ultrasound for determining lung congestion in hemodialysis patients who have reached their dry weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahardjo, K. D.; Dharmaeizar; Nainggolan, G.; Harimurti, K.

    2017-08-01

    Research has shown that hemodialysis patients with lung congestion have high morbidity and mortality. Patients were assumed to be free of lung congestion if they had reached their post-dialysis dry weight. Most often, to determine if the patient was free of lung congestion, physical examination was used. However, the accuracy of physical examination in detecting lung congestion has not been established. To compare the capabilities of physical examination and lung ultrasound in detection of lung congestion, cross-sectional data collection was conducted on hemodialysis patients. Analysis was done to obtain proportion, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and positive likelihood ratio. Sixty patients participated in this study. The inter observer variation of 20 patients revealed a kappa value of 0.828. When all 60 patients were taken into account, we found that 36 patients (57.1%) had lung congestion. Mild lung congestion was found in 24 (38.1%), and 12 (19%) had a moderate degree of congestion. In the analysis comparing jugular venous pressure to lung ultrasound, we found that sensitivity was 0.47 (0.31-0.63), specificity was 0.73 (0.54-0.86), positive predictive value (PPV) was 0.51 (0.36-0.67), negative predictive value (NPV) was 0.70 (0.49-0.84), positive likelihood ratio (PLR) was 1.75 (0.88-3.47), and the negative likelihood ratio (NLR) was 0.72 (0.47-1.12). In terms of lung auscultation, we found that sensitivity was 0.56 (0.39-0.71), specificity was 0.54 (0.35-0.71), PPV was 0.61 (0.44-0.76), NPV was 0.48 (0.31-0.66), PLR was 1.21 (0.73-2.0), and NLR was 0.82 (0.49-1.38). The results of our study showed that jugular venous distention and lung auscultation examination are not reliable means of detecting lung congestion.

  20. High frequency oscillatory ventilation with lung volume optimization in very low birth weight newborns – a nine-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nona

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcome of very low birth weight newborns, submitted to high frequency oscillatory ventilation with a strategy of early lung volume optimization. Methods: Descriptive prospective study in a nine-year period, between 1999 January 1st to 2008 January 1st. All the very low birth weight newborns were born in Dr. Alfredo da Costa Maternity, Lisbon, Portugal, were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and submitted to high frequency oscillatory ventilation with early lung volume optimization; these newborns were followed-up since birth and their charts were analyzed periodically until hospital discharge. Rresults: From a total population of 730 very low birth weight inborns, 117 babies died (16% and 613 survived (84%. The median of birth weight was 975 g and the gestational age median was 28 weeks. For the survivors, the median ventilation and oxygenation times were 3 and 18 days, respectively. The incidence of chronic lung disease was 9.5%, with nine newborns discharged on oxygen therapy. The incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage III – IV (total population group was 11.5% and the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity grade 3 or higher was 8.0%. Cconclusions: High frequency oscillatory ventilation with early lung volume optimization strategy reduced the need of respiratory support, and improved pulmonary and global outcomes in very low birth weight infants with respiratory distress syndrome.

  1. Cross-sectional changes in lung volume measured by electrical impedance tomography are representative for the whole lung in ventilated preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, Pauline S.; Miedema, Martijn; de Jongh, Frans H.; Frerichs, Inez; van Kaam, Anton H.

    2014-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography measures lung volume in a cross-sectional slice of the lung. Whether these cross-sectional volume changes are representative of the whole lung has only been investigated in adults, showing conflicting results. This study aimed to compare cross-sectional and whole lung

  2. Haematology, serum biochemistry and organ weight changes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of fifty Wistar albino rats weighing 50-60g were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design to investigate the haematology, serum biochemistry and organ weight changes on diets containing processed dehulled jack bean. Four diets containing 10% crude protein were formulated ...

  3. Impact of weight change on albuminuria in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bello, Aminu K.; de Zeeuw, Dick; El Nahas, Meguid; Brantsma, Auke H.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gansevoort, Ronald T.

    Background. Increased levels of albuminuria have been recognized as a feature of obesity and the metabolic syndrome, and to be associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular and renal disease. The impact of weight change on albuminuria and its possible mechanism has not been studied yet in the

  4. Weight gain, physical activity and dietary changes during the seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of the study was to assess weight gain, physical activity and dietary changes during the first year of university life in Malawi. Setting: The setting was Bunda College of Agriculture, University of Malawi. Subjects: The subjects were first-year students (n = 47) enrolled for the 2008/2009 academic year.

  5. Lung health and heart rate variability changes in salt workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glad Mohesh, M I; Sundaramurthy, A

    2016-04-01

    India is the third largest salt producing country in the World, with a global annual production of 230 million tonnes. Large number of salt workers get employed in these salt milling plants risking their life from the effects of salt. Recent foreign evidences reported that these salt workers are exposed to aerosol salt particles that disturb their lung and cardiovascular autonomic control. To compare the status of lung health, cardiovascular autonomic control and biochemical changes in a group of salt industry workers with that of the age-matched normal subjects. Volunteers of both sexes (25-35 years) were divided into Group I (n=10) controls and Group II (n=10) non-brine salt workers in salt milling plants. From fasting blood sample, complete blood count, plasma electrolyte and lipid profile estimation were done. After resting for 15min, blood pressure and lead II ECG were recorded. Spirometry was done using RMS Helios spirometer. Data collected were later analysed using GraphPad Prism 5.0 with statistical significance set at p4.0, 112.8±1.7, pindustry has shown a little or no impact on the respiratory system, however there are changes in the blood and cardiovascular system, which need to be further studied to understand the long-term influences of salt in this population. Copyright © 2015 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Computed tomography structural lung changes in discordant airflow limitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus A A Mohamed Hoesein

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that structural lung changes may be present before the occurrence of airflow limitation as assessed by spirometry. This study investigated the prevalence of computed tomography (CT quantified emphysema, airway wall thickening and gas trapping according to classification of airflow limitation (FEV1/FVC 70%; group 2LLN; and group 370% but FEV1 <80% predicted, were excluded. Multivariate regression analysis correcting for covariates was used to asses the extent of emphysema, airway wall thickening and gas trapping according to three groups of airflow limitation.Mean (standard deviation age was 62.5 (5.2 years and packyears smoked was 41.0 (18.0. Group 2 subjects when compared to group 1 had a significantly lower 15(th percentile, -920.6 HU versus -912.2 HU; a higher Pi10, 2.87 mm versus 2.57 mm; and a higher E/I-ratio, 88.6% versus 85.6% (all p<0.001.Subjects with an FEV1/FVC<70%, but above the LLN, have a significant greater degree of structural lung changes on CT compared to subjects without airflow limitation.

  7. Influence of diseases and metabolic disorders on cow weight changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Podlahová

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Requirements on increasing economic efficiency of cattle breeding force farmers to use the latest up-to-datetechnology for monitoring and management of farming quality. Regular weighing and data processing can forinstance discover mistakes that can indicate defects, e.g. nutrition deficiencies, incorrect embryonic development,health problems, demanding nursing intervention. The aim of the research was to monitor manifestations of diseasesand metabolic disorders in the course of weight curve based on data from an automated system for weighing the liveweight of dairy cows. There was used in the weighing unit for milking robots Astronaut A3 (Lely company to obtainweight data of individual cows. There were selected dairy cows with the longest period of lactation or already dryingoff, and especially dairy cows with various health problems for study. Limiting values of weight changes wereestablished after assembling a general equation of mass curve. In the sphere of the diseases there was manifestedonly ketosis in the weight curves with a loss of 10.2 kg / day (38% weight loss. The results of the study will beapplied for compiling algorithm that will be implemented in the complete management system of cattle breeding,monitoring the dairy cows every day and highlight possible deviations exceeding of physiological changes in weight.

  8. The effects of electronic cigarette emissions on systemic cotinine levels, weight and postnatal lung growth in neonatal mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon A McGrath-Morrow

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarette (E-cigarettes emissions present a potentially new hazard to neonates through inhalation, dermal and oral contact. Exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes may cause significant systemic absorption in neonates due to the potential for multi-route exposure. Systemic absorption of nicotine and constituents of E-cigarette emissions may adversely impact weight and lung development in the neonate. To address these questions we exposed neonatal mice to E-cigarette emissions and measured systemic cotinine levels and alveolar lung growth.Neonatal mice were exposed to E-cigarettes for the first 10 days of life. E-cigarette cartridges contained either 1.8% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG or PG vehicle alone. Daily weights, plasma and urine cotinine levels and lung growth using the alveolar mean linear intercept (MLI method were measured at 10 days of life and compared to room air controls. Mice exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG had a 13.3% decrease in total body weight compared to room air controls. Plasma cotinine levels were found to be elevated in neonatal mice exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG E-cigarettes (mean 62.34± 3.3 ng/ml. After adjusting for sex and weight, the nicotine exposed mice were found to have modestly impaired lung growth by MLI compared to room air control mice (p<.054 trial 1; p<.006 trial 2. These studies indicate that exposure to E-cigarette emissions during the neonatal period can adversely impact weight gain. In addition exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes can cause detectable levels of systemic cotinine, diminished alveolar cell proliferation and a modest impairment in postnatal lung growth.

  9. The effects of electronic cigarette emissions on systemic cotinine levels, weight and postnatal lung growth in neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A; Hayashi, Madoka; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Malinina, Alla; Collaco, Joseph M; Neptune, Enid; Klein, Jonathan D; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Breysse, Patrick; Lazarus, Philip; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarette (E-cigarettes) emissions present a potentially new hazard to neonates through inhalation, dermal and oral contact. Exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes may cause significant systemic absorption in neonates due to the potential for multi-route exposure. Systemic absorption of nicotine and constituents of E-cigarette emissions may adversely impact weight and lung development in the neonate. To address these questions we exposed neonatal mice to E-cigarette emissions and measured systemic cotinine levels and alveolar lung growth. Neonatal mice were exposed to E-cigarettes for the first 10 days of life. E-cigarette cartridges contained either 1.8% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG) or PG vehicle alone. Daily weights, plasma and urine cotinine levels and lung growth using the alveolar mean linear intercept (MLI) method were measured at 10 days of life and compared to room air controls. Mice exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG had a 13.3% decrease in total body weight compared to room air controls. Plasma cotinine levels were found to be elevated in neonatal mice exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG E-cigarettes (mean 62.34± 3.3 ng/ml). After adjusting for sex and weight, the nicotine exposed mice were found to have modestly impaired lung growth by MLI compared to room air control mice (pE-cigarette emissions during the neonatal period can adversely impact weight gain. In addition exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes can cause detectable levels of systemic cotinine, diminished alveolar cell proliferation and a modest impairment in postnatal lung growth.

  10. Changes of left ventricular function at exercise after lung resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisaki, Takashi; Gomibuchi, Makoto; Shoji, Tasuku

    1992-01-01

    To determine the effect of lung resection on left ventricular function, 29 surgical patients were examined by using a nuclear stethoscope as a non-invasive means for measuring ventricular function at exercise. Pre- and post-operative parameters were obtained at rest and exercise. At rest, postoperative stroke volume (SV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), ejection fraction (EF), and ejection rate (ER) were significantly decreased; heart rate (HR) was significantly increased; and both filling rate (FR) and cardiac output (CO) remained unchanged. At maximum exercise, postoperative EDV, SV, ER and FR were significantly decreased; and there was no significant difference in either HR or EF, resulting in a significantly decreased CO. A ratio of CO and FR at maximum exercise to at rest was significantly decreased after surgery, as compared with that before surgery. According to the number of lobe resection, similar findings for all parameters, except for EF, were observed in the group of two lobe or more resection (n=13); and only two parameters, ER and FR, had the same tendency as those mentioned above in the group of a single lobe resection (n=16). The age group of 60 years or less (n=14) had similar findings for all parameters. In the group of 65 years or more (n=10), resting HR after surgery was not different from that before surgery; and postoperative CO was significantly decreased at rest, but not different from preoperative value at maximum exercise. In conclusion, left ventricular function associated with lung resection is reflected by decreased EDV and SV resulting from reduced pre-load. These changes may be corrected at rest, but not corrected at maximum exercise, resulting in decreased CO. More noticeable decrease in EDV and SV seems to be associated with larger lung resection. In older patients, HR is not corrected well, resulting in a decrease in CO at rest. (N.K.)

  11. Lung tumor motion change during stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT): an evaluation using MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Kenneth R.; Li, Jonathan G.; Liu, Chihray; Newlin, Heather E.; Schmalfuss, Ilona; Kyogoku, Shinsuke; Dempsey, James F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate changes in lung tumor internal target volume during stereotactic body radiotherapy treatment (SBRT) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten lung cancer patients (13 tumors) undergoing SBRT (48 Gy over four consecutive days) were evaluated. Each patient underwent three lung MRI evaluations: before SBRT (MRI‐1), after fraction 3 of SBRT (MRI‐3), and three months after completion of SBRT (MRI‐3m). Each MRI consisted of T1‐weighted images in axial plane through the entire lung. A cone‐beam CT (CBCT) was taken before each fraction. On MRI and CBCT taken before fractions 1 and 3, gross tumor volume (GTV) was contoured and differences between the two volumes were compared. Median tumor size on CBCT before fractions 1 (CBCT‐1) and 3 (CBCT‐3) was 8.68 and 11.10 cm3, respectively. In 12 tumors, the GTV was larger on CBCT‐3 compared to CBCT‐1 (median enlargement, 1.56 cm3). Median tumor size on MRI‐1, MRI‐3, and MRI‐3m was 7.91, 11.60, and 3.33 cm3, respectively. In all patients, the GTV was larger on MRI‐3 compared to MRI‐1 (median enlargement, 1.54 cm3). In all patients, GTV was smaller on MRI‐3m compared to MRI‐1 (median shrinkage, 5.44 cm3). On CBCT and MRI, all patients showed enlargement of the GTV during the treatment week of SBRT, except for one patient who showed minimal shrinkage (0.86 cm3). Changes in tumor volume are unpredictable; therefore, motion and breathing must be taken into account during treatment planning, and image‐guided methods should be used, when treating with large fraction sizes. PACS number: 87.53.Ly PMID:24892328

  12. Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes: I: Feed intake and live weight changes during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Munksgaard, Lene

    2009-01-01

    based on automatic milking (AMS). The objective was to examine the relationship between feed intake and live weight changes in response to the three feeding strategies examined. All cows were allowed a combination of a mixed ration (MR) and individually separately offered concentrate (ISC) in the AMS......) or late (MR2-L) change to a low energy ration. The early and late change was defined as a live weight gain after live weight minimum of 15 and 35 kg respectively for DR/DH and 11 and 25 kg respectively for DJ. Peak energy intake obtained by primiparous cows and cows of DJ was not significantly higher......Based on individual cow live weight changes, feeding strategies were designed for individual feeding of dairy cows in loose-housing systems and examined in a four-year production trial including 115 Danish Red (DR), 91 Danish Holstein (DH) and 93 Danish Jersey (DJ). Cows were kept in a dairy system...

  13. Maternal weight change from prepregnancy to 7 years postpartum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Helene; Stovring, Henrik; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We studied the influence of maternal behavior on weight change from prepregnancy to 7 years postpartum. METHODS: We used linear regression to study the independent and combined associations between self-reported behavior in pregnancy (dietary intake, leisure-time exercise, sedentary...... activity, smoking) and postpartum (breastfeeding duration and smoking) on weights at 6 months, 18 months, and 7 years postpartum. RESULTS: Women's average 7-year weight gain was 2.07 kg, with 23% gaining >5 kg. Multivariable analyses suggested that women with healthier dietary intake, more leisure......-time exercise, less sedentary behavior, and longer duration of breastfeeding on average gained 1.66 kg [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40; 1.91] with a significantly reduced odds [OR 0.56 (95% CI: 0.49; 0.64)] of gaining >5 kg from prepregnancy to 7 years postpartum compared to women with none or one...

  14. Postpartum Maternal Weight Changes: Implications for Military Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abrams, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    .... Multivariate analysis suggested that high level of maternal weight gain during pregnancy, history of weight cycling, postpartum depression, and financial insecurity were associated with increased weight after birth...

  15. Early weight changes after birth and serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin level in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomohide; Nagasaki, Hiraku; Asato, Yoshihide; Ohta, Takao

    2011-12-01

    Extra-uterine growth retardation (EUGR) is associated with an increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases later in life. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between early weight change after birth in preterm infants and adiponectin (adn) multimeric complexes. Subjects included 28 preterm infants born between weeks 24 and 33 of gestation. Serum adn multimeric complexes and the anthropometric parameters were measured in preterm infants at birth and at corrected term. Bodyweight (BW) decreased during the first week of life, with birthweight restored at approximately 19 days after birth. Nineteen of the subjects had EUGR at corrected term. Total (T)-adn, high-molecular-weight (H)-adn, and the ratio of H-adn to T-adn (H/T-adn) were significantly elevated at corrected term than at birth. Postmenstrual age, birthweight, birth length and lowest BW after birth were positively correlated with H-adn and H/T-adn. Weight reduction after birth was negatively correlated with H-adn. Age to restore birthweight was negatively correlated with T-adn, H-adn and H/T-adn. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated age to restore birthweight as the major predictor of T-adn and H-adn. Early weight changes after birth may alter serum adn level in preterm infants at corrected term. The appropriate nutritional support in the early postnatal period could reduce the prevalence of EUGR and the future risk for cardiometabolic diseases. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  16. Perfluoroalkyl substances and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate in response to weight-loss diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Gang; Dhana, Klodian; Furtado, Jeremy D

    2018-01-01

    in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight-loss setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the 2-year POUNDS Lost randomized clinical trial based in Boston, Massachusetts, and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, that examined the effects of energy-restricted diets on weight changes, baseline...... and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.4 kg of body weight during the first 6 months (weight-loss period) and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight during the period of 6-24 months (weight regain period). After multivariate adjustment, baseline PFAS concentrations were...... not significantly associated with concurrent body weight or weight loss during the first 6 months. In contrast, higher baseline levels of PFASs were significantly associated with a greater weight regain, primarily in women. In women, comparing the highest to the lowest tertiles of PFAS concentrations...

  17. The association of systemic microvascular changes with lung function and lung density: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Harris

    Full Text Available Smoking causes endothelial dysfunction and systemic microvascular disease with resultant end-organ damage in the kidneys, eyes and heart. Little is known about microvascular changes in smoking-related lung disease. We tested if microvascular changes in the retina, kidneys and heart were associated with obstructive spirometry and low lung density on computed tomography. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis recruited participants age 45-84 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. Measures of microvascular function included retinal arteriolar and venular caliber, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and, in a subset, myocardial blood flow on magnetic resonance imaging. Spirometry was measured following ATS/ERS guidelines. Low attenuation areas (LAA were measured on lung fields of cardiac computed tomograms. Regression models adjusted for pulmonary and cardiac risk factors, medications and body size. Among 3,397 participants, retinal venular caliber was inversely associated with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1 (P<0.001 and FEV(1/forced vital capacity (FVC ratio (P = 0.04. Albumin-to-creatinine ratio was inversely associated with FEV(1 (P = 0.002 but not FEV(1/FVC. Myocardial blood flow (n = 126 was associated with lower FEV(1 (P = 0.02, lower FEV(1/FVC (P = 0.001 and greater percentage LAA (P = 0.04. Associations were of greater magnitude among smokers. Low lung function was associated with microvascular changes in the retina, kidneys and heart, and low lung density was associated with impaired myocardial microvascular perfusion. These cross-sectional results suggest that microvascular damage with end-organ dysfunction in all circulations may pertain to the lung, that lung dysfunction may contribute to systemic microvascular disease, or that there may be a shared predisposition.

  18. Perceived weight status may contribute to education inequalities in five-year weight change among mid-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Jessica; Giskes, Katrina; Shaw, Jonathan; Turrell, Gavin

    2011-06-01

    To examine education differences in five-year weight change among mid-aged adults, and to ascertain if this may be due to socioeconomic differences in perceived weight status or weight control behaviours (WCBs). Data were used from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study. Mid-aged men and women with measured weights at both baseline (1999-2000) and follow-up (2004-2005) were included. Percent weight change over the five-year interval was calculated and perceived weight status, WCBs and highest attained education were collected at baseline. Low-educated men and women were more likely to be obese at baseline compared to their high-educated counterparts. Women with a certificate-level education had a greater five-year weight gain than those with a bachelor degree or higher. Perceived weight status or WCBs did not differ by education among men and women, however participants that perceived themselves as very overweight had less weight gain than those perceiving themselves as underweight or normal weight. WCBs were not associated with five-year weight change. The higher prevalence of overweight/obesity among low-educated women may be a consequence of greater weight gain in mid-adulthood. Education inequalities in overweight/obesity among men and women made be due (in part) to overweight or obese individuals in low-educated groups not perceiving themselves as having a weight problem. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  19. Body weight and beauty: the changing face of the ideal female body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafini, B A; Pozzilli, P

    2011-01-01

    By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female body weight. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  20. Analysis of artefacts and detail resolution of lung MRI with breath-hold T1-weighted gradient-echo and T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequences with respiratory triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, J.; Reuter, M.; Both, M.; Grimm, J.; Heller, M.; Muhle, C.; Graessner, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate feasibility and limitations of two MR sequences for imaging of the lung using a semi-quantitative rating scale. Ten healthy volunteers were assessed with a breath-hold T1-weighted gradient-recalled-echo (TR/TE=129/2.2 ms, matrix 173 x 256) and a T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence with respiratory triggering (TR/TE=3000-5000/120 ms, matrix 270 x 512) in axial 6-mm slices. The T1-weighted GRE protocol included a pre-saturation pulse over the mediastinal structures. Artefacts and resolution of vessel/airway structures in each lung segment were evaluated by two observers (10 volunteers, 180 segments). Cardiac and vessel pulsation artefacts predominated on T1-weighted GRE, respiration artefacts on T2-weighted TSE (lingula and middle lobe). Pre-saturation of the mediastinum reduced pulsation artefacts on T1-weighted GRE. T1-weighted GRE images were improved by bright flow signal of vessels, whereas image quality of T2-weighted TSE was reduced by black-blood effects in central parts of the lung. Delineation of lung periphery and the mediastinum was superior with T2-weighted TSE. Segmental/sub-segmental vessels (up to fourth/fifth order) and bronchi (up to third order) were identified. All 180 lung segments were imaged in diagnostic quality with at least one of the two sequences (T1-weighted GRE not diagnostic in 9 of 180, T2-weighted TSE in 4 of 180). Both sequences were found to be complementary: superior identification of gross lung anatomy with T1-weighted GRE and higher detail resolution in the periphery and the mediastinum with T2-weighted TSE. (orig.)

  1. Cross-sectional changes in lung volume measured by electrical impedance tomography are representative for the whole lung in ventilated preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, Pauline S.; Miedema, Martijn; de Jongh, Franciscus H.C.; Frerichs, Inez; van Kaam, Anton H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Electrical impedance tomography measures lung volume in a cross-sectional slice of the lung. Whether these cross-sectional volume changes are representative of the whole lung has only been investigated in adults, showing conflicting results. This study aimed to compare cross-sectional and

  2. Postpartum Maternal Weight Changes: Implications for Military Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abrams, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    .... One in 5 who began pregnancy normal weight became overweight (BMI>25). Despite physical training and emphasis on meeting weight standards, weight retention was as common among active duty women as among military dependents...

  3. Chorioamnionitis and lung damage in the extremely low birth weight infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rocha

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Some experimental work suggests that exposure to intrauterine infection is associated, not only, with lung maturation and a reduced risk of respiratory distress syndrome, but also, with delayed alveolarization and increased risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Aim: To evaluate the association between histological chorioamnionitis and lung disease in extremely low birth weight preterm infants. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 63 less than 1000 g birthweight, appropriated for gestational age neonates, delivered at three tertiary medical centers in the north of Portugal, between 2001 and 2002. The association between histological chorioamnionitis and lung damage (respiratory distress syndrome and bronchopulmonary dysplasia was evaluated through the calculation of crude and adjusted odds ratio. Results: There were 32 newborns from mothers with histological chorioamnionitis and 31 without the condition. The association between histological chorioamnionitis and respiratory distress syndrome was OR 0.23 (95% CI 0.01 – 2.51. The association between chorioamnionitis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia was OR 1.61 (95% CI 0.38 – 6.97. The association between histological chorioamnionitis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia when adjusted for gestational age, multiple birth and C-section revealed no statistical significance: OR 2.66 (95% CI 0.36 – 19.60 for chorioamnionitis without funisitis or vasculitis and OR 1.68 (95% CI 0.25 – 11.18 for funisitis and/or vasculitis. Conclusion: In this study we could not confirm a decreased risk of respiratory distress syndrome nor an increased risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low birth weight preterm neonates with histological chorioamnionitis. Resumo: Alguns estudos experimentais sugerem que a exposição a infecção intra-uterina associa-se, não só, a maturação pulmonar e menor risco de doença das membranas hialinas, mas também a atraso na forma

  4. Injurious mechanical ventilation in the normal lung causes a progressive pathologic change in dynamic alveolar mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Pavone, Lucio A; Albert, Scott; Carney, David; Gatto, Louis A; Halter, Jeffrey M; Nieman, Gary F

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Acute respiratory distress syndrome causes a heterogeneous lung injury, and without protective mechanical ventilation a secondary ventilator-induced lung injury can occur. To ventilate noncompliant lung regions, high inflation pressures are required to 'pop open' the injured alveoli. The temporal impact, however, of these elevated pressures on normal alveolar mechanics (that is, the dynamic change in alveolar size and shape during ventilation) is unknown. In the present study we ...

  5. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  6. CHANGES IN LUNG FUNCTION IN THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH EXOGENOUS ALLERGIC ALVEOLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Nefedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Total lung capacity (TLC, lung capacity (LC, forced LC (FLC, intrathoracic volume (ITV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 , (FEV1 /LC%, peak expiratory flow (PEF, maximum expiratory flow rate (MEFR25, MEFR50, MEFR75, Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SB, DLCO-SB/VА, РаО2 , and РаСО2 were determined in 43 patients with exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA before, during, and after treatment with glucocorticosteroids, hemapheresis, ambroxol, and fluimucil. Lung function became better in more than half (53.5% of the patients and worse in one fourth (25.6%; a combination of positive and negative functional changes was detected in 14.0%. Improved lung function was noted in 75.0, 50.0, and 38.5% of the patients with acute, subacute, and chronic EAA, respectively. Deterioration of lung function was determined in 46.2, 22.2, and 8.3% of the patients with chronic, subacute, and acute alveolitis, respectively. Better lung function manifested itself mainly as positive changes in lung volumes and capacities and pulmonary gas exchange function, less frequently as improved bronchial patency in the patients with acute and subacute EAA whereas the rate of positive functional changes in lung volumes and capacities, bronchial patency, and pulmonary gas exchange function was equal in those with chronic EAA. Poorer lung function appeared as negative changes in lung volumes and capacities in the patients with acute EAA, as worse pulmonary gas exchange function and negative changes in lung volumes and capacities and deteriorated bronchial patency in those with subacute and chronic EAA.

  7. Effect of Changing Weight and Mass on Human Performance in a Lunar Prototype Spacesuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steve; Lee, Lesley; Gemhardt, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Physical effort, compensation, and controllability in a spacesuit can be affected by suit mass and gravity level. Because of limitations in certain reduced-gravity simulators and the finite selection of lunar prototype suits, it is difficult to ascertain how a change in suit mass affects suited human performance. One method of simulating a change in mass is to vary the total gravity-adjusted weight (TGAW), which is defined as the sum of the suit mass and subject mass, multiplied by the gravity level. PURPOSE: To determine if two methods of changing TGAW during parabolic flight - changing suit mass or gravity level - affect subjective ratings of suited human performance equally.METHODS: A custom weight support structure was connected to a lunar prototype spacesuit, allowing the addition of mass to the suit while maintaining a near-constant center of mass. In the varied-weight (VW) series, suit mass (120 kg) was constant at 0.1-g, 0.17-g, and 0.3-g, yielding TGAWs of 196, 333, and 588 N, assuming an 80-kg subject. In the varied-mass (VM) series, gravity level was constant at 0.17-g and suit mass was 89, 120, and 181 kg, yielding TGAWs of 282, 333, and 435 N. The 333 N condition was common to both series. Direct comparison was not possible due to limited adjustability of suit mass and limited options for parabolic profiles. Five astronaut subjects (80.311.8 kg) completed 4 different tasks (walk, bag pickup, lunge, and shoveling) in all conditions and provided ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and the gravity compensation and performance scale (GCPS) upon completion of each task. RESULTS: Where VM and VW series overlapped, RPE and GCPS trend lines were similar. Mean RPE and GCPS at 333 N was 8.4 and 3.7. Mean RPE and GCPS for VM was 7.8 and 3.8 for 282 N and 9.8 and 4.1 for 435 N. Extrapolation of the VM trend to match VW TGAWs 196 and 588 N predicts an RPE of 6.5 and 12.3 and GCPS of 4.4 and 5.9, whereas the measured VW values for RPE were 8.1 and 9.8 and GCPS were

  8. Histogram analysis for age change of human lung with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirabe, Ichiju

    1990-01-01

    In order to evaluate physiological changes of normal lung with aging by computed tomography (CT), the peak position (PP) and full width half maximum (FWHM) of CT-histogram were studied in 77 normal human lung. Above 30 years old, PP tended to be seen in the lower attenuation value with advancing ages, with the result that the follow equation was obtained. CT attenuation value of PP=-0.87 x age -815. The peak position shifted to the range of higher CT attenuation in 30's. FWHM did not change with advancing ages. There were no differences of peak value and FWHM among the upper, middle and lower lung field. In this study, physiological changes of lung were evaluated quantitatively. Furthermore, this study was considered to be useful for diagnosis and treatment in lung diseases. (author)

  9. Weight change in a commercial web-based weight loss program and its association with website use: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Melinda; Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E

    2011-10-12

    There is a paucity of information in the scientific literature on the effectiveness of commercial weight loss programs, including Web-based programs. The potential of Web-based weight loss programs has been acknowledged, but their ability to achieve significant weight loss has not been proven. The objectives were to evaluate the weight change achieved within a large cohort of individuals enrolled in a commercial Web-based weight loss program for 12 or 52 weeks and to describe participants' program use in relation to weight change. Participants enrolled in an Australian commercial Web-based weight loss program from August 15, 2007, through May 31, 2008. Self-reported weekly weight records were used to determine weight change after 12- and 52-week subscriptions. The primary analysis estimated weight change using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) for all participants who subscribed for 12 weeks and also for those who subscribed for 52 weeks. A sensitivity analysis was conducted using the last observation carried forward (LOCF) method. Website use (ie, the number of days participants logged on, made food or exercise entries to the Web-based diary, or posted to the discussion forum) was described from program enrollment to 12 and 52 weeks, and differences in website use by percentage weight change category were tested using Kruskal-Wallis test for equality of populations. Participants (n = 9599) had a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 35.7 (9.5) years and were predominantly female (86% or 8279/9599) and obese (61% or 5866/9599). Results from the primary GLMM analysis including all enrollees found the mean percentage weight change was -6.2% among 12-week subscribers (n = 6943) and -6.9% among 52-week subscribers (n = 2656). Sensitivity analysis using LOCF revealed an average weight change of -3.0% and -3.5% after 12 and 52 weeks respectively. The use of all website features increased significantly (P Web-based weight loss program is likely to be in the range of

  10. Proteoglycan changes in the extracellular matrix of lung tissue from patients with pulmonary emphysema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straaten, JFM; Coers, W; Noordhoek, JA; Flipsen, JTM; Kauffman, HF; Timens, W; Postma, DS

    To characterize the changes in the extracellular matrix in smoking-related pulmonary emphysema, we undertook immunohistochemical studies in lung tissues from controls (n = 7), from patients with mild (n = 11) and severe (n = 8) emphysema, and from patients with lung fibrosis (n = 6). We studied

  11. Time and dose-related changes in lung perfusion after definitive radiotherapy for NSCLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farr, Katherina P; Khalil, Azza A; Møller, Ditte S

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To examine radiation-induced changes in regional lung perfusion per dose level in 58 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: NSCLC patients receiving chemo-radiotherapy (RT) of minimum 60 Gy we...

  12. Changes in lung volume and ventilation during surfactant treatment in ventilated preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Martijn; de Jongh, Frans H.; Frerichs, Inez; van Veenendaal, Mariëtte B.; van Kaam, Anton H.

    2011-01-01

    The immediate and regional effects of exogenous surfactant in open lung high-frequency oscillatory ventilated (HFOV) preterm infants are unknown. To assess regional changes in lung volume, mechanics, and ventilation during and after surfactant administration in HFOV preterm infants with respiratory

  13. Late changes in lungs of rats irradiated with 6.5 Gy of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazanowska, A.M.; Jelenska, M.M.; Dancewicz, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    1, 3, 6 and 9 months after exposure of mature male rats to 650 rads of X-rays, the composition of isolated lung collagen has been estimated and the distribution of fatty acids in lipids of lung wash analyzed. The results obtained indicate that during the development of lung fibrosis proportion of type I to type III collagen in this organ increases. At the same period increases proportion of saturated fatty acids in lipids isolated from lung wash. Thus, radiation-induced fibrosis is accompanied not only by collagen accumulation but also by an essential change in the type of collagen produced. It seems that also the increased saturation of fatty acids in lung surfactant contributes to the impairment of function of fibrotic lung. (orig./AJ) [de

  14. Comparison of nodal staging with lean body mass based and with total body weight based in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. Y.; Chung, J. K.; Kang, W. J.; So, Y.; Lee, D. S.; Lee, M. C.

    2004-01-01

    The standardized uptake (SUV) is semiquantitative evaluation parameter in positron emission tomography (PET). But there is no consensus about the application or process of SUV measurement. In this study, we used measured lean body mass (LBM) and total weight for application in SUV measurement. Also we compared the each nodal staging with SUV between measured LBM, and total weight, in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Total 21 patients with lung cancer were enrolled (M:F=17:4, age 45[+-]8 years). PET-CT was done before operation with Gemini (Philips, Milpitas, U.S.). Each image was reconstructed twice with measured weight and lean body mass. Maximum SUVs of 103 dissected lymph nodes were measured and compared with histological result. For the deciding on the cut off value, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was done. 14 lymph nodes in the 103 dissected lymph nodes were metastatic lesions. From the ROC analysis, the cut off value of SUV was 1.7 with measured LBM and 2.3 with total weight. With measured LBM, Sensitivity and specificity were 92.5%. 78.2% and area under curve was 0.881. With total weight, sensitivity and specificity was 92.5% and 77%, Area under curve was 0.859. The normalization of SUV could be done with measured LBM. With the normalization of SUV with LBM, the nodal staging of NSCLC using SUV could be more accurate than using total weight in the reconstruction and measurement of SUV for lymph node lesions

  15. Chest circumference and birth weight are good predictors of lung function in preschool children from an e-waste recycling area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Li, Weiqiu; Huo, Xia

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between birth weight, chest circumference, and lung function in preschool children from e-waste exposure area. A total of 206 preschool children from Guiyu (an e-waste recycling area) and Haojiang and Xiashan (the reference areas) in China were recruited and required to undergo physical examination, blood tests, and lung function tests during the study period. Birth outcome such as birth weight and birth height were obtained by questionnaire. Children living in the e-waste-exposed area have a lower birth weight, chest circumference, height, and lung function when compare to their peers from the reference areas (all p value <0.05). Both Spearman and partial correlation analyses showed that birth weight and chest circumference were positively correlated with lung function levels including forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ). After adjustment for the potential confounders in further linear regression analyses, birth weight, and chest circumference were positively associated with lung function levels, respectively. Taken together, birth weight and chest circumference may be good predictors for lung function levels in preschool children.

  16. Generalization of unconstrained reaching with hand-weight changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiang; Wang, Qining; Lu, Zhengchuan; Stevenson, Ian H; Körding, Konrad; Wei, Kunlin

    2013-01-01

    Studies of motor generalization usually perturb hand reaches by distorting visual feedback with virtual reality or by applying forces with a robotic manipulandum. Whereas such perturbations are useful for studying how the central nervous system adapts and generalizes to novel dynamics, they are rarely encountered in daily life. The most common perturbations that we experience are changes in the weights of objects that we hold. Here, we use a center-out, free-reaching task, in which we can manipulate the weight of a participant's hand to examine adaptation and generalization following naturalistic perturbations. In both trial-by-trial paradigms and block-based paradigms, we find that learning converges rapidly (on a timescale of approximately two trials), and this learning generalizes mostly to movements in nearby directions with a unimodal pattern. However, contrary to studies using more artificial perturbations, we find that the generalization has a strong global component. Furthermore, the generalization is enhanced with repeated exposure of the same perturbation. These results suggest that the familiarity of a perturbation is a major factor in movement generalization and that several theories of the neural control of movement, based on perturbations applied by robots or in virtual reality, may need to be extended by incorporating prior influence that is characterized by the familiarity of the perturbation.

  17. Biochemical and morphological changes in rat lung tissue under the influence of external ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzlenkova, N.Je.; Mamotyuk, Je.M.; Gusakova, V.A.; Kononenko, O.K.

    2006-01-01

    Single external x-ray exposure at minimum and mean lethal doses was established to cause a long activation of biochemical processes in the connective tissue of the rat lungs. Morphological and ultrastructure changes in the tissue of the lungs at early terms after x-ray and gamma-radiation exposure were due to development of destructive and degenerative reactions. The long-term changes were characterized by growth of connective tissue and formation of areas of fibrous changes in the structure of the lungs

  18. Validity of clinical outcome measures to evaluate ankle range of motion during the weight-bearing lunge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Emily A; Docherty, Carrie L

    2017-07-01

    To determine the concurrent validity of standard clinical outcome measures compared to laboratory outcome measure while performing the weight-bearing lunge test (WBLT). Cross-sectional study. Fifty participants performed the WBLT to determine dorsiflexion ROM using four different measurement techniques: dorsiflexion angle with digital inclinometer at 15cm distal to the tibial tuberosity (°), dorsiflexion angle with inclinometer at tibial tuberosity (°), maximum lunge distance (cm), and dorsiflexion angle using a 2D motion capture system (°). Outcome measures were recorded concurrently during each trial. To establish concurrent validity, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients (r) were conducted, comparing each dependent variable to the 2D motion capture analysis (identified as the reference standard). A higher correlation indicates strong concurrent validity. There was a high correlation between each measurement technique and the reference standard. Specifically the correlation between the inclinometer placement at 15cm below the tibial tuberosity (44.9°±5.5°) and the motion capture angle (27.0°±6.0°) was r=0.76 (p=0.001), between the inclinometer placement at the tibial tuberosity angle (39.0°±4.6°) and the motion capture angle was r=0.71 (p=0.001), and between the distance from the wall clinical measure (10.3±3.0cm) to the motion capture angle was r=0.74 (p=0.001). This study determined that the clinical measures used during the WBLT have a high correlation with the reference standard for assessing dorsiflexion range of motion. Therefore, obtaining maximum lunge distance and inclinometer angles are both valid assessments during the weight-bearing lunge test. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Change from lung adenocarcinoma to small cell lung cancer as a mechanism of resistance to afatinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Paolo; Russano, Marco; Pantano, Francesco; Tonini, Giuseppe; Santini, Daniele

    2017-08-29

    We report the case of a patient affected by advanced EGFR mutation-positive lung who experienced resistance to therapy during treatment with Afatinib through the occurrence of a switch of tumor histotype to small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with features of a G3 neuroendocrine carcinoma. Unexpectedly, the switch to SCLC histotype occurred in the only site not responsive to afatinib and subsequently the most responsive to chemotherapy. Our case shows that occurrence of switch to SCLC is a possible mechanism of resistance during treatment with Afatinib.

  20. The observation about the change of the body weight for tumor patients and the bearing tumor mice in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dijun; Ju Yongjian; Ning Liyan; Wu Hong; Wang Gaoren; Gao Xuan; Tang Yahong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe the change of the body weight for tumor patients and the bearing tumor mice in radiotherapy. Methods: For 63 tumor patients, the body weight (BW) were measured before and after radiotherapy respectively, and then the change of BW were compared and analyzed with that of 23 healthy volunteers at the median treatment period. Also 45 mice bearing human galactophore tumor cells SK-BR-3 were divided into irradiation and non-irradiation groups, and the change of BW for these two groups were measured and analyzed. Results: The average BW decreases in the irradiation groups' mice but increase in the non-irradiation groups' mice, and the change of BW in these two groups has the statistical significance respectively, also the difference between these two groups has the statistical significance. For the four groups' tumor patients including 63 tumor patients as a whole, the nasopharynx cancer, esophagus cancer and lung cancer, the average BW decreases, but only in nasopharynx cancer and lung cancer groups the statistical significance are found. And at the same period, the BW of healthy volunteers are maintained. Compared change of BW in the four tumor groups with that in the healthy volunteers respectively, except the esophagus cancer group, the statistical significance are found in the other three groups. Conclusion: For tumor patients,perhaps the BW will lose in the period of radiotherapy, so the effect of lose of BW must be cared about. (authors)

  1. Thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and metabolic parameters in response to weight loss diets: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Liang, L; Bray, G A; Qi, L; Hu, F B; Rood, J; Sacks, F M; Sun, Q

    2017-06-01

    The role of thyroid hormones in diet-induced weight loss and subsequent weight regain is largely unknown. To examine the associations between thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight loss setting. Data analysis was conducted among 569 overweight and obese participants aged 30-70 years with normal thyroid function participating in the 2-year Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS) LOST randomized clinical trial. Changes in body weight and RMR were assessed during the 2-year intervention. Thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), total T3, total T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)), anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline, 6 months and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.6 kg of body weight during the first 6 months and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight over the remaining period from 6 to 24 months. Baseline free T3 and total T3 were positively associated, whereas free T4 was inversely associated, with baseline body weight, body mass index and RMR. Total T4 and TSH were not associated with these parameters. Higher baseline free T3 and free T4 levels were significantly associated with a greater weight loss during the first 6 months (Ppressure, glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin at 6 months and 24 months (all P<0.05). In this diet-induced weight loss setting, higher baseline free T3 and free T4 predicted more weight loss, but not weight regain among overweight and obese adults with normal thyroid function. These findings reveal a novel role of thyroid hormones in body weight regulation and may help identify individuals more responsive to weight loss diets.

  2. The role of body weight, fat distribution and weight change in ethnic differences in the 9-year incidence of hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootveld, Laura R.; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Peters, Ron J. G.; Ujcic-Voortman, Joanne K.; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of body composition (body weight, fat distribution and weight change over time) in ethnic differences in the incidence of hypertension in an ethnic Dutch, South Asian Surinamese and African Surinamese background population living in the Netherlands. We included 361

  3. Time evolution of regional CT density changes in normal lung after IMRT for NSCLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernchou, Uffe; Schytte, Tine; Bertelsen, Anders; Bentzen, Søren M.; Hansen, Olfred; Brink, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the clinical radiobiology of radiation induced lung disease in terms of regional computed tomography (CT) density changes following intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A total of 387 follow-up CT scans in 131 NSCLC patients receiving IMRT to a prescribed dose of 60 or 66 Gy in 2 Gy fractions were analyzed. The dose-dependent temporal evolution of the density change was analyzed using a two-component model, a superposition of an early, transient component and a late, persistent component. Results: The CT density of healthy lung tissue was observed to increase significantly (p 12 months. Conclusions: The radiobiology of lung injury may be analyzed in terms of CT density change. The initial transient change in density is consistent with radiation pneumonitis, while the subsequent stabilization of the density is consistent with pulmonary fibrosis

  4. Evaluation of connectivity map-discovered celastrol as a radiosensitizing agent in a murine lung carcinoma model: Feasibility study of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Young Jun

    Full Text Available This study was designed to identify potential radiosensitizing (RS agents for combined radio- and chemotherapy in a murine model of human lung carcinoma, and to evaluate the in vivo effect of the RS agents using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI. Radioresistance-associated genes in A549 and H460 cells were isolated on the basis of their gene expression profiles. Celastrol was selected as a candidate RS by using connectivity mapping, and its efficacy in lung cancer radiotherapy was tested. Mice inoculated with A549 carcinoma cells were treated with single ionizing radiation (SIR, single celastrol (SC, or celastrol-combined ionizing radiation (CCIR. Changes in radiosensitization over time were assessed using DW-MRI before and at 3, 6, and 12 days after therapy initiation. The tumors were stained with hematoxylin and eosin at 6 and 12 days after therapy. The percentage change in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC value in the CCIR group was significantly higher than that in the SC and SIR group on the 12th day (Mann-Whitney U-test, p = 0.05; Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.05. A significant correlation (Spearman's rho correlation coefficient of 0.713, p = 0.001 was observed between the mean percentage tumor necrotic area and the mean ADC values after therapy initiation. These results suggest that the novel radiosensitizing agent celastrol has therapeutic effects when combined with ionizing radiation (IR, thereby maximizing the therapeutic effect of radiation in non-small cell lung carcinoma. In addition, DW-MRI is a useful noninvasive tool to monitor the effects of RS agents by assessing cellularity changes and sequential therapeutic responses.

  5. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: a change of perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaar, A. P.; Schultz, M. J.; Juffermans, N. P.

    2009-01-01

    Two decades ago, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) was considered a rare complication of transfusion medicine. Nowadays, TRALI has emerged as the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality, presumably as a consequence of reaching international agreement on defining TRALI with

  6. histological changes in the lungs of adult wistar rats following

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to paint fumes over time is dangerous to the lungs and can cause respiratory distress ... harmful chemicals such as -solvents and volatile ... the death of some factory workers where nanoparticles ... diameter 75cm X 50cm X 30cm hole was bored on the cover of .... and allergic effects in children: A review. Indoor Air ...

  7. A longitudinal study to explain strategies to change weight and muscles among normal weight and overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, M P; Ricciardelli, L A; Holt, K

    2005-12-01

    Previous research has indicated that both boys and girls strive for a slim body, with boys having an additional focus on a muscular body build. The current study was designed to evaluate the utility of a biopsychosocial model to explain body image and body change strategies among children. The study evaluated changes over time in body image and strategies to lose weight and increase muscles among 132 normal weight and 67 overweight boys (mean age = 9.23 years) and 158 normal weight and 55 overweight girls (mean age = 9.33 years). The predictive role of BMI, positive and negative affect, self-esteem and perceived sociocultural pressures to lose weight or increase muscle on body image and body change strategies over a 16 month period was evaluated. All participants completed the questionnaire on both occasions. The results demonstrated that both overweight boys and girls were more likely to be dissatisfied with their weight, place more importance on their weight, engage in more strategies to lose weight as well as perceive more pressure to lose weight. Overweight boys and girls were also more likely to report lower levels of self-esteem and positive affect, and higher levels of negative affect, and reported a reduction in their self-esteem over time. Regression analyses demonstrated that among overweight boys, low self-esteem and high levels of perceived pressure to lose weight predicted weight dissatisfaction; for overweight girls, weight dissatisfaction was also predicted by low levels of self-esteem. The implication of these findings in terms of factors contributing to the adoption of health risk behaviors among children is discussed.

  8. Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, van der K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for

  9. Weight change in control group participants in behavioural weight loss interventions: a systematic review and meta-regression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Lauren

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unanticipated control group improvements have been observed in intervention trials targeting various health behaviours. This phenomenon has not been studied in the context of behavioural weight loss intervention trials. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-regression of behavioural weight loss interventions to quantify control group weight change, and relate the size of this effect to specific trial and sample characteristics. Methods Database searches identified reports of intervention trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Data on control group weight change and possible explanatory factors were abstracted and analysed descriptively and quantitatively. Results 85 trials were reviewed and 72 were included in the meta-regression. While there was no change in control group weight, control groups receiving usual care lost 1 kg more than control groups that received no intervention, beyond measurement. Conclusions There are several possible explanations why control group changes occur in intervention trials targeting other behaviours, but not for weight loss. Control group participation may prevent weight gain, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  10. Tracking Regional Tissue Volume and Function Change in Lung Using Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunlin Cao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated the 24-hour redistribution and reabsorption of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid delivered to the lung during a bronchoscopic procedure in normal volunteers. In this work we utilize image-matching procedures to correlate fluid redistribution and reabsorption to changes in regional lung function. Lung CT datasets from six human subjects were used in this study. Each subject was scanned at four time points before and after BAL procedure. Image registration was performed to align images at different time points and different inflation levels. The resulting dense displacement fields were utilized to track tissue volume changes and reveal deformation patterns of local parenchymal tissue quantitatively. The registration accuracy was assessed by measuring landmark matching errors, which were on the order of 1 mm. The results show that quantitative-assessed fluid volume agreed well with bronchoscopist-reported unretrieved BAL volume in the whole lungs (squared linear correlation coefficient was 0.81. The average difference of lung tissue volume at baseline and after 24 hours was around 2%, which indicates that BAL fluid in the lungs was almost absorbed after 24 hours. Regional lung-function changes correlated with the presence of BAL fluid, and regional function returned to baseline as the fluid was reabsorbed.

  11. Reconstruction of conductivity change in lung lobes utilizing electrical impedance tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schullcke Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT is a novel medical imaging technology which is expected to give valuable information for the treatment of mechanically ventilated patients as well as for patients with obstructive lung diseases. In lung-EIT electrodes are attached around the thorax to inject small alternating currents and to measure resulting voltages. These voltages depend on the internal conductivity distribution and thus on the amount of air in the lungs. Based on the measured voltages, image reconstruction algorithms are employed to generate tomographic images reflecting the regional ventilation of the lungs. However, the ill-posedness of the reconstruction problem leads to reconstructed images that are severely blurred compared to morphological imaging technologies, such as X-ray computed tomography or Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Thus, a correct identification of the particular ventilation in anatomically assignable units, e.g. lung-lobes, is often hindered. In this study a 3D-FEM model of a human thorax has been used to simulate electrode voltages at different lung conditions. Two electrode planes with 16 electrodes at each layer have been used and different amount of emphysema and mucus plugging was simulated with different severity in the lung lobes. Patient specific morphological information about the lung lobes is used in the image reconstruction process. It is shown that this kind of prior information leads to better reconstructions of the conductivity change in particular lung lobes than in classical image reconstruction approaches, where the anatomy of the patients’ lungs is not considered. Thus, the described approach has the potential to open new and promising applications for EIT. It might be used for diagnosis and disease monitoring for patients with obstructive lung diseases but also in other applications, e.g. during the placement of endobronchial valves in patients with severe emphysema.

  12. Weight change and all-cause mortality in older adults: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This meta-analysis of observational cohort studies examined the association between weight change (weight loss, weight gain, and weight fluctuation) and all-cause mortality among older adults. We used PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science, and Cochrane Library to identify prospective studies published in...

  13. Lung parenchymal analysis on dynamic MRI in thoracic insufficiency syndrome to assess changes following surgical intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadale, Basavaraj N.; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Tong, Yubing; Wu, Caiyun; McDonough, Joseph; Torigian, Drew A.; Campbell, Robert M.

    2018-02-01

    General surgeons, orthopedists, and pulmonologists individually treat patients with thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS). The benefits of growth-sparing procedures such as Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib (VEPTR)insertionfor treating patients with TIS have been demonstrated. However, at present there is no objective assessment metricto examine different thoracic structural components individually as to their roles in the syndrome, in contributing to dynamics and function, and in influencing treatment outcome. Using thoracic dynamic MRI (dMRI), we have been developing a methodology to overcome this problem. In this paper, we extend this methodology from our previous structural analysis approaches to examining lung tissue properties. We process the T2-weighted dMRI images through a series of steps involving 4D image construction of the acquired dMRI images, intensity non-uniformity correction and standardization of the 4D image, lung segmentation, and estimation of the parameters describing lung tissue intensity distributions in the 4D image. Based on pre- and post-operative dMRI data sets from 25 TIS patients (predominantly neuromuscular and congenital conditions), we demonstrate how lung tissue can be characterized by the estimated distribution parameters. Our results show that standardized T2-weighted image intensity values decrease from the pre- to post-operative condition, likely reflecting improved lung aeration post-operatively. In both pre- and post-operative conditions, the intensity values decrease also from end-expiration to end-inspiration, supporting the basic premise of our results.

  14. Changes in job strain and subsequent weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterlund, Gitte Kingo; Keller, Amélie Cléo; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2018-01-01

    in 1999 between those who were rarely v. sometimes v. often busy in 1993 (P=0·03), with the largest weight gain in individuals with sustained high busyness in both years. Loss of influence between 1993 and 1999 was associated with larger subsequent weight gain than sustained high influence (P=0......Objective: Obesity as well as job strain is increasing, and job strain might contribute to weight gain. The objective of the current study was to examine associations between longitudinal alterations in the components of job strain and subsequent weight gain. Design: The study was designed...... as a prospective cohort study with three questionnaire surveys enabling measurement of job-strain alterations over 6 years and subsequent measurements of weight gain after further 10 years of follow-up. ANCOVA and trend analyses were conducted. Job demands were measured as job busyness and speed, and control...

