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Sample records for lung proximal bronchial

  1. Consideration of Dose Limits for Organs at Risk of Thoracic Radiotherapy: Atlas for Lung, Proximal Bronchial Tree, Esophagus, Spinal Cord, Ribs, and Brachial Plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Feng-Ming; Ritter, Timothy; Quint, Douglas J.; Senan, Suresh; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Komaki, Ritsuko U.; Hurkmans, Coen W.; Timmerman, Robert; Bezjak, Andrea; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Movsas, Benjamin; Marsh, Lon; Okunieff, Paul; Choy, Hak; Curran, Walter J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To review the dose limits and standardize the three-dimenional (3D) radiographic definition for the organs at risk (OARs) for thoracic radiotherapy (RT), including the lung, proximal bronchial tree, esophagus, spinal cord, ribs, and brachial plexus. Methods and Materials: The present study was performed by representatives from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, and Soutwestern Oncology Group lung cancer committees. The dosimetric constraints of major multicenter trials of 3D-conformal RT and stereotactic body RT were reviewed and the challenges of 3D delineation of these OARs described. Using knowledge of the human anatomy and 3D radiographic correlation, draft atlases were generated by a radiation oncologist, medical physicist, dosimetrist, and radiologist from the United States and reviewed by a radiation oncologist and medical physicist from Europe. The atlases were then critically reviewed, discussed, and edited by another 10 radiation oncologists. Results: Three-dimensional descriptions of the lung, proximal bronchial tree, esophagus, spinal cord, ribs, and brachial plexus are presented. Two computed tomography atlases were developed: one for the middle and lower thoracic OARs (except for the heart) and one focusing on the brachial plexus for a patient positioned supine with their arms up for thoracic RT. The dosimetric limits of the key OARs are discussed. Conclusions: We believe these atlases will allow us to define OARs with less variation and generate dosimetric data in a more consistent manner. This could help us study the effect of radiation on these OARs and guide high-quality clinical trials and individualized practice in 3D-conformal RT and stereotactic body RT.

  2. Radiodiagnosis of filled retention bronchial cysts and lung tuberculomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudz', A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Radiological semiotics of filled retention bronchial cysts in 23 patients and of lung tuberculomes in 52 is studied on the basis of the data on roentgenography, tomography and bronchography. Characteristic radiological signs of retention bronchial cysts and tuberculomes are determined. Significance of each radiological sign for differential diagnosis of filled retention bronchial cysts and lung tuberculomes is estimated

  3. Radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy in bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Takashi

    1993-01-01

    A study on obstructive changes in airways and mucociliary clearance in children and youth with bronchial asthma was performed. Radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphies using 99T c-human serum albumin (HSA) were applied to 50 children and youth with bronchial asthma. The deposition patterns of the radioaerosol and aerosol clearance curves were evaluated. Abnormal deposition patterns, which consisted of non-homogeneous distribution and/or hot spot formation, were likely to be seen in patients with asthmatic attacks at the time of measurements. However, a few asymptomatic patients also revealed abnormal deposition patterns. The deposition patterns were related to FEV 1.0 %, MMF, V 50 and V 25 , but especially to FEV 1.0 %. As an index of mucociliary clearance, β, the rate constant of the 99m Tc-HSA aerosol clearance curve, was introduced. β was significantly lower in patients with abnormal aerosol deposition patterns than in normal persons. β was also significantly lower in patients undergoing asthmatic attack at the time of the measurements than in asymptomatic patients. β correlated negatively with FEV 1.0 %, MMF, V 50 and V 25 , but especially with FEV 1.0 %. Although patients with long term affection or moderate-to-severe asthma tended to reveal abnormal deposition patterns and had low β values, these differences were not statistically significant. Radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy with 99m Tc-HSA is useful for evaluating not only obstructive changes in the airways but also for evaluating mucociliary clearance in children with bronchial asthma. (author)

  4. Lung function decline in bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibella, Fabio; Cuttitta, Giuseppina; Bellia, Vincenzo; Bucchieri, Salvatore; D'Anna, Silvestre; Guerrera, Daniela; Bonsignore, Giovanni

    2002-12-01

    We evaluated the longitudinal changes in lung function and the factors associated with FEV(1) changes over time in a sample of asthmatic subjects. FEV(1) measures were recorded every 3 months over a 5-year follow-up period. To compare all subjects independently of body size, FEV(1) values were normalized for the subject's height at the third power. We evaluated the possible effect of age, baseline FEV(1), disease duration, and FEV(1) variability on the rate of change of FEV(1). We studied 142 subjects with asthma diagnosed on the basis of validated clinical and functional criteria. FEV(1) showed a linear decay with aging in each subject. For a subject 1.65 m in height, the median overall FEV(1) decay was 40.9 mL/yr. FEV(1) decay slopes were significantly influenced by age and sex, being steeper in younger male subjects. A significant interaction was found between age and baseline FEV(1): the FEV(1) decay was significantly higher among younger asthmatics with a poorer baseline functional condition. A longer disease duration was associated with a lower FEV(1) slope. FEV(1) variability was strongly associated with an increased rate of FEV(1) decline. FEV(1) decline in patients with bronchial asthma is significantly influenced by baseline FEV(1), disease duration, and FEV(1) variability. Moreover, the rate of FEV(1) decline seems to increase in younger subjects only when the baseline function is poorer.

  5. Superselective bronchial artery chemoembolization in the treatment of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Jianping; He Xu; Chen Liang; Su Haobo; Lou Wensheng; Fan Chunying

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the safety and the effect of superselective bronchial artery chemoembolization in the treatment of lung cancer. Methods: Three hundred and twenty-nine cases of lung cancer diagnosed by pathology and treated with simply bronchial artery infusion or superselective bronchial artery chemoembolization were investigated. (1) Simply bronchial artery infusion (n=221): 40-60 mg Cisplatin or 200-300 mg Carboplatin combined with 10-20 mg Mitomycin-C or 100-200 mg Etoposide were infused through the catheter which was placed in the bronchial artery trunk or intercostal-bronchial artery trunk after angiography, re-infusion was performed at 2-4 weeks intervals, 549 times of infusion were performed in 221 cases. (2) Superselective bronchial artery chemoembolization (n=108): microcatheter was superselectively inserted into the distal of feeding artery guided with road-map after selective angiography, then anticarcinogen (same as simply bronchial artery infusion) and embolic material were infused through microcatheter. 30-50 Gelfoam particles and/or 3-8 ml Lipiodol was used as embolic material. Chemoembolization was reperformed at 6-9 weeks intervals, 266 times of chemoembolization were done in 108 cases. Results: No severe complications such as spinal injury were found. 28 cases in 221 cases performed with simply bronchial infusion got complete response (CR), meanwhile, partial response (PR) in 79 cases, stable(S) in 88 cases, and processes (P) in 26 cases. The effective rate (CR + PR) was 48.4%, survival rate of 1 year and 2 years were 53.8% and 44.8%, respectively. In the 108 cases performed with superselective bronchial artery chemoembolization, there were 16 cases of CR, 53 cases of PR, 32 cases of S, and 7 cases of P. The effective rate (CR + PR) was 63.9%, survival rate of 1 year and 2 years were 77.8% and 65.7%, respectively. There were significant statistic differences in the effective rate and survival rate of 1 year and 2 years between the two

  6. Treatment of distal bronchial stenosis after bilateral lung transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Golovinskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effi ciency of lung transplantation is considerably limited by the complications associated with the bronchial pathologies. Despite the progress of the treatment methods, bronchial complications are still remaining as an actual problem in the postoperative period with frequency of occurrence from 7 to 29%. However, the bronchial stenosis are the most common bronchial complications after lung transplantation with mortality from 2 to 4%.Aim. To study an experience of our center of bronchial stenosis treatment in lung recipients. Materials and methods. 34 patients underwent lung transplantation from September 2014 to January 2017. 6 (16% of them had a stenosis of lobar or segmental bronchi from 84 to 494 postoperative day. 5 (83% of them have demonstrated multifocal lesions. In all of the cases there was performed an endoscopic bougienage, which involved a balloon dilatation and electrocoagulated incision of granular tissue under X-ray control. After that the patients were administrated by everolimus.Results. Restenosis was formed in 132,0 ± 94,2 postoperative day after primary treatment in all patients. In four cases (67% we used nitinol stent placement under X-ray control. There were no complications. In 3 cases stents were dislocated distally, so we needed to use repeated endoscopic bougienage to replace the stent. Using of everolimus has allowed to decrease the rate of restenosis, but it need future research.Conclusion. Distal bronchial stenosis after lung transplantation can be managed with endoscopic bougienage and stent placement. Adding everolimus has not signifi cantly affected the risk of frequency of restenosis.

  7. Regional lung function (133Xe-radiospirometry) in bronchial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arborelius, M.; Kristersson, S.; Lindell, S.E.

    1976-01-01

    In a prospective study of all patients with bronchial cancer in the city of Malmoe, all patients considered for surgery were examined with regard to overall function (conventional spirometry) and regional lung function (133-Xe-radiospirometry). Out of 116 consecutive cases examined with 133-Xe-radiospirometry before surgery,

  8. Aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphy in children with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, Yoshikuni; Nakayama, Chikashi; Nakata, Hajime; Takahashi, Satomi; Tanaka, Masaaki; Koori, Tateo

    1988-01-01

    Aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphies performed on 37 children with bronchial asthma during asymptomatic periods were evaluated. The findings of their aerosol lung inhalation scintigrams were classified into 4 patterns, as type I: homogeneous distribution without hot spot formation, type II: peripheral homogeneity with central hot spot formation, type IIID (-): inhomogeneous distribution with hot spot formation, but without defect, and type IIID (+): with defect. These aerosol patterns were compared with those of previously reported adult cases and with the severity of bronchial asthma. Normal pattern of type I was found in 5 cases (12%) of our infantile asthmatics in contrast to previously reported adult cases, in which none of normal pattern was found. There were differences between type II and type III in both distribution and disappearance time of hot spot, which indicated that the two types differed from each other in radioaerosol deposition mechanism. There was no significant correlation between type I and type II in the severity of asthma and the frequency of asthmatic attack. Type II may be clinically considered to be the same type as type I. There is the statistically significant difference between type I, II and type III in the frequency of asthmatic attack, but not in the severity of asthma, although most of serious cases showed type III. Aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphy is a useful examination for children with bronchial asthma in which lung function tests may be difficult to perform. (author)

  9. The findings of bronchial artery change in lung cancer with 16-slice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Qingsi; Wu Xiaomei; Cen Renli; Zhang Chaoliang; Chen Yongfu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the difference of internal diameter of bronchial artery in big lung cancer, small lung cancer, and normal lung with multiple slice CT. Methods: MSCT angiographies of 44 patients with lung cancer confirmed by pathology were retrospectively analyzed, and 29 patients were with big lung cancer (≥3 cm) and 15 patients with small lung cancer (<3 cm). Contrast enhanced helical thin slice CT scan was performed in all patients. Three dimensional images of bronchial artery were processed on workstation. The internal diameter of bronchial artery was measured. Results: The diameter of bronchial artery was (1.9±0.4) mm in 15 small lung cancer and (2.5±0.5) mm in 29 big lung cancer, respectively. There was a significant difference in internal diameter of bronchial artery between big and small lung cancer (P<0.05). Conclusion: Bronchial artery in lung cancer is dilated, and the dilation of bronchial artery in big lung cancer is more prominent than in small lung cancer. (authors)

  10. Lung abscess as a complication of bronchial thermoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Anandh; Ryan, Dorothy; Niven, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is an emerging treatment modality for patients with difficult to treat asthma. It has been shown to be beneficial for symptom control and improves quality of life and reduces frequency of hospitalization. Safety data from the two major trials of BT indicate that patients who undergo these procedures are most likely to experience adverse respiratory events in the first six weeks post treatment. Lung abscess has never been reported as a direct complication of BT. In this case; we report a lung abscess as an immediate complication of BT, which we believe may be the first case. We describe a forty three year old Caucasian female presented three days post-bronchial thermoplasty with left sided chest pain radiating to the back associated with shortness of breath, wheeze and dry cough. She had also started to feel hot and cold and generally unwell. It remains unclear why this patient developed a lung abscess so acutely post BT treatment. It is important that safety data continues to be collated and published as the procedure becomes more widely available with further long term follow-up in particular.

  11. Lung function and bronchial responsiveness after Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Birgitte Kjær; Jensen, Jørgen S; Nielsen, Kim G

    2008-01-01

    by whole-body plethysmography and bronchial hyperresponsiveness was assessed by cold, dry air hyperventilation. Neither baseline lung function nor bronchial response to cold dry air hyperventilation differed between M. pneumoniae-positive and -negative children: mean baseline lung function were 1.17 versus...

  12. Establishment and bronchial arteriography of the models of canine lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xicai; Wang Xiaodong; Li Bin; Shi Jianguang; Liu Yong; Xu Nanxun; Ma Weijun; Yang Haixian; Bai Jingwen; Li Weidong; Liu Shuping; Liu Anpu

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the establishment and bronchial arteriography of the models of canine lung cancer, and to facilitate further diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Methods: Twenty-two dogs were respectively administrated with 3 ml suspension of lipiodol-ultrafluid mixed with 3- methylcholanthrene (MCA) and diethylnitrosamine (DEN). The suspension was injected into the diaphragmic lobe of right lung with the co-axial catheter through endotracheal intubation. The dogs were randomly divided into 5 groups, group A (4 dogs), B (4), C (4), D (5), and E (5), which were sacrificed after observation for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. Then the image analysis and histopathologic examinations were carried out at different period. 5 dogs in group E were examined by bronchial arteriography. Results: Peribronchiolitis and atelectasis appeared at early stage (one month). Chronic granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis of lung tissue were gradually formed after 3 months. Proliferation of stem cells in bronchioles and atypical hyperplasia were found from 6 to 12 months. At last, the squamous carcinoma and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma were induced after 18 months. The lung cancer and precancerous lesion were found in 4 of 5 dogs at the 18 th month. The bronchial arteriography in the 5 dogs showed that 3 bronchial arteries were found as the supplying blood artery to the tumor. Conclusion: The suspension of lipiodol-ultrafluid mixed with MCA and DEN was exactly injected with the co-axial catheter through endotracheal intubation to establish the models of canine lung cancer. The inducible rate of the method was high and the location of lung cancer was accurate. It was affirmed that the blood supply artery of canine lung cancer was bronchial artery. Bronchial arteriography was of momentous significance to the diagnosis of early lung cancer. The establishment of the models of canine lung cancer was significant in the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. The models

  13. Horseshoe lung - a case report with unusual bronchial and pleural anomalies and a proposed new classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figa, F.H.; Yoo, S.J.; Burrows, P.E.; Turner-Gomes, S.; Freedom, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    One case of horseshoe lung with associated scimitar syndrome is presented. Unusual bronchial and pleural anomalies as delineated by CT and plain chest radiographic imaging are described. The presence of bilateal fissures led to a newly proposed classification of horseshoe lung based on pleural anatomy. (orig.)

  14. Horseshoe lung - a case report with unusual bronchial and pleural anomalies and a proposed new classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figa, F H [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging and Division of Cardiology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada); Yoo, S J; Burrows, P E [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging and Division of Cardiology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada); Turner-Gomes, S [McMaster Univ. Medical Center, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Freedom, R M [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging and Division of Cardiology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1993-03-01

    One case of horseshoe lung with associated scimitar syndrome is presented. Unusual bronchial and pleural anomalies as delineated by CT and plain chest radiographic imaging are described. The presence of bilateal fissures led to a newly proposed classification of horseshoe lung based on pleural anatomy. (orig.)

  15. Omalizumab reduces bronchial mucosal IgE and improves lung function in non-atopic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Prathap; Chan, Yih-Chih; Wu, Shih-Ying; Ohm-Laursen, Line; Thomas, Clare; Durham, Stephen R; Menzies-Gow, Andrew; Rajakulasingam, Raj K; Ying, Sun; Gould, Hannah J; Corrigan, Chris J

    2016-12-01

    Omalizumab therapy of non-atopic asthmatics reduces bronchial mucosal IgE and inflammation and preserves/improves lung function when disease is destabilised by staged withdrawal of therapy.18 symptomatic, non-atopic asthmatics were randomised (1:1) to receive omalizumab or identical placebo treatment in addition to existing therapy for 20 weeks. Bronchial biopsies were collected before and after 12-14 weeks of treatment, then the patients destabilised by substantial, supervised reduction of their regular therapy. Primary outcome measures were changes in bronchial mucosal IgE + cells at 12-14 weeks, prior to regular therapy reduction, and changes in lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s) after destabilisation at 20 weeks. Quality of life was also monitored.Omalizumab but not placebo therapy significantly reduced median total bronchial mucosal IgE + cells (pomalizumab treated patients, with significant differences in absolute (p=0.04) and % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (p=0.015).Omalizumab therapy of non-atopic asthmatics reduces bronchial mucosal IgE + mast cells and improves lung function despite withdrawal of conventional therapy. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  16. Alterations in Bronchial Airway miRNA Expression for Lung Cancer Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Ana B; Campbell, Joshua D; Liu, Gang; Elashoff, David; Dubinett, Steven; Smith, Kate; Whitney, Duncan; Lenburg, Marc E; Spira, Avrum

    2017-11-01

    We have previously shown that gene expression alterations in normal-appearing bronchial epithelial cells can serve as a lung cancer detection biomarker in smokers. Given that miRNAs regulate airway gene expression responses to smoking, we evaluated whether miRNA expression is also altered in the bronchial epithelium of smokers with lung cancer. Using epithelial brushings from the mainstem bronchus of patients undergoing bronchoscopy for suspected lung cancer (as part of the AEGIS-1/2 clinical trials), we profiled miRNA expression via small-RNA sequencing from 347 current and former smokers for which gene expression data were also available. Patients were followed for one year postbronchoscopy until a final diagnosis of lung cancer ( n = 194) or benign disease ( n = 153) was made. Following removal of 6 low-quality samples, we used 138 patients (AEGIS-1) as a discovery set to identify four miRNAs (miR-146a-5p, miR-324-5p, miR-223-3p, and miR-223-5p) that were downregulated in the bronchial airway of lung cancer patients (ANOVA P cancer patients (GSEA FDR lung cancer significantly improves its performance (AUC) in the 203 samples (AEGIS-1/2) serving an independent test set (DeLong P lung cancer, and that they may regulate cancer-associated gene expression differences. Cancer Prev Res; 10(11); 651-9. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Detection of early lung cancer lesions in surgical resections and in bronchial and transbronchial biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rott, T.; Jerse, M.; Tercelj, M.; Erzen, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Overall bad prognosis of lung cancer is mostly due to too late detection of early lung cancer, which may be treated with good success. Therefore, different diagnostic methods are developing for more efficient detection of early lung cancer: besides modern radiological, bronchoscopic methods with additional fluorescence techniques, quantitative cytological investigations, also histological and molecular investigations are included. Histology may reveal early preinvasive lung cancer lesions, associated early during multistep lung carcinogenesis with molecular genetic changes. Patients and methods. Preinvasive epithelial lung cancer lesions we searched in two groups of patients. In the first group of 316 patients from the period March 2003 - August 2006, 498 bronchial and transbronchial biopsies were examined for squamous metaplasia and dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive tumours. In the second group of 238 patients from the period January 2004 - August 2006, resected primary lung tumours were analysed for preinvasive and invasive neuroendocrine tumours and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. Results. The most frequent changes in bronchial and transbronchial biopsies were squamous metaplasia (46.5%), simple or goblet cell hyperplasia of the bronchial epithelium (44.3%), malignant tumours (20.66%) and squamous dysplasia (16.1%), but rare carcinoma in situ (0.63%). Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia was found in 15 (6.3%) cases in the vicinity of 238 resected lung cancer specimens, carcinoid in 12 patients (5%), and mostly combined large cell neuroendocrine cancer in 21 patients (8.8%). Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia was found in 2 patients. Conclusions. Classical histological analysis should be focused on detection of early preinvasive epithelial lung cancer lesions. Additional available molecular investigations may reveal gradual genetic changes characteristic for a series of the preinvasive epithelial histological changes

  18. Impact of proximity of thermoelectric power plants on bronchial obstructive crisis rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Ugarte-Avilés

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental pollution is a risk factor for cardiorespiratory diseases. Energy generated by thermoelectric power plants (TEPP represents a relevant source of pollution. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between living near a coal-fired TEPP and the consultation rates for bronchial obstructive crises (BOC in the province of Concepción, Chile. Methods Population-based study. The epidemiological weeks from 2012 to 2014 were analyzed. The dependent variable was the emergency consultation rate for BOC in two health centers within 5 km of a TEPP (Coronel and two that were more than 40 Km away from a TEPP (Talcahuano. The independent variables were the commune, climatological variables (air temperature and relative atmospheric humidity, environmental pollutants (PM10, PM2.5 and nitrogen oxide, weeks with the highest consultation rate and the years. Rates, Pearson’s correlation and gross risk measures were calculated and adjusted for environmental and climatological variables. Results BOC rates were significantly higher in Coronel (RR = 4.9 95% CI 4.0–5.8; p < 0.05. The PM2.5 it showed the strongest correlation with BOC rates (r = 0.3; p < 0.01 in Coronel, but not Talcahuano. Linear regression modelling indicated that proximity to a TEPP (health center location and temperature explained 26 and 18% of the variance in BOC rates, respectively. Conclusions Rates of emergency consultation for BOC were significantly higher among a population living within 5 km of a coal-fired TEPP than those living 40 km away.

  19. Bronchial arteries: anatomy, function, hypertrophy, and anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher M; Rosado-de-Christenson, Melissa L; Martínez-Jiménez, Santiago; Kunin, Jeffrey R; Wible, Brandt C

    2015-01-01

    The two main sources of blood supply to the lungs and their supporting structures are the pulmonary and bronchial arteries. The bronchial arteries account for 1% of the cardiac output but can be recruited to provide additional systemic circulation to the lungs in various acquired and congenital thoracic disorders. An understanding of bronchial artery anatomy and function is important in the identification of bronchial artery dilatation and anomalies and the formulation of an appropriate differential diagnosis. Visualization of dilated bronchial arteries at imaging should alert the radiologist to obstructive disorders that affect the pulmonary circulation and prompt the exclusion of diseases that produce or are associated with pulmonary artery obstruction, including chronic infectious and/or inflammatory processes, chronic thromboembolic disease, and congenital anomalies of the thorax (eg, proximal interruption of the pulmonary artery). Conotruncal abnormalities, such as pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, are associated with systemic pulmonary supply provided by aortic branches known as major aortopulmonary collaterals, which originate in the region of the bronchial arteries. Bronchial artery malformation is a rare left-to-right or left-to-left shunt characterized by an anomalous connection between a bronchial artery and a pulmonary artery or a pulmonary vein, respectively. Bronchial artery interventions can be used successfully in the treatment of hemoptysis, with a low risk of adverse events. Multidetector computed tomography helps provide a vascular road map for the interventional radiologist before bronchial artery embolization. RSNA, 2015

  20. Examination of the lungs in bronchial asthma by means of roentgenopneumopolygraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babij, Ya.S.; Bezhenar, A.A.; Gladkij, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Roentgenopneumopolygraphy (RPPG) was used to examine 48 patients with bronchial asthma and all patients showed a reduction of one or several indices of zonal ventilation and / or biomechanics of the respiratory act. Inhalation of bronchoiytics improved all indices of RPPG. But most patients revealed local disorders of ventilation resistant to the effect of broncholytic agents. Local therapy of the corresponding lung regions produced a positive effect

  1. Lung function and bronchial responsiveness in preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Duiverman (Eric)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractIt is hypothesized that childhood asthma, especially when not well controlled, may constitute a risk factor for the development of COLD in adulthood (Cropp, 1985), It is unknown whether lung injury during early life is a risk factor for the development of COLD in adulthood, Asthma often

  2. Stent-in-Stent Technique for the Treatment of Proximal Bronchial Restenosis after Insertion of Metallic Stents: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Bondue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic treatment of a bronchial restenosis previously treated by insertion of a partially covered self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS can be difficult. Classically, after recanalization of the bronchus, the stent is removed and replaced by a more adapted one. We report on two cases of proximal bronchial restenosis treated by insertion of an additional stent inside the lumen of the previously inserted stent using the stent-in-stent (SIS technique. The indications for the initial stent were malignancy in Patient 1 and posttransplant bronchial stenosis in Patient 2. Restenosis occurred at the proximal end of the stent within months in both cases. Stent removal and insertion of a new stent were considered, but this option was discarded because of an excessive risk of bronchial perforation and preference towards an alternative approach. In both cases, a second customized SEMS was placed using the SIS technique after ablation of the proximal end stenosis of the stent by argon plasma coagulation and/or dilation with a balloon. Recanalization of the bronchus was achieved in both cases without complications. The SIS technique is a valuable alternative to removal of SEMS in case of proximal bronchial restenosis.

  3. Intercostal muscle flap to protect the bronchial stump in pediatric lobectomy for lung abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisi, Gabriele; Lauriti, Giuseppe; Cascini, Valentina; Lococo, Achille; Chiesa, Pierluigi Lelli

    2013-01-01

    Lung suppurative diseases in children are usually responsive to medical treatment or percutaneous drainage. Rarely, pulmonary resection is required for lung abscess in childhood, particularly in presence of co-morbidities. In these cases, a lobectomy is usually performed through an open thoracotomy, with a reported incidence of bronco-pleural fistula up to 9.1% of pediatric series. This consequence is mainly due to the inflammatory condition; however the lack of knowledge of pediatric and thoracic surgeons with this rare condition in childhood can also play a role. In adults with lung cancer, the buttressing of bronchial stump with the additional support of an intercostal muscle (ICM) flap has proved to prevent this complication, as well as to reduce post-operative pain. We report the first pediatric experience of ICM flap used in 2 immunocompetent children requiring lobectomy for suppurative lung conditions. Our preliminary experience confirms the feasibility of protecting the bronchial stump after lobectomy in children, especially in conditions at risk for bronco-pleural fistula development.

  4. Imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamo, Leonor; Meuli, Reto [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Vial, Yvan [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Gengler, Carole [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Pathology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    Congenital lung malformations are increasingly detected before birth. However, bronchial atresia is rarely identified in utero and not always recognized in neonates. There are two types of atresia: (1) proximal, located at the level of the mainstem or the proximal lobar bronchi, which is extremely rare and usually lethal during pregnancy, causing a tremendous volume increase of the distal involved lung with secondary hypoplasia of the normal lung, and (2) peripheral, located at the segmental/subsegmental bronchial level, which may present as an isolated lesion or as part of a complex congenital malformation. Prenatal findings are mostly nonspecific. Postnatal exams show overinflated lung areas and focal bronchial dilations. The typical fluid-filled bronchoceles are not always observed in neonates but develop progressively in the first months of life. This pictorial essay describes the spectrum of imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants. (orig.)

  5. Increased polysomy of chromosome 7 in bronchial epithelium from patients at high risk for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinsky, S.A.; Neft, R.E.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Current models of carcinogenesis suggest that tissues progress through multiple genetic and epigenetic changes which ultimately lead to development of invasive cancer. Epidemiologic studies of Peto, R.R. and J.A. Doll indicate that the accumulation of these genetic changes over time, rather than any single unique genetic change, is probably responsible for development of the malignant phenotype. The bronchial epithelium of cigarette smokers is diffusely exposed to a broad spectrum of carcinogens, toxicants, and tumor promoters contained in tobacco smoke. This exposure increases the risk of developing multiple, independent premalignant foci throughout the lower respiratory tract that may contain independent gene aberrations. This open-quotes field cancerizationclose quotes theory is supported by studies that have demonstrated progressive histologic changes distributed throughout the lower respiratory tract of smokers. A series of autopsy studies demonstrated that cigarette smokers exhibit premalignant histologic changes ranging from hyperplasia and metaplasia to severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ diffusely throughout the bronchial mucosa. The proximal bronchi appear to exhibit the greatest number of changes, particularly at bifurcations. The results described are the first to quantitate the frequency for a chromosome aberration in open-quotes normalclose quotes bronchial epithelial cells

  6. Increased polysomy of chromosome 7 in bronchial epithelium from patients at high risk for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinsky, S.A.; Neft, R.E.; Lechner, J.F. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Current models of carcinogenesis suggest that tissues progress through multiple genetic and epigenetic changes which ultimately lead to development of invasive cancer. Epidemiologic studies of Peto, R.R. and J.A. Doll indicate that the accumulation of these genetic changes over time, rather than any single unique genetic change, is probably responsible for development of the malignant phenotype. The bronchial epithelium of cigarette smokers is diffusely exposed to a broad spectrum of carcinogens, toxicants, and tumor promoters contained in tobacco smoke. This exposure increases the risk of developing multiple, independent premalignant foci throughout the lower respiratory tract that may contain independent gene aberrations. This {open_quotes}field cancerization{close_quotes} theory is supported by studies that have demonstrated progressive histologic changes distributed throughout the lower respiratory tract of smokers. A series of autopsy studies demonstrated that cigarette smokers exhibit premalignant histologic changes ranging from hyperplasia and metaplasia to severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ diffusely throughout the bronchial mucosa. The proximal bronchi appear to exhibit the greatest number of changes, particularly at bifurcations. The results described are the first to quantitate the frequency for a chromosome aberration in {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} bronchial epithelial cells.

  7. Shared Gene Expression Alterations in Nasal and Bronchial Epithelium for Lung Cancer Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We previously derived and validated a bronchial epithelial gene expression biomarker to detect lung cancer in current and former smokers. Given that bronchial and nasal epithelial gene expression are similarly altered by cigarette smoke exposure, we sought to determine if cancer-associated gene expression might also be detectable in the more readily accessible nasal epithelium. Nasal epithelial brushings were prospectively collected from current and former smokers undergoing diagnostic evaluation for pulmonary lesions suspicious for lung cancer in the AEGIS-1 (n = 375) and AEGIS-2 (n = 130) clinical trials and gene expression profiled using microarrays. All statistical tests were two-sided. We identified 535 genes that were differentially expressed in the nasal epithelium of AEGIS-1 patients diagnosed with lung cancer vs those with benign disease after one year of follow-up ( P  cancer-associated gene expression alterations between the two airway sites ( P  lung cancer classifier derived in the AEGIS-1 cohort that combined clinical factors (age, smoking status, time since quit, mass size) and nasal gene expression (30 genes) had statistically significantly higher area under the curve (0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.74 to 0.89, P  = .01) and sensitivity (0.91; 95% CI = 0.81 to 0.97, P  = .03) than a clinical-factor only model in independent samples from the AEGIS-2 cohort. These results support that the airway epithelial field of lung cancer-associated injury in ever smokers extends to the nose and demonstrates the potential of using nasal gene expression as a noninvasive biomarker for lung cancer detection. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Lung malignancy: Diagnostic accuracies of bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial brushing, and fine needle aspiration cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Rateesh; Pandey, C L

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early diagnosis of lung cancer plays a pivotal role in reducing lung cancer death rate. Cytological techniques are safer, economical and provide quick results. Bronchoscopic washing, brushing and fine needle aspirations not only complement tissue biopsies in the diagnosis of lung cancer but also comparable. Objectives: (1) To find out diagnostic yields of bronchioalveolar lavage, bronchial brushings, FNAC in diagnosis of lung malignancy. (2) To compare relative accuracy of these three cytological techniques. (3) To correlate the cytologic diagnosis with clinical, bronchoscopic and CT findings. (4) Cytological and histopathological correlation of lung lesions. Methods: All the patients who came with clinical or radiological suspicion of lung malignancy in two and a half year period were included in study. Bronchoalveolar lavage was the most common type of cytological specimen (82.36%), followed by CT guided FNAC (9.45%) and bronchial brushings (8.19%). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value for all techniques and correlation with histopathology was done using standard formulas. Results: The most sensitive technique was CT FNAC – (87.25%) followed by brushings (77.78%) and BAL (72.69%). CT FNAC had highest diagnostic yield (90.38%), followed by brushings (86.67%) and BAL (83.67%). Specificity and positive predictive value were 100 % each of all techniques. Lowest false negatives were obtained in CT FNAC (12.5%) and highest in BAL (27.3%). Highest negative predictive value was of BAL 76.95 % followed by BB 75.59% and CT FNAC 70.59%. Conclusion: Before administering antitubercular treatment every effort should be made to rule out malignancy. CT FNAC had highest diagnostic yield among three cytological techniques. BAL is an important tool in screening central as well as in accessible lesions. It can be used at places where CT guided FNAC is not available or could not be done due to technical or financial limitations PMID:27890992

  9. Bronchial Artery and Systemic Artery Embolization in the Management of Primary Lung Cancer Patients with Hemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hong Suk; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Hyae Young; Zo, Jae-Ill; Lee, Joo Hyuk; Lee, Jin Soo

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the safety and effectiveness of arterial embolization in lung cancer patients with hemoptysis. Methods. Nineteen primary lung cancer patients with hemoptysis underwent bronchial artery and systemic artery embolization from April 2002 to March 2005. There were 17 men and 2 women, with a mean age of 59 years. Histologic analysis revealed squamous cell carcinoma in 10 patients and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in 9 patients. The amount of hemoptysis was bleeding of 25-50 ml within 24 hr in 8 patients, recurrent blood-tinged sputum in 6, and bleeding of 100 ml or more per 24 hr in 5. Embolization was done with a superselective technique using a microcatheter and polyvinyl alcohol particles to occlude the affected vessels. Results. Arterial embolization was technically successful in all patients and clinically successful in 15 patients (79%). The average number of arteries embolized was 1.2. Bronchial arteriography revealed staining (all patients), dilatation of the artery or hypervascularity (10 patients), and bronchopulmonary shunt (6 patients). The recurrence rate was 33% (5/15) and 11 patients were alive with a mean follow-up time of 148 days (30-349 days). Conclusion. Arterial embolotherapy for hemoptysis in patients with primary lung cancer is an effective, safe therapeutic modality despite the fact the vascular changes are subtle on angiography

  10. Clinical application of radiofrequency ablation combined with bronchial artery infusion of docetaxel in treating non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiong; Chen Fang; Lin Yun; Tan Taikang; Wei Wei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical application of radiofrequency ablation combined with bronchial artery infusion of docetaxel in treating non-small cell lung cancer and to summarize the experience of using this therapy in clinical practice. Methods: Radiofrequency ablation was performed in twenty-one patients with lung cancer. The diagnosis was confirmed by CT-guided percutaneous needle biopsy or bronchoscopic biopsy in all patients. One week after radiofrequency ablation treatment, bronchial artery infusion of docetaxel was conducted. The therapeutic results were observed and evaluated. Results: After the treatment, the lesion's size was markedly reduced and the clinical symptoms were dramatically improved in all patients. Conclusion: Radiofrequency ablation combined with bronchial artery infusion of docetaxel is a safe, effective and simple technique with excellent therapeutic results for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. It is really worth popularizing this technique in clinical practice. (authors)

  11. Detection of p53 gene mutations in bronchial biopsy samples of patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irshad, S.; Nawaz, T.

    2008-01-01

    Lung cancer is the malignant transformation and expansion of lung tissue. It is the most lethal of all cancers worldwide, responsible for 1.2 million deaths annually. The goal of this study was to detect the p53 gene mutations in lung cancer, in local population of Lahore, Pakistan. These mutations were screened in the bronchial biopsy lung cancer tissue samples. For this purpose microtomed tissue sections were collected. Following DNA extraction from tissue sections, the p53 mutations were detected by amplifying Exon 7 (145 bp) and Exon 8 (152 bp) of the p53 gene. PCR then followed by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis for screening the p53 gene mutations. This results of SSCP were visualized of silver staining. The results showed different banding pattern indicating the presence of mutation. Majority of the mutations were found in Exon 7. Exon 7 of p53 gene may be the mutation hotspot in lung cancer. In lung cancer, the most prevalent mutations of p53 gene are G -> T transversions; other types of insertions and deletions are also expected, however, the exact nature of mutations in presented work could be confirmed by direct sequencing. (author)

  12. Bronchial airway gene expression in smokers with lung or head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dyck, Eric; Nazarov, Petr V; Muller, Arnaud; Nicot, Nathalie; Bosseler, Manon; Pierson, Sandrine; Van Moer, Kris; Palissot, Valérie; Mascaux, Céline; Knolle, Ulrich; Ninane, Vincent; Nati, Romain; Bremnes, Roy M; Vallar, Laurent; Berchem, Guy; Schlesser, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major cause of cancers of the respiratory tract, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and head and neck cancer (HNC). In order to better understand carcinogenesis of the lung and upper airways, we have compared the gene expression profiles of tumor-distant, histologically normal bronchial biopsy specimens obtained from current smokers with NSCLC or HNC (SC, considered as a single group), as well as nonsmokers (NS) and smokers without cancer (SNC). RNA from a total of 97 biopsies was used for gene expression profiling (Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 array). Differentially expressed genes were used to compare NS, SNC, and SC, and functional analysis was carried out using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Smoking-related cancer of the respiratory tract was found to affect the expression of genes encoding xenobiotic biotransformation proteins, as well as proteins associated with crucial inflammation/immunity pathways and other processes that protect the airway from the chemicals in cigarette smoke or contribute to carcinogenesis. Finally, we used the prediction analysis for microarray (PAM) method to identify gene signatures of cigarette smoking and cancer, and uncovered a 15-gene signature that distinguished between SNC and SC with an accuracy of 83%. Thus, gene profiling of histologically normal bronchial biopsy specimens provided insight into cigarette-induced carcinogenesis of the respiratory tract and gene signatures of cancer in smokers

  13. Herniation of unruptured tuberculous lung abscess into chest wall without pleural or bronchial spillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Magazine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old unmarried man presented to the chest outpatient department with a history of productive cough of two-month duration. He also complained of pain and swelling on the anterior aspect of right side of chest of one-month duration. Imaging studies of the thorax, including chest roentgenography and computerized tomography, revealed an unruptured lung abscess which had herniated into the chest wall. Culture of pus aspirated from the chest wall swelling grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis. He was diagnosed to have a tuberculous lung abscess which had extended into the chest wall, without spillage into the pleural cavity or the bronchial tree. Antituberculosis drugs were prescribed, and he responded to the treatment with complete resolution of the lesion.

  14. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy by bronchial arterial infusion in patients with unresectable stage III squamous cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Hai-Ping; Jiang, Sen; Ni, Jian

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy administered via bronchial arterial infusion (BAI) on unresectable stage III lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). This was a single-arm retrospective study of chemotherapy with gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GP) administered via BAI to patients with unresectable lung SCC. Data regarding the post-treatment response rate, downstage rate, and surgery rate, as well as progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), quality of life, and post-BAI side effects were collected. A total of 36 patients were enrolled in this study between August 2010 and May 2014. The response rate was 72.2%, and the downstage rate was 22.2%. Among the patients who were downstaged, 16 (44.4%) patients were because of their T stage, and 5 (13.9%) patients were downstaged due to to their N stage. The surgery rate was 52.8%, the 1-year survival rate was 75.4%, and the 2-year survival rate was 52.1%. The median PFS was 14.0 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 8.6-19.4], and the median OS was 25.0 months (95% CI: 19.1-30.9). The quality of life was significantly improved, and the chemotherapy was well tolerated. Compared with intravenous neoadjuvant chemotherapy, BAI chemotherapy significantly improved the surgery rate, prolonged PFS and OS, and improved the quality of life in patients with unresectable stage III lung SCC.