  15. Cluster analysis of behavioural weight management strategies and associations with weight change in young women: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, C D; Daley, A J; Kabir, E; Aveyard, P; Brown, W

    2015-11-01

    Maintaining a healthy weight is important for the prevention of many chronic diseases. Little is known about the strategies used by young women to manage their weight, or the effectiveness of these in preventing weight gain. We aimed to identify clusters of weight control strategies used by women and to determine the average annual weight change among women in each cluster from 2000 to 2009. Latent cluster analysis of weight control strategies reported by 8125 participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. Analyses were performed in March-November 2014. Weight control strategies were used by 79% of the women, and four unique clusters were found. The largest cluster group (39.7%) was named dieters as 90% had been on a diet in the past year, and half of these women had lost 5 kg on purpose. Women cut down on size of meals, fats and sugars and took part in vigorous physical activity. Additionally 20% had used a commercial programme. The next largest cluster (30.2%) was the healthy living group who followed the public health messages of 'eat less and move more'. The do nothing group (20%) did not actively control their weight whereas the perpetual dieters group (10.7%) used all strategies, including unhealthy behaviours. On average women gained 700 g per year (over 9 years); however, the perpetual dieters group gained significantly more weight (210 g) than the do nothing group (Phealth guidelines on health eating and physical activity.

  16. Serial histopathological changes in irradiated guinea pig lung receiving conventional fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Satoshi; Inomata, Taisuke; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Shoji; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Yuji

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine serial histopathological differences in guinea pig lungs receiving the same total dose as clinically used between conventional fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation. The guinea pigs received 80 Gy in 40 daily fractions of 2 Gy each (conventional fractionation), 80 Gy in 80 fractions of 1 Gy each twice a day (hyperfractionation), 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions of 3 Gy each (conventional fractionation), or 81 Gy in 54 fractions of 1.5 Gy each twice a day (hyperfractionation). We evaluated the histopathological changes of irradiated guinea pig lungs at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after irradiation. The guinea pig lungs that received 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions showed histopathological changes of inflammation including formation of lymph follicles after 6 months. The lungs which received 81 Gy in 54 fractions showed similar but slightly less pronounced changes than those that received 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions. The guinea pig lungs of other groups showed no histopathological changes during the observation period. In hyperfractionated irradiation the damage to the guinea pig lung is quantitatively less than that occurring as a result of conventional fractionated irradiation of the same total dose. (author)

  17. Serial histopathological changes in irradiated guinea pig lung receiving conventional fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Satoshi; Inomata, Taisuke; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Shoji; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Yuji [Kochi Medical School, Nankoku (Japan)

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine serial histopathological differences in guinea pig lungs receiving the same total dose as clinically used between conventional fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation. The guinea pigs received 80 Gy in 40 daily fractions of 2 Gy each (conventional fractionation), 80 Gy in 80 fractions of 1 Gy each twice a day (hyperfractionation), 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions of 3 Gy each (conventional fractionation), or 81 Gy in 54 fractions of 1.5 Gy each twice a day (hyperfractionation). We evaluated the histopathological changes of irradiated guinea pig lungs at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after irradiation. The guinea pig lungs that received 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions showed histopathological changes of inflammation including formation of lymph follicles after 6 months. The lungs which received 81 Gy in 54 fractions showed similar but slightly less pronounced changes than those that received 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions. The guinea pig lungs of other groups showed no histopathological changes during the observation period. In hyperfractionated irradiation the damage to the guinea pig lung is quantitatively less than that occurring as a result of conventional fractionated irradiation of the same total dose. (author)

  18. Diet quality, physical activity, smoking status, and weight fluctuation are associated with weight change in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Newby, P K; Gona, Philimon; Zhu, Lei; Jasuja, Guneet K; Pencina, Michael J; McKeon-O'Malley, Catherine; Fox, Caroline S; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Millen, Barbara E

    2010-07-01

    The effect of diet quality on weight change, relative to other body weight determinants, is insufficiently understood. Furthermore, research on long-term weight change in U.S. adults is limited. We evaluated prospectively patterns and predictors of weight change in Framingham Offspring/Spouse (FOS) women and men (n = 1515) aged > or =30 y with BMI > or = 18.5 kg/m2 and without cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer at baseline over a 16-y period. Diet quality was assessed using the validated Framingham Nutritional Risk Score. In women, older age (P Diet quality interacted with former smoking status (P-interaction = 0.02); former smokers with lower diet quality gained an additional 5.2 kg compared with those with higher diet quality (multivariable-adjusted P-trend = 0.06). Among men, older age (P smoking (P smoking status (P smoking status in men were stronger predictors of weight change than diet quality among FOS adults. Women who stopped smoking over follow-up and had poor diet quality gained the most weight. Preventive interventions need to be sex-specific and consider lifestyle factors.

  19. Does gastric bypass surgery change body weight set point?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Z; Mumphrey, M B; Morrison, C D; Münzberg, H; Ye, J; Berthoud, H R

    2016-12-01

    The relatively stable body weight during adulthood is attributed to a homeostatic regulatory mechanism residing in the brain which uses feedback from the body to control energy intake and expenditure. This mechanism guarantees that if perturbed up or down by design, body weight will return to pre-perturbation levels, defined as the defended level or set point. The fact that weight re-gain is common after dieting suggests that obese subjects defend a higher level of body weight. Thus, the set point for body weight is flexible and likely determined by the complex interaction of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Unlike dieting, bariatric surgery does a much better job in producing sustained suppression of food intake and body weight, and an intensive search for the underlying mechanisms has started. Although one explanation for this lasting effect of particularly Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) is simple physical restriction due to the invasive surgery, a more exciting explanation is that the surgery physiologically reprograms the body weight defense mechanism. In this non-systematic review, we present behavioral evidence from our own and other studies that defended body weight is lowered after RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy. After these surgeries, rodents return to their preferred lower body weight if over- or underfed for a period of time, and the ability to drastically increase food intake during the anabolic phase strongly argues against the physical restriction hypothesis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Although the mechanism involves central leptin and melanocortin signaling pathways, other peripheral signals such as gut hormones and their neural effector pathways likely contribute. Future research using both targeted and non-targeted 'omics' techniques in both humans and rodents as well as modern, genetically targeted, neuronal manipulation techniques in rodents will be necessary.

  20. Change in Body Weight Does Not Mediate the Relationship Between Exercise and Smoking Cessation Among Weight-Concerned Women Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Rebecca L; Levine, Michele D; Cheng, Yu; Marcus, Marsha D

    2015-09-01

    Exercise has received attention as a method to prevent or reduce postcessation weight gain. However, little is known about how weight changes following quit attempts contribute to the relationship between exercise and smoking cessation. The present study assessed how exercise relates to cessation and whether initial changes in exercise after quitting smoking promote cessation through attenuated weight gain. Weight-concerned women smokers (N = 342) receiving cessation treatment provided biochemical validation of cessation, reported weekly exercise activities, and were weighed at 1, 3, and 6 months following treatment initiation. Survival analyses were used to determine time to and risk of relapse among women who reported engaging in varied levels of exercise at baseline. A mediation analysis was used to examine whether the effect of initial changes in exercise on longer-term cessation was driven by change in weight. All analyses were adjusted for relevant covariates. Women smokers who reported high levels of exercise at baseline were less likely to relapse and returned to smoking more gradually than did women who reported low levels of exercise. Change in weight did not mediate the relationship between exercise and cessation. Cessation interventions utilizing an exercise component may have to develop exercise regimens of either higher duration or greater intensity to produce beneficial cessation outcomes, particularly when targeting sedentary smokers. Given that change in weight did not mediate the relationship between exercise and cessation, it is likely that other mediational processes are involved. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A system for automatically recording weight changes in sapling trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold F. Haupt; Bud L. Jeffers

    1967-01-01

    Describes an accurate and simple system for taking continuous weight records of sapling-size trees. Measurements obtained using this system have helped in describing the mechanism of interception storage in tree crowns during snowfall.

  2. Postpartum behaviour as predictor of weight change from before pregnancy to one year postpartum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althuizen, E.; Poppel, M.N.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Seidell, J.C.; Mechelen, van W.

    2011-01-01

    Background - Postpartum weight retention affects many women and increases the risk of becoming overweight. The research objective was to study modifiable factors contributing to weight change at one year postpartum. Methods - In this prospective cohort, postpartum behavior, such as physical

  3. Weight history from birth through childhood and youth in relation to adult lung function, in Danish juvenile obese and non-obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bua, J; Prescott, E; Schack-Nielsen, L

    2005-01-01

    ) and who participated in a follow-up examination in 1981-1983 (age range: 25-48 y). Birth weight, childhood weight and height measurements from 7 to 13 y of age were obtained from school health records. Current BMI and lung function were assessed at follow-up. SETTING: Copenhagen and adjacent regions......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of birth weight, body mass index (BMI) during childhood and youth, and current BMI with adult lung function. DESIGN: Population-based longitudinal study of juvenile obese and non-obese men, who were identified at draft board examination (age range: 19-27 y......, Denmark. SUBJECTS: In total, 193 juvenile obese men at draft board examination and 205 randomly selected nonobese controls from the same population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lung function measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and forced vital capacity (FVC), adjusted for age and height...

  4. Chronic lung disease in very low birth weight infants: Persistence and improvement of a quality improvement process in a tertiary level neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birenbaum, H J; Pfoh, E R; Helou, S; Pane, M A; Marinkovich, G A; Dentry, A; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Updegraff, L; Arnold, C; Liverman, S; Cawman, H

    2016-05-19

    We previously demonstrated a significant reduction in our incidence of chronic lung disease in our NICU using potentially better practices of avoiding delivery room endotracheal intubation and using early nasal CPAP. We sought to demonstrate whether these improvements were sustained and or improved over time. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of infants 501-1500 grams born at our hospital between 2005 and 2013. Infants born during the 2005-2007, 2008-2010 and 2011-2013 epochs were grouped together, respectively. Descriptive analysis was conducted to determine the number and percent of maternal and neonatal characteristics by year grouping. Chi-squared tests were used to determine whether there were any statistically significant changes in characteristics across year groupings.. Two outcome variables were assessed: a diagnosis of chronic lung disease based on the Vermont Oxford Network definition and being discharged home on supplemental oxygen. There was a statistically significant improvement in the incidence of chronic lung disease in infants below 27 weeks' gestation in the three year period in the 2011-2013 cohort compared with those in the 2005-2007 cohort. We also found a statistically significant improvement in the number of infants discharged on home oxygen with birth weights 751-1000 grams and infants with gestational age less than 27 weeks in the 2011-2013 cohort compared to the 2005-2007 cohort. We demonstrated sustained improvement in our incidence of CLD between 2005 and 2013. We speculate that a multifaceted strategy of avoiding intubation and excessive oxygen in the delivery room, the early use of CPAP, as well as the use of volume targeted ventilation, when needed, may help significantly reduce the incidence of CLD.

  5. Body Weight Can Change How Your Emotions Are Perceived.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujung Oh

    Full Text Available Accurately interpreting other's emotions through facial expressions has important adaptive values for social interactions. However, due to the stereotypical social perception of overweight individuals as carefree, humorous, and light-hearted, the body weight of those with whom we interact may have a systematic influence on our emotion judgment even though it has no relevance to the expressed emotion itself. In this experimental study, we examined the role of body weight in faces on the affective perception of facial expressions. We hypothesized that the weight perceived in a face would bias the assessment of an emotional expression, with overweight faces generally more likely to be perceived as having more positive and less negative expressions than healthy weight faces. Using two-alternative forced-choice perceptual decision tasks, participants were asked to sort the emotional expressions of overweight and healthy weight facial stimuli that had been gradually morphed across six emotional intensity levels into one of two categories-"neutral vs. happy" (Experiment 1 and "neutral vs. sad" (Experiment 2. As predicted, our results demonstrated that overweight faces were more likely to be categorized as happy (i.e., lower happy decision threshold and less likely to be categorized as sad (i.e., higher sad decision threshold compared to healthy weight faces that had the same levels of emotional intensity. The neutral-sad decision threshold shift was negatively correlated with participant's own fear of becoming fat, that is, those without a fear of becoming fat more strongly perceived overweight faces as sad relative to those with a higher fear. These findings demonstrate that the weight of the face systematically influences how its emotional expression is interpreted, suggesting that being overweight may make emotional expressions appear more happy and less sad than they really are.

  6. Single-Lung Transplant Results in Position Dependent Changes in Regional Ventilation: An Observational Case Series Using Electrical Impedance Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kollengode Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lung transplantation is the optimal treatment for end stage lung disease. Donor shortage necessitates single-lung transplants (SLT, yet minimal data exists regarding regional ventilation in diseased versus transplanted lung measured by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT. Method. We aimed to determine regional ventilation in six SLT outpatients using EIT. We assessed end expiratory volume and tidal volumes. End expiratory lung impedance (EELI and Global Tidal Variation of Impedance were assessed in supine, right lateral, left lateral, sitting, and standing positions in transplanted and diseased lungs. A mixed model with random intercept per subject was used for statistical analysis. Results. EELI was significantly altered between diseased and transplanted lungs whilst lying on right and left side. One patient demonstrated pendelluft between lungs and was therefore excluded for further comparison of tidal variation. Tidal variation was significantly higher in the transplanted lung for the remaining five patients in all positions, except when lying on the right side. Conclusion. Ventilation to transplanted lung is better than diseased lung, especially in lateral positions. Positioning in patients with active unilateral lung pathologies will be implicated. This is the first study demonstrating changes in regional ventilation, associated with changes of position between transplanted and diseased lung.

  7. Prediction of lung density changes after radiotherapy by cone beam computed tomography response markers and pre-treatment factors for non-small cell lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernchou, Uffe; Hansen, Olfred; Schytte, Tine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study investigates the ability of pre-treatment factors and response markers extracted from standard cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images to predict the lung density changes induced by radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. METHODS...... AND MATERIALS: Density changes in follow-up computed tomography scans were evaluated for 135 NSCLC patients treated with radiotherapy. Early response markers were obtained by analysing changes in lung density in CBCT images acquired during the treatment course. The ability of pre-treatment factors and CBCT...

  8. Weight Gain in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients During Treatment With Split-Course Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Is Associated With Superior Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gielda, Benjamin T., E-mail: Benjamin_gielda@rush.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Mehta, Par [Department of Radiation Oncology at Rush Copley Medical Center, Aurora, IL (United States); Khan, Atif [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Marsh, James C.; Zusag, Thomas W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Warren, William H. [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Fidler, Mary Jo [Section of Medical Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Abrams, Ross A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Bonomi, Philip [Section of Medical Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Liptay, Michael; Faber, L. Penfield [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Background: Preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is an accepted treatment for potentially resectable, locally advanced, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We reviewed a decade of single institution experience with preoperative split-course CRT followed by surgical resection to evaluate survival and identify factors that may be helpful in predicting outcome. Methods and Materials: All patients treated with preoperative split-course CRT and resection at Rush University Medical Center (RUMC) between January 1999 and December 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Endpoints included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), local-regional progression-free survival (LRPFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). Patient and treatment related variables were assessed for correlation with outcomes. Results: A total of 54 patients were analyzed, 76% Stage IIIA, 18% Stage IIIB, and 6% oligometastatic. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate was 31.5%, and the absence of nodal metastases (pN0) was 64.8%. Median OS and 3-year actuarial survival were 44.6 months and 50%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed initial stage (p < 0.01) and percent weight change during CRT (p < 0.01) significantly correlated with PFS/OS. On multivariate analysis initial stage (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.18-4.90; p = 0.02) and percent weight change (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.67-0.93; p < 0.01) maintained significance with respect to OS. There were no cases of Grade 3+ esophagitis, and there was a single case of Grade 3 febrile neutropenia. Conclusions: The strong correlation between weight change during CRT and OS/PFS suggests that this clinical parameter may be useful as a complementary source of predictive information in addition to accepted factors such as pathological response.

  9. Spirometry and volumetric capnography in lung function assessment of obese and normal-weight individuals without asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mariana S; Mendes, Roberto T; Marson, Fernando A L; Zambon, Mariana P; Antonio, Maria A R G M; Paschoal, Ilma A; Toro, Adyléia A D C; Severino, Silvana D; Ribeiro, Maria A G O; Ribeiro, José D

    To analyze and compare lung function of obese and healthy, normal-weight children and adolescents, without asthma, through spirometry and volumetric capnography. Cross-sectional study including 77 subjects (38 obese) aged 5-17 years. All subjects underwent spirometry and volumetric capnography. The evaluations were repeated in obese subjects after the use of a bronchodilator. At the spirometry assessment, obese individuals, when compared with the control group, showed lower values of forced expiratory volume in the first second by forced vital capacity (FEV 1 /FVC) and expiratory flows at 75% and between 25 and 75% of the FVC (p11 years (p<0.05). Even without the diagnosis of asthma by clinical criteria and without response to bronchodilator use, obese individuals showed lower FEV 1 /FVC values and forced expiratory flow, indicating the presence of an obstructive process. Volumetric capnography showed that obese individuals had higher alveolar tidal volume, with no alterations in ventilation homogeneity, suggesting flow alterations, without affecting lung volumes. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. The TiltMeter app is a novel and accurate measurement tool for the weight bearing lunge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cylie M; Caserta, Antoni J; Haines, Terry P

    2013-09-01

    The weight bearing lunge test is increasing being used by health care clinicians who treat lower limb and foot pathology. This measure is commonly established accurately and reliably with the use of expensive equipment. This study aims to compare the digital inclinometer with a free app, TiltMeter on an Apple iPhone. This was an intra-rater and inter-rater reliability study. Two raters (novice and experienced) conducted the measurements in both a bent knee and straight leg position to determine the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was also established. Allied health practitioners were recruited as participants from the workplace. A preconditioning stretch was conducted and the ankle range of motion was established with the weight bearing lunge test position with firstly the leg straight and secondly with the knee bent. The measurement device and each participant were randomised during measurement. The intra-rater reliability and inter-rater reliability for the devices and in both positions were all over ICC 0.8 except for one intra-rater measure (Digital inclinometer, novice, ICC 0.65). The inter-rater reliability between the digital inclinometer and the tilmeter was near perfect, ICC 0.96 (CI: 0.898-0.983); Concurrent validity ICC between the two devices was 0.83 (CI: -0.740 to 0.445). The use of the Tiltmeter app on the iPhone is a reliable and inexpensive tool to measure the available ankle range of motion. Health practitioners should use caution in applying these findings to other smart phone equipment if surface areas are not comparable. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors Associated With Weight Change in Online Weight Management Communities: A Case Study in the LoseIt Reddit Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Gisele Lobo; Cunha, Tiago Oliveira; Bicalho, Paulo Viana; Ribeiro, Antonio; Couto Silva, Ana Paula; Meira, Wagner; Beleigoli, Alline Maria Rezende

    2017-01-16

    Recent research has shown that of the 72% of American Internet users who have looked for health information online, 22% have searched for help to lose or control weight. This demand for information has given rise to many online weight management communities, where users support one another throughout their weight loss process. Whether and how user engagement in online communities relates to weight change is not totally understood. We investigated the activity behavior and analyze the semantic content of the messages of active users in LoseIt (r/loseit), a weight management community of the online social network Reddit. We then explored whether these features are associated with weight loss in this online social network. A data collection tool was used to collect English posts, comments, and other public metadata of active users (ie, users with at least one post or comment) on LoseIt from August 2010 to November 2014. Analyses of frequency and intensity of user interaction in the community were performed together with a semantic analysis of the messages, done by a latent Dirichlet allocation method. The association between weight loss and online user activity patterns, the semantics of the messages, and real-world variables was found by a linear regression model using 30-day weight change as the dependent variable. We collected posts and comments of 107,886 unique users. Among these, 101,003 (93.62%) wrote at least one comment and 38,981 (36.13%) wrote at least one post. Median percentage of days online was 3.81 (IQR 9.51). The 10 most-discussed semantic topics on posts were related to healthy food, clothing, calorie counting, workouts, looks, habits, support, and unhealthy food. In the subset of 754 users who had gender, age, and 30-day weight change data available, women were predominant and 92.9% (701/754) lost weight. Female gender, body mass index (BMI) at baseline, high levels of online activity, the number of upvotes received per post, and topics discussed

  12. Prediction of lung density changes after radiotherapy by cone beam computed tomography response markers and pre-treatment factors for non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernchou, Uffe; Hansen, Olfred; Schytte, Tine; Bertelsen, Anders; Hope, Andrew; Moseley, Douglas; Brink, Carsten

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the ability of pre-treatment factors and response markers extracted from standard cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images to predict the lung density changes induced by radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Density changes in follow-up computed tomography scans were evaluated for 135 NSCLC patients treated with radiotherapy. Early response markers were obtained by analysing changes in lung density in CBCT images acquired during the treatment course. The ability of pre-treatment factors and CBCT markers to predict lung density changes induced by radiotherapy was investigated. Age and CBCT markers extracted at 10th, 20th, and 30th treatment fraction significantly predicted lung density changes in a multivariable analysis, and a set of response models based on these parameters were established. The correlation coefficient for the models was 0.35, 0.35, and 0.39, when based on the markers obtained at the 10th, 20th, and 30th fraction, respectively. The study indicates that younger patients without lung tissue reactions early into their treatment course may have minimal radiation induced lung density increase at follow-up. Further investigations are needed to examine the ability of the models to identify patients with low risk of symptomatic toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes of micronutrients, dry weight and plant development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... This study was carried out to determine the effects of salt stress on the growth, dry weights and micronutrient contents of canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars grown in greenhouse ... crop productivity in the arid and semiarid regions of the ... fertilizer equivalent to 150 kg ha-1 and triple-superphosphate (80 kg.

  14. Structural changes in the knee during weight loss maintenance after a significant weight loss in obese patients with osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, M; Christensen, R; Hunter, D J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare structural knee joint changes in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) that after an intensive weight loss therapy were randomized to continuous dietetic support, a specialized knee exercise program, or 'no attention' for 1 year. METHODS: 192 obese individuals with knee...... OA underwent an intensive 16-week weight loss program with subsequent randomization to one of the three treatment groups. Changes in cartilage loss, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), synovitis, and effusion were assessed using semi quantitative assessments of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained...... (difference: -0.21 [95%CI -0.40:-0.03]) and "no attention" (difference: -0.26 [95%CI -0.44:-0.07]) groups. CONCLUSION: In this 1 year follow-up after weight-loss in obese knee OA patients, we found a potentially increased number of BMLs in the exercise group compared to the diet and no attention groups...

  15. Evaluation of changes in central airway dimensions, lung area and mean lung density at paired inspiratory/expiratory high-resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ederle, J.R.; Heussel, C.P.; Hast, J.; Ley, S.; Thelen, M.; Kauczor, H.U.; Fischer, B.; Beek, E.J.R. van

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of interdependencies of dynamic changes in central airway dimensions, lung area and lung density on HRCT. The HRCT scans of 156 patients obtained at full inspiratory and expiratory position were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were divided into four groups according to lung function tests: normal subjects (n=47); obstructive (n=74); restrictive (n=19); or mixed ventilatory impairment (n=16). Mean lung density (MLD) was correlated with cross-sectional area of the lung (CSA L ), cross-sectional area of the trachea (CSA T ) and diameter of main-stem bronchi (D B ). The CSA L was correlated with CSA T and D B . MLD correlated with CSA L in normal subjects (r=-0.66, p T in the control group (r=-0.50, p B was found (r=-0.52, p L and CSA T correlated in the control group (r=0.67, p L and D B correlated in the control group (r=0.42, p<0.0001) and in patients with obstructive lung disease (r=0.24, p<0.05). Correlations for patients with restrictive and mixed lung disease were constantly lower. Dependencies between central and peripheral airway dimensions and lung parenchyma are demonstrated by HRCT. Best correlations are observed in normal subjects and patients with obstructive lung disease. Based on these findings we postulate that the dependencies are the result of air-flow and pressure patterns. (orig.)

  16. Weight change and physical function in older women: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, C L; Snowdon, D A

    1995-12-01

    To investigate the association between change in weight and decline in physical function in older women. Longitudinal study of a defined population of Catholic sisters (nuns) whose weight and function were assessed twice, an average of 584 days apart. Unique life communities (convents) located throughout the United States. 475 Catholic sisters who were 75 to 99 years of age (M = 82.1, SD = 4.8) and were independent in at least one Activity of Daily Living (ADL) at the first assessment of weight and function. None. At each assessment, weight, ADLs, and cognitive function were evaluated as part of the Nun Study--a longitudinal study of aging and Alzheimer's disease. Annual percent weight change was calculated using weights from the two assessments, as well as the number of days that elapsed between assessments. Mean weight at first assessment was 140 pounds (range 78 to 232, SD = 27). The mean annual percent weight change was 0.1% (range 22% loss to 16% gain, SD = 3.8). Age- and initial weight-adjusted findings indicated that those participants with an annual percent weight loss of 3% or greater had 2.7 to 3.9 times the risk of becoming dependent in each ADL, compared to the sisters with no weight change. The elevated risk persisted in those who were mentally intact or were independent in their eating habits. Monitoring of weight may be an easy and inexpensive method of identifying older individuals at increased risk of disability.

  17. Lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, G.L.; Blankenship, W.J.; Burdine, J.A. Jr.; DeNardo, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    At present no simple statement can be made relative to the role of radionuclidic lung studies in the pediatric population. It is safe to assume that they will be used with increasing frequency for research and clinical applications because of their sensitivity and ready applicability to the pediatric patient. Methods comparable to those used in adults can be used in children older than 4 years. In younger children, however, a single injection of 133 Xe in solution provides an index of both regional perfusion and ventilation which is easier to accomplish. This method is particularly valuable in infants and neonates because it is rapid, requires no patient cooperation, results in a very low radiation dose, and can be repeated in serial studies. Radionuclidic studies of ventilation and perfusion can be performed in almost all children if the pediatrician and the nuclear medicine specialist have motivation and ingenuity. S []ontaneous pulmonary vascular occlusive disease which occurs in infants and pulmonary emboli in children are easily detected using radionuclides. The pathophysiologic defects of pulmonary agenesis, bronchopulmonary sequestration, and foreign body aspiration may be demonstrated by these techniques. These techniques also appear to be useful in following patients with bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, congenital emphysema, and postinfection pulmonary abnormalities. (auth)

  18. Relations of hedonic hunger and behavioral change to weight loss among adults in a behavioral weight loss program utilizing meal-replacement products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theim, Kelly R; Brown, Joshua D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Malcolm, Robert R; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-11-01

    Greater self-regulatory behavior usage is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments. Hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may impede successful behavior change and weight loss. Adult men and women (N = 111, body mass index M ± SD = 35.89 ± 6.97 kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after a 15-week lifestyle change weight loss program with a partial meal-replacement diet. From pre- to post-treatment, reported weight control behavior usage improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely related. Individuals with higher hedonic hunger scores at baseline showed the greatest weight loss. Similarly, participants with lower baseline use of weight control behaviors lost more weight, and increased weight control behavior usage was associated with greater weight loss-particularly among individuals with low baseline hedonic hunger. Further study is warranted regarding the significance of hedonic hunger in weight loss treatments.

  19. Estimating 4D-CBCT from prior information and extremely limited angle projections using structural PCA and weighted free-form deformation for lung radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Wendy; Zhang, You; Yin, Fang-Fang; Ren, Lei

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using structural-based principal component analysis (PCA) motion-modeling and weighted free-form deformation to estimate on-board 4D-CBCT using prior information and extremely limited angle projections for potential 4D target verification of lung radiotherapy. A technique for lung 4D-CBCT reconstruction has been previously developed using a deformation field map (DFM)-based strategy. In the previous method, each phase of the 4D-CBCT was generated by deforming a prior CT volume. The DFM was solved by a motion model extracted by a global PCA and free-form deformation (GMM-FD) technique, using a data fidelity constraint and deformation energy minimization. In this study, a new structural PCA method was developed to build a structural motion model (SMM) by accounting for potential relative motion pattern changes between different anatomical structures from simulation to treatment. The motion model extracted from planning 4DCT was divided into two structures: tumor and body excluding tumor, and the parameters of both structures were optimized together. Weighted free-form deformation (WFD) was employed afterwards to introduce flexibility in adjusting the weightings of different structures in the data fidelity constraint based on clinical interests. XCAT (computerized patient model) simulation with a 30 mm diameter lesion was simulated with various anatomical and respiratory changes from planning 4D-CT to on-board volume to evaluate the method. The estimation accuracy was evaluated by the volume percent difference (VPD)/center-of-mass-shift (COMS) between lesions in the estimated and "ground-truth" on-board 4D-CBCT. Different on-board projection acquisition scenarios and projection noise levels were simulated to investigate their effects on the estimation accuracy. The method was also evaluated against three lung patients. The SMM-WFD method achieved substantially better accuracy than the GMM-FD method for CBCT estimation using extremely

  20. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkers, Marga B M; Koppes, Lando L J; Rodenburg, Wendy; van Steeg, Harry; Proper, Karin I

    2015-04-01

    To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable night or shift work, from day work to night or shift work, from night or shift work to day work, and no night or shift work in 2008 and 2009. Regression analyses were used to study association changes in night and shift work with weight change and changes in lifestyle behaviors. A larger weight change was seen in normal-weight workers changing from day to shift work (β = 0.93%; 95% confidence interval, 0.01 to 1.85) compared with stable no shift workers. No further associations of night and shift work with weight change were observed, neither in normal-weight, overweight, and obese workers. Despite the fact that starting night or shift work is associated with some unhealthy lifestyle habits, this study did not confirm a positive association of night and shift work with weight change over 1 year, except for normal-weight workers moving from day to shift work.

  1. Inter-relationships between single carbon units' metabolism and resting energy expenditure in weight-losing patients with small cell lung cancer. Effects of methionine supply and chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, H; Hansen, O P; Simonsen, L

    1994-01-01

    The one-carbon unit metabolism was investigated in 8 weight-losing patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCLC). At diagnosis, 6 of the 8 patients had elevated formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) excretion after a histidine load, suggesting a lack of one-carbon units. In accordance...

  2. Inter-relationships between single carbon units' metabolism and resting energy expenditure in weight-losing patients with small cell lung cancer. Effects of methionine supply and chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, H; Hansen, O P; Simonsen, L

    1994-01-01

    The one-carbon unit metabolism was investigated in 8 weight-losing patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCLC). At diagnosis, 6 of the 8 patients had elevated formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) excretion after a histidine load, suggesting a lack of one-carbon units. In accordance, a signifi...

  3. Chest circumference and birth weight are good predictors of lung function in preschool children from an e-waste recycling area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Li, Weiqiu; Huo, Xia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between birth weight, chest circumference, and lung function in preschool children from e-waste exposure area. A total of 206 preschool children from Guiyu (an e-waste recycling area) and Haojiang and Xiashan (the reference areas) in

  4. Bone metabolism in adolescent girls with eating disorders and weight loss: independent effects of weight change, insulin-like growth factor-1 and oestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenne, Ingemar; Stridsberg, Mats

    2015-03-01

    Adolescents with eating disorders (ED) are at risk of developing osteoporosis if weight is not recovered. Previous investigations do not separate the effects of weight change per se from those of concomitant hormonal changes. In this investigation serum osteocalcin (OC), C-terminal telopeptide of collagen (CTX), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and oestradiol were measured at assessment of 498 girls with ED and during weight gain of 59 girls. At assessment, OC concentrations were associated independently with weight (change), IGF-1 and oestradiol. Low weight, a high rate of weight loss and the hormone concentrations were associated with low OC. Low weight and high rate of weight loss were associated with high CTX concentrations but there were no associations independent of weight (change) with the hormones. During weight recovery, OC and CTX were independently and positively associated with weight, weight gain, IGF-1 and oestradiol. Bone metabolism markers are related to weight change independently of IGF-1 and oestradiol during both weight loss and weight gain. During weight gain, when pubertal development and growth are resumed there is an additional independent positive association between the markers and IGF-1 and oestradiol. These relationships are strongest in premenarcheal girls.

  5. Weight change and workplace absenteeism in the HealthWorks study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Linde, Jennifer A; Harnack, Lisa J; Stovitz, Steven D; Jeffery, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between weight change and workplace absenteeism. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which weight change predicted 2-year absenteeism. A longitudinal analysis of 1,228 employees enrolled in a worksite-randomized controlled trial was performed. Participants were all working adults in the Minneapolis, MN, area (USA). The final model indicated a significant interaction between weight change and baseline BMI. The difference in absenteeism ranged from (mean ± SE) 3.2 ± 1.2 days among healthy weight employees who maintained their weight to 6.6 ± 1.1 days among obese employees who gained weight (and slightly higher among healthy weight employees who lost weight). The adjusted model also indicated that participants who were male, not depressed, nonsmokers, and had lower baseline absenteeism had significantly less workplace absenteeism relative to participants who were female, depressed, smokers, and had higher baseline absenteeism. Absenteeism was generally low in this sample, but healthy weight employees who maintained their body weight over 2 years had the fewest number of sick days. More research is needed in this area, but future workforce attendance interventions may be improved by focusing on the primary prevention of weight gain in healthy weight employees. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  6. Weight Change and Workplace Absenteeism in the HealthWorks Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Harnack, Lisa J.; Stovitz, Steven D.; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the relationship between weight change and workplace absenteeism. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which weight change predicted 2-year absenteeism. Methods A longitudinal analysis of 1,228 employees enrolled in a worksite-randomized controlled trial was performed. Participants were all working adults in the Minneapolis, MN, area (USA). Results The final model indicated a significant interaction between weight change and baseline BMI. The difference in absenteeism ranged from (mean ± SE) 3.2 ± 1.2 days among healthy weight employees who maintained their weight to 6.6 ± 1.1 days among obese employees who gained weight (and slightly higher among healthy weight employees who lost weight). The adjusted model also indicated that participants who were male, not depressed, nonsmokers, and had lower baseline absenteeism had significantly less workplace absenteeism relative to participants who were female, depressed, smokers, and had higher baseline absenteeism. Conclusion Absenteeism was generally low in this sample, but healthy weight employees who maintained their body weight over 2 years had the fewest number of sick days. More research is needed in this area, but future workforce attendance interventions may be improved by focusing on the primary prevention of weight gain in healthy weight employees. PMID:23108493

  7. The Associations of Maternal Weight Change with Breastfeeding, Diet and Physical Activity During the Postpartum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Olmedo, Nancy; Hernández-Cordero, Sonia; Neufeld, Lynnette M; García-Guerra, Armando; Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Méndez Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    To determine the association between breastfeeding practices, diet and physical activity and maternal postpartum weight. This was a secondary data analysis of a randomized community trial on beneficiaries of the Programa de Desarrollo Humano Oportunidades, recently renamed Prospera (n = 314 pregnant women), without any diseases that could affect body weight. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the association between postpartum weight change and changes in diet, physical activity and type of breastfeeding. The mean postpartum weight change from the first to the third month was 0.6 ± 2.2 kg. Women who breastfed exclusively for 3 months had a 4.1 (SE = 1.9) kg weight reduction in comparison with women who did not provide exclusive breastfeeding or who discontinued breastfeeding before 3 months (p = 0.04). There was no association between postpartum weight change and physical activity (p = 0.24) or energy intake (p = 0.06). Exclusive breastfeeding was associated with maternal postpartum weight reduction. These results reinforce the World Health Organization recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life in order to reduce the risk of weight retention or weight gain in postpartum women. It has been well established that exclusive breastfeeding is beneficial for both infants and mothers, but promoting breastfeeding as a strategy to promote postpartum weight loss is of paramount importance, especially in countries like Mexico where excessive weight in women of reproductive age is a public health problem.

  8. N-of-1 study of weight loss maintenance assessing predictors of physical activity, adherence to weight loss plan and weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnicka, Dominika; Dombrowski, Stephan U; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2017-06-01

    Behaviour change interventions are effective in supporting individuals to achieve clinically significant weight loss, but weight loss maintenance (WLM) is less often attained. This study examined predictive variables associated with WLM. N-of-1 study with daily ecological momentary assessment combined with objective measurement of weight and physical activity, collected with wireless devices (Fitbit™) for six months. Eight previously obese adults who had lost over 5% of their body weight in the past year took part. Data were analysed using time series methods. Predictor variables were based on five theoretical themes: maintenance motives, self-regulation, personal resources, habits, and environmental influences. Dependent variables were: objectively estimated step count and weight, and self-reported WLM plan adherence. For all participants, daily fluctuations in self-reported adherence to their WLM plan were significantly associated with most of the explanatory variables, including maintenance motivation and satisfaction with outcomes, self-regulation, habit, and stable environment. Personal resources were not a consistent predictor of plan adherence. This is the first study to assess theoretical predictions of WLM within individuals. WLM is a dynamic process including the interplay of motivation, self-regulation, habit, resources, and perceptions of environmental context. Individuals maintaining their weight have unique psychological profiles which could be accounted for in interventions.

  9. Lung morphometry, collagen and elastin content: changes after hyperoxic exposure in preterm rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Suman Mascaretti

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Elastic and collagen fiber deposition increases throughout normal lung development, and this fiber network significantly changes when development of the lung is disturbed. In preterm rats and lambs, prolonged hyperoxic exposure is associated with impaired alveolization and causes significant changes in the deposition and structure of elastic fibers. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of hyperoxic exposure on elastic and collagen fiber deposition in the lung interstitial matrix and in alveolarization in preterm rabbits. METHODS: After c-section, 28-day preterm New-Zealand-White rabbits were randomized into 2 study groups, according to the oxygen exposure, namely: Room air (oxygen = 21% or Oxygen (oxygen > 95%. The animals were killed on day 11 and their lungs were analyzed for the alveolar size (Lm, the internal surface area (ISA, the alveoli number, and the density and distribution of collagen and elastic fibers. RESULTS: An increase in the Lm and a decrease in the alveoli number were observed among rabbits that were exposed to hyperoxia with no differences regarding the ISA. No difference in the density of elastic fibers was observed after oxygen exposure, however there were fewer collagen fibers and an evident disorganization of fiber deposition. DISCUSSION: This model reproduces anatomo-pathological injuries representing the arrest of normal alveolar development and lung architecture disorganization by just a prolonged exposition to oxygen. CONCLUSIONS: In the preterm rabbit, prolonged oxygen exposure impaired alveolization and also lowered the proportion of collagen fibers, with an evident fiber network disorganization.

  10. Diphenyl Ditelluride Intoxication Triggers Histological Changes in Liver, Kidney, and Lung of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Cristina Almeida da Luz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tellurium compounds may be cytotoxic to different cells types. Thus, this work evaluated the effect of diphenyl ditelluride ((PhTe2, an organotellurium commonly used in organic synthesis, on the morphology of liver, kidney, and lung. Adult mice were acutely (a subcutaneous single dose: 250 μmol/kg or subchronically (one daily subcutaneous dose: 10 or 50 μmol/kg for 7 and 14 days exposed to (PhTe2. Afterwards, the histological analyses of liver, kidney, and lungs were performed. Liver histology revealed that the hepatocytes of mice subchronically exposed to (PhTe2 presented cytoplasmic vacuolization, hydropic degeneration, and hyperchromatic nuclei. Subchronic exposure to 50 μmol/kg (PhTe2 also caused hepatic necrosis. Microvesicular and macrovesicular steatosis were identified in liver of mice acutely exposed to (PhTe2. Acute and subchronic intoxication with (PhTe2 induced changes on epithelial cells of renal tubules, namely, loss of brush border and cytoplasmatic vacuolization. Atrophy and hypertrophy, cast proteinaceous formation, and acute tubular necrosis were also identified in renal tissue. Mice subchronically exposed to 50 μmol/kg (PhTe2 developed intra-alveolar edema and alveolar wall congestion in some areas of lungs. Acute exposure to (PhTe2 did not cause histological changes in lungs. Our data show that (PhTe2 may be considered a histotoxic agent for liver, kidney, and lung.

  11. Defining the role of dietary intake in determining weight change in patients with cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrah, R; Kanbalian, M; Van Der Borch, C; Swinton, N; Wing, S; Jagoe, R T

    2018-02-01

    Weight loss is a cardinal feature of cachexia and is frequently associated with reduced food intake and anorexia. It is still unclear how much reduced food intake contributes to cancer-related weight loss and how effective increasing dietary energy and protein is in combating this weight loss. The relationship between weight change and both diet and change in dietary intake, was examined in patients with advanced stage cancer referred to a multidisciplinary clinic for management of cancer cachexia. A retrospective study of data for each of the first three clinic visits for patients seen between 2009 and 2015. Data on weight change, dietary intake and change in dietary intake were compared. Regression analysis was used to determine independent explanatory factors for weight change, including the impact of appetite level and a marker of systemic inflammation. Of 405 eligible patients, 320 had data on dietary intake available. Dietary intake varied widely at baseline: 26.9% reported very poor diet and only 17% were consuming recommended levels of energy and protein. A highly significant positive correlation was found between dietary energy or protein intake and weight change, both before and after being seen in the clinic. Anorexia was also significantly correlated with weight loss at each clinic visit. However, there was no similar overall correlation between change in dietary intake and change in weight. Many patients with advanced cancer and weight loss are consuming diets that would likely be insufficient to maintain weight even in healthy individuals. Higher consumption of protein and energy correlates with greater weight gain, but it is impossible to predict the response to increased nutritional intake when patients are first assessed. There is a pressing need to improve understanding of factors that modulate metabolic responses to dietary intake in patients with cancer cachexia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and

  12. Associations between change in sedentary behavior and outcome in standard behavioral weight loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Stephanie G; Call, Christine; Schaumberg, Katherine; Forman, Evan; Butryn, Meghan L

    2018-03-01

    Sedentary behavior, particularly in prolonged periods, is an important determinant of health. Little research exploring changes in sedentary behavior during behavioral weight loss programs exists. This study evaluated the magnitude of changes in total and prolonged sedentary behavior and how these changes related to changes in weight and cardiovascular outcomes during a behavioral weight loss program. Participants (n = 450) in two lifestyle modification programs underwent assessments of sedentary behavior (by accelerometry), weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and resting heart rate at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Sedentary behavior was defined as both total and prolonged (≥30 continuous minutes) sedentary minutes/day. Reductions in total and prolonged sedentary time were significant and were accounted for by increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Only changes in MVPA significantly predicted change in weight when entered into a model simultaneously with changes in sedentary behavior. Changes in total and prolonged sedentary time were not associated with changes in waist circumference, heart rate, or blood pressure. Change in sedentary time was not independently associated with change in health outcomes during a behavioral weight loss treatment. High variability in changes in sedentary time indicate that individual differences may be important to examine. Reducing sedentary time may not be powerful enough to impact these health outcomes above the effects of other changes made during these programs; alternatively, it may be that increasing focus in treatment on reducing sedentary time may engender greater decreases in sedentariness, which could lead to better health outcomes.

  13. WE-G-BRD-07: Investigation of Distal Lung Atelectasis Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Using Regional Lung Volume Changes Between Pre- and Post- Treatment CT Scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diot, Q; Kavanagh, B; Miften, M [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To propose a quantitative method using lung deformations to differentiate between radiation-induced fibrosis and potential airway stenosis with distal atelectasis in patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung tumors. Methods: Twenty-four lung patients with large radiation-induced density increases outside the high dose region had their pre- and post-treatment CT scans manually registered. They received SBRT treatments at our institution between 2002 and 2009 in 3 or 5 fractions, to a median total dose of 54Gy (range, 30–60). At least 50 anatomical landmarks inside the lung (airway branches) were paired for the pre- and post-treatment scans to guide the deformable registration of the lung structure, which was then interpolated to the whole lung using splines. Local volume changes between the planning and follow-up scans were calculated using the deformation field Jacobian. Hyperdense regions were classified as atelectatic or fibrotic based on correlations between regional density increases and significant volume contractions compared to the surrounding tissues. Results: Out of 24 patients, only 7 demonstrated a volume contraction that was at least one σ larger than the remaining lung average. Because they did not receive high doses, these shrunk hyperdense regions were likely showing distal atelectasis resulting from radiation-induced airway stenosis rather than conventional fibrosis. On average, the hyperdense regions extended 9.2 cm farther than the GTV contours but not significantly more than 8.6 cm for the other patients (p>0.05), indicating that a large offset between the radiation and hyperdense region centers is not a good surrogate for atelectasis. Conclusion: A method based on the relative comparison of volume changes between different dates was developed to identify potential lung regions experiencing distal atelectasis. Such a tool is essential to study which lung structures need to be avoided to prevent

  14. Inverse relationship between changes of maximal aerobic capacity and changes in walking economy after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Juliano H; Carter, Stephen J; Singh, Harshvardhan; Hunter, Gary R

    2018-05-16

    The aims of this study were to: (1) determine the relationships between maximum oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O 2max ) and walking economy during non-graded and graded walking among overweight women and (2) examine potential differences in [Formula: see text]O 2max and walking economy before and after weight loss. One-hundred and twenty-four premenopausal women with a body mass index (BMI) between 27 and 30 kg/m 2 were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) diet only; (b) diet and aerobic exercise training; and (c) diet and resistance exercise training. All were furnished with standard, very-low calorie diet to reduce BMI to < 25 kg/m 2 . [Formula: see text]O 2max was measured using a modified-Bruce protocol while walking economy (1-net [Formula: see text]O 2 ) was obtained during fixed-speed (4.8 k·h -1 ), steady-state treadmill walking at 0% grade and 2.5% grade. Assessments were conducted before and after achieving target BMI. Prior to weight loss, [Formula: see text]O 2max was inversely related (P < 0.05) with non-graded and graded walking economy (r = - 0.28 to - 0.35). Similar results were also observed following weight loss (r = - 0.22 to - 0.28). Additionally, we also detected a significant inverse relationship (P < 0.05) between the changes (∆, after weight loss) in ∆[Formula: see text]O 2max , adjusted for fat-free mass, with non-graded and graded ∆walking economy (r = - 0.37 to - 0.41). Our results demonstrate [Formula: see text]O 2max and walking economy are inversely related (cross-sectional) before and after weight loss. Importantly though, ∆[Formula: see text]O 2max and ∆walking economy were also found to be inversely related, suggesting a strong synchrony between maximal aerobic capacity and metabolic cost of exercise.

  15. Weight training, aerobic physical activities, and long-term waist circumference change in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekary, Rania A; Grøntved, Anders; Despres, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Findings on weight training and waist circumference (WC) change are controversial. This study examined prospectively whether weight training, moderate to vigorous aerobic activity (MVAA), and replacement of one activity for another were associated with favorable changes in WC and body ...

  16. The motivation to be sedentary predicts weight change when sedentary behaviors are reduced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paluch Rocco A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is correlated with a sedentary lifestyle, and the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with obesity. The present study tests the hypothesis that the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with weight change when children reduce their sedentary behavior. Methods The motivation to be active or sedentary, changes in weight, and accelerometer assessed physical activity were collected for 55 families with overweight/obese children who participated in a nine-week field study to examine behavior and weight change as a function of reducing sedentary behavior. Children were studied in three 3-week phases, baseline, reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 25% and reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 50%. The targeted sedentary behaviors included television, video game playing, video watching, and computer use. Results The reinforcing value of sedentary behavior but not physical activity, was correlated with weight change, as losing weight was associated with lower reinforcing value of sedentary behaviors. Reducing sedentary behavior was not associated with a significant change in objectively measured physical activity, suggesting the main way in which reducing sedentary behavior influenced weight change is by complementary changes in energy intake. Estimated energy intake supported the hypothesis that reducing sedentary behaviors influences weight by reducing energy intake. Conclusions These data show that the motivation to be sedentary limits the effects of reducing sedentary behavior on weight change in obese children. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00962247

  17. The motivation to be sedentary predicts weight change when sedentary behaviors are reduced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Roemmich, James N; Cavanaugh, Meghan D; Paluch, Rocco A

    2011-02-22

    Obesity is correlated with a sedentary lifestyle, and the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with obesity. The present study tests the hypothesis that the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with weight change when children reduce their sedentary behavior. The motivation to be active or sedentary, changes in weight, and accelerometer assessed physical activity were collected for 55 families with overweight/obese children who participated in a nine-week field study to examine behavior and weight change as a function of reducing sedentary behavior. Children were studied in three 3-week phases, baseline, reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 25% and reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 50%. The targeted sedentary behaviors included television, video game playing, video watching, and computer use. The reinforcing value of sedentary behavior but not physical activity, was correlated with weight change, as losing weight was associated with lower reinforcing value of sedentary behaviors. Reducing sedentary behavior was not associated with a significant change in objectively measured physical activity, suggesting the main way in which reducing sedentary behavior influenced weight change is by complementary changes in energy intake. Estimated energy intake supported the hypothesis that reducing sedentary behaviors influences weight by reducing energy intake. These data show that the motivation to be sedentary limits the effects of reducing sedentary behavior on weight change in obese children. © 2011 Epstein et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  18. Association of dietary patterns and weight change in rural older adults 75 years and older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the relationship between weight change and dietary patterns (DP) in older adults, especially in those of advanced age (_75 years). We examined the association of DP with obesity and five-year weight change in community-dwelling older adults (n=270; mean±SD age: 78.6±3.9 years)....

  19. SU-F-J-67: Dosimetric Changes During Radiotherapy in Lung Cancer Patients with Atelectasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy, C; Weiss, E; Jan, N; Reshko, L; Hugo, G [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Christensen, G [University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Large geometric changes which occur during thoracic radiotherapy alter normal anatomy and target position and may induce clinically important dose changes. This study investigates variation of organ-at-risk (OAR) dose caused by atelectasis resolution during radiotherapy. Methods: 3D IMRT treatment plans were obtained for 14 non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Dose of the clinical plan was recalculated on a baseline scan in which lung was collapsed and on a midtreatment scan in which lung re-aeration had occurred. The changes in OAR doses were compared between the two time points. RTOG-0617 and inhouse dose-volume constraints were chosen for investigation and included spinal cord, esophagus, heart, and healthy lung. Results: 17 dose metrics were evaluated. The mean (SD) of change in mean lung dose, from baseline to mid-treatment (average taken across all patients), was 0.2 Gy (2.2 Gy) and ranged from −3.2 Gy to 6.0 Gy. 50% of patients experienced relative changes in mean lung dose of greater than 5% of baseline value. The mean (SD) of changes in heart V{sub 40}, V{sub 45}, and V{sup 60} were 3.2% (3.4%), 3.0% (2.9%), and 1.4% (2.1%), respectively, and were significant for the study cohort (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p=0.0107 for V{sub 40}, p=0.0052 for V{sub 45}, and p= 0.0353 for V{sub 60}. Ranges in changes of Heart V{sub 40}, V{sub 45}, and V{sub 60} were −1.9% to 8.6%, −1.7% to 7.5%, and −2.1% to 4.5%, respectively. The mean (SD) of changes in Esophagus PRV Dmean and V{sub 60} were 0.3 Gy (3.3 Gy) and 0.8% (7.7%), respectively, and ranged from −4.8 Gy to 6.8 Gy for Dmean and −15.2% to 14.6% for V{sub 60}. Conclusion: Patients with atelectasis present at the start of radiotherapy experience significant increases in heart dose. Substantial increases in mean lung dose also occur in a subset of patients. This work supported by the National Cancer Institute of National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01CA166119. Disclosures: Phillips

  20. Injurious mechanical ventilation in the normal lung causes a progressive pathologic change in dynamic alveolar mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Lucio A; Albert, Scott; Carney, David; Gatto, Louis A; Halter, Jeffrey M; Nieman, Gary F

    2007-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome causes a heterogeneous lung injury, and without protective mechanical ventilation a secondary ventilator-induced lung injury can occur. To ventilate noncompliant lung regions, high inflation pressures are required to 'pop open' the injured alveoli. The temporal impact, however, of these elevated pressures on normal alveolar mechanics (that is, the dynamic change in alveolar size and shape during ventilation) is unknown. In the present study we found that ventilating the normal lung with high peak pressure (45 cmH(2)0) and low positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP of 3 cmH(2)O) did not initially result in altered alveolar mechanics, but alveolar instability developed over time. Anesthetized rats underwent tracheostomy, were placed on pressure control ventilation, and underwent sternotomy. Rats were then assigned to one of three ventilation strategies: control group (n = 3, P control = 14 cmH(2)O, PEEP = 3 cmH(2)O), high pressure/low PEEP group (n = 6, P control = 45 cmH(2)O, PEEP = 3 cmH(2)O), and high pressure/high PEEP group (n = 5, P control = 45 cmH(2)O, PEEP = 10 cmH(2)O). In vivo microscopic footage of subpleural alveolar stability (that is, recruitment/derecruitment) was taken at baseline and than every 15 minutes for 90 minutes following ventilator adjustments. Alveolar recruitment/derecruitment was determined by measuring the area of individual alveoli at peak inspiration (I) and end expiration (E) by computer image analysis. Alveolar recruitment/derecruitment was quantified by the percentage change in alveolar area during tidal ventilation (%I - E Delta). Alveoli were stable in the control group for the entire experiment (low %I - E Delta). Alveoli in the high pressure/low PEEP group were initially stable (low %I - E Delta), but with time alveolar recruitment/derecruitment developed. The development of alveolar instability in the high pressure/low PEEP group was associated with histologic lung injury. A large change in

  1. A retrospective study to determine if there is a gender-related difference in weight loss in non-small cell lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, L.; Hodson, I.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if male non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients undergoing radiation therapy experience greater weight loss than female patients. A secondary objective was to demonstrate that a specific gender could be targeted earlier during treatment for nutritional consultations. Weight and nutritional consultation data were retrospectively collected from 40 patient charts. The sample had an equal number of males and females with similar patient characteristics. It was found that, on average, males lost more weight than females during radiation therapy and at follow-up. An independent samples t-test showed that the difference was statistically significant. Men had more weight loss than women during radiation therapy, suggesting men are at a greater risk for nutritional problems. Furthermore, more men that women experienced their maximum weight loss before receiving a nutritional consultation. Thus, males with NSCLC should be targeted earlier for dietary consultations to help maintain their weight. (author)

  2. Lung Density Changes After Stereotactic Radiotherapy: A Quantitative Analysis in 50 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, David A., E-mail: david.palma@uwo.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Soernsen de Koste, John van; Verbakel, Wilko F.A.R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vincent, Andrew [Department of Biometrics, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Senan, Suresh [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Radiologic lung density changes are observed in more than 50% of patients after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung cancer. We studied the relationship between SBRT dose and posttreatment computed tomography (CT) density changes, a surrogate for lung injury. Methods and Materials: The SBRT fractionation schemes used to treat Stage I lung cancer with RapidArc were three fractions of 18 Gy, five fractions of 11 Gy, or eight fractions of 7.5 Gy, prescribed at the 80% isodose. Follow-up CT scans performed at less than 6 months (n = 50) and between 6 and 9 months (n = 30) after SBRT were reviewed. Posttreatment scans were coregistered with baseline scans using a B-spline deformable registration algorithm. Voxel-Hounsfield unit histograms were created for doses between 0.5 and 50 Gy. Linear mixed effects models were used to assess the effects of SBRT dose on CT density, and the influence of possible confounders was tested. Results: Increased CT density was associated with higher dose, increasing planning target volume size, and increasing time after SBRT (all p < 0.0001). Density increases were apparent in areas receiving >6 Gy, were most prominent in areas receiving >20 Gy, and seemed to plateau above 40 Gy. In regions receiving >36 Gy, the reduction in air-filled fraction of lung after treatment was up to 18%. No increase in CT density was observed in the contralateral lung receiving {>=}3 Gy. Conclusions: A dose-response relationship exists for quantitative CT density changes after SBRT. A threshold of effect is seen at low doses, and a plateau at highest doses.

  3. Weight change from 3-year observational data: findings from the worldwide schizophrenia outpatient health outcomes database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushe, Chris J; Slooff, Cees J; Haddad, Peter M; Karagianis, Jamie L

    2012-06-01

    Weight change data from randomized clinical trials are often of limited duration and trials do not always report a full range of clinically relevant categorical end points. We conducted a post hoc analysis of data from the observational Worldwide Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes database (2000-2005) on weight change in 4,626 patients completing 3 years of antipsychotic monotherapy with amisulpride, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and oral and depot first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs). Reported outcomes included mean and categorical weight changes and the trajectories of different measures of weight change. Mean weight gain was lowest with amisulpride (1.8 kg; 95% CI, 0.2-3.3) and highest with olanzapine (4.2 kg; 95% CI, 3.9-4.5). Weight change for all antipsychotics was most rapid during the first 6 months; subsequent weight change was slower but did not plateau. All drugs showed considerable individual variation in weight change. The proportion losing ≥7% of their baseline bodyweight was highest with quetiapine (10%; 95% CI, 7%-16%) and lowest with depot FGAs (5%; 95% CI, 3%-10%). Between 7% and 15% of patients moved into an overweight or obese body mass index (kg/m2)category (≥25). The degree of weight gain varied between antipsychotics. All antipsychotics were associated with significant (≥7%) weight loss and gain from baseline. The mean rate of weight gain was maximal during the first 6 months but continued over 3 years without a plateau in this specific cohort. Patients should receive regular monitoring of weight throughout treatment. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  4. Quantification of gross tumour volume changes between simulation and first day of radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced malignancies of the lung and head/neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishan, Amar U; Cui, Jing; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Daly, Megan E; Purdy, James A; Chen, Allen M

    2014-10-01

    To quantify changes in gross tumour volume (GTV) between simulation and initiation of radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced malignancies of the lung and head/neck. Initial cone beam computed tomography (CT) scans from 12 patients with lung cancer and 12 with head/neck cancer (head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy with image guidance were rigidly registered to the simulation CT scans. The GTV was demarcated on both scans. The relationship between percent GTV change and variables including time interval between simulation and start, tumour (T) stage, and absolute weight change was assessed. For lung cancer patients, the GTV increased a median of 35.06% (range, -16.63% to 229.97%) over a median interval of 13 days (range, 7-43), while for HNSCC patients, the median GTV increase was 16.04% (range, -8.03% to 47.41%) over 13 days (range, 7-40). These observed changes are statistically significant. The magnitude of this change was inversely associated with the size of the tumour on the simulation scan for lung cancer patients (P lung cancer cases) did not correlate with degree of GTV change (P > 0.1). While the observed changes in GTV were moderate from the time of simulation to start of radiotherapy, these findings underscore the importance of image guidance for target localisation and verification, particularly for smaller tumours. Minimising the delay between simulation and treatment initiation may also be beneficial. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  5. Seniors' body weight dissatisfaction and longitudinal associations with weight changes, anorexia of aging, and obesity: results from the NuAge Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mathieu; Shatenstein, Bryna; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Morais, José A; Payette, Hélène

    2015-03-01

    We examined longitudinal associations between weight dissatisfaction, weight changes, anorexia of aging, and obesity among 1,793 seniors followed over 4 years between 2003 and 2009. Obesity prevalence (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30) and prevalence/incidence of weight dissatisfaction, anorexia of aging (self-reported appetite loss), and weight changes ≥5% were assessed. Predictors of weight loss ≥5%, anorexia of aging, and weight dissatisfaction were examined using logistic regressions. Half of seniors experienced weight dissatisfaction (50.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [48.1, 53.1]). Anorexia of aging and obesity prevalence was 7.0% (95% CI = [5.7, 8.3]) and 25.1% (95% CI = [22.9, 27.3]), whereas incidence of weight gain/loss ≥5% was 6.6% (95% CI = [1.3, 11.9]) and 8.8% (95% CI = [3.3, 14.3]). Weight gain ≥5% predicts men's subsequent weight dissatisfaction (odds ratio [OR] = 6.66, 95% CI = [2.06, 21.60]). No other association was observed. Weight dissatisfaction is frequent but not associated with subsequent eating disorders. In men, weight gain predicted weight dissatisfaction. Seniors' weight dissatisfaction does not necessarily equate weight changes. Due to its high prevalence, it is of public health interest to understand how seniors' weight dissatisfaction may impact health. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Changes in Weight, Sedentary Behaviour and Physical Activity during the School Year and Summer Vacation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Tanaka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To examine bidirectional associations between body weight and objectively assessed sedentary behaviour (SB and physical activity (PA during the school year and summer vacation. Methods: Participants were 209 Japanese boys and girls (9.0 ± 1.8 years at baseline. SB and PA were measured using triaxial accelerometry that discriminated between ambulatory and non-ambulatory PA, screen time measured by questionnaire during the school-term was evaluated in May and the summer vacation, and relative body weight measured in May and just after the end of summer vacation. Results: There were no significant relationships between changes in SB or PA and changes in body weight. However, higher relative body weight at baseline was associated with decreased non-ambulatory moderate PA (p = 0.049, but this association was slightly diminished after adjusting for change in SB (p = 0.056. Longer screen time at baseline was also associated with increased relative body weight (p = 0.033. Conclusions: The present study revealed that body weight might be particularly influential on non-ambulatory moderate PA while SB, PA or changes in these variables did not predict changes in body weight. Moreover, screen time during the school year is a predictor of change in relative body weight during the subsequent summer vacation.

  7. Weight training, aerobic physical activities, and long-term waist circumference change in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekary, Rania A; Grøntved, Anders; Despres, Jean-Pierre; De Moura, Leandro Pereira; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B; Giovannucci, Edward; Hu, Frank B

    2015-02-01

    Findings on weight training and waist circumference (WC) change are controversial. This study examined prospectively whether weight training, moderate to vigorous aerobic activity (MVAA), and replacement of one activity for another were associated with favorable changes in WC and body weight (BW). Physical activity, WC, and BW were reported in 1996 and 2008 in a cohort of 10,500 healthy U.S. men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Multiple linear regression models (partition/substitution) to assess these associations were used. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant inverse dose-response relationship between weight training and WC change (P-trend weight training (-0.67 cm, 95% CI -0.93, -0.41) than for MVAA (-0.33 cm, 95% CI -0.40, -0.27), other activities (-0.16 cm, 95% CI -0.28, -0.03), or TV watching (0.08 cm, 95% CI 0.05, 0.12). Substituting 20 min/day of weight training for any other discretionary activity had the strongest inverse association with WC change. MVAA had the strongest inverse association with BW change (-0.23 kg, 95% CI -0.29, -0.17). Among various activities, weight training had the strongest association with less WC increase. Studies on frequency/volume of weight training and WC change are warranted. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  8. Weight change associated with the use of migraine-preventive medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frederick R

    2008-06-01

    Medications administered long term, such as those used for migraine prophylaxis, are often associated with weight change as a side effect. Such effects may compromise general health status, exacerbate coexisting medical conditions, and affect medication adherence. Weight gain should be of particular concern in patients with migraine, as there is evidence that overweight and obese patients with migraine are at risk for an increased frequency and severity of migraine attacks. This article reviews weight-change data from recent clinical studies of migraine-preventive medications in children, adolescents, and adults with migraine. A PubMed search was conducted for English-language articles published between January 1970 and November 2007. Among the search terms were migraine prevention, migraine prophylaxis, migraine treatment, antidepressant drug, beta-adrenergic-receptor blockers, antiepileptic drug, anticonvulsant drug, weight gain, and weight loss. Studies that reported weight-change data (gain, loss, or neutral) were included. When available, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies were selected for review. Open-label, retrospective or prospective trials may also have been included. Most of the migraine-preventive medications classified by the United States Headache Consortium as group 1 based on the high level of evidence for their efficacy--for instance, amitriptyline, propranolol, and divalproex sodium-have been associated with varying degrees of weight gain. The exceptions are timolol, which is weight neutral, and topiramate, which is associated with weight loss. Among the drugs that have been associated with weight gain, a higher incidence of weight gain was observed with amitriptyline and divalproex sodium than with propranolol. Weight-change effects require careful consideration when selecting migraine-preventive medications, and weight should be monitored carefully over the course of any migraine treatment plan.

  9. Weight changes and their associations with demographic and clinical characteristics in risperidone maintenance treatment for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Y-T; Wang, C-Y; Ungvari, G S; Kreyenbuhl, J A; Chiu, H F K; Lai, K Y C; Lee, E H M; Bo, Q-J; Dixon, L B

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize weight changes in schizophrenia patients taking risperidone as part of a randomized, controlled, open-label clinical trial. A total of 374 patients with schizophrenia who had been clinically stabilized following an acute episode were randomly assigned to a 'no-dose-reduction' group (initial optimal therapeutic doses continued throughout the study), a '4-week group' (initial optimal therapeutic doses continued for 4 weeks followed by a half dose reduction that was maintained until the end of the study) or a '26-week group' (initial optimal therapeutic doses continued for 26 weeks followed by a half dose reduction until the end of the study). Participants were assessed monthly using standardized assessment instruments during the first 6 months, and then every 2 months until the last recruited patient completed the 1-year follow-up. Weight gain was defined as gaining at least 7% of initial body weight, weight loss as losing at least 7% of initial body weight. A BMI weight loss compared to being normal weight. No correlation was found between weight change and dose reduction. Weight change is a common, long-term, but heterogeneous side effect in risperidone maintenance treatment for stable schizophrenia patients. Special attention should be paid to fluctuations in weight that may occur throughout the course of treatment with risperidone. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Psychological changes following weight loss in overweight and obese adults: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Jackson

    Full Text Available Participation in weight loss programs is often associated with improved wellbeing alongside reduced cardio-metabolic risk. In contrast, population-based analyses have found no evidence of psychological benefits of weight loss, but this may be due to inclusion of healthy-weight individuals. We therefore examined cardio-metabolic and psychological changes following weight loss in a cohort of overweight/obese adults.Data were from 1,979 overweight and obese adults (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2; age ≥ 50 y, free of long-standing illness or clinical depression at baseline, from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Participants were grouped according to four-year weight change into those losing ≥ 5% weight, those gaining ≥ 5%, and those whose weight was stable within 5%. Logistic regression examined changes in depressed mood (eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression score ≥ 4, low wellbeing (Satisfaction With Life Scale score <20, hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or anti-hypertensives, and high triglycerides (≥ 1.7 mmol/l, controlling for demographic variables, weight loss intention, and baseline characteristics.The proportion of participants with depressed mood increased more in the weight loss than weight stable or weight gain groups (+289%, +86%, +62% respectively; odds ratio [OR] for weight loss vs. weight stable = 1.78 [95% CI 1.29-2.47]. The proportion with low wellbeing also increased more in the weight loss group (+31%, +22%, -4%, but the difference was not statistically significant (OR = 1.16 [0.81-1.66]. Hypertension and high triglyceride prevalence decreased in weight losers and increased in weight gainers (-28%, 4%, +18%; OR = 0.61 [0.45-0.83]; -47%, -13%, +5%; OR = 0.41 [0.28-0.60]. All effects persisted in analyses adjusting for illness and life stress during the weight loss period.Weight loss over four years in initially healthy overweight/obese older adults was associated with reduction in cardio

  11. Analysis of changes in radiographic lung image and lung ventilation disorders in workers occupationally exposed to chrysotile in the past

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    Elżbieta Cwynar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The adverse health effects of occupational exposure to asbestos dust may occur several years after first exposure. The objective of the study was to assess the relationship between lesions in the respiratory system and the factors contributing to occupational exposure to asbestos described in the first medical examination as well as to analyze the factors responsible for the progression of these changes in further medical tests. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 591 former workers of asbestos processing plant “Gambit” in Lubawka. The results of medical examinations carried out in 2001–2012 were assessed. Statistical inference was performed based on bilateral significance tests at the 0.05 level of significance. Results: A higher risk of interstitial lung changes along with an increase in the cumulative concentration of asbestos was indicated; for the employees with the highest exposure, the adjusted odds ratio (OR was 1.63 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.99–2.71, while for changes with the severity degree qualifying for asbestosis diagnosis, the risk was significantly increased, over fivefold higher, compared to subjects employed in the lowest exposure. The analysis of the relationship between the progression of interstitial changes and the exposure to asbestos dust showed a fourfold higher risk of the progression in workers employed in the highest exposure. Mean values of FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FVC (forced vital capacity, FEV1/FVC (forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity were significantly lower in the subjects working in a higher asbestos exposure. The effect of tobacco smoking on the occurrence of interstitial lung changes and their progression was also confirmed. Conclusions: The results of prophylactic medical examinations of the health status of workers formerly employed in the plants using chrysotile indicate the importance andthe need for a long-term clinical follow

  12. Longitudinal impact of weight misperception and intent to change weight on body mass index of adolescents and young adults with overweight or obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, Diana; Thurston, Idia B; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Milliren, Carly E; Richmond, Tracy K

    2017-12-01

    Accurate perception of one's weight status is believed to be necessary to motivate weight loss intention and subsequent weight loss among those with overweight/obesity. This proposed pathway, however, is understudied in longitudinal research. This study examined the indirect effect of weight change intention on the relationship between weight status perception and BMI change among adolescents with overweight/obesity. Participants included 2664 adolescents with overweight/obesity (52% female) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Longitudinal associations between Wave II weight status perception (accurate versus misperception) and intent to change weight (i.e., gain, lose, stay the same) on BMI change (Wave II-Wave IV) were examined using multiple linear regression. Indirect effects of weight change intention were investigated using the Monte Carlo method. Analyses were stratified by gender. Accurate perceivers (81.0% female; 60.1% male) were more likely than misperceivers (i.e., perception of "about the right weight") to report weight loss intention (p<0.001). Among females, weight status misperception and weight loss intention individually were associated with smaller (β=-1.37, 95% CI [-2.64, -0.10]) and greater (β=1.18, 95% CI [0.11, 2.25]) BMI gains, respectively. Among males, fully adjusted models suggested that weight status misperception was associated with significantly smaller gains in BMI over time (β=-1.51, 95% CI [-2.38, -0.63]). Weight change intention did not emerge as an indirect effect for either gender. Although weight status misperception was protective against weight gain, weight change intention did not provide an explanation for this relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biochemical changes in mouse lung after subcutaneous injection of the sulfur mustard 2-chloroethyl 4-chlorobutyl sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Nabil M; Omaye, Stanley T

    2004-07-01

    Sulfur mustard (HD) is a vesicant-type chemical warfare agent (CWA) introduced in World War I which continues to be produced, stockpiled, and occasionally deployed by some countries, and could be used potentially by terrorists. Exposure to HD can cause erythema, blisters, corneal opacity, and airway damage. We have reported previously that subcutaneous (SC) injection of immunodeficient athymic nude mice with the half mustard butyl 2-chloroethyl sulfide (BCS) causes systemic biochemical changes in several organs distal to the exposure site. In the present study, we examined the response of non-immunodeficient Swiss Webster mice to the mustard, 2-chloroethyl 4-chlorobutyl sulfide (CECBS). In a pilot study, we found that a single SC injection of 20-25 microl/mouse causes death within 24h. Consequently, we used 5 microl/mouse (approx. 0.017 mg/kg body weight) of neat CECBS or an equal volume of saline as control. We examined the lungs after 1, 24, and 48 h for biochemical changes including total and oxidized glutathione, protein, DNA, and lipid peroxidation contents in tissue homogenate, and superoxide dismutase, catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glutathione S-transferases activities in the cytosol. After 1h and/or 24h, we found statistically significant changes that were resolved by 48 h. These changes mimicked those of HD and BCS and were generally consistent with free radical-mediated oxidative stress. The implications of these observations are two-fold. First, dermal exposure to low-dose mustard gas could elicit systemic changes impacting distal organs such as the lungs. It also suggests that antioxidants could potentially modulate the response and reduce the damage. Second, although the use of known CWAs such as HD is prohibited, analogs that are not recognized as agents are as toxic and could be dangerous if acquired and used by potential terrorists.

  14. Psychosocial risk factors, weight changes and risk of obesity: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Louise Bagger; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Prescott, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the effects of a range of psychosocial factors on weight changes and risk of obesity. The study population consisted of the 4,753 participants in the third (1991-1994) and fourth wave (2001-2003) of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. At baseline...... the participants were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work stress, vital exhaustion, social network, economic hardship, and intake of sleep medication. Weight and height were measured by health professionals. Weight changes and incident obesity was used as outcome measures. The participants...... in the associations between social network, economic hardship and weight gain or obesity. The number of psychosocial risk factors, as an indicator for clustering, was not associated with weight gain or obesity. In conclusion, major life events and vital exhaustion seem to play a role for weight gain and risk...

  15. Acculturation and weight change in Asian-American children: Evidence from the ECLS-K:2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Cassandra S; Baranowski, Tom; Kimbro, Rachel T

    2017-06-01

    Despite relatively low rates of overweight and obesity among Asian-American children, disparities exist based on acculturation, socioeconomic status, and Asian ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between acculturation and weight change in Asian-American children. Secondary aims were to compare changes by Asian ethnic group and acculturation x socioeconomic status. Participants included 1200 Asian-American children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11, a longitudinal study of U.S. children attending kindergarten in 2010-2011. Multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to predict weight change based on body mass indices in kindergarten (spring 2011) and second grade (spring 2013): consistently healthy weight, consistently overweight/obese, healthy weight change, and unhealthy weight change. Models included demographic, household, socioeconomic status, and acculturation measures, specifically mother's English proficiency and percentage of life spent in the U.S. Overall, 72.3% of children were at healthy weights in kindergarten and second grade. Of all Asian ethnic groups, Filipino children had the highest rate of being consistently overweight/obese (24.8%) and the lowest rate of being consistently healthy weight (62.9%). In addition, mother's English proficiency predicted unhealthy weight change (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.75-0.92) and healthy weight change (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.65-0.86), relative to "consistently healthy weight." English proficiency also predicted being consistently overweight/obese for children with less educated mothers. Findings enhance our understanding of obesity disparities within Asian Americans and highlight the need to disaggregate the population. Obesity interventions are needed for Filipino children and families with low socioeconomic status but high English proficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early extracellular matrix changes are associated with later development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Catharina; Andersson-Sjöland, Annika; Schultz, Hans Henrik

    2017-01-01

    are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to identify potential early changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) in different compartments of the transplanted lung prior to the development of BOS. Methods: Transbronchial biopsies from a cohort of 58 lung transplantation patients at the Copenhagen...... and immunohistochemistry. Results: A time-specific and compartment-specific pattern of ECM changes was detected. Alveolar total collagen (p=0.0190) and small airway biglycan (p=0.0199) increased between 3 and 12 months after transplantation in patients developing BOS, while collagen type IV (p=0.0124) increased...... in patients without BOS. Patients with early-onset BOS mirrored this increase. Patients developing grade 3 BOS showed distinct ECM changes already at 3 months. Patients with BOS with treated acute rejections displayed reduced alveolar total collagen (p=0.0501) and small airway biglycan (p=0.0485) at 3 months...

  17. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Predicts Future Weight Change in the Millennium Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    These unhealthy behaviors, such as using laxatives, skipping meals, or increasing consumption of fast food and soda, may cause weight loss or gain...12. Hirth JM, Rahman M, Berenson AB. The association of posttraumatic stress disorder with fast food and soda consumption and unhealthy weight loss...weight changes in individuals with PTSD: (1) sleep deprivation caused by PTSD, as shorter sleep duration has been linked to higher obesity prevalence

  18. Preliminary study of brain glucose metabolism changes in patients with lung cancer of different histological types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Ling; Fu, Chang; Xuan, Ang; Shi, Da-Peng; Gao, Yong-Ju; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Jun-Ling

    2015-02-05

    Cerebral glucose metabolism changes are always observed in patients suffering from malignant tumors. This preliminary study aimed to investigate the brain glucose metabolism changes in patients with lung cancer of different histological types. One hundred and twenty patients with primary untreated lung cancer, who visited People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University from February 2012 to July 2013, were divided into three groups based on histological types confirmed by biopsy or surgical pathology, which included adenocarcinoma (52 cases), squamous cell carcinoma (43 cases), and small-cell carcinoma (25 cases). The whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) of these cases was retrospectively studied. The brain PET data of three groups were analyzed individually using statistical parametric maps (SPM) software, with 50 age-matched and gender-matched healthy controls for comparison. The brain resting glucose metabolism in all three lung cancer groups showed regional cerebral metabolic reduction. The hypo-metabolic cerebral regions were mainly distributed at the left superior and middle frontal, bilateral superior and middle temporal and inferior and middle temporal gyrus. Besides, the hypo-metabolic regions were also found in the right inferior parietal lobule and hippocampus in the small-cell carcinoma group. The area of the total hypo-metabolic cerebral regions in the small-cell carcinoma group (total voxel value 3255) was larger than those in the adenocarcinoma group (total voxel value 1217) and squamous cell carcinoma group (total voxel value 1292). The brain resting glucose metabolism in patients with lung cancer shows regional cerebral metabolic reduction and the brain hypo-metabolic changes are related to the histological types of lung cancer.

  19. Preliminary Study of Brain Glucose Metabolism Changes in Patients with Lung Cancer of Different Histological Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ling Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral glucose metabolism changes are always observed in patients suffering from malignant tumors. This preliminary study aimed to investigate the brain glucose metabolism changes in patients with lung cancer of different histological types. Methods: One hundred and twenty patients with primary untreated lung cancer, who visited People′s Hospital of Zhengzhou University from February 2012 to July 2013, were divided into three groups based on histological types confirmed by biopsy or surgical pathology, which included adenocarcinoma (52 cases, squamous cell carcinoma (43 cases, and small-cell carcinoma (25 cases. The whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET/computed tomography (CT of these cases was retrospectively studied. The brain PET data of three groups were analyzed individually using statistical parametric maps (SPM software, with 50 age-matched and gender-matched healthy controls for comparison. Results: The brain resting glucose metabolism in all three lung cancer groups showed regional cerebral metabolic reduction. The hypo-metabolic cerebral regions were mainly distributed at the left superior and middle frontal, bilateral superior and middle temporal and inferior and middle temporal gyrus. Besides, the hypo-metabolic regions were also found in the right inferior parietal lobule and hippocampus in the small-cell carcinoma group. The area of the total hypo-metabolic cerebral regions in the small-cell carcinoma group (total voxel value 3255 was larger than those in the adenocarcinoma group (total voxel value 1217 and squamous cell carcinoma group (total voxel value 1292. Conclusions: The brain resting glucose metabolism in patients with lung cancer shows regional cerebral metabolic reduction and the brain hypo-metabolic changes are related to the histological types of lung cancer.

  20. Growth, lung function, and physical activity in schoolchildren who were very-low-birth-weight preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winck, Aline Dill; Heinzmann-Filho, João Paulo; Schumann, Deise; Zatti, Helen; Mattiello, Rita; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Stein, Renato Tetelbom

    2016-01-01

    To compare somatic growth, lung function, and level of physical activity in schoolchildren who had been very-low-birth-weight preterm infants (VLBWPIs) or normal-birth-weight full-term infants. We recruited two groups of schoolchildren between 8 and 11 years of age residing in the study catchment area: those who had been VLBWPIs (birth weight prematuros com muito baixo peso e escolares nascidos a termo e com peso adequado. Foram recrutados escolares com idade de 8 a 11 anos residentes na mesma área de abrangência do estudo: prematuros e com peso < 1.500 g e controles (nascidos a termo e com peso ≥ 2.500 g). Foram obtidas medidas antropométricas e espirométricas e aplicado um questionário sobre a atividade física. Além disso, foram coletadas informações do período perinatal/neonatal dos recém-nascidos com muito baixo peso (RNMBP) de seus prontuários médicos. Dos 93 escolares avaliados, 48 crianças no grupo RNMBP e 45 no grupo controle. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos em relação às características antropométricas e nutricionais ou aos parâmetros de função pulmonar. Não foram encontradas associações entre as variáveis perinatais/neonatais e parâmetros da função pulmonar dos escolares no grupo RNMBP. Embora sem diferença significativa em relação aos níveis de atividade física, o grupo RNMBP apresentou uma tendência de ser mais ativo que o grupo controle. Nos escolares aqui estudados o crescimento e a função pulmonar parecem não ser afetados por prematuridade, peso ao nascimento ou nível de atividade física.

  1. Prospective weight change and colon cancer risk in male US health professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Grønbaek, Morten; Johansen, Christoffer

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies are remarkably consistent, especially among men, in showing that overweight and obesity [body mass index (BMI) >25] are associated with increased risk of colon cancer. However, no prospective studies address the influence of weight change in adulthood on subsequent colon...... cancer risk. In this study, we investigated whether weight change influences colon cancer risk utilizing prospectively collected weight data. We included 46,349 men aged 40-75 participating in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Questionnaires including items on weight were completed every second......-year period, we documented 765 cases of colon cancer. Cumulative mean BMI >22.5 was associated with significantly increased risk of colon cancer. The short-term weight change in the prior 2 to 4 years was positively and significantly associated with risk [HR = 1.14 (95% confidence interval, 1...

  2. When does the lung die? Kfc, cell viability, and adenine nucleotide changes in the circulation-arrested rat lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Becker, R M; Hoffmann, S C; Lemasters, J J; Egan, T M

    1997-07-01

    Lungs harvested from cadaveric circulation-arrested donors may increase the donor pool for lung transplantation. To determine the degree and time course of ischemia-reperfusion injury, we evaluated the effect of O2 ventilation on capillary permeability [capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc)], cell viability, and total adenine nucleotide (TAN) levels in in situ circulation-arrested rat lungs. Kfc increased with increasing postmortem ischemic time (r = 0.88). Lungs ventilated with O2 1 h postmortem had similar Kfc and wet-to-dry ratios as controls. Nonventilated lungs had threefold (P Kfc at 30 and 60 min postmortem compared with controls. Cell viability decreased in all groups except for 30-min postmortem O2-ventilated lungs. TAN levels decreased with increasing ischemic time, particularly in nonventilated lungs. Loss of adenine nucleotides correlated with increasing Kfc values (r = 0.76). This study indicates that lungs retrieved 1 h postmortem may have normal Kfc with preharvest O2 ventilation. The relationship between Kfc and TAN suggests that vascular permeability may be related to lung TAN levels.

  3. The role of body weight, fat distribution and weight change in ethnic differences in the 9-year incidence of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootveld, Laura R; Van Valkengoed, Irene G M; Peters, Ron J G; Ujcic-Voortman, Joanne K; Brewster, Lizzy M; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the role of body composition (body weight, fat distribution and weight change over time) in ethnic differences in the incidence of hypertension in an ethnic Dutch, South Asian Surinamese and African Surinamese background population living in the Netherlands. We included 361 participants without hypertension at baseline (147 ethnic Dutch, 82 South Asian Surinamese, 132 African Surinamese), aged 35-60 years, in whom anthropometric measurements and blood pressures were measured at baseline and after mean 9 years of follow-up. Data were analysed using logistic regression analyses, with hypertension at follow up as a dependent variable. Body weight, fat distribution and weight gain were positively associated with the risk of developing hypertension; these associations did not statistically significantly differ between ethnic groups [odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence interval (95% CI) per SD: BMI 1.5 (1.2-2.0); waist circumference 1.5 (1.2-1.9); waist to hip ratio (WHR) 1.4 (1.1-1.9), weight gain of 1-2.9 kg/m 1.8 (0.9-3.8)]. As compared with Dutch, a higher incidence of hypertension was found among South Asian Surinamese [OR 2.6 (1.4-4.8)] and in particular among African Surinamese [OR 3.1 (1.76-5.30)]. Among South Asian Surinamese, adjustment for WHR attenuated the OR the most [OR 1.9 (1.0-3.7)]; among African Surinamese, the strongest effect was observed for adjustment by BMI and WHR simultaneously [OR 2.5 (1.4-4.4)]. The ethnic differences in the incidence of hypertension among a middle-aged group with a Dutch, South Asian Surinamese and African Surinamese background were partly explained by body composition. This suggests that other factors may be involved, including genetic factors or unidentified other determinants.

  4. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M.B.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; Steeg, H. van; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable

  5. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M.B.M; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; Steeg, H. van; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable

  6. Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change: a prospective study among Danish health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram Quist, Helle; Christensen, Ulla; Christensen, Karl Bang; Aust, Birgit; Borg, Vilhelm; Bjorner, Jakob B

    2013-01-17

    Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses examined change in BMI (more than +/- 2 kg/m(2)) as predicted by baseline psychosocial work factors (work pace, workload, quality of leadership, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, commitment, role clarity, and role conflicts) and five covariates (age, cohabitation, physical work demands, type of work position and seniority). Among women, high role conflicts predicted weight gain, while high role clarity predicted both weight gain and weight loss. Living alone also predicted weight gain among women, while older age decreased the odds of weight gain. High leadership quality predicted weight loss among men. Associations were generally weak, with the exception of quality of leadership, age, and cohabitation. This study of a single occupational group suggested a few new risk factors for weight change outside the traditional work stress models.

  7. Relationship of Night and Shift Work With Weight Change and Lifestyle Behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M.B.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; van Steeg, H.; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable

  8. Yogurt consumption is associated with longitudinal changes of body weight and waist circumference: the framingham study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogurt, as a low-fat, nutrient-dense dairy product, may be beneficial in preventing weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between yogurt consumption and annualized change in weight and waist circumference (WC) among adults. We included 3,285 adults (11,169 observations) parti...

  9. Night eating and weight change in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Stunkard, Albert J.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2004-01-01

    -94 too. Subjects working night shifts were excluded. MEASUREMENTS: Night eating in 1987-88, 5-y preceding and 6-y subsequent weight change. RESULTS: In total, 9.0% women and 7.4% men reported 'getting up at night to eat'. Obese women with night eating experienced an average 6-y weight gain of 5.2 kg (P=0...

  10. CT analysis of lung density changes in patients undergoing total body irradiation prior to bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.Y.; Shank, B.; Bonfiglio, P.; Reid, A.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential changes in lung density measured by CT are potentially sensitive and convenient monitors of lung abnormalities following total body irradiation (TBI). Methods have been developed to compare pre- and post-TBI CT of lung. The average local features of a cross-sectional lung slice are extracted from three peripheral regions of interest in the anterior, posterior, and lateral portions of the CT image. Also, density profiles across a specific region may be obtained. These may be compared first for verification of patient position and breathing status and then for changes between pre- and post-TBI. These may also be compared with radiation dose profiles through the lung. A preliminary study on 21 leukemia patients undergoing total body irradiation indicates the following: (a) Density gradients of patients' lungs in the antero-posterior direction show a marked heterogeneity before and after transplantation compared with normal lungs. The patients with departures from normal density gradients pre-TBI correlate with later pulmonary complications. (b) Measurements of average peripheral lung densities have demonstrated that the average lung density in the younger age group is substantially higher: pre-TBI, the average CT number (1,000 scale) is -638 +/- 39 Hounsfield unit (HU) for 0-10 years old and -739 +/- 53 HU for 21-40 years old. (c) Density profiles showed no post-TBI regional changes in lung density corresponding to the dose profile across the lung, so no differentiation of a radiation-specific effect has yet been possible. Computed tomographic density profiles in the antero-posterior direction are successfully used to verify positioning of the CT slice and the breathing level of the lung

  11. Postmortem changes in lungs in severe closed traumatic brain injury complicated by acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Tumanskiy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available V.А. Tumanskіy, S.І. Ternishniy, L.M. Tumanskaya Pathological changes in the lungs were studied in the work of 42 patiens who died from severe closed intracranial injury (SCII. It was complicated with acute respiratory insufficient (ARI. The most modified subpleural areas were selected from every lobe of the lungs for pathological studies. Prepared histological sections were stained by means of hemotoxylin and eosin and by Van Giеson for light microscopy. The results of the investigation have shown absence of the significant difference of pathological changes in the lungs of patients who died from ARI because of severe brain injury and traumatic intracranial hemorrhage. Pathognomic pathological changes in the lungs as a result of acute lung injury syndrome (ALIS were found in deceased patients on the third day since the SCII (n=8. There was a significant bilateral interstitial edema and mild alveolar edema with the presence of red and blood cells in the alveoli, vascular plethora of the septum interalveolar and stasis of blood in the capillaries, the slight pericapillary leukocyte infiltration, subpleural hemorrhage and laminar pulmonary atelectasis. In deceased patients on 4-6 days after SCII that was complicated with ARI (n=14, morphological changes had been detected in the lungs. It was pathognomic for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS with local pneumonic to be layered. A significant interstitial pulmonary edema was observed in the respiratory part of the lungs. The edema has spread from the walls of the alveoli into the interstitial spaces of the bronchioles and blood vessels, and also less marked serous-hemorrhagic alveolar edema with presence of the fibrin in the alveoli and macrophages. The ways of intrapleural lymphatic drainage were dilatated. Histopathological changes in the lungs of those who died on the 7-15th days after severe closed craniocerebral injury with ARI to be complicated (n=12 have been indicative of two

  12. Evaluation of Weight Change During Carboplatin Therapy in Dogs With Appendicular Osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, A L; Boston, S E; Kilkenny, J J; Singh, A; Woods, J P; Culp, W T N; Skorupski, K A; Lu, X

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of cancer cachexia in veterinary medicine has not been studied widely, and as of yet, no definitive diagnostic criteria effectively assess this syndrome in veterinary patients. (1) To determine the patterns of weight change in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma treated with amputation and single-agent carboplatin during the course of adjuvant chemotherapy; and (2) to determine whether postoperative weight change is a negative prognostic indicator for survival time in dogs with osteosarcoma. Eighty-eight dogs diagnosed with appendicular osteosarcoma. Animals were accrued from 3 veterinary teaching hospitals. Retrospective, multi-institutional study. Dogs diagnosed with appendicular osteosarcoma and treated with limb amputation followed by a minimum of 4 doses of single-agent carboplatin were included. Data analyzed in each patient included signalment, tumor site, preoperative serum alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), and body weight (kg) at each carboplatin treatment. A slight increase in weight occurred over the course of chemotherapy, but this change was not statistically significant. Weight change did not have a significant effect on survival. Institution, patient sex, and serum ALP activity did not have a significant effect on survival. Weight change was not a prognostic factor in these dogs, and weight loss alone may not be a suitable method of determining cancer cachexia in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Seasonal changes in meat weight and biochemical composition in the Black Clam Villorita cyprinoides (Grey)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    Seasonal changes in meat weight and biochemical composition are associated with reproduction, storage and utilization of reserves. The main period of increase in biochemical constituents corresponds to gametogenesis and maturation of gonads just...

  14. Changes in body weight, body composition, and eating attitudes in high school wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka Humenikova; Betts, Nancy Mulhollen; Payton, Mark Edward

    2009-08-01

    Many wrestlers engage in chronic dieting and rapid "weight cutting" throughout the year to compete in a category below their natural weight. Such weight-management practices have a negative influence on their health and nutritional status, so the National Wrestling Coaches Association implemented a new weight-management program for high school wrestlers in 2006. The purpose of this study was to determine whether seasonal changes in weight, body fat, and eating attitudes occur among high school wrestlers after the implementation of the new weight-management rule. Fifteen high school wrestlers participated in the study. Their weight, body composition, and eating attitudes were measured preseason, in-season, and off-season. Body fat was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Attitudes toward dieting, food, and body weight were assessed using the Eating Attitude Test (EAT). No significant changes in body fat were detected from preseason to off-season. Weight increased from preseason to in-season (p < .05) and off-season (p < .05). Although the EAT score did not change significantly from preseason to off-season, 60% reported "thinking about burning up calories when exercising" during preseason, and only 40% felt that way during the season (p < .05) and 47% during, off-season (p < .05). The wrestlers experienced a significant weight gain from preseason to off-season with no significant changes in body fat. Their eating attitudes did not change significantly from preseason to off-season in this study, but further research using a large sample of high school wrestlers is warranted to confirm these findings.

  15. Apparent diffusion coefficient values of diffusion-weighted imaging for distinguishing focal pulmonary lesions and characterizing the subtype of lung cancer: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Guohua; Jia, Zhiyun; Deng, Houfu [Sichuan University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, West China Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2016-02-15

    The potential performance of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for distinguishing malignant and benign pulmonary lesions, further characterizing the subtype of lung cancer was assessed. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, EBSCO, and three Chinese databases were searched to identify eligible studies on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of focal pulmonary lesions. ADC values of malignant and benign lesions were extracted by lesion type and statistically pooled based on a linear mixed model. Further analysis for subtype of lung cancer was also performed. The methodological quality was assessed using the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies tool. Thirty-four articles involving 2086 patients were included. Malignant pulmonary lesions have significantly lower ADC values than benign lesions [1.21 (95 % CI, 1.19-1.22) mm{sup 2}/s vs. 1.76 (95 % CI, 1.72-1.80) mm{sup 2}/s; P < 0.05]. There is a significant difference between ADC values of small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (P < 0.05), while the differences were not significant among histological subtypes of lung cancer. The methodological quality was relatively high, and the data points from Begg's test indicated that there was probably no obvious publication bias. The ADC value is helpful for distinguishing malignant and benign pulmonary lesions and provides a promising method for differentiation of SCLC from NSCLC. (orig.)

  16. Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2009-01-01

    early or late (strategy MR2-E and MR2-L). The early and late changes were defined as a live weight gain after live weight minimum at 15 and 35 kg, respectively, for DR/DH and 11 and 25 kg, respectively, for DJ. When MR energy concentration was changed, cows on the MR2 strategies were offered 3 kg per...

  17. The motivation to be sedentary predicts weight change when sedentary behaviors are reduced

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Leonard H; Roemmich, James N; Cavanaugh, Meghan D; Paluch, Rocco A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is correlated with a sedentary lifestyle, and the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with obesity. The present study tests the hypothesis that the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with weight change when children reduce their sedentary behavior. Methods The motivation to be active or sedentary, changes in weight, and accelerometer assessed physical activity were collected for 55 families with overweight/obese children who participa...

  18. Characterizing long-term patterns of weight change in China using latent class trajectory modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Paynter

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, obesity-related diseases have increased tremendously in China, and are now the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Patterns of weight change can be used to predict risk of obesity-related diseases, increase understanding of etiology of disease risk, identify groups at particularly high risk, and shape prevention strategies.Latent class trajectory modeling was used to compute weight change trajectories for adults aged 18 to 66 using the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS data (n = 12,611. Weight change trajectories were computed separately for males and females by age group at baseline due to differential age-related patterns of weight gain in China with urbanization. Generalized linear mixed effects models examined the association between weight change trajectories and baseline characteristics including urbanicity, BMI category, age, and year of study entry.Trajectory classes were identified for each of six age-sex subgroups corresponding to various degrees of weight loss, maintenance and weight gain. Baseline BMI status was a significant predictor of trajectory membership for all age-sex subgroups. Baseline overweight/obesity increased odds of following 'initial loss with maintenance' trajectories. We found no significant association between baseline urbanization and trajectory membership after controlling for other covariates.Trajectory analysis identified patterns of weight change for age by gender groups. Lack of association between baseline urbanization status and trajectory membership suggests that living in a rural environment at baseline was not protective. Analyses identified age-specific nuances in weight change patterns, pointing to the importance of subgroup analyses in future research.

  19. Comparison of weight changes following unilateral and staged bilateral STN DBS for advanced PD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eric M; Kurundkar, Ashish; Cutter, Gary R; Huang, He; Guthrie, Barton L; Watts, Ray L; Walker, Harrison C

    2011-09-01

    Unilateral and bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) result in weight gain in the initial postoperative months, but little is known about the changes in weight following unilateral and staged bilateral STN DBS over longer time intervals. A case-control comparison evaluated weight changes over 2 years in 43 consecutive unilateral STN DBS patients, among whom 25 elected to undergo staged bilateral STN DBS, and 21 age-matched and disease severity matched PD controls without DBS. Regression analyses incorporating age, gender, and baseline weight in case or control were conducted to assess weight changes 2 years after the initial unilateral surgery. Unilateral STN DBS and staged bilateral STN DBS patients gained 3.9 ± 2.0 kg and 5.6 ± 2.1 kg versus their preoperative baseline weight (P < 0.001, respectively) while PD controls without DBS lost 0.8 ± 1.1 kg. Although bilateral STN DBS patients gained 1.7 kg more than unilateral STN DBS patients at 2 years, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.885). Although there was a trend toward greater weight gain in staged bilateral STN DBS patients versus unilateral patients, we found no evidence for an equivalent or synergistic increase in body weight following placement of the second DBS electrode.

  20. Changes in skeletal muscle gene expression consequent to altered weight bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, F. W.; Kirby, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a dynamic organ that adapts to alterations in weight bearing. This brief review examines changes in muscle gene expression resulting from the removal of weight bearing by hindlimb suspension and from increased weight bearing due to eccentric exercise. Acute (less than or equal to 2 days) non-weight bearing of adult rat soleus muscle alters only the translational control of muscle gene expression, while chronic (greater than or equal to 7 days) removal of weight bearing appears to influence pretranslational, translational, and posttranslational mechanisms of control. Acute and chronic eccentric exercise are associated with alterations of translational and posttranslational control, while chronic eccentric training also alters the pretranslational control of muscle gene expression. Thus alterations in weight bearing influence multiple sites of gene regulation.

  1. Genetic and environmental relationships between change in weight and insulin resistance: the Healthy Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun-Mi; Lee, Kayoung; Sung, Joohon

    2014-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between weight change from 20 years of age and insulin resistance (IR), and genetic and environmental relationships between these traits. In 594 Korean twins and family members (209 men, 385 women, 44.0 ± 10.8 years old), the percentage of weight change was calculated using self-reported body weight at 20 years of age and currently measured bodyweight. IR traits were assessed using fasting plasma glucose and insulin, the homeostasis model assessment of IR index (HOMA-IR), and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). Linear mixed analysis was applied after adjusting for household, body mass index (BMI) at the age of 20 years, age, sex, alcohol, smoking, physical activity, and caloric intake. Heritabilities and genetic and environmental correlations were estimated after adjusting for covariates. In 55 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for HOMA-IR level by >0.3, a conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted regarding weight change. Increases in glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR and a decrease in QUICKI were associated with a higher percentage of weight change (p change since 20 years old, after adjusting for lifestyle-related factors. In conclusion, both genetic and environmental influences played significant roles in the positive association between weight change from 20 years of age and IR.

  2. Association Between Use of Cannabis in Adolescence and Weight Change into Midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Lexie Zhiyan; Rangan, Anna; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis use has been found to stimulate appetite and potentially promote weight gain via activation of the endocannabinoid system. Despite the fact that the onset of cannabis use is typically during adolescence, the association between adolescence cannabis use and long-term change in body weight...... is generally unknown. This study aims to examine the association between adolescence cannabis use and weight change to midlife, while accounting for the use of other substances. The study applied 20 to 22 years of follow-up data on 712 Danish adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years at baseline. Self......-reported height and weight, cannabis, cigarette and alcohol use, socioeconomic status (SES) and physical activity levels were assessed in baseline surveys conducted in 1983 and 1985. The follow-up survey was conducted in 2005. In total 19.1% (n = 136) of adolescents reported having used/using cannabis. Weight...

  3. Effects of social contact and zygosity on 21-y weight change in male twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffery, Jeanne M; Franz, Carol E; Jacobson, Kristen; Leahey, Tricia M; Xian, Hong; Wing, Rena R; Lyons, Michael J; Kremen, William S

    2011-08-01

    Recent evidence indicates that social contact is related to similarities in weight gain over time. However, no studies have examined this effect in a twin design, in which genetic and other environmental effects can also be estimated. We determined whether the frequency of social contact is associated with similarity in weight change from young adulthood (mean age: 20 y) to middle age (mean age: 41 y) in twins and quantified the percentage of variance in weight change attributable to social contact, genetic factors, and other environmental influences. Participants were 1966 monozygotic and 1529 dizygotic male twin pairs from the Vietnam-Era Twin Registry. Regression models tested whether frequency of social contact and zygosity predicted twin pair similarity in body mass index (BMI) change and weight change. Twin modeling was used to partition the percentage variance attributable to social contact, genetic, and other environmental effects. Twins gained an average of 3.99 BMI units, or 13.23 kg (29.11 lb), over 21 y. In regression models, both zygosity (P social contact (P change. In twin modeling, social contact between twins contributed 16% of the variance in BMI change (P change. Frequency of social contact significantly predicted twin pair similarity in BMI and weight change over 21 y, independent of zygosity and other shared environmental influences.

  4. Pathologic changes in the lung following single and multi-fraction irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, E.L.; Harley, R.A.; Fenn, J.O.; Klobukowski, C.J.; Hargrove, H.B.

    1977-01-01

    The limiting factor in the treatment of malignant disease with irradiation is the tolerance of normal tissue irradiated. In the present study the right lungs of rats were exposed to single doses of 2000 rad of x-radiation, to 10 x 200 rad, or to 5 x 400 rad. Animals from each group were sacrificed monthly for 6 months post exposure. Sections of lung were examined by light microscopy (LM) and by scanning or transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). A focal exudative lesion was seen at 2 months after the single dose; it progressed to a proliferative and then reparative, fibrotic lesion by 6 months. Changes in epithelial lung components, particularly the presence of Type II pneumocytes, were found with both LM and TM. Vascular changes were less pronounced. A striking finding was the presence of mast cells in the alveolar walls. Neither of the multi-fraction schedules produced any of these changes, except hyperplasia of Type II cells following 5 x 400 rad. The possible implication of Type II and mast cells in radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis is discussed

  5. How do pregnancy-related weight changes and breastfeeding relate to maternal weight and BMI-adjusted waist circumference 7 y after delivery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Helene; Stovring, Henrik; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2014-01-01

    of breastfeeding are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine how prepregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, postpartum weight changes, and breastfeeding influence maternal weight and body mass index-adjusted waist circumference (WCBMI) 7 y after delivery. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study......; 87% of this effect was mediated through later weight changes. For both outcomes, a small inverse association was observed for breastfeeding duration. This was strongest for WCBMI, for which 97% of the effect was direct, ie, not mediated through postpartum weight. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show...... that postpartum weight retention at 6 mo and weight gain from 6 to 18 mo postpartum contribute equally to adverse maternal anthropometric measures 7 y after delivery. Breastfeeding duration may have a beneficial effect....

  6. Association between Anxiety Levels and Weight Change in the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rieke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association between anxiety and weight change in a multiethnic cohort followed for approximately 10 years. Methods. The study population consisted of participants of the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis who met specified inclusion criteria (n = 5,799. Weight was measured at baseline and four subsequent follow-up exams. Anxiety was analyzed as sex-specific anxiety quartiles (QANX. The relationship between anxiety level and weight change was examined using a mixed-effect model with weight as the dependent variable, anxiety and time as the independent variables, and adjusted for covariates. Results. Average annual weight change (range was −0.17 kg (−6.04 to 4.38 kg for QANX 1 (lowest anxiety, −0.16 kg (−10.71 to 4.45 kg for QANX 2, −0.15 kg (−8.69 to 6.39 kg for QANX 3, and −0.20 kg (−7.12 to 3.95 kg for QANX 4 (highest anxiety. No significant association was noted between QANX and weight change. However, the highest QANX was associated with a −2.48 kg (95% CI = −3.65, −1.31 lower baseline weight compared to the lowest QANX after adjustment for all covariates. Conclusions. Among adults, age 45–84, higher levels of anxiety, defined by the STPI trait anxiety scale, are associated with lower average baseline weight but not with weight change.

  7. ‘Small Changes' to Diet and Physical Activity Behaviors for Weight Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Hills

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with numerous short- and long-term health consequences. Low levels of physical activity and poor dietary habits are consistent with an increased risk of obesity in an obesogenic environment. Relatively little research has investigated associations between eating and activity behaviors by using a systems biology approach and by considering the dynamics of the energy balance concept. A significant body of research indicates that a small positive energy balance over time is sufficient to cause weight gain in many individuals. In contrast, small changes in nutrition and physical activity behaviors can prevent weight gain. In the context of weight management, it may be more feasible for most people to make small compared to large short-term changes in diet and activity. This paper presents a case for the use of small and incremental changes in diet and physical activity for improved weight management in the context of a toxic obesogenic environment.

  8. Changes in body weight, composition, and shape: a 4-year study of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Simmons, Karla P; Connell, Lenda Jo; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, and shape in a group of male and female students over the 4-year college period. Anthropometric assessments including height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and body shape (via 3-dimensional body scanning) were conducted at the beginning of the freshman year and end of the senior year in 131 college students. Four-year changes included significant (p obese increased from 18% to 31%. The number of females and males with ≥30% and 20% body fat, respectively, increased from n = 14 to n = 26 (with n = 4 exhibiting normal weight obesity) over the 4-year period. The waist circumference changes were significantly (p obesity and normal weight obesity among this college population suggests the need for additional health promotion strategies on college campuses.