  15. Disconnection technique with a bronchial blocker for improving lung deflation: a comparison with a double-lumen tube and bronchial blocker without disconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ji Young; Kim, Dae Hee; Choi, Ho; Kim, Kun; Chae, Yun Jeong; Park, Sung Yong

    2014-08-01

    One-lung ventilation (OLV) is accomplished with a double-lumen tube (DLT) or a bronchial blocker (BB). The authors compared the effectiveness of lung collapse using DLT, BB, and BB with the disconnection technique. Prospective, randomized, blind trial. A university hospital. Fifty-two patients undergoing elective pneumothorax surgery. Patients were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 groups: The DLT group (group 1), the BB group (group 2), and the BB with the disconnection technique group (group 3). The authors modified the disconnection technique in group 3 as follows: (1) turned off the ventilator and opened the adjustable pressure-limiting valve, allowing both lungs to collapse and (2) after loss of the CO2 trace on the capnograph, inflated the blocker cuff and turned on the ventilator, allowing only dependent-lung ventilation. Five and ten minutes after OLV, the degree of lung collapse was assessed by the surgeon, who was blinded to the isolation technique. The quality of lung collapse at 5 and 10 minutes was significantly better in groups 1 and 3 than in group 2. No significant differences were observed for the degree of lung collapse at any time point between groups 1 and 3. The average time for loss of the CO2 trace on the capnograph was 32.3±7.0 seconds in group 3. A BB with spontaneous collapse took longer to deflate and did not provide equivalent surgical exposure to the DLT. The disconnection technique could be helpful to accelerate lung collapse with a BB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High-fidelity simulation of lung isolation with double-lumen endotracheal tubes and bronchial blockers in anesthesiology resident training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failor, Erin; Bowdle, Andrew; Jelacic, Srdjan; Togashi, Kei

    2014-08-01

    Demonstrate the feasibility of using the AirSim Bronchi airway simulator to teach residents how to manage lung isolation with double-lumen endotracheal tubes and bronchial blockers and evaluate their performance with a detailed checklist. Prospective observational study. University anesthesiology residency training program. Anesthesiology residents taking a cardiothoracic anesthesiology rotation. Residents were instructed in 7 tasks using the AirSim Bronchi: The use of the fiberoptic bronchoscope, methods for placing left and right double-lumen endotracheal tubes and 3 bronchial blockers (Univent, Arndt, and Cohen), and application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to the unventilated lung. Two to 3 weeks later, checklists and a detailed scoring system were used to assess performance. Residents rated the curriculum and their own confidence in performing the tasks using a 5-point Likert scale. Thirteen residents completed the curriculum. Their median Likert scale ratings of the curriculum based on a questionnaire with 6 items ranged from 4 to 5 of 5. Resident confidence scores for each lung isolation technique improved after the simulation training, with the median gain ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 Likert levels depending on the task. The largest improvement occurred with the bronchial blockers (psimulator in a novel simulation curriculum to teach lung-isolation techniques to anesthesiology residents and evaluated performance using a detailed checklist scoring system. This curriculum is a promising educational tool. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. SHOX2 DNA Methylation is a Biomarker for the diagnosis of lung cancer based on bronchial aspirates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Bernd; Lewin, Jörn; Tetzner, Reimo; Weickmann, Sabine; Wille, Ulrike; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Raji, Olaide; Walshaw, Martin; Fleischhacker, Michael; Witt, Christian; Field, John K; Liebenberg, Volker; Dietrich, Dimo; Schlegel, Thomas; Kneip, Christoph; Seegebarth, Anke; Flemming, Nadja; Seemann, Stefanie; Distler, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to show that SHOX2 DNA methylation is a tumor marker in patients with suspected lung cancer by using bronchial fluid aspirated during bronchoscopy. Such a biomarker would be clinically valuable, especially when, following the first bronchoscopy, a final diagnosis cannot be established by histology or cytology. A test with a low false positive rate can reduce the need for further invasive and costly procedures and ensure early treatment. Marker discovery was carried out by differential methylation hybridization (DMH) and real-time PCR. The real-time PCR based HeavyMethyl technology was used for quantitative analysis of DNA methylation of SHOX2 using bronchial aspirates from two clinical centres in a case-control study. Fresh-frozen and Saccomanno-fixed samples were used to show the tumor marker performance in different sample types of clinical relevance. Valid measurements were obtained from a total of 523 patient samples (242 controls, 281 cases). DNA methylation of SHOX2 allowed to distinguish between malignant and benign lung disease, i.e. abscesses, infections, obstructive lung diseases, sarcoidosis, scleroderma, stenoses, at high specificity (68% sensitivity [95% CI 62-73%], 95% specificity [95% CI 91-97%]). Hypermethylation of SHOX2 in bronchial aspirates appears to be a clinically useful tumor marker for identifying subjects with lung carcinoma, especially if histological and cytological findings after bronchoscopy are ambiguous

  18. Preoperative infusion of mitomycin-C in the bronchial artery in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellekant, C; Boijsen, E; Svanberg, L [Departments of Diagnostic Radiology and Thoracic Sugery, Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus, Malmoe, Sweden

    1978-01-01

    Bronchial angiography was performed in 9 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The tumour-feeding vessel was identified and infused with 10 mg of mitomycin-C (MMC) diluted in saline. At operation after 28 to 48 days complete remission of the tumour had occurred in 2 patients, almost complete in one, partial remission in 2 and a marked regression in 2. In 2 patients no change was noted. No side effects except moderate malaise and slight fever occurred.

  19. Reversible bronchial dilatation in children: comparison of serial high-resolution computer tomography scans of the lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, E.A. E-mail: erol.gaillard@lwh-tr.nwest.nhs.uk; Carty, H.; Heaf, D.; Smyth, R.L

    2003-09-01

    Introduction: bronchiectasis is generally considered irreversible in the adult population, largely based on studies employing bronchography in cases with a significant clinical history. It is assumed, that the same is true for children. Few studies have examined the natural history of bronchiectasis in children and diagnostic criteria on high-resolution computer tomography of the lungs are derived from studies on adults. Frequently, bronchiectasis is reported in children in cases where localised bronchial dilatation is present, incorrectly labelling these children with an irreversible life-long condition. Objective: to evaluate changes in appearance of bronchial dilatation, unrelated to cystic fibrosis in children, as assessed by sequential high-resolution computer tomography (HRCT) of the lungs. Methods: the scans of 22 children with a radiological diagnosis of bronchiectasis, seen at Alder Hey Children's Hospital between 1994 and 2000, who had at least two CT scans of the lungs were reviewed by a single radiologist, who was blinded to the original report. Results: following a median scan interval of 21 months (range 2-43), bronchial dilatation resolved completely in six children and there was improvement in appearances in a further eight, with medical treatment alone. Discussion: a radiological diagnosis of bronchiectasis should be considered with caution in children as diagnostic criteria derived from studies in adults have not been validated in children and the condition is generally considered irreversible.

  20. A lung cancer risk classifier comprising genome maintenance genes measured in normal bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jiyoun; Crawford, Erin L; Zhang, Xiaolu; Khuder, Sadik; Chen, Tian; Levin, Albert; Blomquist, Thomas M; Willey, James C

    2017-05-02

    Annual low dose CT (LDCT) screening of individuals at high demographic risk reduces lung cancer mortality by more than 20%. However, subjects selected for screening based on demographic criteria typically have less than a 10% lifetime risk for lung cancer. Thus, there is need for a biomarker that better stratifies subjects for LDCT screening. Toward this goal, we previously reported a lung cancer risk test (LCRT) biomarker comprising 14 genome-maintenance (GM) pathway genes measured in normal bronchial epithelial cells (NBEC) that accurately classified cancer (CA) from non-cancer (NC) subjects. The primary goal of the studies reported here was to optimize the LCRT biomarker for high specificity and ease of clinical implementation. Targeted competitive multiplex PCR amplicon libraries were prepared for next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of transcript abundance at 68 sites among 33 GM target genes in NBEC specimens collected from a retrospective cohort of 120 subjects, including 61 CA cases and 59 NC controls. Genes were selected for analysis based on contribution to the previously reported LCRT biomarker and/or prior evidence for association with lung cancer risk. Linear discriminant analysis was used to identify the most accurate classifier suitable to stratify subjects for screening. After cross-validation, a model comprising expression values from 12 genes (CDKN1A, E2F1, ERCC1, ERCC4, ERCC5, GPX1, GSTP1, KEAP1, RB1, TP53, TP63, and XRCC1) and demographic factors age, gender, and pack-years smoking, had Receiver Operator Characteristic area under the curve (ROC AUC) of 0.975 (95% CI: 0.96-0.99). The overall classification accuracy was 93% (95% CI 88%-98%) with sensitivity 93.1%, specificity 92.9%, positive predictive value 93.1% and negative predictive value 93%. The ROC AUC for this classifier was significantly better (p < 0.0001) than the best model comprising demographic features alone. The LCRT biomarker reported here displayed high accuracy and ease

  1. Elevated levels of the complement activation product C4d in bronchial fluids for the diagnosis of lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ajona

    Full Text Available Molecular markers in bronchial fluids may contribute to the diagnosis of lung cancer. We previously observed a significant increase of C4d-containing complement degradation fragments in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL supernatants from lung cancer patients in a cohort of 50 cases and 22 controls (CUN cohort. The present study was designed to determine the diagnostic performance of these complement fragments (hereinafter jointly referred as C4d in bronchial fluids. C4d levels were determined in BAL supernatants from two independent cohorts: the CU cohort (25 cases and 26 controls and the HUVR cohort (60 cases and 98 controls. A series of spontaneous sputum samples from 68 patients with lung cancer and 10 controls was also used (LCCCIO cohort. Total protein content, complement C4, complement C5a, and CYFRA 21-1 were also measured in all cohorts. C4d levels were significantly increased in BAL samples from lung cancer patients. The area under the ROC curve was 0.82 (95%CI = 0.71-0.94 and 0.67 (95%CI = 0.58-0.76 for the CU and HUVR cohorts, respectively. In addition, unlike the other markers, C4d levels in BAL samples were highly consistent across the CUN, CU and HUVR cohorts. Interestingly, C4d test markedly increased the sensitivity of bronchoscopy in the two cohorts in which cytological data were available (CUN and HUVR cohorts. Finally, in the LCCCIO cohort, C4d levels were higher in sputum supernatants from patients with lung cancer (area under the ROC curve: 0.7; 95%CI = 0.56-0.83. In conclusion, C4d is consistently elevated in bronchial fluids from lung cancer patients and may be used to improve the diagnosis of the disease.

  2. Bronchial compression by an enlarged left atrium in infants; a cause of hypovascularity of the left lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corr, L.; Hallidie-Smith, K.A.; McCarthy, P.A.; Lavender, J.P.

    1988-09-01

    In three infants seen recently at our institution we noted signs of compression of the left main bronchus associated with enlarged left atria. None of our cases demonstrated the more usual signs of hyperinflation which are a hyperlucent lung field, depressed hemidiaphragm and mediastinal shift away from the affected side. In addition, hypoperfusion of the left lung was noted in each case. We believe that bronchial compression due to an enlarged left atrium, with consequent hypoxic vasoconstriction is a clinically significant entity, which is not well described and may be unappreciated in infants in whom the typical signs of hyperinflation are absent.

  3. The clinical evaluation of double intervention therapy for advanced lung carcinoma by bronchial and pulmonary arterial approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yue; Gao Congjing

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Seeking a better way of PAI and BAI double intervention therapy for mid and advanced lung carcinoma, to observe the clinical effect. Methods: 60 patients with double intervention therapy through bronchial and pulmonary arterial (BAI and PAI) approaches were analyzed. Results: The effective rates of BAI and PAI as CR, PR and NC were 9 cases (15%), 45% cases (75%), 6 cases (10%) with mean survival spans of 10.8 and 12.4 months respectively. Conclusions: The combined treatment effects of BAI and PAI were better than BAI alone in advanced lung carcinoma with operation

  4. Xianyu decoction attenuates the inflammatory response of human lung bronchial epithelial cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chenyi; Xiang, Qiangwei; Zhang, Hailin

    2018-06-01

    Xianyu decoction (XD), a Chinese experience recipe, shows inhibitory effects on lung cancer. However, the potential functions of XD on pneumonia were unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of XD on inflammatory response of childhood pneumonia. Human lung bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B was cultured in different doses of LPS with or without XD treatment. The expression of miR-15a and IKBKB were altered by transfection assay. RT-PCR and western blot were used to evaluate the effects of XD and miR-15a mimic/inhibitor on the expression levels of miR-15a, IKBKB, p65 and IκBα. ELISA was used to determine the levels of CRP, IL-6 and IL-8. High expression of miR-15a was observed in serum and cell model of pneumonia. miR-15a promoted the expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, CRP and IKBKB in vitro. XD treatment downregulated the level of miR-15a in pneumonia children. In addition, XD reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines and the phosphorylation levels of p65 and IκBα by inhibition of miR-15a and IKBKB expression in LPS-stimulated BEAS-2B cells. XD downregulated the level of miR-15a in serum of pneumonia children. Additionally, XD inhibited inflammatory response in LPS-stimulated BEAS-2B cells possibly by blocking IKBKB/NF-κB signal pathway which was regulated by miR-15a. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Lung sound analysis helps localize airway inflammation in patients with bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimoda T

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Terufumi Shimoda,1 Yasushi Obase,2 Yukio Nagasaka,3 Hiroshi Nakano,1 Akiko Ishimatsu,1 Reiko Kishikawa,1 Tomoaki Iwanaga1 1Clinical Research Center, Fukuoka National Hospital, Fukuoka, 2Second Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, 3Kyoto Respiratory Center, Otowa Hospital, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: Airway inflammation can be detected by lung sound analysis (LSA at a single point in the posterior lower lung field. We performed LSA at 7 points to examine whether the technique could identify the location of airway inflammation in patients with asthma. Patients and methods: Breath sounds were recorded at 7 points on the body surface of 22 asthmatic subjects. Inspiration sound pressure level (ISPL, expiration sound pressure level (ESPL, and the expiration-to-inspiration sound pressure ratio (E/I were calculated in 6 frequency bands. The data were analyzed for potential correlation with spirometry, airway hyperresponsiveness (PC20, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO. Results: The E/I data in the frequency range of 100–400 Hz (E/I low frequency [LF], E/I mid frequency [MF] were better correlated with the spirometry, PC20, and FeNO values than were the ISPL or ESPL data. The left anterior chest and left posterior lower recording positions were associated with the best correlations (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity: r=–0.55 and r=–0.58; logPC20: r=–0.46 and r=–0.45; and FeNO: r=0.42 and r=0.46, respectively. The majority of asthmatic subjects with FeNO ≥70 ppb exhibited high E/I MF levels in all lung fields (excluding the trachea and V50%pred <80%, suggesting inflammation throughout the airway. Asthmatic subjects with FeNO <70 ppb showed high or low E/I MF levels depending on the recording position, indicating uneven airway inflammation. Conclusion: E/I LF and E/I MF are more useful LSA parameters for evaluating airway inflammation in bronchial asthma; 7-point lung

  6. Contribution to the study of the distribution of air within the lung using xenon 133 during primary bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, P.; Vigne, J.; Feliciano, J.M.; Kleisbauer, J.P.; Poirier, R.; Lins, M.I.

    1975-01-01

    An Anger gamma-camera coupled with a two route integrator to record graphs giving the activity of each lung, and a computer with two analog-digital converters for storage of data on paper and magnetic tape, were used. 133 Xe is inhaled in a closed circuit, then a radioactive bolus is given intravenously and expired. The present programme includes a count for each lung, the percentage of ventilation between the right and left lung, the percentage of aerial distribution of the 9 different areas for each lung compared with the whole of the side under consideration, restoration of the distribution curves on inspiration and wash-out on expiration for each of these zones. Study of 14 patients with primary bronchial carcinoma is made. The results are analyzed, typical cases are given, and the future prospects of the method, which may suggest a physical model reproducing the respiratory apparatus of a given subject, are discussed [fr

  7. Lung sound analysis can be an index of the control of bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terufumi Shimoda

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The E/I LF measurement obtained by LSA is useful as an indicator of changes in airway obstruction and inflammation and can be used for monitoring the therapeutic course of bronchial asthma patients.

  8. Tc-99m technegas scintigraphy to evaluate the lung ventilation in patients with oral corticosteroid-dependent bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Jiro; Okada, Hiroki; Momoi, Atsuko; Yamadori, Ichiro; Takahara, Jiro; Tanabe, Masatada; Takahashi, Kazue; Satoh, Katashi; Ohkawa, Motoomi

    1999-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a clinical syndrome characterized by the reversibility of airway obstruction. Recently it has been suggested that remodeling of the airway causes irreversible airway obstruction which may be responsible for the patient's symptoms. With this background, the purpose of the present study was to assess patients with corticosteroid-dependent asthma by Tc-99m Technegas scintigraphy (Technegas) in both planar and SPECT images. Twelve patients (7 females and 5 males aged 36-72 years with a median age of 60 years: 4 smokers and 8 non-smokers) with oral corticosteroid-dependent asthma were enrolled in this study. Lung ventilation scanning with Technegas in both planar and SPECT images, high-resolution computed tomography, and pulmonary function tests were performed in all patients. The results of Technegas scanning were graded and correlations with other clinical parameters were evaluated. Significant abnormalities were detected by ventilation scintigraphy with Technegas in patients with corticosteroid-dependent bronchial asthma even during remission. Our data demonstrate that airflow obstruction took place in patients with corticosteroid-dependent asthma even during remission. Technegas scanning appears to be a useful radiopharmaceutical for demonstrating airflow obstruction in patients with bronchial asthma. (author)

  9. Tc-99m technegas scintigraphy to evaluate the lung ventilation in patients with oral corticosteroid-dependent bronchial asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Jiro; Okada, Hiroki; Momoi, Atsuko; Yamadori, Ichiro; Takahara, Jiro; Tanabe, Masatada [Kagawa Medical Univ., Miki (Japan); Takahashi, Kazue; Satoh, Katashi; Ohkawa, Motoomi

    1999-08-01

    Bronchial asthma is a clinical syndrome characterized by the reversibility of airway obstruction. Recently it has been suggested that remodeling of the airway causes irreversible airway obstruction which may be responsible for the patient's symptoms. With this background, the purpose of the present study was to assess patients with corticosteroid-dependent asthma by Tc-99m Technegas scintigraphy (Technegas) in both planar and SPECT images. Twelve patients (7 females and 5 males aged 36-72 years with a median age of 60 years: 4 smokers and 8 non-smokers) with oral corticosteroid-dependent asthma were enrolled in this study. Lung ventilation scanning with Technegas in both planar and SPECT images, high-resolution computed tomography, and pulmonary function tests were performed in all patients. The results of Technegas scanning were graded and correlations with other clinical parameters were evaluated. Significant abnormalities were detected by ventilation scintigraphy with Technegas in patients with corticosteroid-dependent bronchial asthma even during remission. Our data demonstrate that airflow obstruction took place in patients with corticosteroid-dependent asthma even during remission. Technegas scanning appears to be a useful radiopharmaceutical for demonstrating airflow obstruction in patients with bronchial asthma. (author)

  10. Hybrid video-assisted thoracic surgery with segmental-main bronchial sleeve resection for non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuben; Chai, Huiping; Huang, Jun; Zeng, Guangqiao; Shao, Wenlong; He, Jianxing

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the current study is to present the clinical and surgical results in patients who underwent hybrid video-assisted thoracic surgery with segmental-main bronchial sleeve resection. Thirty-one patients, 27 men and 4 women, underwent segmental-main bronchial sleeve anastomoses for non-small cell lung cancer between May 2004 and May 2011. Twenty-six (83.9%) patients had squamous cell carcinoma, and 5 patients had adenocarcinoma. Six patients were at stage IIB, 24 patients at stage IIIA, and 1 patient at stage IIIB. Secondary sleeve anastomosis was performed in 18 patients, and Y-shaped multiple sleeve anastomosis was performed in 8 patients. Single segmental bronchiole anastomosis was performed in 5 cases. The average time for chest tube removal was 5.6 days. The average length of hospital stay was 11.8 days. No anastomosis fistula developed in any of the patients. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 83.9%, 71.0%, and 41.9%, respectively. Hybrid video-assisted thoracic surgery with segmental-main bronchial sleeve resection is a complex technique that requires training and experience, but it is an effective and safe operation for selected patients.

  11. Impact of endobronchial coiling on segmental bronchial lumen in treated and untreated lung lobes: Correlation with changes in lung volume, clinical and pulmonary function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloth, C; Thaiss, W M; Hetzel, J; Ditt, H; Grosse, U; Nikolaou, K; Horger, M

    2016-07-01

    To assess the impact of endobronchial coiling on the segment bronchus cross-sectional area and volumes in patients with lung emphysema using quantitative chest-CT measurements. Thirty patients (female = 15; median age = 65.36 years) received chest-CT before and after endobronchial coiling for lung volume reduction (LVR) between January 2010 and December 2014. Thin-slice (0.6 mm) non-enhanced image data sets were acquired both at end-inspiration and end-expiration using helical technique and 120 kV/100-150 mAs. Clinical response was defined as an increase in the walking distance (Six-minute walk test; 6MWT) after LVR-therapy. Additionally, pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements were used for clinical correlation. In the treated segmental bronchia, the cross-sectional lumen area showed significant reduction (p  0.05). In the ipsilateral lobes, the lumina showed no significant changes. In the contralateral lung, we found tendency towards increased cross-sectional area in inspiration (p = 0.06). Volumes of the treated segments correlated with the treated segmental bronchial lumina in expiration (r = 0.80, p volume of the treated lobe in responders only. Endobronchial coiling causes significant decrease in the cross-sectional area of treated segment bronchi in inspiration and a slight increase in expiration accompanied by a volume reduction. • Endobronchial coiling has indirect impact on cross-sectional area of treated segment bronchi • Volume changes of treated lobes correlate with changes in bronchial cross-sectional area • Coil-induced effects reflect their stabilizing and stiffening impact on lung parenchyma • Endobronchial coiling reduces bronchial collapsing compensating the loss of elasticity.

  12. A clue for the diagnosis of lung cancer looking lobar consolidation with emphasis on thickness and enhancement pattern of bronchial wall on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Ho Seok; Kwon, Woo Cheol; Cha, Seung Whan; Kim, Sang Ha; Koh, Sang Baek; Kim, Myung Soon

    2007-01-01

    To differentiate between lung cancer and pneumonia for cases of lobar consolidation, with an emphasis on the thickness and enhancement pattern of the bronchial wall viewed by a CT. We retrospectively analyzed 17 patients with evidence of lobar consolidation, from a simple-chest radiographs, and divided them into groups by condition (lung cancer, n = 5; pneumonia, n 12). CT scans were performed on all patients and bronchial wall thickness, which is the cranio-caudal length of the bronchial wall thickness and the enhancement pattern, were measured and analyzed at the mediastinal window setting. The thickness of the bronchial wall in the lung cancer group (2.46 ± 0.37 mm) was significantly greater than the pneumonia group (1.73 ± 0.36 mm) (ρ = 0.002). Moreover, the bronchial wall thickness was greater than 2.0 mm for all patients in the cancer group. Further, if a diagnostic criterion was set to be larger than 2.0 mm, 100% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity would be achieved for the study subjects. The cranio-caudal length of the bronchial wall thickness in the cancer group was 37.5 ± 16.4 mm, which was significantly greater than the pneumonia group (16.3 ± 6.6 mm) (ρ = 0.001). We found no significant difference for the degree of contrast enhancement between the two groups. A CT scan measurement of the bronchial wall thickness greater than 2 mm in CT scans can be an indicator for diagnosing lung cancer in patients with lobar consolidation

  13. Influence of Natural Lung Surfactant Inhalations on Clinical Symptoms and Pulmonary Function Parameters in Patients with Bronchial Asthma. Communication 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Stepanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Damage to lung surfactant (LS enabling the lung local immunity may contribute to the development of bronchial inflammation in patients with bronchial asthma. Methods and Results: A 40-day course of 16 LS (Surfactant-BL inhalations at the dose of 25mg was added to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and short/long-acting bronchodilators or combined inhalers in 14 patients with bronchial asthma. After 7 inhalations, patients demonstrated a significant decrease in shortness of breath and bronchospasm attacks, double reduction of ICS dose (p=0.01, and improvement of pulmonary function. Forced vital capacity (FVC increases during treatment in a linear fashion (y=62.9+5.60•x; p<0.05, reaching the normal level (80% after 9 inhalations (Day 15. Forced expiratory volume (FEV1 increases in a linear fashion (y=50.7+4.15•x; p<0.05 without reaching the normal level (80% after 16 inhalations (Day 41. The FEV1/FVC ratio does not change significantly in the time period between Day 1 to Day 15. By Day 41 the value decreases significantly to 67.4±4.66% (p<0.05. The peak expiratory flow (PEF parameter increases in a linear fashion (y=53.9+5.00•x; p<0.01 from 57.7±6.33% to 76.2±9.33% of the predicted value. Conclusion: LS inhalations improve the condition of patients with BA, allow ICS dose reduction by 2 times, and improve pulmonary function parameters.

  14. A comparison of the disconnection technique with continuous bronchial suction for lung deflation when using the Arndt endobronchial blocker during video-assisted thoracoscopy: A randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tahan, Mohamed R

    2015-06-01

    The use of the Arndt endobronchial blocker has not gained widespread acceptance during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) because of its high cost and longer time to operative lung collapse especially in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The use of a ventilator disconnection technique has been shown to produce a comparable degree of lung collapse when used with either a double-lumen tube or an Arndt endobronchial blocker. We hypothesised that the use of bronchial suction through the suction port of the endobronchial blocker would be associated with a comparable time to achieve optimum lung collapse as the disconnection technique. A randomised, double-blind study. Single university hospital. Fifty-eight patients with spontaneous pneumothorax scheduled for elective VATS using the Arndt endobronchial blocker for one-lung ventilation (OLV). Patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups (n = 29 per group) to deflate the operative lung with either disconnection of the endotracheal tube from the ventilator for 60 s prior to inflation of the endobronchial blocker or connection of a suction pressure of -30 cmH2O to the suction port of the endobronchial blocker through the barrel of a 1 ml syringe. The primary outcome was the time to total lung collapse. Secondary outcomes included surgeon rating of lung collapse, overall surgeon satisfaction, need for further fibreoptic bronchial suction manoeuvres and intraoperative hypoxaemia. The bronchial suction technique was associated with a significantly shorter time to total lung collapse than the disconnection method [93 (95% confidence interval, 95% CI 81.3 to 103.7) vs. 197 (95% CI 157.4 to 237) s respectively; P < 0.001]. Both the disconnection and bronchial suction groups had a comparable surgical rating of excellent lung collapse 40 min after the start of OLV (65.5 vs. 79.3%, respectively; P = 0.24), overall surgeon satisfaction [median (interquartile range, IQR) 9 (8 to 10) vs. 9 (8

  15. In Vitro Experimental Model for the Long-Term Analysis of Cellular Dynamics During Bronchial Tree Development from Lung Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Masaya; Maruta, Naomichi; Marumoto, Moegi

    2017-06-01

    Lung branching morphogenesis has been studied for decades, but the underlying developmental mechanisms are still not fully understood. Cellular movements dynamically change during the branching process, but it is difficult to observe long-term cellular dynamics by in vivo or tissue culture experiments. Therefore, developing an in vitro experimental model of bronchial tree would provide an essential tool for developmental biology, pathology, and systems biology. In this study, we succeeded in reconstructing a bronchial tree in vitro by using primary human bronchial epithelial cells. A high concentration gradient of bronchial epithelial cells was required for branching initiation, whereas homogeneously distributed endothelial cells induced the formation of successive branches. Subsequently, the branches grew in size to the order of millimeter. The developed model contains only two types of cells and it facilitates the analysis of lung branching morphogenesis. By taking advantage of our experimental model, we carried out long-term time-lapse observations, which revealed self-assembly, collective migration with leader cells, rotational motion, and spiral motion of epithelial cells in each developmental event. Mathematical simulation was also carried out to analyze the self-assembly process and it revealed simple rules that govern cellular dynamics. Our experimental model has provided many new insights into lung development and it has the potential to accelerate the study of developmental mechanisms, pattern formation, left-right asymmetry, and disease pathogenesis of the human lung.

  16. Bronchial effects of leukotriene D4 inhalation in normal human lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Groth, S

    1987-01-01

    airways in asthmatic patients out of attack. LTD4 caused a dose-dependent obstruction of the airways as measured by partial flow-volume curves and volume of trapped gas, yet only minor changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow rate. LTD4 was 1900-7000 times more potent......The aim of the study was to investigate whether inhaled leukotriene (LT) D4 could mimic the characteristics of asthmatic patients after allergen-induced attack, i.e. a prolonged subclinical bronchial obstruction, an increased reactivity of the airways and a late reaction. The effects of LTD4 were...... than histamine. LTD4 inhalations were almost symptomless as opposed to the irritative and dyspnoeic symptoms seen after inhalation of histamine. The time duration for the induced change in partial flow-volume curves was the same for the two drugs. Approximately 30 min elapsed until the bronchial...

  17. Histological and autoradiographic studies on the kinetics of bronchial epithelium cells of fetal rat lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aue, L.; Schneider, K.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetics of bronchial epithelium cells was investigated in 14- to 20-days old rats of an inbred strain (Wistar-WU, Mueller/Haan). In agreement with the data of the relevant literature, light microscopy revealed a successive evolution of the bronchial tree which consists of a glandular, a canalicular, and an alveolar part. Prophases, metaphases and reconstruction phases are relatively long mitotic phases, while anaphases and telophases are relatively short ones. Combined nuclear volumetry and autoradiography showed that the G-1 phase nuclei are smaller than the 3 H-labelled nuclei at the onset of the S phase and these, in turn, are smaller than the nuclei at the end of the S phase with double 14 C- or 3 H-label or with 'strong' 3H label. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Combination of bronchial artery infusion chemotherapy and radiation therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuping; Cai Yuecheng; Wang Xiangming; Luo Jianyun; Lian Yingni; Ouyang Mingxin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy between bronchial artery infusion (BAI) chemotherapy plus radiation therapy and systemic chemotherapy plus radiation for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: One hundred and twenty-one patients with stage III NSCLC were randomized into treatment group (58 cases) and control group (63 cases). In the treatment group, all patients were administered with BAI for 2-3 sessions, followed by irradiation 4-7 days after BAI. In the control group, altogether 4-6 cycles of standard systemic chemotherapy were given. Radiation was delivered alternately between the cycles of chemotherapy. Results: The short-term, long-term survival, median response duration and median survival time were similar between the two groups, except patients with stage IIIb who had a higher distant metastasis rate in the treatment group. The major side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy were hematological, gastrointestinal toxicities, pneumonitis, mediastinitis, and esophagitis, respectively. The side effects were milder, better tolerated and did not influence the regimen schedule in the treatment group, as compared with the control group. Seven patients withdrew from the control group, and in 28 patients, the scheduled chemotherapy and radiation was delayed or canceled. Conclusions: Bronchial artery infusion plus radiation is more advantageous over systemic chemotherapy plus radiation in less toxicities, better compliance, shorter treatment courses and more cost-effectiveness

  19. Radiotherapy following bronchial artery infusion (BAI) chemotherapy for lung cancer. Analysis of long-term treatment results of 168 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaji, Noriaki

    1995-01-01

    Local control is known to contribute to a better survival for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Radiotherapy with bronchial artery infusion (BAI) of anticancer agents was employed to improve the response rate and prognosis of lung cancer. One hundred and sixty-eight patients of lung cancer were treated by this combined therapy. There were 138 with NSCLC and 30 with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). The overall cumulative 5-year survival rate of NSCLC was 11.3% and median survival time (MST) was 12 months. The response rate of 84% was obtained by this combined therapy. CR cases showed a better result of 35% of 5-year survival. Histology did not influence survival. Stage IIIA patients showed a significantly better survival than stage IIIB patients (p<0.05). No significant difference in survival was observed in the MMC/ADM group and the CDDP group. In SCLC patients, the overall cumulative 5-year survival was 4% and MST was 12 months. In limited disease (LD) group, MST was 13 months and extensive disease (ED) showed 11 months of MST. Two-year survival of LD was 18%. The response rate of this combined therapy was 94% and CR rate was 31%. On patterns of failure, the lower local recurrence rate of 6% (1/18) suggested contribution of BAI in SCLC. However, the long-term survival of SCLC was not greatly improved by radiotherapy combined with BAI. Thus these results suggest that it is necessary for improvement of survival to achieve CR in NSCLC patients, but local control may not contribute to it in SCLC patients. (author)

  20. Multivariate analysis of structure and contribution per shares made by potential risk factors at malignant neoplasms in trachea, bronchial tubes and lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Aydinov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the results of multivariate analysis of structure and contribution per shares made by potential risk factors at malignant neoplasms in trachea, bronchial tubes and lung. The authors used specialized databases comprising personified records on oncologic diseases in Taganrog, Rostov region, over 1986-2015 (30,684 registered cases of malignant neoplasms, including 3,480 cases of trachea cancer, bronchial tubes cancer, and lung cancer. When carrying out analytical research we applied both multivariate statistical techniques (factor analysis and hierarchical cluster correlation analysis and conventional techniques of epidemiologic analysis including etiologic fraction calculation (EF, as well as an original technique of assessing actual (epidemiologic risk. Average long-term morbidity with trachea, bronchial tubes and lung cancer over 2011-2015 amounts to 46.64 o / oooo . Over the last 15 years a stable decreasing trend has formed, annual average growth being – 1.22 %. This localization holds the 3rd rank place in oncologic morbidity structure, its specific weight being 10.02 %. We determined etiological fraction (EF for smoking as a priority risk factor causing trachea, bronchial tubes and lung cancer; this fraction amounts to 76.19 % for people aged 40 and older, and to 81.99 % for those aged 60 and older. Application of multivariate statistical techniques (factor analysis and cluster correlation analysis in this research enabled us to make factor structure more simple; namely, to highlight, interpret, give a quantitative estimate of self-descriptiveness and rank four group (latent potential risk factors causing lung cancer.

  1. Assessment of regional lung ventilation by electrical impedance tomography in a patient with unilateral bronchial stenosis and a history of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Liégina Silveira; Sousa, Nathalia Parente de; Barros, Carlos Augusto Barbosa da Silveira; Matias, Marcelo Silveira; Monteiro, Luana Torres; Beraldo, Marcelo do Amaral; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Amato, Marcelo Britto Passos; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara

    2013-01-01

    Bronchial stenosis can impair regional lung ventilation by causing abnormal, asymmetric airflow limitation. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an imaging technique that allows the assessment of regional lung ventilation and therefore complements the functional assessment of the lungs. We report the case of a patient with left unilateral bronchial stenosis and a history of tuberculosis, in whom regional lung ventilation was assessed by EIT. The EIT results were compared with those obtained by ventilation/perfusion radionuclide imaging. The patient was using nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Therefore, we studied the effects of postural changes and of the use of nasal CPAP. The EIT revealed heterogeneous distribution of regional lung ventilation, the ventilation being higher in the right lung, and this distribution was influenced by postural changes and CPAP use. The EIT assessment of regional lung ventilation produced results similar to those obtained with the radionuclide imaging technique and had the advantage of providing a dynamic evaluation without radiation exposure.

  2. Assessment of regional lung ventilation by electrical impedance tomography in a patient with unilateral bronchial stenosis and a history of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liégina Silveira Marinho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial stenosis can impair regional lung ventilation by causing abnormal, asymmetric airflow limitation. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT is an imaging technique that allows the assessment of regional lung ventilation and therefore complements the functional assessment of the lungs. We report the case of a patient with left unilateral bronchial stenosis and a history of tuberculosis, in whom regional lung ventilation was assessed by EIT. The EIT results were compared with those obtained by ventilation/perfusion radionuclide imaging. The patient was using nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Therefore, we studied the effects of postural changes and of the use of nasal CPAP. The EIT revealed heterogeneous distribution of regional lung ventilation, the ventilation being higher in the right lung, and this distribution was influenced by postural changes and CPAP use. The EIT assessment of regional lung ventilation produced results similar to those obtained with the radionuclide imaging technique and had the advantage of providing a dynamic evaluation without radiation exposure.

  3. Retrospective Cohort Study of Bronchial Doses and Radiation-Induced Atelectasis After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors Located Close to the Bronchial Tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Kristin; Nyman, Jan; Baumann, Pia; Wersäll, Peter; Drugge, Ninni; Gagliardi, Giovanna; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Persson, Jan-Olov; Rutkowska, Eva; Tullgren, Owe; Lax, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dose–response relationship between radiation-induced atelectasis after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and bronchial dose. Methods and Materials: Seventy-four patients treated with SBRT for tumors close to main, lobar, or segmental bronchi were selected. The association between incidence of atelectasis and bronchial dose parameters (maximum point-dose and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volume [ranging from 0.1 cm 3 up to 2.0 cm 3 ]) was statistically evaluated with survival analysis models. Results: Prescribed doses varied between 4 and 20 Gy per fraction in 2-5 fractions. Eighteen patients (24.3%) developed atelectasis considered to be radiation-induced. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the incidence of radiation-induced atelectasis and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volumes, of which 0.1 cm 3 (D 0.1cm3 ) was used for further analysis. The median value of D 0.1cm3 (α/β = 3 Gy) was EQD 2,LQ = 147 Gy 3 (range, 20-293 Gy 3 ). For patients who developed atelectasis the median value was EQD 2,LQ = 210 Gy 3 , and for patients who did not develop atelectasis, EQD 2,LQ = 105 Gy 3 . Median time from treatment to development of atelectasis was 8.0 months (range, 1.1-30.1 months). Conclusion: In this retrospective study a significant dose–response relationship between the incidence of atelectasis and the dose to the high-dose volume of the bronchi is shown

  4. Quality of Life and Bronchial Hyper-Responsiveness in Subjects With Bronchiectasis: Validation of the Seattle Obstructive Lung Disease Questionnaire in Bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulcun, Emel; Arslan, Mesut; Ekici, Aydanur; Ekici, Mehmet

    2015-11-01

    Bronchiectasis can adversely affect quality of life. However, the tests examining quality of life in bronchiectasis are not sufficient. We examined the validity of a measure designed for COPD, the Seattle Obstructive Lung Disease Questionnaire (SOLQ), in bronchiectasis. In addition, we aimed to compare the quality of life of subjects with bronchiectasis and bronchial hyper-responsiveness with that of those without to identify the effective factors. We studied 78 subjects with clinically stable bronchiectasis and 41 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Subjects were assessed by the SOLQ. A detailed history, physical examination, the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and spirometric measurements were obtained. Cronbach α coefficients, which reflected internal consistency, were >0.70 for all SOLQ components except for treatment satisfaction. SOLQ component scores correlated with all of the component scores of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, confirming their concurrent validity. All SOLQ scores correlated positively with percent-of-predicted FEV1, whereas the physical function, treatment satisfaction, and emotional function correlated negatively with the exacerbation frequency in Pearson analysis. Emotional and physical functions were positively associated with percent-of-predicted FEV1 in linear regression analysis. Compared with subjects without bronchial hyper-responsiveness, those with bronchial hyper-responsiveness had lower FEV1/FVC and more exacerbations/y. Compared with bronchiectasis subjects without bronchial hyper-responsiveness, those with bronchial hyper-responsiveness had significantly lower SOLQ, physical function, and coping skills scores but not emotional function and treatment satisfaction. The SOLQ is a valid instrument for determining quality of life in subjects with bronchiectasis. Subjects with

  5. Successful stent-in-stent insertion of an expandable metallic stent covered with polyuretane placed to obliterate a large bronchial fistula after chemoradiotherapy for inoperable lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Hiroya; Tsubota, Noriaki; Miyamoto, Yoshifumi; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Obayashi, Kayoko; Takada, Yoshiki

    1999-01-01

    Bronchial fistulas in cases of inoperable lung cancer caused by radiochemotherapy are quite refractory and generally cannot be surgically closed. A 45-year-old man with squamous cell carcinoma in the right lung underwent two courses of induction chemotherapy (135 mg CDDP, 5 mg VDS, 13.5 mg MMC) and radiation therapy (2 Gy x 22 times) for invasion of the right main bronchus, the pulmonary artery and superior vena cava. Just before the end of the second course, the empyem second to the bronchial fistula caused by tumor necrosis developed in the right upper bronchus, and fenestration was performed. After the operation, his condition improved remarkably, however the fistula enlarged into the right main bronchus and the purulent discharge flowed into the left lung. An expandable metallic stent (EMS) covered with polyuretane was inserted in the trachea and the left main bronchus to break aspiration pneumonia. As the covered EMS was too unstable to be fixed, a bare EMS was inserted in a stent-in-stent fashion. After the procedure he was followed at the O.P.D. and lived a relatively comfortable life for 9 months until his death due to tumor. We inserted the covered EMS in a stent-in-stent fashion to successfully obliterate a large bronchial fistula. (author)

  6. Bronchial Mucus Properties in Lung Cancer: Relationship with Site of Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gustavo Zayas

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the biophysical properties of mucus from the left and right mainstem bronchi in patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy because of a unilateral radiological abnormality. It was hypothesized that abnormalities in the properties of mucus would be greater on the side with the lesion and that this would be most obvious in patients with unilateral lung cancer.