  9. Chronological changes in lung cancer surgery in a single Japanese institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura H

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Haruhiko Nakamura, Hiroki Sakai, Hiroyuki Kimura, Tomoyuki Miyazawa, Hideki Marushima, Hisashi Saji Department of Chest Surgery, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chronological changes in epidemiological factors and surgical outcomes in patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery in a single Japanese institution.Patients and methods: A clinicopathological database of patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery with curative intent from January 1974 to December 2014 was reviewed. The chronological changes in various factors, including patient’s age, sex, histological type, tumor size, pathological stage (p-stage, surgical method, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, 30-day mortality, and postoperative overall survival (OS, were evaluated.Results: A total of 1,616 patients were included. The numbers of resected patients, females, adenocarcinomas, p-stage IA patients, and age at the time of surgery increased with time, but tumor size decreased (all P<0.0001. Concerning surgical methods, the number of sublobar resections increased, but that of pneumonectomies decreased (P<0.0001. The mean operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and the postoperative 30-day mortality rate decreased (all P<0.0001. When the patients were divided into two groups (1974–2004 and 2005–2014, the 5-year OS rates for all patients and for p-stage IA patients improved from 44% to 79% and from 73% to 89%, respectively (all P<0.0001. The best 5-year OS rate was obtained for sublobar resection (73%, followed by lobectomy (60%, combined resection (22%, and pneumonectomy (21%; P<0.0001.Conclusion: Changes in epidemiological factors, a trend toward less invasive surgery, and a remarkably improved postoperative OS were confirmed, which demonstrated the increasingly important role of surgery in therapeutic strategies for lung cancer. Keywords: lung cancer, surgery, sublobar

  10. Preoperative factors and 3-year weight change in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courcoulas, Anita P; Christian, Nicholas J; O'Rourke, Robert W; Dakin, Greg; Patchen Dellinger, E; Flum, David R; Melissa Kalarchian, Ph D; Mitchell, James E; Patterson, Emma; Pomp, Alfons; Pories, Walter J; Spaniolas, Konstantinos; Steffen, Kristine; Wolfe, Bruce M; Belle, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Limited data guide the prediction of weight loss success or failure after bariatric surgery according to presurgery factors. There is significant variation in weight change after bariatric surgery and much interest in identifying preoperative factors that may contribute to these differences. This report evaluates the associations of a comprehensive set of baseline factors and 3-year weight change. Ten hospitals in 6 geographically diverse clinical centers in the United States. Adults undergoing a first bariatric surgical procedure as part of clinical care by participating surgeons were recruited between 2006 and 2009. Participants completed research assessments utilizing standardized and detailed data collection on over 100 preoperative and operative parameters for individuals undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Weight was measured 3 years after surgery. Percent weight change for RYGB or LAGB from baseline to 3 years was analyzed as both a continuous and dichotomous outcome with cut points at 25% for RYGB and 10% for LAGB. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to identify independent baseline predictors of the continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively. The median weight loss 3 years after surgery for RYGB (n = 1513) participants was 31.5% (IQR: 24.6%-38.4%; range, 59.2% loss to .9% gain) of baseline weight and 16.0% (IQR: 8.1%-23.1%; range, 56.1% loss to 12.5% gain) for LAGB (n = 509) participants. The median age was 46 years for RYGB and 48 years for LAGB; 80% of RYGB participants and 75% of LAGB participants were female; and the median baseline body mass index (BMI) was 46 kg/m(2) for RYGB and 44 kg/m(2) for LAGB. For RYGB, black participants lost 2.7% less weight compared with whites and participants with diabetes at baseline had 3.7% less weight loss at year 3 than those without diabetes at baseline. There were small but statistically significant differences in weight

  11. Preoperative Factors and Three Year Weight Change in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courcoulas, Anita P.; Christian, Nicholas J.; O’Rourke, Robert W.; Dakin, Greg; Dellinger, E. Patchen; Flum, David Reed; Kalarchian, Melissa; Mitchell, James E.; Patterson, Emma; Pomp, Alfons; Pories, Walter J.; Spaniolas, Konstantinos; Steffen, Kristine; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Belle, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Limited data guide the prediction of weight loss success or failure following bariatric surgery according to pre-surgery factors. There is significant variation in weight change following bariatric surgery and much interest in identifying pre-operative factors that may contribute to these differences. OBJECTIVE This report evaluates the associations of a comprehensive set of baseline factors and three-year weight change. SETTING Ten hospitals in six geographically diverse clinical centers in the United States. METHODS: PARTICIPANTS and INTERVENTIONS Adults undergoing a first bariatric surgical procedure as part of clinical care by participating surgeons were recruited between 2006 and 2009. Participants completed research assessments utilizing standardized and detailed data collection on over 100 preoperative and operative parameters for individuals undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Weight was measured 3 years following surgery. METHODS: MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Percent weight change for RYGB or LAGB from baseline to 3 years was analyzed as both a continuous and dichotomous outcome with cut points at 25% for RYGB and 10% for LAGB. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to identify independent baseline predictors of the continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively. RESULTS The median weight loss 3 years following surgery for RYGB (n=1513) participants was 31.5% (IQR: 24.6%–38.4%; range, 59.2% loss to 0.9% gain) of baseline weight and 16.0% (IQR: 8.1%–23.1%; range, 56.1% loss to 12.5% gain) for LAGB (n=509) participants. The median age was 46 years for RYGB and 48 years for LAGB; 80% of RYGB participants and 75% of LAGB participants were female; and the median baseline Body Mass Index (BMI) was 46 kg/m2 for RYGB and 44 kg/m2 for LAGB. For RYGB, Black participants lost 2.7% less weight compared to Whites and participants with diabetes at baseline had 3.7% less weight

  12. Physical activity, obesity, weight change, and risk of atrial fibrillation: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Rachel R; Misialek, Jeffrey R; Agarwal, Sunil K; Loehr, Laura R; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Chen, Lin Y; Alonso, Alvaro

    2014-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) has previously been suggested to attenuate the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) conferred by excess body weight and weight gain. We prospectively examined the relationship between body size, weight change, and level of PA in a biracial cohort of middle-aged men and women. Baseline characteristics on risk factor levels were obtained on 14 219 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. AF incidence was ascertained from 1987 to 2009. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the associations between body mass index, waist circumference, relative weight change, and PA level with incident AF. During follow-up, there were 1775 cases of incident AF. Body mass index and waist circumference were positively associated with AF as was weight loss/gain of >5% initial body weight. An ideal level of PA had a small protective effect on AF risk and partially attenuated the risk of AF associated with excess weight in men but not women: compared with men with a normal body mass index, the risk of AF in obese men with an ideal, intermediate, and poor level of PA at baseline was increased by 37%, 129%, and 156% (Pinteraction=0.04). During follow-up, PA did not modify the association between weight gain and risk of AF. Obesity and extreme weight change are risk factors for incident AF, whereas being physically active is associated with a small reduction in risk. In men only, being physically active offset some, but not all, of the risk incurred with excess body weight. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Postdiagnosis Weight Change and Survival Following a Diagnosis of Early-Stage Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Kroenke, Candyce H; Bradshaw, Patrick T; Chen, Wendy Y; Prado, Carla M; Weltzien, Erin K; Castillo, Adrienne L; Caan, Bette J

    2017-01-01

    Achieving a healthy weight is recommended for all breast cancer survivors. Previous research on postdiagnosis weight change and mortality had conflicting results. We examined whether change in body weight in the 18 months following diagnosis is associated with overall and breast cancer-specific mortality in a cohort of n = 12,590 stage I-III breast cancer patients at Kaiser Permanente using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models. Follow-up was from the date of the postdiagnosis weight at 18 months until death or June 2015 [median follow-up (range): 3 (0-9) years]. We divided follow-up into earlier (18-54 months) and later (>54 months) postdiagnosis periods. Mean (SD) age-at-diagnosis was 59 (11) years. A total of 980 women died, 503 from breast cancer. Most women maintained weight within 5% of diagnosis body weight; weight loss and gain were equally common at 19% each. Compared with weight maintenance, large losses (≥10%) were associated with worse survival, with HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all-cause death of 2.63 (2.12-3.26) earlier and 1.60 (1.14-2.25) later in follow-up. Modest losses (>5%-breast cancer-specific death. Large postdiagnosis weight loss is associated with worse survival in both earlier and later postdiagnosis periods, independent of treatment and prognostic factors. Weight loss and gain are equally common after breast cancer, and weight loss is a consistent marker of mortality risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(1); 44-50. ©2016 AACR SEE ALL THE ARTICLES IN THIS CEBP FOCUS SECTION, "THE OBESITY PARADOX IN CANCER EVIDENCE AND NEW DIRECTIONS". ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Predicting short-term weight loss using four leading health behavior change theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata José T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conceived to analyze how exercise and weight management psychosocial variables, derived from several health behavior change theories, predict weight change in a short-term intervention. The theories under analysis were the Social Cognitive Theory, the Transtheoretical Model, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and Self-Determination Theory. Methods Subjects were 142 overweight and obese women (BMI = 30.2 ± 3.7 kg/m2; age = 38.3 ± 5.8y, participating in a 16-week University-based weight control program. Body weight and a comprehensive psychometric battery were assessed at baseline and at program's end. Results Weight decreased significantly (-3.6 ± 3.4%, p Conclusion The present models were able to predict 20–30% of variance in short-term weight loss and changes in weight management self-efficacy accounted for a large share of the predictive power. As expected from previous studies, exercise variables were only moderately associated with short-term outcomes; they are expected to play a larger explanatory role in longer-term results.

  15. Weight change in middle adulthood and breast cancer risk in the EPIC-PANACEA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emaus, Marleen J; van Gils, Carla H; Bakker, Marije F

    2014-01-01

    .3 years. Annual weight change was categorized using quintiles taking quintile 2 and 3 as the reference category (-0.44 to 0.36 kg/year). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to examine the association. 205,723 women were included and 4,663 incident breast cancer cases were......Long-term weight gain (i.e., weight gain since age 20) has been related to higher risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, but a lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer. The effect of weight change in middle adulthood is unclear. We investigated the association between weight change in middle...... diagnosed during a median follow-up of 7.5 years (from second weight assessment onward). High weight gain (Q5: 0.83-4.98 kg/year) was related to a slightly, but significantly higher breast cancer risk (HRQ5_versus_Q2/3 : 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). The association was more pronounced for breast cancer...

  16. Decreasing Irradiated Rat Lung Volume Changes Dose-Limiting Toxicity From Early to Late Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veen, Sonja J. van der; Faber, Hette; Ghobadi, Ghazaleh [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Brandenburg, Sytze [KVI Center for Advanced Radiation Research, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Robert P. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Luijk, Peter van, E-mail: p.van.luijk@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Technological developments in radiation therapy result in smaller irradiated volumes of normal tissue. Because the risk of radiation therapy-induced toxicity generally depends on irradiated volume, changing volume could change the dose-limiting toxicity of a treatment. Recently, in our rat model, we found that early radiation-induced lung dysfunction (RILD) was closely related to irradiated volume dependent vascular remodeling besides inflammation. The exact relationship between early and late RILD is still unknown. Therefore, in this preclinical study we investigated the dose-volume relationship of late RILD, assessed its dependence on early and late pathologies and studied if decreasing irradiated volume changed the dose-limiting toxicity. Methods and Materials: A volume of 25%, 32%, 50%, 63%, 88%, or 100% of the rat lung was irradiated using protons. Until 26 weeks after irradiation, respiratory rates were measured. Macrovascular remodeling, pulmonary inflammation, and fibrosis were assessed at 26 weeks after irradiation. For all endpoints dose-volume response curves were made. These results were compared to our previously published early lung effects. Results: Early vascular remodeling and inflammation correlated significantly with early RILD. Late RILD correlated with inflammation and fibrosis, but not with vascular remodeling. In contrast to the early effects, late vascular remodeling, inflammation and fibrosis showed a primarily dose but not volume dependence. Comparison of respiratory rate increases early and late after irradiation for the different dose-distributions indicated that with decreasing irradiated volumes, the dose-limiting toxicity changed from early to late RILD. Conclusions: In our rat model, different pathologies underlie early and late RILD with different dose-volume dependencies. Consequently, the dose-limiting toxicity changed from early to late dysfunction when the irradiated volume was reduced. In patients, early and late

  17. A prospective cohort study among new Chinese coal miners: the early pattern of lung function change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.L.; Wu, Z.E.; Du, Q.G.; Petsonk, E.L.; Peng, K.L.; Li, Y.D.; Li, S.K.; Han, G.H.; Atffield, M.D. [NIOSH, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2005-11-01

    The early pattern of lung function changes in 317 newly hired Chinese underground coal miners was compared to 132 referents. This three year prospective cohort study involved a pre-employment and 15 follow up health surveys, including a questionnaire and spirometry tests. Twice a month, total and respirable dust area sampling was done. The authors used a two stage analysis and a linear mixed effects model approach to analyse the longitudinal spirometry data, and to investigate the changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) over time, controlling for age, height, pack years of smoking, mean respirable dust concentration, the room temperature during testing, and the group x time interaction terms. Results: FEV1 change over time in new miners is non-linear. New miners experience initial rapid FEV1 declines, primarily during the first year of mining, little change during the second year, and partial recovery during the third year. Both linear and quadratic time trends in FEV1 change are highly significant. Smoking miners lost more FEV1 than non-smokers. Referents, all age less than 20 years, showed continued lung growth, whereas the miners who were under age 20 exhibited a decline in FEV1. Conclusion: Dust and smoking affect lung function in young, newly hired Chinese coal miners. FEV1 change over the first three years of employment is non-linear. The findings have implications for both methods and interpretation of medical screening in coal mining and other dusty work: during the first several years of employment more frequent testing may be desirable, and caution is required in interpreting early FEV1 declines.

  18. Processes of behavior change and weight loss in a theory-based weight loss intervention program: a test of the process model for lifestyle behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillison, Fiona; Stathi, Afroditi; Reddy, Prasuna; Perry, Rachel; Taylor, Gordon; Bennett, Paul; Dunbar, James; Greaves, Colin

    2015-01-16

    Process evaluation is important for improving theories of behavior change and behavioral intervention methods. The present study reports on the process outcomes of a pilot test of the theoretical model (the Process Model for Lifestyle Behavior Change; PMLBC) underpinning an evidence-informed, theory-driven, group-based intervention designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity for people with high cardiovascular risk. 108 people at high risk of diabetes or heart disease were randomized to a group-based weight management intervention targeting diet and physical activity plus usual care, or to usual care. The intervention comprised nine group based sessions designed to promote motivation, social support, self-regulation and understanding of the behavior change process. Weight loss, diet, physical activity and theoretically defined mediators of change were measured pre-intervention, and after four and 12 months. The intervention resulted in significant improvements in fiber intake (M between-group difference = 5.7 g/day, p behavior change, and the predicted mechanisms of change specified in the PMBLC were largely supported. Improvements in self-efficacy and understanding of the behavior change process were associated with engagement in coping planning and self-monitoring activities, and successful dietary change at four and 12 months. While participants reported improvements in motivational and social support variables, there was no effect of these, or of the intervention overall, on physical activity. The data broadly support the theoretical model for supporting some dietary changes, but not for physical activity. Systematic intervention design allowed us to identify where improvements to the intervention may be implemented to promote change in all proposed mediators. More work is needed to explore effective mechanisms within interventions to promote physical activity behavior.

  19. Assessment of Processes of Change for Weight Management in a UK Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Ana; Saldaña, Carmina; Beeken, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to validate the English version of the Processes of Change questionnaire in weight management (P-Weight). Methods Participants were 1,087 UK adults, including people enrolled in a behavioural weight management programme, university students and an opportunistic sample. The mean age of the sample was 34.80 (SD = 13.56) years, and 83% were women. BMI ranged from 18.51 to 55.36 (mean = 25.92, SD = 6.26) kg/m2. Participants completed both the stages and processes questionnaires in weight management (S-Weight and P-Weight), and subscales from the EDI-2 and EAT-40. A refined version of the P-Weight consisting of 32 items was obtained based on the item analysis. Results The internal structure of the scale fitted a four-factor model, and statistically significant correlations with external measures supported the convergent validity of the scale. Conclusion The adequate psychometric properties of the P-Weight English version suggest that it could be a useful tool to tailor weight management interventions. PMID:25765163

  20. Imidacloprid induced histomorphological changes and expression of TLR-4 and TNFα in lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Arif Ahmad; Choudhary, Shanti; Ramneek; Singh, Baljit; Sethi, R S

    2016-07-01

    The imidacloprid is used worldwide as a pesticide and has been linked with endocrine disturbances and reduced pulmonary function. However, effects of imidacloprid alone or in combination with microbial molecules on lungs are not fully understood. Because the pulmonary effects of interactions of endotoxins with imidacloprid are unknown, we designed a study to investigate that in a mouse model. Mice (N=14) were given imidacloprid orally @ 1/20(th) of LD50 dissolved in corn oil for 30days. After the treatments, six animals from each group were challenged with E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) @ 80μg/animal via intranasal route and remaining animals were challenged with normal saline solution @ 80μl/animal via same route. Imidacloprid in combination with LPS led to significant increase in total cell and neutrophil counts in BAL and peripheral blood. Semi-quantitative histopathology revealed lung injury in imidacloprid treatment group and injury was more marked in animal receiving both imidacloprid and LPS. There was no change (pimidacloprid alone or in combination with LPS. The data show that imidacloprid alone or in combination with LPS resulted changes in lung morphology without altering the expression of TLR-4 and TNF-α. Furthermore, pre-treatment with imidacloprid didn't affect response to LPS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A longitudinal study of childhood obesity, weight status change, and subsequent academic performance in Taiwanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Jung; Fox, Kenneth R; Ku, Po-Wen; Wang, Ching-Hui

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the association among childhood obesity, weight status change, and subsequent academic performance at 6-year follow-up. First-grade students from one elementary school district in Taichung City, Taiwan were followed for 6 years (N = 409). Academic performance was extracted from the school records at the end of each grade. Weight and height were measured at the beginning of each grade. A weight change variable was created based on each child's weight status difference at grades 1 and 6. A multivariate linear regression model for predicting academic performance at grade 6 was developed with adjustment for individual characteristics and family factors. A latent growth curve (LGC) showed the association between changes in body mass index (BMI) and in academic performance across a 6-year period. BMI in children increased significantly across 6 years. The rate of increase in BMI over 6 years was higher for children with higher baseline BMIs than it was for children with lower baseline BMIs. However, BMI changes were not significantly associated with changes of academic performance. There was no significant relationship between initial obesity or change in weight status and subsequent academic performance. It appears that either being or becoming overweight/obese did not impact academic achievement for these Taiwanese children. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  2. Changes in parental weight and smoking habits and offspring adiposity: data from the HUNT-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasting, Magnus Hølmo; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Vik, Torstein

    2011-06-01

    Adverse parental life-style habits are associated with offspring adiposity, but it is unclear how changes in these habits affect offspring adiposity. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess how parental change in body weight, smoking habits and levels of physical activity were associated with adiposity in their children. The study population consisted of 3 681 adolescents and their parents from the Nord-Trøndelag-Health-Study (HUNT). The parents participated in the two first waves of HUNT (HUNT-1:1984-86, HUNT-2:1995-97), where information on anthropometry, smoking habits and physical activity were obtained. The adolescents participated in the Youth-Part of HUNT-2. We used logistic regression to calculate odds-ratios (ORs) for adolescent offspring overweight according to parental change in body-weight, smoking habits and physical activity, adjusting for these factors in both parents, as well as for socioeconomic status and adolescent age and sex. Children of parents who changed weight from normal weight to overweight from HUNT-1 to HUNT-2 had higher OR for overweight in adolescence than children of parents who remained normal weight (mothers: 1.9 [95% CI: 1.4,2.5], fathers: 2.2 [95% CI: 1.5,3.0]). Children of mothers who reduced their weight from overweight to normal weight had no higher OR for overweight in adolescence than mothers who remained normal weight (OR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.2, 4.7). Children of mothers who quit smoking (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8) had lower OR for overweight in adolescence than children of mothers who persisted in smoking. Healthy changes in parental life-style during childhood are associated with lower occurrence of offspring overweight in adolescence.

  3. Association between FTO variant and change in body weight and its interaction with dietary factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Ängquist, Lars; Hansen, Rikke D

    2012-01-01

    Although FTO is an established obesity-susceptibility locus, it remains unknown whether it influences weight change in adult life and whether diet attenuates this association. Therefore, we investigated the association of FTO-rs9939609 with changes in weight and waist circumference (WC) during 6......-analyses, FTO-rs9939609 was associated with BMI (β (SE), 0.17 (0.08) kg·m(-2)/allele; P = 0.034) and WC (0.47 (0.21) cm/allele; P = 0.026) at baseline, but not with weight change (5.55 (12.5) g·year(-1)/allele; P = 0.66) during follow up. In the CNC-analysis, FTO-rs9939609 was associated with increased risk...... of being a weight-gainer (OR: 1.1; P = 0.045). We observed no interaction between FTO-rs9939609 and dietary fat, protein and carbohydrate, and GI on BMI and WC at baseline or on change in weight and WC. FTO-rs9939609 is associated with BMI and WC at baseline, but association with weight gain is weak...

  4. Long-term administration of a small molecular weight catalytic metalloporphyrin antioxidant, AEOL 10150, protects lungs from radiation-induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbani, Zahid N.; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Huang Jie; Day, Brian J.; Alexander, Elaine; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether administration of a catalytic antioxidant, Mn(III) tetrakis(N,N'-diethylimidazolium-2-yl) porphyrin, AEOL 10150, with superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic properties, reduces the severity of radiation-induced injury to the lung from single-dose irradiation (RT) of 28 Gy. Methods and Materials: Rats were randomly divided into four different dose groups (0, 1, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day of AEOL 10150), receiving either short-term (1 week) or long-term (10 weeks) drug administration via osmotic pumps. Rats received single-dose irradiation (RT) of 28 Gy to the right hemithorax. Breathing rates, body weights, blood samples, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess lung damage. Results: There was no significant difference in any of the study endpoints between the irradiated controls and the three groups receiving RT and short-term administration of AEOL 10150. For the long-term administration, functional determinants of lung damage 20 weeks postradiation were significantly worse for RT + phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and RT + 1 mg/kg/day of AEOL 10150 as compared with the irradiated groups treated with higher doses of AEOL 10150 (10 or 30 mg/kg/day). Lung histology at 20 weeks revealed a significant decrease in structural damage and collagen deposition in rats receiving 10 or 30 mg/kg/day after radiation in comparison to the RT + PBS and 1 mg/kg/day groups. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a significant reduction in macrophage accumulation, oxidative stress, and hypoxia in rats receiving AEOL 10150 (10 or 30 mg/kg/day) after lung irradiation compared with the RT + PBS and 1 mg/kg/day groups. Conclusions: The chronic administration of a novel catalytic antioxidant, AEOL 10150, demonstrates a significant protective effect from radiation-induced lung injury. AEOL 10150 has its primary impact on the cascade of events after irradiation, and adding the drug before irradiation and its short-term administration have no significant

  5. Investigating Changes in Weight and Body Composition Among Women in Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Delmar, Charlotte; Lörincz, Tamás

    2018-01-01

    for attention on younger premenopausal women given chemotherapy. Weight need to be monitored for at least 2 years as short-term changes may be caused by increased body water, whereas long-term changes seem to be related with increased fat mass essential for risking recurrence and early death. IMPLICATIONS...... as free text, 19 articles were selected for further investigation. RESULTS: The scoping review illustrates how findings in weight and body composition changes fluctuate over time as illustrated in 4 measure points: short term, 1 year, 18 months/2 years, and long term. The studies displayed differences...

  6. Changes in bone marrow lesions in response to weight-loss in obese knee osteoarthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbergsen, Henrik; Boesen, Mikael; Christensen, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Patients are susceptible for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) with increasing age and obesity and KOA is expected to become a major disabling disease in the future. An important feature of KOA on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is changes in the subchondral bone, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), which...... are related to the future degeneration of the knee joint as well as prevalent clinical symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in BMLs after a 16-week weight-loss period in obese subjects with KOA and relate changes in BMLs to the effects of weight-loss on clinical symptoms....

  7. The effect of smoking habit changes on body weight: Evidence from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Luca; Salmasi, Luca

    2016-03-01

    This paper evaluates the causal relationship between smoking and body weight through two waves (2004-2006) of the British Household Panel Survey. We model the effect of changes in smoking habits, such as quitting or reducing, and account for the heterogeneous responses of individuals located at different points of the body mass distribution by quantile regression. We test our results by means of a large set of control groups and investigate their robustness by using the changes-in-changes estimator and accounting for different thresholds to define smoking reductions. Our results reveal the positive effect of quitting smoking on weight changes, which is also found to increase in the highest quantiles, whereas the decision to reduce smoking does not affect body weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. DNA Methylation Changes in the IGF1R Gene in Birth Weight Discordant Adult Monozygotic Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Pei-Chien; Van Dongen, Jenny; Tan, Qihua

    2015-01-01

    persists into adulthood. To investigate this further, we performed epigenome-wide association analyses of blood DNA methylation using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip profiles in 71 adult monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs who were extremely discordant for birth weight. A signal mapping to the IGF1R gene (cg...... were not significant. However, a meta-analysis across the four independent samples, in total 216 birth-weight discordant MZ twin pairs, showed a significant positive association between birth weight and DNA methylation differences at IGF1R (random-effects meta-analysis p = .04), and the effect...... was particularly pronounced in older twins (random-effects meta-analysis p = .008, 98 older birth-weight discordant MZ twin pairs). The results suggest that severe intra-uterine growth differences (birth weight discordance >20%) are associated with methylation changes in the IGF1R gene in adulthood, independent...

  9. Weight-Control Methods, 3-Year Weight Change, and Eating Behaviors: A Prospective Nationwide Study of Middle-Aged New Zealand Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Sook Ling; Gray, Andrew; Haszard, Jillian; Horwath, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    The effectiveness of women's weight-control methods and the influences of dieting on eating behaviors remain unclear. Our aim was to determine the association of various weight-control methods at baseline with weight change to 3 years, and examine the association between baseline weight-control status (trying to lose weight, trying to prevent weight gain or no weight-control attempts) and changes in intuitive eating and binge eating at 3 years. A nationally representative sample of 1,601 New Zealand women (40 to 50 years) was recruited and completed a self-administered questionnaire at baseline regarding use of variety of weight-control methods. Information on demographic characteristics, weight, height, food habits, binge eating, and intuitive eating were collected at baseline and 3 years. Linear and logistic regression models examined associations between both weight status and weight-control methods at baseline and weight change to 3 years; and baseline weight-control status and change in intuitive eating from baseline to 3 years and binge eating at 3 years. χ(2) tests were used to cross-sectionally compare food habits across the weight status categories at both baseline and 3 years. Trying to lose weight and the use of weight-control methods at baseline were not associated with change in body weight to 3 years. There were a few differences in the frequency of consumption of high-energy-density foods between those trying to lose or maintain weight and those not attempting weight control. Trying to lose weight at baseline was associated with a 2.0-unit (95% CI 0.7 to 3.4, P=0.003) reduction in intuitive eating scores by 3 years (potential range=21 to 105), and 224% (odds ratio=3.24; 95% CI 1.69 to 6.20; Pfoods. Dieting may reduce women's ability to recognize hunger and satiety cues and place women at increased risk of binge eating. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Diet Change After Sleeve Gastrectomy Is More Effective for Weight Loss Than Surgery Only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, Joana; González, Marta; Mestres, Núria; Pardina, Eva; Ricart-Jané, David; Peinado-Onsurbe, Julia; Baena-Fustegueras, Juan Antonio

    2017-10-01

    Bariatric surgery with or without diet change has become one of the most effective treatments for obesity. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and diet change in Sprague-Dawley rats on both body and tissue weights. Eighteen rats were fed with a standard chow diet (SCD) (C group), and 36 rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) (diet-induced obesity (DIO) group). After 8 weeks, the animals underwent VSG, sham surgery or no surgery (NS). After surgery, a third of the rats fed with the HFD changed to the SCD (DIO + C group). Body weight, food and energy intake were recorded daily during the experiment (12 weeks). Food efficiency (%) (FE) was determined from weekly weight gain and weekly kilocalorie consumed measurements. The DIO group had higher and significant weight gain than the C group at the time of surgery (p weight loss (WL) was observed in the DIO + C-VSG group, during the 4 weeks after surgery. Adipose tissues in the DIO + C-VSG group were drastically reduced and had a weight similar to those in the C-VSG group. VSG and the diet change combination led to a greater WL, which was maintained during the 4 weeks post-surgery, leading to a normalization of body weight. VSG and diet change also affected most of the tissues, not only adipose, showing a global change in whole body composition.

  11. Changes in working conditions and major weight gain among normal- and overweight midlife employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Riikka; Holstila, Ansku; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lallukka, Tea

    2017-11-01

    Objectives We aimed to examine the association between changes in psychosocial working conditions and major weight gain among midlife women and men. Furthermore, we examined the associations separately among normal- and overweight participants. Methods We used survey data among employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, from 2000-2002 (phase 1, N=8960), 2007 (phase 2, N=7332), and 2012 (phase 3, N=6814), with a final study sample of 4369 participants. We examined changes in job strain, job demands, and job control from phase 1 to 2. We defined major weight gain as ≥10% weight gain between phases 1 and 3 based on self-reported weight (kg). We performed logistic regression analysis adjusting for baseline age, marital status, and occupational class, stratifying by gender and by baseline body mass index. Results Job demands among both genders and job strain among women was associated with major weight gain. Furthermore, increased job demands [odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% CI 1.05-2.20] or increased job strain (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.11-2.11) was associated with major weight gain among overweight women. Normal-weight men reporting decreased job demands (OR 4.11, 95% CI 1.48-11.40) and overweight men reporting increasing job demands (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.26-6.82) exhibited higher odds of major weight gain. Conclusions Associations between working conditions and weight gain appeared primarily weak. Our study suggests that overweight individuals might be at a higher risk of weight gain when facing psychosocial strain in the workplace.

  12. Changes in birth weight between 2002 and 2012 in Guangzhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Guo

    Full Text Available Recent surveillance data suggest that mean birth weight has begun to decline in several developed countries. The aim of this study is to examine the changes in birth weight among singleton live births from 2002 to 2012 in Guangzhou, one of the most rapidly developed cities in China.We used data from the Guangzhou Perinatal Health Care and Delivery Surveillance System for 34108 and 54575 singleton live births with 28-41 weeks of gestation, who were born to local mothers, in 2002 and 2012, respectively. The trends in birth weight, small (SGA and large (LGA for gestational age and gestational length were explored in the overall population and gestational age subgroups.The mean birth weight decreased from 3162 g in 2002 to 3137 g in 2012 (crude mean difference, -25 g; 95% CI, -30 to -19. The adjusted change in mean birth weight appeared to be slight (-6 g from 2002 to 2012 after controlling for maternal age, gestational age, educational level, parity, newborn's gender and delivery mode. The percentages of SGA and LGA in 2012 were 0.6% and 1.5% lower than those in 2002, respectively. The mean gestational age dropped from 39.2 weeks in 2002 to 38.9 weeks in 2012. In the stratified analysis, we observed the changes in birth weight differed among gestational age groups. The mean birth weight decreased among very preterm births (28-31 weeks, while remained relatively stable among other gestational age subcategories.Among local population in Guangzhou from 2002 to 2012, birth weight appeared to slightly decrease. The percentage of SGA and LGA also simultaneously dropped, indicating that newborns might gain a healthier weight for gestational age.

  13. Does the method of weight loss effect long-term changes in weight, body composition or chronic disease risk factors in overweight or obese adults? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Washburn

    Full Text Available Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain.To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors.PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013 for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review.Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included.Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc. and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up.Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼ 55% of loss was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise.

  14. Long-term weight changes in obese young adult men and subsequent all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, E; Berentzen, T L; Ängquist, Lars Henrik

    2013-01-01

    change and all-cause mortality in a broad range of body mass index (BMI) in young men.METHODS:Among 362200 Danish draftees, examined between 1943 and 1977, all obese (BMI 31.0 kg m(-2); n=1930), and a random 1% sample of the others (n=3601) were identified at a mean age of 20 years (range: 18-25 years......BACKGROUND:Although the expectation is that weight gain increases mortality and weight loss among those overweight reduces mortality, results on weight gain and mortality in young adults are conflicting, and weight loss is less explored. We investigated the association between long-term weight......). All the obese and half the controls were re-examined between 4 and 40 years later (mean age 35 years). Weight changes were defined as: weight loss 0.1 kg m(-2) per year. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression.RESULTS:Among the 908 obese and 1073...

  15. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors.

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkers, M.B.M; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; Steeg, H. van; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable night or shift work, from day work to night or shift work, from night or shift work to day work, and no night or shift work in 2008 and 2009. Regression analyses were used to study association chan...

  16. Changes in weight and body fat after use of tetracycline and Lactobacillus gasseri in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge José Marciano; Fernando de Sá Del Fiol; Alessandra Cristina Marciano Tardelli Ferreira; Maria Cláudia Marques; Luciane Lopes Santana

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent studies have shown a role of intestinal microbiota in obesity. The consumption of antibiotics in the last 70 years has led to changes in intestinal microbiota, which has led to weight gain and body fat accumulation. To evaluate the possibility of weight gain induced by antibiotics and the possible protective effect of probiotics, we divided 45 animals (Rattus norvegicus) into groups and administered the following treatments over two weeks: tetracycline, tetracycline + Lactobac...

  17. Trends in low birth weight infants and changes in Baltimore's childbearing population, 1972–77

    OpenAIRE

    Strobino, Donna M.

    1982-01-01

    Linked birth and death records provided the population for a study of trends in low birth weight (LBW) rates in Baltimore between 1972 and 1977 and of the effect of changes in the characteristics of the childbearing population on these trends. The impact of shifts in the birth weight distribution on neonatal mortality rates was also investigated. Trends were analyzed for unstandardized LBW rates as well as for rates standardized on the distributions of maternal age, education, gravidity, prio...

  18. Designing for psychological change: individuals' reward and cost valuations in weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Anne; Blandford, Ann

    2014-06-26

    Knowledge of the psychological constructs that underlie behavior offers valuable design opportunities for persuasive systems. We use the decision theory, which describes how behavior is underpinned by reward-cost valuations, as a framework for investigating such psychological constructs to deliver design objectives for weight management technologies. We applied a decision theory-based analysis in the domain of weight management to understand the rewards and costs that surround individuals' weight management behaviors, with the aim of uncovering design opportunities for weight management technologies. We conducted qualitative interviews with 15 participants who were or had been trying to lose weight. Thematic analysis was used to extract themes that covered the rewards and costs surrounding weight management behaviors. We supplemented our qualitative study with a quantitative survey of 100 respondents investigating the extent to which they agreed with statements reflecting themes from the qualitative study. The primary obstacles to weight management were the rewards associated with unhealthy choices, such as the pleasures of unhealthy foods and unrestricted consumption in social situations, and the significant efforts required to change habits, plan, and exercise. Psychological constructs that supported positive weight management included feeling good after making healthy choices, being good to oneself, experiencing healthy yet still delicious foods, and receiving social support and encouraging messages (although opinions about encouraging messages was mixed). A rewards-costs driven enquiry revealed a wide range of psychological constructs that contribute to discouraging and supporting weight management. The constructs extracted from our qualitative study were verified by our quantitative survey, in which the majority of respondents also reported similar thoughts and feelings. This understanding of the rewards and costs surrounding weight management offers a range

  19. Association Between Use of Cannabis in Adolescence and Weight Change into Midlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexie Zhiyan Jin

    Full Text Available Cannabis use has been found to stimulate appetite and potentially promote weight gain via activation of the endocannabinoid system. Despite the fact that the onset of cannabis use is typically during adolescence, the association between adolescence cannabis use and long-term change in body weight is generally unknown. This study aims to examine the association between adolescence cannabis use and weight change to midlife, while accounting for the use of other substances. The study applied 20 to 22 years of follow-up data on 712 Danish adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years at baseline. Self-reported height and weight, cannabis, cigarette and alcohol use, socioeconomic status (SES and physical activity levels were assessed in baseline surveys conducted in 1983 and 1985. The follow-up survey was conducted in 2005. In total 19.1% (n = 136 of adolescents reported having used/using cannabis. Weight gain between adolescence and midlife was not related to cannabis exposure during adolescence in either crude or adjusted models, and associations were not modified by baseline alcohol intake or smoking. However, cannabis use was significantly associated with cigarette smoking (p<0.001 and alcohol intake (p<0.001 and inversely associated with physical activity levels (p = 0.04. In conclusion, this study does not provide evidence of an association between adolescence cannabis use and weight change from adolescence to midlife.

  20. A parametric model for the changes in the complex valued conductivity of a lung during tidal breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordebo, Sven; Dalarsson, Mariana; Khodadad, Davood; Müller, Beat; Waldman, Andreas D.; Becher, Tobias; Frerichs, Inez; Sophocleous, Louiza; Sjöberg, Daniel; Seifnaraghi, Nima; Bayford, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Classical homogenization theory based on the Hashin–Shtrikman coated ellipsoids is used to model the changes in the complex valued conductivity (or admittivity) of a lung during tidal breathing. Here, the lung is modeled as a two-phase composite material where the alveolar air-filling corresponds to the inclusion phase. The theory predicts a linear relationship between the real and the imaginary parts of the change in the complex valued conductivity of a lung during tidal breathing, and where the loss cotangent of the change is approximately the same as of the effective background conductivity and hence easy to estimate. The theory is illustrated with numerical examples based on realistic parameter values and frequency ranges used with electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The theory may be potentially useful for imaging and clinical evaluations in connection with lung EIT for respiratory management and control.

  1. Radionuclide-determined changes in pulmonary blood volume and thallium lung uptake in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.A.; Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Exercise-induced increases in radionuclide-determined pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and thallium lung uptake have been described in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and have been shown to correlate with transient exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction. To compare these 2 techniques in the same patients, 74 patients (59 with and 15 without significant CAD) underwent supine bicycle exercise twice on the same day--first for thallium myocardial and lung imaging and then for technetium-99m gated blood pool imaging for the PBV ratio determination. Thallium activity of lung and myocardium was determined to calculate thallium lung/heart ratio. Relative changes in PBV from rest to exercise were expressed as a ratio of pulmonary counts (exercise/rest). Previously reported normal ranges for thallium lung/heart ratio and PBV ratio were used. The PBV ratio and thallium lung/heart ratio were abnormal in 71 and 36%, respectively, of patients with CAD (p less than 0.01). Both ratios were normal in all patients without CAD. Although the resting ejection fractions did not differ significantly in patients with normal versus those with abnormal PBV ratios or thallium lung/heart ratios, abnormal PBV ratios and thallium lung/heart ratios were associated with an exercise-induced decrease in ejection fraction. Propranolol use was significantly higher in patients with abnormal than in those with normal thallium lung/heart ratios (p less than 0.01). No significant difference in propranolol use was present in patients with abnormal or normal PBV ratios. In conclusion: (1) the prevalence of an abnormal thallium lung/heart ratio is less than that of the PBV ratio in patients with CAD; (2) both tests are normal in normal control subjects; (3) propranolol does not cause abnormal results in normal control subjects; however, propranolol may influence lung thallium uptake in patients with CAD; and (4) when both tests are abnormal, there is a high likelihood of multivessel disease

  2. Inflammation-associated gene transcription and expression in mouse lungs induced by low molecular weight compounds from fungi from the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J D; Sun, M; Gilyan, A; Roy, J; Rand, T G

    2010-01-05

    Few metabolites from fungi found indoors have been tested for inflammatory mediators endpoints in primary cultures of alveolar macrophages or in vivo. In this study, mice were intratracheally instilled with a single dose comprising 4x10(-5)moletoxin/kg lung wt dose of either atranone C, brevianamide, cladosporin, mycophenolic acid, neoechinulin A & B, sterigmatocystin or TMC-120A. These toxins are from fungi common on damp building materials. The dose used was comparable to the estimated doses of possible human exposure. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histology and Alcian Blue/Periodic Acid Schiff (AB/PAS) histochemistry were used to evaluate lungs for time course (4h and 12h post-exposure (PE)) inflammatory and toxic changes. Reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR based arrays were also employed to evaluate time course inflammation-associated gene transcription in lung tissues of the different toxins. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to probe MIP-2 and Tnf-alpha protein expression in treatment lungs to determine whether responses correspond with gene transcription data. Both histology and histochemistry revealed that toxin exposed lungs at 12h PE showed evidence of inflammation. H&E revealed that bronchioli were lined with irregularly thickened and sometimes sloughing epithelium and bronchiolar spaces supported infiltration of leukocytes, cellular and mucus-like debris while alveolar spaces supported swollen macrophages and modest amorphous debris accumulations. All toxin-instilled lungs exhibited copious mucus production and alveolar macrophages with red stained cytoplasm on bronchiolar surfaces, especially at 12h PE. Array analysis of 83 inflammation-associated genes extracted from lung tissue demonstrated a number of patterns, compared to controls. 82 genes assayed at 4h PE and 75 genes at 12h PE were significantly altered (por =1.5-fold or cladosporin, atranone C and TMC-120. The results further confirm the inflammatory nature of metabolites/toxins from such fungi can

  3. Spatial and dose–response analysis of fibrotic lung changes after stereotactic body radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevegeniy; Diot, Quentin; Kavanagh, Brian; Schefter, Tracey; Gaspar, Laurie; Miften, Moyed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is becoming the standard of care for early stage nonoperable lung cancers. Accurate dose–response modeling is challenging for SBRT because of the decreased number of clinical toxicity events. As a surrogate for a clinical toxicity endpoint, studies have proposed to use radiographic changes in follow up computed tomography (CT) scans to evaluate lung SBRT normal tissue effects. The purpose of the current study was to use local fibrotic lung regions to spatially and dosimetrically evaluate lung changes in patients that underwent SBRT.Methods: Forty seven SBRT patients treated at our institution from 2003 to 2009 were used for the current study. Our patient cohort had a total of 148 follow up CT scans ranging from 3 to 48 months post-therapy. Post-treatment scans were binned into intervals of 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months after the completion of treatment. Deformable image registration was used to align the follow up CT scans with the pretreatment CT and dose distribution. Areas of visible fibrotic changes were contoured. The centroid of each gross tumor volume (GTV) and contoured fibrosis volume was calculated and the fibrosis volume location and movement (magnitude and direction) relative to the GTV and 30 Gy isodose centroid were analyzed. To perform a dose–response analysis, each voxel in the fibrosis volume was sorted into 10 Gy dose bins and the average CT number value for each dose bin was calculated. Dose–response curves were generated by plotting the CT number as a function of dose bin and time posttherapy.Results: Both fibrosis and GTV centroids were concentrated in the upper third of the lung. The average radial movement of fibrosis centroids relative to the GTV centroids was 2.6 cm with movement greater than 5 cm occurring in 11% of patients. Evaluating dose–response curves revealed an overall trend of increasing CT number as a function of dose. The authors observed a CT number plateau at

  4. Responses in live weight change to net energy intake in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Østergaard, Søren; Bertilsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to estimate the effect of increased energy intake on daily live weight changes during the first 100 days of lactation of primiparous and multiparous cows. A data set with 78 observations (treatment means) was compiled from 6 production trials from Denmark, Norway...... or multiparous. Feed ration energy values were recalculated by use of NorFor to obtain consistent energy expression in all trials as opposed to the varying feed evaluation systems used in original analysis of trials. Regression analysis with linear and quadratic effects were performed on live weight...... change were made by linear mixed effects model with trial as random factor. For both primiparous and multiparous cows there was an increasing curvilinear response at a decreasing rate to increased net energy intake and the daily live weight change at day 30 was negative and at day 90 it was positive...

  5. Traumatic lung injury attributed to tornadic activity-induced barometric pressure changes in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocki, Brandy N; Dugat, Danielle R; Snider, Timothy A

    2016-06-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 7-year-old castrated male Italian Greyhound (dog 1) and an approximately 1-year-old female Labrador Retriever (dog 2) were evaluated because of respiratory distress 8 and 10 days, respectively, after a tornado. CLINICAL FINDINGS No obvious external injuries were identified auscultation revealed decreased bronchovesicular sounds in the affected hemithorax of both dogs. Clinicopathologic changes were mild, with evidence of inflammation in both dogs. Thoracic radiography of both dogs revealed pneumothorax and pleural effusion with effacement of the diaphragm; findings on CT included severe pulmonary atelectasis of affected lung lobes with normal bronchial tree configurtion and no evidence of diaphragmatic hernia. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Exploratory thoracotomy of both dogs confirmed CT findings Pulmonary parenchymal damage consistent with a large rupture was found in both patients. A large hematoma was adhered to the ruptured lung lobe of dog 1. Grossly affected lung tissue was removed; histologic examination revealed atelectasis, pulmonary fib osis, thrombosis, and minimal (dog 1) to marked (dog 2) inflammation Microbial culture of lung tissue yielded no growth for dog 1 and Streptococcus spp and Escherichia coli susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for dog 2. Dog 1 had a recurrence of pneumothorax treated by drainage with a thoracostomy tube 1 month after surgery. Eighteen months after surgery, both dogs were reportedly doing well. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Development of clinical signs after a tornado, together with clinical, diagnostic imaging, surgical, and histologic findings led to a presumptive diagnosis of pulmonary barotrauma for both dogs. Long-term outcome for these dogs, treated at a referral hospital, was good.

  6. Acute changes in lung function associated with proximity to a steel plant: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dales, Robert; Kauri, Lisa Marie; Cakmak, Sabit; Mahmud, Mamun; Weichenthal, Scott A; Van Ryswyk, Keith; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Thomson, Errol; Vincent, Renaud; Broad, Gayle; Liu, Ling

    2013-05-01

    Steel production is a major industry worldwide yet there is relatively little information on the pulmonary effects of air quality near steel manufacturing plants. The aim of this study was to examine how lung function changes acutely when healthy subjects are situated near a steel plant which is adjacent to a residential area. Sixty-one subjects were randomly assigned to spend 5 consecutive, 8-hour days in a residential neighborhood approximately 0.9km from a steel plant, or approximately 4.5km away at a college campus. Subjects crossed-over between sites after a nine-day washout period. Lung function was measured daily at both sites along with air pollutants including SO2, NO2, O3, PM2.5, and ultrafine particles. Diffusion capacity and pulse oximetry were also examined. Compared with the college site, the forced expiratory volume in 1-second/forced vital capacity, forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of the FVC, total lung capacity, functional residual capacity, and residual volume were lower near the steel plant by 0.67% (95% CI: 0.28, 1.06),1.62% (95% CI: 0.50, 2.75), 1.54% (95% CI: 0.68, 2.39), 3.54% (95% CI: 1.95, 5.13) and 11.3% (95% CI: 4.92, 17.75), respectively. Diffusion capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1s, and pulse oximetry were also lower near the plant but these effects were not statistically significant. Sulfur dioxide, ultrafine particulates, and oxides of nitrogen were greater near the steel plant site compared to the college site. Spending short periods of time near a steel plant is associated with a decrease in lung function. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in glucose-elicited blood metabolite responses following weight loss and long term weight maintenance in obese individuals with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geidenstam, Nina; Danielsson, Anders P H; Spégel, Peter; Ridderstråle, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Weight loss improves insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), but the long term dynamic effects on blood metabolites other than glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), are largely unknown. Here, we studied changes in OGTT-elicited metabolite patterns in obese subjects during a diet-induced weight loss study. Blood samples from 14 obese individuals with IGT were collected at 0, 30 and 120 min during a standard 75 g OGTT at baseline (BMI 44 ± 2 kg/m(2)), after weight loss (BMI 36 ± 2 kg/m(2)) and after weight maintenance (BMI 35 ± 2 kg/m(2)). Serum metabolite levels were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and compared to a lean glucose tolerant group. Changes in the OGTT-elicited metabolite patterns occurred differentially during weight loss and weight maintenance. Enhanced suppression of aromatic amino acids were associated with decreased insulinogenic index observed after weight loss (tyrosine: r=0.72, p=0.013; phenylalanine: r=0.63, p=0.039). The OGTT-elicited suppression and/or lack of increase in levels of glutamate, glutamine, isoleucine, leucine, and the fatty acids laurate, oleate and palmitate, improved towards the lean profile after weight maintenance, paralleling an improvement in glucose tolerance. The greater heterogeneity in the response before and after weight loss in the obese, compared to lean subjects, was markedly reduced after weight maintenance. Diet-induced weight loss followed by weight maintenance results in changes in metabolite profiles associated with either hepatic insulin sensitivity or peripheral glucose tolerance. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating the effects of weight loss and weight maintenance separately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Improvement of Zinc Coating Weight Control for Transition of Target Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chien Ming; Lin, Jeong Hwa; Hsu, Tse Wei; Lin, Rui Rong [China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung (China)

    2010-06-15

    The product specification of the Continuous Hot Dip Galvanizing Line (CGL) changes and varies constantly with different customers' requirements, especially in the zinc coating weight which is from 30 to 150 g/m{sup 2} on each side. Since the coating weight of zinc changes often, it is very important to reduce time spent in the transfer of target values changed for low production cost and yield loss. The No.2 CGL in China Steel Corporation (CSC) has improved the control of the air knife which is designed by Siemens VAI. CSC proposed an experiment design which is an L{sub 9}(3{sup 4}) orthogonal array to find the relations between zinc coating weight and the process parameters, such as the line speed, air pressure, gap of air knife and air knife position. A non-linear regression formula was derived from the experimental results and applied in the mathematical model. A new air knife feedforward control system, which is coupled with the regression formula, the air knife control system and the process computer, is implemented into the line. The practical plant operation results have been presented to show the transfer time is obviously shortened while zinc coating weight target changing and the product rejected ratio caused by zinc coating weight out of specification is significantly reduced from 0.5% to 0.15%.

  9. Changes in health-related behaviors and their effect on dissatisfaction with body weight in youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16s1p79 The aim of the present study was to establish whether changes in health related behaviors are associated with changes in the satisfaction/dissatisfaction with body weight in youths. It was a prospective study that performed a secondary analysis of data from Project “Saúde na Boa”, which included youths attending night classes in secondary public schools in Recife in the state of Pernambuco and Florianópolis in the state of Santa Catarina. Data on the youths’ body type (thinness or excess weight and degree of satisfaction/dissatisfaction with body weight and lifestyle (level of physical activity, participation in physical education classes, sedentary behavior and snacks, soda and alcohol intake were collected at 10 schools from each town (five in the intervention group and five in the control group. The percentages of youths dissatisfied with their body weight were 50.5% and 48.6% at baseline and after intervention, respectively. The percentage of youths with body dissatisfaction due to thinness decreased (21.4% vs. 16.5%, while the percentage of youths with body dissatisfaction due to excess weight increased (29.1% vs. 32.1%. Approximately 41.2% of the youths with body dissatisfaction due to thinness and 18.3% of those dissatisfied due to excess weight became satisfied with their body weight after intervention. The intervention targeting health-related behaviors induced changes in the youths’ degree of satisfaction with their body weight.

  10. Target dose study of effects of changes in the AAA calculation resolution on lung SABR plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Il; Son, Sang Jun; Ahn, Bum Seok; Jung, Chi Hoon; Yoo, Suk Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Changing the calculation grid of AAA in Lung SABR plan and to analyze the changes in target dose, and investigated the effects associated with it, and considered a suitable method of application. 4D CT image that was used to plan all been taken with Brilliance Big Bore CT (Philips, Netherlands) and in Lung SABR plan(Eclipse TM ver10.0.42, Varian, the USA), use anisotropic analytic algorithm(AAA, ver.10, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) and, was calculated by the calculation grid 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mm in each Lung SABR plan. Lung SABR plan of 10 cases are using each of 1.0 mm, 3.0 mm, 5.0 mm calculation grid, and in case of use a 1.0 mm calculation grid V98 of the prescribed dose is about 99.5%±1.5%, Dmin of the prescribed dose is about 92.5±1.5% and Homogeneity Index(HI) is 1.0489±0.0025. In the case of use a 3.0 mm calculation grid V98 dose of the prescribed dose is about 90±4.5% , Dmin of the prescribed dose is about 87.5±3% and HI is about 1.07±1. In the case of use a 5.0 mm calculation grid V98 dose of the prescribed dose is about 63±15%, Dmin of the prescribed dose is about 83±4% and HI is about 1.13±0.2, respectively. The calculation grid of 1.0 mm is better improves the accuracy of dose calculation than using 3.0 mm and 5.mm, although calculation times increase in the case of smaller PTV relatively. As lung, spread relatively large and low density and small PTV, it is considered and good to use a calculation grid of 1.0 mm

  11. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI diet improved weight maintenance.To identify blood predictors for weight change after weight loss following the dietary intervention within the Diogenes study.Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8-week low caloric diet-induced weight loss from 48 women who continued to lose weight and 48 women who regained weight during subsequent 6-month dietary intervention period with 4 diets varying in protein and GI levels. Thirty-one proteins and 3 steroid hormones were measured.Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE was the most important predictor. Its greater reduction during the 8-week weight loss was related to continued weight loss during the subsequent 6 months, identified by both Logistic Regression and Random Forests analyses. The prediction power of ACE was influenced by immunoproteins, particularly fibrinogen. Leptin, luteinizing hormone and some immunoproteins showed interactions with dietary protein level, while interleukin 8 showed interaction with GI level on the prediction of weight maintenance. A predictor panel of 15 variables enabled an optimal classification by Random Forests with an error rate of 24±1%. A logistic regression model with independent variables from 9 blood analytes had a prediction accuracy of 92%.A selected panel of blood proteins/steroids can predict the weight change after weight loss. ACE may play an important role in weight maintenance. The interactions of blood factors with dietary components are important for personalized dietary advice after weight loss.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  12. Clinical and metabolic effects associated with weight changes and obeticholic acid in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, B; Terrault, N A; Gill, R M; Loomba, R; Chalasani, N; Hoofnagle, J H; Van Natta, M L

    2018-03-01

    In a 72-week, randomised controlled trial of obeticholic acid (OCA) in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), OCA was superior to placebo in improving serum ALT levels and liver histology. OCA therapy also reduced weight. Because weight loss by itself can improve histology, to perform a post hoc analysis of the effects of weight loss and OCA treatment in improving clinical and metabolic features of NASH. The analysis was limited to the 200 patients with baseline and end-of-treatment liver biopsies. Weight loss was defined as a relative decline from baseline of 2% or more at treatment end. Weight loss occurred in 44% (45/102) of OCA and 32% (31/98) of placebo-treated patients (P = 0.08). The NAFLD Activity score (NAS) improved more in those with than without weight loss in both the OCA- (-2.4 vs -1.2, POCA- (-43 vs -34 U/L, P = 0.12) and placebo-treated patients (-29 vs -10 U/L, P = 0.02). However, among those who lost weight, OCA was associated with opposite effects from placebo on changes in alkaline phosphatase (+21 vs -12 U/L, POCA leads to weight loss in up to 44% of patients with NASH, and OCA therapy and weight loss have additive benefits on serum aminotransferases and histology. However, favourable effects of weight loss on alkaline phosphatase, lipids and blood glucose seen in placebo-treated patients were absent or reversed on OCA treatment. These findings stress the importance of assessing concomitant metabolic effects of new therapies of NASH. Clinical trial number: NCT01265498. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Late lung parenchymal changes on HRCT in children with mycoplasma pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Hyeon; Kim, Joung Sook; Yoon, Jung Hee; Hur, Gham; Kim, Chang Gun [Inje Univ. Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    To evaluate late lung parenchymal change, as seen on high-resolution CT(HRCT) in children with mycoplasma pneumonia. Twenty-three patients [15 boys and 8 girls aged two to 13 (mean, 6) years] with mycoplasma pneumonia underwent HRCT four to 39 (mean, 10) months after initial infection. Using increased mycoplasma antibody titer( > 1;640) mycoplasma pneumonia was diagnosed, and patients were divided into two groups : high titer group (antibody titer > 1:5120), and lower titer group ( < 1:5120). CT scans were performed using 2mm collimation and 5-10mm interval from apex to diaphragm. In seven patients who were cooperative, both inspiratory scans were obtained at a window width of 1600 HU and level of 700. HRCT findings of mosaic low attenuations and changes in bronchioles and bronchial walls were assessed by three radiologists and correlated with initial chest radiographic findings. On HRCT, 17 of 23 patients (74%) demonstrated abnormal findings. These included mosaic attenuation of lung density alone in 11 of 17 patients (65%), mosaic attenuation associated with bronchiectasis in five(29%), and bronchiectasis only in one(6%). Mosaic attenuation was more accentuated on expiratory scans than on inspiratory. These findings were obtained in 10 of 12 high titer group and in 7 of 11 in the lower titer group. In 15 of 23 patients(65%), involved areas seen on HRCT exactly corresponded with initially involved areas seen on chest radiographs (CXR). Two patients in whom findings on initial CXR were normal showed mosaic attenuation on HRCT. Six patients in whom such findings were abnormal showed normal findings on HRCT, a fact which reflected their complete recovery. The most common late parenchymal change in mycoplasma pneumonia, as seen on HRCT, was mosaic attenuation of lung density followed by bronchiectasis. The latter is presumably due to bronchiolitis obliterans, a well-known complication. We believe that HRCT is very useful for the evaluation of long-term sequelae of

  14. Late lung parenchymal changes on HRCT in children with mycoplasma pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Hyeon; Kim, Joung Sook; Yoon, Jung Hee; Hur, Gham; Kim, Chang Gun

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate late lung parenchymal change, as seen on high-resolution CT(HRCT) in children with mycoplasma pneumonia. Twenty-three patients [15 boys and 8 girls aged two to 13 (mean, 6) years] with mycoplasma pneumonia underwent HRCT four to 39 (mean, 10) months after initial infection. Using increased mycoplasma antibody titer( > 1;640) mycoplasma pneumonia was diagnosed, and patients were divided into two groups : high titer group (antibody titer > 1:5120), and lower titer group ( < 1:5120). CT scans were performed using 2mm collimation and 5-10mm interval from apex to diaphragm. In seven patients who were cooperative, both inspiratory scans were obtained at a window width of 1600 HU and level of 700. HRCT findings of mosaic low attenuations and changes in bronchioles and bronchial walls were assessed by three radiologists and correlated with initial chest radiographic findings. On HRCT, 17 of 23 patients (74%) demonstrated abnormal findings. These included mosaic attenuation of lung density alone in 11 of 17 patients (65%), mosaic attenuation associated with bronchiectasis in five(29%), and bronchiectasis only in one(6%). Mosaic attenuation was more accentuated on expiratory scans than on inspiratory. These findings were obtained in 10 of 12 high titer group and in 7 of 11 in the lower titer group. In 15 of 23 patients(65%), involved areas seen on HRCT exactly corresponded with initially involved areas seen on chest radiographs (CXR). Two patients in whom findings on initial CXR were normal showed mosaic attenuation on HRCT. Six patients in whom such findings were abnormal showed normal findings on HRCT, a fact which reflected their complete recovery. The most common late parenchymal change in mycoplasma pneumonia, as seen on HRCT, was mosaic attenuation of lung density followed by bronchiectasis. The latter is presumably due to bronchiolitis obliterans, a well-known complication. We believe that HRCT is very useful for the evaluation of long-term sequelae of

  15. Chronological changes in lung cancer surgery in a single Japanese institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Haruhiko; Sakai, Hiroki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Tomoyuki; Marushima, Hideki; Saji, Hisashi

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the chronological changes in epidemiological factors and surgical outcomes in patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery in a single Japanese institution. Patients and methods A clinicopathological database of patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery with curative intent from January 1974 to December 2014 was reviewed. The chronological changes in various factors, including patient’s age, sex, histological type, tumor size, pathological stage (p-stage), surgical method, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, 30-day mortality, and postoperative overall survival (OS), were evaluated. Results A total of 1,616 patients were included. The numbers of resected patients, females, adenocarcinomas, p-stage IA patients, and age at the time of surgery increased with time, but tumor size decreased (all P<0.0001). Concerning surgical methods, the number of sublobar resections increased, but that of pneumonectomies decreased (P<0.0001). The mean operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and the postoperative 30-day mortality rate decreased (all P<0.0001). When the patients were divided into two groups (1974–2004 and 2005–2014), the 5-year OS rates for all patients and for p-stage IA patients improved from 44% to 79% and from 73% to 89%, respectively (all P<0.0001). The best 5-year OS rate was obtained for sublobar resection (73%), followed by lobectomy (60%), combined resection (22%), and pneumonectomy (21%; P<0.0001). Conclusion Changes in epidemiological factors, a trend toward less invasive surgery, and a remarkably improved postoperative OS were confirmed, which demonstrated the increasingly important role of surgery in therapeutic strategies for lung cancer. PMID:28331339

  16. Sensitivity of intensity modulated proton therapy plans to changes in patient weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertini, Francesca; Bolsi, Alessandra; Lomax, Antony J.; Rutz, Hans Peter; Timmerman, Beate; Goitein, Gudrun

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective study to investigate the sensitivity of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) to changes in body weight occurring during the course of radiotherapy for patients treated in the sacral region. Materials and methods: During therapy, important weight gain and loss were observed for two patients treated to para-spinal tumors, which resulted in both patients being re-scanned and re-planned. Both patients were treated as part of their therapy, with a narrow-angle IMPT (NA-IMPT) plan delivering a 'dose hole' around the cauda equina (CE), which was mainly formed through modulation of Bragg peaks in depth. To investigate the impact of these weight changes on the proton range and delivered dose, the nominal fields were re-calculated on the new CT data sets. Results were analyzed by comparing these new plans with those originally delivered and by calculating changes in range and delivered doses in target volumes and normal tissues. Results: Maximum differences in proton range in the CE region of up to +8 mm and -13 mm, respectively, for the patient who gained weight and for the patient who lost weight, increased the maximum dose to the CE by only 2%. This indicates that both IMPT plans were relatively insensitive to substantial range uncertainties. Even greater differences in range (16 mm) in the planning target volume only slightly affected its dose homogeneity (differences in V 90% of 6% in the worst case). Nevertheless, some large undesired local dose differences were observed. Conclusions: We demonstrated, that, at least for the two analyzed cases, NA-IMPT plans are less sensitive to weight variations than one may expect. Still, we would advise to calculate new plans in case of substantial change in weight for patients treated in the sacral region, primarily due to the presence of new hot/cold area

  17. Caloric restriction induces changes in insulin and body weight measurements that are inversely associated with subsequent weight regain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Monica H T; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Successful weight maintenance following weight loss is challenging for many people. Identifying predictors of longer-term success will help target clinical resources more effectively. To date, focus has been predominantly on the identification of predictors of weight loss. The goal of the current...

  18. Plasma phospholipid long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and body weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen Margrete

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers.......We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers....

  19. Relationship Between Changes in Fat and Lean Depots Following Weight Loss and Changes in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Peter M

    2018-04-04

    Gluteofemoral fat mass has been associated with improved cardiovascular disease risk factors. It is not clear if loss of this protective fat during weight loss partially negates the effect of loss of visceral fat. The aim of this study was to examine regional fat loss in a large weight-loss cohort from one center and to determine if fat loss in the leg and total lean tissue loss is harmful. We combined the data from 7 of our previously published 3-month weight-loss studies and examined the relationship between regional fat and lean tissue loss and changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors in 399 participants. At baseline, leg fat was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women and inversely with fasting triglyceride level in both sexes. Abdominal lean tissue was also related to systolic blood pressure in men. Changes in regional fat and lean tissue were positively associated with changes in glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure ( r =0.11-0.22, P lean tissue dominating in multivariate regression. After adjustment for total weight or total fat change, these relationships disappeared except for a positive relationship between arm and lean leg mass loss and changes in triglycerides and systolic blood pressure. Loss of leg fat and leg lean tissue was directly associated with beneficial changes in cardiovascular disease risk markers. Loss of lean tissue may not have an adverse effect on cardiovascular disease risk, and measures to retain lean tissue during weight loss may not be necessary. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  20. Weight and body composition change over a six-week holiday period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, D R; Larson, J N; Wengreen, H

    2012-03-01

    Change in weight and body composition was assessed over a six-week holiday period. Baseline testing occurred the Monday or Tuesday prior to Thanksgiving Day (November 24 or 25, 2008), and the post-holiday assessment was the Monday or Tuesday after New Year's Day (January 5 or 6, 2009). Thirteen men and 21 women ranging in age from 23-61 years completed the study. The majority of participants (24 of 34) perceived that they had gained weight, and four did gain ≥2 kg. However, despite some changes to dietary and exercise habits, on average there was no difference between pre-holiday weight (74.0±17.8 kg) and post-holiday weight (73.9±18.1 kg), nor between pre-holiday body fat percentage (25.4±9.0%) and post-holiday body fat percentage (25.4±8.9%). Despite a perception of substantial weight gain, body weight and body fat remained unchanged over a six-week holiday period.

  1. Relationships between changes in leptin and insulin resistance levels in obese individuals following weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Nai Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity can augment insulin resistance (IR, leading to increased risk of diabetes and heart disease. Leptin, ghrelin, and various fatty acids present in the cell membrane may modulate IR. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of weight loss on IR, serum leptin/ghrelin levels, and erythrocyte fatty acids, and studied the associations between changes in these variables. A total of 35 obese (body mass index ≥ 27 adults participated in a weight loss program for 3 months. IR was assessed using homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The obese participants had a mean weight loss of 5.6 ± 3.8 kg followed by a 16.7% and 23.3% reduction in HOMA-IR and leptin (p  0.05 levels. After adjusting for age, gender, changes in ghrelin, and body fat, we found a significant correlation between decreases in leptin and less risk of no improvement in HOMA-IR levels [odds ratio (OR = 0.69, p = 0.039]. In conclusion, a moderate weight reduction in obese participants over a short period significantly improved IR. This weight reduction concomitantly decreased serum leptin, increased ghrelin, and elevated some erythrocyte unsaturates. Only leptin correlated independently with IR improvement upon multivariable logistic regression analysis, which indicates that leptin may play a role in the modulation of IR following weight loss.

  2. Deviations in energy sensing predict long-term weight change in overweight Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basolo, Alessio; Votruba, Susanne B; Heinitz, Sascha; Krakoff, Jonathan; Piaggi, Paolo

    2018-05-01

    Energy expenditure (EE), as reflective of body energy demand, has been proposed to be the key driver of food intake, possibly influencing weight change in humans. Variation in this energy-sensing link (overeating relative to weight-maintaining energy requirements) may lead to weight gain over time. Sixty-one overweight otherwise healthy Native Americans (age: 34.0 ± 7.9 years, body fat: 39.7 ± 9.5%, 36 males) were admitted to our clinical research unit for measurements of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and 24-h EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance and weight stability. Following this, ad libitum food intake was assessed for three days using computerized vending machines. Body weight change under unrestricted free-living conditions was assessed at an outpatient follow-up visit (median follow-up time = 1.7 years). Total ad libitum food intake (3-day average) was positively associated with 24-h EE (r = 0.44, p energy requirements can be assessed and predicts long-term weight gain, suggesting that variation in energy sensing may influence appetite by favoring overeating thus promoting obesity development. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. FDG-PET/CT and diffusion-weighted imaging for resected lung cancer: correlation of maximum standardized uptake value and apparent diffusion coefficient value with prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuda, Katsuo; Funasaki, Aika; Sekimura, Atsushi; Motono, Nozomu; Matoba, Munetaka; Doai, Mariko; Yamada, Sohsuke; Ueda, Yoshimichi; Uramoto, Hidetaka

    2018-04-09

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is useful for detecting malignant tumors and the assessment of lymph nodes, as FDG-PET/CT is. But it is not clear how DWI influences the prognosis of lung cancer patients. The focus of this study is to evaluate the correlations between maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of FDG-PET/CT and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of DWI with known prognostic factors in resected lung cancer. A total of 227 patients with resected lung cancers were enrolled in this study. FEG-PET/CT and DWI were performed in each patient before surgery. There were 168 patients with adenocarcinoma, 44 patients with squamous cell carcinoma, and 15 patients with other cell types. SUVmax was a factor that was correlated to T factor, N factor, or cell differentiation. ADC of lung cancer was a factor that was not correlated to T factor, or N factor. There was a significantly weak inverse relationship between SUVmax and ADC (Correlation coefficient r = - 0.227). In analysis of survival, there were significant differences between the categories of sex, age, pT factor, pN factor, cell differentiation, cell type, and SUVmax. Univariate analysis revealed that SUVmax, pN factor, age, cell differentiation, cell type, sex, and pT factor were significant factors. Multivariate analysis revealed that SUVmax and pN factor were independent significant prognostic factors. SUVmax was a significant prognostic factor that is correlated to T factor, N factor, or cell differentiation, but ADC was not. SUVmax may be more useful for predicting the prognosis of lung cancer than ADC values.

  4. Effects of Weight Loss, Weight Cycling, and Weight Loss Maintenance on Diabetes Incidence and Change in Cardiometabolic Traits in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Aroda, Vanita R.; Watson, Karol E.; Bray, George A.; Kahn, Steven E.; Florez, Jose C.; Perreault, Leigh; Franks, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined specific measures of weight loss in relation to incident diabetes and improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This prospective, observational study analyzed nine weight measures, characterizing baseline weight, short- versus long-term weight loss, short- versus long-term weight regain, and weight cycling, within the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention arm (n = 1,000) for predictors of incident diabetes and improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors over 2 years. RESULTS Although weight loss in the first 6 months was protective of diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 0.94 per kg, 95% CI 0.90, 0.98; P weight loss from 0 to 2 years was the strongest predictor of reduced diabetes incidence (HR 0.90 per kg, 95% CI 0.87, 0.93; P Weight cycling (defined as number of 5-lb [2.25-kg] weight cycles) ranged 0–6 times per participant and was positively associated with incident diabetes (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.12, 1.58; P weight, the effect of weight cycling remained statistically significant for diabetes risk (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02, 1.47; P = 0.03) but not for cardiometabolic traits. CONCLUSIONS Two-year weight loss was the strongest predictor of reduced diabetes risk and improvements in cardiometabolic traits. PMID:25024396

  5. Daily Megavoltage Computed Tomography in Lung Cancer Radiotherapy: Correlation Between Volumetric Changes and Local Outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bral, Samuel; De Ridder, Mark; Duchateau, Michael; Gevaert, Thierry; Engels, Benedikt; Schallier, Denis; Storme, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the predictive or comparative value of volumetric changes, measured on daily megavoltage computed tomography during radiotherapy for lung cancer. Patients and Methods: We included 80 patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer treated with image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy. The radiotherapy was combined with concurrent chemotherapy, combined with induction chemotherapy, or given as primary treatment. Patients entered two parallel studies with moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy. Tumor volume contouring was done on the daily acquired images. A regression coefficient was derived from the volumetric changes on megavoltage computed tomography, and its predictive value was validated. Logarithmic or polynomial fits were applied to the intratreatment changes to compare the different treatment schedules radiobiologically. Results: Regardless of the treatment type, a high regression coefficient during radiotherapy predicted for a significantly prolonged cause-specific local progression free-survival (p = 0.05). Significant differences were found in the response during radiotherapy. The significant difference in volumetric treatment response between radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy plus induction chemotherapy translated to a superior long-term local progression-free survival for concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.03). An enhancement ratio of 1.3 was measured for the used platinum/taxane doublet in comparison with radiotherapy alone. Conclusion: Contouring on daily megavoltage computed tomography images during radiotherapy enabled us to predict the efficacy of a given treatment. The significant differences in volumetric response between treatment strategies makes it a possible tool for future schedule comparison.

  6. Resistance to alveolar shape change limits range of force propagation in lung parenchyma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baoshun; Smith, Bradford J; Bates, Jason H T

    2015-06-01

    We have recently shown that if the lung parenchyma is modeled in 2 dimensions as a network of springs arranged in a pattern of repeating hexagonal cells, the distortional forces around a contracting airway propagate much further from the airway wall than classic continuum theory predicts. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that this occurs because of the negligible shear modulus of a hexagonal spring network. We simulated the narrowing of an airway embedded in a hexagonal network of elastic alveolar walls when the hexagonal cells of the network offered some resistance to a change in shape. We found that as the forces resisting shape change approach about 10% of the forces resisting length change of an individual spring the range of distortional force propagation in the spring network fell of rapidly as in an elastic continuum. We repeated these investigations in a 3-dimensional spring network composed of space-filling polyhedral cells and found similar results. This suggests that force propagation away from a point of local parenchymal distortion also falls off rapidly in real lung tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Diffusion-weighted imaging of tumor recurrencies and posttherapeutical soft-tissue changes in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, A.; Huber, A.; Reiser, M.; Arbogast, S.; Duerr, H.R.; Zysk, S.; Wendtner, C.; Deimling, M.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine soft tissue tumor recurrences and posttherapeutic soft tissue changes in humans with a diffusion-weighted steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequence. Twenty-four patients with 29 pathologies of the pelvis or the extremities were examined. The lesions were classified as follows: group 1, recurrent viable tumors (n = 10); group 2, postoperative hygromas (n = 7); and group 3, posttherapeutic reactive inflammatory muscle changes (n = 12). The sequence protocol in these patients consisted of short tau inversion recovery images, T2-weighted spin-echo (SE), pre- and postcontrast T1-weighted SE images and the diffusion-weighted SSFP sequence. The signal loss on diffusion-weighting was evaluated visually on a four-grade scale and quantitatively. The signal intensities were measured in regions of interest and a regression analysis was performed. Statistical analyses was performed utilizing the Student's t-test. The signal loss was significantly higher for hygromas and edematous muscle changes than for recurrent tumors (p < 0.001) indicating higher diffusion of water protons. The regression coefficient was -0.11 (mean) for tumors. Hygromas had a significantly higher signal loss than inflammatory edematous muscle changes (p < 0.01). The regression coefficients were -0.29 (mean) for hygromas and -0.22 (mean) for edematous muscle changes. The SSFP sequence seems to be a suitable method for diffusion-weighted imaging of the musculoskeletal system in humans. These preliminary results suggest that the signal loss and the regression coefficients can be used to characterize different types of tissue. (orig.)

  8. Molecular weight changes induced in an anionic polydimethylsiloxane by gamma irradiation in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satti, Angel J.; Andreucetti, Noemi A.; Ciolino, Andres E.; Vitale, Cristian; Sarmoria, Claudia; Valles, Enrique M.

    2010-01-01

    An anionic almost monodisperse linear polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was subjected to gamma irradiation under vacuum at room temperature. The molecular weight changes induced by the radiation process have been investigated using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with refraction index (RI) and multi angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detectors, to obtain the number and weight average molecular weights of the irradiated samples. The analysis of the data indicates that crosslinking reactions predominated over scission reactions. The results obtained by an SEC-RI have confirmed the presence of small, but measurable amounts of scission. A previously developed mathematical model of the irradiation process that accounts for simultaneous scission and crosslinking and allows for both H- and Y-crosslinks, fitted well the measured molecular weight data. This prediction is in accordance with the experimental data obtained by 29 Si-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and previously reported data for commercial linear PDMS ().

  9. Weight change measurements of erosion/deposition at beryllium limiter tiles in ISX-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, J.B.; Edmonds, P.H.; England, A.C.; Gabbard, A.; Zuhr, R.A.

    1985-07-01

    The weight changes of Be tiles which functioned as a rail limiter in ISX-B for more than 3500 beam-heated discharges have been determined. The net weight loss for the limiter was 2.0 g, with the central tiles losing a total of 3.2 g and inboard tiles gaining 1.2 g. The weight loss is attributed primarily to the release of Be droplets as a result of limiter surface melting. The weight gains resulted from an inward flow of molten material along the limiter surface. The results indicate high erosion (melt loss) with incomplete and nonuniform redeposition (melt flow) of limiter material during periods of limiter melting

  10. Gestational and postpartum weight change patterns in mothers with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerwas, Stephanie C; Von Holle, Ann; Perrin, Eliana M; Cockrell Skinner, Asheley; Reba-Harrelson, Lauren; Hamer, Robert M; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2014-11-01

    Although pregnancy can be associated with adaptive changes in weight and eating behaviour for women with eating disorders, less is known about whether these changes are maintained in the postpartum period. We used a longitudinal design to examine gestational and postpartum weight trajectories in mothers with and without eating disorders in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Fifty-six women reported anorexia nervosa (AN), 636 bulimia nervosa, 3327 binge eating disorder and 69 eating disorder not otherwise specified, purging type. The referent group included 61,233 mothers with no eating disorder. We used a mixed effects model to predict weight change over time by eating disorder subtype. Mothers with AN, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and eating disorder not otherwise specified had greater increases in body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy and greater decreases in BMI over the first 6 months postpartum. Women with AN shifted from the underweight BMI range before pregnancy to the normal weight range at 36 months postpartum Patterns of maternal weight gain and retention during the perinatal period vary across eating disorder subtype and warrant clinical attention. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  11. Arteriosclerotic changes in the myocardium, lung, and kidney in dogs with chronic congestive heart failure and myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Bo Torkel; Jönsson, Lennart; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier

    2006-01-01

    Background: The occurrence of small vessel arteriosclerosis in the myocardium, kidney, and lung in dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease has not been previously investigated systematically. Methods: Twenty-one dogs with naturally occurring congestive heart failure and 21 age......-matched, sex-matched, and weight-matched control dogs underwent extensive pathological and histopathological examination. Morphometry and scoring of tissue sections were used to measure arterial narrowing and fibrosis in the myocardium, kidney, and lung; and intimal thickness and plaque formation in the aorta...... and pulmonary artery. Results: Dogs with congestive heart failure had significantly more arterial narrowing in the left ventricle (Pdogs. However...

  12. The effects of changing exercise levels on weight and age-relatedweight gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Wood, Peter D.

    2004-06-01

    To determine prospectively whether physical activity canprevent age-related weight gain and whether changing levels of activityaffect body weight. DESIGN/SUBJECTS: The study consisted of 8,080 maleand 4,871 female runners who completed two questionnaires an average(+/-standard deviation (s.d.)) of 3.20+/-2.30 and 2.59+/-2.17 yearsapart, respectively, as part of the National Runners' Health Study.RESULTS: Changes in running distance were inversely related to changes inmen's and women's body mass indices (BMIs) (slope+/-standard error(s.e.): -0.015+/-0.001 and -0.009+/-0.001 kg/m(2) per Deltakm/week,respectively), waist circumferences (-0.030+/-0.002 and -0.022+/-0.005 cmper Deltakm/week, respectively) and percent changes in body weight(-0.062+/-0.003 and -0.041+/-0.003 percent per Deltakm/week,respectively, all P<0.0001). The regression slopes were significantlysteeper (more negative) in men than women for DeltaBMI and Deltapercentbody weight (P<0.0001). A longer history of running diminishedthe impact of changing running distance on men's weights. When adjustedfor Deltakm/week, years of aging in men and years of aging in women wereassociated with increases of 0.066+/-0.005 and 0.056+/-0.006 kg/m(2) inBMI, respectively, increases of 0.294+/-0.019 and 0.279+/-0.028 percentin Delta percentbody weight, respectively, and increases of 0.203+/-0.016and 0.271+/-0.033 cm in waist circumference, respectively (allP<0.0001). These regression slopes suggest that vigorous exercise mayneed to increase 4.4 km/week annually in men and 6.2 km/week annually inwomen to compensate for the expected gain in weight associated with aging(2.7 and 3.9 km/week annually when correct for the attenuation due tomeasurement error). CONCLUSIONS: Age-related weight gain occurs evenamong the most active individuals when exercise is constant.Theoretically, vigorous exercise must increase significantly with age tocompensate for the expected gain in weight associated withaging.

  13. Radiation-induced changes in breathing frequency and lung histology of C57BL/6J mice are time- and dose-dependent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldh, T.; Heinzelmann, F.; Velalakan, A. [Univ. Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Budach, W. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Belka, C. [Univ. Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Jendrossek, V. [Univ. Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (DE). Inst. of Cell Biology (Cancer Research)

    2012-03-15

    Pneumonitis and fibrosis constitute serious adverse effects of radiotherapy in the thoracic region. In this study, time-course and dose-dependence of clinically relevant parameters of radiation-induced lung injury in C57BL/6J mice were analyzed. A well-characterized disease model is necessary for the analysis of the cellular and molecular mechanisms using genetically modified mice. C57BL/6J mice received single dose right hemithorax irradiation with 12.5 or 22.5 Gy. Body weight and breathing frequency were recorded as parameters for health impairment. Lung tissue was collected over 24 weeks for histological analysis. Hemithorax irradiation with 12.5 or 22.5 Gy induced biphasic breathing impairment with the first increase between days 7 and 70. Although breathing impairment was more pronounced in the 22.5 Gy group, it was accompanied in both dose groups by pneumonitis-associated histological changes. A second rise in breathing frequency ratios became visible starting on day 70 with a steady increase until day 210. Again, breathing was more strongly affected in the 22.5 Gy group. However, breathing impairment coincided only in the 22.5 Gy group with a significant increase in collagen deposition in the lung tissue by day 210. Tissue inflammation and fibrosis were observed in the irradiated and the shielded lungs, pointing toward involvement of systemic effects. Hemithorax irradiation induces time-dependent pneumonitis and fibrosis in C57BL/6J mice. While hemithorax irradiation with 12.5 Gy is sufficient to induce lung inflammation, it is below the threshold for collagen deposition and fibrosis development by day 210.

  14. Striatal Reward Activity and Antipsychotic-Associated Weight Change in Patients With Schizophrenia Undergoing Initial Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Rostrup, Egill; Wulff, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    -nine antipsychotic-naive inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia were included in a multimodal longitudinal cohort study from December 16, 2008, to December 11, 2013. Fifty-eight patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a monetary reward task. After 6 weeks of treatment...... with amisulpride, a relatively selective dopamine D2 antagonist, 39 patients underwent a second fMRI scan and measurement of change in body weight. Final follow-up was completed on January 14, 2014, and data were analyzed from October 25, 2014, to June 15, 2015 and August 31 to September 19, 2015. Exposures: Six...... weeks of individually dosed amisulpride treatment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Reward-anticipation activity in the striatum before and after treatment and weight change. Results: Of the 69 patients who consented to the study, 39 underwent the follow-up fMRI and weight measurement (age range, 18-45 years...

  15. Como minimizar a lesão pulmonar no prematuro extremo: propostas Strategies to minimize lung injury in extremely low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Suguihara

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma revisão das principais causas da nova displasia broncopulmonar e as estratégias utilizadas para diminuir sua incidência nos prematuros extremos. FONTES DOS DADOS: Para essa revisão, pesquisas foram feitas na MEDLINE (1996 a outubro de 2004, no Cochrane Database, em resumos da Society for Pediatric Research e recentes conferências sobre o tema. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A tecnologia e os novos conhecimentos científicos têm aumentado significantemente a sobrevida de prematuros extremos. Esse aumento da sobrevida resultou em aumento da incidência de displasia broncopulmonar. Atualmente, a displasia broncopulmonar é mais freqüentemente observada em recém-nascidos OBJECTIVE: To review the main causes of new bronchopulmonary dysplasia and the strategies utilized to decrease its incidence in extremely low birth weight infants. DATA SOURCES: For this review a MEDLINE search from 1966 to October 2004, the Cochrane Database, abstracts from the Society for Pediatric Research and recent meetings on the topic were used. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: The survival of extremely low birth weight infants has increased significantly due to improvement in both scientific knowledge and technology. This improvement in survival has therefore resulted in an increased incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The characteristics of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low birth weight infants, the so called "new" bronchopulmonary dysplasia are quite different from the classic bronchopulmonary dysplasia described by Northway. This new bronchopulmonary dysplasia has a multifactorial etiology, which includes volutrauma, atelectrauma, oxygen toxicity and lung inflammation. Therapy such as prenatal corticosteroids, exogenous surfactant, nasal continuous positive airway pressure, new mechanical ventilation modalities and gentle ventilation have been used in attempts to decrease lung injury severity. CONCLUSIONS: In order to prevent lung injury in

  16. Mechanisms of weight loss, diabetes control and changes in food choices after gastrointestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamargaritis, Dimitrios; Panteliou, Eleftheria; Miras, Alexander D; le Roux, Carel W

    2012-12-01

    The long-term effects of lifestyle changes, diet and medical therapy on obesity are limited. Bariatric surgery is the most effective long-term treatment with the greatest chances for amelioration of obesity-associated complications, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is increasing evidence in the literature that bariatric operations have a profound effect on human physiology, by reducing hunger, increasing satiety, paradoxically increasing energy expenditure, and even promoting healthy food preferences. Some of these operations improve glucose homeostasis in patients with T2DM independently of weight loss. Changes in the gut hormone levels of glucagon-like peptide 1, peptide YY and ghrelin have been proposed as some of the mediators implicated in changing physiology. The aim of this review is to critically explore the current knowledge on the putative mechanisms of the change in weight and improvement in T2DM glycaemic control after the most commonly performed bariatric operations.

  17. Tumor microvascular changes in antiangiogenic treatment : Assessment by magnetic resonance contrast media of different molecular weights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turetschek, K; Preda, A; Novikov, [No Value; Brasch, RC; Weinmann, HJ; Wunderbaldinger, P; Roberts, TPL

    Purpose: To test magnetic resonance (MR) contrast media of different molecular weights (MWs) for their potential to characterize noninvasively microvascular changes in an experimental tumor treatment model. Materials and Methods: MD-MBA-435, a poorly differentiated human breast cancer cell line, was

  18. Proprioceptive evoked potentials in man: cerebral responses to changing weight loads on the hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, S; He, Chen; Eder, D

    2000-01-01

    We studied cerebral evoked potentials on the scalp to the stimulation of the right hand from a change in weight of 400-480 g in ten subjects. Rise-time was 20g/10 ms, Inter Stimulus Interval 2s and stimulus duration was 100 ms. The cerebral activations were a double positive contralateral C3'/P70...

  19. Effect of isolates of fibre degrading bacteria on body weight changes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tc

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... evaluate the effect of supplementation of fibrolytic bac- terial isolate on body weight changes, milk production, nutrient intake and nutrient utilization in lactating Murrah buffaloes. This study was conducted to evaluate the digestibility of lignocellulosic feeds by some selected bacterial isolates isolated from ...

  20. The effect of body weight changes and endurance training on 24h substrate oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Saris, W.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of body weight changes and endurance training on 24h substrate oxidation. Pasman WJ, Westerterp MS, Saris WH. Maastricht University, Department of Human Biology, The Netherlands. Pasman@voeding.tno.nl OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of exercise training and dietary macronutrient

  1. Reversible changes in echo planar perfusion- and diffusion-weighted MRI in status epilepticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flacke, S.; Keller, E.; Urbach, H.; Wuellner, U.; Hamzei, F.

    2000-01-01

    Perfusion imaging (PI) demonstrated increased perfusion and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) showed high signal limited to the left temporoparietal cortex in a 68-year-old man with nonconvulsive status epilepticus. The EEG showed a slow delta-wave focus. The patient recovered and PI, DWI and EEG changes completely resolved. (orig.)

  2. Reversible changes in echo planar perfusion- and diffusion-weighted MRI in status epilepticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flacke, S; Keller, E; Urbach, H [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Bonn (Germany); Wuellner, U; Hamzei, F [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of Bonn (Germany)

    2000-02-01

    Perfusion imaging (PI) demonstrated increased perfusion and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) showed high signal limited to the left temporoparietal cortex in a 68-year-old man with nonconvulsive status epilepticus. The EEG showed a slow delta-wave focus. The patient recovered and PI, DWI and EEG changes completely resolved. (orig.)

  3. Diet Type and Changes in Food Cravings following Weight Loss: Findings from the POUNDS LOST Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Anton, Stephen D.; Gallagher, Jacqueline; Carey, Vincent J.; Laranjo, Nancy; Cheng, Jing; Champagne, Catherine M.; Ryan, Donna H.; McManus, Kathy; Loria, Catherine M.; Bray, George A.; Sacks, Frank M.; Williamson, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    Few well-controlled trials have evaluated the effects that macronutrient composition has on changes in food cravings during weight loss treatment. The present study, which was part of the POUNDS LOST trial, investigated whether the fat and protein content of four different diets affected changes in specific food cravings in overweight and obese adults. A sample of 811 adults were recruited across two clinical sites, and each participant was randomly assigned to one of four macronutrient presc...

  4. Changes in water and beverage intake and long-term weight changes: results from three prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, A; Malik, V S; Hao, T; Willett, W C; Mozaffarian, D; Hu, F B

    2013-10-01

    To examine the long-term relationship between changes in water and beverage intake and weight change. Prospective cohort studies of 50013 women aged 40-64 years in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 1986-2006), 52987 women aged 27-44 years in the NHS II (1991-2007) and 21988 men aged 40-64 years in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2006) without obesity and chronic diseases at baseline. We assessed the association of weight change within each 4-year interval, with changes in beverage intakes and other lifestyle behaviors during the same period. Multivariate linear regression with robust variance and accounting for within-person repeated measures were used to evaluate the association. Results across the three cohorts were pooled by an inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis. Participants gained an average of 1.45 kg (5th to 95th percentile: -1.87 to 5.46) within each 4-year period. After controlling for age, baseline body mass index and changes in other lifestyle behaviors (diet, smoking habits, exercise, alcohol, sleep duration, TV watching), each 1 cup per day increment of water intake was inversely associated with weight gain within each 4-year period (-0.13 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.17 to -0.08). The associations for other beverages were: sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) (0.36 kg; 95% CI: 0.24-0.48), fruit juice (0.22 kg; 95% CI: 0.15-0.28), coffee (-0.14 kg; 95% CI: -0.19 to -0.09), tea (-0.03 kg; 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.01), diet beverages (-0.10 kg; 95% CI: -0.14 to -0.06), low-fat milk (0.02 kg; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.09) and whole milk (0.02 kg; 95% CI: -0.06 to 0.10). We estimated that replacement of 1 serving per day of SSBs by 1 cup per day of water was associated with 0.49 kg (95% CI: 0.32-0.65) less weight gain over each 4-year period, and the replacement estimate of fruit juices by water was 0.35 kg (95% CI: 0.23-0.46). Substitution of SSBs or fruit juices by other beverages (coffee, tea, diet beverages, low-fat and whole milk) were all

  5. WE-AB-207B-05: Correlation of Normal Lung Density Changes with Dose After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) for Early Stage Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q; Devpura, S; Feghali, K; Liu, C; Ajlouni, M; Movsas, B; Chetty, I [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate correlation of normal lung CT density changes with dose accuracy and outcome after SBRT for patients with early stage lung cancer. Methods: Dose distributions for patients originally planned and treated using a 1-D pencil beam-based (PB-1D) dose algorithm were retrospectively recomputed using algorithms: 3-D pencil beam (PB-3D), and model-based Methods: AAA, Acuros XB (AXB), and Monte Carlo (MC). Prescription dose was 12 Gy × 4 fractions. Planning CT images were rigidly registered to the followup CT datasets at 6–9 months after treatment. Corresponding dose distributions were mapped from the planning to followup CT images. Following the method of Palma et al .(1–2), Hounsfield Unit (HU) changes in lung density in individual, 5 Gy, dose bins from 5–45 Gy were assessed in the peri-tumor region, defined as a uniform, 3 cm expansion around the ITV(1). Results: There is a 10–15% displacement of the high dose region (40–45 Gy) with the model-based algorithms, relative to the PB method, due to the electron scattering of dose away from the tumor into normal lung tissue (Fig.1). Consequently, the high-dose lung region falls within the 40–45 Gy dose range, causing an increase in HU change in this region, as predicted by model-based algorithms (Fig.2). The patient with the highest HU change (∼110) had mild radiation pneumonitis, and the patient with HU change of ∼80–90 had shortness of breath. No evidence of pneumonitis was observed for the 3 patients with smaller CT density changes (<50 HU). Changes in CT densities, and dose-response correlation, as computed with model-based algorithms, are in excellent agreement with the findings of Palma et al. (1–2). Conclusion: Dose computed with PB (1D or 3D) algorithms was poorly correlated with clinically relevant CT density changes, as opposed to model-based algorithms. A larger cohort of patients is needed to confirm these results. This work was supported in part by a grant from Varian

  6. Influence of curing conditions on the sorptivity and weight change characteristics of self-compacting concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliskan, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out to investigate the influence of curing conditions on the capillary water absorption and weight change characteristics of self compacting concrete (SCC). Specimens were prepared using three types of concrete (SCC, Portland cement (PC), Fly ash (FA) concretes) and were cured under three different curing conditions (20C water and 20C and 40C air cure) for 28 days. Weight gain (water intake) in water curing and weight loss (water loss) in 20C and 40C air curing were recorded throughout the curing period. Compressive strength, water absorption and capillary water absorption tests were carried out at 28 days. The results indicated that FA concrete gained about 0.5% whilst PC and self-compacting concretes gained about 1.0% of the initial weight. This indicates that due to the slower reaction process more free water remains within FA concrete avoiding further water intake. In the weight loss study, FA concrete lost about 4.0% and 6.0% of the initial weight at 20C and 40C air curing, respectively; whereas SCC and PC concretes (both had almost identical values) lost about 3.2 and 5.2% at 20C and 40C, respectively. The absorption test results indicated that SCC gave the lowest captivity coefficient values followed by PC and FA concretes in all curing conditions. (author)

  7. Changes in perceived weight discrimination among Americans, 1995-1996 through 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Puhl, Rebecca M; Brownell, Kelly D

    2008-05-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and patterns of weight discrimination in the United States. This study examined the trends in perceived weight/height discrimination among a nationally representative sample of adults aged 35-74 years, comparing experiences of discrimination based on race, age, and gender. Data were from the two waves of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS), a survey of community-based English-speaking adults initially in 1995-1996 and a follow-up in 2004- 2006. Reported experiences of weight/height discrimination included a variety of settings in major lifetime events and interpersonal relationships. The prevalence of weight/height discrimination increased from 7% in 1995-1996 to 12% in 2004-2006, affecting all population groups but the elderly. This growth is unlikely to be explained by changes in obesity rates. Weight/height discrimination is highly prevalent in American society and increasing at disturbing rates. Its prevalence is relatively close to reported rates of race and age discrimination, but virtually no legal or social sanctions against weight discrimination exist.

  8. Body image perception and attempts to change weight among female medical students at Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessing body image self-perception has used BMI as an indicator of nutritional status. The visual analogue scale is a highly effective instrument for assessing people′s level of dissatisfaction with their body weight while evaluating the perceptual component of body image. Objective: By knowing body mass index of female medical students, to find out their pattern of body image perception and any attempts done to change their weight. Materials and Methods: All the students residing in MBBS ladies hostel were included in this study and a questionnaire regarding body image perception, diet, physical activity and attempts to change weight was instituted. Their responses were collected, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Results: Among 147 study subjects, according to BMI, 25(17% were undernourished while 111(75.5% and 11(7.5% were normally nourished and overweight respectively. 35(23.8% of the subjects felt they were lean, 95(64.6% felt they were normal and 17(11.6% felt they were overweight. Regarding image satisfaction, 98(66.7% of them were satisfied with their image and out of 49 who were not satisfied 30 (20.4 % wanted to reduce weight. Skipping meals was practiced by 42 (28.6% of subjects. Conclusion: About 75.5% of the study group were having normal BMI. Most of them perceived their image correctly regarding to their weight. Most of the underweight and all overweight females were not satisfied. Underweight females preferred to gain weight and overweight females preferred to lose weight.

  9. A Prospective Study of Depression and Weight Change After Kidney Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfill, Ansley; Hathaway, Donna; Bloodworth, Robin; Cashion, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Kidney transplant recipients have great risk for gaining significant weight (upward of 10 kg) in the first year posttransplant. Clinical depression can occur in response to life situations and is associated with weight gain. To explore the association between demographic characteristics, weight change, and depression posttransplantation. Secondary data analysis on longitudinal data collected for a larger observational study. Demographic characteristics, weight, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) data were obtained at baseline (BL) (time of transplantation), 6, and 12 months posttransplant. The CES-D scores were compared among time points using means, standard deviations, correlations, t tests, and chi-square as well as by multiple regression modeling. Regional transplant center in the mid-south United States. Forty-seven kidney transplant recipients (55% female, 57% African American, mean age 52.5 years). Weight change ranged from -18.1 to +24.8 kg. In all, 62% reported baseline CES-D scores indicative of depression, with lower scores indicating less psychological distress at 6 and 12 months (47% and 49%, respectively). We found no significant differences among CES-D scores at any time point. Regression models found age, race, gender, and weight change to be predictive of CES-D scores at 6 months (P = .04, R (2) = .137). Age was the most influential (P = .008), with older individuals more likely to obtain higher CES-D scores. Since the experience of depression is common at transplant and during the first year, it is important that transplant recipients be evaluated for depression early in the recovery period. © 2016, NATCO.

  10. Association between Mediterranean and Nordic diet scores and changes in weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Ängquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that adherence to the Mediterranean Diet measured by using the Mediterranean diet score (MDS) is associated with lower obesity risk. The newly proposed Nordic Diet could hold similar beneficial effects. Because of the increasing focus on the interaction...... between diet and genetic predisposition to adiposity, studies should consider both diet and genetics. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether FTO rs9939609 and TCF7L2 rs7903146 modified the association between the MDS and Nordic diet score (NDS) and changes in weightweight), waist circumference (ΔWC...

  11. Long-term exposure to residential traffic noise and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe S; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traffic noise can act as a stressor and disturb sleep, and has been associated with cardiovascular disease. Recent studies suggest a possible association to metabolic outcomes and adiposity through biological mechanisms related to physiological stress and sleep disturbance. OBJECTIVES...... an 10% increased risk for gaining more than 5kg body weight during follow-up (95% CI: 1.04; 1.15) per 10dB higher 5 years exposure preceding follow-up. Exposure to railway noise above 55dB was associated with weight gain (39.9g/year (95% CI: 10.2; 69.6)), but not with a significant change in waist...

  12. Changes of left ventricular function at exercise after lung resection; Study with a nuclear stethoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisaki, Takashi; Gomibuchi, Makoto; Shoji, Tasuku (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-09-01

    To determine the effect of lung resection on left ventricular function, 29 surgical patients were examined by using a nuclear stethoscope as a non-invasive means for measuring ventricular function at exercise. Pre- and post-operative parameters were obtained at rest and exercise. At rest, postoperative stroke volume (SV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), ejection fraction (EF), and ejection rate (ER) were significantly decreased; heart rate (HR) was significantly increased; and both filling rate (FR) and cardiac output (CO) remained unchanged. At maximum exercise, postoperative EDV, SV, ER and FR were significantly decreased; and there was no significant difference in either HR or EF, resulting in a significantly decreased CO. A ratio of CO and FR at maximum exercise to at rest was significantly decreased after surgery, as compared with that before surgery. According to the number of lobe resection, similar findings for all parameters, except for EF, were observed in the group of two lobe or more resection (n=13); and only two parameters, ER and FR, had the same tendency as those mentioned above in the group of a single lobe resection (n=16). The age group of 60 years or less (n=14) had similar findings for all parameters. In the group of 65 years or more (n=10), resting HR after surgery was not different from that before surgery; and postoperative CO was significantly decreased at rest, but not different from preoperative value at maximum exercise. In conclusion, left ventricular function associated with lung resection is reflected by decreased EDV and SV resulting from reduced pre-load. These changes may be corrected at rest, but not corrected at maximum exercise, resulting in decreased CO. More noticeable decrease in EDV and SV seems to be associated with larger lung resection. In older patients, HR is not corrected well, resulting in a decrease in CO at rest. (N.K.).

  13. Changes in lung morphology and cell number in radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis: a quantitative ultrastructural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara, J.A.; Raymond, U.; Thet, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    We used stereologic-morphometric techniques to obtain a detailed quantitative picture of the changes in lung ultrastructure of rats at 12 and 26 weeks after unilateral thoracic irradiation with 3000 cGy. At 12 weeks post-radiation, the total number type 1 epithelial cells, type 2 epithelial cells and capillary endothelial cells were decreased 50-70%, total type 1 epithelial and capillary surface areas were decreased 55-60%, and the total volume of intracapillary blood was decreased 75%. The interstitial cells and matrix together accounted for more than 9% of the peripheral lung tissue volume including air, compared to 3% in controls. The numerical density of interstitial cells was increased to 3-fold the control value. The numerical density of interstitial cells was increased to 3-fold the control value. Although fibroblasts still comprised the largest interstitial cell subgroup, the numerical density of mast cells was increased over 150-fold and other inflammatory and immune cells were increased to a lesser extent. At 26 weeks post-radiation, the number, volume, and surface area of the type 1 epithelium and capillary endothelium had further decreased to only 5-10% of control values. The total number of type 2 epithelial cells was reduced by 75% but the volume density was actually increased because of a 4-fold increase in the mean cell volume. The interstitial cells and matrix now comprised over 77% of total peripheral lung tissue volume including air as compared to 6% in controls. Mast cells and plasma cells comprised 11% and 19% of all interstitial cells respectively and the densities of these cells were 540 and 180-fold the control value respectively. The relation of these morphometric findings to the results of previous morphologic studies is discussed

  14. Predictors and correlates for weight changes in patients co-treated with olanzapine and weight mitigating agents; a post-hoc analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinloth Alexandra N

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study focuses on exploring the relationship between changes in appetite or eating behaviors and subsequent weight change for adult patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder treated with olanzapine and adjunctive potential weight mitigating pharmacotherapy. The aim is not to compare different weight mitigating agents, but to evaluate patients' characteristics and changes in their eating behaviors during treatment. Identification of patient subgroups with different degrees of susceptibility to the effect of weight mitigating agents during olanzapine treatment may aid clinicians in treatment decisions. Methods Data were obtained from 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 16-week clinical trials. Included were 158 patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and a body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 who had received olanzapine treatment in combination with nizatidine (n = 68, sibutramine (n = 42, or amantadine (n = 48. Individual patients were analyzed for categorical weight loss ≥ 2 kg and weight gain ≥ 1 kg. Variables that were evaluated as potential predictors of weight outcomes included baseline patient characteristics, factors of the Eating Inventory, individual items of the Eating Behavior Assessment, and the Visual Analog Scale. Results Predictors/correlates of weight loss ≥ 2 kg included: high baseline BMI, low baseline interest in food, and a decrease from baseline to endpoint in appetite, hunger, or cravings for carbohydrates. Reduced cognitive restraint, increase in hunger, and increased overeating were associated with a higher probability of weight gain ≥ 1 kg. Conclusion The association between weight gain and lack of cognitive restraint in the presence of increased appetite suggests potential benefit of psychoeducational counseling in conjunction with adjunctive pharmacotherapeutic agents in limiting weight gain during antipsychotic drug therapy. Trial Registration This analysis was not

  15. Predictors and correlates for weight changes in patients co-treated with olanzapine and weight mitigating agents; a post-hoc analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Virginia L; Lipkovich, Ilya; Hoffmann, Vicki Poole; Heinloth, Alexandra N; McGregor, H Scott; Kinon, Bruce J

    2009-03-28

    This study focuses on exploring the relationship between changes in appetite or eating behaviors and subsequent weight change for adult patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder treated with olanzapine and adjunctive potential weight mitigating pharmacotherapy. The aim is not to compare different weight mitigating agents, but to evaluate patients' characteristics and changes in their eating behaviors during treatment. Identification of patient subgroups with different degrees of susceptibility to the effect of weight mitigating agents during olanzapine treatment may aid clinicians in treatment decisions. Data were obtained from 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 16-week clinical trials. Included were 158 patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and a body mass index (BMI) > or = 25 kg/m2 who had received olanzapine treatment in combination with nizatidine (n = 68), sibutramine (n = 42), or amantadine (n = 48). Individual patients were analyzed for categorical weight loss > or= 2 kg and weight gain > or = 1 kg. Variables that were evaluated as potential predictors of weight outcomes included baseline patient characteristics, factors of the Eating Inventory, individual items of the Eating Behavior Assessment, and the Visual Analog Scale. Predictors/correlates of weight loss > or = 2 kg included: high baseline BMI, low baseline interest in food, and a decrease from baseline to endpoint in appetite, hunger, or cravings for carbohydrates. Reduced cognitive restraint, increase in hunger, and increased overeating were associated with a higher probability of weight gain > or = 1 kg. The association between weight gain and lack of cognitive restraint in the presence of increased appetite suggests potential benefit of psychoeducational counseling in conjunction with adjunctive pharmacotherapeutic agents in limiting weight gain during antipsychotic drug therapy. This analysis was not a clinical trial and did not involve any medical intervention.

  16. Does the Method of Weight Loss Effect Long-Term Changes in Weight, Body Composition or Chronic Disease Risk Factors in Overweight or Obese Adults? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Richard A.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Lambourne, Kate; Willis, Erik A.; Ptomey, Lauren T.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain. Objective To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors. Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013) for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance) on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc.) and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up). Results Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼55% of loss) was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise. PMID:25333384

  17. Measurement of brain oxygenation changes using dynamic T1-weighted imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddock, Bryan; Larsson, Henrik B W; Hansen, Adam E

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven useful in evaluating oxygenation in several types of tissue and blood. This study evaluates brain tissue oxygenation changes between normoxia and hyperoxia in healthy subjects using dynamic T1 and T2*-weighted imaging sequences. The change in FiO2 induced...... by hyperoxia caused a significant decrease in T1. A model to determine changes in tissue oxygen tension from the T1-weighted MRI signal is presented based on previous findings that T1 is sensitive to oxygen tension whereas T2* is sensitive to blood saturation. The two sequences produce results with different...... regional and temporal dynamics. These differences combined with results from simulations of the T1 signal intensities, indicate an increase in extravascular oxygen tension during hyperoxia. This study concludes that T1 and T2* responses to FiO2 serve as independent biomarkers of oxygen physiology...