  7. Covered Bronchial Stent Insertion to Manage Airway Obstruction with Hemoptysis Caused by Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sae Ah; Kim, Do Hyeong [Dankook University College of Medicine, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jen, Gyeong Sik [Bundang CHA General Hospital, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Malignant airway obstruction and hemoptysis are common in lung cancer patients. Recently, airway stent is commonly used to preserve airway in malignant airway obstruction. Hemoptysis can be managed through various methods including conservative treatment, endobronchial tamponade, bronchoscopic intervention, embolization and surgery. In our case studies, we sought to investigate the effectiveness of airway stents for re-opening the airway as well as tamponade effects in four patients with malignant airway obstruction and bleeding caused by tumors or lymph node invasions.

  8. Porphyromonas bronchialis sp. nov. Isolated from Intraoperative Bronchial Fluids of a Patient with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuichi; Tomida, Junko; Naka, Takashi; Fujiwara, Nagatoshi; Hasegawa, Ayako; Hoshikawa, Yasushi; Matsuyama, Junko; Ishida, Naoko; Kondo, Takashi; Tanaka, Kaori; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Kawamura, Yoshiaki

    2015-09-01

    Porphyromonas strains, including Porphyromonas-like strains, have been isolated from oral and various other systemic infections. The characterization of such strains is a crucial issue, because such information contributes to both the taxonomy of anaerobic bacteria and the clinical aspects of infectious diseases. We previously isolated four Porphyromonas-like strains from intraoperative bronchial fluids of a patient with non-small cell lung cancer. This study aimed to characterize the genetic, biochemical and chemotaxonomic aspects of these isolates. Each strain only grew under anaerobic conditions and their colony morphology was convex, 0.1-1.0 mm in diameter, light gray, and slightly glistening colony, with no black or brown pigmentation on blood agar plates after five-day incubation. The pigmentation was helpful to differentiate the isolates from other Porphyromonas, as most of Porphyromonas species show the pigmentation. In the 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis (98% sequence identity of isolates indicates the same species), the four isolates were closely related to one another (99.7-100.0%), but not related to Porphyromonas (P.) catoniae, the closest species (96.9%). In addition, the DNA-DNA hybridization data revealed less than 16% similarity values between a representative isolate and the P. catoniae, indicating that the strains were genetically independent. Biochemically, the isolates could be differentiated from closely related species, i.e., P. catoniae, P. gingivalis, P. gulae, and P. pogonae, with trypsin activity (negative only in the isolates) and leucine arylamidase activity (positive only in the isolates). We therefore propose a new species to include these isolates: Porphyromonas bronchialis sp. nov.

  9. [Telomerase in lung cancer. Testing the activity of the "immortaligy enzyme" bronchial biopsies increases the diagnostic yield in cases of suspected peripheral bronchogenic carcinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, L; Litterst, P; Obertrifter, B; Velehorschi, V; Kemmer, H P; Linder, A; Brightman, I

    2000-11-01

    The proliferative capability is time-limited in normal somatic cells by the shortening of their chromosomal ends, the telomeres (Hayflick limit). An important feature of malignant cells is their immortality. The probably most common mechanism of tumour cells to achieve unlimited replicability is the activation of the enzyme telomerase. The reverse transcriptase can compensate the loss of telomeres. Using a PCR-based TRAP assay we found telomerase activity in tumour biopsies, exsudates and bronchial washings in various thoracic malignancies. In 38 of 47 patients with suspected peripheral lung cancer eventually surgery or invasive procedures proved a malignancy. In fluoroscopically guided bronchial brushings from 25 of these 38 patients (66%) the TRAP assay revealed telomerase activity. There was a single false positive case (tuberculosis) and with a single exception, the simultaneously taken brushes of the contralateral lobes were all telomerase negative. In 23 patients (61%) tumour cells were found in the cytological examination. In 33 patients at least one marker was positive. Thus the combination of cytology and telomerase test in bronchial brush biopsies attained a diagnostic yield of 87%.

  10. Bronchial blocker versus left double-lumen endotracheal tube in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery: a randomized-controlled trial examining time and quality of lung deflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussières, Jean S; Somma, Jacques; Del Castillo, José Luis Carrasco; Lemieux, Jérôme; Conti, Massimo; Ugalde, Paula A; Gagné, Nathalie; Lacasse, Yves

    2016-07-01

    Double-lumen endotracheal tubes (DL-ETT) and bronchial blockers (BB) have both been used for lung isolation in video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). Though not well studied, it is widely thought that a DL-ETT provides faster and better quality lung collapse. The aim of this study was to compare a BB technique vs a left-sided DL-ETT strategy with regard to the time and quality of lung collapse during one-lung ventilation (OLV) for elective VATS. Forty patients requiring OLV for VATS were randomized to receive a BB (n = 20) or a left-sided DL-ETT (n = 20). The primary endpoint was the time from pleural opening (performed by the surgeon) until complete lung collapse. The time was evaluated offline by reviewing video recorded during the VATS. The quality of lung deflation was also graded offline using a visual scale (1 = no lung collapse; 2 = partial lung collapse; and 3 = total lung collapse) and was recorded at several time points after pleural incision. The surgeon also graded the time to complete lung collapse and quality of lung deflation during the procedure. The surgeon's guess as to which device was used for lung isolation was also recorded. Of the 40 patients enrolled in the study, 20 patients in the DL-ETT group and 18 in the BB group were analyzed. There mean (standard deviation) time to complete lung collapse of the operative lung was significantly faster using the BB compared with using the DL-ETT [7.5 (3.8) min vs 36.6 (29.1) min, respectively; mean difference, 29.1 min; 95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 7.2; P < 0.001]. Overall, a higher proportion of patients in the BB group than in the DL-ETT group achieved a quality of lung collapse score of 3 at five minutes (57% vs 6%, respectively; P < 0.004), ten minutes (73% vs 14%, respectively; P = 0.005), and 20 min (100% vs 25%, respectively; P = 0.002) after opening the pleura. The surgeon incorrectly guessed the type of device used in 78% of the BB group and 50% of the DL-ETT group (P = 0.10). The time and

  11. Analysis of the patterns of bronchial obstruction at bronchography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Suk; Kim, Yong Chul; Han, Sang Don; Lee, Yong Chul

    1981-01-01

    Of the bronchographic findings of 408 patients, performed in our hospital for recent 5 years, 108 cases showed definite bronchial obstruction, and 61 cases of those were selected and obstructive findings were evaluated. All that not confirmed were abandoned. For evaluation of the reliability of 9 braonchographic obstruction signs on applying to diagnose malignant or benign pulmonary diseases, each sign was identified and applied to each of the 61 confirmed cases. In addition, obstructed bronchi, distance of obstruction from the bifurcation site, and the direction of meniscus, if present, were evaluated. The results were follows: 1. The most frequent cause of bronchial obstruction was lung cancer (59.0%), and that of the benign obstruction was pulmonary tuberculosis (13.1%). 2. Amputation, asymmetric narrowing, thumbprint indentation, rat-tail narrowing and encasement signs were the most accurate signs of malignancy and were practically diagnostic ones. 3. The most frequent sign in lung cancer was sharp cutoff one, but it could be seen in lung abscess and in unresolved pneumonia, too. 4. Circumferential symmetric narrowing and regular concavity with a small central projection signs were specific ones to benignancy. 5. The most frequent obstruction sign in benign lung disease was gradual tapering sign, but it also could be seen in bronchogenic epidermoid and alveolar cell carcinoma. 6. Of all bronchial obstructions, 55.4% occurred at lobar bronchus and 77.4% of those were caused by lung cancer. 7. 77.2% of those obstruction which located within 3 times distance of the bronchial diameter at the nearest proximal bifurcation site, were lung cancer, but 75.0% of those located at over 3 times distance were benign pulmonary diseases. 8. There were no correlation of the direction of the meniscus at the obstructing end in differential diagnosis between benign and malignant pulmonary diseases

  12. Analysis of the patterns of bronchial obstruction at bronchography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Suk; Kim, Yong Chul; Han, Sang Don; Lee, Yong Chul [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-12-15

    Of the bronchographic findings of 408 patients, performed in our hospital for recent 5 years, 108 cases showed definite bronchial obstruction, and 61 cases of those were selected and obstructive findings were evaluated. All that not confirmed were abandoned. For evaluation of the reliability of 9 braonchographic obstruction signs on applying to diagnose malignant or benign pulmonary diseases, each sign was identified and applied to each of the 61 confirmed cases. In addition, obstructed bronchi, distance of obstruction from the bifurcation site, and the direction of meniscus, if present, were evaluated. The results were follows: 1. The most frequent cause of bronchial obstruction was lung cancer (59.0%), and that of the benign obstruction was pulmonary tuberculosis (13.1%). 2. Amputation, asymmetric narrowing, thumbprint indentation, rat-tail narrowing and encasement signs were the most accurate signs of malignancy and were practically diagnostic ones. 3. The most frequent sign in lung cancer was sharp cutoff one, but it could be seen in lung abscess and in unresolved pneumonia, too. 4. Circumferential symmetric narrowing and regular concavity with a small central projection signs were specific ones to benignancy. 5. The most frequent obstruction sign in benign lung disease was gradual tapering sign, but it also could be seen in bronchogenic epidermoid and alveolar cell carcinoma. 6. Of all bronchial obstructions, 55.4% occurred at lobar bronchus and 77.4% of those were caused by lung cancer. 7. 77.2% of those obstruction which located within 3 times distance of the bronchial diameter at the nearest proximal bifurcation site, were lung cancer, but 75.0% of those located at over 3 times distance were benign pulmonary diseases. 8. There were no correlation of the direction of the meniscus at the obstructing end in differential diagnosis between benign and malignant pulmonary diseases.

  13. Increased proximal acid reflux is associated with early readmission following lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, W-K; Goldberg, H J; Burakoff, R; Feldman, N; Chan, W W

    2016-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease has been associated with poor outcomes following lung transplantation. However, the association between pretransplant reflux and post-transplant readmission, an indicator of early clinical outcome, has not been previously assessed. This was a retrospective cohort study of lung transplant recipients undergoing pretransplant multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH (MII-pH) study off acid suppression at a tertiary care center since 2007. Subjects with pretransplant fundoplication were excluded. Time to readmission was defined as duration from post-transplant discharge to next hospital admission for any reason. Subgroup analysis was performed to exclude elective readmissions. Time-to-event analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards model, with appropriate censoring. Forty-three subjects (60% men, mean age: 57, median follow-up: 1.7 years) met inclusion criteria for the study. Patient demographics and pretransplant cardiopulmonary function were similar between readmission cohorts. Time to all-cause readmission was associated with increased distal acid episodes (HR: 3.15, p = 0.04) and proximal acid episodes (HR: 3.61, p = 0.008) on impedance, increased acid exposure on pH (HR: 2.22, p = 0.04), and elevated Demeester score (HR: 2.26, p = 0.03). When elective readmissions were excluded, early readmission remained significantly associated with increased proximal acid reflux episodes (HR: 2.49, p = 0.04). All findings were confirmed on Kaplan-Meier analysis. Elevated proximal acid reflux on pretransplant MII-pH testing was associated with early readmission following lung transplantation, even after excluding elective readmissions. Exposure to severe acid reflux has measurable effects on early postoperative outcomes such as readmission, and aggressive early antireflux therapy should be considered. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Information for the diagnosis of broncho-pulmonary diseases obtained by the combined use of perfusion lung scintigraphy and selective bronchial arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouamba Foning, Michel.

    1976-01-01

    Our study is limited to perfusion lung scintigraphy and deals with the following in turn: - radioisotopes and their conditioning, - detection and recording equipment, - results and limits of the method. The tracers used here were radioiodine-labelled human albumin macro-aggregates and more especially technetium-labelled microspheres. Scintigraphy, which visualizes or charts the local distribution of radioactive indicators, is carried out with two kinds of apparatus, scanners and scintillation cameras. The information acquired may be accurately analysed at the same time owing to modern data processing systems. The interpretation of radiotracer lung transit curves made by several authors is not very useful for our work, consequently we have kept to the analysis of images obtained by the Anger camera or similar instruments. The Anger scintillation camera seems to be well suited to isotopic lung exploration providing morphological and functional data simultaneously. Perfusion lung scintigraphy, which reflects the quality of lung circulation at the capillary level, appears to be a valuable asset in the diagnostic approach to certain chest X-ray images. The technique is fast, painless, neat, harmless and almost never contra-indicated. However like other techniques it cannot solve every problem on its own. Under these conditions, we must admit, on weighing up the results of this study, that perfusion lung scintigraphy had to be followed in most cases by selective bronchial arteriography [fr

  15. Role of reactive oxygen species in arsenic-induced transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhuo, E-mail: zhuo.zhang@uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Budhraja, Amit; Son, Young-Ok [Center for Research on Environmental Diseases, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Kim, Donghern [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Shi, Xianglin [Center for Research on Environmental Diseases, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • Short term exposure of cells to arsenic causes ROS generation. • Chronical exposure of cells to arsenic causes malignant cell transformation. • Inhibition of ROS generation reduces cell transformation by arsenic. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit reduced capacity of generating ROS. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit increased levels of antioxidants. - Abstract: Arsenic is an environmental carcinogen, its mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain to be investigated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be important. A previous study (Carpenter et al., 2011) has measured ROS level in human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells and arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells and found that ROS levels were higher in transformed cells than that in parent normal cells. Based on these observations, the authors concluded that cell transformation induced by arsenic is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS. This conclusion is problematic because this study only measured the basal ROS levels in transformed and parent cells and did not investigate the role of ROS in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. The levels of ROS in arsenic-transformed cells represent the result and not the cause of cell transformation. Thus question concerning whether ROS are important in arsenic-induced cell transformation remains to be answered. In the present study, we used expressions of catalase (antioxidant against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2, antioxidant against O{sub 2}{sup ·−}) to decrease ROS level and investigated their role in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. Our results show that inhibition of ROS by antioxidant enzymes decreased arsenic-induced cell transformation, demonstrating that ROS are important in this process. We have also shown that in arsenic-transformed cells, ROS generation was lower and levels of antioxidants are higher than those in parent cells, in a disagreement with the previous

  16. Role of reactive oxygen species in arsenic-induced transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Budhraja, Amit; Son, Young-Ok; Kim, Donghern; Shi, Xianglin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Short term exposure of cells to arsenic causes ROS generation. • Chronical exposure of cells to arsenic causes malignant cell transformation. • Inhibition of ROS generation reduces cell transformation by arsenic. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit reduced capacity of generating ROS. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit increased levels of antioxidants. - Abstract: Arsenic is an environmental carcinogen, its mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain to be investigated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be important. A previous study (Carpenter et al., 2011) has measured ROS level in human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells and arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells and found that ROS levels were higher in transformed cells than that in parent normal cells. Based on these observations, the authors concluded that cell transformation induced by arsenic is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS. This conclusion is problematic because this study only measured the basal ROS levels in transformed and parent cells and did not investigate the role of ROS in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. The levels of ROS in arsenic-transformed cells represent the result and not the cause of cell transformation. Thus question concerning whether ROS are important in arsenic-induced cell transformation remains to be answered. In the present study, we used expressions of catalase (antioxidant against H 2 O 2 ) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2, antioxidant against O 2 ·− ) to decrease ROS level and investigated their role in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. Our results show that inhibition of ROS by antioxidant enzymes decreased arsenic-induced cell transformation, demonstrating that ROS are important in this process. We have also shown that in arsenic-transformed cells, ROS generation was lower and levels of antioxidants are higher than those in parent cells, in a disagreement with the previous report. The

  17. Persistence of Gamma-H2AX Foci in Irradiated Bronchial Cells Correlates with Susceptibility to Radiation Associated Lung Cancer in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochola, Donasian O.; Sharif, Rabab; Bedford, Joel S.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Kato, Takamitsu A.; Fallgren, Christina M.; Demant, Peter; Costes, Sylvain V.; Weil, Michael M.

    2018-01-01

    The risk of developing radiation-induced lung cancer differs between different strains of mice, but the underlying cause of the strain differences is unknown. Strains of mice also differ in their ability to efficiently repair DNA double strand breaks resulting from radiation exposure. We phenotyped mouse strains from the CcS/Dem recombinant congenic strain set for their efficacy in repairing DNA double strand breaks during protracted radiation exposures. We monitored persistent gamma-H2AX radiation induced foci (RIF) 24 hours after exposure to chronic gamma-rays as a surrogate marker for repair deficiency in bronchial epithelial cells for 17 of the CcS/Dem strains and the BALB/cHeN founder strain. We observed a very strong correlation R2 = 79.18%, P cancer percent incidence measured in the same strains. Interestingly, spontaneous levels of foci in non-irradiated strains also showed good correlation with lung cancer incidence (R2=32.74%, P =0.013). These results suggest that genetic differences in DNA repair capacity largely account for differing susceptibilities to radiation-induced lung cancer among CcS/Dem mouse strains and that high levels of spontaneous DNA damage is also a relatively good marker of cancer predisposition. In a smaller pilot study, we found that the repair capacity measured in peripheral blood leucocytes also correlated well with radiogenic lung cancer susceptibility, raising the possibility that such phenotyping assay could be used to detect radiogenic lung cancer susceptibility in humans.

  18. Lung fibroblasts may play an important role in clearing apoptotic bodies of bronchial epithelial cells generated by exposure to PHMG-P-containing solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Park, Sung-Jin; Kim, Sanghwa; Lee, Kyuhong; Chang, Jaerak

    2018-04-01

    Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) has been widely used in the industry owing to its excellent biocidal, anti-corrosive, and anti-biofouling properties. In Korea, consumers exposed to PHMG-phosphate (PHMG-P)-containing humidifier disinfectant have begun to suffer from fibrotic lung injury-related symptoms for unknown reasons. However, no appropriate treatment has yet been found because the detail toxic mechanism has not been identified. Herein, we first studied the toxic mechanism of PHMG-P-containing solution using human normal bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells). When exposed for 24 h, PHMG-P-containing solution rapidly decreased cell viability from around 6 h after exposure and significantly increased of the phosphatidylserine exposure and the LDH release. At 6 h of exposure, the material contained in the solution was found to be bound to the cell membrane and the inner wall of vacuoles, and damaged the cell membrane and organelles. In addition, a significant increase of IFN-γ was observed among cytokines, the expression of apoptosis-, autophagy-, and membrane and DNA damage-related proteins was also enhanced. Meanwhile, the level of intracellular ROS and the secretion of IL-8 and CXCL-1, which are chemokines for professional phagocytes, decreased. Thus, we treated dead BEAS-2B cells to lung fibroblasts (HFL-1), non-professional phagocytes, and then we observed that the dead cells rapidly attached to HFL-1 cells and were taken up. Additionally, increased secretion of IL-8 and CXCL-1 was observed in the cells. Based on these results, we suggest that pulmonary exposure to PHMG-P induces apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts might play an important role in the clearance of the apoptotic debris. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bronchial Blocker Versus Left Double-Lumen Endotracheal Tube for One-Lung Ventilation in Right Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Dai, Wei; Zong, Zhijun; Xiao, Yimin; Wu, Di; Liu, Xuesheng; Chun Wong, Gordon Tin

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the quality of lung deflation of a left-sided double-lumen endotracheal tube (DLT) with a bronchial blocker (BB) for one-lung ventilation in video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). A prospective, randomized, clinical study. A university-affiliated teaching hospital. Forty-five adult patients undergoing esophageal tumor surgery using VATS with right lung deflation. Patients were assigned by a computer-generated randomization sequence to either the left-sided DLT or BB group. The correct positioning of the airway device was confirmed using fiberoptic bronchoscopy. The variables assessed included: (1) time required to correctly place the devices and to achieve lung collapse; (2) the number of times the device malpositioned; (3) the quality of lung deflation as rated by the surgeon; (4) blood pressure and heart rate at baseline (T 1 ), immediately before (T 2 ) and after (T 3 ) and 1 minute (T 4 ) after intubation; (5) the number of patients with hypoxemia (SpO 2 one-lung ventilation (OLV) period; and (6) postoperative hoarseness of voice, sore throat, or pulmonary infection. Of the 45 patients approached for the study, 21 patients in the DLT group and 19 patients in the BB group were analyzed. The time required to place the device in the correct position was similar between the 2 groups. The time to achieve right lung collapse in the BB group was significantly longer (mean difference: 3.232, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.993-4.471; p = 0.003). The quality of lung collapse, OLV duration, number of patients with device malposition, and hypoxemia in both groups were similar. There were more patients suffering hoarseness (odds ratio [OR]: 4.85, 95% CI: 1.08-21.76; p = 0.034) or sore throat (OR: 4.29, 95% CI: 1.14-16.18; p = 0.030) in the DLT group, while no patients developed postoperative lung infection in either group. Compared to T 1 , systolic blood pressure (sBP), diastolic BP (dBP), and heart rate (HR) at T 2 in both groups

  20. Multiscale CT-Based Computational Modeling of Alveolar Gas Exchange during Artificial Lung Ventilation, Cluster (Biot and Periodic (Cheyne-Stokes Breathings and Bronchial Asthma Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Golov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An airflow in the first four generations of the tracheobronchial tree was simulated by the 1D model of incompressible fluid flow through the network of the elastic tubes coupled with 0D models of lumped alveolar components, which aggregates parts of the alveolar volume and smaller airways, extended with convective transport model throughout the lung and alveolar components which were combined with the model of oxygen and carbon dioxide transport between the alveolar volume and the averaged blood compartment during pathological respiratory conditions. The novel features of this work are 1D reconstruction of the tracheobronchial tree structure on the basis of 3D segmentation of the computed tomography (CT data; 1D−0D coupling of the models of 1D bronchial tube and 0D alveolar components; and the alveolar gas exchange model. The results of our simulations include mechanical ventilation, breathing patterns of severely ill patients with the cluster (Biot and periodic (Cheyne-Stokes respirations and bronchial asthma attack. The suitability of the proposed mathematical model was validated. Carbon dioxide elimination efficiency was analyzed in all these cases. In the future, these results might be integrated into research and practical studies aimed to design cyberbiological systems for remote real-time monitoring, classification, prediction of breathing patterns and alveolar gas exchange for patients with breathing problems.

  1. Veterinary practice and occupational health. An epidemiological study of several professional groups of Dutch veterinarians. I. General physical examination and prevalence of allergy, lung function disorders, and bronchial hyperreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, A R; Blaauw, P J; de Vries, M; van Gulick, P J; Smithuis, O L; Gerrits, R P; Tielen, M J

    1996-12-01

    The prevalence of allergy, lung function disorders, and bronchial hyperreactivity was studied in 102 Dutch veterinarians, subdivided into five professional groups (predominantly working with either swine, cattle, poultry, companion animals, or as a non-practitioner). The mean age of the participants was 43 years; 6 participants were females. Twenty-two per cent of the participants were overweight, and relatively more non-practitioners than practitioners were overweight. Approximately 23% of the vets reported complaints of prolonged fatigue. The data suggest a relationship between complaints of prolonged fatigue and a more than average number of daily working hours. Only a small proportion of vets were sensitized against several allergens. There were no significant differences in prevalence of distinct lung function disorders or bronchial hyperreactivity between professional groups. It is hypothesized that the respiratory complaints (chronic coughing, chronic phlegm production, stuffed nose, sneezing) reported by the vets predominantly working in swine and/or poultry practice could be caused by irritation and/or inflammation of the first part of the trachea-bronchial tree that has no measurable and permanent consequences for changes in lung function or increased bronchial hyperreactivity. The results of a skin test against allergens and determination of allergen-specific IgE in blood indicated that the respiratory complaints were probably not related to allergy against the panel of allergens tested.

  2. Successful application of technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy in the detection of ectopic adrenocorticotropin-producing bronchial carcinoid lung tumor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallahi Babak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The diagnostic efficacy of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy labeling with 111 indium in the localization of tumors has been assessed in a limited number of patients with contradictory outcomes. Here, we describe the case of a patient with an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing bronchial carcinoid tumor diagnosed preoperatively using technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy. Case presentation A 29-year-old Asian man presented to our hospital with the typical clinical features of Cushing's syndrome, which he had had for a duration of 18 months. The results of a biochemical evaluation revealed he had adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing's syndrome. The results of a spiral abdominal computed tomography scan showed he had bilateral adrenal hypertrophy. A magnetic resonance image of the patient's brain showed he had a normal hypophysis. Whole body technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy was performed to check for the presence of an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing tumor. The scan results showed a small focal increase in uptake in the lower lobe of our patient's right lung, just above his diaphragm. A spiral chest computed tomography scan also revealed a small non-specific lesion in the same region. A transthoracic biopsy was then performed. Pathological evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor, of the adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing type. After surgical removal, the patient's symptoms resolved and significant clinical improvement was achieved. Conclusions This case report shows that technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy can effectively detect an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing bronchial carcinoid.

  3. Effect of outdoor and indoor air pollution on lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and risk of pulmonary disease of adults; Langzeitevaluation von Umwelteinfluessen auf Lungenfunktion, bronchiale Hyperreagibilitaet und Krankheitsrisiko von Erwachsenen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltschka, R [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Zentrum Innere Medizin

    1992-10-01

    The effect of outdoor exposure to SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, particulate pollutants, ozone and pollen on pulmonary function and respiratory discomfort was studied over a period of 1 1/2 yr in 133 no smoking adults at the city of Freiburg. Concentration of indoor and outdoor pollutants were measured. Between January and December 1989 we found in comparison with other large towns low levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and particulate combustion products. The evaluation of individual exposure to air pollutants with lung function measurements shows that participants with essential hyperreactivity demonstrate a significant decrease of the FEV1/IVC - ratio with a threshold value of about 30 {mu}g/m{sup 3} NO{sub 2}. The analyses of the longitudinal study shows a significant correlation between daily peakflow measurements and ozone levels in patients with symptomatic asthma bronchiale and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. For pollen, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and anorganic particulate pollutants we did not find any significant effects on peak expiratory flow measurements. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Der Einfluss von Aussenluftschadstoffen (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, Staub und Ozon) auf die Lunge wurde in Freiburg in Form einer 1 1/2-jaehrigen Longitudinalstudie bei 133 nicht rauchenden Erwachsenen untersucht. Waehrend des Beobachtungszeitraumes 10/88 - 4/90 erfolgte die Messung der Aussen- und Innenluftschadstoffe. Die Messungen des DW und der LFU zeigen fuer den Zeitraum Januar-Dezember 1989 im Vergleich zu anderen Grossstaedten niedrige Schwefeldioxid-, Stickoxid- und Staubkonzentrationen. Die Querschnittsuntersuchung mit Anamnesefragebogen, Bodyplethysmographie und inhalativem Provokationstest zeigt bei Teilnehmern mit essentieller Hyperreagibilitaet eine signifikante Abnahme des gemessenen und adjustierten Tiffeneau-Index durch NO{sub 2} mit einem Schwellenwert bei 30 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Die multivariate Analyse der Longitudinalstudie zeigt bei Patienten mit symptomatischem Asthma und

  4. Bronchial Thermoplasty in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Mitzner

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we discuss the potential of a new procedure, termed Bronchial Thermoplasty to prevent serious consequences resulting from excessive airway narrowing. The most important factor in minimizing an asthmatic attack is limiting the degree of smooth muscle shortening. The premise that airway smooth muscle can be either inactivated or obliterated without any long-term alteration of other lung tissues, and that airway function will remain normal, albeit with reduced bronchoconstriction, has now been demonstrated in dogs, a subset of normal subjects, and mild asthmatics. Bronchial Thermoplasty may thus develop into a useful clinical procedure to effectively impair the ability for airway smooth muscle to reach the levels of pathologic narrowing that characterizes an asthma attack. It may also enable more successful treatment of asthma patients who are unresponsive to more conventional therapies. Whether this will remain stable for the lifetime of the patient still remains to be determined, but at the present time, there are no indications that the smooth muscle contractility will return. This successful preliminary experience showing that Bronchial Thermoplasty could be safely performed in patients with asthma has led to an ongoing clinical trial at a number of sites in Europe and North America designed to examine the effectiveness of this procedure in subjects with moderately severe asthma.

  5. Successful Recanalization of a Complete Lobar Bronchial Stenosis in a Lung Transplant Patient Using a Combined Percutaneous and Bronchoscopic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miraglia, Roberto; Vitulo, Patrizio; Maruzzelli, Luigi; Burgio, Gaetano; Caruso, Settimo; Bertani, Alessandro; Callari, Adriana; Luca, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Airway stenosis is a major complication after lung transplantation that is usually managed with a combination of interventional endoscopic techniques, including endobronchial debridement, balloon dilation, and stent placement. Herein, we report a successful case of recanalization of a complete stenosis of the right middle lobe bronchus in a lung transplant patient, by using a combined percutaneous–bronchoscopic approach after the failure of endobronchial debridement

  6. Successful Recanalization of a Complete Lobar Bronchial Stenosis in a Lung Transplant Patient Using a Combined Percutaneous and Bronchoscopic Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miraglia, Roberto, E-mail: rmiraglia@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Radiology Service, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services (Italy); Vitulo, Patrizio, E-mail: pvitulo@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Pulmonology Unit, Department for the Treatment and Study of Cardiothoracic Diseases and Cardiothoracic Transplantation (Italy); Maruzzelli, Luigi, E-mail: lmaruzzelli@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Radiology Service, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services (Italy); Burgio, Gaetano, E-mail: gburgio@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Operating Room Service, Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care (Italy); Caruso, Settimo, E-mail: secaruso@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Radiology Service, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services (Italy); Bertani, Alessandro, E-mail: abertani@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Thoracic Surgery and Lung Transplantation Unit, Department for the Treatment and Study of Cardiothoracic Diseases and Cardiothoracic Transplantation (Italy); Callari, Adriana, E-mail: acallari@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Pulmonology Unit, Department for the Treatment and Study of Cardiothoracic Diseases and Cardiothoracic Transplantation (Italy); Luca, Angelo, E-mail: aluca@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Radiology Service, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Airway stenosis is a major complication after lung transplantation that is usually managed with a combination of interventional endoscopic techniques, including endobronchial debridement, balloon dilation, and stent placement. Herein, we report a successful case of recanalization of a complete stenosis of the right middle lobe bronchus in a lung transplant patient, by using a combined percutaneous–bronchoscopic approach after the failure of endobronchial debridement.

  7. Activation of coagulation and inhibition of fibrinolysis in the human lung on bronchial instillation of lipoteichoic acid and lipopolysaccharide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, Jacobien J.; de Vos, Alex F.; Levi, Marcel; Bresser, Paul; van der Zee, Jaring S.; Draing, Christian; von Aulock, Sonja; van der Poll, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Pneumonia is characterized by an acute inflammatory response in the lung, which is frequently associated with changes in coagulation and fibrinolysis in the bronchoalveolar space. Here, we compared the effects of lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a major cell wall component of Gram-positive

  8. Hexavalent chromium, a lung carcinogen, confers resistance to thermal stress and interferes with heat shock protein expression in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Patrícia L; Cunha-Oliveira, Teresa; Ferreira, Leonardo M R; Urbano, Ana M

    2018-03-16

    Exposure to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], a lung carcinogen, triggers several types of cellular stresses, namely oxidative, genotoxic and proteotoxic stresses. Given the evolutionary character of carcinogenesis, it is tempting to speculate that cells that survive the stresses produced by this carcinogen become more resistant to subsequent stresses, namely those encountered during neoplastic transformation. To test this hypothesis, we determined whether pre-incubation with Cr(VI) increased the resistance of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells) to the antiproliferative action of acute thermal shock, used here as a model for stress. In line with the proposed hypothesis, it was observed that, at mildly cytotoxic concentrations, Cr(VI) attenuated the antiproliferative effects of both cold and heat shock. Mechanistically, Cr(VI) interfered with the expression of two components of the stress response pathway: heat shock proteins Hsp72 and Hsp90α. Specifically, Cr(VI) significantly depleted the mRNA levels of the former and the protein levels of the latter. Significantly, these two proteins are members of heat shock protein (Hsp) families (Hsp70 and Hsp90, respectively) that have been implicated in carcinogenesis. Thus, our results confirm and extend previous studies showing the capacity of Cr(VI) to interfere with the expression of stress response components.

  9. Utility of bronchial lavage fluids for epithelial growth factor receptor mutation assay in lung cancer patients: Comparison between cell pellets, cell blocks and matching tissue specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaka, Shiho; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Nakata, Rie; Negishi, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Shiina, Takayuki; Shigeto, Shohei; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Honda, Takayuki

    2018-01-01

    The detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations is necessary for the selection of suitable patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Cytology specimens are known to be suitable for EGFR mutation detection, although tissue specimens should be prioritized; however, there are limited studies that examine the utility of bronchial lavage fluid (BLF) in mutation detection. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the utility of BLF specimens for the detection of EGFR mutations using a conventional quantitative EGFR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Initially, quantification cycle (Cq) values of cell pellets, cell-free supernatants and cell blocks obtained from three series of 1% EGFR mutation-positive lung cancer cell line samples were compared for mutation detection. In addition, PCR analysis of BLF specimens obtained from 77 consecutive NSCLC patients, detecting EGFR mutations was validated, and these results were compared with those for the corresponding formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens obtained by surgical resection or biopsy of 49 of these patients. The Cq values for mutation detection were significantly lower in the cell pellet group (average, 29.58) compared with the other groups, followed by those in cell-free supernatants (average, 34.15) and in cell blocks (average, 37.12) for all three series (P<0.05). Mutational status was successfully analyzed in 77 BLF specimens, and the results obtained were concordant with those of the 49 matching FFPE tissue specimens. Notably, EGFR mutations were even detected in 10 cytological specimens that contained insufficient tumor cells. EGFR mutation testing with BLF specimens is therefore a useful and reliable method, particularly when sufficient cancer cells are not obtained. PMID:29399190

  10. Reactive oxygen species contribute to arsenic-induced EZH2 phosphorylation in human bronchial epithelial cells and lung cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lingzhi; Qiu, Ping; Chen, Bailing; Lu, Yongju; Wu, Kai; Thakur, Chitra; Chang, Qingshan; Sun, Jiaying; Chen, Fei, E-mail: fchen@wayne.edu

    2014-05-01

    Our previous studies suggested that arsenic is able to induce serine 21 phosphorylation of the EZH2 protein through activation of JNK, STAT3, and Akt signaling pathways in the bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. In the present report, we further demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in the arsenic-induced protein kinase activation that leads to EZH2 phosphorylation. Several lines of evidence supported this notion. First, the pretreatment of the cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, abolishes arsenic-induced EZH2 phosphorylation along with the inhibition of JNK, STAT3, and Akt. Second, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the most important form of ROS in the cells in response to extracellular stress signals, can induce phosphorylation of the EZH2 protein and the activation of JNK, STAT3, and Akt. By ectopic expression of the myc-tagged EZH2, we additionally identified direct interaction and phosphorylation of the EZH2 protein by Akt in response to arsenic and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Furthermore, both arsenic and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were able to induce the translocation of ectopically expressed or endogenous EZH2 from nucleus to cytoplasm. In summary, the data presented in this report indicate that oxidative stress due to ROS generation plays an important role in the arsenic-induced EZH2 phosphorylation. - Highlights:: • Arsenic (As{sup 3+}) induces EZH phosphorylation. • JNK, STAT3, and Akt contribute to EZH2 phosphorylation. • Oxidative stress is involved in As{sup 3+}-induced EZH2 phosphorylation. • As{sup 3+} induces direct interaction of Akt and EZH2. • Phosphorylated EZH2 localized in cytoplasm.

  11. Bronchial arterial RI-angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazono, Nobuaki; Inoue, Hiroki; Kanetsuki, Ichiro; Takeshita, Tuyoshi; Mukai, Hiroyuki; Moriyama, Takaaki; Nakabeppu, Yoshiaki; Nakajo, Masayuki

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen bronchial arterial perfusion studies were performed in a total of 13 patients with lung tumors (11 cases of lung cancer, one metastatic tumor and one abscess), utilizing 99m TcO 4 - or 99m Tc-labeled macroaggregated albumin ( 99m Tc-MAA). Regions of interest (ROI) of the same size were set over areas of tumor, the mediastinum and healthy lung areas, and each ROI count was calculated by a nuclear medicine computer during an acquisition time period of 20 min with each tracer for 7 min to evaluate tumor part perfusion. The count ratios of tumor to healthy parts ranged from 1.7 to 6.5 (mean±s.d.; 3.8±1.9) in the 99m TcO 4 - group (10 patients) and from 130 to 230 (mean±s.d.; 163±30) in the 99m Tc-MAA group (3 patients), respectively. Tumor reduction rates 2 weeks after CDDP bronchial artery infusion therapy correlated positively to the count ratio in the 99m TcO 4 - lung cancer group, although significant correlation was not obtained. This study suggests that bronchial arterial infusion of anticancer agents may result in higher concentrations of anticancer agents in the tumors than with systemic chemotherapy and chemoembolic materials may exert more potent anticancer effects on tumors than nonparticulated anticancer agents. (author)

  12. Identification of biomarkers of radioresponse and subsequent progression towards lung cancer in normal human bronchial epithelial cells after HZE particle irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Park, Seongmi; Minna, John

    Using variants of a non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line HBEC3-KT, we have examined global gene expression patterns after low and high LET irradiation up to 24h post-IR. Using supervised analyses we have identified 427 genes whoes expression can be used to discriminate the cellular response to γ-vs Si or Fe particles even when the biological outcome, cell death, is equivalent. Furthermore, genetic background also determines gene expression response. When HBEC3-KT is compared to the HBEC3-KT cells line where mutant k-RAS is over-expressed and p53 has been knocked down, HBEC-3KTr53, principal component analysis clearly shows that the response of each cell resides in a different 3-D space, that is, basal gene expression patterns as well as the gene expression response are unique to each cell type. Using regression analysis to examine these 427 genes show clusters of genes whose temporal expression patterns are the same and which are unique to a given radiation type. Ultimately, this approach will allow for the interrogation of gene promoters to identify response elements that drive how cells respond to different radiation types. We are extending our examination to O particles and are now examining gene expression as a function of beam quality. We have made substantial progress in the determination of cellular transformation by HZE particles for these cell lines. (Transformation as defined by the ability to grow in soft agar.) For HBEC-3KT, the spontaneous transformation frequency is about 10- 7.ExposuretoeitherF eorSiparticlesinc KT r53celllinedidnotshowanyincreaseintransf ormationf requencyaf terdosesof upto1Gy, however, thesp 3KT.W ehavenowisolatedover160individualf ocithatf ormedinsof tagarf romcellculturesthatwereirradia termcultureandthenre-introducedintosof tagartoassurethattheabilitytogrowinsof tagarisclonal.T odatew 30 With these cell isolates in hand we will begin to determine tumorigenicity by subcutaneous injections in nude

  13. Bronchial carcinoid tumors: A rare malignant tumor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-03

    Feb 3, 2015 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Sep-Oct 2015 • Vol 18 • Issue 5. Abstract. Bronchial carcinoid tumors (BCTs) are an uncommon group of lung tumors. They commonly affect the young adults and the middle aged, the same age group affected by other more common chronic lung conditions such as ...

  14. Analysis of the AHR gene proximal promoter GGGGC-repeat polymorphism in lung, breast, and colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spink, Barbara C.; Bloom, Michael S.; Wu, Susan; Sell, Stewart; Schneider, Erasmus; Ding, Xinxin; Spink, David C.

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates expression of numerous genes, including those of the CYP1 gene family. With the goal of determining factors that control AHR gene expression, our studies are focused on the role of the short tandem repeat polymorphism, (GGGGC) n , located in the proximal promoter of the human AHR gene. When luciferase constructs containing varying GGGGC repeats were transfected into cancer cell lines derived from the lung, colon, and breast, the number of GGGGC repeats affected AHR promoter activity. The number of GGGGC repeats was determined in DNA from 327 humans and from 38 samples representing 5 species of non-human primates. In chimpanzees and 3 species of macaques, only (GGGGC) 2 alleles were observed; however, in western gorilla, (GGGGC) n alleles with n = 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 were identified. In all human populations examined, the frequency of (GGGGC) n was n = 4 > 5 ≫ 2, 6. When frequencies of the (GGGGC) n alleles in DNA from patients with lung, colon, or breast cancer were evaluated, the occurrence of (GGGGC) 2 was found to be 8-fold more frequent among lung cancer patients in comparison with its incidence in the general population, as represented by New York State neonates. Analysis of matched tumor and non-tumor DNA samples from the same individuals provided no evidence of microsatellite instability. These studies indicate that the (GGGGC) n short tandem repeats are inherited, and that the (GGGGC) 2 allele in the AHR proximal promoter region should be further investigated with regard to its potential association with lung cancer susceptibility. - Highlights: • The AHR proximal promoter contains a polymorphism, (GGGGC) n , where n = 4 > 5 ≫ 2, 6 • Matched tumor and non-tumor DNA did not show (GGGGC) n microsatellite instability • AHR promoter activity of a construct with (GGGGC) 2 was lower than that of (GGGGC) 4 • The frequency of (GGGGC) 2 in lung cancer patients was 8-fold higher than in neonates • The

  15. Analysis of the AHR gene proximal promoter GGGGC-repeat polymorphism in lung, breast, and colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spink, Barbara C. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Bloom, Michael S. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Wu, Susan [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Sell, Stewart; Schneider, Erasmus [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Ding, Xinxin [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Spink, David C., E-mail: spink@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates expression of numerous genes, including those of the CYP1 gene family. With the goal of determining factors that control AHR gene expression, our studies are focused on the role of the short tandem repeat polymorphism, (GGGGC){sub n}, located in the proximal promoter of the human AHR gene. When luciferase constructs containing varying GGGGC repeats were transfected into cancer cell lines derived from the lung, colon, and breast, the number of GGGGC repeats affected AHR promoter activity. The number of GGGGC repeats was determined in DNA from 327 humans and from 38 samples representing 5 species of non-human primates. In chimpanzees and 3 species of macaques, only (GGGGC){sub 2} alleles were observed; however, in western gorilla, (GGGGC){sub n} alleles with n = 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 were identified. In all human populations examined, the frequency of (GGGGC){sub n} was n = 4 > 5 ≫ 2, 6. When frequencies of the (GGGGC){sub n} alleles in DNA from patients with lung, colon, or breast cancer were evaluated, the occurrence of (GGGGC){sub 2} was found to be 8-fold more frequent among lung cancer patients in comparison with its incidence in the general population, as represented by New York State neonates. Analysis of matched tumor and non-tumor DNA samples from the same individuals provided no evidence of microsatellite instability. These studies indicate that the (GGGGC){sub n} short tandem repeats are inherited, and that the (GGGGC){sub 2} allele in the AHR proximal promoter region should be further investigated with regard to its potential association with lung cancer susceptibility. - Highlights: • The AHR proximal promoter contains a polymorphism, (GGGGC){sub n}, where n = 4 > 5 ≫ 2, 6 • Matched tumor and non-tumor DNA did not show (GGGGC){sub n} microsatellite instability • AHR promoter activity of a construct with (GGGGC){sub 2} was lower than that of (GGGGC){sub 4} • The frequency of (GGGGC){sub 2} in lung

  16. Pulmonary proteases in the cystic fibrosis lung induce interleukin 8 expression from bronchial epithelial cells via a heme/meprin/epidermal growth factor receptor/Toll-like receptor pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cosgrove, Sonya

    2012-02-01

    A high intrapulmonary protease burden is characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF), and the resulting dysregulation of the protease\\/anti-protease balance has serious implications for inflammation in the CF lung. Because of this inflammation, micro-bleeds can occur releasing hemoglobin into the lung. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the protease-rich environment of the CF lung on human hemoglobin and to assess the proinflammatory effect of heme on CF bronchial epithelium. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas proteases (Pseudomonas elastase and alkaline protease) and the neutrophil proteases (neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase-3) are capable of almost complete degradation of hemoglobin in vitro but that NE is the predominant protease that cleaves hemoglobin in vivo in CF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. One of the effects of this is the release of heme, and in this study we show that heme stimulates IL-8 and IL-10 protein production from DeltaF508 CFBE41o(-) bronchial epithelial cells. In addition, heme-induced IL-8 expression utilizes a novel pathway involving meprin, EGF receptor, and MyD88. Meprin levels are elevated in CF cell lines and bronchial brushings, thus adding to the proinflammatory milieu. Interestingly, alpha(1)-antitrypsin, in addition to its ability to neutralize NE and protease-3, can also bind heme and neutralize heme-induced IL-8 from CFBE41o(-) cells. This study illustrates the proinflammatory effects of micro-bleeds in the CF lung, the process by which this occurs, and a potential therapeutic intervention.

  17. Pulmonary Proteases in the Cystic Fibrosis Lung Induce Interleukin 8 Expression from Bronchial Epithelial Cells via a Heme/Meprin/Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/Toll-like Receptor Pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cosgrove, Sonya

    2011-03-04

    A high intrapulmonary protease burden is characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF), and the resulting dysregulation of the protease\\/anti-protease balance has serious implications for inflammation in the CF lung. Because of this inflammation, micro-bleeds can occur releasing hemoglobin into the lung. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the protease-rich environment of the CF lung on human hemoglobin and to assess the proinflammatory effect of heme on CF bronchial epithelium. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas proteases (Pseudomonas elastase and alkaline protease) and the neutrophil proteases (neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase-3) are capable of almost complete degradation of hemoglobin in vitro but that NE is the predominant protease that cleaves hemoglobin in vivo in CF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. One of the effects of this is the release of heme, and in this study we show that heme stimulates IL-8 and IL-10 protein production from ΔF508 CFBE41o(-) bronchial epithelial cells. In addition, heme-induced IL-8 expression utilizes a novel pathway involving meprin, EGF receptor, and MyD88. Meprin levels are elevated in CF cell lines and bronchial brushings, thus adding to the proinflammatory milieu. Interestingly, α(1)-antitrypsin, in addition to its ability to neutralize NE and protease-3, can also bind heme and neutralize heme-induced IL-8 from CFBE41o(-) cells. This study illustrates the proinflammatory effects of micro-bleeds in the CF lung, the process by which this occurs, and a potential therapeutic intervention.

  18. Bronchial dosimeter for radon progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, T.K.; Yu, K.N.; Nikezic, D.; Haque, A.K.M.M. [City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Vucic, D. [Faculty of Technology, University of Nis, Lescovac (Yugoslavia)

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally, assessments of the bronchial dose from radon progeny were carried out by measuring the unattached fraction (f{sub p}) of potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC), the total PAEC, activity median diameters (AMDs) and equilibrium factor, and then using dosimetric lung models. A breakthrough was proposed by Hopke et al. (1990) to use multiple metal wire screens to mimic the deposition properties of radon progeny in the nasal (N) and tracheobronchial (T-B) regions directly. In particular, they were successful in using four layers of 400-mesh wire screens with a face velocity of 12 cm s{sup -1} for the simulation of radon progeny deposition in the T-B region. Oberstedt and Vanmarcke (1995) carried out precise calibrations for the system, and named the system as the 'bronchial dosimeter'. Based on these, Yu and Guan (1998) proposed a portable bronchial dosimeter similar to a normal measurement system for radon progeny or PAEC and consisted of only a single sampler and employed only one 400-mesh wire screen and one filter. However, all these 'bronchial dosimeters' in fact only determined the fraction of potential alpha energy from radon progeny deposited in the T-B region, which required certain assumptions and calculations to further give the final bronchial dose. In the present work, a true 'bronchial dosimeter' was designed, which consisted of three 400-mesh wire screens and a filter. With a face velocity of 11 cm s{sup -1}, the deposition pattern on the wire screens was found to satisfactorily match the variation of the dose conversion factor (in the unit of mSv/WLM) with the size of radon progeny from 1 to 1000 nm. In this way, this bronchial dosimeter directly gave the bronchial dose from the alpha counts recorded on the wire-screens and the filter paper. With the development of this bronchial dosimeter, the present practice of 'dose estimation' from large-scale radon surveys can be replaced by large

  19. Comparative assessment of the spreading of central lung cancer by the results of tomography and bronchological investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovyagin, E.V.; Moerman, B.A.; Tereshchenko, O.I.

    1987-01-01

    The results of tomographic and bronchological investigations were compared in 100 patients with central lung cancer. Bronchofibroscopy (BFS) was shown to play a leading role in the assessment of tumor involvement of the proximal parts of the bronchial tree. In 38% of the cases additional information on the bronchial status permitted a more precise definition of the disease stage (T factor). Tomography was superior with respect to the assessment of the intrathoratic lymph nodes giving a preliminary idea of the bronchial state. Tomography potentialities could be expanded by using an equalizer network for better differentiation of the mediastinal structures including small increases in the lymph nodes

  20. Reflexology and bronchial asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, T; Heinig, J H; Collins, P

    2001-01-01

    Many asthma patients seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology, whereby finger pressure is applied to certain parts of the body. The aim of the study was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. Ten weeks of active...... or simulated (placebo) reflexology given by an experienced reflexologist, were compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 20+20 outpatients with asthma. Objective lung function tests (peak flow morning and evening, and weekly spirometry at the clinic) did not change. Subjective scores (describing...... diaries was carried out. It was accompanied by a significant pattern compatible with subconscious unblinding, in that patients tended to guess which treatment they had been receiving. No evidence was found that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond placebo influence....

  1. Nested-PCR for the detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in bronchial alveolar swabs, frozen tissues and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded swine lung samples: comparative evaluation with immunohistochemical findings and histological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula R. Almeida

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection is often performed through histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC and polymerase chain reaction (PCR or a combination of these techniques. PCR can be performed on samples using several conservation methods, including swabs, frozen tissue or formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue. However, the formalin fixation process often inhibits DNA amplification. To evaluate whether M. hyopneumoniae DNA could be recovered from FFPE tissues, 15 lungs with cranioventral consolidation lesions were collected in a slaughterhouse from swine bred in herds with respiratory disease. Bronchial swabs and fresh lung tissue were collected, and a fragment of the corresponding lung section was placed in neutral buffered formalin for 48 hours. A PCR assay was performed to compare FFPE tissue samples with samples that were only refrigerated (bronchial swabs or frozen (tissue pieces. M. hyopneumoniae was detected by PCR in all 15 samples of the swab and frozen tissue, while it was detected in only 11 of the 15 FFPE samples. Histological features of M. hyopneumoniae infection were presented in 11 cases and 7 of these samples stained positive in IHC. Concordance between the histological features and detection results was observed in 13 of the FFPE tissue samples. PCR was the most sensitive technique. Comparison of different sample conservation methods indicated that it is possible to detect M. hyopneumoniae from FFPE tissue. It is important to conduct further research using archived material because the efficiency of PCR could be compromised under these conditions.

  2. Clinical, radiographic, and bronchial cytologic features of cats with bronchial disease: 65 cases (1980-1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moise, N.S.; Wiedenkeller, D.; Yeager, A.E.; Blue, J.T.; Scarlett, J.

    1989-01-01

    Medical records, radiographs, and bronchial cytologic abnormalities of 65 cats with bronchial disease were reviewed. Bronchial disease was defined as abnormality of the lower airways to the exclusion of disease originating or mainly involving the alveoli, interstitium, vasculature, or pleura. Cats with bronchial disease were more likely to be female and older. Siamese cats were over represented and had more chronic disease. In order of frequency, the following clinical signs were reported: coughing, dyspnea, occasional sneezing, wheezing, and vomiting. Radiography revealed prominent bronchial markings, with some cats having collapse of the middle lobe of the right lung (n = 7), overinflation of the lungs (n = 9), or aerophagia (n = 13). Of 65 bronchial washes, 58 were considered exudative, with the predominant cell type being eosinophil in 24%, neutrophil in 33%, macrophage in 22%, and mixed population of cells in 21%. Cultures for bacteria were considered positive in 24% of the cats. Circulating eosinophilia was not helpful in predicting the predominant cell type in bronchial cytologic exudates. Hyperproteinemia without dehydration was present in a third of the cats, indicating an immunologic response. Half the cats had resolution of clinical signs, whereas half the cats required continuing medication with bronchodilators, antimicrobial agents, or corticosteroids

  3. Acute changes in lung function associated with proximity to a steel plant: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dales, Robert; Kauri, Lisa Marie; Cakmak, Sabit; Mahmud, Mamun; Weichenthal, Scott A; Van Ryswyk, Keith; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Thomson, Errol; Vincent, Renaud; Broad, Gayle; Liu, Ling

    2013-05-01

    Steel production is a major industry worldwide yet there is relatively little information on the pulmonary effects of air quality near steel manufacturing plants. The aim of this study was to examine how lung function changes acutely when healthy subjects are situated near a steel plant which is adjacent to a residential area. Sixty-one subjects were randomly assigned to spend 5 consecutive, 8-hour days in a residential neighborhood approximately 0.9km from a steel plant, or approximately 4.5km away at a college campus. Subjects crossed-over between sites after a nine-day washout period. Lung function was measured daily at both sites along with air pollutants including SO2, NO2, O3, PM2.5, and ultrafine particles. Diffusion capacity and pulse oximetry were also examined. Compared with the college site, the forced expiratory volume in 1-second/forced vital capacity, forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of the FVC, total lung capacity, functional residual capacity, and residual volume were lower near the steel plant by 0.67% (95% CI: 0.28, 1.06),1.62% (95% CI: 0.50, 2.75), 1.54% (95% CI: 0.68, 2.39), 3.54% (95% CI: 1.95, 5.13) and 11.3% (95% CI: 4.92, 17.75), respectively. Diffusion capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1s, and pulse oximetry were also lower near the plant but these effects were not statistically significant. Sulfur dioxide, ultrafine particulates, and oxides of nitrogen were greater near the steel plant site compared to the college site. Spending short periods of time near a steel plant is associated with a decrease in lung function. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis Complicating Bronchial Atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen O. Al-Qadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial atresia is a rare pulmonary developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of a focal obliteration of a segmental or lobar bronchial lumen. The lung distal to the atretic bronchus is typically emphysematous along with the presence of mucus filled ectatic bronchi (mucoceles. BA is usually asymptomatic but pulmonary infections can rarely develop in the emphysematous lung distal to the atretic bronchus. We present a unique case of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA in a patient with BA with no evidence of immune dysfunction. The patient was treated initially with voriconazole and subsequently underwent surgical excision of the involved area. On follow-up, she has done extremely well with no evidence for recurrence. In summary, we describe the first case of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient with bronchial atresia.

  5. Bronchial arteries: an arteriosclerosis-resistant circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoulas, Christophoros; Melachrinou, Maria; Konstantinou, George N; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Dougenis, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    Until now, it is unknown whether and to what extent arteriosclerotic disease affects the bronchial arteries. We conducted this pilot study to estimate the prevalence of arteriosclerosis of the bronchial arteries, to correlate it with certain clinicolaboratory arteriosclerotic parameters or any coexistent coronary artery disease (CAD) and to validate the clinical significance. Bronchial arteries 10-15 mm long were obtained from 40 patients with a mean age of 62.3 years who underwent major thoracic procedures. Their medical history and detailed clinical and laboratory arteriosclerotic risk factors were documented. The mean diameter of bronchial artery specimens was 0.97 mm. Histology revealed medial calcific sclerosis only in 1 patient (2.5%) without simultaneous, established atherosclerotic lesions or narrowing of the lumen. Furthermore, the vessel diameter was significantly correlated not only with the advanced stage of the disease (p = 0.031), but also with the proximal occlusion of the bronchial tree (p = 0.042). We noted a marginally not significant correlation between arteriosclerosis and metabolic syndrome (p = 0.075), independent from a history of CAD (p = 0.84). Bronchial arteries exhibit only medial calcific sclerosis. CAD and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease do not seem to affect them in terms of atherosclerotic alteration findings or vessel diameter changes. The bronchial resistance to arteriosclerosis might support the mediastinal status quo through their anastomoses, contributing to all its structures, and might be indirect evidence of a different physiological function of the bronchial endothelium, which needs to be further investigated. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Bronchial and pulmonary scintigraphy with radioactively marked aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerstle, T.

    1982-01-01

    In 97 patients with bronchitis, bronchial asthma, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, pneumoconiosis, or tumors the mucociliary clearance and/or deposit pattern after inhalation of radioactively marked aerosols (1 mCi 99m Tc sulfur colloid) was studied. Normal values of the mucociliary 30 min. clearance for the central bronchial/lung periphery are 21%/15%. There was a decreased clearance with bronchitis (11/8%), bronchial asthma, emphysema, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, trachiobronchial amyloidosis, pleural scarring or interstitial pneumona. Increased clearance (29/19%) was shown with pneumoconiosis. The correlation of deposit pattern and disease, for example, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, bullous emphysema, pleural scarring, partial lung resection, bronchopneumonia, or bronchial restriction, is described. In comparison of aerosol scintigraphy to perfusion scintigraphy and ventilation with gaseous xenon, the aerosol scintigraphy is superior to xenon for certain indications. The aerosol particles, which are larger in comparison to xenon, settle easier by obstructions or flow variations and thereby give better clinical indications of regional differences. (orig.) [de

  7. Bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liccardi, Gennaro; Salzillo, Antonello; Sofia, Matteo; D'Amato, Maria; D'Amato, Gennaro

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this review is to underline the need for an adequate clinical and functional evaluation of respiratory function and asthma control in patients undergoing surgical procedures requiring general anesthesia to obtain useful information for an adequate preoperative pharmacological approach. It has been shown that baseline uncontrolled clinical/functional conditions of airways represent the most important risk factors for perioperative bronchospasm. In nonemergency conditions, asthma patients should undergo clinical/functional assessment at least 1 week before the surgery intervention to obtain, the better feasible control of asthma symptoms in the single patient. Some simple preoperative information given by the patient in preoperative consultation may be sufficient to identify individuals with uncontrolled or poor controlled asthmatic conditions. Spirometric evaluation is essential in individuals with poor control of symptoms, as well as in those patients with uncertain anamnestic data or limited perception of respiratory symptoms, and in those requiring lung resection. A better control of asthma must be considered the 'gold standard' for a patient at 'a reasonable low risk' to develop perioperative/postoperative bronchospasm. International consensus promoted by pulmonologists, anesthesiologists, and allergists might be useful to define a better diagnostic and therapeutic approach.

  8. 支气管结核误诊为肺癌七例临床分析%Clinical Analysis of 7 Patients with Bronchial Tuberculosis Misdiagnosed as Having Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凤; 胥进

    2017-01-01

    目的 探讨支气管结核误诊为肺癌的原因及防范措施.方法 对2013年3月-2015年12月凉山彝族自治州第二人民医院呼吸内科收治的25例支气管结核中曾误诊为支气管肺癌7例的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 本组误诊率为28.00%.出现咳嗽6例,咳痰5例,痰中带血或少量咯血4例,持续发热时间>2周4例,胸闷3例,胸痛2例,乏力、盗汗3例,食欲不振、体重下降2例.就诊初期6例误诊为支气管肺癌,1例误诊为支气管肺癌合并肺结核.误诊时间为1~12个月.按误诊疾病予相应处理患者病情变化不明显,后经电子支气管镜检查及反复多次纤维支气管镜下支气管黏膜活组织病理检查、刷检涂片查找抗酸杆菌确诊为支气管结核.7例均予规范抗结核等治疗,其中行手术切除治疗1例,支架安置术1例.7例治疗1个月后症状均有所缓解,复查胸部X线或CT示病灶较前吸收;住院治疗1~5个月后出院,院外继续行抗结核治疗.结论 支气管结核因临床表现不典型,胸部X线及CT征象类似于肺癌,易误诊为肺癌.临床接诊类似本文患者时应及时行电子支气管镜检查及反复多次行纤维支气管镜下支气管黏膜活组织病理检查、刷检涂片查找抗酸杆菌,以尽早确诊.%Objective To investigate causes and preventative measures of bronchial tuberculosis misdiagnosed as lung cancer.Methods Clinical data of 7 patients misdiagnosed as having bronchial lung cancer, among whom 25 patients had bronchial tuberculosis admitted during march 2013 and December 2015, was retrospectively analyzed.Results The misdiagnosis rate was 28.00%.There were 6 patients with cough, 5 with expectoration, 4 with blood in phlegm or a little of haemoptysis, 4 with sustained fever for longer than 2 weeks, 3 with dyspnea, 2 with chest pain, 3 with fatigue and night sweats and 2 patients with poor appetite and weight loss.In primary diagnosis, 6 patients were misdiagnosed as

  9. Bronchial lesions of mouse model of asthma are preceded by immune complex vasculitis and induced bronchial associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Ian C; Sell, Stewart

    2015-08-01

    We systematically examined by immune histology the lungs of some widely used mouse models of asthma. These models include sensitization by multiple intraperitoneal injections of soluble ovalbumin (OVA) or of OVA with alum, followed by three intranasal or aerosol challenges 3 days apart. Within 24 h after a single challenge there is fibrinoid necrosis of arterial walls with deposition of immunoglobulin (Ig) and OVA and infiltration of eosinophilic polymorphonuclear cells that lasts for about 3 days followed by peribronchial B-cell infiltration and slight reversible goblet cell hypertrophy (GCHT). After two challenges, severe eosinophilic vasculitis is present at 6 h, increases by 72 h, and then declines; B-cell proliferation and significant GCHT and hyperplasia (GCHTH) and bronchial smooth muscle hypertrophy recur more prominently. After three challenges, there is significantly increased induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) formation, GCHTH, and smooth muscle hypertrophy. Elevated levels of Th2 cytokines, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, are present in bronchial lavage fluids. Sensitized mice have precipitating antibody and positive Arthus skin reactions but also develop significant levels of IgE antibody to OVA but only 1 week after challenge. We conclude that the asthma like lung lesions induced in these models is preceded by immune complex-mediated eosinophilic vasculitis and iBALT formation. There are elevations of Th2 cytokines that most likely produce bronchial lesions that resemble human asthma. However, it is unlikely that mast cell-activated atopic mechanisms are responsible as we found only a few presumed mast cells by toluidine blue and metachromatic staining limited to the most proximal part of the main stem bronchus, and none in the remaining main stem bronchus or in the lung periphery.

  10. Radiological study of bronchial mucoid impaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaoyi; Yan Hongzhen; Wang Tongde; Gan Chunlan; Liu Wei; Wang Linhui

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the radiological findings of bronchial mucoid impaction in 28 patients in order to improve diagnostic efficacy. Methods: Standard posteroanterior high voltage radiographs were performed in all 28 cases. Among them CT scans were taken in 14 cases, while 3 patients underwent HRCT examination at the same time. Twenty-two patients had a history of expectoration of mucous plugs; in one case with pulmonary atelectasis, a mucous plug was picked out through bronchoscopy. The other 5 cases experienced a lung operation, and a tumor and bronchial mucoid impaction were discovered. Results: Radiographs showed most mucoid impaction as thick, branching structures resembling branches of tree; others were in the shapes of spherical, small clubs, and cuttle fish. In one patient, pulmonary atelectasis was the only radiographic finding. Similarly on CT, most bronchial mucoid impaction were likened to tree branches; the rest presented as small clubs and bunches of grape. A prominent feature of bronchial mucoid impaction, either on plain radiograph or on CT, was that its axis pointed to the hilum, completely consistent with the branching and distribution of the bronchi, and accompanied by bronchiectasis. Conclusions: It is an optimal approach to exploit plain radiograph combined with CT to find out bronchial mucoid impaction. An awareness of its clinical and radiological features may improve better understanding and recognition of the disease

  11. X-ray diagnosis of bronchial obstruction in chronic pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamilyaev, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Combined radiobronchological examination of patients with chronic pneumonia in the phase of reverse development of the disease has been performed. Severity, localization and extent of bronchial obstruction have been studied, depending on the phase of chronic pneumonia and aspects of lung tissue alterations. Bronchial lesions characteristic of chronic pneumonia were defined, as well as importance of x-ray examination methods for bronchial obstruction diagnosis. Three types of bronchial obstruction were distinguished: bronchoconstriction, bronchodilatation and their combination. With regard to the character and severity of bronchial and pulmonary tissue lesions 3 variants of chronic pneumonia are offered to be differentiated: bronchitic, bronchoectatic, and abscess-forming. The main significance in diagnosis of chronic pneumonia is attributed to combined x-ray examination, which also includes radiobronchological investigation in the first two variants of the disease [ru

  12. Microscopic analysis of the chromium content in the chromium-induced malignant and premalignant bronchial lesions of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yuji; Kondo, Kazuya; Ishikawa, Sumiyo; Uchihara, Hiroshi; Fujino, Haruhiko; Sawada, Naruhiko; Miyoshi, Takanori; Sakiyama, Shoji; Izumi, Keisuke; Monden, Yasumasa

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Our previous studies demonstrated that the frequency of gene instability in lung cancer of chromate workers was very high, but the frequencies of the p53 and ras gene mutations were low. To clarify the carcinogenesis of chromate in the lung, we established a chromate-induced cancer model in the rat proximal airway and examined the relationship between chromium accumulations and the chromium-induced cancer and premalignant bronchial lesions of the rat. Methods: Fifteen male, bred, 12-week-old Jcl-Wister rats were used. A pellet of strontium chromate were inserted into the bronchus of the rats. The rats were sacrificed 9 months after the pellet was inserted. We pathologically examined the region of the bronchi to which the pellet was attached. We quantified the amount of chromium accumulation in the bronchial lesions using a microscopic X-ray fluorescence analyzer. Results: Of the 15 rats, 1 rat had a lesion of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 7 rats had carcinoma in situ (CIS) or dysplasia, 8 rats had squamous metaplasia, and 5 rats had goblet cell hyperplasia. The amounts of chromium accumulation in normal epithelium (n=24), goblet cell hyperplasia (n=14), squamous metaplasia (n=8), and dysplasia plus CIS plus SCC (n=9) were 500±1354, 713±1062, 941±1328, and 3511±4473 (mean±SD) counts/s/mA, respectively. The amount of chromium accumulation was significantly increased according to the progression of malignant change of the bronchial epithelium (Spearman's correlation coefficient by ranks, rs=0.454, P<0.01). Conclusions: The amount of chromium accumulation was significantly increased according to the progression of malignant change of the bronchial epithelium. Examining the genetic alterations of histologic changes in this model was helpful in elucidating the process of carcinogenesis of chromium in the lung

  13. Lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, G.L.; Blankenship, W.J.; Burdine, J.A. Jr.; DeNardo, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    At present no simple statement can be made relative to the role of radionuclidic lung studies in the pediatric population. It is safe to assume that they will be used with increasing frequency for research and clinical applications because of their sensitivity and ready applicability to the pediatric patient. Methods comparable to those used in adults can be used in children older than 4 years. In younger children, however, a single injection of 133 Xe in solution provides an index of both regional perfusion and ventilation which is easier to accomplish. This method is particularly valuable in infants and neonates because it is rapid, requires no patient cooperation, results in a very low radiation dose, and can be repeated in serial studies. Radionuclidic studies of ventilation and perfusion can be performed in almost all children if the pediatrician and the nuclear medicine specialist have motivation and ingenuity. S []ontaneous pulmonary vascular occlusive disease which occurs in infants and pulmonary emboli in children are easily detected using radionuclides. The pathophysiologic defects of pulmonary agenesis, bronchopulmonary sequestration, and foreign body aspiration may be demonstrated by these techniques. These techniques also appear to be useful in following patients with bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, congenital emphysema, and postinfection pulmonary abnormalities. (auth)

  14. CYP3A-mediated apoptosis of dauricine in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells and in lungs of CD-1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hua; Shen, Shuijie; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhong, Dafang; Zheng, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Dauricine is the major bioactive component isolated from the root of Menispermum dauricum DC and has shown promising pharmacologic activities with a great potential for clinical use. Recently, we found that intraperitoneal exposure of dauricine produced selective pulmonary injury in mice. A quinone methide metabolite of dauricine was identified and is suggested to be associated with the pulmonary toxicity of dauricine. The present study evaluated the apoptotic effect of dauricine in cultured cells and mice, determined the change in cellular glutathione (GSH) contents after exposure to dauricine, investigated the role of GSH depletion in dauricine-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis, and examined the role of CYP3A in dauricine-induced GSH depletion and apoptosis. Dauricine was found to induce apoptosis in NL-20 cells. Additionally, intraperitoneal administration of dauricine caused GSH depletion and apoptosis in lungs of mice. Treatment with ketoconazole, an inhibitor of CYP3A, reversed cellular GSH depletion in lungs of mice given dauricine and showed protective effect on dauricine-induced apoptosis in lungs of mice. This indicates that metabolic activation is involved in dauricine-induced GSH-depletion, cytotoxicity and apoptosis. The glutathione depletor L-buthionine sulfoximine showed potentiating effect on cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by dauricine. We propose that dauricine is metabolized to a quinone methide intermediate which depletes cellular GSH, and the depletion of GSH may trigger and/or intensify the cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by dauricine. -- Highlights: ► Dauricine induced apoptosis in lungs in mice and in cultured human pulmonary cells. ► Dauricine depleted cellular GSH in lungs of mice and in the human pulmonary cells. ► CYP3A subfamily mediated GSH depletion and apoptosis induced by dauricine. ► L-Buthionine sulfoximine potentiated dauricine-induced GSH depletion and apoptosis.

  15. CYP3A-mediated apoptosis of dauricine in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells and in lungs of CD-1 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hua; Shen, Shuijie [Center for Developmental Therapeutics, Seattle Children' s Research Institute, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhong, Dafang [Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201203 (China); Zheng, Jiang, E-mail: jiang.zheng@seattlechildrens.org [Center for Developmental Therapeutics, Seattle Children' s Research Institute, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Dauricine is the major bioactive component isolated from the root of Menispermum dauricum DC and has shown promising pharmacologic activities with a great potential for clinical use. Recently, we found that intraperitoneal exposure of dauricine produced selective pulmonary injury in mice. A quinone methide metabolite of dauricine was identified and is suggested to be associated with the pulmonary toxicity of dauricine. The present study evaluated the apoptotic effect of dauricine in cultured cells and mice, determined the change in cellular glutathione (GSH) contents after exposure to dauricine, investigated the role of GSH depletion in dauricine-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis, and examined the role of CYP3A in dauricine-induced GSH depletion and apoptosis. Dauricine was found to induce apoptosis in NL-20 cells. Additionally, intraperitoneal administration of dauricine caused GSH depletion and apoptosis in lungs of mice. Treatment with ketoconazole, an inhibitor of CYP3A, reversed cellular GSH depletion in lungs of mice given dauricine and showed protective effect on dauricine-induced apoptosis in lungs of mice. This indicates that metabolic activation is involved in dauricine-induced GSH-depletion, cytotoxicity and apoptosis. The glutathione depletor L-buthionine sulfoximine showed potentiating effect on cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by dauricine. We propose that dauricine is metabolized to a quinone methide intermediate which depletes cellular GSH, and the depletion of GSH may trigger and/or intensify the cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by dauricine. -- Highlights: ► Dauricine induced apoptosis in lungs in mice and in cultured human pulmonary cells. ► Dauricine depleted cellular GSH in lungs of mice and in the human pulmonary cells. ► CYP3A subfamily mediated GSH depletion and apoptosis induced by dauricine. ► L-Buthionine sulfoximine potentiated dauricine-induced GSH depletion and apoptosis.

  16. Use of tracheal auscultation for the assessment of bronchial responsiveness in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprikkelman, A. B.; Grol, M. H.; Lourens, M. S.; Gerritsen, J.; Heymans, H. S.; van Aalderen, W. M.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It can be difficult to assess bronchial responsiveness in children because of their inability to perform spirometric tests reliably. In bronchial challenges lung sounds could be used to detect the required 20% fall in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). A study was

  17. Use of tracheal auscultation for the assessment of bronchial responsiveness in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprikkelman, AB; Grol, MH; Lourens, MS; Gerritsen, J; Heymans, HSA; vanAalderen, WMC

    Background - It can be difficult to assess bronchial responsiveness in children because of their inability to perform spirometric tests reliably. In bronchial challenges lung sounds could be used to detect the required 20% fall in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)). A study was

  18. An increase in bronchial responsiveness is associated with continuing or restarting smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Luczynska, CM; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; de Marco, R; Gislason, T; Heinrich, J; Janson, C; Kunzli, N; Leynaert, N; Neukirch, FO; Schouten, JP; Sunyer, J; Svanes, C; Wjst, M; Burney, PG

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Bronchial responsiveness (BHR) has been found to be associated with smoking, atopy, and lower lung function in cross-sectional studies, but there is little information on determinants of change in adults. Objectives: To analyze change in bronchial responsiveness in an international

  19. The diagnostic value of multi-slice spiral CT virtual bronchoscopy in tracheal and bronchial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Ying; Ma Daqing

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of multi-slice spiral CT virtual bronchoscopy (CTVB) in tracheal and bronchial disease. Methods: Forty-two patients including central lung cancer (n=35), endobronchial tuberculosis (n=3), intrabronchial benign tumor (n=3), and intrabronchial foreign body (n=1) were examined by using multi-slice spiral CT examinations. All the final diagnosis were proved by pathology except 1 patient with endoluminal foreign body was proved by clinic. All patients were scanned on GE Lightspeed 99 scanner, using 10 mm collimation, pitch of 1.35, and reconstructed at 1 mm intervals and 1.25 mm thickness. The chest images of transverse CT and virtual bronchoscopy were viewed by two separate radiologists who were familiar with the tracheal and bronchial anatomy. Results: Among the 42 patients, the tumor of trachea and bronchial lumen appeared as masses in 22 of 35 patients with central lung cancer and bronchial stenosis was found in 13 of 35 patients with central lung cancer, and bronchial wall thickening was revealed on transverse CT in all 35 cases. 3 patients of endobronchial tuberculosis showed bronchial lumen narrowing on CTVB, the bronchial wall thickening was revealed on transverse CT, and the length of the wall thickening was long. 3 patients with intrabronchial benign tumor showed nodules in trachea and bronchial lumen on CTVB, and without wall thickening on transverse CT. CTVB could detect the occlusion of bronchial lumen in 1 patient with intrabronchial foreign body and CTVB was able to visualize the areas beyond stenosis, and the bronchial wall was without thickening on transverse CT. Conclusion: Multi- slice spiral CTVB could reflect the morphology of tracheal and bronchial disease. Combined with transverse CT, it could provide diagnostic reference value for bronchial disease. (authors)

  20. Bronchial artery embolization in the treatment of massive hemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Zubairi, M.A.; Irfan, M.; Tanveer-ul-Haq; Fatima, K.; Azeemuddin, M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to evaluate the efficacy of bronchial arteriography and bronchial artery embolization (BAE) in the management of massive hemoptysis in a developing Asian country. A retrospective review was carried out from March 2000 to March 2005 to evaluate the demographics, clinical presentation, radiographic studies, bronchoscopy results, and complications of bronchial arteriography and BAE at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Fourteen patients (9males, 5 females) with a mean age of 49 years underwent bronchial arteriography and BAE for massive hemoptysis. Hemoptysis was caused by bronchiectasis (10 patients), active pulmonary tuberculosis (3 patients), and lung malignancy (one patient). A CT scan of the chest was carried out in 11 patients, which revealed bronchiectasis (8 patients), cavity with infiltrates (3 patients), and mass lesion (one patient). Bronchoscopy was performed in all patients. Bleeding lobe or segment was identified in 12 patients. Bronchial arteriography revealed hypervascularity (13 patients), bronchial artery hypertrophy (5 patients), hypervascularity with shunting (one patient), dense soft tissue staining (7 patients), extravasation of contrast (one patient) pseudoaneurysm (one patient). Bronchial artery embolization was carried out in all patients. Rebleeding occurred within 24 hours in 2 patients who underwent surgery and within one week another 2 patients who were managed with repeat BAE. The complication of embolization occurred in one patient (transverse myelitis). Thirteen patients improved and were discharged home. One patient with terminal lung carcinoma died due to cardiogenic shock secondary to acute myocardial infarction. Bronchial artery embolization is an effective method for management of massive hemoptysis in developing countries and has a low complication rate. (author)

  1. Pneumomediastinum as a complication of SABR for lung metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, María Esperanza; Arévalo, Estefanía; Gil-Bazo, Ignacio; García, Alicia Olarte; Valtueña, German; Moreno-Jiménez, Marta; Arbea-Moreno, Leire; Aristu, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic ablative body radiation (SABR) is a novel and sophisticated radiation modality that involves the irradiation of extracranial tumors through precise and very high doses in patients with oligometastatic lung disease and primary lung tumors. A 52-year-old female with subclinical idiopathic interstitial lung disease (ILD) and oligometastatic lung disease from squamous urethral cancer who was treated with SABR for a metastatic lesion located in the right lower pulmonary lobe. The patient received a hypo-fractionated course of SABR. A 3D-conformal multifield technique was used with six coplanar and one non-coplanar statics beams. A 48 Gy total dose in three fractions over six days was prescribed to the 95% of the PTV. The presence of idiopathic ILD and other identifiable underlying lung conditions were not taken into account as a constraint to prescribe a different than standard total dose or fractionation schedule. Six months after the SABR treatment, a CT-scan showed the presence of a pneumomediastinum with air outside the bronchial tree and within the subcutaneous tissue without co-existing pneumothorax. To our knowledge, this is the first case of pneumomediastinum appearing 6 months after SABR treatment for a lung metastasis located in the perihiliar/central tumors region as defined by the RTOG protocols as the proximal bronchial tree. Radiation oncologist should be aware of the potential risk of severe lung toxicity caused by SABR in patients with ILD, especially when chemotherapy-induced pulmonary toxicity is administered in a short time interval

  2. Detection of bronchial breathing caused by pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, V; Fachinger, P; Penzel, Th; Koehler, U; von Wichert, P; Vogelmeier, C

    2002-06-01

    The classic auscultation with stethoscope is the established clinical method for the detection of lung diseases. The interpretation of the sounds depends on the experience of the investigating physician. Therefore, a new computer-based method has been developed to classify breath sounds from digital lung sound recordings. Lung sounds of 11 patients with one-sided pneumonia and bronchial breathing were recorded on both the pneumonia side and on contralateral healthy side simultaneously using two microphones. The spectral power for the 300-600 Hz frequency band was computed for four respiratory cycles and normalized. For each breath, the ratio R between the time-segments (duration = 0.1 s) with the highest inspiratory and highest expiratory flow was calculated and averaged. We found significant differences in R between the pneumonia side (R = 1.4 +/- 1.3) and the healthy side (R = 0.5 +/- 0.5; p = 0.003 Wilcoxon-test) of lung. In 218 healthy volunteers we found R = 0.3 +/- 0.2 as a reference-value. The differences of ratio R (delta R) between the pneumonia side and the healthy side (delta R = 1.0 +/- 0.9) were significantly higher compared to follow-up studies after recovery (delta R = 0.0 +/- 0.1, p = 0.005 Wilcoxon-test). The computer based detection of bronchial breathing can be considered useful as part of a quantitative monitoring of patients at risk to develop pneumonia.