  18. Diagnosing lung nodules on oncologic MR/PET imaging: Comparison of fast T1-weighted sequences and influence of image acquisition in inspiration and expiration breath-hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwenzer, Nina F.; Seith, Ferdinand; Gatidis, Sergios; Brendle, Cornelia; Schmidt, Holger; Pfannenberg, Christina A; LaFougère, Christian; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Schraml, Christina [University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    First, to investigate the diagnostic performance of fast T1-weighted sequences for lung nodule evaluation in oncologic magnetic resonance (MR)/positron emission tomography (PET). Second, to evaluate the influence of image acquisition in inspiration and expiration breath-hold on diagnostic performance. The study was approved by the local Institutional Review Board. PET/CT and MR/PET of 44 cancer patients were evaluated by 2 readers. PET/CT included lung computed tomography (CT) scans in inspiration and expiration (CTin, CTex). MR/PET included Dixon sequence for attenuation correction and fast T1-weighted volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences (volume interpolated breath-hold examination acquired in inspiration [VIBEin], volume interpolated breath-hold examination acquired in expiration [VIBEex]). Diagnostic performance was analyzed for lesion-, lobe-, and size-dependence. Diagnostic confidence was evaluated (4-point Likert-scale; 1 = high). Jackknife alternative free-response receiver-operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis was performed. Seventy-six pulmonary lesions were evaluated. Lesion-based detection rates were: CTex, 77.6%; VIBEin, 53.3%; VIBEex, 51.3%; and Dixon, 22.4%. Lobe-based detection rates were: CTex, 89.6%; VIBEin, 58.3%; VIBEex, 60.4%; and Dixon, 31.3%. In contrast to CT, inspiration versus expiration did not alter diagnostic performance in VIBE sequences. Diagnostic confidence was best for VIBEin and CTex and decreased in VIBEex and Dixon (1.2 ± 0.6; 1.2 ± 0.7; 1.5 ± 0.9; 1.7 ± 1.1, respectively). The JAFROC figure-of-merit of Dixon was significantly lower. All patients with malignant lesions were identified by CTex, VIBEin, and VIBEex, while 3 patients were false-negative in Dixon. Fast T1-weighted VIBE sequences allow for identification of patients with malignant pulmonary lesions. The Dixon sequence is not recommended for lung nodule evaluation in oncologic MR/PET patients. In contrast to CT, inspiration versus

  19. Diagnosing Lung Nodules on Oncologic MR/PET Imaging: Comparison of Fast T1-Weighted Sequences and Influence of Image Acquisition in Inspiration and Expiration Breath-Hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwenzer, Nina F.; Seith, Ferdinand; Gatidis, Sergios [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); Brendle, Cornelia [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); Schmidt, Holger; Pfannenberg, Christina A. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); Fougère, Christian la [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); Nikolaou, Konstantin; Schraml, Christina [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    First, to investigate the diagnostic performance of fast T1-weighted sequences for lung nodule evaluation in oncologic magnetic resonance (MR)/positron emission tomography (PET). Second, to evaluate the influence of image acquisition in inspiration and expiration breath-hold on diagnostic performance. The study was approved by the local Institutional Review Board. PET/CT and MR/PET of 44 cancer patients were evaluated by 2 readers. PET/CT included lung computed tomography (CT) scans in inspiration and expiration (CTin, CTex). MR/PET included Dixon sequence for attenuation correction and fast T1-weighted volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences (volume interpolated breath-hold examination acquired in inspiration [VIBEin], volume interpolated breath-hold examination acquired in expiration [VIBEex]). Diagnostic performance was analyzed for lesion-, lobe-, and size-dependence. Diagnostic confidence was evaluated (4-point Likert-scale; 1 = high). Jackknife alternative free-response receiver-operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis was performed. Seventy-six pulmonary lesions were evaluated. Lesion-based detection rates were: CTex, 77.6%; VIBEin, 53.3%; VIBEex, 51.3%; and Dixon, 22.4%. Lobe-based detection rates were: CTex, 89.6%; VIBEin, 58.3%; VIBEex, 60.4%; and Dixon, 31.3%. In contrast to CT, inspiration versus expiration did not alter diagnostic performance in VIBE sequences. Diagnostic confidence was best for VIBEin and CTex and decreased in VIBEex and Dixon (1.2 ± 0.6; 1.2 ± 0.7; 1.5 ± 0.9; 1.7 ± 1.1, respectively). The JAFROC figure-of-merit of Dixon was significantly lower. All patients with malignant lesions were identified by CTex, VIBEin, and VIBEex, while 3 patients were false-negative in Dixon. Fast T1-weighted VIBE sequences allow for identification of patients with malignant pulmonary lesions. The Dixon sequence is not recommended for lung nodule evaluation in oncologic MR/PET patients. In contrast to CT, inspiration versus

  20. Quantitative assessment of radiation-induced lung changes by computerized optical densitometry of routine chest x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, Soeren M.; Skoczylas, Jerzy Z.; Overgaard, Marie; Overgaard, Jens; Nielsen, Ole G.; Madsen, Erik Hjoellund

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a quantitative assay of radiological lung changes after postmastectomy radiotherapy applicable for analysis of routine chest x-rays. Methods and Materials: The assay relies on measurement of the optical density of chest x-rays by means of a standard personal computer-controlled film densitometer used for scanning dosimetry films. Density profiles were recorded at 1 mm steps along two reference lines in each lung. The crossing between the clavicula and the first rib in the x-ray projection was used as an easily identifiable anatomical landmark and was used to establish two parallel cranio-caudal reference lines separated by 20 mm. The starting point for recording optical densities was 5 mm below a line perpendicular to the reference lines and tangent to the top of the lung. Data were stored in a computer file for subsequent processing. The optical film densities in the apex of the lungs were converted into equivalent absorber thickness (EAT). To minimize the dependency on technical factors, the unirradiated lung was used as a control. Lung density changes were quantified by the relative change in EAT (REAT), which was evaluated as the difference between the summed EATs along the reference lines in the two lungs, corrected for any pretreatment difference in lung density, and taken as a percentage of the pretreatment EAT value of the lung. Results: Four different tests were carried out to investigate the reproducibility and validity of the proposed assay. (a) An anthropomorphic phantom was used to test the relationship between REAT and the layer of plastic absorber placed in front of one lung. A linear relationship was found with a correlation coefficient of 0.9993. (b) A series of 10 repeat measurements of the same arbitrarily chosen x-ray showed a mean REAT value of 9.8%, with a standard deviation of 0.21%. (c) Forty-three chest x-rays exposed on the same day were available from the clinical series. These were treated as double determinations of

  1. Environmental influences on small eating behavior change to promote weight loss among Black and Hispanic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Johanna D; Devine, Carol M; Wethington, Elaine; Aceves, Luz; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Wansink, Brian; Charlson, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Small eating behavior changes are proposed as more feasible to achieve and maintain than larger changes used in traditional behavioral weight loss studies. However, it is unclear whether overweight Black and Hispanic adults in a low-income urban setting experience small changes as feasible and what might influence feasibility. Participants' experiences in a 12-week pilot weight loss intervention were explored qualitatively to determine the feasibility of making small eating behavior changes in this population. After the intervention (69% retention), semi-structured interviews with 46 men and women (mean age 51, 50% Non-Hispanic Black, 43% Hispanic) revealed that making small eating changes was a process shaped by participants' intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environments. Participants responded to intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environmental challenges by adapting small change strategies, navigating eating environments, and negotiating household eating practices. Findings highlight how even small eating behavior changes called for adaptation, navigation, and negotiation of complex eating environments in daily life. These findings were used to improve the trial that followed and underline the importance of feasibility studies to inform community trials. Findings also add to understanding of contextual challenges and the skills needed to implement small changes in a low income, ethnic minority population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of sclerosis in Modic changes of the spine using susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böker, Sarah M., E-mail: Sarah-maria.boeker@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Bender, Yvonne Y., E-mail: Yi-na.bender@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Adams, Lisa C., E-mail: Lisa.adams@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Fallenberg, Eva M., E-mail: Eva.fallenberg@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Wagner, Moritz, E-mail: Moritz.wagner@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Hamm, Bernd, E-mail: Bernd.hamm@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Makowski, Marcus R., E-mail: Marcus.makowski@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • SWMR allows a reliable detection of sclerosis in Modic changes. • SWI has a better accuracy for detection of sclerosis in Modic changes than T1/T2w MR. • By applying SWMR the use of additional CT/radiography can be minimized. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (SWMR) for the differentiation of sclerotic and non-sclerotic Modic changes (MC) of the spine compared to computed tomography (CT) and radiographs. Materials and methods: The Institutional Ethics-Review-Board approved this prospective study in advance. Written consent was obtained from all subjects. SWMR and standard T1/T2 MR of the cervical (n = 21) and/or lumbar spine (n = 34) were performed in 54 patients. 21 patients served as control. 18 patients were evaluated with CT; in all other patients radiographs were available. 67 Modic changes were identified on T1/T2 MR. On SWMR changes were classified as sclerotic and non-sclerotic based on signal intensity measurements. The sensitivity and specificity of SWMR and T1/T2 MR for differentiating between sclerotic and non-sclerotic Modic changes were determined with CT and radiographs as reference standard. Results: On SWMR, signal measurements between sclerotic and non-sclerotic Modic changes differed significantly (p < 0.01). On T1- and T2-weighted MR no significant difference (p > 0.05) was measured. On SWMR, a reliable differentiation between sclerotic and non-sclerotic Modic changes could be achieved, with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 95%. In contrast, the combination of T1-/T2-weighted MR yielded a significantly lower sensitivity to detect sclerosis (20%). Conclusion: SWMR allows a reliable detection of sclerosis in Modic changes with a higher accuracy compared to standard spine MR sequences, using radiographs and CT as reference standard.

  3. The association between weight change and symptom reduction in the CATIE schizophrenia trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Eric; Nasrallah, Henry; Davis, Vicki; Meyer, Jonathan; McEvoy, Joseph; Goff, Donald; Davis, Sonia; Stroup, T Scott; Swartz, Marvin; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Rosenheck, Robert

    2011-05-01

    Weight gain and changes in metabolic indicators associated with some antipsychotics may be related to symptom improvement and thus an unavoidable correlate of clinical benefit. Data from the CATIE schizophrenia trial comparing the effectiveness of perphenazine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine and ziprasidone in a randomized, double-blind, trial over 18 months were used to evaluate the relationship between percent change in body mass index (BMI) and change in total serum cholesterol and triglycerides with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) score. Analysis of covariance for observations at 3 months and a mixed effects model for all observations up to 18 months adjusted for potentially confounding variables were used to examine these associations. In both models, there was a significant association (p = 0.001) between change in PANSS total score and percent change in BMI, equating to a 0.28 and 0.21 point decrease in PANSS total score (range 30-210) per 1% increase in BMI respectively. Change in BMI accounted for 3% or less of variance for change in PANSS scores. There was no evidence that the association of symptoms and weight gain differed across medications in spite of substantial differences in weight gain and other metabolic measures. Neither total serum cholesterol nor triglyceride levels displayed a significant association with change in PANSS. The magnitude of the relationship between change in BMI and PANSS was too small to be clinically important, indicating that switching medications to one with less metabolic risk is unlikely to result in meaningful loss of clinical benefit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolic Syndrome Is Associated with Increased Oxo-Nitrative Stress and Asthma-Like Changes in Lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Pal Singh

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown an increased obesity-related risk of asthma. In support, obese mice develop airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR. However, it remains unclear whether the increased risk is a consequence of obesity, adipogenic diet, or the metabolic syndrome (MetS. Altered L-arginine and nitric oxide (NO metabolism is a common feature between asthma and metabolic syndrome that appears independent of body mass. Increased asthma risk resulting from such metabolic changes would have important consequences in global health. Since high-sugar diets can induce MetS, without necessarily causing obesity, studies of their effect on arginine/NO metabolism and airway function could clarify this aspect. We investigated whether normal-weight mice with MetS, due to high-fructose diet, had dysfunctional arginine/NO metabolism and features of asthma. Mice were fed chow-diet, high-fat-diet, or high-fructose-diet for 18 weeks. Only the high-fat-diet group developed obesity or adiposity. Hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycaemia, and hyperlipidaemia were common to both high-fat-diet and high-fructose-diet groups and the high-fructose-diet group additionally developed hypertension. At 18 weeks, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR could be seen in obese high-fat-diet mice as well as non-obese high-fructose-diet mice, when compared to standard chow-diet mice. No inflammatory cell infiltrate or goblet cell metaplasia was seen in either high-fat-diet or high-fructose-diet mice. Exhaled NO was reduced in both these groups. This reduction in exhaled NO correlated with reduced arginine bioavailability in lungs. In summary, mice with normal weight but metabolic obesity show reduced arginine bioavailability, reduced NO production, and asthma-like features. Reduced NO related bronchodilation and increased oxo-nitrosative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis.

  5. Comparison of quantitative regional ventilation-weighted fourier decomposition MRI with dynamic fluorinated gas washout MRI and lung function testing in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaireit, Till F; Gutberlet, Marcel; Voskrebenzev, Andreas; Freise, Julia; Welte, Tobias; Hohlfeld, Jens M; Wacker, Frank; Vogel-Claussen, Jens

    2018-06-01

    Ventilation-weighted Fourier decomposition-MRI (FD-MRI) has matured as a reliable technique for quantitative measures of regional lung ventilation in recent years, but has yet not been validated in COPD patients. To compare regional fractional lung ventilation obtained by ventilation-weighted FD-MRI with dynamic fluorinated gas washout MRI ( 19 F-MRI) and lung function test parameters. Prospective study. Twenty-seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, median age 61 [54-67] years) were included. For FD-MRI and for 19 F-MRI a spoiled gradient echo sequence was used at 1.5T. FD-MRI coronal slices were acquired in free breathing. Dynamic 19 F-MRI was performed after inhalation of 25-30 L of a mixture of 79% fluorinated gas (C 3 F 8 ) and 21% oxygen via a closed face mask tubing using a dedicated coil tuned to 59.9 MHz. 19 F washout times in numbers of breaths ( 19 F-n breaths ) as well as fractional ventilation maps for both methods (FD-FV, 19 F-FV) were calculated. Slices were matched using a landmark driven algorithm, and only corresponding slices with an overlap of >90% were coregistered for evaluation. The obtained parameters were correlated with each other using Spearman's correlation coefficient (r). FD-FV strongly correlated with 19 F-n breaths on a global (r = -0.72, P Fourier decomposition-MRI is a promising noninvasive, radiation-free tool for quantification of regional ventilation in COPD patients. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:1534-1541. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Neighborhood Built and Social Environments and Change in Weight Status over the Summer in Low-Income Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Rebecca; Wang, Yuxia; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett

    2018-05-31

    Neighborhoods can provide opportunities for children to maintain a healthy weight or encourage unhealthy weight gain. Which neighborhood characteristics matter most remains poorly understood. We investigated links between neighborhood characteristics and weight change over the summer in children from 12 elementary schools with a high proportion of children from low-income families, in a mid-sized city in the US South. Mixed models and objective measures of height and weight were used. Study participants were 2770 children (average age 8.3, range 5.6⁻12.6 years). Older and female children and those who were already overweight were more likely to gain weight over the summer compared to younger, male, and normal weight children. Overweight children who lived near 2 or more small grocery stores gained less weight than overweight children who lived near 0 (weight change, p = 0.0468; body mass index (BMI) change, p = 0.0209) or 1 store (weight change, p = 0.0136; BMI change, p = 0.0033). Normal weight children living in neighborhoods with more large multifamily buildings gained more weight over the summer, although this association only approached significance. Additional efforts to understand which neighborhood factors have greater significance for overweight compared to normal weight children are warranted.

  7. Body mass index, weight change, and survival in non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients in Connecticut women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuesong; Stevens, June; Bradshaw, Patrick T

    2013-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that obesiy and weight gain may affect the prognosis of several types of cancer. We investigated the impact of body mass index (BMI) as well as pre-and postdiagnosis weight changes on non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) prognosis. A cohort of 573 female incident NHL cases diagnosed during 1996-2000 in Connecticut was followed for a median of 7.8 yr. Self-reported height and weight at 3 time points before and after diagnosis were collected. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using proportional hazard models adjusting for factors believed to be associated with overall survival of NHL. Underweight (BMI treatment were found to have a poorer survival.

  8. Timeline of changes in appetite during weight loss with a ketogenic diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymo, S; Coutinho, S R; Jørgensen, J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Diet-induced weight loss (WL) leads to increased hunger and reduced fullness feelings, increased ghrelin and reduced satiety peptides concentration (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY)). Ketogenic diets seem to minimise or supress some...... of these responses. The aim of this study was to determine the timeline over which changes in appetite occur during progressive WL with a ketogenic very-low-energy diet (VLED). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirty-one sedentary adults (18 men), with obesity (body mass index: 37±4.5 kg m-2) underwent 8 weeks (wks) of a VLED...... followed by 4 wks of weight maintenance. Body weight and composition, subjective feelings of appetite and appetite-related hormones (insulin, active ghrelin (AG), active GLP-1, total PYY and CCK) were measured in fasting and postprandially, at baseline, on day 3 of the diet, 5 and 10% WL, and at wks 9...

  9. Impact of endobronchial coiling on segmental bronchial lumen in treated and untreated lung lobes: Correlation with changes in lung volume, clinical and pulmonary function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloth, C; Thaiss, W M; Hetzel, J; Ditt, H; Grosse, U; Nikolaou, K; Horger, M

    2016-07-01

    To assess the impact of endobronchial coiling on the segment bronchus cross-sectional area and volumes in patients with lung emphysema using quantitative chest-CT measurements. Thirty patients (female = 15; median age = 65.36 years) received chest-CT before and after endobronchial coiling for lung volume reduction (LVR) between January 2010 and December 2014. Thin-slice (0.6 mm) non-enhanced image data sets were acquired both at end-inspiration and end-expiration using helical technique and 120 kV/100-150 mAs. Clinical response was defined as an increase in the walking distance (Six-minute walk test; 6MWT) after LVR-therapy. Additionally, pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements were used for clinical correlation. In the treated segmental bronchia, the cross-sectional lumen area showed significant reduction (p  0.05). In the ipsilateral lobes, the lumina showed no significant changes. In the contralateral lung, we found tendency towards increased cross-sectional area in inspiration (p = 0.06). Volumes of the treated segments correlated with the treated segmental bronchial lumina in expiration (r = 0.80, p volume of the treated lobe in responders only. Endobronchial coiling causes significant decrease in the cross-sectional area of treated segment bronchi in inspiration and a slight increase in expiration accompanied by a volume reduction. • Endobronchial coiling has indirect impact on cross-sectional area of treated segment bronchi • Volume changes of treated lobes correlate with changes in bronchial cross-sectional area • Coil-induced effects reflect their stabilizing and stiffening impact on lung parenchyma • Endobronchial coiling reduces bronchial collapsing compensating the loss of elasticity.

  10. The impact of technology on the changing practice of lung SBRT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Aznar (Marianne C.); Warren, S. (Samantha); M.S. Hoogeman (Mischa); M. Josipovic (Mirjana)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractStereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung tumours has been gaining wide acceptance in lung cancer. Here, we review the technological evolution of SBRT delivery in lung cancer, from the first treatments using the stereotactic body frame in the 1990's to modern developments in image

  11. The findings of bronchial artery change in lung cancer with 16-slice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Qingsi; Wu Xiaomei; Cen Renli; Zhang Chaoliang; Chen Yongfu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the difference of internal diameter of bronchial artery in big lung cancer, small lung cancer, and normal lung with multiple slice CT. Methods: MSCT angiographies of 44 patients with lung cancer confirmed by pathology were retrospectively analyzed, and 29 patients were with big lung cancer (≥3 cm) and 15 patients with small lung cancer (<3 cm). Contrast enhanced helical thin slice CT scan was performed in all patients. Three dimensional images of bronchial artery were processed on workstation. The internal diameter of bronchial artery was measured. Results: The diameter of bronchial artery was (1.9±0.4) mm in 15 small lung cancer and (2.5±0.5) mm in 29 big lung cancer, respectively. There was a significant difference in internal diameter of bronchial artery between big and small lung cancer (P<0.05). Conclusion: Bronchial artery in lung cancer is dilated, and the dilation of bronchial artery in big lung cancer is more prominent than in small lung cancer. (authors)

  12. Oral mucosa and lung cancer: Are genetic changes in the oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-03

    Feb 3, 2016 ... to lung cancer, although other risk factors (such as genetic tendency) ... analysis of oral mucosa identifying individuals predisposed to lung cancer. ... of the study is that oral epithelial cells of smokers who have lung cancer are ... Stratec Molecular, Berlin, Germany). p53 codon 72 ..... Validity and reliability of.

  13. Changed Expression of Cytoskeleton Proteins During Lung Injury in a Mouse Model of Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ferrer-Navarro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Infections by Streptococcus pneumoniae are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, often causing community-acquired pneumonia, otitis media and also bacteremia and meningitis. Studies on S. pneumoniae are mainly focused on its virulence or capacity to evade the host immune system, but little is known about the injury caused in lungs during a pneumococcal infection. Herein we investigated this issue comparing the proteome profile of lungs from S. pneumoniae-infected mice with control mice by means of difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE technology. In order to obtain reliable results three biological replicas were used, and four technical replicas were carried out in each biological replica. Proteomic comparison was performed at two time points: 24 and 48 h post infection. A total of 91 proteins were identified with different abundance. We found important changes in the protein profiles during pneumococcal infection mainly associated with regulation of vesicle-mediated transport, wound healing, and cytoskeleton organization. In conclusion, the results obtained show that the cytoskeleton of the host cell is modified in S. pneumoniae infection.

  14. Certain biochemical changes in the trachea, lungs, and heart of squirrels exposed to three principal air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, S V; Gautam, R K; Agrawal, V P

    1979-01-01

    The fate of total lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in the trachea, lungs, and heart of the common ground squirrel, Funambulus pennanti, have been determined after separate exposure to three principal air pollutants, carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/). Exposure to all of these gases produced edematous conditions; however, the moisture content of heart muscle was reduced. Carbon monoxide (CO) and NO/sub 2/ are more toxic to pulmonary lipids than SO/sub 2/. The lipid of the heart decreased, least effects noted with SO/sub 2/ treatment. Mechanical properties of the lungs were changed by alteration of the lung lipids causing changes in the surface tension. Changes in protein content were caused by altered membrane permeability. Comparative data on the carbohydrates indicated adverse effects by the pollutants.

  15. Plasma concentrations of free triiodothyronine predict weight change in euthyroid persons2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Emilio; Pannacciulli, Nicola; Bogardus, Clifton; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Background Factors that influence energy metabolism and substrate oxidation, such as thyroid hormones (THs), may be important regulators of body weight. Objective We investigated associations of THs cross-sectionally with obesity, energy expenditure, and substrate oxidation and prospectively with weight change. Design Euthyroid, nondiabetic, healthy, adult Pima Indians (n = 89; 47 M, 42 F) were studied. Percentage body fat (%BF) was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; sleeping metabolic rate (SMR), respiratory quotient, and substrate oxidation rates were measured in a respiratory chamber. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (T4), free triiodothyronine (T3), and leptin concentrations were measured in fasting plasma samples. Results TSH, but neither free T3 nor free T4, was associated with %BF and leptin concentrations (r = 0.27 and 0.29, respectively; both: P ≤ 0.01). In multiple regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, fat mass, and fat-free mass, free T3 was a positive predictor of SMR (P = 0.02). After adjustment for age, sex, %BF, and energy balance, free T3 was a negative predictor of 24-h respiratory quotient (P < 0.05) and a positive predictor of 24-h lipid oxidation rate (P = 0.006). Prospectively, after an average follow-up of 4 ± 2 y, the mean increase in weight was 3 ± 9 kg. Baseline T3 concentrations were associated with absolute and annual percentage of changes in weight (r = −0.27, P = 0.02, and r = −0.28, P = 0.009, for the age-and sex-adjusted associations, respectively). Conclusions In euthyroid Pima Indians, lower free T3 but not free T4 concentrations were an independent predictor of SMR and lipid oxidation and a predictor of weight gain. This finding indicates that control of T4-to-T3 conversion may play a role in body weight regulation. PMID:17284741

  16. How family interactions about lifestyle changes affect adolescents' possibilities for maintaining weight loss after a weight loss intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg, Marianne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Vamosi, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    -loss programme. Three rounds of semi-structured interviews stretching over 5 years (2010-2015) were transcribed verbatim, then analyzed using Kvale and Brinkmann's framework for working with qualitative research interviews. FINDINGS: Five years after the intervention ended, we found that a family's interactions...... support is crucial if adolescents are to benefit from weight-loss intervention. DESIGN: Qualitative research interviews with families who participated in a weight-loss programme. METHODS: The sample consisted of 10 families selected among participants in a 1-year multidisciplinary family-based weight...

  17. Changes in lifestyle habits and behaviours are associated with weight loss maintenance in members of a commercial weight loss organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Stubbs, RJ; McConnon, A; Gibbs, M; Raats, M; Whybrow, S

    2012-01-01

    This analysis examined the lifestyle correlates of weight loss maintenance in 1428 participants of a slimming organisation, who had been members for a mean SD of 16 16 months, had lost 13.8% 9.2% weight and were trying to maintain, or increase, their weight loss during a subsequent 6 month study period. Data were collected as part of the DiOGenes study(1). Ethical approval was given by the University of Surrey Ethics Committee. Adults were recruited between August 2006 and July 2008 from Slim...

  18. Initiating and continuing behaviour change within a weight gain prevention trial: a qualitative investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Kozica

    Full Text Available Preventing obesity is an international health priority. In Australia, young women who live in rural communities are at high risk of unhealthy weight gain. Interventions which engage young women and support sustainable behaviour change are needed and comprehensive evaluation of such interventions generates knowledge for population scale-up. This qualitative sub-study aims to identify enablers and barriers to behaviour change initiation and continuation within a community weight gain prevention program.In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants 6 months after baseline. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed independently by two investigators via thematic analysis.A total of 28 women with a mean age of 39.9±6.2years and a BMI of 28.6±5.2kg/m2 were purposively recruited from the larger cohort (n = 649 that participated in the prevention trial.Four behaviour change groups emerged were identified from participant interviews: (i no change, (ii relapse, (iii intermittent and (iv continued change. Factors influencing behaviour change initiation and continuation included realistic program expectations and the participant's ability to apply the core program elements including: setting small, achievable behaviour change goals, problem solving and using self-management techniques. Personal knowledge, skills, motivation, self-efficacy, accountability and perceived social and environmental barriers also affected behaviour change. Satisfaction with personal program progress and the perceived amount of program supports required to achieve ongoing behaviour change varied amongst participants. Women who relapsed expressed a desire for more intensive and regular support from health professionals, identified more barriers unrelated to the program, anticipated significant weight loss and had lower satisfaction with their progress.Initiating and continuing behaviour change is a complex

  19. Initiating and continuing behaviour change within a weight gain prevention trial: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozica, Samantha; Lombard, Catherine; Teede, Helena; Ilic, Dragan; Murphy, Kerry; Harrison, Cheryce

    2015-01-01

    Preventing obesity is an international health priority. In Australia, young women who live in rural communities are at high risk of unhealthy weight gain. Interventions which engage young women and support sustainable behaviour change are needed and comprehensive evaluation of such interventions generates knowledge for population scale-up. This qualitative sub-study aims to identify enablers and barriers to behaviour change initiation and continuation within a community weight gain prevention program. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants 6 months after baseline. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed independently by two investigators via thematic analysis. A total of 28 women with a mean age of 39.9±6.2years and a BMI of 28.6±5.2kg/m2 were purposively recruited from the larger cohort (n = 649) that participated in the prevention trial. Four behaviour change groups emerged were identified from participant interviews: (i) no change, (ii) relapse, (iii) intermittent and (iv) continued change. Factors influencing behaviour change initiation and continuation included realistic program expectations and the participant's ability to apply the core program elements including: setting small, achievable behaviour change goals, problem solving and using self-management techniques. Personal knowledge, skills, motivation, self-efficacy, accountability and perceived social and environmental barriers also affected behaviour change. Satisfaction with personal program progress and the perceived amount of program supports required to achieve ongoing behaviour change varied amongst participants. Women who relapsed expressed a desire for more intensive and regular support from health professionals, identified more barriers unrelated to the program, anticipated significant weight loss and had lower satisfaction with their progress. Initiating and continuing behaviour change is a complex process. Our

  20. Applicability of the stages of change and Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire with natives of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C T

    2007-01-01

    There is an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Malaysia. Besides prevalence studies, not much is known about either overweight or obese individuals. The objective of this study was to determine the stages of change in losing weight and the self-efficacy in eating control of three indigenous groups of overweight and obese adults in Sarawak, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in one rural region in Sarawak using a purposive sample. A structured questionnaire, which included two scales: (1) Weight: Stages of change (SOC) to assess readiness to change; and (2) Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire (WEL) (both adopted from the transtheoretical model of change); and a set of pre-tested questionnaires on socio-demographic data, the presence of health problems and self-assessment of weight appropriateness, was used to interview respondents. The stage distribution for weight loss of these adults respondents (n = 271) showed that 60.5% (n = 164) were in the pre-contemplation stage, 20.7% (n = 56) were in the contemplation stage, 8.5% (n = 23) were in the preparation stage, and 8.9% (n = 24) were in the action stage, while only 1.5% (n = 4) were in the maintenance stage. Except for education, the stage differences were generally stable across age, sex, race, household income, presence or absence of health problem, self-perceived weight and presence of overweight or obesity. Respondents were least able to control their eating under social pressure and food availability, according to their WEL score. A large proportion of the overweight or obese adults was not intending to lose weight. The factor structure of the two WEL original subscales enabled partial differentiation between respondents who were able or unable to resist eating in situations where there were availability of food and experienced physical discomfort. The study results indicate the importance of assessing individuals' SOC score in order to implement stage-matched intervention

  1. Influence of changing carbonate chemistry on morphology and weight of coccoliths formed by Emiliania huxleyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Schulz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is a marine phytoplankton species capable of forming small calcium carbonate scales (coccoliths which cover the organic part of the cell. Calcification rates of E. huxleyi are known to be sensitive to changes in seawater carbonate chemistry. It has, however, not yet been clearly determined how these changes are reflected in size and weight of individual coccoliths and which specific parameter(s of the carbonate system drive morphological modifications. Here, we compare data on coccolith size, weight, and malformation from a set of five experiments with a large diversity of carbonate chemistry conditions. This diversity allows distinguishing the influence of individual carbonate chemistry parameters such as carbon dioxide (CO2, bicarbonate (HCO3−, carbonate ion (CO32−, and protons (H+ on the measured parameters. Measurements of fine-scale morphological structures reveal an increase of coccolith malformation with decreasing pH suggesting that H+ is the major factor causing malformations. Coccolith distal shield area varies from about 5 to 11 μm2. Changes in size seem to be mainly induced by varying [HCO3−] and [H+] although influence of [CO32−] cannot be entirely ruled out. Changes in coccolith weight were proportional to changes in size. Increasing CaCO3 production rates are reflected in an increase in coccolith weight and an increase of the number of coccoliths formed per unit time. The combined investigation of morphological features and coccolith production rates presented in this study may help to interpret data derived from sediment cores, where coccolith morphology is used to reconstruct calcification rates in the water column.

  2. Smartphone Interventions for Weight Treatment and Behavioral Change in Pediatric Obesity: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplais, Elodie; Naughton, Geraldine; Thivel, David; Courteix, Daniel; Greene, David

    2015-10-01

    Traditional approaches for treating or managing children and adolescents with overweight or obesity have limited effectiveness. Current advances in smartphone technology may improve the attractiveness and accessibility of weight management support for children and adolescents with overweight or obesity. This systematic review aimed to provide a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of using smartphones in the multidisciplinary treatment of child and adolescent overweight or obesity, with a specific interest in behavior change. The databases of Medline complete, OVID, CINAHL, EMBASE, and PubMed were searched for randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies addressing behavioral change using smartphone technology, plus nutrition and/or physical activity, to treat or manage child and adolescent obesity. Only two RCTs have described the effectiveness of smartphone devices in pediatric overweight or obesity treatment. Within the limitation of the two studies, electronic contact (e-contact) appeared unsuccessful in achieving weight loss. However, smartphone usage was linked to improved engagement and reduced dropout rates during important sustainability phases of these long-term interventions. Smartphone technologies allow users to accomplish tasks anywhere and anytime and, as such, provide researchers with additional and generationally appropriate capacities to deliver health promotion. E-contact should be used for its significant capacity to prolong engagement and decrease withdrawal during sustainability phases that follow intensive intervention for weight management in young populations. Despite increasing popularity in published protocols of weight management trials, the effectiveness of the impact of smartphone technology in pediatric programs remains equivocal.

  3. Automated indexing of Internet stories for health behavior change: weight loss attitude pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuvinakurike, Ramesh; Velicer, Wayne F; Bickmore, Timothy W

    2014-12-09

    Automated health behavior change interventions show promise, but suffer from high attrition and disuse. The Internet abounds with thousands of personal narrative accounts of health behavior change that could not only provide useful information and motivation for others who are also trying to change, but an endless source of novel, entertaining stories that may keep participants more engaged than messages authored by interventionists. Given a collection of relevant personal health behavior change stories gathered from the Internet, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an automated indexing algorithm that could select the best possible story to provide to a user to have the greatest possible impact on their attitudes toward changing a targeted health behavior, in this case weight loss. An indexing algorithm was developed using features informed by theories from behavioral medicine together with text classification and machine learning techniques. The algorithm was trained using a crowdsourced dataset, then evaluated in a 2×2 between-subjects randomized pilot study. One factor compared the effects of participants reading 2 indexed stories vs 2 randomly selected stories, whereas the second factor compared the medium used to tell the stories: text or animated conversational agent. Outcome measures included changes in self-efficacy and decisional balance for weight loss before and after the stories were read. Participants were recruited from a crowdsourcing website (N=103; 53.4%, 55/103 female; mean age 35, SD 10.8 years; 65.0%, 67/103 precontemplation; 19.4%, 20/103 contemplation for weight loss). Participants who read indexed stories exhibited a significantly greater increase in self-efficacy for weight loss compared to the control group (F1,107=5.5, P=.02). There were no significant effects of indexing on change in decisional balance (F1,97=0.05, P=.83) and no significant effects of medium on change in self-efficacy (F1,107=0.04, P=.84) or decisional

  4. Chronic exposure to microcystin-LR affected mitochondrial DNA maintenance and caused pathological changes of lung tissue in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xinxiu; Xu, Lizhi; Zhou, Wei; Zhao, Qingya; Wang, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), an important variant of cyanotoxin family, was frequently encountered in the contaminated aquatic environment and taken as a potent hepatotoxin. However, a little was known on the association between the long-term MC-LR exposure and lung damage. In this study, we investigated the changes of the pulmonary histopathology, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity and the expression of mtDNA encoded genes in the mice with chronic exposed to MC-LR at different concentrations (1, 5, 10, 20 and 40 μg/L) for 12 months. Our results showed that the long-term and persistent exposure to MC-LR disturbed the balance of redox system, influenced mtDNA stability, changed the expression of mitochondrial genes in the lung cells. Notably, MC-LR exposure influenced the level of inflammatory cytokines and resulted in thickening of the alveolar septa. In conclusion, chronic exposure to MC-LR affected mtDNA maintenance, and caused lung impairment in mice. - Highlights: • A simulated natural exposure to MC-LR caused the lung pathological changes. • The chronic exposure disturbed the redox system balance of lung tissue cells. • The chronic exposure impaired the mtDNA stability and mitochondria function. • The lung was one of the vulnerable organs to MC-LR exposure in mice. - Long-term exposure to MC-LR in drinking water disturbed the balance of redox system, affected mitochondrial DNA maintenance and caused lung impairment in mice.

  5. The Relationship between Changes in Weight Status and Insulin Resistance in Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin S. Ondrak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined changes in insulin resistance (IR in 120 youth over two years. IR was quantified via homeostatic model (HOMA-IR, and weight status changes were quantified via body mass index (BMI. When all participants were considered, the mean HOMA-IR and BMI increased 13.4% and 1.65 units, respectively. Change in BMI z-score and percent change in HOMA-IR were moderately associated (r=0.39. Follow-up analyses were performed for the following weight groups: NN (normal at baseline and two years later, NO (normal to overweight, ON (overweight to normal, and OO (overweight at both points. The NO group had a greater change in HOMA-IR (+50% compared to other groups: ON (−8%, NN (+2%, and OO (−0.1% (P<.05. The association between changes in BMI z-score and HOMA-IR was r=0.49 when only the NO and ON groups were included. These results reinforce the importance of preventing youth from becoming overweight to control IR.

  6. The Relationship between Changes in Weight Status and Insulin Resistance in Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evenson Kelly

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined changes in insulin resistance (IR in 120 youth over two years. IR was quantified via homeostatic model (HOMA-IR, and weight status changes were quantified via body mass index (BMI. When all participants were considered, the mean HOMA-IR and BMI increased 13.4% and 1.65 units, respectively. Change in BMI z-score and percent change in HOMA-IR were moderately associated (. Follow-up analyses were performed for the following weight groups: NN (normal at baseline and two years later, NO (normal to overweight, ON (overweight to normal, and OO (overweight at both points. The NO group had a greater change in HOMA-IR (+50% compared to other groups: ON (8%, NN (+2%, and OO (0.1% (. The association between changes in BMI z-score and HOMA-IR was when only the NO and ON groups were included. These results reinforce the importance of preventing youth from becoming overweight to control IR.

  7. Changes in Health-Related Quality of Life During Rehabilitation in Patients With Operable Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Maja S.; Trier, Karen; Vibe-Petersen, Jette

    2017-01-01

    . RESULTS: Forty patients were included, 73% of whom completed rehabilitation. Results on emotional well-being (P mental health component score (P = .0004) showed an overall statistically significant improvement during the study. CONCLUSION: This feasibility...... study demonstrated that global quality of life, mental health, and emotional well-being improved significantly during the study, from time of diagnosis until 1 year after resection, in patients with NSCLC participating in rehabilitation.......INTRODUCTION: Surgical resection in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may be associated with significant morbidity, functional limitations, and decreased quality of life. OBJECTIVES: The objective is to present health-related quality of life (HRQoL) changes over time before and 1...

  8. Timeline of changes in appetite during weight loss with a ketogenic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Nymo, Siren

    2017-01-01

    Background/objective: Diet-induced weight loss (WL) leads to increased hunger and reduced fullness feelings, increased ghrelin and reduced satiety peptides concentration (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY)). Ketogenic diets seem to minimise or supress some of these responses. The aim of this study was to determine the timeline over which changes in appetite occur during progressive WL with a ketogenic very-low-energy diet (VLED). Subjects/methods: T...

  9. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in comparison to integrated [18F]-FDG PET/CT for N-staging in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauls, Sandra; Schmidt, Stefan A.; Juchems, Markus S.; Klass, Oliver; Luster, Markus; Reske, Sven Norbert; Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Feuerlein, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to prospectively determine the diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using MRI in the staging of thoracic lymph nodes in patients with lung cancer, and to compare the performance to that of PET/CT. Patients and Method 20 consecutive patients (pts) with histologically proven lung cancer were included in this study. In all pts FDG-PET/CT was routinely performed to stage lung carcinoma. Additionally, MRI (1.5 T) was performed including native T1w, T1w post contrast medium, T2w, and DWI sequences. Regarding the N stage based on the results of the PET/CT there were 5 patients with N0, 3 patients with N1, 5 patients with N2 and 7 patients with N3. Image analysis was performed by two radiologists (R1 and R2), respectively. The reviewers had to chose between 1 (at least one lymph node within a station is malignant) or 0 (no lymph nodes suspicious for malignancy). First the T1 post contrast sequence was analyzed. In a second step the DWI sequence (b = 800) was analyzed. Both steps were performed in a blinded fashion. Results MR imaging with or without DWI only agreed with the results of the PET/CT regarding the N stage in 80% of the patients—15% were understaged and 5% overstaged. There was excellent interobserver agreement; the N-staging result only differed in 1 patient for DWI, resulting in correlation coefficients of 0.98 for DWI and 1.0 for MRI. Compared to PET-CT MRI overstaged one and understaged 4 patients, while DWI overstaged one and understaged 3 patients. This resulted in correlation coefficients of 0.814 (R1 and R2) for MRI and 0.815 (R1) and 0.804 (R2) for DWI. Regarding the ADC values there were no significant differences between ipsilateral hilar (1.03 mm 2 /s ± 0.13), subcarinal (0.96 mm 2 /s ± 0.24), ipsilateral mediastinal (1.0 mm 2 /s ± 0.18), contralateral mediastinal (0.93 mm 2 /s ± 0.23) and supraclavicular (0.9 mm 2 /s ± 0.23) lymph nodes. Conclusion Diffusion-weighted imaging does not

  10. Weight Change over the Course of Binge Eating Disorder Treatment: Relationship to Binge Episodes and Psychological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacanowski, Carly R; Mason, Tyler B; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Peterson, Carol B

    2018-05-01

    Treatment for binge eating disorder (BED), a condition associated with both excess adiposity and psychological distress, has not typically produced significant weight loss despite reducing binge eating. Characterizing factors that promote or inhibit weight loss in individuals with co-occurring BED and obesity may help explain overall nonsignificant weight changes during treatment. In this study, 189 adults with BED participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of 5 months of cognitive behavioral therapy. Assessments included measured height and weight at baseline, midtreatment, end of treatment (EOT), and 6-month follow-up, the Eating Disorder Examination interview, and questionnaires. During treatment, there was a mean weight gain of 1.3 ± 12.0 lb. Twenty-two percent of the sample lost ≥ 5 lb, and 25% of the sample gained ≥ 8 lb. Results showed that baseline objective binge eating episodes predicted weight over treatment. Changes in weight were significantly positively related to concurrent changes in shape concern, weight concern, and disinhibition, but not binge eating episodes. Changes in objective binge eating episodes from baseline to EOT were associated with changes in weight from EOT to follow-up. Further investigation of eating behavior during BED treatment to understand the energy balance contributions to weight change or stability is warranted. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  11. Changes in infant disposable diaper weights at selected intervals post-wetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Joan; Moore, Amanda; Cooper, Alyssa; Henderson, Terri; Mayfield, Debbie; Taylor, Randa; Thomas, Jennifer; Van Fleet, Laduska; Askanazi, David; Fineberg, Naomi; Sun, Yanhui

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric acute care nurses questioned the practice of weighing disposable infant diapers immediately after voiding. This study asked the research question, "Does volume of saline, diaper configuration, and/or size of diaper statistically effect changes in diaper weights over time?" The method was an experimental, laboratory model. Pre-set volumes of saline were added to disposable diapers that were then left folded or unfolded. Each diaper was weighed immediately post-wetting and re-weighed at hourly intervals for seven hours. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) with balanced data (F-test). Diaper weight changes over time were statistically significant for all time points and for all volumes regardless of diaper size; however, the changes in weight were small and without clinical significance. It is appropriate to weigh diapers at the end of eight hours without risk of altering subsequent fluid management of patients in open-air, non-humidified environments. This practice has led to more efficient use of nurses' time with fewer interruptions for patients and families.

  12. [Relationship between body weight status in early adulthood and body weight change at middle age in adults and type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Long; Zhao, Liancheng; Li, Ying; Guo, Min; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-03-01

    To explore the relationship between weight status in early adulthood and body weight change at middle age in adults and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The data of 14 population samples from China Multicenter Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Epidemiology conducted in 1998 were used. Approximately 1 000 men and women in each sample were surveyed for cardiovascular disease risk factors, including body weight at age 25 years. The body mass index (BMI) at the age 25 years was calculated. The association between body weight in early adulthood and body weight change at middle age and T2DM was examined by using logistic regression model. The incidence of T2DM in low weight group (BMIweight group (BMI: 18.5-23.9 kg/m(2)), overweight group (BMI: 24.0-27.9 kg/m(2)) and obese group (BMI:≥28.0 kg/m(2)) at 25 years old were 2.4%(30/1263), 2.8%(266/9562), 4.0%(70/1739) and 6.4% (7/110), respectively (P value for trendincidence of T2DM for adults with weight change 12.5 kg at middle age were 2.5% (18/712), 1.3%(21/1629), 2.1%(48/2330), 2.3%(59/2585), 3.7%(94/2518), and 4.6% (133/2900) respectively. (P value for trend weight gain were positively correlated with T2DM after adjusted other risk factors (all P values for trend weight gain at middle age were both independently associated with the increased risk of T2DM in middle-aged men and women.

  13. Parenting style and child-feeding behaviour in predicting children's weight status change in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Ho-Jui; Yeh, Ming-Chin

    2014-05-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is on the rise worldwide. Prior studies find that parents' child-feeding practices are associated with child weight status and the efficacy of specific parental child-feeding practices can be moderated by parenting styles. In the current longitudinal study, we examined the associations between child-feeding practices and weight status changes over 1 year among a sample of school-aged children in Taiwan. In autumn 2008, a child-feeding questionnaire and parenting-style questionnaire were administered to parents of the second and fourth graders in an elementary school in Taiwan. The weight and height of the students were measured by a trained school nurse in 2008 and again in 2009. An elementary school in central Taiwan. A total of 465 parent-child pairs were included in the analysis. Using a gender- and age-adjusted BMI classification scheme issued by the Taiwan Department of Health, 29·2 % of the students were considered overweight at the 2009 measurement. Controlling for 2008 weight status revealed moderating effects of parenting style on the relationship between child-feeding practices and child weight status. Both authoritative and authoritarian mothers might monitor their children's dietary intake; however, the effectiveness of this practice was better, in terms of weight status control, among the authoritative mothers. Findings suggest that parenting styles have a moderating effect on specific parental child-feeding practices. Parenting styles and parent's feeding practices could be an important focus for future public health interventions addressing the rising childhood obesity epidemic.

  14. Clinical significance of changes of serum levels of SIL-2R and CEA in patients with lung cancer after chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rui Zhilian

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum levels of SIL-2R and CEA after chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer. Methods: Serum levels of SIL-2R (with ELISA) and CEA (with RIA) were measured in 31 patients with lung cancer both before and after chemotherapy as well as in 35 cantrols. Results: Before chemotherapy, both serum SIL-2R and CEA levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05), but the serum SIL-2R levels in the patients remained significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Determination of changes of serum SIL-2R and CEA levels after chemotherapy might be helpful for predicting the treatment outcomes in patients with lung cancer. (author)

  15. Changes on diffusion-weighted MRI with focal motor status epilepticus: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevblad, K.O.; Senn, P.; Zutter, D.; Bassetti, C.; Donati, F.; Loevblad, K.O.; Zeller, O.; Schroth, G.

    2003-01-01

    Transient imaging abnormalities, including changes on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), may be seen in focal status epilepticus. The changes on DWI provide an insight into the pathophysiology. We report a 53-year-old man with focal motor status epilepticus involving the left hand, arm and face with focal slowing on EEG. The apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) were higher in the affected hemisphere than on the other side. At 10 days and 6 weeks after the end of the seizures, we saw normal ADCs and atrophy of the affected hemisphere. We conclude that the MRI findings indicate both cytotoxic and vasogenic oedema during seizure activity and subsequent loss of brain parenchyma. (orig.)

  16. Changes on diffusion-weighted MRI with focal motor status epilepticus: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevblad, K O [Neuroradiology, Radiodiagnostic, Hopital Cantonal de Geneve HUG, Geneve (Switzerland); Senn, P; Zutter, D; Bassetti, C; Donati, F [Dept. of Neurology, Inselspital, Univ. Hospital, Berne (Switzerland); Loevblad, K O; Zeller, O; Schroth, G [Div. of Neuroradiology, Inselspital, Univ. Hospital, Berne (Switzerland)

    2003-04-01

    Transient imaging abnormalities, including changes on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), may be seen in focal status epilepticus. The changes on DWI provide an insight into the pathophysiology. We report a 53-year-old man with focal motor status epilepticus involving the left hand, arm and face with focal slowing on EEG. The apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) were higher in the affected hemisphere than on the other side. At 10 days and 6 weeks after the end of the seizures, we saw normal ADCs and atrophy of the affected hemisphere. We conclude that the MRI findings indicate both cytotoxic and vasogenic oedema during seizure activity and subsequent loss of brain parenchyma. (orig.)

  17. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy change vessel tree geometry and metastatic spread in a small cell lung cancer xenograft mouse tumor model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Frenzel

    Full Text Available Tumor vasculature is critical for tumor growth, formation of distant metastases and efficiency of radio- and chemotherapy treatments. However, how the vasculature itself is affected during cancer treatment regarding to the metastatic behavior has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the influence of hypofractionated radiotherapy and cisplatin chemotherapy on vessel tree geometry and metastasis formation in a small cell lung cancer xenograft mouse tumor model to investigate the spread of malignant cells during different treatments modalities.The biological data gained during these experiments were fed into our previously developed computer model "Cancer and Treatment Simulation Tool" (CaTSiT to model the growth of the primary tumor, its metastatic deposit and also the influence on different therapies. Furthermore, we performed quantitative histology analyses to verify our predictions in xenograft mouse tumor model.According to the computer simulation the number of cells engrafting must vary considerably to explain the different weights of the primary tumor at the end of the experiment. Once a primary tumor is established, the fractal dimension of its vasculature correlates with the tumor size. Furthermore, the fractal dimension of the tumor vasculature changes during treatment, indicating that the therapy affects the blood vessels' geometry. We corroborated these findings with a quantitative histological analysis showing that the blood vessel density is depleted during radiotherapy and cisplatin chemotherapy. The CaTSiT computer model reveals that chemotherapy influences the tumor's therapeutic susceptibility and its metastatic spreading behavior.Using a system biological approach in combination with xenograft models and computer simulations revealed that the usage of chemotherapy and radiation therapy determines the spreading behavior by changing the blood vessel geometry of the primary tumor.

  18. Dietary Intake of Protein from Different Sources and Weight Regain, Changes in Body Composition and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors after Weight Loss: The DIOGenes Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen A. van Baak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An increase in dietary protein intake has been shown to improve weight loss maintenance in the DIOGenes trial. Here, we analysed whether the source of the dietary proteins influenced changes in body weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors during the weight maintenance period while following an energy-restricted diet. 489 overweight or obese participants of the DIOGenes trial from eight European countries were included. They successfully lost >8% of body weight and subsequently completed a six month weight maintenance period, in which they consumed an ad libitum diet varying in protein content and glycemic index. Dietary intake was estimated from three-day food diaries. A higher plant protein intake with a proportional decrease in animal protein intake did not affect body weight maintenance or cardiometabolic risk factors. A higher plant protein intake from non-cereal products instead of cereal products was associated with benefits for body weight maintenance and blood pressure. Substituting meat protein for protein from other animal sources increased insulin and HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. This analysis suggests that not only the amount of dietary proteins, but also the source may be important for weight and cardiometabolic risk management. However, randomized trials are needed to test the causality of these associations.

  19. A systematic review and meta-analysis of changes in body weight in clinical trials of vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Neal D; Levin, Susan M; Yokoyama, Yoko

    2015-06-01

    In observational studies, vegetarians generally have lower body weights compared with omnivores. However, weight changes that occur when vegetarian diets are prescribed have not been well quantified. We estimated the effect on body weight when vegetarian diets are prescribed. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles through December 31, 2013. Additional articles were identified from reference lists. We included intervention trials in which participants were adults, interventions included vegetarian diets of ≥4 weeks' duration without energy intake limitations, and effects on body weight were reported. Two investigators independently extracted data using predetermined fields. Estimates of body weight change, comparing intervention groups to untreated control groups, were derived using a random effects model to estimate the weighted mean difference. To quantify effects on body weight of baseline weight, sex, age, study duration, study goals, type of diet, and study authorship, additional analyses examined within-group changes for all studies reporting variance data. We identified 15 trials (17 intervention groups), of which 4 included untreated controls. Prescription of vegetarian diets was associated with a mean weight change of -3.4 kg (95% CI -4.4 to -2.4; Pbody weight, suggesting potential value for prevention and management of weight-related conditions. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Large-scale genome-wide association studies and meta-analyses of longitudinal change in adult lung function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Tang

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified numerous loci influencing cross-sectional lung function, but less is known about genes influencing longitudinal change in lung function.We performed GWAS of the rate of change in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 in 14 longitudinal, population-based cohort studies comprising 27,249 adults of European ancestry using linear mixed effects model and combined cohort-specific results using fixed effect meta-analysis to identify novel genetic loci associated with longitudinal change in lung function. Gene expression analyses were subsequently performed for identified genetic loci. As a secondary aim, we estimated the mean rate of decline in FEV1 by smoking pattern, irrespective of genotypes, across these 14 studies using meta-analysis.The overall meta-analysis produced suggestive evidence for association at the novel IL16/STARD5/TMC3 locus on chromosome 15 (P  =  5.71 × 10(-7. In addition, meta-analysis using the five cohorts with ≥3 FEV1 measurements per participant identified the novel ME3 locus on chromosome 11 (P  =  2.18 × 10(-8 at genome-wide significance. Neither locus was associated with FEV1 decline in two additional cohort studies. We confirmed gene expression of IL16, STARD5, and ME3 in multiple lung tissues. Publicly available microarray data confirmed differential expression of all three genes in lung samples from COPD patients compared with controls. Irrespective of genotypes, the combined estimate for FEV1 decline was 26.9, 29.2 and 35.7 mL/year in never, former, and persistent smokers, respectively.In this large-scale GWAS, we identified two novel genetic loci in association with the rate of change in FEV1 that harbor candidate genes with biologically plausible functional links to lung function.

  1. Weight loss after bariatric surgery and periodontal changes: a 12-month prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales-Peres, Silvia Helena de Carvalho; Sales-Peres, Matheus de Carvalho; Ceneviva, Reginaldo; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    Several longitudinal studies have explored the association of obesity and weight gain with periodontal disease. However, the effect of weight loss on periodontal tissues remains unclear. To explore whether weight loss after bariatric surgery was associated with changes in periodontal measures over 12 months. Two public hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil. We used data from 110 morbidly obese patients (body mass index [BMI]>40 kg/m 2 or≥35 kg/m 2 with co-morbid conditions) who underwent bariatric surgery between April 2011 and March 2013. Data on demographic factors, BMI, smoking habits, and glucose levels were extracted from medical records preoperatively and after 6 and 12 months postsurgery. A full-mouth periodontal examination was conducted by trained examiners to assess probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss, and bleeding on probing (BOP) at baseline and 6 and 12 months after surgery. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. BMI was not significantly related to the proportion of sites with BOP at baseline, but it was negatively associated with the rate of change in the proportion of sites with BOP. The greater the BMI loss, the higher the proportion of sites with BOP, particularly 6 months after surgery. However, BMI was not associated with baseline probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss or rates of changes in these periodontal outcomes. The findings suggest that weight loss was associated with increased gingival bleeding, showing a peak at 6 months after bariatric surgery. Periodontal pocketing and attachment loss remained unchanged during the study period. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. [Amplitude Changes of Low Frequency Fluctuation in Brain Spontaneous Nervous Activities Induced by Needling at Hand Taiyin Lung Channel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You-long; Su, Cheng-guo; Liu, Shou-fang; Jin, Xiang-yu; Duan, Yan-li; Chen, Xiao-yan; Zhao, Shu-hua; Wang, Quan-liang; Dang, Chang-lin

    2016-05-01

    To observe amplitude changes of low frequency fluctuation in brain spontaneous nervous activities induced by needling at Hand Taiyin Lung Channel, and to preliminarily explore the possible brain function network of Hand Taiyin Lung Channel. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 16 healthy volunteers underwent resting-state scanning (R1) and scanning with retained acupuncture at Hand Taiyin Lung Channel (acupuncture, AP). Data of fMRI collected were statistically calculated using amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF). Under R1 significantly enhanced ALFF occurred in right precuneus, left inferior parietal lobule, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral middle frontal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus. Under AP significantly enhanced ALFF occurred in right precuneus, bilateral superior frontal gyrus, cerebellum, bilateral middle frontal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, and so on. Compared with R1, needing at Hand Taiyin Lung Channel could significantly enhance ALFF in right gyrus subcallosum and right inferior frontal gyrus. Significant decreased ALFF appeared in right postcentral gyrus, left precuneus, left superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and so on. Needing at Hand Taiyin Lung Channel could significantly change fixed activities of cerebral cortex, especially in right subcallosal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus, and so on.