  3. BRONCHIAL ASTHMA SUPERVISION AMONG TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Nenasheva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the results of the act test based bronchial asthma supervision evaluation among teenagers and defines the interrelation of the objective and subjective asthma supervision parameters. The researchers examined 214 male teenagers aged from 16 to 18, suffering from the bronchial asthma, who were sent to the allergy department to verify the diagnosis. Bronchial asthma supervision evaluation was assisted by the act test. The research has showed that over a half (56% of teenagers, suffering from mild bronchial asthma, mention its un control course, do not receive any adequate pharmacotherapy and are consequently a risk group in terms of the bronchial asthma exacerbation. Act test results correlate with the functional indices (fev1, as well as with the degree of the bronchial hyperresponsiveness, which is one of the markers of an allergic inflammation in the lower respiratory passages.Key words: bronchial asthma supervision, act test, teenagers.

  4. Computed Tomographic Window Setting for Bronchial Measurement to Guide Double-Lumen Tube Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong-Hwa; Bae, Jinyoung; Paik, Hyesun; Koo, Chang-Hoon; Bahk, Jae-Hyon

    2018-04-01

    The bronchial diameter measured on computed tomography (CT) can be used to guide double-lumen tube (DLT) sizes objectively. The bronchus is known to be measured most accurately in the so-called bronchial CT window. The authors investigated whether using the bronchial window results in the selection of more appropriately sized DLTs than using the other windows. CT image analysis and prospective randomized study. Tertiary hospital. Adults receiving left-sided DLTs. The authors simulated selection of DLT sizes based on the left bronchial diameters measured in the lung (width 1,500 Hounsfield unit [HU] and level -700 HU), bronchial (1,000 HU and -450 HU), and mediastinal (400 HU and 25 HU) CT windows. Furthermore, patients were randomly assigned to undergo imaging with either the bronchial or mediastinal window to guide DLT sizes. Using the underwater seal technique, the authors assessed whether the DLT was appropriately sized, undersized, or oversized for the patient. On 130 CT images, the bronchial diameter (9.9 ± 1.2 mm v 10.5 ± 1.3 mm v 11.7 ± 1.3 mm) and the selected DLT size were different in the lung, bronchial, and mediastinal windows, respectively (p study, oversized tubes were chosen less frequently in the bronchial window than in the mediastinal window (6/110 v 23/111; risk ratio 0.38; 95% CI 0.19-0.79; p = 0.003). No tubes were undersized after measurements in these two windows. The bronchial measurement in the bronchial window guided more appropriately sized DLTs compared with the lung or mediastinal windows. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stochastic rat lung dosimetry for inhaled radon progeny: a surrogate for the human lung for lung cancer risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler-Heil, R.; Hofmann, W. [University of Salzburg, Division of Physics and Biophysics, Department of Materials Research and Physics, Salzburg (Austria); Hussain, M. [University of Salzburg, Division of Physics and Biophysics, Department of Materials Research and Physics, Salzburg (Austria); Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-05-15

    Laboratory rats are frequently used in inhalation studies as a surrogate for human exposures. The objective of the present study was therefore to develop a stochastic dosimetry model for inhaled radon progeny in the rat lung, to predict bronchial dose distributions and to compare them with corresponding dose distributions in the human lung. The most significant difference between human and rat lungs is the branching structure of the bronchial tree, which is relatively symmetric in the human lung, but monopodial in the rat lung. Radon progeny aerosol characteristics used in the present study encompass conditions typical for PNNL and COGEMA rat inhalation studies, as well as uranium miners and human indoor exposure conditions. It is shown here that depending on exposure conditions and modeling assumptions, average bronchial doses in the rat lung ranged from 5.4 to 7.3 mGy WLM{sup -1}. If plotted as a function of airway generation, bronchial dose distributions exhibit a significant maximum in large bronchial airways. If, however, plotted as a function of airway diameter, then bronchial doses are much more uniformly distributed throughout the bronchial tree. Comparisons between human and rat exposures indicate that rat bronchial doses are slightly higher than human bronchial doses by about a factor of 1.3, while lung doses, averaged over the bronchial (BB), bronchiolar (bb) and alveolar-interstitial (AI) regions, are higher by about a factor of about 1.6. This supports the current view that the rat lung is indeed an appropriate surrogate for the human lung in case of radon-induced lung cancers. Furthermore, airway diameter seems to be a more appropriate morphometric parameter than airway generations to relate bronchial doses to bronchial carcinomas. (orig.)

  6. Sleeve resection for delayed presentation of traumatic bronchial transection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohamed, H Y

    2010-02-01

    Tracheobronchial disruption is uncommon in blunt chest trauma. Many of these patients die before reaching the hospital. In the majority of survivors diagnosis is occasionally delayed resulting in complications like airway stenosis and lung collapse. Thus it is important to have radiological follow up after severe thoracic trauma. Sleeve resection can be an excellent option to conserve lung tissue in delayed presentation of bronchial transection.

  7. Alveolar epithelial permeability in bronchial asthma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Takuji

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate alveolar epithelial permeability (k ep ) in children with bronchial asthma, 99m Tc-DTPA (diethylene triamine penta acetate) aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphies were performed. There was no correlation between the k ep value and the severity of asthma. On the other hand, out of 10 cases which had no aerosol deposition defect in the lung field, 4 showed high k ep values on the whole lung field and 7 had high k ep value areas, particularly apparent in the upper lung field. These results suggest that even when the central airway lesions are mild, severe damage exists in the alveolar region of the peripheral airway. (author)

  8. Updating radon daughter bronchial dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Cohen, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    It is of value to update radon daughter bronchial dosimetry as new information becomes available. Measurements have now been performed using hollow casts of the human bronchial tree with a larynx to determine convective or turbulent deposition in the upper airways. These measurements allow a more realistic calculation of bronchial deposition by diffusion. Particle diameters of 0.15 and 0.2 μm were used which correspond to the activity median diameters for radon daughters in both environmental and mining atmospheres. The total model incorporates Yeh/Schum bronchial morphometry, deposition of unattached and attached radon daughters, build up and decay of the daughters and mucociliary clearance. The alpha dose to target cells in the bronchial epithelium is calculated for the updated model and compared with previous calculations of bronchial dose

  9. Duodenal-bronchial fistula: an unusual cause of shortness of breath and a productive cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Wong, BMBS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal-bronchial fistulas are very uncommon, even among the already rare subgroup of abdominal-bronchial fistulas. We describe a case of a woman with Crohn's disease who presented with shortness of breath and a productive cough who was found to have a duodeanl bronchial fistula on computed tomography scan. We demonstrate with this case how these rare cases can lead to chronic lung aspirations and require multidisciplinary involvement.

  10. Experimental studies in the bronchial circulation. Which is the ideal animal model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotou, Ioannis; Tsipas, Panteleimon; Melachrinou, Maria; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Dougenis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of the role of bronchial arteries is notable in modern days thoracic surgery. The significance of their anastomoses with adjusted structures has not yet been sufficiently rated, especially in cases of haemoptysis, heart-lung transplantations and treatment of aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. The need of a thorough study is more relevant than ever and appropriate laboratory animals are required. Methods We review the literature in order to highlight the ideal experimental animal for the implementation of pilot programs relative to the bronchial circulation. A comparative analysis of the anatomy of the bronchial arterial system in humans along with these of pigs, dogs, rats, and birds, as being the most commonly used laboratory animals, is presented in details. Results The pig has the advantage that the broncho-oesophageal artery usually originates from the aorta as a single vessel, which makes the recognition and dissection of the artery easy to perform. In dogs, there is significant anatomical variation of the origin of the bronchial arteries. In rats, bronchial artery coming from the aorta is a rare event while in birds the pattern of the bronchial artery tree is clearly different from the human analog. Conclusions The pig is anatomically and physiologically suited for experimental studies on the bronchial circulation. The suitable bronchial anatomy and physiology along with the undeniable usefulness of the pig in experimental research and the low maintenance cost make the pig the ideal model for experiments in bronchial circulation. PMID:25364530

  11. Metastatic urachal carcinoma in bronchial brush cytology

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    Fatima Zahra Aly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urachal carcinoma is rare comprising less than 1% of all bladder carcinomas. Metastases of urachal carcinoma have been reported to meninges, brain, ovary, lung, and maxilla. Cytologic features of metastatic urachal carcinoma have not been previously reported. We present a case of metastatic urachal adenocarcinoma in bronchial brushings and review the use of immunohistochemistry in its diagnosis. A 47-year-old female was seen initially in 2007 with adenocarcinoma of the bladder dome for which she underwent partial cystectomy. She presented in 2011 with a left lung mass and mediastinal adenopathy. Bronchoscopy showed an endobronchial lesion from which brushings were obtained. These showed numerous groups of columnar cells with medium sized nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. The cells were positive for CK20 and CDX2 and negative for CK7. The cytomorphological findings were similar to those in the previous resection specimen and concurrent biopsy. This is the first case report of bronchial brushings containing metastatic urachal carcinoma. No specific immunohistochemical profile is available for its diagnosis. The consideration of a second primary was a distinct possibility in this case due to the lapse of time from primary resection, absence of local disease, and lack of regional metastases.

  12. The difference of the regional pulmonary function after treatment between bronchial tuberculosis and bronchogenic carcinoma using positron emission tomography, N-13 gas and Tc-MAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tsuneo; Kawada, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Emiko; Kabe, Jyunzaburou

    1993-01-01

    The authors studied regional pulmonary function after treatment with bronchial plastic surgery for bronchial lesion from bronchial tuberculosis and with irradiation for bronchial lesion from carcinoma using positron emission tomography and Tc-MAA. Six patients with bronchial tuberculosis and 6 with bronchogenic carcinoma were examined. Two of the 6 bronchial tuberculosis patients were examined before and after surgery. In all 6 patients with bronchial tuberculosis, ventilation and alveolar volume were recovered with improvement of bronchial lesion. In 2 patients examined before and after surgery, lung function of the normal disease-free side became worse after surgery. This phenomenon was explained by the fact that the compensated pulmonary function of contra lateral lung due to decreased function of the diseased side returned to normal function with improvement of the diseased lung. On the other hand, the regional pulmonary function did not improve in 2 patients with main bronchial lesion from bronchogenic carcinoma, even if atelectasis of the diseased lung was improved by irradiation. However, the regional pulmonary function was improved with the recovery of bronchial obstruction in lobar atelectasis by carcinoma. The difference of the results depended on whether pulmonary blood flow disturbance existed or not. If pulmonary blood flow disturbance was severe, ventilatory function was not recovered due to the mechanism of maintaining the ventilation-perfusion equilibrium. (author)

  13. TRACHEAL AND BRONCHIAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH SIGNIFICANT OBSTRUCTIVE SYNDROME: ACCORDING TO BRONCHOSCOPIC

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. Shteiner

    2014-01-01

    The endobronchial pattern of significant bronchial obstructive syndrome of various etiologies was analyzed in 4,000 patients with this condition. At the same time, bronchial malformations were encountered as supplementary bronchi of the left and right basal pyramids, axillary left bronchi, supplementary and displaced tracheal bronchi, and a single case of distal transposition of the right proximal bronchus in 1.58% of cases. According to the bronchoscopic findings, supplementary bronchi and t...

  14. TRACHEAL AND BRONCHIAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH SIGNIFICANT OBSTRUCTIVE SYNDROME: ACCORDING TO BRONCHOSCOPIC

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    M. L. Shteiner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The endobronchial pattern of significant bronchial obstructive syndrome of various etiologies was analyzed in 4,000 patients with this condition. At the same time, bronchial malformations were encountered as supplementary bronchi of the left and right basal pyramids, axillary left bronchi, supplementary and displaced tracheal bronchi, and a single case of distal transposition of the right proximal bronchus in 1.58% of cases. According to the bronchoscopic findings, supplementary bronchi and transpositions of the left bronchi are the most common anatomic bronchial abnormalities (1.08%.

  15. Percutaneous drainage of lung abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Sonnenberg, E.; D'Agostino, H.; Casola, G.; Vatney, R.R.; Wittich, G.R.; Harker, C.

    1989-01-01

    The authors performed percutaneous drainage of lung abscesses in 12 patients. Indications for drainage were septicemia and persistence or worsening of radiographic findings. These lung abscesses were refractory to intravenous antibiotics and to bronchial toilet. Etiology of the abscesses included pneumonia (most frequently), trauma, postoperative development, infected necrotic neoplasm, and infected sequestration. Guidelines for drainage included passage of the catheter through contiguously abnormal lung and pleura, inability of the patient to cough, and/or bronchial obstruction precluding bronchial drainage. Cure was achieved in 11 of 12 patients. Catheters were removed on an average of 16 days after insertion. Antibiotics were administered an average of 18 days before drainage. No major complications occurred

  16. Evaluation on the imaging of the bronchial blood flow using nuclear angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Hirayama, Jiro; Kanai, Hisakata; Kobayashi, Toshio; Handa, Kenjiro

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear angiocardiography with sup(99m)TcO 4 - was performed for the purpose of the delineation of the systemic perfusion in various lung diseases, using a scintillation camera with a digital minicomputer system. The images of the bronchial blood flow were obtained in cases with primary lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, lung abscess, bronchiectasis and chronic bronchitis. The fair images of the bronchial blood flow were taken in cases of peripheral type, adenocarcinoma and primary foci of atelectatic type in primary lung cancer. The grade of delineation of the bronchial blood flow and vascularity of bronchial artery in foci of primary lung cancer were correlative to the grade of accumulation of 197 HgCl 2 , respectively. The joint use of nuclear angiocardiography and other imagings such as tumor or perfusion one was useful for evaluation of the pulmonary and systemic circulation, and that made isotope diagnosis of primary lung cancer more reliable too. The image as a isocount map extracted out of the image of 197 HgCl 2 or sup(99m)Tc-MAA, was superimposed to the brightness image of the nuclear angiocardiogram (aortic phase). This image superimposition methods were valuable to improve anatomic orientation of the nuclear angiocardiogram. The delineation of the bronchial blood flow on the subtraction image, which obtained from the two time-different images in aortic phase of the nuclear angiocardiogram, was better than that of the original images. (author)

  17. Comparison of the Bronchodilative Effects of Salbutamol Delivered via Three Mesh Nebulizers in Children with Bronchial Asthma

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    Fumitake Kurosaka

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: Overall, all 3 mesh nebulizers were useful devices in treating bronchial asthma, although some differences in lung function improvement were evident. The limitation of this study is that subjects did not include patients with severe asthma attacks.

  18. Ectopic origin of bronchial arteries: assessment with multidetector helical CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Ieneke J.C.; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Menchini, Laura; Teisseire, Antoine; Khalil, Chadi; Remy, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine non-invasively the frequency of ectopic bronchial arteries (BA) (i.e., bronchial arteries originating at a level of the descending aorta other than T5-T6 or from any aortic collateral vessel) on multidetector-row CT angiograms (CTA) obtained in patients with hemoptysis. Over a 5-year period (2000-2005), 251 consecutive patients with hemoptysis underwent multidetector-row CT angiography of the thorax. From this population, 37 patients were excluded because of a suboptimal CTA examination (n = 19), the presence of extensive mediastinal disease (n = 15) or severe chest deformation (n = 3) precluding any precise analysis of the bronchial arteries at CTA. Our final study group included 214 patients who underwent a thin-collimated CT angiogram (contrast agent: 300 to 350 mg/ml) on a 4- (n = 56), 16- (n = 119) and 64- (n = 39) detector-row scanner. The site of origin and distribution of bronchial arteries were analyzed on transverse CT scans, maximum intensity projections and volume-rendered images. The site of the ostium of a bronchial artery was coded as orthotopic when the artery originated from the descending aorta between the levels of the fifth and sixth thoracic vertebrae; all other bronchial arteries were considered ectopic. From the studied population, 137 (64%) patients had only orthotopic bronchial arteries, whereas 77 patients (36%) had at least one bronchial artery of ectopic origin. A total of 147 ectopic arteries were depicted, originating as common bronchial trunks (n = 23; 19%) or isolated right or left bronchial arteries (n = 101; 81%). The most frequent sites of origin of the 124 ostiums were the concavity of the aortic arch (92/124; 74%), the subclavian artery (13/124; 10.5%) and the descending aorta (10/124; 8.5%). The isolated ectopic bronchial arteries supplied the ipsilateral lung in all but three cases. Bronchial artery embolization was indicated in 26 patients. On the basis of CTA information, (1

  19. [Anesthesia in bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremerich, D H

    2000-09-01

    Asthma is defined as a chronic inflammatory airway disease in response to a wide variety of provoking stimuli. Characteristic clinical symptoms of asthma are bronchial hyperreactivity, reversible airway obstruction, wheezing and dyspnea. Asthma presents a major public health problem with increasing prevalence rates and severity worldwide. Despite major advances in our understanding of the clinical management of asthmatic patients, it remains a challenging population for anesthesiologists in clinical practice. The anesthesiologist's responsibility starts with the preoperative assessment and evaluation of the pulmonary function. For patients with asthma who currently have no symptoms, the risk of perioperative respiratory complications is extremely low. Therefore, pulmonary function should be optimized preoperatively and airway obstruction should be controlled by using steroids and bronchodilators. Preoperative spirometry is a simple means of assessing presence and severity of airway obstruction as well as the degree of reversibility in response to bronchodilator therapy. An increase of 15% in FEV1 is considered clinically significant. Most asymptomatic persons with asthma can safely undergo general anesthesia with and without endotracheal intubation. Volatile anesthetics are still recommended for general anesthetic techniques. As compared to barbiturates and even ketamine, propofol is considered to be the agent of choice for induction of anesthesia in asthmatics. The use of regional anesthesia does not reduce perioperative respiratory complications in asymptomatic asthmatics, whereas it is advantageous in symptomatic patients. Pregnant asthmatic and parturients undergoing anesthesia are at increased risk, especially if regional anesthetic techniques are not suitable and prostaglandin and its derivates are administered for abortion or operative delivery. Bronchial hyperreactivity associated with asthma is an important risk factor of perioperative bronchospasm. The

  20. Empirical description of bronchial and nonbronchial arteries with MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Hong, E-mail: yuhong.2002@hotmail.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Liu Shiyuan, E-mail: cjr.liushiyuan@vip.163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Li Huimin, E-mail: yuhongphd@163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Xiao Xiangsheng, E-mail: cjr.xxsh@vip.163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Dong Weihua, E-mail: dongweihua2000@163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: We aimed to retrospectively evaluate bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries using multi-detector row helical computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography in patients with pulmonary disorders. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine patients (24 men, 15 women; mean age, 63.4 years; range, 20-82 years) with congenital and acquired pulmonary disorders of the bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries underwent multi-detector row helical computed tomographic angiography of the thorax using a 16-detector row scanner. Each of these patients had experienced an episode of hemoptysis. Computed tomographic angiogram data, which included maximum intensity projections, multiplanar reconstruction, and three-dimensional volume-rendered images, were used to retrospectively analyse the characteristics of the bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries. Results: We identified a total of 128 bronchial arteries (76 on the right side and 52 on the left) in 39 patients. We detected 42 nonbronchial systemic artery branches, including 19 internal mammary artery branches, 8 subclavian artery branches, 8 inferior phrenic artery branches, 5 intercostal artery branches, 1 thyrocervical trunk branch, and 1 celiac trunk branch. Thirty-five dilated and tortuous nonbronchial systemic arteries entered into the lung parenchyma and extended down to the lesions. Every case, except the one case of sequestration, was associated with pleural thickening where the vascular structures passed through the extrapleural fat. Conclusions: The variations in both the bronchial artery anatomy and the location and type of the nonbronchial arteries were great. Nonbronchial arteries may be a significant source of hemoptysis. MDCT angiography can be used to detect detailed anatomical information about the origins and courses of bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries and their pathophysiologic features.

  1. Residence in Proximity of a Coal-Oil-Fired Thermal Power Plant and Risk of Lung and Bladder Cancer in North-Eastern Italy. A Population-Based Study: 1995-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collarile, Paolo; Bidoli, Ettore; Barbone, Fabio; Zanier, Loris; Del Zotto, Stefania; Fuser, Simonetta; Stel, Fulvio; Panato, Chiara; Gallai, Irene; Serraino, Diego

    2017-07-31

    This study investigated the risk of lung and bladder cancers in people residing in proximity of a coal-oil-fired thermal power plant in an area of north-eastern Italy, covered by a population-based cancer registry. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) by sex, age, and histology were computed according to tertiles of residential exposure to benzene, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particular matter, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) among 1076 incident cases of lung and 650 cases of bladder cancers. In men of all ages and in women under 75 years of age, no significant associations were observed. Conversely, in women aged ≥75 years significantly increased risks of lung and bladder cancers were related to high exposure to benzene (IRR for highest vs. lowest tertile: 2.00 for lung cancer and 1.94 for bladder cancer) and NO2 (IRR: 1.72 for lung cancer; and 1.94 for bladder cancer). In these women, a 1.71-fold higher risk of lung cancer was also related to a high exposure to SO2. Acknowledging the limitations of our study, in particular that we did not have information regarding cigarette smoking habits, the findings of this study indicate that air pollution exposure may have had a role with regard to the risk of lung and bladder cancers limited to women aged ≥75 years. Such increased risk warrants further analytical investigations.

  2. CPAP increases bronchial reactivity in OSAS patients

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    P. Korczyski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP is a well known and safe method of treatment patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS. The effects of CPAP administration on the upper respiratory tract are known. However its effects on the lower respiratory tract still needs to be determined. Studies on bronchial hyperreactivity in patients treated by CPAP are contradictory. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of a 3-week CPAP treatment in patients with OSAS and to evaluate associations between changes in bronchial reactivity and clinical features of OSAS and lung function tests (LFT. Patients with newly diagnosed OSAS and lack of infection or chronic illness of the respiratory tract or other conditions which could influence bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR were included. Investigations were performed in 101 patients. There were 88 males and 13 females, mean age 51.5±11.2 years and BMI 32.6±5.4 kg·m–2. Qualified patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: 76 patients to CPAP treatment group, 25 control group. Both groups did not differ in anthropometrics features, severity of OSAS and LFT. Metacholine challenge test (MchCT was performed at baseline and repeated after 3 weeks. Analysis of the individual results showed that in 11 patients the MchCT was positive (6 in the CPAP and 5 in the control groups. After 3 weeks in the group of CPAP treated patients an increase of BHR was noted. Log PC20M decreased from 1.38±0.3 to 1.26±0.5 (p<0.05. The number of patients with a positive result in the MchCT increased from 6 to 16 patients. There was no significant change in BHR in the control group. It was found that CPAP treated patients with BHR were older, had less severe OSAS and lower FEV1 (p<0.05. In none of the patients positive result of BHR did no affect compliance to CPAP treatment. Conclusions: CPAP therapy increases bronchial reactivity, but does not affect compliance to treatment.

  3. Radioaerosol Inhalation Imaging in Bronchial Asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bum Soo; Park, Young Ha; Park, Jeong Mi; Chung, Myung Hee; Chung, Soo Kyo; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1991-01-01

    Radioaerosol inhalation imaging (RII) has been used in radionuclide pulmonary studies for the past 20 years. The method is well accepted for assessing regional ventilation because of its usefulness, easy fabrication and simple application system. To evaluate its clinical utility in the study of impaired regional ventilation in bronchial asthma, we obtained and analysed RIIs in 31 patients (16 women and 15 men; age ranging 21-76 years) with typical bronchial asthma at the Department of Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical college, from January, 1988 to August, 1989. Scintiscans were obtained with radioaerosol produced by a HARC(Bhabha Atomic Research Center, India) nebulizer with 15 mCi of 99m Tc-phytate. The scanning was performed in anterior, posterior and lateral projections following 5-minute inhalation of radioaerosol on sitting position. The scans were analysed and correlated with the results of pulmonary function study and the findings of chest radiography. Fifteen patients had concomitant lung perfusion image with 99m Tc-MAA. Follow-up scans were obtained in 5 patients after bronchodilator therapy. 1 he patients were divided into (1) attack type (4 patients), (2) resistant type (5 patients), (3) remittent type (10 patients) and (4) bronchitic type (12 patients). Chest radiography showed hyperinflation, altered pulmonary vascularity, thickening of the bronchial wall and accentuation of hasal interstitial markings in 26 of the 31 patients. Chest radiographs were normal in the remaining 5 patients. Regardless of type, the findings of RII were basically the same, and characterized by the deposition of radioaerosol in the central parts or in the main respiratory air ways along with mottled nonsegmental ventilation defects in the periphery. Peripheral parenchymal defects were more extensive than that of expected findings from clinical symptoms, pulmonary function test and chest radiograph. Broomstick sign was present in 1.7 patients

  4. [Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillissen, A; Bauer, T; Richter, F; Leonhardt, P

    2001-11-01

    Asthma and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) are the most important obstructive pulmonary diseases. Patient's history and physical evaluation give major hints of the underlying disease. Further diagnostic measures comprise lung function analysis including spirometry, plethysmography and--in severe cases--blood gas analysis. Bronchial hyperreactivity may be quantified with an unspecific inhalative provocation test. In many cases allergic diseases are accompanied by asthma. Thus, allergy tests--particularly skin prick tests--have to be carried out. To further define an underlying allergy, in some cases even specific inhalative provocation tests have to be performed. X-ray of the thorax and other imaging techniques, detailed blood analysis, further diagnosis of the upper respiratory tract and the cardiac system may have to be carried out a) to quantify the effects of a severe form of asthma or COPD on other organs, and b) for differential diagnostic examinations.

  5. Central bronchial carcinoid: Management of a case and anesthetic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Goswami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructing lesions of the central airways present with a variety of symptoms and are often associated with pneumonia or asthma-like states. Anesthesia to these patients often presents challenges right from the preoperative stabilization of underlying lung condition, mask ventilation in the supine position to maintaining oxygenation and ventilation in the intraoperative and postoperative period. We present here a case of a young woman with a central bronchial tumor with significant airway obstruction with potential for major bleeding and subsequent anesthetic management without lung sacrificing measures and cardiopulmonary bypass assistance.

  6. Endoscopic bronchial valve treatment: patient selection and special considerations

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    Eberhardt R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ralf Eberhardt,1,2 Daniela Gompelmann,1,2 Felix JF Herth,1,2 Maren Schuhmann1 1Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik at the University of Heidelberg, 2Translational Lung Research Center, Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Heidelberg, Germany Abstract: As well as lung volume reduction surgery, different minimally invasive endoscopic techniques are available to achieve lung volume reduction in patients with severe emphysema and significant hyperinflation. Lung function parameters and comorbidities of the patient, as well as the extent and distribution of the emphysema are factors to be considered when choosing the patient and the intervention. Endoscopic bronchial valve placement with complete occlusion of one lobe in patients with heterogeneous emphysema is the preferred technique because of its reversibility. The presence of high interlobar collateral ventilation will hinder successful treatment; therefore, endoscopic coil placement, polymeric lung volume reduction, or bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation as well as lung volume reduction surgery can be used for treating patients with incomplete fissures. The effect of endoscopic lung volume reduction in patients with a homogeneous distribution of emphysema is still unclear and this subgroup should be treated only in clinical trials. Precise patient selection is necessary for interventions and to improve the outcome and reduce the risk and possible complications. Therefore, the patients should be discussed in a multidisciplinary approach prior to determining the most appropriate treatment for lung volume reduction. Keywords: lung emphysema, valve treatment, collateral ventilation, patient selection, outcome

  7. Helical CT in evaluation of the bronchial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perhomaa, M.; Laehde, S.; Rossi, O.; Suramo, I.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To establish a protocol for and to assess the value of helical CT in the imaging of the bronchial tree. Material and Methods: Noncontrast helical CT was performed in 30 patients undergoing fiberoptic bronchoscopy for different reasons. Different protocols were compared; they included overlapping 10 mm, 5 mm, or 3 mm slices and non-tilted, cephalad or caudal tilted images. Ordinary cross-sectional and multiplanar 2D reformats were applied for visualization of the bronchial branches. The effect of increasing the helical pitch was tested in one patient. Results: A total of 92.1-100% of the segmental bronchi present in the helical acquisitions were identified by the different protocols. The collimation had no significant impact on the identification of the bronchial branches, but utilization of 3-mm overlapping slices made it easier to distinguish the nearby branches and provided better longitudinal visualization of the bronchi in 2D reformats. The tilted scans illustrated the disadvantage of not covering all segmental bronchi in one breath-hold. An increase of the pitch from 1 to 1.5 did not cause noticeable blurring of the images. CT and bronchoscopic findings correlated well in the area accessible to bronchoscopy, but CT detected 5 additional pathological lesions (including 2 cancers) in the peripheral lung. Conclusion: Helical CT supplemented with bronchography-like 2D reformats provides an effective method complementary to bronchoscopy in the examination of the bronchial tree. (orig.)

  8. Measurement of the thickness of the bronchial epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, D.H.; Baldwin, F.

    1989-02-01

    Cancer of the lung in uranium miners is thought to be related to the inhalation of gaseous radon daughters which become attached to molecules of water vapour or to dust particles. Since, the depth of tissue penetration by alpha particles is short, the thickness of the epithelium that lines the bronchial tree may be a critical factor in the development of cancers at specific sites in the lung. The objectives of the present study were: 1) to measure the thickness of human bronchial epithelium; 2) to determine the distribution and depth of the nuclei of basal cells in the bronchial epithelium; and 3) to compare these parameters in groups of smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-nine surgically removed specimens of the lung were examined (26 smokers, 3 non-smokers). The specimens were fixed and prepared for examination by light and electron microscopy. Blocks of tissue were oriented so that the maximum number of bronchi were cut in cross-section; measurements included bronchi of all sizes from bronchial generations (1≥ 9.01 mm) diameter to the smallest bronchioles, generations 7 - 16 (0.26 - 2.0 mm). Comparison of measurements in smokers and non-smokers show no significant differences, so that the 29 cases are considered to represent a homogeneous group. With progressive divisions of the bronchi, the epithelium decreases in thickness. Of more importance are the figures relating to the distance from the cell surface to the underlying nucleus. Here too, with the exception of goblet cells, the measurements are significantly smaller in generations 7 - 16 than in generation 1

  9. Utilização de endoprótese metálica no tratamento de estenose brônquica após transplante pulmonar Treatment of bronchial stenosis after lung transplantation using a self-expanding metal endobronchial stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Naoyuki Samano

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available As complicações decorrentes da anastomose brônquica nos transplantes pulmonares, embora tenham diminuído ao longo do tempo, ainda figuram como um dos principais fatores de morbi-mortalidade nesses pacientes. As formas de tratamento dessas complicações incluem dilatação por balão, fotocoagulação por laser, endopróteses de silicone e metálicas, e reoperação. Relata-se o caso de um paciente que apresentou estenose brônquica após transplante pulmonar unilateral esquerdo, cujo tratamento foi realizado com endoprótese metálica auto-expansível de nitinol (Ultraflex®. Embora seja um caso pioneiro no Brasil, a boa resposta clínica, concordante com os dados da literatura, sugere que esse tratamento seja uma boa alternativa nesses casos.Although the incidence of bronchial anastomosis as a complication of lung transplantation has decreased in recent years, it remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Treatment options include balloon dilatation, laser photocoagulation, placement of a stent (silicone or metal, and performing a second operation. We report the case of a patient who presented bronchial stenosis after left lung transplantation and was treated with a self-expanding metal alloy (nitinol stent (Ultraflex®. Despite the fact that this was the first case of stenosis treated in this fashion in Brazil, the positive clinical response, in agreement with results reported in the literature, indicates that this treatment is a viable alternative in such cases.

  10. Proximal Humerus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diercks, Ron L.; Bain, Gregory; Itoi, Eiji; Di Giacomo, Giovanni; Sugaya, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the bony structures of the proximal humerus. The proximal humerus is often regarded as consisting of four parts, which assists in understanding function and, more specially, describes the essential parts in reconstruction after fracture or in joint replacement. These are the

  11. Analysis of genomic instability in bronchial cells from uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neft, R.E.; Belinsky, S.A.; Gilliland, F.D.; Lechner, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that underground uranium miners have a radon progeny exposure-dependent increased risk for developing lung cancer. The odds ratio for lung cancer in uranium miners increase for all cumulative exposures above 99 Working Level Months. In addition, there is a strong multiplicative effect of cigarette smoking on the development of lung cancer in uranium miners. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether or not early genetic changes, as indicated by genomic instability, can be detected in bronchial cells from uranium miners. Investigations of this nature may serve as a means of discovering sub-clinical disease and could lead to earlier detection of lung cancer and a better prognosis for the patient

  12. The Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in the Surgical Repair of Bronchial Rupture

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    Ju-Hee Park

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO has been used successfully in critically ill patients with traumatic lung injury and offers an additional treatment modality. ECMO is mainly used as a bridge treatment to delayed surgical management; however, only a few case reports have presented the successful application of ECMO as intraoperative support during the surgical repair of traumatic bronchial injury. A 38-year-old man visited our hospital after a blunt chest trauma. His chest imaging showed hemopneumothorax in the left hemithorax and a finding suspicious for left main bronchus rupture. Bronchoscopy was performed and confirmed a tear in the left main bronchus and a congenital tracheal bronchus. We decided to provide venovenous ECMO support during surgery for bronchial repair. We successfully performed main bronchial repair in this traumatic patient with a congenital tracheal bronchus. We suggest that venovenous ECMO offers a good option for the treatment of bronchial rupture when adequate ventilation is not possible.

  13. IMMUNOLOGICAL MARKERS OF UNCONTROLLED ATOPIC BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN CHILDREN

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    M. V. Smolnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is a prevalent chronic allergic disease of lungs at early ages. A priority  task in allergology  is to search  biological  markers  related  to uncontrolled atopic  bronchial asthma. Cytokines fulfill their distinct function in pathogenesis of atopic  bronchial asthma, participating at the initiation, development and persistence of allergic inflammation in airways, causing different  variations of clinical course of the disease (with  respect  to its acuteness, severity, frequency of exacerbations. The  present  work has studied  indices  of cellular  and  humoral links of immunity, as well as levels of some  pro and  anti-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood serum (IL-4, IL-10, IL-2 and TNFα, aiming to determine potential markers of uncontrolled atopic bronchial asthma in children. A group of Caucasian (European children was involved into the research: Cohort 1, moderate atopic  bronchial asthma with controlled course during the last 3 months (n = 59; Cohort 2, severe/moderate-severe atopic bronchial asthma with uncontrolled course of the disease within last 3 months (n = 51,  Cohort 3 – control, practically healthy  children without signs of atopy  (n = 33. All the  children included in the group with atopic  bronchial asthma underwent regular mono/combined basic therapy  at high/ intermediate therapeutic doses.  We performed a comparative analysis  of cell  population indices  reflecting certain cellular  immunity links,  and  determined significantly  lower  levels of CD3+   lymphocytes, as well as decrease in relative  and  absolute  contents of CD4+  and  CD8+  cells in the  cohort with  uncontrolled course of atopic  bronchial asthma, as compared with controlled-course cohort. When  evaluating concentrations  of cytokines in peripheral blood serum of the patients with controlled and uncontrolled atopic  bronchial asthma, we revealed  significantly  higher

  14. Increased wheeze but not bronchial hyperreactivity near power stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, J A; Henry, R L; Hankin, R G; Hensley, M J

    1993-08-01

    In a previous study a higher than expected prevalence of asthma was found in Lake Munmorah, a coastal town near two power stations, compared with another coastal control town. This study aimed to compare atopy, bronchial hyperreactivity, and reported symptoms of asthma in the power station town and a second control area with greater socioeconomic similarity. A cross sectional survey was undertaken. Lake Munmorah, a coastal town near two power stations, and Dungog, a country town in the Hunter Valley, NSW, Australia. All children attending kindergarten to year 6 at all schools in the two towns were invited to participate in 1990. The response rates for the questionnaire for reported symptoms and associated demographic data were 92% in Lake Munmorah and 93% in Dungog, with 84% and 90% of children respectively being measured for lung function, atopy, and bronchial reactivity. There were 419 boys and 432 girls aged 5 to 12 years. Main outcome measures were current wheeze and bronchial hyper-reactivity, defined as a fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) or peak expiratory flow (PEF) of 20% or more. Current wheeze was reported in 24.8% of the Lake Munmorah children compared with 14.6% of the Dungog children. Bronchial hyper-reactivity was similar for both groups--25.2% in Lake Munmorah and 22.3% in Dungog. The mean baseline FEV1 was lower in Lake Munmorah than in Dungog (p power station town, but bronchial hyper-reactivity and skin test defined atopy were similar in the two communities. These results are consistent with the previous study and confirm the increased presence of reported symptomatic illness in the town near power stations.