  3. Changes in stature, weight, and nutritional status with tourism-based economic development in the Yucatan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, Thomas L; Goodman, Alan H; Stillman, Tobias

    2010-07-01

    Over the past 40 years, tourism-based economic development has transformed social and economic conditions in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We address how these changes have influenced anthropometric indicators of growth and nutritional status in Yalcoba, a Mayan farming community involved in the circular migration of labor in the tourist economy. Data are presented on stature and weight for children measured in 1938 in the Yucatan Peninsula and from 1987 to 1998 in the Mayan community of Yalcoba. In addition, stature, weight and BMI are presented for adults in Yalcoba based on clinic records. Childhood stature varied little between 1938 and 1987. Between 1987 and 1998 average male child statures increased by 2.6cm and female child statures increased by 2.7cm. Yet, 65% of children were short for their ages. Between 1987 and 1998, average child weight increased by 1.8kg. Child BMIs were similar to US reference values and 13% were considered to be above average for weight. Forty percent of adult males and 64% of females were overweight or obese. The anthropometric data from Yalcoba suggest a pattern of stunted children growing into overweight adults. This pattern is found elsewhere in the Yucatan and in much of the developing world where populations have experienced a nutrition transition toward western diets and reduced physical activity levels. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Diet and physical activity in relation to weight change among breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaw, Yong Heng; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Weay, Yong Heng; Saibul, Nurfaizah; Sariman, Sarina; Hashim, Zailina

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide an overview of lifestyle changes after breast cancer diagnosis and to examine the relationship between dietary and physical activity changes with weight changes in breast cancer patients. Women with breast carcinomas (n=368) were recruited from eight hospitals and four breast cancer support groups in peninsular Malaysia. Dietary and physical activity changes were measured from a year preceding breast cancer diagnosis to study entry. Mean duration since diagnosis was 4.86±3.46 years. Dietary changes showed that majority of the respondents had decreased their intake of high fat foods (18.8-65.5%), added fat foods (28.3-48.9%), low fat foods (46.8-80.7%), red meat (39.7%), pork and poultry (20.1-39.7%) and high sugar foods (42.1-60.9%) but increased their intake of fish (42.7%), fruits and vegetables (62.8%) and whole grains (28.5%). Intake of other food groups remained unchanged. Only a small percentage of the women (22.6%) had increased their physical activity since diagnosis where most of them (16.0%) had increased recreational activities. Age at diagnosis (β= -0.20, p= 0.001), and change in whole grain (β= -0.15, p= 0.003) and fish intakes (β= 0.13, p= 0.013) were associated with weight changes after breast cancer diagnosis. In summary, the majority of the women with breast cancer had changed their diets to a healthier one. However, many did not increase their physical activity levels which could improve their health and lower risk of breast cancer recurrence.

  5. Correlating changes in lung function with patient outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a pooled analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Paul W

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relationships between improvements in lung function and other clinical outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are not documented extensively. We examined whether changes in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 are correlated with changes in patient-reported outcomes. Methods Pooled data from three indacaterol studies (n = 3313 were analysed. Means and responder rates for outcomes including change from baseline in Transition Dyspnoea Index (TDI, St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ scores (at 12, 26 and 52 weeks, and COPD exacerbation frequency (rate/year were tabulated across categories of ΔFEV1. Also, generalised linear modelling was performed adjusting for covariates such as baseline severity and inhaled corticosteroid use. Results With increasing positive ΔFEV1, TDI and ΔSGRQ improved at all timepoints, exacerbation rate over the study duration declined (P 1 was associated with improved TDI (0.46 units, ΔSGRQ (1.3-1.9 points and exacerbation rate (12% decrease. Overall, adjustments for baseline covariates had little impact on the relationship between ΔFEV1 and outcomes. Conclusions These results suggest that larger improvements in FEV1 are likely to be associated with larger patient-reported benefits across a range of clinical outcomes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00393458, NCT00463567, and NCT00624286

  6. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K.; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange.

  7. Perfluoroalkyl substances and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate in response to weight-loss diets: A prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Jeremy D.; Liang, Liming; Qi, Lu; Bray, George A.; DeJonge, Lilian; Coull, Brent

    2018-01-01

    Background The potential endocrine-disrupting effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been demonstrated in animal studies, but whether PFASs may interfere with body weight regulation in humans is largely unknown. This study aimed to examine the associations of PFAS exposure with changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight-loss setting. Methods and findings In the 2-year POUNDS Lost randomized clinical trial based in Boston, Massachusetts, and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, that examined the effects of energy-restricted diets on weight changes, baseline plasma concentrations of major PFASs were measured among 621 overweight and obese participants aged 30–70 years. Body weight was measured at baseline and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. RMR and other metabolic parameters, including glucose, lipids, thyroid hormones, and leptin, were measured at baseline and 6 and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.4 kg of body weight during the first 6 months (weight-loss period) and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight during the period of 6–24 months (weight regain period). After multivariate adjustment, baseline PFAS concentrations were not significantly associated with concurrent body weight or weight loss during the first 6 months. In contrast, higher baseline levels of PFASs were significantly associated with a greater weight regain, primarily in women. In women, comparing the highest to the lowest tertiles of PFAS concentrations, the multivariate-adjusted mean weight regain (SE) was 4.0 (0.8) versus 2.1 (0.9) kg for perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) (Ptrend = 0.01); 4.3 (0.9) versus 2.2 (0.8) kg for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (Ptrend = 0.007); 4.7 (0.9) versus 2.5 (0.9) kg for perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (Ptrend = 0.006); 4.9 (0.9) versus 2.7 (0.8) kg for perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) (Ptrend = 0.009); and 4.2 (0.8) versus 2.5 (0.9) kg for perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) (Ptrend = 0.03). When

  8. Major depressive disorder, antidepressant use, and subsequent 2-year weight change patterns in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson-Smith, Deborah; Bot, Mariska; Milaneschi, Yuri; Twisk, Jos W; Visser, Marjolein; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    BACKGROUND: Although depression and obesity are bidirectionally associated, little is known about weight changes following major depressive disorder (MDD). This study compared 2-year weight changes between patients with current MDD (cMDD), patients with remitted MDD (rMDD), and healthy controls.

  9. Diffusion Lung Capacity Changes in Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Before and After ABVD Chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, M.; Alam, S.; Majid, A.; Zafar, W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy consisting of Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine, and Doxorubicin (ABVD), which is the mainstay of treatment in Hodgkins Lymphoma (HL), is associated with both acute and long-term pulmonary toxicity primarily due to Bleomycin. Bleomycin induced pulmonary toxicity (BPT) is clinically detected using diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO). The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in DLCO in HL patients before and after ABVD chemotherapy. Methods: Medical records of all adult HL patients treated with ABVD chemotherapy at a single centre in Lahore, Pakistan during the entire calendar year 2012 were analysed. Patients with pre-existing pulmonary dysfunction, history of thoracic surgery and smokers were excluded. Results: A total of 179 HL patients were identified during the study period who received ABVD chemotherapy. Out of these, 93 (51.95 percent) patients had undergone both a pre- and post-chemotherapy DLCO measurements. The remaining patients had only one DLCO reading available and were not included in the analysis. The mean percentage difference between pre- and post-chemotherapy values for DLCO (5.49 percent; 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 1.56-9.43 percent) and for Haemoglobin-adjusted DLCO (8.24 percent; 95 percent CI 3.90-12.57 percent) were statistically significant at p<0.01. Diffusing lung capacity for carbon (DLCO) values declined from pre-treatment to post-treatment by 1-10 percent in 23 (24.7 percent) patients, by 10-20 percent in 19 (20.4 percent) patients, by 20-30 percent in 10 (10.8 percent) patients and >30 percent in 10 (10.8 percent) patients. After adjusting for age, a 1mg/m/sup 2/ increase in dose of Bleomycin was significantly associated with 0.14 percent (95 percent CI: 0.03-0.25 percent) decline in DLCO and 0.13 percent (95 percent CI: 0.10-0.26 percent) decline in haemoglobin-adjusted DLCO from pre-treatment value. Conclusions: Mild to moderate dysfunction in diffusion lung capacity is

  10. Effects of Dexmedetomidine Infusion on Inflammatory Responses and Injury of Lung Tidal Volume Changes during One-Lung Ventilation in Thoracoscopic Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yu Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One-lung ventilation in thoracic surgery provokes profound systemic inflammatory responses and injury related to lung tidal volume changes. We hypothesized that the highly selective a2-adrenergic agonist dexmedetomidine attenuates these injurious responses. Sixty patients were randomly assigned to receive dexmedetomidine or saline during thoracoscopic surgery. There is a trend of less postoperative medical complication including that no patients in the dexmedetomidine group developed postoperative medical complications, whereas four patients in the saline group did (0% versus 13.3%, p=0.1124. Plasma inflammatory and injurious biomarkers between the baseline and after resumption of two-lung ventilation were particularly notable. The plasma high-mobility group box 1 level decreased significantly from 51.7 (58.1 to 33.9 (45.0 ng.ml−1 (p<0.05 in the dexmedetomidine group, which was not observed in the saline group. Plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [151.8 (115.1 to 235.2 (186.9 pg.ml−1, p<0.05] and neutrophil elastase [350.8 (154.5 to 421.9 (106.1 ng.ml−1, p<0.05] increased significantly only in the saline group. In addition, plasma interleukin-6 was higher in the saline group than in the dexmedetomidine group at postoperative day 1 [118.8 (68.8 versus 78.5 (58.8 pg.ml−1, p=0.0271]. We conclude that dexmedetomidine attenuates one-lung ventilation-associated inflammatory and injurious responses by inhibiting alveolar neutrophil recruitment in thoracoscopic surgery.

  11. Changes in Weight Loss, Health Behaviors, and Intentions among 400 Participants Who Dropped out from an Insurance-Sponsored, Community-Based Weight Management Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam J. Zizzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of weight management research is based on data from randomized controlled studies conducted in clinical settings. As these findings are translated into community-based settings, additional research is needed to understand patterns of lifestyle change and dropout. The purpose of this study was to examine reasons for and consequences associated with dropout (or removal from an insurance-funded weight management program. Using a mixed methods approach with objectively measured changes in body weight and attendance along with quantitative and qualitative survey data, patterns of intention and behavior change were explored. The results from a sample of 400 respondents support the idea that there are both positive and negative consequences of program participation. Overall, 1 in 5 respondents lost a clinically significant amount of weight during the program (>5% of baseline body weight and 1 in 3 experienced a positive consequence, while only 6% expressed a negative outcome of participation. Additionally, nearly 90% of all of the consequences that emerged from the data were positive. Attitude change was a major theme, including positive health intentions, perceived success, learning skills, and new appreciation of exercise.

  12. Cerebral staging of lung cancer: is one single contrast-enhanced T1-weighted three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence sufficient?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohana, Mickael; Jeung, Mi-Young; Roy, Catherine [Nouvel Hopital Civil-Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Radiologie B/Radiology Department, Strasbourg (France); Bazille, Gauthier [Clinique Saint Anne-Groupe Radiologique MIM, Strasbourg (France)

    2014-08-15

    Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard for cerebral staging in thoracic oncology. We hypothesize that a minimalist examination, consisting of a single contrast-enhanced T1-weighted three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence (CE 3D-GRE), would be sufficient for the cerebral staging of nonsymptomatic lung cancer patients. Seventy nonsymptomatic patients (50 % men; 62 years ± 10.2) referred for cerebral staging of a lung cancer were retrospectively included. All underwent a standard 3 T MRI examination with T1, FLAIR, T2* GRE, diffusion, and CE 3D-GRE sequences, for a total examination time of 20 min. The sole CE 3D-GRE (acquisition time: 6 min) was extracted and blindly interpreted by two radiologists in search of brain metastases. Hemorrhagic features of potential lesions and relevant incidental findings were also noted. Discrepant cases were reviewed by a third reader. The full MRI examination and follow-up studies were used as a reference to calculate sensitivity and specificity of the sole CE 3D-GRE. Thirty-eight point six percent (27 out of 70) of the patients had brain metastases. Performances and reader's agreement with the sole CE 3D-GRE sequence were excellent for the diagnosis of brain metastases (sensitivity = 96.3 %, specificity = 100 %, κ = 0.91) and incidental findings (sensitivity = 85.7 %, specificity = 100 %, κ = 0.62) but insufficient for the identification of hemorrhages within the metastases (sensitivity = 33.3 %, specificity = 85.7 %, κ = 0.47). In the specific case of lung cancer, cerebral staging in nonsymptomatic patients can be efficiently achieved with a minimalistic protocol consisting of a single CE 3D-GRE sequence, completed if positive with a T2* sequence for hemorrhagic assessment, thus halving appointment delays. (orig.)

  13. Effect of retirement on eating out and weight change: an analysis of gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sukyung; Popkin, Barry M; Domino, Marisa E; Stearns, Sally C

    2007-04-01

    The objectives were to understand how the retirement decisions of older Americans influence household food consumption patterns by gender and, in turn, to examine the impact of the change in food consumption on weight. This study used five waves of the Health and Retirement Study (1992 to 2002; n=28,117). Participants were 50 to 71 years old during the study period. We used longitudinal regression analyses controlling for health events, spousal factors, socioeconomic factors, and individual fixed effects over time. Retirement of the individual and of his/her spouse reduced the individual's monthly spending on eating out by $10 and $7 on average, respectively, but did not change household spending on food at home. The wife's, but not the husband's, retirement decreased the spouse's spending on eating out by $13/mo. Spending on eating out was a significant but weak (0.003BMI/$) predictor of weight gain. The decrease in spending on eating out after retirement, particularly women's, suggests that people eat out less when they have more time for food preparation at home. However, increases in other risks of weight gain with retirement, such as physical inactivity, could counteract the effects of eating out less.

  14. Use of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MR imaging for assessment of treatment response to invasive fungal infection in the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chenggong; Xiong, Wei; Wu, Yuankui; Li, Caixia; Xu, Yikai [Southern Medical University, Department of Medical Imaging Center, Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Xu, Jun; Wei, Qi; Feng, Ru; Liu, Qifa [Southern Medical University, Department of Hematology, Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Chan, Queenie [Philips Healthcare, New Territories, Hon Kong (China)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) -derived parameters and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) could act as imaging biomarkers for predicting antifungal treatment response. Forty-six consecutive patients (mean age, 33.9 ± 13.0 y) with newly diagnosed invasive fungal infection (IFI) in the lung according to EORTC/MSG criteria were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 3.0 T using 11 b values (0-1000 sec/mm{sup 2}). ADC, pseudodiffusion coefficient D*, perfusion fraction f, and the diffusion coefficient D were compared between patients with favourable (n=32) and unfavourable response (n=14). f values were significantly lower in the unfavourable response group (12.6%±4.4%) than in the favourable response group (30.2%±8.6%) (Z=4.989, P<0.001). However, the ADC, D, and D* were not significantly different between the two groups (P>0.05). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed f to be a significant predictor for differentiation, with a sensitivity of 93.8% and a specificity of 92.9%. IVIM-MRI is potentially useful in the prediction of antifungal treatment response to patients with IFI in the lung. Our results indicate that a low perfusion fraction f may be a noninvasive imaging biomarker for unfavourable response. (orig.)

  15. [Energy intake and body weight development of Warmblood foals that changed stud at weaning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, J K; Remler, H P; Senckenberg, E; Kienzle, E

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the energy requirements of Warmblood foals with a change of the stud at weaning. Nine colts purchased at weaning participated in the study aged approximately 6 months to 1 year. They were transported to the stud by their breeders either having been separated from their dams in their home stable or upon arrival at the stud. The foals were offered a late first cut of haylage, oats and foal starter feed. To ensure individual feeding of concentrates, the foals were tethered twice daily. The total combined haylage intake of all foals per day was recorded. Individual concentrate intake, body weight and body condition score (BCS) were documented at 4-week intervals. The total energy intake was 74 MJ digestible energy (68 MJ metabolisable energy) per animal per day. The foals had been delivered at the stud with a comparably low body weight (285 ± 30 kg) and BCS (4.2 ± 0.4 on a scale from 1 to 9). At the end of the study, aged 319 ± 22 days, they attained an average body weight of 326 ± 24 kg and a BCS of 4.2 ± 0.4. The energy intake of the foals of this study was higher and their body weight development slower than in foals of a parallel study, which were born and raised in the stud and therefore exposed to less stressful weaning conditions. Foals with a comparatively low body weight and BCS at weaning in combination with further stressors need considerably more energy than foals that undergo less stressful weaning conditions.

  16. Motor actions and spatiotemporal changes by weight divisions of mixed martial arts: Applications for training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarka, Bianca; Brito, Ciro José; Bello, Fábio Dal; Amtmann, John

    2017-10-01

    This study compared motor actions and spatiotemporal changes between weight divisions from Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC™), conducting a practical application for mixed martial arts (MMA) training. For this, we analyzed 2814 rounds of all weight divisions by motor actions and spatiotemporal changes according actions and time of the Keeping distance, Clinch and Groundwork combat phases. We observed differences between weight divisions in the keeping distance on stand-up combat (p≤0.001; with lower time in Featherweight 131.4s and bantamweight 127.9s) clinch without attack (p≤0.001; with higher timer in Flyweight 11.4s and Half-middleweight 12.6s) and groundwork without attack (p≤0.001; with higher timer in Half-middleweight 0.9s). During keeping distance, half-middleweight presented a higher frequency of Head Strikes Landed (p=0.026; 7±8 times) and attempted (p=0.003; 24±22 times). In clinch actions heavyweight present a higher frequency (p≤0.023) of head strike landed (3±7 times) and attempted (4±9 times) and half-middleweight for body strikes (p≤0.023) landed (2±5 times) and attempted (3±5 times). At the last, during groundwork, Bantamweight present a higher frequency (p≤0.036) of head strikes landed (8±10 times) and attempted (10±13 times) body strikes landed (p≤0.044; 3±5 times) and attempted (3±6 times). This study reveals important point to training and provide a challenge applied referential to the conditioning plains. From the weight divisions differences should be aware of the increase in the frequency of distance actions, especially in light and middleweights. On the Ground, bantamweight can focus on striking and grappling actions than others. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Weight loss and body composition changes following three sequential cycles of ketogenic enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Cappello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ketogenic enteral nutrition (KEN is a modification of the protein sparing modified fast in which a protein solution is introduced with a continuous infusion through a nasogastric tube over 10-days cycles. The aim of the study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the safety, compliance, weight loss and body composition changes after 3 sequential 10-days cycles of KEN therapy. Materials and Methods: From a large number of patients who underwent KEN therapy in our department over a 5-year period, we selected 188 patients who participated in 3 KEN cycles with 10-13 days of break between them. Before and after the treatment cycles, body composition was analyzed by bioelectric impedance; a final assessment was made 10 days after the end of last cycle. During each rest period all the patients were on a low-carbohydrate, normal caloric diet. Results: Most patients (97% successfully tolerated the nasogastric treatment and lost an average of 14.4 kg of body weight, 10.6 kg of fat mass and 3.4 kg of body cell mass. Adverse effects were recorded as mild gastric hypersecretion (2% and constipation (5%. Patients continued to lose fat during the 10-day follow up period after the end of each KEN Cycle. This effect may be explained by abnormality of water distribution during the rapid weight loss inducing the observed change in fat mass. Conclusion: Ten-days KEN treatment cycles can induce rapid weight loss and reduction of fat mass in obese patients. Furthermore, preservation of lean mass can be achieved by infusing 1.9 g of protein/kg of BCM.

  18. Health-related quality of life of mothers of very low birth weight children at the age of five: results from the Newborn Lung Project Statewide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Whitney P; Litzelman, Kristin; Spear, Hilary A; Wisk, Lauren E; Levin, Nataliya; McManus, Beth M; Palta, Mari

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in mothers of 5-year-old very low birth weight (VLBW) and normal birth weight (NBW) children, with a focus on the role of stress. This cohort study is ancillary to the Newborn Lung Project. A telephone interview collected information on symptoms of stress and HRQoL from 297 mothers of VLBW children and 290 mothers of NBW children who were enrolled in the Newborn Lung Project Statewide Cohort Study. Staged multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between caregiver status and maternal HRQoL and the role stress played in this relationship. Additional multiple regression analyses were also used to evaluate the correlates of poor maternal HRQoL among VLBW mothers. Mothers of VLBW children experienced worse physical and mental HRQoL than mothers of NBW children. Adjusted analyses showed that physical HRQoL was significantly different between these mothers (β: -1.87, P = 0.001); this relationship was attenuated by maternal stress. Among the mothers of VLBW children, stress significantly contributed to adverse HRQoL outcomes when children were aged five. Child behavior problems at the age of two were also associated with worse subsequent maternal mental HRQoL (β: -0.18, P = 0.004), while each week of neonatal intensive care unit stay was associated with worse physical HRQoL (β: -0.26, P = 0.02). Caring for a VLBW child is negatively associated with the HRQoL of mothers; this relationship might be, in part, explained by maternal stress. Addressing maternal stress may be an important way to improve long-term HRQoL.

  19. Pathomorphological changes of lungs and functional biochemical parameters of respiratory function in patients with intracerebral hemorrhages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Tertyishniy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary complications and closely related with them systemic functional-biochemical abnormalities are the most common complications of cerebral stroke. The purpose of the work was to research functional-biochemical parameters of respiratory function and to find it’s association with morphological changes in the lungs because of intracerebral hemorrhage. 37 sectional observations in patients who die of intracerebral hemorrhage were analized. It was conducted analysis of morphological transformations and retrospective analysis of functional-biochemical findings of respiratory functions, in order to detect changes of systemic hemodynamics, oxygen balance and ion-osmotic one and acid-alkaline status. The results of the study. The changes of blood gas composition and acid-alkaline status are registered in the lungs in the background of microcirculation disturbance from the first hours of development of intracerebral hemorrhage. During the first days of the onset of disease the partial oxygen pressure in arterial blood (РаО2 decreased 50,88% in comparison with the calculated normative findings. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (РаСО2 in the arterial blood rosed by 52,17%. Without conducting artificial lung ventilation PO2 in venous blood decreased by 45,9%, and PCO2 increased by 40%. I has been marked a decrease in the oxygen capacity of the blood, due to the reduction of hemoglobin content in the blood to 103,7 minus 2 g/l and the concomitant decline in hematocrit up to 0,24-0,3. Deficit of the foundations has averaged from -6 to -10 mmol/l. These changes have led to a impression of the respiratory and metabolic acidosis, with a significant increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions. In the first day after the development of the disease with a rapid growing marks of swelling of the brain with concomitant dislocation of the brain stem, blood pH was 7,28 minus 0,02. It has been histologically determined interstitial edema, that

  20. Genetic correlations between body weight change and reproduction traits in Merino ewes depend on age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, G; Mulder, H A; van der Werf, J H J; Thompson, A N; van Arendonk, J A M

    2014-08-01

    Merino sheep in Australia experience periods of variable feed supply. Merino sheep can be bred to be more resilient to this variation by losing less BW when grazing poor quality pasture and gaining more BW when grazing good quality pasture. Therefore, selection on BW change might be economically attractive but correlations with other traits in the breeding objective need to be known. The genetic correlations (rg) between BW, BW change, and reproduction were estimated using records from approximately 7,350 fully pedigreed Merino ewes managed at Katanning in Western Australia. Number of lambs and total weight of lambs born and weaned were measured on approximately 5,300 2-yr-old ewes, approximately 4,900 3-yr-old ewes, and approximately 3,600 4-yr-old ewes. On a proportion of these ewes BW change was measured: approximately 1,950 2-yr-old ewes, approximately 1,500 3-yr-old ewes, and approximately 1,100 4-yr-old ewes. The BW measurements were for 3 periods. The first period was during mating period over 42 d on poor pasture. The second period was during pregnancy over 90 d for ewes that got pregnant on poor and medium quality pasture. The third period was during lactation over 130 d for ewes that weaned a lamb on good quality pasture. Genetic correlations between weight change and reproduction were estimated within age classes. Genetic correlations were tested to be significantly greater magnitude than 0 using likelihood ratio tests. Nearly all BW had significant positive genetic correlations with all reproduction traits. In 2-yr-old ewes, BW change during the mating period had a positive genetic correlation with number of lambs weaned (rg = 0.58); BW change during pregnancy had a positive genetic correlation with total weight of lambs born (rg = 0.33) and a negative genetic correlation with number of lambs weaned (rg = -0.49). All other genetic correlations were not significantly greater magnitude than 0 but estimates of genetic correlations for 3-yr-old ewes were

  1. Changes in clinical presentation and staging of lung cancer over two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Mouronte-Roibás, Cecilia; Ramos-Hernández, Cristina; Botana-Rial, Maribel; González-Piñeiro, Ana; García-Rodríguez, Esmeralda; Represas-Represas, Cristina; Fernández-Villar, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    Important clinical and epidemiological changes have been observed in lung cancer (LC) in our healthcare area compared to the previous decade. In the last 10 years, specific LC care circuits have been implemented and the active search for cases has been stepped up. The aim of this study was to analyze the progress of these changes over the last 20 years. This is a retrospective study comparing clinical and epidemiological changes between 2 historical cohorts of LC patients (1992-1994 [group 1, 164 patients] and 2004-2006 [group 2, 250 patients]) and a current group from the period 2011-2012 (group 3, 209 patients) Two hundred and nine (209) LC patients were included in group 3 (2011-2012 period). After comparing groups 3 and 2, a non-significant rise in smoking was observed in women (59% vs 41%, p=.25), while the prevalence of adenocarcinoma was unchanged (45% vs 44%, p=.9). The main changes observed were the increase in cases with previous malignancies (23% vs 16%, p=.04), the rise in patients with no associated LC symptoms (33% vs 16%, p<.001), and an increased number of localized NSCLC (non-small cell LC) diagnoses (42% vs 24% in series 2, p<.001 and 14.2% in series 1, p<.001). The number of LC patients diagnosed in localized stages has increased significantly. Furthermore, the number of patients with no symptoms associated with LC and with a history of previous malignancy were significantly increased. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in body composition during weight loss in obese subjects in the NUGENOB study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdich, C.; Barbe, P.; Petersen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    AIM: We studied the accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess changes in body composition during moderate weight loss in obese subjects. METHODS: Estimates of changes in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) by BIA were compared with those by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA...... DPX-IQ at two centres, Hologic QDR 2000 at another centre) at baseline (n=131) and at week 10 (n=105) after a mean weight loss of -5.7kg. RESULTS: At baseline, BIA significantly overestimated FFM and underestimated FM (by 1-3kg on average) compared with DXA, and the limits of agreement were wide (mean......±7-8.5kg). For body-composition changes, although biases were generally non-significant, the limits of agreement were also wide (mean±3.7-4.6kg). An FFM prediction equation for BIA data was developed in subjects scanned with Lunar instruments and cross-validated in an independent sample of 31 obese...

  3. Lung Development and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    The onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can arise either from failure to attain the normal spirometric plateau or from an accelerated decline in lung function. Despite reports from numerous big cohorts, no single adult life factor, including smoking, accounts for this accelerated decline. By contrast, five childhood risk factors (maternal and paternal asthma, maternal smoking, childhood asthma and respiratory infections) are strongly associated with an accelerated rate of lung function decline and COPD. Among adverse effects on lung development are transgenerational (grandmaternal smoking), antenatal (exposure to tobacco and pollution), and early childhood (exposure to tobacco and pollution including pesticides) factors. Antenatal adverse events can operate by causing structural changes in the developing lung, causing low birth weight and prematurity and altered immunological responses. Also important are mode of delivery, early microbiological exposures, and multiple early atopic sensitizations. Early bronchial hyperresponsiveness, before any evidence of airway inflammation, is associated with adverse respiratory outcomes. Overlapping cohort studies established that spirometry tracks from the preschool years to late middle age, and those with COPD in the sixth decade already had the worst spirometry at age 10 years. Alveolar development is now believed to continue throughout somatic growth and is adversely impacted by early tobacco smoke exposure. Genetic factors are also important, with genes important in lung development and early wheezing also being implicated in COPD. The inescapable conclusion is that the roots of COPD are in early life, and COPD is a disease of childhood adverse factors interacting with genetic factors.

  4. Morphologic and biochemical changes in male rat lung after surgical and pharmacological castration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Ojeda

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the rat lung was studied by light microscopy in different situations: after surgical and pharmacological castration and after administration of testosterone to the castrated rat to determine if the androgen is required to maintain the normal morphology of the lung. We also determined the effect of flutamide on the phospholipid composition of both the surfactant and microsomes of the lung. Rats were separated into five groups: I - control non-castrated rats, II - castrated rats sacrificed 21 days after castration, III - castrated rats that received testosterone daily from day 2 to day 21 after castration, IV - castrated rats that received testosterone from day 15 to day 21 after castration, and V - control rats injected with flutamide for 7 days. The amount of different phospholipids in the surfactant and microsomes of the lung was measured in group I and V rats. At the light microscopy level, the surgical and pharmacological castration provoked alterations in the morphology of the lung, similar to that observed in human lung emphysema. The compositions of surfactant and microsomes of the lung were similar to those previously reported by us for the surgically castrated rats. These results indicate that androgens are necessary for the normal morphology as well as for some metabolic aspects of the lung.

  5. Perceived stress and anhedonia predict short-and long-term weight change, respectively, in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mostafa; Thearle, Marie S; Krakoff, Jonathan; Gluck, Marci E

    2016-04-01

    Perceived stress; emotional eating; anhedonia; depression and dietary restraint, hunger, and disinhibition have been studied as risk factors for obesity. However, the majority of studies have been cross-sectional and the directionality of these relationships remains unclear. In this longitudinal study, we assess their impact on future weight change. Psychological predictors of weight change in short- (6month) and long-term (>1year) periods were studied in 65 lean and obese individuals in two cohorts. Subjects participated in studies of food intake and metabolism that did not include any type of medication or weight loss interventions. They completed psychological questionnaires at baseline and weight change was monitored at follow-up visits. At six months, perceived stress predicted weight gain (r(2)=0.23, P=0.02). There was a significant interaction (r(2)=.38, P=0.009) between perceived stress and positive emotional eating, such that higher scores in both predicted greater weight gain, while those with low stress but high emotional eating scores lost weight. For long-term, higher anhedonia scores predicted weight gain (r(2)=0.24, P=0.04). Depression moderated these effects such that higher scores in both predicted weight gain but higher depression and lower anhedonia scores predicted weight loss. There are different behavioral determinants for short- and long-term weight change. Targeting perceived stress may help with short-term weight loss while depression and anhedonia may be better targets for long-term weight regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of bronchodilator response through changes in lung volumes in chronic airflow obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Figueroa-Casas

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Although FEV1 improvement is routinely used to define bronchodilator (BD response, it correlates poorly with clinical effects. Changes in lung volumes (LV have shown better correlation with exercise tolerance and might be more sensitive to detect BD effects. We assessed the additional contribution of measuring LV before and after BD to detect acute improvement in lung function not demonstrated by FEV1, and the influence of the response criteria selected on this contribution. We analyzed 98 spirometries and plethismographies performed pre and post BD in patients with airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC 10% of baseline (D>5 anD>15% were also analyzed. FEV1 identified as responders 32% of patients. Greater proportions were uncovered by slow vital capacity (51%, p5 anD>15%. Mean change and proportions of responders for each LV varied significantly (pSi bien el aumento del VEF1 es habitualmente utilizado para definir respuesta a broncodilatadores (BD, su correlación con efectos clínicos es pobre. Los cambios en volúmenes pulmonares (VP han demostrado mejor correlación con tolerancia al ejercicio y podrían ser más sensibles para detectar efectos de los BD. Nosotros evaluamos la contribución adicional de medir VP antes y después de BD para detectar mejoría funcional aguda no demostrada por cambios del VEF1, y la influencia del criterio de respuesta seleccionado en esta contribución. Se analizaron 98 espirometrías y pletismografías realizadas pre y post BD en pacientes con obstrucción al flujo aéreo (VEF1/CVF 10% del basal (D>5 y 15% fueron también analizados. El VEF1 identificó como respondedores a 32% de los pacientes. Proporciones mayores fueron identificadas por capacidad vital lenta (51%, p5 y 15%. El cambio promedio y las proporciones de respondedores para cada VP variaron significativamente (p<0.05 según que el cambio fuese expresado como porcentaje del basal o del valor predicho. Una proporción considerable de pacientes con obstrucci

  7. Changes in children's sleep duration on food intake, weight, and leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Chantelle N; Carskadon, Mary A; Considine, Robert V; Fava, Joseph L; Lawton, Jessica; Raynor, Hollie A; Jelalian, Elissa; Owens, Judith; Wing, Rena

    2013-12-01

    To examine the effect of experimental changes in children's sleep duration on self-reported food intake, food reinforcement, appetite-regulating hormones, and measured weight. Using a within-subjects, counterbalanced, crossover design, 37 children, 8 to 11 years of age (27% overweight/obese) completed a 3-week study. Children slept their typical amount at home for 1 week and were then randomized to either increase or decrease their time in bed by 1.5 hours per night for 1 week, completing the alternate schedule on the third week. Primary outcomes were dietary intake as assessed by 24-hour dietary recalls, food reinforcement (ie, points earned for a food reward), and fasting leptin and ghrelin. The secondary outcome was child weight. Participants achieved a 2 hour, 21 minute difference in the actigraph defined sleep period time between the increase and decrease sleep conditions (P fasting morning leptin values (P food reinforcement or in fasting ghrelin. Compared with decreased sleep, increased sleep duration in school-age children resulted in lower reported food intake, lower fasting leptin levels, and lower weight. The potential role of sleep duration in pediatric obesity prevention and treatment warrants further study.

  8. TH-CD-202-06: A Method for Characterizing and Validating Dynamic Lung Density Change During Quiet Respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, T [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ruan, D [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Heinrich, M [Institute of Medical Informatics, University of Lubeck, Lubeck, Schleswig-Holstein (Germany); Low, D [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To obtain a functional relationship that calibrates the lung tissue density change under free breathing conditions through correlating Jacobian values to the Hounsfield units. Methods: Free-breathing lung computed tomography images were acquired using a fast helical CT protocol, where 25 scans were acquired per patient. Using a state-of-the-art deformable registration algorithm, a set of the deformation vector fields (DVF) was generated to provide spatial mapping from the reference image geometry to the other free-breathing scans. These DVFs were used to generate Jacobian maps, which estimate voxelwise volume change. Subsequently, the set of 25 corresponding Jacobian and voxel intensity in Hounsfield units (HU) were collected and linear regression was performed based on the mass conservation relationship to correlate the volume change to density change. Based on the resulting fitting coefficients, the tissues were classified into parenchymal (Type I), vascular (Type II), and soft tissue (Type III) types. These coefficients modeled the voxelwise density variation during quiet breathing. The accuracy of the proposed method was assessed using mean absolute difference in HU between the CT scan intensities and the model predicted values. In addition, validation experiments employing a leave-five-out method were performed to evaluate the model accuracy. Results: The computed mean model errors were 23.30±9.54 HU, 29.31±10.67 HU, and 35.56±20.56 HU, respectively, for regions I, II, and III, respectively. The cross validation experiments averaged over 100 trials had mean errors of 30.02 ± 1.67 HU over the entire lung. These mean values were comparable with the estimated CT image background noise. Conclusion: The reported validation experiment statistics confirmed the lung density modeling during free breathing. The proposed technique was general and could be applied to a wide range of problem scenarios where accurate dynamic lung density information is needed

  9. Association of weight change with progression of meniscal intrasubstance degeneration over 48 months. Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao Guimaraes, Julio [University of California, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); DASA Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Nevitt, Michael C.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Liu, Felix [University of California, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco, CA (United States); Schwaiger, Benedikt J.; Gersing, Alexandra S.; Facchetti, Luca; Bucknor, Matthew D.; Chanchek, Nattagan; Joseph, Gabby B.; Link, Thomas M. [University of California, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2018-03-15

    To investigate the association of weight change over 48 months with progression of meniscal intrasubstance degeneration (MID). We studied 487 subjects with MID at baseline and after 48 months using 3-T MRI with the same protocol (FSE sequences with and without fat suppression). These participants lost weight (≥3%, n = 141), had moderate weight gain (3-10%, n = 77), substantial weight gain (>10%, n = 15) or maintained stable weight (n = 254). Progression of MID to a meniscal tear was assessed using the WORMS grading system and compared among weight change groups using logistic regression. ANOVA and chi-square tests were used to study the differences in subjects' characteristics. Progression of MID increased from weight loss to substantial weight gain (p < 0.001) and was significantly more likely with both moderate weight gain (odds ratio [OR], 4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4-8.9) and substantial weight gain (OR, 9.5; 95% CI 3.2-28.5) compared to stable weight. Results were similar in both menisci for moderate weight gain (medial: OR, 6.8; 95% CI 3.5-11.3; lateral: OR, 2.6; 95% CI 1.1-6.6) and substantial weight gain (medial: OR, 21.0; 95% CI 5.1-80.7; lateral: OR, 9.7; 95% CI 0.95-100.2). Weight gain is associated with an increased likelihood that meniscal intrasubstance degeneration will progress with the risk increasing with greater weight gain. (orig.)

  10. Thioacetamide-induced changes in the body weight, kidney weight and the total nucleic acids content of kidney of mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakoori, Abdul Rauf; Ashraf, Fauzia.

    1976-01-01

    Effects of thioacetamide (TAA) on the body weight, kidney weight and the total nucleic acids content of kidney of mouse were studied. TAA 1% and 2% solutions were injected intraperitoneally, twice with an interval of 24 hours in two different batches of male mice. In this way one batch received a total dose of 100 mg TAA/Kg body wt. while the other got a total dose of 200 mg TAA/Kg. Both the body as well as kidney weights decrease after TAA treatment. A total dose of 200 mg/Kg is a stronger inhibitor of growth as compared with that of 100 mg/Kg. The nucleic acids content show an increase after the drug treatment. The ribonucleic acid content of kidney increased from an average value of 4.30+0.14 mg/g kidney to 4.60+-0.22 mg/g kidney after 1% TAA treatment. The increase in 2% TAA treated mice is slightly more prominent. The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) content of kidney are likewise affected. After an initial increase in 1% TAA-treated animals, the DNA content gradually fall down to normal control values. Administration of 2% TAA solution causes an average increase of 21% i.e. from 1.93+-0.19 mg/g kidney wt to 2.26+-0.23 mg/g kidney wt. The size of cell, nucleus and nucleolus also increased after drug treatment, which mainly occurred during the first 24 hours of the post-treatment period

  11. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM in women more so than in men. Objective To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Design Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Subjects Overweight (N = 130; 58 male (M, 72 female (F; BMI = 32.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2 middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500 kcal/d diets providing protein at 1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO or 0.8 g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB. LM and fat mass (FM were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. Results When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2 ± 7.1 %, F:-9.9 ± 6.0 %, as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7 ± 6.8 %, CARB:-10.1 ± 6.2 %, with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0 ± 12.8 %, F:-7.3 ± 8.1 %, p  Conclusion PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss and maintenance. Men lost percent total body fat and trunk fat more effectively than women. No interactive effects of protein intake and gender are evident.

  12. The change in weight perception of weight status among the overweight: comparison of NHANES III (1988–1994 and 1999–2004 NHANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starke-Reed Pamela

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study seeks to determine whether perception of weight status among the overweight has changed with the increasing overweight/obesity prevalence. Methods The perception of weight status was compared between overweight participants (BMI between 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 from NHANES III (1988–1994 and overweight participants from NHANES 1999–2004. Perception of weight status was assessed by asking participants to classify their weight as about the right weight, underweight or overweight. Comparisons were made across age groups, genders, race/ethnicities and various income levels. Results Fewer overweight people during the NHANES 1999–2004 survey perceived themselves as overweight when compared to overweight people during the NHANES III survey. The change in distortion between the survey periods was greatest among persons with lower income, males and African-Americans. Conclusion The increase in overweight/obesity between the survey years (NHANES III and NHANES 1999–2004 has been accompanied with fewer overweight people perceiving themselves as overweight.

  13. Microstructural changes in ischemic cortical gray matter predicted by a model of diffusion-weighted MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter; Hansen, Brian; Østergaard, Leif

    2007-01-01

    compartment. A global optimum was found from a wide range of parameter permutations using cluster computing. We also present simulations of cell swelling and changes of exchange rate and intracellular diffusion as possible cellular mechanisms in ischemia. RESULTS: Our model estimates an extracellular volume...... compartments and slow water exchange. Our model reproduces the signal changes observed in ischemia via physiologically credible mechanisms. CONCLUSION: Our modeling suggests that transverse relaxation has a profound influence on the diffusion attenuated MR signal. Our simulations indicate cell swelling...... model to the diffusion-weighted MR signal obtained from cortical gray matter in healthy subjects. Our model includes variable volume fractions, intracellular restriction effects, and exchange between compartments in addition to individual diffusion coefficients and transverse relaxation rates for each...

  14. Weight change between successive pregnancies and risks of stillbirth and infant mortality: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnattingius, Sven; Villamor, Eduardo

    2016-02-06

    Maternal overweight and obesity are risk factors for stillbirth and infant mortality. Whether temporal changes in maternal weight affect these risks is not clear. We aimed to assess whether change of BMI between first and second pregnancies affects risks of stillbirth and infant mortality in the second-born offspring. In a Swedish population-based cohort of women who gave birth to their first and second child between Jan 1, 1992, and Dec 31, 2012, we investigated associations between change in maternal body-mass index (BMI) during early pregnancy from first to second pregnancies and risks of stillbirth and neonatal, postneonatal, and infant mortality after the second pregnancy. Relative risks (RRs) for each outcome according to BMI change categories were calculated with binomial regression. Complete information was available for 456,711 (77.7%) of 587,710 women who had their first and second single births in the study period. Compared with women with a stable BMI (change between -1 kg/m(2) and Karolinska Institutet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes of biochemical environment and body weight in healthy periparturient Lipizzan mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Hura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, chlorine, potassium, sodium, urea, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, non-esterified fatty acids, total protein, creatinine, total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, insulin, insulin growth factor 1, and glucose in the blood serum and to monitor the body weight changes in nine clinically healthy Lipizzan mares at weekly intervals within 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after the parturition. A significant body weight loss (P < 0.01 was found in the mares after the foaling. The peak of insulin growth factor 1 concentration in serum was reached at the day of parturition and similar patterns were revealed for the concentrations of insulin and glucose. After parturition, all these indices were significantly decreased. The concentrations of phosphorus and triacylglycerols were decreased, while the concentrations of potassium and sodium were increased at the day of parturition. Moreover, the concentration of non-esterified fatty acids was increased at the day of parturition (P < 0.05 with a tendency to higher values even on the 7th day postpartum. Other studied indexes remained relatively stable throughout the transition period. We can conclude that periparturient mares face some degree of negative energy balance with concomitant significant homeostatic and homeorhetic changes. For this reason, our results can be used as a basis for reference values and a diagnostic tool to examine the health status in horses during the transition period.

  16. Change in weight status and academic performance among senior high school students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-An; Chang, Hung-Hao; Wang, Jiun-Hao; Wu, Min-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how the changes in weight status across the spectrum of a senior high school study are associated with academic performance measured by the university entrance exam scores. A unique dataset which compiles a national health examination profile and the General Scholastic Ability Test data bank in Taiwan was constructed. The final sample comprised 149,240 senior high school students of which 70,662 were males and 78,578 were female students. The school-level fixed effect models were estimated. Students who were either (a) not overweight in the first year but overweight in the third year of senior high school, (b) overweight in both the first and third year, or (c) overweight in the first year but not overweight in the third year, were more likely to score lower on the university entrance exam, compared with their never-overweight counterparts. The findings differ by gender and test subjects. The change in weight status during senior high school period is associated with subsequent university entrance exam outcome. Students who start senior high school being overweight should be paid attention. School-based programs and practices need to be implemented to reduce the prevalence of overweight among students.

  17. Influence of sibutramine in addition to diet and exercise on the relationship between weight loss and blood glucose changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamil, S; Finer, N; James, W P T

    2017-01-01

    on glycemic control. METHODS AND RESULTS: 8192 obese patients with diabetes were randomized to sibutramine or placebo plus diet and exercise after a preliminary 6 weeks in which all patients received sibutramine. Patients were classified into four groups of weight change. A total of 1582 patients had a weight...... loss induced by sibutramine, diet, and exercise attenuates falls in blood glucose levels and HbA1c compared with similar weight loss with placebo, diet and exercise....

  18. Dietary energy density in relation to subsequent changes of weight and waist circumference in European men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Huaidong; van der A, Daphne L; Ginder, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental studies show that a reduction in dietary energy density (ED) is associated with reduced energy intake and body weight. However, few observational studies have investigated the role of ED on long-term weight and waist circumference change. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: T...... not prevent weight gain but have a weak yet potentially beneficial effect on the prevention of abdominal obesity as measured by waist circumference....

  19. Weight, shape, and muscularity concerns in male and female adolescents: Predictors of change and influences on eating concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Svenja; Warschburger, Petra

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of age and weight status on adolescents' body dissatisfaction and its change over 20 months in a gender-comparing design. The influence of body image concern on eating concern was also investigated. In a prospective study, 675 male and female adolescents aged 12-16 were assessed using self-report questionnaires on weight, shape, muscularity, and eating concerns. Height and weight measurements were taken by trained personnel. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Analyses of latent means revealed more pronounced weight/shape concern in females than males and more pronounced muscularity concern in males than females. Weight/shape concern increased in females over time, whereas muscularity concern remained stable in both genders. Baseline levels of weight/shape concern could be predicted by age and weight status in females and by weight status in males. The only predictor of change in weight/shape concern was weight status in males. Baseline levels of muscularity concern could be predicted by age in females and by weight status in males. Similar effects were found for changes in muscularity concern in both genders. Increases in weight/shape and muscularity concern were associated with more pronounced eating concern. The results confirm gender differences in distinctive facets of body image concern and its prediction. The relevance of increase in body image concern in adolescents is underlined by its association with eating concern in both genders. Further explanatory variables for change in body dissatisfaction should be examined in future studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:139-147). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Measuring interfraction and intrafraction lung function changes during radiation therapy using four-dimensional cone beam CT ventilation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipritidis, John; Keall, Paul J.; Hugo, Geoffrey; Weiss, Elisabeth; Williamson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Adaptive ventilation guided radiation therapy could minimize the irradiation of healthy lung based on repeat lung ventilation imaging (VI) during treatment. However the efficacy of adaptive ventilation guidance requires that interfraction (e.g., week-to-week), ventilation changes are not washed out by intrafraction (e.g., pre- and postfraction) changes, for example, due to patient breathing variability. The authors hypothesize that patients undergoing lung cancer radiation therapy exhibit larger interfraction ventilation changes compared to intrafraction function changes. To test this, the authors perform the first comparison of interfraction and intrafraction lung VI pairs using four-dimensional cone beam CT ventilation imaging (4D-CBCT VI), a novel technique for functional lung imaging. Methods: The authors analyzed a total of 215 4D-CBCT scans acquired for 19 locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) patients over 4–6 weeks of radiation therapy. This set of 215 scans was sorted into 56 interfraction pairs (including first day scans and each of treatment weeks 2, 4, and 6) and 78 intrafraction pairs (including pre/postfraction scans on the same-day), with some scans appearing in both sets. VIs were obtained from the Jacobian determinant of the transform between the 4D-CBCT end-exhale and end-inhale images after deformable image registration. All VIs were deformably registered to their corresponding planning CT and normalized to account for differences in breathing effort, thus facilitating image comparison in terms of (i) voxelwise Spearman correlations, (ii) mean image differences, and (iii) gamma pass rates for all interfraction and intrafraction VI pairs. For the side of the lung ipsilateral to the tumor, we applied two-sided t-tests to determine whether interfraction VI pairs were more different than intrafraction VI pairs. Results: The (mean ± standard deviation) Spearman correlation for interfraction VI pairs was r - Inter =0.52±0

  1. Measuring interfraction and intrafraction lung function changes during radiation therapy using four-dimensional cone beam CT ventilation imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipritidis, John, E-mail: john.kipritidis@sydney.edu.au; Keall, Paul J. [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia); Hugo, Geoffrey; Weiss, Elisabeth; Williamson, Jeffrey [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Adaptive ventilation guided radiation therapy could minimize the irradiation of healthy lung based on repeat lung ventilation imaging (VI) during treatment. However the efficacy of adaptive ventilation guidance requires that interfraction (e.g., week-to-week), ventilation changes are not washed out by intrafraction (e.g., pre- and postfraction) changes, for example, due to patient breathing variability. The authors hypothesize that patients undergoing lung cancer radiation therapy exhibit larger interfraction ventilation changes compared to intrafraction function changes. To test this, the authors perform the first comparison of interfraction and intrafraction lung VI pairs using four-dimensional cone beam CT ventilation imaging (4D-CBCT VI), a novel technique for functional lung imaging. Methods: The authors analyzed a total of 215 4D-CBCT scans acquired for 19 locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) patients over 4–6 weeks of radiation therapy. This set of 215 scans was sorted into 56 interfraction pairs (including first day scans and each of treatment weeks 2, 4, and 6) and 78 intrafraction pairs (including pre/postfraction scans on the same-day), with some scans appearing in both sets. VIs were obtained from the Jacobian determinant of the transform between the 4D-CBCT end-exhale and end-inhale images after deformable image registration. All VIs were deformably registered to their corresponding planning CT and normalized to account for differences in breathing effort, thus facilitating image comparison in terms of (i) voxelwise Spearman correlations, (ii) mean image differences, and (iii) gamma pass rates for all interfraction and intrafraction VI pairs. For the side of the lung ipsilateral to the tumor, we applied two-sided t-tests to determine whether interfraction VI pairs were more different than intrafraction VI pairs. Results: The (mean ± standard deviation) Spearman correlation for interfraction VI pairs was r{sup -}{sub Inter

  2. Weight change by baseline BMI from three-year observational data: findings from the Worldwide Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushe, Chris J; Slooff, Cees J; Haddad, Peter M; Karagianis, Jamie L

    2013-04-01

    The aim was to explore weight and body mass index (BMI) changes by baseline BMI in patients completing three years of monotherapy with various first- and second-generation antipsychotics in a large cohort in a post hoc analysis of three-year observational data. Data were analyzed by antipsychotic and three baseline BMI bands: underweight/normal weight (BMI 30 kg/m²). Baseline BMI was associated with subsequent weight change irrespective of the antipsychotic given. Specifically, a smaller proportion of patients gained ≥7% baseline bodyweight, and a greater proportion of patients lost ≥7% baseline bodyweight with increasing baseline BMI. For olanzapine (the antipsychotic associated with highest mean weight gain in the total drug cohort), the percentage of patients gaining ≥7% baseline weight was 45% (95% CI: 43-48) in the underweight/normal weight BMI cohort and 20% (95% CI: 15-27) in the obese BMI cohort; 7% (95% CI: 6-8) of the underweight/normal cohort and 19% (95% CI: 13-27) of the obese cohort lost ≥7% baseline weight. BMI has an association with the likelihood of weight gain or loss and should be considered in analyses of antipsychotic weight change.

  3. HIV status, breastfeeding modality at 5 months and postpartum maternal weight changes over 24 months in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Terusha; Carter, Rosalind J; Bland, Ruth M; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2014-07-01

    To determine the effect of infant feeding practices on postpartum weight change among HIV-infected and -uninfected women in South Africa. In a non-randomised intervention cohort study of antiretroviral therapy-naïve women in South Africa, infants were classified as exclusive (EBF), mixed (MF) or non-breastfed (NBF) at each visit. We analysed infant feeding cumulatively from birth to 5 months using 24-hour feeding history (collected weekly for each of the preceding 7 days). Using generalised estimating equation mixed models, allowing for repeated measures, we compared postpartum weight change (kg) from the first maternal postpartum weight within the first 6 weeks (baseline weight) to each subsequent visit through 24 months among 2340 HIV-infected and -uninfected women with live births and at least two postpartum weight measurements. HIV-infected (-0.2 kg CI: -1.7 to 1.3 kg; P = 0.81) and -uninfected women (-0.5 kg; 95% CI: -2.1 to 1.2 kg; P = 0.58) had marginal non-significant weight loss from baseline to 24 months postpartum. Adjusting for HIV status, socio-demographic, pregnancy-related and infant factors, 5-month feeding modality was not significantly associated with postpartum weight change: weight change by 24 months postpartum, compared to the change in the reference EBF group, was 0.03 kg in NBF (95% CI: -2.5 to +2.5 kg; P = 0.90) and 0.1 kg in MF (95% CI: -3.0 to +3.2 kg; P = 0.78). HIV-infected and -uninfected women experienced similar weight loss over 24 months. Weight change postpartum was not associated with 5-month breastfeeding modality among HIV-infected and -uninfected women. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Predictors of postpartum weight change among overweight and obese women: results from the Active Mothers Postpartum study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østbye, Truls; Peterson, Bercedis L; Krause, Katrina M; Swamy, Geeta K; Lovelady, Cheryl A

    2012-02-01

    The postpartum period may be critical for the development of midlife obesity. Identifying factors associated with postpartum weight change could aid in targeting women for healthy lifestyle interventions. Data from Active Mothers Postpartum (AMP), a study of overweight and obese postpartum women (n=450), were analyzed to determine the effect of baseline characteristics, breastfeeding, diet, physical activity, and contraception on weight change from 6 weeks to 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum. The repeated measures mixed model was used to test the association of these effects with weight change. Although mean weight loss was modest (0.49 kg by 24 months), the range of weight change was striking (+21.5 kg to -24.5 kg, standard deviation [SD] 7.4). Controlling only for baseline weight, weight loss was associated with breastfeeding, hormonal contraception, lower junk food and greater healthy food intake, and greater physical activity. Only junk food intake and physical activity were significant after controlling for all other predictors. Eating less healthy foods and being less physically active put overweight and obese women at risk of gaining more weight after a pregnancy.

  5. Weight change later in life and colon and rectal cancer risk in participants in the EPIC-PANACEA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steins Bisschop, Charlotte N; van Gils, Carla H; Emaus, Marleen J

    2014-01-01

    ,781 participants in the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating study (mean age: 50 y). Body weight was assessed at recruitment and on average 5 y later. Self-reported weight change (kg/y) was categorized in sex...

  6. Dietary Energy Density in Relation to Subsequent Changes of Weight and Waist Circumference in European Men and Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, H.; Ginder, V.; Jebb, S.A.; Forouchi, N.G.; Wareham, N.; Halkjaer, J.; Tjonneland, A.; Overvad, K.; Jakobsen, M.U.; Buijsse, B.; Steffen, A.; Palli, D.; Masala, G.; Saris, W.H.; Sorensen, T.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Experimental studies show that a reduction in dietary energy density (ED) is associated with reduced energy intake and body weight. However, few observational studies have investigated the role of ED on long-term weight and waist circumference change. Methods and Principal Findings -

  7. Characteristics of a Favorable Weight Status Change From Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Allison W; Loth, Katie A; Peterson, Colleen; Boutelle, Kerri N; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-04-01

    To explore 10-year longitudinal predictors (personal, psychological, behavioral, and socioenvironmental) of exiting obesity from adolescence to young adulthood. Data were collected from a population-based cohort of adolescents (n = 2,287) attending middle/high schools in Minneapolis-St. Paul in 1998-1999 (mean age = 14.9) and again in 2008-2009 (mean age = 25.3) participating in Project Eating and Activity Among Teens and Young Adults. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate weight status change between adolescence and young adulthood, among participants with obesity at baseline (n = 175). Questionnaires assessed personal, psychological, behavioral, and socioenvironmental factors hypothesized to play a role in obesity. Modified Poisson regressions estimated adjusted relative risks (RRs) for exiting obesity as a function of each baseline and 10-year change in predictor, controlling for relevant covariates. Thirty-two percent of adolescents exited obesity in young adulthood. Reductions in fast food intake (RR = .73, 95% confidence interval [CI] = .61-.87) and screen time (RR = .98, 95% CI = .96-.99), and increases in fruit/vegetable intake (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.12), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00-1.12), home fruit/vegetable availability (RR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.19-2.09), family meals (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03-1.22), and serving vegetables at dinner (RR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.10-1.92) were associated with exiting obesity. Not dieting as an adolescent and improvements in body satisfaction, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and weight teasing were also associated with exiting obesity. Promoting healthy eating and activity, and improving the healthfulness of home food environments may be promising intervention targets for promoting healthier weights in adolescents and young adults with obesity. Addressing dieting behavior and the psychosocial health of adolescents with obesity may also be needed throughout

  8. Estimation of pulmonary hypertension by perfusion lung scintigraphy: Gravitational effect of postural changes between the lateral decubitus positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Masao; Fujii, Tadashige; Hirayama, Jiro; Okubo, Shinichi; Sekiguchi, Morie

    1990-01-01

    To estimate pulmonary hypertension in patients with various heart diseases, we devised a new method using perfusion lung scintigraphy with 99m Tc-labelled macroaggregated albumin. In this method, changes in the distribution of pulmonary perfusion caused by gravitational effects, namely, changes in the total count ratios of the right lung against the left lung between right and left lateral decubitus positions (rt/lt), were assessed in 62 patients and in 10 normal subjects. The rt/lt ratios were calculated as indices of the above changes. They correlated significantly with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) (γ=-0.62, P<0.001), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (γ=-0.63, P<0.001) and pulmonary arteriolar resistance (γ=0.50, P<0.001) in all subjects. In 17 patients with valvular heart diseases, the ratio correlated significantly with mPAP (γ=-0.84, P<0.001). In 10 patients with various heart diseases, the U/S ratio, i.e. the index of changes in the count ratios of the upper field against the lower field for the right lung following postural change from the uprigth to the supine position, was also obtained as well as the rt/lt ratio. The latter evidenced a better correlation with mPAP (γ=-0.90, P<0.001) than the former (γ=-0.64, P<0.05). We conclude that this method is valuable as a noninvasive approach for the estimation of pulmonary hypertension. (orig.)

  9. Reciprocal effects among changes in weight, body image, and other psychological factors during behavioral obesity treatment: a mediation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata José T

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in body image and subjective well-being variables (e.g. self-esteem are often reported as outcomes of obesity treatment. However, they may, in turn, also influence behavioral adherence and success in weight loss. The present study examined associations among obesity treatment-related variables, i.e., change in weight, quality of life, body image, and subjective well-being, exploring their role as both mediators and outcomes, during a behavioral obesity treatment. Methods Participants (BMI = 31.1 ± 4.1 kg/m2; age = 38.4 ± 6.7 y were 144 women who attended a 12-month obesity treatment program and a comparison group (n = 49, who received a general health education program. The intervention included regular group meetings promoting lasting behavior changes in physical activity and dietary intake. Body image, quality of life, subjective well-being, and body weight were measured at baseline and treatment's end. Mediation was tested by multiple regression and a resampling approach to measure indirect effects. Treatment group assignment was the independent variable while changes in weight and in psychosocial variables were analyzed alternatively as mediators and as dependent variables. Results At 12 months, the intervention group had greater weight loss (-5.6 ± 6.8% vs. -1.2 ± 4.6%, p Conclusion Changes in weight and body image may reciprocally affect each other during the course of behavioral obesity treatment. No evidence of reciprocal relationships was found for the other models under analysis; however, weight changes partially explained the effects of treatment on quality of life and self-esteem. Weight and psychosocial changes co-occur during treatment and will probably influence each other dynamically, in ways not yet adequately understood. Results from this study support the inclusion of intervention contents aimed at improving body image in weight management programs.

  10. Changes in structural lung disease in cystic fibrosis children over 4 years as evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpio, Carlos; Alvarez-Sala, Rodolfo; Prados, Concepcion [University Hospital La Paz, La Paz Hospital Research Institute, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Albi, Gustavo [Nino de Jesus Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madrid (Spain); Rayon-Aledo, Jose Carlos; Caballero, Paloma [University Hospital La Princesa, Department of Radiology, Madrid (Spain); Giron, Rosa [University Hospital La Princesa, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    To compare the worsening of structural lung disease on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with changes in spirometry results in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and analyse factors associated with the worsening of structural lung disease over time. A total of 31 CF subjects (mean age 11.03 ± 3.67 years old) were prospectively evaluated by two HRCT and spirometry tests performed 4 years apart. HRCT abnormalities were scored using the Bhalla scoring system. Comparisons between changes on HRCT and spirometry were made for all patients, and also for groups categorized by age, sex, genotypic alterations and lung obstruction. The mean HRCT Bhalla scoring, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1} %pred.) and forced vital capacity (FVC %pred.) were 7.92 ± 3.59, 87.76 ± 20.52 and 96.54 ± 15.12, respectively. There was a significant deterioration in the Bhalla score (p < 0.01) and in certain categories: severity of bronchiectasis, peribronchial thickening, mucous plugging and bronchial divisions. Females had a more pronounced worsening of the Bhalla score than males (p = 0.048). No change over time was found in FEV{sub 1} and FVC. Only sex was associated with a deterioration in HRCT. HRCT Bhalla scoring changes statistically significantly over 4 years, but spirometry results do not. Worsening on HRCT is more evident in females. (orig.)

  11. Changes in structural lung disease in cystic fibrosis children over 4 years as evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpio, Carlos; Alvarez-Sala, Rodolfo; Prados, Concepcion; Albi, Gustavo; Rayon-Aledo, Jose Carlos; Caballero, Paloma; Giron, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    To compare the worsening of structural lung disease on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with changes in spirometry results in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and analyse factors associated with the worsening of structural lung disease over time. A total of 31 CF subjects (mean age 11.03 ± 3.67 years old) were prospectively evaluated by two HRCT and spirometry tests performed 4 years apart. HRCT abnormalities were scored using the Bhalla scoring system. Comparisons between changes on HRCT and spirometry were made for all patients, and also for groups categorized by age, sex, genotypic alterations and lung obstruction. The mean HRCT Bhalla scoring, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 %pred.) and forced vital capacity (FVC %pred.) were 7.92 ± 3.59, 87.76 ± 20.52 and 96.54 ± 15.12, respectively. There was a significant deterioration in the Bhalla score (p < 0.01) and in certain categories: severity of bronchiectasis, peribronchial thickening, mucous plugging and bronchial divisions. Females had a more pronounced worsening of the Bhalla score than males (p = 0.048). No change over time was found in FEV 1 and FVC. Only sex was associated with a deterioration in HRCT. HRCT Bhalla scoring changes statistically significantly over 4 years, but spirometry results do not. Worsening on HRCT is more evident in females. (orig.)

  12. Effects of chronic fly ash exposure on golden hamsters: changes in lung phospholipids and their fatty acid composition as a result of inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, I; Negishi, T; Kamihira, M

    1986-01-01

    Changes in lung phospholipids of golden hamsters exposed to 2 mg/mT coal fly ash for 180 days, 7 days/week, 20 hours/day were examined. In the exposed group the amount of phospholipids in lavaged lung organ increased significantly compared with the control group, but in pulmonary surfactant did not. As regards lipid composition of phospholipids in lavaged lung organ, phosphatidylcholine was slightly increased but sphingomyelin was decreased by exposure. Some significant changes in fatty acid composition of phospholipids were observed between exposed and control group. In pulmonary surfactant, palmitic acid showed no change but myristic acid and oleic acid decreased. On the other hand, in lavaged lung organ, palmitic acid increased but stearic acid and decosatetraenoic acid decreased. Arachidonic acid composition increased in both parts of lung. An increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acid in whole fatty acid of phospholipids was found in pulmonary surfactant of exposed hamsters. 24 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Dietary change, energy balance and body weight regulation among migrating students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, S L; Henry, C J

    2000-11-01

    This study was conducted to examine how subjects modulate their food intake and energy balance when they migrate from a low energy density food intake pattern to one of high energy density. It was hypothesised that an increase in the energy density of food consumed would result in increased body weight of the migrating subjects unless food intake and energy balance could be modulated. Food selection, food intake, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and anthropometric measurements were made on 53 female and 56 male newly arrived overseas students. All subjects were from Malaysia, but the data was collected at Oxford Brookes University where the subjects were studying. Food intake using 3-day food diaries and food frequency questionnaires (FFQs). BMR and anthropometric measurements including body weight were measured on arrival in the UK and after 3 and 6 months' stay. Student's t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare the data. A significant difference (P foods consumed in Malaysia and after 3 and 6 months in the UK. There was also a significant decrease (P food selection due mainly to the lack of availability of certain foods in UK supermarkets. No significant differences were found in the BMR and anthropometric measurements made at the start of the study and later assessments. It appears that Malaysian students are able to remain in energy balance and are weight stable at least during the first 6 months of residence in the UK, despite the wider choice of energy dense food available. This suggests that at least in the short term, subjects are able to modulate their food intake in response to changes in the energy densities and free choice of food.

  14. Changes in Intake of Fruits and Vegetables and Weight Change in United States Men and Women Followed for Up to 24 Years: Analysis from Three Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoia, Monica L; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Cahill, Leah E; Hou, Tao; Ludwig, David S; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B; Rimm, Eric B

    2015-09-01

    Current dietary guidelines recommend eating a variety of fruits and vegetables. However, based on nutrient composition, some particular fruits and vegetables may be more or less beneficial for maintaining or achieving a healthy weight. We hypothesized that greater consumption of fruits and vegetables with a higher fiber content or lower glycemic load would be more strongly associated with a healthy weight. We examined the association between change in intake of specific fruits and vegetables and change in weight in three large, prospective cohorts of 133,468 United States men and women. From 1986 to 2010, these associations were examined within multiple 4-y time intervals, adjusting for simultaneous changes in other lifestyle factors, including other aspects of diet, smoking status, and physical activity. Results were combined using a random effects meta-analysis. Increased intake of fruits was inversely associated with 4-y weight change: total fruits -0.53 lb per daily serving (95% CI -0.61, -0.44), berries -1.11 lb (95% CI -1.45, -0.78), and apples/pears -1.24 lb (95% CI -1.62, -0.86). Increased intake of several vegetables was also inversely associated with weight change: total vegetables -0.25 lb per daily serving (95% CI -0.35, -0.14), tofu/soy -2.47 lb (95% CI, -3.09 to -1.85 lb) and cauliflower -1.37 lb (95% CI -2.27, -0.47). On the other hand, increased intake of starchy vegetables, including corn, peas, and potatoes, was associated with weight gain. Vegetables having both higher fiber and lower glycemic load were more strongly inversely associated with weight change compared with lower-fiber, higher-glycemic-load vegetables (p fruits and non-starchy vegetables is inversely associated with weight change, with important differences by type suggesting that other characteristics of these foods influence the magnitude of their association with weight change.

  15. Adipose tissue CIDEA is associated, independently of weight variation, to change in insulin resistance during a longitudinal weight control dietary program in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montastier, Emilie; Déjean, Sébastien; Le Gall, Caroline; Saris, Wim H M; Langin, Dominique; Viguerie, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Weight loss reduces risk factors associated with obesity. However, long-term metabolic improvement remains a challenge. We investigated quantitative gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals and its relationship with low calorie diet and long term weight maintenance induced changes in insulin resistance. Three hundred eleven overweight and obese individuals followed a dietary protocol consisting of an 8-week low calorie diet followed by a 6-month ad libitum weight-maintenance diet. Individuals were clustered according to insulin resistance trajectories assessed using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Adipose tissue mRNA levels of 267 genes selected for regulation according to obesity, metabolic status and response to dieting was assessed using high throughput RT-qPCR. A combination of discriminant analyses was used to identify genes with regulation according to insulin resistance trajectories. Partial correlation was used to control for change in body mass index. Three different HOMA-IR profile groups were determined. HOMA-IR improved during low calorie diet in the 3 groups. At the end of the 6-month follow-up, groups A and B had reduced HOMA-IR by 50%. In group C, HOMA-IR had returned to baseline values. Genes were differentially expressed in the adipose tissue of individuals according to groups but a single gene, CIDEA, was common to all phases of the dietary intervention. Changes in adipose tissue CIDEA mRNA levels paralleled variations in insulin sensitivity independently of change in body mass index. Overall, CIDEA was up-regulated in adipose tissue of individuals with successful long term insulin resistance relapse and not in adipose tissue of unsuccessful individuals. The concomitant change in adipose tissue CIDEA mRNA levels and insulin sensitivity suggests a beneficial role of adipose tissue CIDEA in long term glucose homeostasis, independently of weight variation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  16. Long-term change in pulmonary function after definitive radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytte, T.; Bentzen, S. M.; Brink, C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Radiotherapy (RT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may cause late toxicities, such as heart toxicity, changes in pulmonary function (PF) and lung fibrosis, but late toxicity data are scarce in the literature for this category of patients. The objective of this study...... with 3063 pairs of pulmonary function test (PFTs) were screened for eligibility for inclusion in the analysis of late changes in PF. To be eligible, patients had at least 3 PFTs after baseline. In this study, baseline was defined as 12 months after RT commencement to overcome a possible effect of tumor...... finding was that high V60 was associated with less decline in FVC, but FVC may be a less reliable parameter for pulmonary damage. (Figure Presented) Conclusions: Patients experience a decline in FEV1 after the 12-month value following definitive RT for NSCLC. In a multivariable analysis, deterioration...

  17. Interaction between genetic predisposition to obesity and dietary calcium in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Angquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity.......Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity....

  18. Changes in weight and body fat after use of tetracycline and Lactobacillus gasseri in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge José Marciano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recent studies have shown a role of intestinal microbiota in obesity. The consumption of antibiotics in the last 70 years has led to changes in intestinal microbiota, which has led to weight gain and body fat accumulation. To evaluate the possibility of weight gain induced by antibiotics and the possible protective effect of probiotics, we divided 45 animals (Rattus norvegicus into groups and administered the following treatments over two weeks: tetracycline, tetracycline + Lactobacillus gasseri, and NaCl. The animals were weighed over the course of 8 weeks, and at the end of the treatment period, they were measured and subjected to bioelectrical impedance analysis. The results show that the group receiving tetracycline alone had a higher body mass index (p=0.030, a greater Lee index (p=0.008, and a lower body water percentage than the control group, indicating a greater accumulation of body fat. The group receiving the probiotics with tetracycline presented similar results to the control group, indicating a possible protective effect of body fat accumulation in the group receiving tetracycline alone. The results show that tetracycline increased the concentration of body fat, and the use of probiotics was associated with an ability to protect the animals from the pro-obesity effect.

  19. Association between Body Weight Changes and Menstrual Irregularity: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyung Min; Han, Kyungdo; Chung, Youn Jee; Yoon, Kun Ho; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2017-06-01

    Menstrual irregularity is an indicator of endocrine disorders and reproductive health status. It is associated with various diseases and medical conditions, including obesity and underweight. We aimed to assess the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity in Korean women. A total of 4,621 women 19 to 54 years of age who participated in the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect medical information assessing menstrual health status and body weight changes. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to evaluate the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity. Significantly higher ORs (95% CI) were observed in the association between menstrual irregularity and both weight loss (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.48) and weight gain (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.86) after adjusting for age, body mass index, current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, calorie intake, education, income, metabolic syndrome, age of menarche, parity, and stress perception. Of note, significant associations were only observed in subjects with obesity and abdominal obesity, but not in non-obese or non-abdominally obese subjects. U-shaped patterns were demonstrated in both obese and abdominally obese subjects, indicating that greater changes in body weight are associated with higher odds of menstrual irregularity. We found a U-shaped pattern of association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity among obese women in the general Korean population. This result indicates that not only proper weight management but also changes in body weight may influence the regulation of the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2017 Korean Endocrine Society

  20. Association between Body Weight Changes and Menstrual Irregularity: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Min Ko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMenstrual irregularity is an indicator of endocrine disorders and reproductive health status. It is associated with various diseases and medical conditions, including obesity and underweight. We aimed to assess the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity in Korean women.MethodsA total of 4,621 women 19 to 54 years of age who participated in the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect medical information assessing menstrual health status and body weight changes. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated to evaluate the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity.ResultsSignificantly higher ORs (95% CI were observed in the association between menstrual irregularity and both weight loss (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.48 and weight gain (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.86 after adjusting for age, body mass index, current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, calorie intake, education, income, metabolic syndrome, age of menarche, parity, and stress perception. Of note, significant associations were only observed in subjects with obesity and abdominal obesity, but not in non-obese or non-abdominally obese subjects. U-shaped patterns were demonstrated in both obese and abdominally obese subjects, indicating that greater changes in body weight are associated with higher odds of menstrual irregularity.ConclusionWe found a U-shaped pattern of association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity among obese women in the general Korean population. This result indicates that not only proper weight management but also changes in body weight may influence the regulation of the menstrual cycle.

  1. Frequency of Pathological Changes in Lungs of Bodies with Positive Postmortem Toxicology Results for Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Mostafazadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pattern of drug abuse in Iran has dramatically changed in recent years, turning from the traditional opioids [opium, opium dross, and refined opium dross (Shireh] into drugs with newer forms. The present study is aimed at investigating the frequency of pathological changes in the lungs of bodies with positive postmortem toxicology results for narcotics and psychotropic substances autopsied in the forensic dissection hall of Tehran, Iran [the Iranian Legal Medicine Organization (LMO]. Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample consisted of 153 bodies, which had been referred to the LMO with positive results in postmortem toxicology for narcotics and psychotropic substances. Results: We found that narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances were used more in men than women. Moreover, the average age of death due to drug use was 36 years old. In addition, methamphetamine was the mostly-used type of substances, and smoking was the most widely used method to use the drugs. Besides, the dominant consistency and color of the lungs of half of the bodies investigated were elastic brown-gray. Moreover, the most common pathologic changes observed in the lungs of the bodies investigated were congestion and edema. Conclusion: Given the prevalence of pathological changes in the lungs of the examined bodies and congestion, edema, and pulmonary hemorrhage, the results of the present study can be particularly effective in determining the drug use and the resultant death in the absence of any previous records and/or a negative result of toxicology.

  2. Microstructural changes in ischemic cortical gray matter predicted by a model of diffusion-weighted MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter; Hansen, Brian; Ostergaard, Leif; Jakobsen, Rikke

    2007-09-01

    To understand the diffusion attenuated MR signal from normal and ischemic brain tissue in order to extract structural and physiological information using mathematical modeling, taking into account the transverse relaxation rates in gray matter. We fit our diffusion model to the diffusion-weighted MR signal obtained from cortical gray matter in healthy subjects. Our model includes variable volume fractions, intracellular restriction effects, and exchange between compartments in addition to individual diffusion coefficients and transverse relaxation rates for each compartment. A global optimum was found from a wide range of parameter permutations using cluster computing. We also present simulations of cell swelling and changes of exchange rate and intracellular diffusion as possible cellular mechanisms in ischemia. Our model estimates an extracellular volume fraction of 0.19 in accordance with the accepted value from histology. The absolute apparent diffusion coefficient obtained from the model was similar to that of experiments. The model and the experimental results indicate significant differences in diffusion and transverse relaxation between the tissue compartments and slow water exchange. Our model reproduces the signal changes observed in ischemia via physiologically credible mechanisms. Our modeling suggests that transverse relaxation has a profound influence on the diffusion attenuated MR signal. Our simulations indicate cell swelling as the primary cause of the diffusion changes seen in the acute phase of brain ischemia. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Diet Type and Changes in Food Cravings following Weight Loss: Findings from the POUNDS LOST Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D.; Gallagher, Jacqueline; Carey, Vincent J.; Laranjo, Nancy; Cheng, Jing; Champagne, Catherine M.; Ryan, Donna H.; McManus, Kathy; Loria, Catherine M.; Bray, George A.; Sacks, Frank M.; Williamson, Donald A.

    2014-01-01

    Few well-controlled trials have evaluated the effects that macronutrient composition has on changes in food cravings during weight loss treatment. The present study, which was part of the POUNDS LOST trial, investigated whether the fat and protein content of four different diets affected changes in specific food cravings in overweight and obese adults. A sample of 811 adults were recruited across two clinical sites, and each participant was randomly assigned to one of four macronutrient prescriptions: (1) Low fat (20% of energy), average protein (15% of energy); (2) Moderate fat (40%), average protein (15%); (3) Low fat (20%), high protein (25%); (4) Moderate fat (40%), high protein (25%). With few exceptions, the type of diet that participants were assigned did not differentially affect changes in specific food cravings. Participants assigned to the high fat diets, however, had reduced cravings for carbohydrates at Month12 (p< .05) and fruits and vegetables at Month 24. Also, participants assigned to high protein diets had increased cravings for sweets at Month 6 (p< .05). Participants in all four dietary conditions reported significant reductions in food cravings for specific types of foods (i.e., high fat foods, fast food fats, sweets, and carbohydrates/starches; all ps< .05). Cravings for fruits and vegetables, however, were increased at Month 24 (p< .05). Calorically restricted diets (regardless of their macronutrient composition) yielded significant reductions in cravings for fats, sweets, and starches whereas cravings for fruits and vegetables were increased. PMID:23010779

  4. Morphologic changes reflecting early and late effects of irradiation of the distal lung of the mouse: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penney, D.P.; Siemann, D.W.; Rubin, P.; Shapiro, D.L.; Finkelstein, J.; Cooper, R.A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    In radiation of the thorax, the lung has been shown to be a major dose-limiting organ. The early and late responses of the lung to radiation has been reviewed, with primary emphasis on the following cell types: type II pneumocyte, type I pneumocyte, pulmonary endothelial cell and macrophage. The earliest observable and quantifiable cellular response to radiation is exhibited by the type II pneumocytes as a decrease in lamellar bodies and a corresponding increase in surfactant content of the alveolar lavage. By 18-63 weeks following exposure, several type II cells, restored in their lamellar body population, undergo degeneration and sloughing into alveolar spaces. Type I pneumocytes generally exhibit little change, although some investigators describe alveolar denudation due to degenerating type I cells. Macrophages decrease in numbers following irradiation, returning to normal populations by 4 weeks. These changes correspond closely to the changes in alveolar lavage phospholipid phosphorus. Descriptions of radiation-induced damage to endothelial cells are variable. However, blebbing and vacuolation appear to be late developing responses, although altered permeability may be earlier in its expression. Radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis are the two major clinical and experimental responses of the lung to radiation following exposures of greater than 12 Gy. The former appears to involve type II cells, macrophages and pulmonary endothelial cells, and for the latter macrophages, fibroblasts, type II pneumocytes and the pulmonary endothelial cells are involved. The two events are not interdependent, and may not necessarily be interrelated

  5. Mothers of Very Low Birth Weight Children at School Age: Quality of Life Outcomes from the Newborn Lung Project Statewide Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Whitney P.; Litzelman, Kristin; Spear, Hilary A.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Levin, Nataliya; McManus, Beth M.; Palta, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to: (1) determine the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in mothers of five year old very low birth weight (VLBW) and normal birth weight (NBW) children; (2) determine what extent stress mediates the relationship between case status and maternal HRQoL; and (3) examine the pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, birth, and child health-related factors in predicting maternal HRQoL among mothers of five year old VLBW children. Methods A telephone interview was administered to 297 mothers of VLBW children and 290 mothers of NBW children who were enrolled in the Newborn Lung Project Statewide Cohort Study. Results Mothers of VLBW children experienced worse physical and mental HRQoL than mothers of NBW children (52.8 versus 55.3 points, p<0.0001, and 48.9 versus 50.5 points, p=0.02, respectively). Adjusted analyses showed that maternal mental HRQoL was similar between cases and controls while physical HRQoL when children were age five was significantly different between cases and controls (Beta:−2.02, p=0.0006); this relationship was mediated by maternal stress. Among mothers of VLBW children, stress significantly contributed to adverse HRQoL outcomes when children were age five. Child behavior problems at age two were also associated with worse subsequent maternal mental HRQoL (Beta: −1.8 per SD, p=0.004), while each week of neonatal intensive care unit stay was associated with worse physical HRQoL (Beta: −0.26, p=0.02). Conclusions While caring for a VLBW child negatively impacts the HRQoL of mothers, this relationship was partially explained by maternal stress. Addressing maternal stress may be an important way to improve long-term HRQoL. PMID:22161725

  6. Recurrent milk aspiration produces changes in airway mechanics, lung eosinophilia, and goblet cell hyperplasia in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janahi, I A; Elidemir, O; Shardonofsky, F R; Abu-Hassan, M N; Fan, L L; Larsen, G L; Blackburn, M R; Colasurdo, G N

    2000-12-01

    Recurrent aspiration of milk into the respiratory tract has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory lung disorders including asthma. However, the lack of animal models of aspiration-induced lung injury has limited our knowledge of the pathophysiological characteristics of this disorder. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of recurrent milk aspiration on airway mechanics and lung cells in a murine model. Under light anesthesia, BALB/c mice received daily intranasal instillations of whole cow's milk (n = 7) or sterile physiologic saline (n = 9) for 10 d. Respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and dynamic elastance (Edyn,rs) were measured in anesthetized, tracheotomized, paralyzed and mechanically ventilated mice 24 h after the last aspiration of milk. Rrs and Edyn,rs were derived from transrespiratory and plethysmographic pressure signals. In addition, airway responses to increasing concentrations of i.v. methacholine (Mch) were determined. Airway responses were measured in terms of PD(100) (dose of Mch causing 100% increase from baseline Rrs) and Rrs,max (% increase from baseline at the maximal plateau response) and expressed as % control (mean +/- SE). We found recurrent milk aspiration did not affect Edyn and baseline Rrs values. However, airway responses to Mch were increased after milk aspiration when compared with control mice. These changes in airway mechanics were associated with an increased percentage of lymphocytes and eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage, mucus production, and lung inflammation. Our findings suggest that recurrent milk aspiration leads to alterations in airway function, lung eosinophilia, and goblet cell hyperplasia in a murine model.

  7. Modification by antioxidant supplementation of changes in human lung function associated with air pollutant exposure: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chow Katherine S

    2011-07-01

    supplementations attenuate the negative effects of urban air pollution on lung function. Conclusions The data evaluating modification of changes in lung function associated with air pollutant exposure by antioxidant supplementation, in intact humans, is limited. Of 13 studies dedicated to this concern, ten demonstrated an attenuation of pollution-associated decrements. There is growing evidence for the benefit of anti-oxidant supplementation in moderating the effects of air pollution on lung function, but more research on human participants is needed to inform this topic.

  8. Risk Factors Affecting Breast Cancer-related Lymphedema: Serial Body Weight Change During Neoadjuvant Anthracycline Plus Cyclophosphamide Followed by Taxane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungmin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Yu, Jonghan; Paik, Hyun-June; Ryu, Jai Min; Kim, Isaac; Bae, Soo Youn; Lee, Se Kyung; Kim, Seok Won; Nam, Seok Jin; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Kang, Eunyoung; Yang, Eun Joo

    2018-02-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze the risk of lymphedema (LE) according to the clinicopathologic factors and to investigate the serial change in body weight during neoadjuvant anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide followed by taxane and its correlation with the incidence of LE. We performed a retrospective 2-center study of 406 patients who had undergone neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) followed by surgery from 2007 to 2014. The regimen included 4 cycles of anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide, followed by 4 cycles of taxane. We investigated the presence and degree of LE using a telephone questionnaire assessment. Weight changes were calculated at each cycle of NAC, and the baseline and preoperative body weights were used to calculate the rate of change to account for the change in weight before and after NAC. Of the 406 patients, 270 answered the questionnaires, of whom 97 (35.9%) experienced LE. The increase in body weight was significant during the 4 cycles of taxane, but the change in weight was not significant during the 4 cycles of anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide. The change in body weight was most significant just after the fourth cycle of taxane (P weight was not a significant factor for the incidence of LE. Because a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 was an independent factor of LE occurrence on multivariate analysis, patients with a preoperative BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 should be closely monitored for LE given their increased risk, and monitoring and education should be initiated before surgery and continued throughout the course of NAC. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Food Environment and Weight Change: Does Residential Mobility Matter?: The Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraia, Barbara A; Downing, Janelle M; Zhang, Y Tara; Dow, William H; Kelly, Maggi; Blanchard, Samuel D; Adler, Nancy; Schillinger, Dean; Moffet, Howard; Warton, E Margaret; Karter, Andrew J

    2017-05-01

    Associations between neighborhood food environment and adult body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) derived using cross-sectional or longitudinal random-effects models may be biased due to unmeasured confounding and measurement and methodological limitations. In this study, we assessed the within-individual association between change in food environment from 2006 to 2011 and change in BMI among adults with type 2 diabetes using clinical data from the Kaiser Permanente Diabetes Registry collected from 2007 to 2011. Healthy food environment was measured using the kernel density of healthful food venues. Fixed-effects models with a 1-year-lagged BMI were estimated. Separate models were fitted for persons who moved and those who did not. Sensitivity analysis using different lag times and kernel density bandwidths were tested to establish the consistency of findings. On average, patients lost 1 pound (0.45 kg) for each standard-deviation improvement in their food environment. This relationship held for persons who remained in the same location throughout the 5-year study period but not among persons who moved. Proximity to food venues that promote nutritious foods alone may not translate into clinically meaningful diet-related health changes. Community-level policies for improving the food environment need multifaceted strategies to invoke clinically meaningful change in BMI among adult patients with diabetes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Are mean lung dose and changes in respiration during RT predictive for pulmonary function changes after RT?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K.; Bernchou, U.; Schytte, T.

    2015-01-01

    and respiration patterns extracted from frequently recorded 4DCone Beam CT. Materials and Methods: This is a study of 140 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, which were treated with 60-66 Gy in 30-33 fractions. Measures of ventilation were generated by the freeware tool elastix (http://elastix...

  11. Niacinamide mitigated the acute lung injury induced by phorbol myristate acetate in isolated rat's lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chia-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA is a strong neutrophil activator and has been used to induce acute lung injury (ALI. Niacinamide (NAC is a compound of B complex. It exerts protective effects on the ALI caused by various challenges. The purpose was to evaluate the protective effects of niacinamide (NAC on the PMA-induced ALI and associated changes. Methods The rat's lungs were isolated in situ and perfused with constant flow. A total of 60 isolated lungs were randomized into 6 groups to received Vehicle (DMSO 100 μg/g, PMA 4 μg/g (lung weight, cotreated with NAC 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/g (lung weight. There were 10 isolated lungs in each group. We measured the lung weight and parameters related to ALI. The pulmonary arterial pressure and capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc were determined in isolated lungs. ATP (adenotriphosphate and PARP [poly(adenosine diphophate-ribose polymerase] contents in lung tissues were detected. Real-time PCR was employed to display the expression of inducible and endothelial NO synthases (iNOS and eNOS. The neutrophil-derived mediators in lung perfusate were determined. Results PMA caused increases in lung weight parameters. This agent produced pulmonary hypertension and increased microvascular permeability. It resulted in decrease in ATP and increase in PARP. The expression of iNOS and eNOS was upregulated following PMA. PMA increased the neutrophil-derived mediators. Pathological examination revealed lung edema and hemorrhage with inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemical stain disclosed the presence of iNOS-positive cells in macrophages and endothelial cells. These pathophysiological and biochemical changes were diminished by NAC treatment. The NAC effects were dose-dependent. Conclusions Our results suggest that neutrophil activation and release of neutrophil-derived mediators by PMA cause ALI and associated changes. NO production through the iNOS-producing cells plays a detrimental

  12. Niacinamide mitigated the acute lung injury induced by phorbol myristate acetate in isolated rat's lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Chih; Hsieh, Nan-Kuang; Liou, Huey Ling; Chen, Hsing I

    2012-03-01

    Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) is a strong neutrophil activator and has been used to induce acute lung injury (ALI). Niacinamide (NAC) is a compound of B complex. It exerts protective effects on the ALI caused by various challenges. The purpose was to evaluate the protective effects of niacinamide (NAC) on the PMA-induced ALI and associated changes. The rat's lungs were isolated in situ and perfused with constant flow. A total of 60 isolated lungs were randomized into 6 groups to received Vehicle (DMSO 100 μg/g), PMA 4 μg/g (lung weight), cotreated with NAC 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/g (lung weight). There were 10 isolated lungs in each group. We measured the lung weight and parameters related to ALI. The pulmonary arterial pressure and capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) were determined in isolated lungs. ATP (adenotriphosphate) and PARP [poly(adenosine diphophate-ribose) polymerase] contents in lung tissues were detected. Real-time PCR was employed to display the expression of inducible and endothelial NO synthases (iNOS and eNOS). The neutrophil-derived mediators in lung perfusate were determined. PMA caused increases in lung weight parameters. This agent produced pulmonary hypertension and increased microvascular permeability. It resulted in decrease in ATP and increase in PARP. The expression of iNOS and eNOS was upregulated following PMA. PMA increased the neutrophil-derived mediators. Pathological examination revealed lung edema and hemorrhage with inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemical stain disclosed the presence of iNOS-positive cells in macrophages and endothelial cells. These pathophysiological and biochemical changes were diminished by NAC treatment. The NAC effects were dose-dependent. Our results suggest that neutrophil activation and release of neutrophil-derived mediators by PMA cause ALI and associated changes. NO production through the iNOS-producing cells plays a detrimental role in the PMA-induced lung injury. ATP is beneficial

  13. Interpregnancy weight changes and impact on pregnancy outcome in a cohort of women with a macrosomic first delivery: a prospective longitudinal study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crosby, David A

    2017-06-06

    To determine the median interpregnancy maternal weight change between first and second pregnancies, and second and third pregnancies and to assess the impact of this weight change on pregnancy outcome in a cohort of women with a macrosomic first delivery.

  14. Weight Changes, Exercise, and Dietary Patterns during Freshman and Sophomore Years of College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B.; Deusinger, Susan S.; Strube, Michael J.; Highstein, Gabrielle R.; Deusinger, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    Weight gain and behavioral patterns during college may contribute to overweight and obesity in adulthood. The aims of this study were to assess weight, exercise, and dietary patterns of 764 college students (53% women, 47% men) during freshman and sophomore years. Students had their weight and height measured and completed questionnaires about…

  15. 2-Year BMI Changes of Children Referred for Multidisciplinary Weight Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine body mass index (BMI changes among pediatric multidisciplinary weight management participants and nonparticipants. Design. In this retrospective database analysis, we used multivariable mixed effect models to compare 2-year BMI z-score trajectories among 583 eligible overweight or obese children referred to the One Step Ahead program at the Boston Children’s Primary Care Center between 2003 and 2009. Results. Of the referred children, 338 (58% attended the program; 245 (42% did not participate and were instead followed by their primary care providers within the group practice. The mean BMI z-score of program participants decreased modestly over a 2-year period and was lower than that of nonparticipants. The group-level difference in the rate of change in BMI z-score between participants and nonparticipants was statistically significant for 0–6 months (P=0.001 and 19–24 months (P=0.008; it was marginally significant for 13–18 months (P=0.051 after referral. Younger participants (<5 years had better outcomes across all time periods examined. Conclusion. Children attending a multidisciplinary program experienced greater BMI z-score reductions compared with usual primary care in a real world practice; younger participants had significantly better outcomes. Future research should consider early intervention and cost-effectiveness analyses.

  16. Allostatic Load Is Linked to Cortical Thickness Changes Depending on Body-Weight Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Ottino-González

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Overweight (body mass index or BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and stress interact with each other in complex ways. Overweight promotes chronic low-inflammation states, while stress is known to mediate caloric intake. Both conditions are linked to several avoidable health problems and to cognitive decline, brain atrophy, and dementia. Since it was proposed as a framework for the onset of mental illness, the allostatic load model has received increasing attention. Although changes in health and cognition related to overweight and stress are well-documented separately, the association between allostatic load and brain integrity has not been addressed in depth, especially among overweight subjects.Method: Thirty-four healthy overweight-to-obese and 29 lean adults underwent blood testing, neuropsychological examination, and magnetic resonance imaging to assess the relationship between cortical thickness and allostatic load, represented as an index of 15 biomarkers (this is, systolic and diastolic arterial tension, glycated hemoglobin, glucose, creatinine, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, c-reactive protein, interleukin-6, insulin, cortisol, fibrinogen, and leptin.Results: Allostatic load indexes showed widespread positive and negative significant correlations (p < 0.01 with cortical thickness values depending on body-weight status.Conclusion: The increase of allostatic load is linked to changes in the gray matter composition of regions monitoring behavior, sensory-reward processing, and general cognitive function.

  17. Allostatic Load Is Linked to Cortical Thickness Changes Depending on Body-Weight Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottino-González, Jonatan; Jurado, María A.; García-García, Isabel; Segura, Bàrbara; Marqués-Iturria, Idoia; Sender-Palacios, María J.; Tor, Encarnació; Prats-Soteras, Xavier; Caldú, Xavier; Junqué, Carme; Garolera, Maite

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Overweight (body mass index or BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and stress interact with each other in complex ways. Overweight promotes chronic low-inflammation states, while stress is known to mediate caloric intake. Both conditions are linked to several avoidable health problems and to cognitive decline, brain atrophy, and dementia. Since it was proposed as a framework for the onset of mental illness, the allostatic load model has received increasing attention. Although changes in health and cognition related to overweight and stress are well-documented separately, the association between allostatic load and brain integrity has not been addressed in depth, especially among overweight subjects. Method: Thirty-four healthy overweight-to-obese and 29 lean adults underwent blood testing, neuropsychological examination, and magnetic resonance imaging to assess the relationship between cortical thickness and allostatic load, represented as an index of 15 biomarkers (this is, systolic and diastolic arterial tension, glycated hemoglobin, glucose, creatinine, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, c-reactive protein, interleukin-6, insulin, cortisol, fibrinogen, and leptin). Results: Allostatic load indexes showed widespread positive and negative significant correlations (p < 0.01) with cortical thickness values depending on body-weight status. Conclusion: The increase of allostatic load is linked to changes in the gray matter composition of regions monitoring behavior, sensory-reward processing, and general cognitive function. PMID:29375342

  18. CHANGES IN LUNG FUNCTION IN THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH EXOGENOUS ALLERGIC ALVEOLITIS

    OpenAIRE

    V. B. Nefedov; L. A. Popova; E. A. Shergina; N. N. Makaryants

    2014-01-01

    Total lung capacity (TLC), lung capacity (LC), forced LC (FLC), intrathoracic volume (ITV), pulmonary residual volume (PRV), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ), (FEV1 )/LC%, peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximum expiratory flow rate (MEFR)25, MEFR50, MEFR75, Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SB, DLCO-SB/VА, РаО2 , and РаСО2 were determined in 43 patients with exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA) before, during, and after treatment with glucocorticosteroids, hemapheresis, ambroxol, and fluimucil. L...

  19. Dietary energy density in relation to subsequent changes of weight and waist circumference in European men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaidong Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Experimental studies show that a reduction in dietary energy density (ED is associated with reduced energy intake and body weight. However, few observational studies have investigated the role of ED on long-term weight and waist circumference change. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This population-based prospective cohort study included 89,432 participants from five European countries with mean age 53 years (range: 20-78 years at baseline and were followed for an average of 6.5 years (range: 1.9-12.5 years. Participants were free of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes at baseline. ED was calculated as the energy intake (kcal from foods divided by the weight (g of foods. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to investigate the associations of ED with annual weight and waist circumference change. Mean ED was 1.7 kcal/g and differed across study centers. After adjusting for baseline anthropometrics, demographic and lifestyle factors, follow-up duration and energy from beverages, ED was not associated with weight change, but significantly associated with waist circumference change overall. For 1 kcal/g ED, the annual weight change was -42 g/year [95% confidence interval (CI: -112, 28] and annual waist circumference change was 0.09 cm/year [95% CI: 0.01, 0.18]. In participants with baseline BMI<25 kg/m(2, 1 kcal/g ED was associated with a waist circumference change of 0.17 cm/year [95% CI: 0.09, 0.25]. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that lower ED diets do not prevent weight gain but have a weak yet potentially beneficial effect on the prevention of abdominal obesity as measured by waist circumference.

  20. Lung density change after SABR: A comparative study between tri-Co-60 magnetic resonance-guided system and linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunji; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Park, Jong Min; Kim, Jung-In; Kim, Hak Jae; Kang, Hyun-Cheol

    2018-01-01

    Radiation-induced lung damage is an important treatment-related toxicity after lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). After implementing a tri-60Co magnetic-resonance image guided system, ViewRayTM, we compared the associated early radiological lung density changes to those associated with a linear accelerator (LINAC). Eight patients treated with the tri-60Co system were matched 1:1 with patients treated with LINAC. Prescription doses were 52 Gy or 60 Gy in four fractions, and lung dose-volumetric parameters were calculated from each planning system. The first two follow-up computed tomography (CT) were co-registered with the planning CT through deformable registration software, and lung density was measured by isodose levels. Tumor size was matched between the two groups, but the planning target volume of LINAC was larger than that of the tri-60Co system (p = 0.036). With regard to clinically relevant dose-volumetric parameters in the lungs, the ipsilateral lung mean dose, V10Gy and V20Gy were significantly poorer in tri-60Co plans compared to LINAC plans (p = 0.012, 0.036, and 0.017, respectively). Increased lung density was not observed in the first follow-up scan compared to the planning scan. A significant change of lung density was shown in the second follow-up scan and there was no meaningful difference between the tri-60Co system and LINAC for all dose regions. In addition, no patient developed clinical radiation pneumonitis until the second follow-up scan. Therefore, there was no significant difference in the early radiological lung damage between the tri-60Co system and LINAC for lung SABR despite of the inferior plan quality of the tri-60Co system compared to that of LINAC. Further studies with a longer follow-up period are needed to confirm our findings.

  1. A study of changes in genetic and environmental influences on weight and shape concern across adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Tracey D; Hansell, Narelle K; Crosby, Ross D; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel; Treasure, Janet; Nixon, Reginald; Byrne, Susan; Martin, Nicholas G

    2013-02-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine whether genetic and environmental influences on an important risk factor for disordered eating, weight and shape concern, remained stable over adolescence. This stability was assessed in 2 ways: whether new sources of latent variance were introduced over development and whether the magnitude of variance contributing to the risk factor changed. We examined an 8-item WSC subscale derived from the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) using telephone interviews with female adolescents. From 3 waves of data collected from female-female same-sex twin pairs from the Australian Twin Registry, a subset of the data (which included 351 pairs at Wave 1) was used to examine 3 age cohorts: 12 to 13, 13 to 15, and 14 to 16 years. The best-fitting model contained genetic and environmental influences, both shared and nonshared. Biometric model fitting indicated that nonshared environmental influences were largely specific to each age cohort, and results suggested that latent shared environmental and genetic influences that were influential at 12 to 13 years continued to contribute to subsequent age cohorts, with independent sources of both emerging at ages 13 to 15. The magnitude of all 3 latent influences could be constrained to be the same across adolescence. Ages 13 to 15 were indicated as a time of risk for the development of high levels of WSC, given that most specific environmental risk factors were significant at this time (e.g., peer teasing about weight, adverse life events), and indications of the emergence of new sources of latent genetic and environmental variance over this period. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  2. [The morphofunctional changes in the rat lung tissue during simulation of acute fatal poisoning with household gas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, E Iu; Iagmurov, O D

    2014-01-01

    The methods of light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy were employed to study the morphofunctional changes in epithelium of bronchial and respiratory segments of the rat lungs used as models of acute fatal poisoning with household gas. It was shown that this toxic effect induces the pathological process involving all the elements of the epithelial layer in the bronchial and respiratory segments of the lungs of experimental animals. At the ultrastructural level, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum structures are affected, with the death of epithelial cells leading to the damage of the aerohematic barrier. The toxic effect of the gaseous mixture on the membranes causes the destruction of various elements of the epithelial layer. The results of this study help to understand the mechanisms of death in the case of acute fatal poisoning with household gas.

  3. Change in sympathetic nerve firing pattern associated with dietary weight loss in the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Annie Lambert

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic activation in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MS plays a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease development. Diet-induced weight loss decreases sympathetic outflow. However the mechanisms that account for sympathetic inhibition are not known. We sought to provide a detailed description of the sympathetic response to diet by analyzing the firing behavior of single-unit sympathetic nerve fibres. Fourteen subjects (57±2 years, 9 men, 5 females fulfilling ATP III criteria for the MS underwent a 3-month low calorie diet. Metabolic profile, hemodynamic parameters and multi-unit and single unit muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, microneurography were assessed prior to and at the end of the diet. Patients’ weight dropped from 96±4 to 88±3 kg (P<0.001. This was associated with a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (-12 ±3 and -5±2 mmHg, P<0.05, and in heart rate (-7±2 bpm, P<0.01 and an improvement in all metabolic parameters (fasting glucose: -0.302.1±0.118 mmol/l, total cholesterol: -0.564±0.164 mmol/l, triglycerides: -0.414±0.137 mmol/l, P<0.05. Multi-unit MSNA decreased from 68±4 to 59±5 bursts per 100 heartbeats (P<0.05. Single-unit MSNA indicated that the firing rate of individual vasoconstrictor fibres decreased from 59±10 to 32±4 spikes per 100 heart beats (P<0.05. The probability of firing decreased from 34±5 to 23±3 % of heartbeats (P<0.05, and the incidence of multiple firing decreased from 14±4 to 6±1 % of heartbeats (P<0.05. Cardiac and sympathetic baroreflex function were significantly improved (cardiac slope: 6.57±0.69 to 9.57±1.20 msec.mmHg-1; sympathetic slope: -3.86±0.34 to -5.05±0.47 bursts per 100 heartbeats.mmHg-1 P<0.05 for both. Hypocaloric diet decreased sympathetic activity and improved hemodynamic and metabolic parameters. The sympathoinhibition associated with weight loss involves marked changes, not only in the rate but also in the firing pattern of

  4. Short- and long-term eating habit modification predicts weight change in overweight, postmenopausal women: results from the WOMAN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone Gibbs, Bethany; Kinzel, Laura S; Pettee Gabriel, Kelley; Chang, Yue-Fang; Kuller, Lewis H

    2012-09-01

    Standard behavioral obesity treatment produces poor long-term results. Focusing on healthy eating behaviors rather than energy intake may be an alternative strategy. In addition, important behaviors might differ for short- vs long-term weight control. Our aim was to describe and compare associations between changes in eating behaviors and weight after 6 and 48 months. We performed secondary analysis of data collected during a randomized weight-loss intervention trial with 48-month follow-up. We studied 481 overweight and obese postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women on the Move through Activity and Nutrition (WOMAN) Study. We measured changes in weight from baseline to 6 and 48 months. Linear regression models were used to examine the associations between 6- and 48-month changes in eating habits assessed by the Conner Diet Habit Survey and changes in weight. Analyses were conducted in the combined study population and stratified by randomization group. At 6 months in the combined population, weight loss was independently associated with decreased desserts (Pstudies should determine whether interventions targeting these behaviors could improve long-term obesity treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Andersen, Malene R

    2011-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance.......Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance....

  6. Changes in weight, waist circumference and compensatory responses with different doses of exercise among sedentary, overweight postmenopausal women.

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    Timothy S Church

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that exercise training results in compensatory mechanisms that attenuate weight loss. However, this has only been examined with large doses of exercise. The goal of this analysis was to examine actual weight loss compared to predicted weight loss (compensation across different doses of exercise in a controlled trial of sedentary, overweight or obese postmenopausal women (n = 411.Participants were randomized to a non-exercise control (n = 94 or 1 of 3 exercise groups; exercise energy expenditure of 4 (n = 139, 8 (n = 85, or 12 (n = 93 kcal/kg/week (KKW. Training intensity was set at the heart rate associated with 50% of each woman's peak VO(2 and the intervention period was 6 months. All exercise was supervised. The main outcomes were actual weight loss, predicted weight loss (exercise energy expenditure/ 7700 kcal per kg, compensation (actual minus predicted weight loss and waist circumference. The study sample had a mean (SD age 57.2 (6.3 years, BMI of 31.7 (3.8 kg/m(2, and was 63.5% Caucasian. The adherence to the intervention was >99% in all exercise groups. The mean (95% CI weight loss in the 4, 8 and 12 KKW groups was -1.4 (-2.0, -0.8, -2.1 (-2.9, -1.4 and -1.5 (-2.2, -0.8 kg, respectively. In the 4 and 8 KKW groups the actual weight loss closely matched the predicted weight loss of -1.0 and -2.0 kg, respectively, resulting in no significant compensation. In the 12 KKW group the actual weight loss was less than the predicted weight loss (-2.7 kg resulting in 1.2 (0.5, 1.9 kg of compensation (P<0.05 compared to 4 and 8 KKW groups. All exercise groups had a significant reduction in waist circumference which was independent of changes in weight.In this study of previously sedentary, overweight or obese, postmenopausal women we observed no difference in the actual and predicted weight loss with 4 and 8 KKW of exercise (72 and 136 minutes respectively, while the 12 KKW (194 minutes produced only about half of the predicted