  15. MECHANISMS OF COUNTERACTING FLAP-VALVE BRONCHIAL OBSTRUCTION IN CASE OF OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. F. Tetenev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research goal was to formulate and substantiate the hypothesis explaining support for an expiratory air flow in case of pulmonary emphysema. The research method consisted in comparing the mechanical properties of lungs in practically healthy individuals (37 individuals, mean age – (30.4 ± 1.7 y.o. and COPD patients with pronounced lung emphysema (30 patients, mean age – (52.1 ± 2.3 y.o. as well as those of isolated normal lungs (n = 14 and isolated lungs of patients who died of COPD (n = 5. Pulmo-nary mechanics was studied via the simultaneous measurement of transpulmonary pressure and lung ven-tilation volume. General lung hysteresis and elastic lung hysteresis were calculated. The mechanical properties of isolated lungs were studied using passive ventilation under the Donders bell. The air flow was interrupted in order to measure alveolar pressure and develop an elastic lung hysteresis curve. Pres-sure in the Donders bell was changed by means of a special pump in automatic and manual modes. The research has not revealed any fundamental differences between the mechanical properties of the normal and emphysematous lungs. A minimum increase in the pressure inside the Donders bell over atmospheric pressure used to stop air ejection in both normal and the emphysematous lungs as the result of flap-valve bronchial obstruction. In living beings, air is ejected from lungs with an increase in pressure under the conditions of forced expiration. Pressure increases up to (38.6 ± 2.71 cm H2O in healthy individuals and up to (20.5 ± 1.86 cm H2O in COPD patients. Probably, an expiratory air flow is supported by active expiratory bronchial dilatation that counteracts flap-valve bronchial obstruction. The hypothesis is based on the confirmed ability of the lungs to perform inspiratory actions (in addition to the action of respiratory muscles and the theory of mechanical lung activity.

  16. Physiotherapy and bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, CP; Postma, DS; Koeter, GH; Rubin, BK

    Cough and expectoration of mucus are the best-known symptoms in patients with pulmonary disease, The most applied intervention for these symptoms is the use of chest physiotherapy to increase bronchial mucus transport and reduce retention of mucus in the airways, Chest physiotherapy interventions

  17. Oral tartrazine challenge in childhood asthma: effect on bronchial reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariparsad, D; Wilson, N; Dixon, C; Silverman, M

    1984-01-01

    Ten asthmatic children who gave a history of cough or wheeze after orange drinks, were tested for tartrazine sensitivity. On separate days, either oral tartrazine (1 mg) or a placebo capsule were administered double blind. Bronchial reactivity was measured before, 30 and 60 min after ingestion by means of a histamine-inhalation challenge test. There was no change in baseline lung function after tartrazine, but histamine sensitivity (PC20) increased significantly in four of the children. No response was obtained to a larger dose of tartrazine (10 mg) in four of the non-responders. Alteration in the bronchial reactivity after an oral challenge, appears to be a sensitive means of detecting tartrazine sensitivity.

  18. Obscure pulmonary masses: bronchial impaction revealed by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugatch, R.D.; Gale, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Dilated bronchi impacted with mucus or tumor are recognized on standard chest radiographs because they are surrounded by aerated pulmonary parenchyma. When imaged in different projections, these lesions produce a variety of appearances that are generally familiar. This report characterizes less familiar computed tomographic (CT) findings in eight patients with pathologic bronchial distension of congenital, neoplastic, or infectious etiologies and correlates them with chest films. In seven patients, CT readily revealed dilated bronchi and/or regional lung hypodensity. In four of these cases, CT led to the initial suspicion of dilated bronchi. CT should be used early in the evaluation of atypical pulmonary mass lesions or to confirm suspected bronchial impaction because of the high probability it will reveal diagnostic features

  19. CT findings of the patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Shiro; Ohshima, Kazuki; Ohsawa, Takehiko.

    1996-01-01

    CT scans were obtained in 45 patients with bronchial asthma including 23 patients during asthmatic attack. CT findings were as follows. 1) In all cases, thickening of bronchial wall throughout from central to peripheral bronchi and without tapering and/or slight swelling of bronchovascular bundles were observed. 2) Characteristics findings in 23 patients with asthmatic attack, lobular and multilobular high attenuation area were observed in 17 patients (74%) and nonhomogeneous attenuation in lung fields were noticed in 13 patients (57%). 3) Multiple centrilobular sized high attenuation area were observed in 23 patients, but it was difficult to differenciation whether these findings were due to tiny nodules or to small vessels. In conclusion, further studies are needed to know which pathomorphological and/or pathophysiological conditions are underlying these CT findings. (author)

  20. Imaging of the bronchial blood flow using RI-angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Hirayama, Jiro; Kanai, Hisakata; Kobayashi, Toshio; Handa, Kenjiro

    1979-01-01

    RI-angiography with sup(99m)TcO 4 - was carried out using a scintillation camera with a digital minicomputer for the purpose of imaging of bronchial blood flow in various lung diseases, and as application of dual radioisotope techniques, other imagings such as tumor imaging with 197 HgCl 2 or 67 Ga-citrate and/or perfusion imaging with sup(99m)Tc-MAA, were performed simultaneously in patients remaining the same position, too. The image as a iso-count map extracted out of the image of 197 HgCl 2 , 67 Ga-citrate or sup(99m)Tc-MAA, was superimposed to the brightness image of RI-angiogram (aortic phase). By these procedures, the image of bronchial blood flow were obtained in some patients with lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, lung abscess, and chronic bronchitis. The dual radioisotope techniques using RI-angiography and the other imaging were useful to make isotope diagnosis of lung diseases more reliable, and the image superimposition methods using RI-angiogram and the image of tumor of perfusion, were useful to improve anatomic orientation of the former. (author)

  1. Small airways dysfunction and neutrophilic inflammation in bronchial biopsies and BAL in COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapperre, Thérèse S.; Willems, Luuk N. A.; Timens, Wim; Rabe, Klaus F.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Sterk, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The single-breath N(2) test (sbN(2)-test) is closely related to small airways pathology in resected lung specimens of smokers. We investigated whether uneven ventilation and airway closure are associated with specific markers of airway inflammation as obtained by bronchial biopsies, BAL,

  2. Small airways dysfunction and neutrophilic inflammation in bronchial biopsies and BAL in COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapperre, Therese S.; Willems, Luuk N. A.; Timens, Wim; Rabe, Klaus F.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Sterk, Peter J.

    Background: The single-breath N-2 test (sbN(2)-test) is closely related to small airways pathology in resected lung specimens of smokers. We investigated whether uneven ventilation and airway closure are associated with specific markers of airway inflammation as obtained by bronchial biopsies, BAIL,

  3. Rare anomalies of the architecture of the bronchial tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheel, W.; Eger, H.

    1986-12-01

    Six cases of rare bronchial anomalies are presented (3 complete rightsided hyparterial bronchial distributions, 1 partial rightsided hyparterial bronchial supply of the upper lobe, 2 cases of atresia of the left apico-posterior bronchus). Emphasis is placed on the bronchographic elucidation of the changed bronchial segmental topic if additive or subtractive bronchial anomalies are found endoscopically especially with regard to preoperative aspects.

  4. The measurement of tracheo-bronchial mucociliary clearance with 99mTc-DTPA aerosol scintigraphy and its preliminary application in COPD patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Kuang, A.; Deng, H.; Li, X.

    2000-01-01

    Mucocoiliary clearance of respiratory channels is one of the important mechanisms guarding against retention of foreign particles within the lungs. Disorders of the mucociliary transport system play a major role among non-respiratory function in causing congenital and acquired bronchial disease. Thus, objective assay of the system is essential to recognizing and understanding abnormalities. In the present paper, a simple, noninvasive, and reliable in vivo method of monitoring mucociliary clearance function is reported. 18 healthy subjects and 32 COPD patients were studied with 99m Tc-DTPA aerosol scintigraphy. Monitoring was performed by visual inspection (cinescintigraphy, to observe the distribution of 99m Tc-DTPA particles and the movement of radiomucous 'hot bolus') and quantitative analysis (two indexes were utilized: the first is airway clearance ratio (ACR); the second is mucociliary clearance rate (MCC), i.e. speed of advances of mucous bolus, calculated reported by Zwas). Siemens 3700 SPECT, 64 X 64 byte mode, zoom 2. Sequential images (frame/60s) were obtained for 120 minutes. The deposition pattern of 99m Tc-DTPA particles in normal subjects was uniform. The deposition pattern in COPD patients demonstrated in general a centrally located distribution with major retention in the proximal airways. Four abnormal mucous transport patterns were regionally observed: stasis, regurgitation, straying and spiral or zigzag transport. Statistical analysis showed there was a significant difference of ACR between healthy subjects and COPD patients at different time points (P<0.05). The MCC in healthy subjects and COPD patients was 3.89±0.92 mm/min and 1.32±0.59 mm/min respectively. The method of assaying tracheo-bronchial mucociliary clearance reported here is simple and objective. It has not only the advantage of visual inspection and quantitative analysis, but also has a potential usefulness in studying other bronchial diseases and evaluating of therapeutic

  5. Social networks and bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Liccardi, Gennaro; D'Amato, Maria; Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    To focus on both positive and negative aspects of the interaction between asthmatic patients and the social networks, and to highlight the need of a psychological approach in some individuals to integrate pharmacological treatment is the purpose of review. There is evidence that in some asthmatic patients, the excessive use of social networks can induce depression and stress triggering bronchial obstruction, whereas in others their rational use can induce beneficial effects in terms of asthma management. The increasing asthma prevalence in developed countries seen at the end of last century has raised concern for the considerable burden of this disease on society as well as individuals. Bronchial asthma is a disease in which psychological implications play a role in increasing or in reducing the severity of bronchial obstruction. Internet and, in particular, social media are increasingly a part of daily life of both young and adult people, thus allowing virtual relationships with peers sharing similar interests and goals. Although social network users often disclose more about themselves online than they do in person, there might be a risk for adolescents and for sensitive individuals, who can be negatively influenced by an incorrect use. However, although some studies show an increased risk of depression, other observations suggest beneficial effects of social networks by enhancing communication, social connection and self-esteem.

  6. Distribution of radioactive aerosol in the airways of children and adolescents with bronchial hyper-responsiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backer, V.; Mortensen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the pulmonary distribution of inhaled radioaerosol, bronchial responsiveness, and lung function in children and adolescents. The participating subjects were divided into three groups: (1) 14 asthmatics with bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR), (2) five non-asthmatic subjects with BHR, and (3) 20 controls without BHR. Pulmonary distribution of [ 99 Tc m ] albumin radioaerosol, maximal expiratory flow when 25% of forced vital capacity remain to be exhaled (MEF 25 ), and bronchial responsiveness to inhaled histamine were measured. Twenty subjects (52%) has irregular central distribution and 19 subjects (48%) had regular distribution of radioaerosol in their lungs. No difference in distribution of radioaerosol was found between the three groups of children. The median MEF 25 among non-asthmatic subjects (80% predicted) was lower than that found in controls (92% predicted) but higher than that found in asthmatic subjects (55% predicted). A relationship was found between reduced flow at the peripheral airways, as indicated by MEF 25 and the degree of central distribution of radioaerosol. Furthermore, subjects with irregular central distribution of radioaerosol had an increase degree of bronchial responsiveness. In conclusion, children and adolescents who have flow rates in the peripheral airways or increased degree of bronchial responsiveness tend to have abnormal distribution of radioaerosols. (author)

  7. Imaging diagnosis of bronchial asthma and related diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Fumikazu; Fujimura, Mikihiko; Kimura, Fumiko; Fujimura, Kaori; Hayano, Toshio; Nishii, Noriko; Machida, Haruhiko; Toda, Jo; Saito, Naoko

    2002-01-01

    We describe imaging features of bronchial asthma and related diseases. The practical roles of imaging diagnosis are the evaluation of severity and complications of bronchial asthma and differential diagnosis of diseases showing asthmatic symptoms other than bronchial asthma. (author)

  8. Arterioscanning of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovskij, B.V.; Rabkin, I.Kh.; Matevosov, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Studied is lung microcirculation by means of introducting radioactive albumin (MAA 131 I introduction through a catheter) in bronchial vessels. Arterioscanning technique and its peculiarities are described in detail. It is established that results of arterioscanning must be estimated taking into account the nature of MAA 131 I distribution and fixation, counting rate and duration of radioactive registration in the range of pathologic neoplasms. It is shown that arterioscanning permits to reveal the 20-80 μm diameter vessels . This method can be one of the most important ones in the early diagnosis of lung cancer. The data on the diagnostic effectiveness of lung bronchial arteriography and arterioscanning in the cases of chronic inflammatory diseases, tuberculosis and some benigh lung tumours and neoplasms are also presented

  9. Cellular dosimetry for radon progeny alpha particles in bronchial tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.; Hofmann, W.; Balashazy, I.

    1996-01-01

    Inhaled radon progeny are deposited in different regions of the human bronchial tree as functions of particle size and flow rate. Following deposition and mucociliary clearance, the sensitive bronchial basal and secretory cells are irradiated by two different alpha particle sources: (i) radon progeny in the sol and/or gel phase of the mucous layer, and (ii) radon progeny within the bronchial epithelium. In the case of internally deposited radionuclides, direct measurement of the energy absorbed from the ionizing radiation emitted by the decaying radionuclides is rarely, if ever, possible. Therefore, one must rely on dosimetric models to obtain estimates of the spatial and temporal patterns of energy deposition in tissues and organs of the body. When the radionuclide is uniformly distributed throughout the volume of a tissue of homogeneous composition and when the size of the tissue is large compared to the range of the particulate emissions of the radionuclide, then the dose rate within the tissue is also uniform and the calculation of absorbed dose can proceed without complication. However, if non-uniformities in the spatial and temporal distributions of the radionuclide are coupled with heterogeneous tissue composition, then the calculation of absorbed dose becomes complex and uncertain. Such is the case with the dosimetry of inhaled radon and radon progeny in the respiratory tract. There are increasing demands to obtain a definitive explanation of the role of alpha particles emitted from radon daughters in the induction of lung cancer. Various authors have attempted to evaluate the dose to the bronchial region of the respiratory tract due to the inhalation of radon daughters

  10. Isolated bronchial artery involvement by polyarteritis nodosa presenting as hemoptysis: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Su Rin; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Lee, Kwang Hoon [Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis that involves medium- and small-sized arteries. PAN may affect any organ, and the presenting symptom of PAN varies depending on the organs affected. However, PAN generally spares the lung; thus, a report of PAN involving the bronchial artery is extremely rare, and hemoptysis has not been reported as the sole presenting symptom. Here, we report the case of a 39-year-old woman with hemoptysis who was diagnosed with PAN involving only the bronchial artery by angiography without involvement of the visceral arteries. Details of this case and a literature review are presented.

  11. Local deposition patterns of inhaled radon progeny in human bronchial airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heistracher, T.; Hofmann, W.; Balashazy, I.

    1996-01-01

    The local distribution of radon decay products deposited within bronchial bifurcations, particularly the formation of hot spots, may be more relevant for the determination of cellular doses in bronchial tissue than the commonly computed deposition efficiency, which is conceptually equivalent to the assumption of a uniform nuclide distribution. It is well known that the initial states of lung cancer in humans preferably occur in upper airways close to the cardinal location. In this study we use a recently developed geometric approach of a physiologically realistic bifurcation to demonstrate the site sensitivity of radon progeny deposition for two particle sizes, which are representative of the unattached and attached fraction of radon progeny

  12. Bronchial mucosal tolerance following high dose rate endobronchial brachytherapy: clinical and laboratory correlates in late complication assessment of fatal hemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.Y.; McDonald, S.; Nakamura, C.; Philips, A.; Ojomo, Karanita; Hernady, E.; Williams, J. P.; Smudzin, T.; Johnstone, D.; Feins, R.; Speiser, B.L.; Rubin, P.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: This study reviews treatment related late complications following high dose rate endobronchial brachytherapy (HDR-EB) for primary lung cancers. Radiation dose contribution from HDR-EB treatment alone, or combined HDR-EB and external beam (EBRT) were analyzed in relation to the linear representation of the tracheobronchial anatomy. Results were presented in a dose volume histogram (DVH) analysis for the risk estimate of late complications from HDR-EB. Bronchial mucosal tolerance is estimated from the clinical experience study and histopathologic changes in laboratory animals treated with HDR-EB. Methods: 1.) There were forty one patients with primary lung cancer received HDR-EB as part of the radiation treatment between December 1990 and June 1994. Six of these developed late complications manifested as either fatal hemoptysis or endobronchial deposition of fibrinous material/bronchial stenosis. Treatment planning films were reviewed to map the volume treated with HDR-EB and EBRT along the tracheobronchial segments. DVH was constructed and compared for patients with and without late complications. Other clinical parameters of interest which were analyzed included: dose per fraction, EBRT total dose, HDR total dose, combined EBRT and HDR total dose, number of catheters per treatment, and points of prescriptions for HDR-EB. 2.) Forty four New Zealand White rabbits underwent HDR-EB of the major airway to a treatment length of 2 cm (1 cm above and below the carina) to a single fraction dose of 10 Gy, 30 Gy, or 50 Gy. Histopathologic changes were examined at 7, 14, 28, and 56 days post-treatment and compared with the control rabbits which received no irradiation. Results: 1.) The late complication rate is 14.5% with three patients developing fibrinous deposits/bronchial stenosis and four patients who experienced fatal hemoptysis in a total of six patients. There is a significant difference in DVH of HDR-EB treatment in the tracheobronchial high dose region

  13. [Cytomorphological analysis of remodeling of the bronchial wall in different types of bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gereng, E A; Sukhodolo, I V; Pleshko, R I; Ogorodova, L M; Selivanova, P A; Dziuman, A N

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to search for the tissue and cellular markers of remodeling of bronchial mucosa in the patients with different clinical forms of bronchial asthma (BA). The use of up-to-date morphometric techniques has demonstrated that mild and moderately severe forms of bronchial asthma are accompanied by the development of Th2-immune response associated with increased production of interleukin-4 and marked degranulation of eosinophilic granulocytes resulting in desquamation of epithelium and goblet cell hyperplasia. The severe BA phenotype of "chronic asthma with fixed obstruction" is associated with the development of non-atopic inflammation in the bronchial mucous membrane that manifests itself as the increased concentration of interleukin-8 in bronchial mucosa and its neutrophilic infiltration leading to the development of pronounced subepithelial fibrosis, thickening of the basal membrane, and atrophy of epithelium. Specific structural changes in bronchial mucosa of the patients presenting with BA underlie functional disturbances that cause severe bronchial obstructive syndrome.

  14. BRONCHIAL FRACTURE FOLLOWING BLUNT CHEST TRAUMA*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-01-02

    Jan 2, 1971 ... reversal of bronchiectasis after re-anastomosing the two bronchial ends, it is felt that this is the exception rather than the rule. Coxatto and Lanari," in their study of the pathogenesis of bronchiectasis, feel that where there is complete obstruction to the distal bronchus, bronchial secretion will cease before ...

  15. The Effectiveness of Practicing Pranayama Yoga on Some Respiratory Indicators in Patients Suffering from Bronchial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khue Ai Thi HOANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is considered as a large burden of disease cross the world wasting billions of dollars each year. Using drug for treatment is not only expensive but also causes many adverse health affect. The study aim s to assess the effects of pranayama yoga practice on lung functions in patients with bronchial diseases. This is a controlled trial study. After three months of yoga practice, breath indicators such as FVC, FEV 1, FEV1/FVC, PEFR of intervention group sign ificantly improved with p value < .01 to .001 in comparison wi th the previous three months of the control group. Practicing pranayama yoga is beneficial to patients with bronchial asthma.

  16. Clinical applications of virtual navigation bronchial intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, Naohiro; Maehara, Sachio; Maeda, Junichi; Hagiwara, Masaru; Okano, Tetsuya; Kakihana, Masatoshi; Ohira, Tatsuo; Kawate, Norihiko; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2018-01-01

    In patients with bronchial tumors, we frequently consider endoscopic treatment as the first treatment of choice. All computed tomography (CT) must satisfy several conditions necessary to analyze images by Synapse Vincent. To select safer and more precise approaches for patients with bronchial tumors, we determined the indications and efficacy of virtual navigation intervention for the treatment of bronchial tumors. We examined the efficacy of virtual navigation bronchial intervention for the treatment of bronchial tumors located at a variety of sites in the tracheobronchial tree using a high-speed 3-dimensional (3D) image analysis system, Synapse Vincent. Constructed images can be utilized to decide on the simulation and interventional strategy as well as for navigation during interventional manipulation in two cases. Synapse Vincent was used to determine the optimal planning of virtual navigation bronchial intervention. Moreover, this system can detect tumor location and alsodepict surrounding tissues, quickly, accurately, and safely. The feasibility and safety of Synapse Vincent in performing useful preoperative simulation and navigation of surgical procedures can lead to safer, more precise, and less invasion for the patient, and makes it easy to construct an image, depending on the purpose, in 5-10 minutes using Synapse Vincent. Moreover, if the lesion is in the parenchyma or sub-bronchial lumen, it helps to perform simulation with virtual skeletal subtraction to estimate potential lesion movement. By using virtual navigation system for simulation, bronchial intervention was performed with no complications safely and precisely. Preoperative simulation using virtual navigation bronchial intervention reduces the surgeon's stress levels, particularly when highly skilled techniques are needed to operate on lesions. This task, including both preoperative simulation and intraoperative navigation, leads to greater safety and precision. These technological instruments

  17. INTERMITTENT HYPOBARIC HYPOXIC STIMULATION IN TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA AT THE PERIOD OF REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.D. Alemanova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is one of the widespread chronic diseases of lungs. Immune mechanisms of disorder are one of the causes which lead to pathologic changes in lungs. The aim: to determine the clinical and immunologic effectiveness of pressure adaptation to the periodical hypobaric hypoxic stimulation of treatment of children with bronchial asthma of prepubertal and pubertal periods. In the present work there were observed the clinical and immunologic parameters of 129 children with the verified atopic bronchial asthma of different degree at the remission period before and after the course of pressure adaptation to the periodical hypobaric hypoxic stimulation in conditions of the medical hypobaric pressure chamber with many seats «Ural'1». Clinic effectiveness of hypobaric hypoxic stimulation revealed in continuation of remissions and diminishing of total numerical score of asthma degree. The positive dynamic indexes of cytokine profile was observed. It revealed in reduction of IL 1_, IL 4, IL 5, IL 18 levels and stimulated production of IFN - in blood serum. The course of hypobaric hypoxic stimulation has the positive impact on the named indexes of the patients with bronchial asthma and its intensity depends on the degree of disease and of the age of the child' patient. Thus the use of pressure adaptation to the periodical hypobaric hypoxic stimulation in treatment of children's with bronchial asthma led to the immunologic positive dynamics, especially of the children of prepubertal period. Determination of the immunologic indexes and the level of the cytokines can be used as the additional tests for the evaluation of the effectiveness of pressure adaptation to the periodical hypobaric hypoxic stimulation of children.Key words: bronchial asthma, periodical hypobaric hypoxic stimulation, cytokines, children.

  18. Bronchial Thermoplasty in Severe Asthma: Best Practice Recommendations from an Expert Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonta, Peter I; Chanez, Pascal; Annema, Jouke T; Shah, Pallav L; Niven, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a bronchoscopic treatment for patients with severe asthma who remain symptomatic despite optimal medical therapy. In this "expert best practice" paper, the background and practical aspects of BT are highlighted. Randomized, controlled clinical trials have shown BT to be safe and effective in reducing severe exacerbations, improving quality of life, and decreasing emergency department visits. Five-year follow-up studies have provided evidence of the functional stability of BT-treated patients with persistence of a clinical benefit. The Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines state that BT can be considered as a treatment option for adult asthma patients at step 5. Patient selection for BT requires close collaboration between interventional pulmonologists and severe asthma specialists. Key patient selection criteria for BT will be reviewed. BT therapy is delivered in 3 separate bronchoscopy sessions at least 3 weeks apart, covering different regions of the lung separately. Patients are treated with 50 mg/day of prednisolone or equivalent for 5 days, starting treatment 3 days prior to the procedure. The procedure is performed under moderate-to-deep sedation or general anesthesia. At bronchos-copy a single-use catheter with a basket design is inserted through the instrument channel and the energy is delivered by a radiofrequency (RF) generator (AlairTM Bronchial Thermoplasty System). BT uses temperature-controlled RF energy to impact airway remodeling, including a reduction of excessive airway smooth muscle within the airway wall, which has been recognized as a predominant feature of asthma. The treatment should be performed in a systemic manner, starting at the most distal part of the (sub)segmental airway, then moving proximally to the main bronchi, ensuring that the majority of the airways are treated. In general, 40-70 RF activations are provided in the lower lobes, and between 50 and 100 activations in the upper lobes combined

  19. Detection of trisomy 7 in bronchial cells from uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechner, J.F.; Neft, R.E.; Belinsky, S.A. [and others

    1995-12-01

    New Mexico was the largest producer of uranium in the western world during 1960s and 1970s. Investigators at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine`s Epidemiology and Cancer Control Program have been conducting epidemiological studies on uranium miners over the past 2 decades. Currently, this cohort includes more than 3600 men who had completed at least 1 y of underground work experience in New Mexico by December 31, 1976. These miners, who are now in their 5th through 7th decades, the age when lung cancer incidence is highest, are at high risk for developing this disease because they were exposed to high levels of radon progeny in the mines, and they also smoked tobacco. However, not all people comparably exposed develop lung cancer; in fact, the lifetime risk of lung cancer for the smoking uranium miners has been projected by epidemiological analyses to be no higher than 50%. Therefore, the identification of gene alterations in bronchial epithelium would be a valuable tool to ascertain which miners are at greatest risk for lung cancer. The underlying significance of the current effort confirms the hypothesis that chronic exposure to high concentrations of {alpha}-particles and tobacco smoke produces genetically altered lung epithelial cells throughout the respiratory tract of some susceptible individuals before they develop clinical disease.

  20. Detection of trisomy 7 in bronchial cells from uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechner, J.F.; Neft, R.E.; Belinsky, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    New Mexico was the largest producer of uranium in the western world during 1960s and 1970s. Investigators at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine's Epidemiology and Cancer Control Program have been conducting epidemiological studies on uranium miners over the past 2 decades. Currently, this cohort includes more than 3600 men who had completed at least 1 y of underground work experience in New Mexico by December 31, 1976. These miners, who are now in their 5th through 7th decades, the age when lung cancer incidence is highest, are at high risk for developing this disease because they were exposed to high levels of radon progeny in the mines, and they also smoked tobacco. However, not all people comparably exposed develop lung cancer; in fact, the lifetime risk of lung cancer for the smoking uranium miners has been projected by epidemiological analyses to be no higher than 50%. Therefore, the identification of gene alterations in bronchial epithelium would be a valuable tool to ascertain which miners are at greatest risk for lung cancer. The underlying significance of the current effort confirms the hypothesis that chronic exposure to high concentrations of α-particles and tobacco smoke produces genetically altered lung epithelial cells throughout the respiratory tract of some susceptible individuals before they develop clinical disease

  1. Variations of right bronchial tree: a study with multi-detector CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Meng, Min; Huang, Min; Zhao, Xinya

    2018-05-03

    The aim was to display variations of right bronchial tree. The bronchial tree images of 238 patients were reconstructed using the postprocessing technique of CT. We revealed four cases rare bronchial branching patterns of right superior lobe. 1 case was referred to as tracheal bronchus. In 1 case, B1 was located in the place of the right superior lobar bronchus and B2 + 3 arose from the right merge of the IB. In 1 case, the right superior lobar bronchus has only two divisions for B1 and B3, and the bronchus B2 arose from the right merge of the IB. In 1 case, B1 branched into four bronchi. We revealed 15 cases of rare bronchial branching patterns of right inferior lobe. In nine cases, the basal trunk bronchus bifurcated into B7 + 8 and B9 + l0. In three cases, B8 branched from the basal trunk bronchus before B7. In two cases, basal trunk bronchus bifurcated into B7 + 8 + 9 and B10. In 1 case, the basal trunk bronchus bifurcated into the common stem of B7 + 10 and B8 + 9. Variations of right bronchial tree were displayed in the present study. This information may have important implications for diagnosis of symptomatic patients and performing certain procedures, including bronchoscopy, endotracheal intubation, and lung resection.

  2. [Thoracic surgery for patients with bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyoda, A; Satoh, Y

    2012-07-01

    Thoracic surgery poses a risk for complications in the respiratory system. In particular, for patients with bronchial asthma, we need to care for perioperative complications because it is well known that these patients frequently have respiratory complications after surgery, and they may have bronchial spasms during surgery. If we can get good control of their bronchial asthma, we can usually perform surgery for these patients without limitations. For safe postoperative care, it is desirable that these patients have stable asthma conditions that are well-controlled before surgery, as thoracic surgery requires intrabronchial intubation for anesthesia and sometimes bronchial resection. These stimulations to the bronchus do not provide for good conditions because of the risk of bronchial spasm. Therefore, we should use the same agents that are used to control bronchial asthma if it is already well controlled. If it is not, we have to administer a β₂ stimulator, aminophylline, or steroidal agents for good control. Isoflurane or sevoflurane are effective for the safe control of anesthesia during surgery, and we should use a β₂ stimulator, with or without inhalation, or steroidal agents after surgery. It is important to understand that we can perform thoracic surgery for asthma patients if we can provide perioperative control of bronchial asthma, although these patients still have severe risks.

  3. Clearance of lead-212 ions from rabbit bronchial epithelium to blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.; Greenhalgh, J.R.; Smith, H.

    1977-01-01

    The absorption of 212 Pb ions from bronchial epithelium to blood has been investigated in anaesthetized rabbits. The 212 Pb ions were introduced by intubation either into the trachea or into smaller, more distal bronchi. Removal from lung was followed by external γ-counting. Mucociliary clearance to the GI tract was blocked by tracheostomy. Two distinct phases of clearance from bronchial epithelium to blood were observed. Approximately 20% of deposited 212 Pb was rapidly absorbed with a half-time of about 4 min, the remainder with a biological half-time of about 9 h, irrespective of the site of instillation in the bronchial tree. Two hours after deposition, the 212 Pb remaining in lung was found to be partitioned between mucus and the bronchial epithelium, with a substantial but minor fraction in the epithelium. Uptake of 212 Pb in the skeleton was estimated to be about 20% of the 212 Pb entering the blood circulation. Removal by the kidneys, at 25%, was comparable with skeletal uptake. These results are compared with previously published work using rodents, dogs and man which demonstrated either rapid or slow absorption but not both phases occurring together. (author)

  4. Classification, staging and radiotherapy of bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordijk, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis reports a study performed to evaluate the stage classification of bronchial carcinoma published by Thomas in 1963. The study was done in the radiotherapy department of a teaching hospital, and had three parts: a comparative analysis of the classifications and stage divisions described in the literature on bronchial carcinoma; an evaluation of the theoretical basis of the classification system introduced by Thomas as well as of the practical applicability of the division into stages, with respect to the assessment of the prognosis and the choice of therapy; and an analysis of various aspects of irradiation as well as of a number of prognostic factors in bronchial carcinoma. (Auth.)

  5. Rare anomalies of the architecture of the bronchial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheel, W.; Eger, H.

    1986-01-01

    Six cases of rare bronchial anomalies are presented (3 complete rightsided hyparterial bronchial distributions, 1 partial rightsided hyparterial bronchial supply of the upper lobe, 2 cases of atresia of the left apico-posterior bronchus). Emphasis is placed on the bronchographic elucidation of the changed bronchial segmental topic if additive or subtractive bronchial anomalies are found endoscopically especially with regard to preoperative aspects. (orig.) [de

  6. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorn, Colette S. van, E-mail: cvandoorn@gmail.com; De Boo, Diederick W., E-mail: d.w.deboo@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Weersink, Els J. M., E-mail: e.j.m.weersink@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail: o.m.vandelden@amc.uva.nl; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl; Lienden, Krijn P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  7. Tendência de mortalidade do câncer de pulmão, traquéia e brônquios no Brasil, 1980-2003 Lung cancer, cancer of the trachea, and bronchial cancer: mortality trends in Brazil, 1980-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a tendência da mortalidade do câncer de pulmão, traquéia e brônquios por sexo e faixas etárias no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Para essa análise, utilizou-se o banco de dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade de 1980 a 2003. A análise de tendência de mortalidade no Brasil e em estados selecionados foi realizada com o ajuste de modelos e utilização da técnica LOWESS para suavização das taxas. RESULTADOS: No Brasil, a taxa padronizada de mortalidade por câncer de pulmão, traquéia e brônquios passou de 7,21 em 1980 a 9,36 óbitos por 100 mil habitantes em 2003. A análise das taxas de mortalidade específicas mostra redução em homens entre 30 e 49 anos e entre 50 e 59 anos. Entre os homens de 60 a 69 anos ocorreu aumento das taxas entre 1980 até 1995, seguido de declínio. Entre homens acima de 70 anos e entre mulheres em todas as faixas etárias acima de 30 anos, a tendência é de aumento das taxas em todo o período analisado. CONCLUSÕES: a redução das taxas de mortalidade entre homens mais jovens pode ser o resultado das ações nacionais para a redução da prevalência do tabagismo no país nas décadas mais recentes, reduzindo a exposição nas coortes mais jovens. A manutenção de taxas elevadas de mortalidade em populações mais idosas deve-se a experiência do tabagismo passado. Quanto às mulheres, a elevação das taxas segue tendência mundial, também em função do aumento da prevalência do tabagismo entre mulheres nos anos recentes.OBJECTIVE: To describe the mortality trends for lung cancer, cancer of the trachea, and bronchial cancer in relation to gender and age brackets in Brazil. METHODS: Data related to mortality between 1980 and 2003 were collected from the Brazilian Mortality Database. A trend analysis of mortality was carried out, nationwide and in selected states, using the LOWESS technique for rate smoothing and model adjustments. RESULTS: In Brazil, the standardized

  8. [Treatment of bronchial obstruction in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmelev, E I; Kuklina, G M; Kalinina, E E

    2004-01-01

    Whether the main points of treatment for bronchial obstructive syndrome (BOS) in chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) can be adapted for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PT) was studied. For this purpose, 435 patients with PT with signs of BOS (forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1) 70% of the normal values; 2) 229 patients with FEV1 69-50%; 3) 102 patients with FEV1 bronchial obstructive syndrome in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was highly effective, promotes the amelioration of the degree of respiratory symptoms in patients with IPT by 2 to 8 times, in those with FCPT by more than 2-3 times, and in those with PS by 1.45-10 times. The differences in the efficiency of bronchodilator therapy depend on the baseline level of bronchial obstruction. In patients with pulmonary tuberculosis concurrent with BO, the use of current inhalation bronchodilator therapy results in a substantial increase in FEV1, which differentiates BOS in PT from COLD. The use of the proposed therapy in the multimodality treatment of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis showed no statistically significant differences in the changes in the degree of X-ray symptoms while this therapy permits acceleration of abacillation in patients with IPT by 16.8% and in those with FCPT by 14.8%. Effective bronchodilator therapy considerably enhances life quality in patients. Thus, early systematic and long-term performance of the bronchodilator therapy, based on the principles of bronchodilator therapy for COLD, in patients with PT concurrent with BOS may substantially enhance the efficiency of treatment in this category of patients.

  9. Proinflammatory effects of cookstove emissions on human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, B; Volckens, J

    2013-02-01

    Approximately half of the world's population uses biomass fuel for indoor cooking and heating. This form of combustion typically occurs in open fires or primitive stoves. Human exposure to emissions from indoor biomass combustion is a global health concern, causing an estimated 1.5 million premature deaths each year. Many 'improved' stoves have been developed to address this concern; however, studies that examine exposure-response with cleaner-burning, more efficient stoves are few. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of traditional and cleaner-burning stove emissions on an established model of the bronchial epithelium. We exposed well-differentiated, normal human bronchial epithelial cells to emissions from a single biomass combustion event using either a traditional three-stone fire or one of two energy-efficient stoves. Air-liquid interface cultures were exposed using a novel, aerosol-to-cell deposition system. Cellular expression of a panel of three pro-inflammatory markers was evaluated at 1 and 24 h following exposure. Cells exposed to emissions from the cleaner-burning stoves generated significantly fewer amounts of pro-inflammatory markers than cells exposed to emissions from a traditional three-stone fire. Particulate matter emissions from each cookstove were substantially different, with the three-stone fire producing the largest concentrations of particles (by both number and mass). This study supports emerging evidence that more efficient cookstoves have the potential to reduce respiratory inflammation in settings where solid fuel combustion is used to meet basic domestic needs. Emissions from more efficient, cleaner-burning cookstoves produced less inflammation in well-differentiated bronchial lung cells. The results support evidence that more efficient cookstoves can reduce the health burden associated with exposure to indoor pollution from the combustion of biomass. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Pulmonary thromboembolism as a complication of lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anna Warncke; Mortensen, Jann; Berg, Ronan M G

    2017-01-01

    Post-transplantation mortality after lung transplantation (LTX) is higher than for other solid organ transplantations. Thoracic surgery is associated with increased risk of thromboembolic complications, and as LTX recipients lack the collateral bronchial circulation, pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE...

  11. Interaction between gas cooking and GSTM1 null genotype in bronchial responsiveness: results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, A.F.S.; Ramasamy, A.; Castro-Giner, F.; Minelli, C.; Accordini, S.; Sorheim, I.C.; Pin, I.; Kogevinas, M.; Jögi, R.; Balding, D.J.; Norbäck, D.; Verlato, G.; Olivieri, M.; Probst-Hensch, N.; Janson, C.; Zock, J.P.; Heinrich, J.; Jarvis, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increased bronchial responsiveness is characteristic of asthma. Gas cooking, which is a major indoor source of the highly oxidant nitrogen dioxide, has been associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function. However, little is known about the effect of gas cooking on

  12. Use of tracheal auscultation for the assessment of bronchial responsiveness in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprikkelman, A. B.; Grol, M. H.; Lourens, M. S.; Gerritsen, J.; Heymans, H. S.; van Aalderen, W. M.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It can be difficult to assess bronchial responsiveness in children because of their inability to perform spirometric tests reliably. In bronchial challenges lung sounds could be used to detect the required 20% fall in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). A study was undertaken to determine whether a change in lung sounds corresponded with a 20% fall in FEV1 after methacholine challenge, and whether the occurrence of wheeze was the most important change. METHODS: Fifteen children with asthma (eight boys) of mean age 10.8 years (range 8-15) were studied. All had normal chest auscultation before the methacholine challenge test. Lung sounds were recorded over the trachea for one minute and stored on tape. They were analysed directly and also scored blindly from the tape recording by a second investigator. Wheeze, cough, increase in respiratory rate, and prolonged expiration were assessed. RESULTS: The total cumulative methacholine dose causing a fall in FEV1 of 20% or more (PD20) was detected in 12 children by a change in lung sounds - in four by wheeze and in eight by cough, increased respiratory rate, and/or prolonged expiration. In two subjects altered lung sounds were detectable one dose step before PD20 was reached. In three cases in whom no fall in FEV1 occurred, no change in lung sounds could be detected at the highest methacholine dose. CONCLUSION: Changes in lung sounds correspond well with a 20% fall in FEV1 after methacholine challenge. Wheeze is an insensitive indicator for assessing bronchial responsiveness. Cough, increase in respiratory rate, and prolonged expiration occurs more frequently. PMID:8779140

  13. A contribution to radiotherapy of the larger-celled bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoubie, I.

    1982-01-01

    This work consists of a retrospective definition of disease courses of 859 patients with lung tumors and the definition of the survival curves in their dependence on histology, radiation dose and sex. With 721 larger-celled bronchial carcinomas the ratio of men to women was 12:1. The age peak lay between 60 and 70 years. The one/five year survival rate of all included larger-celled bronchial carcinomas (n=701) was, independent from the therapy form, 35.7, resp. 4.78%. The one year/five year survival rates were for the squamous epithelia 31.08/0.58%, for the undifferentiated carcinomas 25.34/3.41%, and for the lung tumors without histology 35.4/5.14%. Lobectomized patients with squamous epithelium carcinoma had in comparison to pneumonectomized patients a clearly higher survival chance. A clearly sex-dependent predisposition for a certain type of carcinoma was not present. (TRV) [de

  14. Recent developments regarding periostin in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Izuhara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it is currently recognized that bronchial asthma is not a single disease but a syndrome, we have not yet made use of our new understanding of this heterogeneity as we treat asthma patients. To increase the efficacy of anti-asthma drugs and to decrease costs, it is important to stratify asthma patients into subgroups and to develop therapeutic strategies for each subgroup. Periostin has recently emerged as a biomarker for bronchial asthma, unique in that it is useful not in diagnosis but in categorizing asthma patients. We first found that periostin is a novel component of subepithelial fibrosis in bronchial asthma downstream of IL-13 signals. Thereafter, it was shown that periostin can be a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses, the basis of the notion that a detection system of serum periostin is potentially a companion diagnostic for type 2 antagonists. Furthermore, we have recently shown that serum periostin can predict resistance or hyporesponsiveness to inhaled corticosteroids, based on its contribution to tissue remodeling or fibrosis in bronchial asthma. Thus, serum periostin has two characteristics as a biomarker for bronchial asthma: it is both a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses and a biomarker reflecting tissue remodeling or fibrosis. We can take advantage of these characteristics to develop stratified medicine in bronchial asthma.

  15. Endobronchial Tuberculosis Simulating Lung Cancer and Healing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endobroncheal tuberculosis is defined as tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree with microbial and histopathological evidence. The disease is usually mistaken for other lung diseases including lung cancer. Bronchial stenosis is a common complication of this type of tuberculosis despite the use of effective ...

  16. Simple radio-isotopic method for the detection of bronchial inhalation during intensive care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venot, J.; Veyriras, E.; Vandroux, J.C.; Bournaud, E.; Gastinne, H.; Beck, C.

    1984-08-01

    The high incidence of pneumopathy in intensive care units might be due to the pulmonary aspiration of gastric juice following gastro-oesophageal reflux. The paper describes a radio-isotopic method using material easy to install at the patient's bedside. This technique demonstrated aspiration of gastric juice in the lungs of 8 of 25 intensive care patients investigated. Such a method might be useful later to demonstrate that silent bronchial aspirations of gastric juice are responsible for pulmonary complications.

  17. Interactive navigation and bronchial tube tracking in virtual bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, P A; Fung, P F; Wong, T T; Siu, Y H; Sun, H

    1999-01-01

    An interactive virtual environment for simulation of bronchoscopy is developed. Medical doctor can safely plan their surgical bronchoscopy using the virtual environment without any invasive diagnosis which may risk the patient's health. The 3D pen input device of the system allows the doctor to navigate and visualize the bronchial tree of the patient naturally and interactively. To navigate the patient's bronchial tree, a vessel tracking process is required. While manual tracking is tedious and labor-intensive, fully automatic tracking may not be reliable. We propose a semi-automatic tracking technique called Intelligent Path Tracker which provides automation and enough user control during the vessel tracking. To support an interactive frame rate, we also introduce a new volume rendering acceleration technique, named as IsoRegion Leaping. The volume rendering is further accelerated by distributed rendering on a TCP/IP-based network of low-cost PCs. With these approaches, a 256 x 256 x 256 volume data of human lung, can be navigated and visualized at a frame rate of over 10 Hz in our virtual bronchoscopy system.

  18. Chronic recurrent hemoptysis: effectiveness of bronchial artery embolization in 25 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Ik; Shim, Hyung Jin; Wang, Chi Hyung; Hyun, Yu; Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Young Goo; Kim, Kun Sang [Chungang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-09-15

    Bronchial artery embolization has been effective in the treatment of massive hemoptysis. The purpose of this study was to report the effectiveness of bronchial artery embolization in patients with chronic recurrent hemoptysis intractable to medical treatment. This study included 25 patients who were admitted for treatment of chronic recurrent hemoptysis with bronchial artery embolization. Chronic recurrent hemoptysis was defined as condition in tractable to medical treatment persistently and occurring over two times per two months The target vessels for embolization were selected in consideration of the results of aortography as well as the finding of chest radiography and bronchoscopy. After selective arteriography for embolization by using 5-French Simmons catheter, embolic agents(mainly polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) and additionally gelfoam and coils) were released through the catheter. The results of the embolization were assessed with review of medical records. The cases of the hemoptysis were pulmonary tuberculosis(n=12.48%), bronchiectasis(n=6.24%), aspergilloma(n=3.12%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(n=2.8%), chronic bronchitis(n=1.4%) and lung abscess(n=1.4%). Selective embolization was carried out in 49 sites(42 in bronchial artery and 7 in nonbronchial systemic collaterals). Early success rate within 2 months was 96%. After long-term follow up study (6-30 months, average 15 months), complete remission was 72%, partial remission 12% and recurrence 12% respectively. During and after embolization, major complications such as spinal cord injury or bronchial wall necrosis was not found. Minor complications were chest pain, shoulder pain and chilling sense, which were relieved spontaneously within a few days. High success rate and relatively low recurrence with no significant complication were achieved with bronchial artery embolization in the patients complaining of chronic recurrent hemoptysis.

  19. Changes in the Flow-Volume Curve According to the Degree of Stenosis in Patients With Unilateral Main Bronchial Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jung-Geun; Yi, Chin A; Lee, Kyung Soo; Jeon, Kyeongman; Um, Sang-Won; Koh, Won-Jung; Suh, Gee Young; Chung, Man Pyo; Kwon, O Jung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The shape of the flow-volume (F-V) curve is known to change to showing a prominent plateau as stenosis progresses in patients with tracheal stenosis. However, no study has evaluated changes in the F-V curve according to the degree of bronchial stenosis in patients with unilateral main bronchial stenosis. Methods We performed an analysis of F-V curves in 29 patients with unilateral bronchial stenosis with the aid of a graphic digitizer between January 2005 and December 2011. Results The primary diseases causing unilateral main bronchial stenosis were endobronchial tuberculosis (86%), followed by benign bronchial tumor (10%), and carcinoid (3%). All unilateral main bronchial stenoses were classified into one of five grades (I, ≤25%; II, 26%-50%; III, 51%-75%; IV, 76%-90%; V, >90% to near-complete obstruction without ipsilateral lung collapse). A monophasic F-V curve was observed in patients with grade I stenosis and biphasic curves were observed for grade II-IV stenosis. Both monophasic (81%) and biphasic shapes (18%) were observed in grade V stenosis. After standardization of the biphasic shape of the F-V curve, the breakpoints of the biphasic curve moved in the direction of high volume (x-axis) and low flow (y-axis) according to the progression of stenosis. Conclusion In unilateral bronchial stenosis, a biphasic F-V curve appeared when bronchial stenosis was >25% and disappeared when obstruction was near complete. In addition, the breakpoint moved in the direction of high volume and low flow with the progression of stenosis. PMID:26045916

  20. Prevention of Bronchial Hyperplasia by EGFR Pathway Inhibitors in an Organotypic Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jangsoon; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Kang, Shin Myung; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Gold, Kathryn Ann; Kim, Edward S.; Hittelman, Walter N.; Hong, Waun Ki; Koo, Ja Seok

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early detection or prevention strategies are urgently needed to increase survival. Hyperplasia is the first morphologic change that occurs in the bronchial epithelium during lung cancer development, followed by squamous metaplasia, dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive tumor. The current study was designed to determine the molecular mechanisms that control bronchial epithelium hyperplasia. Using primary normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTBE) cells cultured using the 3-dimensional organotypic method, we found that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands EGF, transforming growth factor-alpha, and amphiregulin induced hyperplasia, as determined by cell proliferation and multilayered epithelium formation. We also found that EGF induced increased cyclin D1 expression, which plays a critical role in bronchial hyperplasia; this overexpression was mediated by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway but not the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Erlotinib, an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and U0126, a MEK inhibitor, completely inhibited EGF-induced hyperplasia. Furthermore, a promoter analysis revealed that the activator protein-1 transcription factor regulates EGF-induced cyclin D1 overexpression. Activator protein-1 depletion using siRNA targeting its c-Jun component completely abrogated EGF-induced cyclin D1 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that bronchial hyperplasia can be modeled in vitro using primary NHTBE cells maintained in a 3-dimensional (3-D) organotypic culture. EGFR and MEK inhibitors completely blocked EGF-induced bronchial hyperplasia, suggesting that they have a chemopreventive role. PMID:21505178

  1. [Low power laser biostimulation in the treatment of bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojević, Momir; Kuruc, Vesna

    2003-01-01

    Modern concept of acupuncture is based on the fact there are designated locations on the surface of human body, which are related to integrative systems of an organism by means of sensory nerves, correlating and synchronizing organ functioning, depending on external and internal conditions, by means of nervous and neurohumoral regulation of metabolic and regenerative processes, including also mobilisation of immunological, protective and antistress reactions. Apart from standard needle acupuncture, other methods of stimulating acupuncture points are also applied. Due to invention of low power lasers, irradiation laser acupuncture has been introduced into routine medical practice, characterised by painless and aseptic technique and outstanding clinical results. The investigation was aimed at defining therapeutic effects of low power laser irradiation by stimulating acupuncture points or local treatment of asthma. A prospective analysis included 50 patients treated at the Institute of Pulmonary Diseases in Sremska Kamenica during 2000, 2001 and 2002. Together with conservative treatment of present disease, these patients were treated with laser stimulation of acupuncture points in duration of ten days. During treatment changes of functional respiratory parameters were recorded. Results were compared with those in the control group. The control group consisted of the same number of patients and differed from the examination group only by not using laser stimulation. Patients with bronchial asthma presented with significant improvement (p lower frequency and intensity of attacks. The mechanism of laser stimulation activity in treatment of bronchial asthma is explained in detail, correlating our results to those obtained by other authors. A ten-day course of low-power laser stimulation of acupuncture points in patients with bronchial asthma improves both the lung function and gas exchange parameters. Positive effects of laser treatment in patients with bronchial asthma

  2. Fibrobronchoscopy in the lung neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machin Gonzalez, Victoriano; Vieito Espinneira, Rodolfo; Freyre Serentill, Juan C.; Benito Soler, Isabel

    1997-01-01

    160 patients with a clinical-radiological picture suggesting lung neoplasia was conducted. Fibrobronchoscopy was performed as a reliable method to detect this disease. Punch biopsy, exfoliative cytology, and bronchial lavage Webre used to obtain specimens for the histological study. Of all the patients studied, 112 cases Webre positive and a proper diagnosis by biopsy was attained in 90 of them

  3. Anti-apoptotic effects of Z alpha1-antitrypsin in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greene, C M

    2010-05-01

    alpha(1)-antitrypsin (alpha(1)-AT) deficiency is a genetic disease which manifests as early-onset emphysema or liver disease. Although the majority of alpha(1)-AT is produced by the liver, it is also produced by bronchial epithelial cells, amongst others, in the lung. Herein, we investigate the effects of mutant Z alpha(1)-AT (ZAAT) expression on apoptosis in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-) and delineate the mechanisms involved. Control, M variant alpha(1)-AT (MAAT)- or ZAAT-expressing cells were assessed for apoptosis, caspase-3 activity, cell viability, phosphorylation of Bad, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation and induced expression of a selection of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes. Expression of ZAAT in 16HBE14o- cells, like MAAT, inhibited basal and agonist-induced apoptosis. ZAAT expression also inhibited caspase-3 activity by 57% compared with control cells (p = 0.05) and was a more potent inhibitor than MAAT. Whilst ZAAT had no effect on the activity of Bad, its expression activated NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression above control or MAAT-expressing cells. In 16HBE14o- cells but not HEK293 cells, ZAAT upregulated expression of cIAP-1, an upstream regulator of NF-kappaB. cIAP1 expression was increased in ZAAT versus MAAT bronchial biopsies. The data suggest a novel mechanism by which ZAAT may promote human bronchial epithelial cell survival.

  4. Phenotypes Determined by Cluster Analysis in Moderate to Severe Bronchial Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youroukova, Vania M; Dimitrova, Denitsa G; Valerieva, Anna D; Lesichkova, Spaska S; Velikova, Tsvetelina V; Ivanova-Todorova, Ekaterina I; Tumangelova-Yuzeir, Kalina D

    2017-06-01

    Bronchial asthma is a heterogeneous disease that includes various subtypes. They may share similar clinical characteristics, but probably have different pathological mechanisms. To identify phenotypes using cluster analysis in moderate to severe bronchial asthma and to compare differences in clinical, physiological, immunological and inflammatory data between the clusters. Forty adult patients with moderate to severe bronchial asthma out of exacerbation were included. All underwent clinical assessment, anthropometric measurements, skin prick testing, standard spirometry and measurement fraction of exhaled nitric oxide. Blood eosinophilic count, serum total IgE and periostin levels were determined. Two-step cluster approach, hierarchical clustering method and k-mean analysis were used for identification of the clusters. We have identified four clusters. Cluster 1 (n=14) - late-onset, non-atopic asthma with impaired lung function, Cluster 2 (n=13) - late-onset, atopic asthma, Cluster 3 (n=6) - late-onset, aspirin sensitivity, eosinophilic asthma, and Cluster 4 (n=7) - early-onset, atopic asthma. Our study is the first in Bulgaria in which cluster analysis is applied to asthmatic patients. We identified four clusters. The variables with greatest force for differentiation in our study were: age of asthma onset, duration of diseases, atopy, smoking, blood eosinophils, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs hypersensitivity, baseline FEV1/FVC and symptoms severity. Our results support the concept of heterogeneity of bronchial asthma and demonstrate that cluster analysis can be an useful tool for phenotyping of disease and personalized approach to the treatment of patients.

  5. Bronchial intubation could be detected by the visual stethoscope techniques in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tetsuro; Suzuki, Akira; Mimuro, Soichiro; Makino, Hiroshi; Sato, Shigehito

    2012-12-01

    We created a system that allows the visualization of breath sounds (visual stethoscope). We compared the visual stethoscope technique with auscultation for the detection of bronchial intubation in pediatric patients. In the auscultation group, an anesthesiologist advanced the tracheal tube, while another anesthesiologist auscultated bilateral breath sounds to detect the change and/or disappearance of unilateral breath sounds. In the visualization group, the stethoscope was used to detect changes in breath sounds and/or disappearance of unilateral breath sounds. The distance from the edge of the mouth to the carina was measured using a fiberoptic bronchoscope. Forty pediatric patients were enrolled in the study. At the point at which irregular breath sounds were auscultated, the tracheal tube was located at 0.5 ± 0.8 cm on the bronchial side from the carina. When a detectable change of shape of the visualized breath sound was observed, the tracheal tube was located 0.1 ± 1.2 cm on the bronchial side (not significant). At the point at which unilateral breath sounds were auscultated or a unilateral shape of the visualized breath sound was observed, the tracheal tube was 1.5 ± 0.8 or 1.2 ± 1.0 cm on the bronchial side, respectively (not significant). The visual stethoscope allowed to display the left and the right lung sound simultaneously and detected changes of breath sounds and unilateral breath sound as a tracheal tube was advanced. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. An experimental study on carcinogenesis related to localized fibrosis in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohwada, Hidemi; Hayashi, Yutaka; Seki, Masatoshi.

    1980-01-01

    The present series of experiments was carried out in order to see what role pre-existing localized fibrosis plays in carcinogenesis of the lung. Hemorrhagic infarction was produced in the lung of 180 male Wistar rats by injecting 0.05 ml of hexachlorotetrafluorobutane into the tail vein. This resulted in localized fibrosis in the lung 3 months later. One hundred and fifteen rats were alive 3 months after administration of the chemical. Of these animals, 30 were given no further treatment (control). The remaining 85 rats were given intratracheal instillation of 0.2 μCi of polonium-210 once a week, a total of 15 times. It was subsequently found that lung carcinoma was induced in close proximity to the localized pulmonary fibrosis in 3 of 26 rats (11.5%) during the period from completion of the 15 weekly administrations of polonium-210 until the end of this experiment (21 months after the 1st instillation of polonium-210). Polonium-210 was found to be deposited in the fibrous thickening of the alveolus around the subpleural fibrotic lesion, bronchial epithelium, and peribronchial lymph apparati at the initial period of administration of polonium-210, but during the period of pulmonary carcinogenesis, it was deposited in the localized fibrotic lesion in the lung and in a few cancer cells. This suggests that polonium-210 deposited in the pulmonary fibrotic lesion remains there over a long period of time, indicating a reduced clearance ability at this site. (author)

  7. HRCT and bronchial asthma: visualization of the pathophysiologic changes of the pulmonary parenchyma after inhalation provocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, G.; Neumann, K.; Helbich, T.; Herold, C.J.; Riemer, H.; Backfrieder, W.; Sertl, K.; Pittner, B.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize parenchymal lung affections morphologically in patients with asthma and healthy subjects by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) subsequent to histamine-triggered inhalation bronchoprovocation and salbutamolinduced broncholysis, and to compare the results with pulmonary function tests. Materials and Methods: Fifteen asthmatics with bronchial hyperreactivity, with a>20% decrease in FEV1 and a>10 mmHg decrease in PaO 2 after bronchoprovocation (PC20%+), twelve asthmatics with a 10 mmHg decrease in PaO 2 after bronchoprovocation (PC20%-), and eight healthy persons without bronchial hyperreactivity underwent inhalation bronchoprovocation and broncholysis. Spirometer-triggered HRCT at high lung volumes was performed, and total and peripheral lung densities and the amount of solid lung structures, representing predominantly vessels, were measured. Results: After bronchoprovocation, we observed significant decreases in total and peripheral lung densities in all groups (p 0.05), as compared to the baseline measurements. In hyperreactive patients, PaO 2 significantly decreased after provocation and significantly increased after lysis (p [de

  8. Arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in bronchial epithelial cells and its inhibition by cellular oxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dairou, Julien; Petit, Emile; Ragunathan, Nilusha; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Marano, Francelyne; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Bronchial epithelial cells express xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) that are involved in the biotransformation of inhaled toxic compounds. The activities of these XMEs in the lung may modulate respiratory toxicity and have been linked to several diseases of the airways. Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NAT) are conjugating XMEs that play a key role in the biotransformation of aromatic amine pollutants such as the tobacco-smoke carcinogens 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) and β-naphthylamine (β-NA). We show here that functional human NAT1 or its murine counterpart Nat2 are present in different lung epithelial cells i.e. Clara cells, type II alveolar cells and bronchial epithelial cells, thus indicating that inhaled aromatic amines may undergo NAT-dependent biotransformation in lung epithelium. Exposure of these cells to pathophysiologically relevant amounts of oxidants known to contribute to lung dysfunction, such as H 2 O 2 or peroxynitrite, was found to impair the NAT1/Nat2-dependent cellular biotransformation of aromatic amines. Genetic and non genetic impairment of intracellular NAT enzyme activities has been suggested to compromise the important detoxification pathway of aromatic amine N-acetylation and subsequently to contribute to an exacerbation of untoward effects of these pollutants on health. Our study suggests that oxidative/nitroxidative stress in lung epithelial cells, due to air pollution and/or inflammation, could contribute to local and/or systemic dysfunctions through the alteration of the functions of pulmonary NAT enzymes.

  9. Angiogenin and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in lungs of lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Ales; Silar, Mira; Kosnik, Mitja

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND.: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Angiogenesis is crucial process in cancer growth and progression. This prospective study evaluated expression of two central regulatory molecules: angiogenin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS.: Clinical data, blood samples and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) from 23 patients with primary lung carcinoma were collected. BAL fluid was taken from part of the lung with malignancy, and from corresponding healthy side of the lung. VEGF and angiogenin concentrations were analysed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dilution of bronchial secretions in the BAL fluid was calculated from urea concentration ratio between serum and BAL fluid. RESULTS.: We found no statistical correlation between angiogenin concentrations in serum and in bronchial secretions from both parts of the lung. VEGF concentrations were greater in bronchial secretions in the affected side of the lung than on healthy side. Both concentrations were greater than serum VEGF concentration. VEGF concentration in serum was in positive correlation with tumour size (p = 0,003) and with metastatic stage of disease (p = 0,041). There was correlation between VEGF and angiogenin concentrations in bronchial secretions from healthy side of the lung and between VEGF and angiogenin concentrations in bronchial secretions from part of the lung with malignancy. CONCLUSION.: Angiogenin and VEGF concentrations in systemic, background and local samples of patients with lung cancer are affected by different mechanisms. Pro-angiogenic activity of lung cancer has an important influence on the levels of angiogenin and VEGF.

  10. GENERALIZED ANALYSIS OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES TO IGE IN THE TREATMENT OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN CHILDREN IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Kulichenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a generalized 2-year Russian experience in the application of monoclonal antibodies to IgE in children and adolescents with severe, resistant to standard treatment of bronchial asthma. Data on 65 patients treated with anti-IgE therapy with omalizumab within more than 6 months period in 6 centers of the Russian Federation from 2007 to 2010 were analyzed. The results of this analysis demonstrate the safety and high clinical effectiveness of anti-IgE-therapy in children and adolescents with severe uncontrolled atopic bronchial asthma. Full control of the disease or marked improvement can be achieved in 73% patients, the effect in most cases significantly increases during the first 6 months of treatment and becomes stable in the future, providing a good quality of life and normal lung function.Key words: bronchial asthma, anti-IgE-therapy, treatment, adolescents, children, quality of life, omalizumab.

  11. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    Based on the own experience and world literatures, contribution of radiation in the treatment of lung cancer was reviewed and discussed. Although the patients with advanced cancer were referred to radiation usually, the results of radiotherapy were superior to those by chemotherapy. Of course the radiotherapy was a local one, radiation combined with chemotherapy was highly recommended, besides systemic administration of chemotherapeutics, special methods such as bronchial arterial infusion (BAI) and chemoembolization would be more favourable in selected patients. Treatment of undifferentiated small cell carcinoma was becoming more dependent on chemotherapy, radiation showed as excellent local control as ever. To treat locally extended cancer patients with involvement of the thoracic wall and Pancoast's syndrome, external radiation alone were not successful, interstitial radiation or a single exposure with a large dose during the thoracotomy would be promising. Finally, data indicated that aged and poor risk patients in early stage of cancer might be treated by radiation instead of unjustifiable operation. (author)

  12. Abscess of residual lobe after pulmonary resection for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligabue, Tommaso; Voltolini, Luca; Ghiribelli, Claudia; Luzzi, Luca; Rapicetta, Cristian; Gotti, Giuseppe

    2008-04-01

    Abscess of the residual lobe after lobectomy is a rare but potentially lethal complication. Between January 1975 and December 2006, 1,460 patients underwent elective pulmonary lobectomy for non-small-cell lung cancer at our institution. Abscess of the residual lung parenchyma occurred in 5 (0.3%) cases (4 bilobectomies and 1 lobectomy). Postoperative chest radiography showed incomplete expansion and consolidation of residual lung parenchyma. Flexible bronchoscopy revealed persistent bronchial occlusion from purulent secretions and/or bronchial collapse. Computed tomography in 3 patients demonstrated lung abscess foci. Surgical treatment included completion right pneumonectomy in 3 patients and a middle lobectomy in one. Complications after repeat thoracotomy comprised contralateral pneumonia and sepsis in 1 patient. Residual lobar abscess after lobectomy should be suspected in patients presenting with fever, leukocytosis, bronchial obstruction and lung consolidation despite antibiotic therapy, physiotherapy and bronchoscopy. Computed tomography is mandatory for early diagnosis. Surgical resection of the affected lobe is recommended.

  13. Impact of the Tamsulosin in Alpha Adrenergic Receptor of Airways at Patients with Increased Bronchial Reactibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Lirim; Ilazi, Ali; Dauti, Arta; Islami, Pellumb; Kastrati, Bashkim; Islami, Hilmi

    2015-08-01

    In this work, effect of tamsulosin as antagonist of alpha1A and alpha1B adrenergic receptor and effect of agonists of beta2 adrenergic receptor-salbutamol in patients with increased bronchial reactibility was studied. Parameters of the lung function are determined with Body plethysmography six (6) hours after administration of tamsulosin. Raw and ITGV were registered and specific resistance (SRaw) was calculated as well. Tamsulosin was administered in per os manner as a preparation in the shape of the capsules with a brand name of "Prolosin", produced by Niche Generics Limited, Hitchin, Herts. After six (6) hours of administration of tamsulosin, results gained indicate that blockage of alpha1A and alpha1B-adrenergic receptor (0.8 mg per os) has not changed significantly (p > 0.1) the bronchomotor tonus of tracheobronchial tree in comparison to the check-up that has inhaled salbutamol agonist of adrenergic beta2 receptor (2 inh. x 0.2 mg), (p tamsulosin. This suggests that even after six hours of administration of tamsulosin, and determining of lung function parameters, the activity of alpha1A and alpha1B-adrenergic receptor in the smooth bronchial musculature has not changed in patients with increased bronchial reactibility.

  14. Repopulation with IgA-containing cells of bronchial and intestinal lamina propria after transfer of homologous peyer's patch and bronchial lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudzik, R.; Clancy, R.L.; Perey, D.Y.E.; Day, R.P.; Bienenstock, J.

    1975-01-01

    Transfer of 50 million rabbit allogeneic lymphocytes from either bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) or Peyer's patches into 1000 R x-irradiated recipients results, 6 days later, in predominant repopulation of gut and bronchial lamina propria, as well as spleen, with IgA-containing cells. After repopulation with BALT or Peyer's patch cells, lymphoid follicles in both gut and lung showed peripheral cellular membrane type of fluorescence with fluorescein-conjugated anti-IgA antisera only. Six days after x-irradiation alone, little evidence of repopulation was seen and immunofluorescent qualitative observations of gut and lung, and quantitative data in the spleen, confirmed these findings. After transfer of 50 million lymph node cells, very few immunoglobulin-containing cells were seen in the gut or bronchial lamina propria. These results suggest that there may be a common mucosal immunologic system, and that repopulation of gut and lung lamina propria may be through the organized lymphoid tissue therein. (U.S.)

  15. High-resolution computed tomography evaluation of the bronchial lumen to vertebral body diameter and pulmonary artery to vertebral body diameter ratios in anesthetized ventilated normal cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Fowler, Tekla M; Cole, Robert C; Dillon, A Ray; Tillson, D Michael; Garbarino, Rachel; Barney, Sharron

    2017-10-01

    Objectives Bronchial lumen to pulmonary artery diameter (BA) ratio has been utilized to investigate pulmonary pathology on high-resolution CT images. Diseases affecting both the bronchi and pulmonary arteries render the BA ratio less useful. The purpose of the study was to establish bronchial lumen diameter to vertebral body diameter (BV) and pulmonary artery diameter to vertebral body diameter (AV) ratios in normal cats. Methods Using high-resolution CT images, 16 sets of measurements (sixth thoracic vertebral body [mid-body], each lobar bronchi and companion pulmonary artery diameter) were acquired from young adult female cats and 41 sets from pubertal female cats. Results Young adult and pubertal cat BV ratios were not statistically different from each other in any lung lobe. Significant differences between individual lung lobe BV ratios were noted on combined age group analysis. Caudal lung lobe AV ratios were significantly different between young adult and pubertal cats. All other lung lobe AV ratios were not significantly different. Caudal lung lobe AV ratios were significantly different from all other lung lobes but not from each other in both the young adult and pubertal cats. Conclusions and relevance BV ratio reference intervals determined for individual lung lobes could be applied to both young adult and pubertal cats. Separate AV ratios for individual lung lobes would be required for young adult and pubertal cats. These ratios should allow more accurate evaluation of cats with concurrent bronchial and pulmonary arterial disease.

  16. Linking the generation of DNA adducts to lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppi, Marcello; Munnia, Armelle; Cellai, Filippo; Bruzzone, Marco; Peluso, Marco E M

    2017-09-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. DNA adducts are considered a reliable biomarker that reflects carcinogen exposure to tobacco smoke, but the central question is what is the relationship of DNA adducts and cancer? Therefore, we investigated this relationship by a meta-analysis of twenty-two studies with bronchial adducts for a total of 1091 subjects, 887 lung cancer cases and 204 apparently healthy individuals with no evidence of lung cancer. Our study shows that these adducts are significantly associated to increase lung cancer risk. The value of Mean Ratio lung-cancer (MR) of bronchial adducts resulting from the random effects model was 2.64, 95% C.I. 2.00-3.50, in overall lung cancer cases as compared to controls. The significant difference, with lung cancer patients having significant higher levels of bronchial adducts than controls, persisted after stratification for smoking habits. The MR lung-cancer value between lung cancer patients and controls for smokers was 2.03, 95% C.I. 1.42-2.91, for ex-smokers 3.27, 95% C.I. 1.49-7.18, and for non-smokers was 3.81, 95% C.I. 1.85-7.85. Next, we found that the generation of bronchial adducts is significantly related to inhalation exposure to tobacco smoke carcinogens confirming its association with volatile carcinogens. The MR smoking estimate of bronchial adducts resulting from meta-regression was 2.28, 95% Confidence Interval (C.I.) 1.10-4.73, in overall smokers in respect to non-smokers. The present work provides strengthening of the hypothesis that bronchial adducts are not simply relate to exposure, but are a cause of chemical-induced lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Associations between asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To determine asthma and allergy phenotypes in unselected urban black teenagers and to associate bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) with asthma, other atopic diseases and allergen sensitisation. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study of 211 urban highschool black children of Xhosa ethnicity. Modified ...

  18. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness and anti-asthmatic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, Jan

    1990-01-01

    Many asthmatic patients experience shortness of breath or wheezing, when exposed to cold air, or irritants like baking fumes, exhaust gases or cigarette smoke. This clinical phenomenon has been called bronchial hypemsponsiveness (BHR), which is defined as an exaggerated broncho-obstructive response

  19. DNA repair in human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Lechner, J.F.; Grafstrom, R.C.; Harris, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the response of human cell types (bronchial epithelial cells and fibroblasts and skin fibroblasts) to various DNA damaging agents. Repair of DNA single strand breaks (SSB) induced by 5 krads of X-ray was similar for all cell types; approximately 90% of the DNA SSB were rejoined within one hour. During excision repair of DNA damage from u.v.-radiation, the frequencies of DNA SSB as estimated by the alkaline elution technique, were similar in all cell types. Repair replication as measured by BND cellulose chromatography was also similar in epithelial and fibroblastic cells after u.v.-irradiation. Similar levels of SSB were also observed in epithelial and fibroblastic cells after exposure to chemical carcinogens: 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene; benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE); or N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Significant repair replication of BPDE-induced DNA damage was detected in both bronchial epithelial and fibroblastic cells, although the level in fibroblasts was approximately 40% of that in epithelial cells. The pulmonary carcinogen asbestos did not damage DNA. DNA-protein crosslinks induced by formaldehyde were rapidly removed in bronchial cells. Further, epithelial and fibroblastic cells, which were incubated with formaldehyde and the polymerase inhibitor combination of cytosine arabinoside and hydroxyurea, accumulated DNA SSB at approximately equal frequencies. These results should provide a useful background for further investigations of the response of human bronchial cells to various DNA damaging agents

  20. Preceding bronchial cutting for exposure of the pulmonary artery buried in scar tissue after chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomori, Hiroaki; Cong, Yue; Sugimura, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    It is often difficult to expose the pulmonary artery buried in a scar tissue, especially in lung cancer patients that responded well to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Difficulty to access pulmonary artery branches may lead to potentially unnecessary pneumonectomy. To complete lobectomy in such cases, a technique with preceding bronchial cutting for exposure of the pulmonary artery is presented. After dissecting the pulmonary vein, the lobar bronchus is cut from the opposite side of the pulmonary artery with scissors. The back wall of the lobar bronchus is cut using a surgical knife from the luminal face, which can expose the pulmonary artery behind the bronchial stump and then complete lobectomy. Fourteen patients have been treated using the present technique, enabling complete resection by lobectomy (including sleeve lobectomy in 3 patients) without major bleeding. The present procedure can expose pulmonary artery buried in scar tissue, resulting in making the lobectomy safer.

  1. Serum levels of total IgE and soluble CD23 in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Di Lorenzo

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare, during the pollen season, serum levels of total IgE and soluble CD23 (sCD23 from patients with allergic bronchial asthma, with those from healthy subjects. Significantly higher levels of total IgE and sCD23 were found in patients with asthma compared to the control group. Both in normal controls and in asthmatic patients, a significant correlation was shown between the levels of these two molecules. In asthmatic patients, significant correlations were found for both total IgE and sCD23, with lung function measured as bronchial responsiveness to inhaled methacholine. These results suggest that in asthmatic patients, in addition to the study of total serum IgE levels, the assessment of sCD23 serum levels may be helpful in the evaluation of disease activity.

  2. Gene expression analysis uncovers novel Hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) effects in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobo; Qiu, Weiliang; Sathirapongsasuti, J. Fah.; Cho, Michael H.; Mancini, John D.; Lao, Taotao; Thibault, Derek M.; Litonjua, Gus; Bakke, Per S.; Gulsvik, Amund; Lomas, David A.; Beaty, Terri H.; Hersh, Craig P.; Anderson, Christopher; Geigenmuller, Ute; Raby, Benjamin A.; Rennard, Stephen I.; Perrella, Mark A.; Choi, Augustine M.K.; Quackenbush, John; Silverman, Edwin K.

    2013-01-01

    Hedgehog Interacting Protein (HHIP) was implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, it remains unclear how HHIP contributes to COPD pathogenesis. To identify genes regulated by HHIP, we performed gene expression microarray analysis in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) stably infected with HHIP shRNAs. HHIP silencing led to differential expression of 296 genes; enrichment for variants nominally associated with COPD was found. Eighteen of the differentially expressed genes were validated by real-time PCR in Beas-2B cells. Seven of 11 validated genes tested in human COPD and control lung tissues demonstrated significant gene expression differences. Functional annotation indicated enrichment for extracellular matrix and cell growth genes. Network modeling demonstrated that the extracellular matrix and cell proliferation genes influenced by HHIP tended to be interconnected. Thus, we identified potential HHIP targets in human bronchial epithelial cells that may contribute to COPD pathogenesis. PMID:23459001

  3. Quantification of bronchial dimensions at MDCT using dedicated software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillet, P.Y.; Fetita, C.I.; Saragaglia, A.; Perchet, D.; Preteux, F.; Beigelman-Aubry, C.; Grenier, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the feasibility of quantification of bronchial dimensions at MDCT using dedicated software (BronCare). We evaluated the reliability of the software to segment the airways and defined criteria ensuring accurate measurements. BronCare was applied on two successive examinations in 10 mild asthmatic patients. Acquisitions were performed at pneumotachographically controlled lung volume (65% TLC), with reconstructions focused on the right lung base. Five validation criteria were imposed: (1) bronchus type: segmental and subsegmental; (2) lumen area (LA)>4 mm 2 ; (3) bronchus length (Lg) > 7 mm; (4) confidence index - giving the percentage of the bronchus not abutted by a vessel - (CI) >55% for validation of wall area (WA) and (5) a minimum of 10 contiguous cross-sectional images fulfilling the criteria. A complete segmentation procedure on both acquisitions made possible an evaluation of LA and WA in 174/223 (78%) and 171/174 (98%) of bronchi, respectively. The validation criteria were met for 56/69 (81%) and for 16/69 (23%) of segmental bronchi and for 73/102 (72%) and 58/102 (57%) of subsegmental bronchi, for LA and WA, respectively. In conclusion, BronCare is reliable to segment the airways in clinical practice. The proposed criteria seem appropriate to select bronchi candidates for measurement. (orig.)

  4. Current lung water measurement methods in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basset, G.; Moreau, F.; Marsac, J.; Capitini, R.; Botter, F.

    1979-01-01

    Two kinds of tracer method are used to estimate the lung water pools differing by the tracer intake and the sector observed. Airborne intake gives an estimate of the tissues irrigated by the lung and bronchial circulation, whereas vascular intake only shows the sectors perfused by the lung flow. Either of these methods is suitable for a general or regional analysis. In general methods the tracer is followed at the lung exit on expired air for the first method, on peripheral arterial blood for the second. Regional methods imply partial or whole-lung external detection systems [fr

  5. Radiological findings in congenital cystic disease of the lung in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heymer, R.; Benz-Bohm, G.; Arnold, G.; Koeln Univ.

    1982-01-01

    Three infants with congenital cystic disease of the lung are described. They consisted of a solitary bronchial cyst, an adenomatous cystic malformation and congenital lobar emphysema. The radiological appearance and differential diagnosis of these three conditions are discussed. (orig.) [de

  6. LUNG FUNCTION TESTING IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Fležar

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lung function testing in children above five years old is standardised similarly as is in adult population (1. Nevertheless bronchial provocation testing can be more hazardous since the calibre and reactivity of childhood airway is different. We analysed the frequency of different lung function testing procedures and addressed the safety issues of bronchial provocation testing in children.Methods. We analysed lung function testing results in 517 children, older than 5 years, tested in our laboratory in threeyear period. Spirometry was done in every patient, metacholine provocation test was used as a part of diagnostic work-up in suspected asthma. In case of airway obstruction, bronchodilator test with salbutamol was used instead of a metacholine provocation test.Results. The most common procedure in children was spirometry with bronchial provocation test as a part of diagnostic work-up of obstructive syndrome (mostly asthma. 291 children required metacholine test and 153 tests were interpreted as positive. The decline in expiratory flows (forced expiratory flow in first second – FEV1 in positive tests was greater than in adult population as was the dose of metacholine, needed to induce bronchoconstriction. The compliance of children was better than in adults.Conclusions. Lung function testing in children is reliable and safe and can be done in a well-standardised laboratory that follows the regulations of such testing in adults.

  7. New method in radiotherapy of bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macha, H.N.; Mai, J.; Stadler, M.; Koch, K.; Loddenkemper, R.; Krumhaar, D.; Schumacher, W.; Lungenklinik Heckeshorn, Berlin; Staedtisches Rudolf-Virchow-Krankenhaus, Berlin

    1986-01-01

    106 patients with inoperable malignant tumours constricting the central bronchial tree underwent endobronchial small-field radiotherapy with iridium-192 at high dose between June 1983 and September 1985. Treatment was performed using the computer-guided after-loading technique and a flexible bronchoscope under local anaesthesia. In complete occlusion of a bronchus by the tumour, a neodymium YAG-laser was applied (57 patients) to allow insertion of the afterloading probe. Endoscopy showed tumour regression in 75% of the patients, accompanied by clinical improvement. Pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gas analyses and pulmonary perfusion scans yielded a highly significant improvement of data after treatment. The procedure also proved effective upon exhaustion of external radiation. Apart from its positive palliation, endobronchial small-field radiotherapy using high doses of iridium-192 also has a curative effect, thus opening up a new approach to the therapy of advanced bronchial carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  8. Use of steroidal antiinflammatory drug provides further evidence for a potential role of PAF-acether in bronchial anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chignard, M; Le Còuedic, J P; Andersson, P; Brange, C

    1986-01-01

    We presently demonstrate that PAF-acether (1-O-alkyl-2-O-acetyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphoryl-choline) is formed by sensitized guinea pig lungs upon in vitro antigenic challenge. Pretreatment of the animals with a steroidal antiinflammatory drug, budesonide, almost totally suppresses this biosynthesis. Since budesonide inhibits the anaphylactic bronchoconstriction in actively sensitized guinea pigs, these data strongly support the assumption that PAF-acether is a mediator of bronchial anaphylaxis.

  9. Deposition of inhaled radionuclides in bronchial airways: Implications for extrapolation modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashazy, I.; Hofmann, W.; Heistracher, T.

    1996-01-01

    The laboratory rat has frequently been used as a human surrogate to estimate potential health effects following the inhalation of radioactive aerosol particles. Interspecies differences in biological response are commonly related to interspecies differences in particle deposition efficiencies. In addition, the documented site selectivity of bronchial carcinomas suggests that localized particle deposition patterns within bronchial airway bifurcations may have important implications for inhalation risk assessments. Interspecies differences in particle deposition patterns may be related primarily to differences in airway morphometries. Thus the validity of extrapolating rat deposition data to human inhalation conditions depends on their morphometric similarities and differences. It is well known that there are significant structural differences between the human - rather symmetric - and the rat - monopodial - airway systems. In the present approach, we focus on localized deposition patterns and deposition efficiencies in selected asymmetric bronchial airway bifurcations, whose diameters, lengths and branching angles were derived from the stochastic airway models of human and rat lungs (Koblinger and Hofmann, 1985;1988), which are based on the morphometric data of Raabe et al. (1976). The effects of interspecies differences in particle deposition patterns are explored in this study for two asymmetric bifurcation geometries in segmental bronchi and terminal bronchioles of both the human and rat lungs at different particle sizes. In order to examine the effect of flow rate on particle deposition in the human lung, we selected two different minute volumes, i.e., 10 and 60 1 min -1 , which are representative of low and heavy physical activity breathing conditions. In the case of the rat we used a minute volume of 0.234 1 min -1 (Hofmann et al., 1993)

  10. Stochastic model of radon daughter deposition and clearance in human bronchial airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.

    1996-01-01

    Morphometric measurements of human airway casts have repealed that the human bronchial tree is an asymmetrically dividing network, exhibiting individual variations of airway dimensions within a given airway generation Thus, a statistical correlation exists between the linear dimensions of a given parent airway and those of the asymmetrically dividing daughter branches. This statistical relationship, however, is constrained by correlations among various geometrical parameters. i.e., the human lung is not a fully stochastic system. From a statistical analysis of these morphometric data, the following geometrical parameters could be obtained for each airway generation or bifurcation: (i) probability distributions for diameters and lengths, ratios of parent cross section to the combined cross section of both daughters, ratios of major to minor daughter diameters, and branching angles for major and minor branches; (ii) correlations of diameters and lengths; and (iii) the probability of terminating the bronchial region as a function of both diameter and generation number. Since the original lung morphometry refers to total lung capacity, airway diameters and lengths were scaled down to functional residual capacity. (author)

  11. Interaction between gas cooking and GSTM1 null genotype in bronchial responsiveness: results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, André F S; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Minelli, Cosetta; Accordini, Simone; Sørheim, Inga-Cecilie; Pin, Isabelle; Kogevinas, Manolis; Jõgi, Rain; Balding, David J; Norbäck, Dan; Verlato, Giuseppe; Olivieri, Mario; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Janson, Christer; Zock, Jan-Paul; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvis, Deborah L

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased bronchial responsiveness is characteristic of asthma. Gas cooking, which is a major indoor source of the highly oxidant nitrogen dioxide, has been associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function. However, little is known about the effect of gas cooking on bronchial responsiveness and on how this relationship may be modified by variants in the genes GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1, which influence antioxidant defences. Methods The study was performed in subjects with forced expiratory volume in one second at least 70% of predicted who took part in the multicentre European Community Respiratory Health Survey, had bronchial responsiveness assessed by methacholine challenge and had been genotyped for GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1-rs1695. Information on the use of gas for cooking was obtained from interviewer-led questionnaires. Effect modification by genotype on the association between the use of gas for cooking and bronchial responsiveness was assessed within each participating country, and estimates combined using meta-analysis. Results Overall, gas cooking, as compared with cooking with electricity, was not associated with bronchial responsiveness (β=−0.08, 95% CI −0.40 to 0.25, p=0.648). However, GSTM1 significantly modified this effect (β for interaction=−0.75, 95% CI −1.16 to −0.33, p=4×10−4), with GSTM1 null subjects showing more responsiveness if they cooked with gas. No effect modification by GSTT1 or GSTP1-rs1695 genotypes was observed. Conclusions Increased bronchial responsiveness was associated with gas cooking among subjects with the GSTM1 null genotype. This may reflect the oxidant effects on the bronchi of exposure to nitrogen dioxide. PMID:24613990

  12. Bronchial artery embolization by using permanent particles for the treatment of massive hemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zu Qingquan; Shi Haibin; Yang Zhengqiang; Liu Sheng; Zhou Chungao; Xia Jinguo; Zhao Linbo; Li Linsun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Massive hemoptysis is always a life-threatening respiratory disease and requires emergency management. This study is to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of bronchial artery embolization (BAE) by using permanent particles in the management of massive hemoptysis. Methods: Thirty-three patients with massive hemoptysis who had failed to respond to medical management received BAE. The causative diseases included bronchiectasis (n = 24), bronchogenic carcinoma (n = 4), bronchiectasis complicated with tuberculosis (n = 2), bronchial disease (n = 2) and traumatic destroyed lung (n = 1). Embolization with sodium alginate microspheres (KMG) was performed in all patients, and additional use of microcoils was carried out in patients complicated with bronchial-pulmonary fistulae. All patients were followed up for at least 3 months. Results: BAE was successfully accomplished in all patients. The cessation of hemoptysis was immediately obtained in all patients, with a success rate of 100%. Recurrence of hemoptysis within one month after BAE was seen in 3 patients (9.1%, 3/33). No serious complications occurred and the mean postoperative hospitalization days of the patients were 10 days. Conclusion: With satisfactory instant clinical results, BAE by using permanent particles is a safe, effective treatment for the massive hemoptysis. (authors)

  13. Prenatal determinants of neonatal lung function in high-risk newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Loland, Lotte; Holst, Klaus Kähler

    2009-01-01

    newborns, the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood, in a single-center research clinic dedicated solely to this longitudinal birth cohort study. Lung function was determined at 1 month of age by infant spirometry (the raised volume rapid thoraco-abdominal compression technique) and bronchial...... had 7% lower baseline forced expiratory volume at 0.5 second. Sex or parental atopic disease did not affect the neonatal lung function and bronchial responsiveness. Maternal intake of paracetamol during the third trimester was associated with doubling of the bronchial responsiveness in the neonates...

  14. Blunt traumatic rupture of a mainstem bronchus: spiral CT demonstration of the ''fallen lung'' sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintermark, M.; Schnyder, P.; Wicky, S.

    2001-01-01

    Tracheo-bronchial injuries occur in less than 1 % of blunt chest trauma patients. Indirect signs, such as pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and/or subcutaneous emphysema, are revealed on admission plain films and chest CT survey. In most instances, however, tracheo-bronchoscopy is mandatory in assessing the definite diagnosis of tracheo-bronchial lesion. Occasionally, an abnormal course of a mainstem bronchus or a ''fallen lung'' sign, featuring a collapsed lung in a dependent position, hanging on the hilum only by its vascular attachments, may allow for CT diagnosis of a blunt traumatic bronchial injury. (orig.)

  15. [Evaluation of bronchial mucosa involvement in sarcoidosis patients using ¹⁸F-FDG PET-CT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunyang; Feng, Huasong; Zhang, Yan; Lei, Xiao; Liang, Yingkui; Ding, Xinmin; Meng, Jiguang; Han, Zhihai

    2014-11-01

    To explore the value of ¹⁸F-FDG PET-CT in evaluating bronchial mucosa involvement in patients with saroidosis. A retrospective analysis was conducted among 6 sarcoidosis patients with and 14 patients without bronchial mucosa involvement to collect the data including the standard uptake value (SUVMax/Mean) of ¹⁸F-FDG, serum angiotensin converting enzyme (sACE), and proportion of lymphocytes and CD4⁺/CD8 ⁺ T lymphocyte ratio in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The lung focal SUV(Max/Mean) was higher in patients with bronchial mucosa involvement than those without (7.04 ± 5.83/5.00 ± 4.69 vs 5.68 ± 3.66/3.82 ± 2.39), but such differences were not statistically significant (P=0.565/0.495). The SUV(Max/Mean) of the hilum of the lung and the mediastina lymph nodes were significantly higher in patients with bronchial mucosa involvement (13.28 ± 5.57/10.48 ± 4.43 vs 6.20 ± 1.77/4.52 ± 1.43, P=0.0003/0.0002; 13.84 ± 4.35/9.69 ± 2.74 vs 7.16 ± 2.52/5.28 ± 1.77, P=0.0004/0.0004). The level of sACE and CD4⁺/CD8 ⁺ T lymphocyte ratio in BALF were also significantly higher in patients with bronchial mucosa involvement (60.58 ± 16.3 vs 49.16 ± 13.3 IU/L, P=0.045; 7.30 ± 5.0 vs 2.90 ± 3.1, P=0.026). The proportion of lymphocytes in BALF was comparable between the patients with and without bronchial mucosa involvement (44.10 ± 10.3% vs 35.30 ± 12.5%, P=0.148). For patients with saroidosis, ¹⁸F-FDG PET-CT is useful in evaluating bronchial mucosa involvement, which is one of the key features of active sarcoidosis.

  16. Proximity credentials: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, L.J.

    1987-04-01

    Credentials as a means of identifying individuals have traditionally been a photo badge and more recently, the coded credential. Another type of badge, the proximity credential, is making inroads in the personnel identification field. This badge can be read from a distance instead of being veiewed by a guard or inserted into a reading device. This report reviews proximity credentials, identifies the companies marketing or developing proximity credentials, and describes their respective credentials. 3 tabs

  17. Human airway organoid engineering as a step toward lung regeneration and disease modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qi; Choi, Kyoung Moo; Sicard, Delphine; Tschumperlin, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    Organoids represent both a potentially powerful tool for the study cell-cell interactions within tissue-like environments, and a platform for tissue regenerative approaches. The development of lung tissue-like organoids from human adult-derived cells has not previously been reported. Here we combined human adult primary bronchial epithelial cells, lung fibroblasts, and lung microvascular endothelial cells in supportive 3D culture conditions to generate airway organoids. We demonstrate that randomly-seeded mixed cell populations undergo rapid condensation and self-organization into discrete epithelial and endothelial structures that are mechanically robust and stable during long term culture. After condensation airway organoids generate invasive multicellular tubular structures that recapitulate limited aspects of branching morphogenesis, and require actomyosin-mediated force generation and YAP/TAZ activation. Despite the proximal source of primary epithelium used in the airway organoids, discrete areas of both proximal and distal epithelial markers were observed over time in culture, demonstrating remarkable epithelial plasticity within the context of organoid cultures. Airway organoids also exhibited complex multicellular responses to a prototypical fibrogenic stimulus (TGF-β1) in culture, and limited capacity to undergo continued maturation and engraftment after ectopic implantation under the murine kidney capsule. These results demonstrate that the airway organoid system developed here represents a novel tool for the study of disease-relevant cell-cell interactions, and establishes this platform as a first step toward cell-based therapy for chronic lung diseases based on de novo engineering of implantable airway tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  19. Evaluation of Drug Utilization Pattern for Patients of Bronchial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Drug Utilization Pattern for Patients of Bronchial Asthma in a Government Hospital of Saudi Arabia. ... Background: Bronchial asthma is a social and economic healthcare burden. Drug utilization studies are ... Salbutamol and budesonide were the most common from each group, respectively. 89.5% of the ...

  20. [Safe local anesthesia in patients with bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, E N; Gromovik, M V

    The paper presents the analysis of studies of local anesthesia in patients with bronchial asthma. It was found that the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to sodium metabisulfite in patients with bronchial asthma must be optimized for development of local anesthesia selection algorithm in outpatient dentistry.

  1. The therapeutic evaluation and mechanism on treating bronchial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the level of bronchial responsiveness, which proved a better curative effect of Chinese medicine. The mechanism is probably due to relieving the airway inflammation by keeping the balance between Th1 and Th2 cells. Keywords: Ziyinqingre prescription; cough; bronchial hyper-responsiveness; therapeutic mechanism ...

  2. Assessment of quality of life among children with bronchial asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The global disease burden associated with bronchial asthma has continued to increase particularly among children. Asthma-related quality of life is a health related assessment of disease impact on patient and care givers. Aim: To determine the perceived quality of life (QOL) among children with bronchial ...

  3. Bronchial asthma among workers in Alexandria and its association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Many workers in Alexandria are exposed to a variety of occupational and environmental allergens and/or irritants that predispose them to the development of bronchial asthma. The present study was conducted to determine the role of occupational exposure as a determinant of occurrence of bronchial asthma ...

  4. December 2004 45 Bronchial Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis and chole

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2004-12-02

    Dec 2, 2004 ... Background: Gallbladder has not been associated with any allergic condition what so ever. However, certain patients with bronchial asthma and cholelithiasis have reported to the author improvement in their asthmatic attack after cholecystectomy. Methods: This was an observational study on 22 bronchial ...

  5. Impulse oscillometry in evaluation bronchial hyperresponsivness in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koruga Dragan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Impulse oscillometry (IOS is a method for estimating lung function which is used for early detection of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR and asthma. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of BHR, the correlation between spirometry and IOS and sensitivity and specificity of IOS in proving BHR in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis. Methods. The study included 81 patients with allergic rhinitis. From all of them, medical history was taken, allergy testing was done, as well as measurements of parameters of lung function by the IOS and spirometry before and after nonspecific bronchial provocation test with histamin via Aerosol provocative system. Changes of the IOS parameters to fall in FEV1 of 20% were measured and compared with changes in the spirometry parameters. After bronchial challenge test subjects were divided into two groups: the group with BHR (group 1 and that without BHR (group 2. Results. The mean age of participants was 25.7 ± 5.7 years, and 50.5% were men. Out of the total number of subjects with allergy rhinitis, 56 (58.9% had a positive BPT. After bronchoprovocation an average increase in the group 1 was 88.15% for Rrs5, 111.98% for Fres, and for AX 819.69%. The high degree of correlation between the IOS and spirometry was proven in the group 2, while the whole group 1 had a weak correlation between parameters of these two methods. High sensitivity and low specificity for Rrs5 and Fres compared to FEV1 in diagnosing BHR was proven. Conclusion. The study demonstrated a high prevalence of BHR in the study group of patients with persistent allergic rhinitis, poor correlation in relation to the spirometric measurements in the group with BHR and a high sensitivity and low specificity of IOS for the detection of early changes in the airways.

  6. Transfection of normal human bronchial epithelial cells with the bcl-2 oncogene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.H.; Kenyon, K.D.; Tesfaigzi, J.

    1995-01-01

    In vitro, studies examining the transformation of virus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells after exposure to chemical and physical carcinogens have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the development of lung cancer. Virus-immortalized HBE cells have been used because of both the limited life span of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells in culture (approximately 30-35 population doublins) and their resistance to in vitro malignant transformation. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV)-immortalized HBE cells have been used to study the genetic changes that occur after exposure to α-particles in vitro. Although this model may prove to be useful for studying the 18% or less of bronchogenic carcinomas found to contain HPV sequences, it is not an appropriate model for studying the majority of lung epithelial malignancies in which HPV DNA is not detected. This view is supported by the fact that HPV-immortalized cell lines commonly exhibit aneuploidy. This results of this study suggest that: (1) NHBE cells can be transiently transfected with the pCMVΒ vector; and (2) the antibiotic hygromycin-resistant transfected cells

  7. Surface to nuclear distances in human bronchial epithelium: Relationships to penetration by Rn daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, F.; Hovey, A.; McEwen, T.; O'Connor, R.; Unruh, H.; Bowden, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer in U miners is thought to be related to the inhalation of particulate Rn daughters. Since the depth of penetration by alpha particles is short, the thickness of the epithelium lining the bronchial tree may be a critical factor in the development of cancers at specific sites in the lung. The objectives of the study were to measure the thickness of the epithelium at all levels of the human bronchial tree, to determine the distances of epithelial nuclei from the mucociliary surface, and to compare these parameters in smokers and nonsmokers. Twenty-nine surgically removed specimens were examined; 26 were from smokers. No significant differences were found between smokers and nonsmokers, allowing us to treat the 29 cases as a homogeneous group. With progressive divisions of the bronchi, the epithelium decreases in thickness, and distances of nuclei from the surface are also less in the peripheral bronchi. Allowing for artefacts of tissue preparation, the mean distance from the mucociliary surface to the underlying nuclei varies between 17 and 38 microns

  8. Transfection of normal human bronchial epithelial cells with the bcl-2 oncogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C.H.; Kenyon, K.D.; Tesfaigzi, J. [and others

    1995-12-01

    In vitro, studies examining the transformation of virus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells after exposure to chemical and physical carcinogens have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the development of lung cancer. Virus-immortalized HBE cells have been used because of both the limited life span of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells in culture (approximately 30-35 population doublins) and their resistance to in vitro malignant transformation. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV)-immortalized HBE cells have been used to study the genetic changes that occur after exposure to {alpha}-particles in vitro. Although this model may prove to be useful for studying the 18% or less of bronchogenic carcinomas found to contain HPV sequences, it is not an appropriate model for studying the majority of lung epithelial malignancies in which HPV DNA is not detected. This view is supported by the fact that HPV-immortalized cell lines commonly exhibit aneuploidy. This results of this study suggest that: (1) NHBE cells can be transiently transfected with the pCMV{Beta} vector; and (2) the antibiotic hygromycin-resistant transfected cells.

  9. Basic interrupted versus continuous suturing techniques in bronchial anastomosis following sleeve lobectomy in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Ahmet Sami; Erol, Mehmet Muharrem; Salci, Hakan; Ozyiğit, Ozgür; Görgül, Sacit; Gebitekin, Cengiz

    2007-12-01

    Sleeve resection with or without lung resection is a valid conservative operation for patients with benign or malignant tumors; it enables the preservation of lung parenchyma. The aim of this prospective randomized study was to compare complications, operating time, and bronchial healing between the techniques of interrupted and continuous suturing for bronchial anastomosis in dogs. Twenty adult mongrel dogs each weighing 18-22 kg (average: 20 kg) were divided into two groups according to the anastomosis technique performed: group A, interrupted suturing and group B, continuous suturing. Each group comprised of 10 dogs. Following right thoracotomy, sleeve resection of the right cranial lobe was performed in all dogs. Basic interrupted sutures using 4/0 Vicryl (Ethicon, USA) were used in group A, and continuous sutures were used in group B. The median anastomosis time was 15.2 min (range: 13-21 min) in group A and 9.6 min (range: 8-13 min) in group B. In all dogs, the anastomosis line was resected via right pneumonectomy for histopathological investigation 1 month after sleeve resection. Histopathological examination revealed that the healing of the anastomosis was not affected by the suturing technique applied. One dog from each group died on the fourth postoperative day; Fisher's exact test, p=0.763. Our research revealed that the healing of the anastomosis was not affected by the suturing technique performed.

  10. Theoretical modeling of fine-particle deposition in 3-dimensional bronchial bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.T.; Rajendran, N.; Liao, N.S.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical model is developed for the prediction of the peak to average particle deposition flux in the human bronchial airways. The model involves the determination of the peak flux by a round-nose 2-dimensional bifurcation channel and the average deposition flux by a curved-tube model. The ''hot-spot'' effect for all generations in the human respiratory system is estimated. Hot spots are usually associated with the sites of bronchoconstriction or even chronic bronchitis and lung cancer. Recent studies indicate that lung cancer in smokers may be caused by the deposition of radioactive particles produced by the burning of tobacco leaves. High local concentrations of Po-210 have been measured in epithelium from bronchial bifurcations of smokes. This Po-210 is the radioactive daughter of Pb-210 which is produced from a long chain of radioactive decay starting from uranium in the fertilizer-enriched soil. It is found that the peak deposition flux is higher than the average deposition flux by a factor ranging between 5 and 30, depending on the generation number. The importance of this peak to average deposition flux ratio on consideration of environmental safety studies is discussed

  11. Using radioaerosols to monitor physiotherapy-enhanced mucus clearance at different levels of the bronchial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasani, A.; Pavia, D.; Clarke, S.W.; Agnew, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Patients with airways obstruction often find it difficult to clear excess lung secretions. Frequent coughing can clear the larger airways but may itself further damage the airways ciliated epithelium. Various physiotherapy regimes have been proposed yet objective evidence of their efficacy is sparse. Deposited aerosol particles - with an appropriate label for gamma imaging - can track clearance from different lung regions. Published reports have however tended to be equivocal in respect of clearance from the more distal conducting airways. Questions also arise as to coordination of transport rates at different levels of the bronchial tree. We therefore sought to re-assess requirements for effective analysis of physiotherapy-enhanced clearance to yield data on both peripheral and central airways clearance. (author)

  12. Using radioaerosols to monitor physiotherapy-enhanced mucus clearance at different levels of the bronchial tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasani, A.; Pavia, D.; Clarke, S.W.; Agnew, J.E. (Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-01

    Patients with airways obstruction often find it difficult to clear excess lung secretions. Frequent coughing can clear the larger airways but may itself further damage the airways ciliated epithelium. Various physiotherapy regimes have been proposed yet objective evidence of their efficacy is sparse. Deposited aerosol particles - with an appropriate label for gamma imaging - can track clearance from different lung regions. Published reports have however tended to be equivocal in respect of clearance from the more distal conducting airways. Questions also arise as to coordination of transport rates at different levels of the bronchial tree. We therefore sought to re-assess requirements for effective analysis of physiotherapy-enhanced clearance to yield data on both peripheral and central airways clearance. (author).

  13. Detection of genomic instability in normal human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to 238Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.H.; Fukushima, N.H.; Neft, R.E.; Lechner, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Alpha particle-emitting radon daughters constitute a risk for development of lung cancer in humans. The development of this disease involves multiple genetic alterations. These changes and the time course they follow are not yet defined despite numerous in vitro endeavors to transform human lung cells with various physical or chemical agents. However, genomic instability, characterized both by structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations and by elevated rates of point mutations, is a common feature of tumor cells. Further, both types of genomic instability have been reported in the noncancerous progeny of normal murine hemopoietic cells exposed in vitro to α-particles. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if genomic instability is also a prominent feature of normal human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to α-particle irradiation from the decay of inhaled radon daughters

  14. Usefulness of antioxidant drugs in bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawad, F.H.; Atabee, H.G.A.; Sahib, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a clinical syndrome with possible correlation to oxidative stress, therefore the effectiveness of some antioxidant drugs has been studied in management of chronic bronchial asthma. Methods: This study was carried out in the Al- Kadhimia Teaching Hospital between December 2008 to May 2009 on 56 patients of both sexes who were randomly allocated to 7 groups, plus 10 healthy volunteers as control group. Each group was given one of the following drugs: vitamin E, vitamin C, combination of vitamin E and C, selenium, zinc, allopurinol and garlic oil, in addition to their classical treatment of asthma and their pulmonary function tests were conducted as well as measuring the levels of serum zinc, calcium, and malondialdehyde (MDA) before and after treatment. Results: All asthmatic patients were suffering from oxidative stress and this was detected by measuring the level of serum MDA which was 2-3 folds more than the control group, and all antioxidants except allopurinol showed a beneficial effect of different degrees in the pulmonary function tests accompanied with clinical improvement of patients' condition and marked decrease in the number of daily attacks. Antioxidants can compensate the oxidative stress that correlates with asthma, can reduce the symptoms of asthma, and improve pulmonary functions. (author)

  15. Dosimetric lung models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.; Roy, M.

    1986-01-01

    The anatomical and physiological factors that vary with age and influence the deposition of airborne radionuclides in the lung are reviewed. The efficiency with which aerosols deposit in the lung for a given exposure at various ages from birth to adulthood is evaluated. Deposition within the lung is considered in relation to the clearance mechanisms acting in different regions or compartments. The procedure for evaluating dose to sensitive tissues in lung and transfer to other organs that is being considered by the Task Group established by ICRP to review the Lung Model is outlined. Examples of the application of this modelling procedure to evaluate lung dose as a function of age are given, for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings, and for exposure to an insoluble 239 Pu aerosol. The former represents exposure to short-lived radionuclides that deliver relatively high doses to bronchial tissue. In this case, dose rates are marginally higher in children than in adults. Plutonium exposure represents the case where dose is predominantly delivered to respiratory tissue and lymph nodes. In this case, the life-time doses tend to be lower for exposure in childhood. Some of the uncertainties in this modelling procedure are noted

  16. Regional Ventilation Changes in Severe Asthma after Bronchial Thermoplasty with 3He MR Imaging and CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomen, Robert P.; Sheshadri, Ajay; Quirk, James D.; Kozlowski, Jim; Ellison, Henry D.; Szczesniak, Rhonda D.; Castro, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To quantify regional lung ventilation in healthy volunteers and patients with severe asthma (both before and after thermoplasty) by using a combination of helium 3 (3He) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography (CT), with the intention of developing more effective image-guided treatments for obstructive lung diseases. Materials and Methods With approval of the local institutional review board, informed consent, and an Investigational New Drug Exemption, six healthy volunteers and 10 patients with severe asthma were imaged in compliance with HIPAA regulations by using both multidetector CT and 3He MR imaging. Individual bronchopulmonary segments were labeled voxel by voxel from the CT images and then registered to the 3He MR images by using custom software. The 3He signal intensity was then analyzed by evaluating the volume-weighted fraction of total-lung signal intensity present in each segment (segmental ventilation percentage [SVPsegmental ventilation percentage]) and by identifying the whole-lung defect percentage and the segmental defect percentage. Of the 10 patients with asthma, seven received treatment with bronchial thermoplasty and were imaged with 3He MR a second time. Changes in segmental defect percentages and whole-lung defect percentages are presented. Results Ventilation measures for healthy volunteers yielded smaller segment-to-segment variation (mean SVPsegmental ventilation percentage, 100% ± 18 [standard deviation]) than did the measures for patients with severe asthma (mean SVPsegmental ventilation percentage, 97% ± 23). Patients with asthma also demonstrated larger segmental defect percentages (median, 13.5%; interquartile range, 8.9%–17.8%) than healthy volunteers (median, 6%; interquartile range, 5.6%–6.3%). These quantitative results confirm what is visually observed on the 3He images. A Spearman correlation of r = −0.82 was found between the change in whole-lung defect percentage and the number of days between

  17. Respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness are related to dietary salt intake and urinary potassium excretion in male children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistelli, R; Forastiere, F; Corbo, G M; Dell'Orco, V; Brancato, G; Agabiti, N; Pizzabiocca, A; Perucci, C A

    1993-04-01

    To investigate whether dietary salt intake and urinary sodium and potassium levels are related to respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness, a cross-sectional study among 2593 subjects aged 9 to 16 was conducted in four communities of the Latium region (Italy). Questionnaires were administered to the parents, urine samples were collected, lung function, methacholine challenge tests and prick tests were performed. Information about familial and personal dietary salt use and respiratory health was collected from the parents of 2439 (94%) subjects. A total of 2020 methacholine challenge tests and 916 urinary sodium and potassium levels were available for analysis. Personal table salt use was strongly related to cough and phlegm apart from colds (adjusted odds ratios, OR, 1.87, 95% confidence intervals, CI, 1.20-2.90), wheezing apart from colds (OR, 2.19, 95% CI, 1.27-3.77), wheezing with dyspnoea (OR, 1.45, 95% CI, 0.98-2.12) and wheezing after exercise (OR, 2.16, 95% CI, 1.35-3.44). These associations were mainly found in boys. Use of familial table salt and canned food showed no relation to respiratory symptoms. Increased bronchial responsiveness was associated with a higher urinary potassium excretion in boys, but not with urinary sodium. In conclusion, personal table salt use is related to an increased prevalence of bronchial symptoms; an increase in bronchial responsiveness among those with higher potassium excretion also seems to be implied. Although it is difficult to interpret the results of this study in causal terms, the findings might be relevant to the distribution of bronchial symptoms and diseases in the population.

  18. Primary bronchial carcinoma or pulmonary metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasse, J.

    1987-01-01

    Operative treatment offers the best chance for long term survival in lung cancer of early stage. In the same way surgery may be the most efficient treatment of lung metastases from tumors of extrapulmonary site. The preoperative investigations have to prove that in case of lung cancer this is restricted to one hemithorax and in lung metastases that these are restricted to the lungs exclusively. They also have to prove that the lung function allows adequate resection. This is mainly lobectomy and pneumonectomy, sometimes sleeve resection and rarely segmentectomy for primary lung cancers. Resection of metastases preferably is by wedge excision or enucleation. In bilateral lesions median sternotomy is the favoured approach to both lungs in a single session. Long term results in primary lung cancer depend on the tumor stage. As a rule of thumb by each step of tumor stage the 5-year-survival rate is cut to half. In regard to histology small cell undifferentiated carcinomas are considered surgical indications only in the very early stage and need to be treated by adjuvant chemotherapy. The operative mortality is correlated to the extent of resection and by average is higher for primary carcinoma of the lung because of the usually higher age level and additional pulmonary damage. Patients operated for pulmonary metastases, however, are in lower age range and due to less functional risks, the operative mortality in most series is between 0 and 3%. Early detection of lung cancer, i.e., immediate and expert exploration of suspicious X-ray findings or respiratory symptoms particularly in smokers and with asbestos exposed individuals will contribute to an increasing efficacy of surgical treatment. (orig.) [de

  19. The possibility of evaluation on inflammatory change at respiratory tract in chronic bronchial asthma using 67Ga scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Mori, Yutaka; Kawakami, Kenji; Kikuchi, Ichiro; Shimada, Takao.

    1997-01-01

    67 Ga scintigraphy was performed in 17 patients with chronic bronchial asthma to grasp the inflammatory change of respiratory tract. On 67 Ga scintigraphy, abnormal accumulations were detected on lung fields in 6 cases (35.3%) of 17 cases. In 5 cases of these 6 cases, the defect areas which were pointed out on 81m Kr ventilation scintigraphy were matched to the abnormal accumulation areas which were pointed out on 67 Ga scintigraphy. In dynamics, the abnormal accumulation areas which were pointed out on 67 Ga scintigraphy were matched to the defect areas which had been at all times pointed out on 81m Kr ventilation scintigraphy. 67 Ga scintigraphy was expected to be one of index to grasp the inflammatory change of respiratory tract in patients with chronic bronchial asthma. (author)

  20. Bronchial arterial infusion versus bronchial combined pulmonary arterial infusion for pulmonary metastatic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Sheng; Dong Weihua; Jia Ningyang; Zhang Dianbo; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the pulmonary metastatic tumor response to different ways of transcatheter arterial infusion. Methods: Thirty-five patients with pulmonary metastatic tumors were randomized divided into two groups: 15 patients with 49 lesions treated with bronchial arterial infusion (BAI) and 20 patients with 65 lesions treated with bronchial arterial infusion (BM)combined with pulmonary arterial infusion (PAI). The therapeutic response was assessed by the WHO evaluation criteria. Results: The total effective rate(CR + PR) of BAI was 65.3% (32/49), PAI + BAI was 61.5%(40/65) showing no statistical difference. The median survival time of BAI was 9 mo, BAI + PAI was 11.5 mo, demonstrating no statistical significance. Conclusions: BAI should be the primary treatment for pulmonary metastatic tumor. (authors)

  1. The detection, diagnosis and therapy of human lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Cancergram covers clinical aspects of cancers of the lung and tracheo-bronchial tree, i.e., the lower respiratory tract. This includes primary lung cancer in both early and advanced disease status. The topic includes clinically relevant aspects of the prevention, detection, diagnosis, evaluation, and therapy of lung cancer. Certain aspects of metastatic lung disease treatment or therapy which involve aspects of interest to primary lung cancer are included. With certain exceptions, general pre-clinical or animal studies not directly related to the primary human disease are excluded

  2. Smoking-induced gene expression changes in the bronchial airway are reflected in nasal and buccal epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaohui

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and a significant cause of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Prior studies have demonstrated that smoking creates a field of molecular injury throughout the airway epithelium exposed to cigarette smoke. We have previously characterized gene expression in the bronchial epithelium of never smokers and identified the gene expression changes that occur in the mainstem bronchus in response to smoking. In this study, we explored relationships in whole-genome gene expression between extrathorcic (buccal and nasal and intrathoracic (bronchial epithelium in healthy current and never smokers. Results Using genes that have been previously defined as being expressed in the bronchial airway of never smokers (the "normal airway transcriptome", we found that bronchial and nasal epithelium from non-smokers were most similar in gene expression when compared to other epithelial and nonepithelial tissues, with several antioxidant, detoxification, and structural genes being highly expressed in both the bronchus and nose. Principle component analysis of previously defined smoking-induced genes from the bronchus suggested that smoking had a similar effect on gene expression in nasal epithelium. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated that this set of genes was also highly enriched among the genes most altered by smoking in both nasal and buccal epithelial samples. The expression of several detoxification genes was commonly altered by smoking in all three respiratory epithelial tissues, suggesting a common airway-wide response to tobacco exposure. Conclusion Our findings support a relationship between gene expression in extra- and intrathoracic airway epithelial cells and extend the concept of a smoking-induced field of injury to epithelial cells that line the mouth and nose. This relationship could potentially be utilized to develop a non-invasive biomarker for

  3. Effect of ipratropium bromide in bronchial asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taskar V

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inhalation of ipratropium bromide was evaluated in 20 patients with bronchial asthma. It was observed that there was no significant improvement in the forced vital capacity and the forced expired volume in one second, while there was significant improvement in the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR measured at 9 pm, after inhalation of 2 puffs of ipratropium bromide aerosol (0.02mg/puff three to four times a day for 2 weeks. Since PEFR is a measure of large airway function and cholinergic mechanisms are primarily involved for airflow obstruction at large airways, improvement in PEFR by ipratropium bromide highlights its role as a useful bronchodilator in patients in whom vagal reflexes are responsible for the provocation of bronchoconstriction.

  4. CT diagnosis of traumatic bronchial rupture in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epelman, Monica; Ofer, Amos; Guralnik, Ludmila; Klein, Yoram; Best, Leal H.; Bentur, Lea; Traubici, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Bronchial rupture is a rare and serious complication of blunt chest trauma in children. The diagnosis of this injury is challenging and requires a high degree of clinical suspicion. It is frequently associated with other severe injuries that may draw the focus of attention away from this potentially catastrophic but treatable injury. The radiographic findings of bronchial rupture have been reported in very few series. We report the findings in two children with bronchial rupture diagnosed by CT, in whom CT resulted in a significant change in patient management. (orig.)

  5. Marijuana and Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkin, Donald P

    2018-05-17

    As marijuana smoking prevalence increases in the U.S. concern regarding its potential risks to lung health has also risen, given the general similarity in the smoke contents between marijuana and tobacco. Most studies have found a significant association between marijuana smoking and chronic bronchitis symptoms after adjustment for tobacco. While reports are mixed regarding associations between marijuana smoking and lung function, none has shown a relationship to decrements in forced expired volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and few have found a relationship to a decreased ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC), possibly related to an association between marijuana and an increased FVC. A few studies have found a modest reduction in specific airway conductance in relation to marijuana, probably reflecting endoscopic evidence of bronchial mucosal edema among habitual marijuana smokers. Diffusing capacity in marijuana smokers has been normal and two studies of thoracic high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) have not shown any association of marijuana smoking with emphysema. Although bronchial biopsies from habitual marijuana smokers have shown precancerous histopathological changes, a large cohort study and a pooled analysis of six well-designed case-control studies have not found evidence of a link between marijuana smoking and lung cancer. The immunosuppressive effects of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol raise the possibility of an increased risk of pneumonia, but further studies are needed to evaluate this potential risk. Several cases series have demonstrated pneumothoraces/pneumomediastinum, as well as bullous lung disease, in marijuana smokers, but these associations require epidemiologic studies for firmer evidence of possible causality. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Tungsten-induced carcinogenesis in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laulicht, Freda; Brocato, Jason; Cartularo, Laura; Vaughan, Joshua; Wu, Feng; Kluz, Thomas; Sun, Hong [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States); Oksuz, Betul Akgol [Genome Technology Center, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Shen, Steven [Center for Health Informatics and Bioinformatics, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Peana, Massimiliano; Medici, Serenella; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Costa, Max, E-mail: Max.Costa@nyumc.org [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Metals such as arsenic, cadmium, beryllium, and nickel are known human carcinogens; however, other transition metals, such as tungsten (W), remain relatively uninvestigated with regard to their potential carcinogenic activity. Tungsten production for industrial and military applications has almost doubled over the past decade and continues to increase. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate tungsten's ability to induce carcinogenic related endpoints including cell transformation, increased migration, xenograft growth in nude mice, and the activation of multiple cancer-related pathways in transformed clones as determined by RNA sequencing. Human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) exposed to tungsten developed carcinogenic properties. In a soft agar assay, tungsten-treated cells formed more colonies than controls and the tungsten-transformed clones formed tumors in nude mice. RNA-sequencing data revealed that the tungsten-transformed clones altered the expression of many cancer-associated genes when compared to control clones. Genes involved in lung cancer, leukemia, and general cancer genes were deregulated by tungsten. Taken together, our data show the carcinogenic potential of tungsten. Further tests are needed, including in vivo and human studies, in order to validate tungsten as a carcinogen to humans. - Highlights: • Tungsten (W) induces cell transformation and increases migration in vitro. • W increases xenograft growth in nude mice. • W altered the expression of cancer-related genes such as those involved in leukemia. • Some of the dysregulated leukemia genes include, CD74, CTGF, MST4, and HOXB5. • For the first time, data is presented that demonstrates tungsten's carcinogenic potential.

  7. Critical role of constitutive type I interferon response in bronchial epithelial cell to influenza infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan C-Y Hsu

    Full Text Available Innate antiviral responses in bronchial epithelial cells (BECs provide the first line of defense against respiratory viral infection and the effectiveness of this response is critically dependent on the type I interferons (IFNs. However the importance of the antiviral responses in BECs during influenza infection is not well understood. We profiled the innate immune response to infection with H3N2 and H5N1 virus using Calu-3 cells and primary BECs to model proximal airway cells. The susceptibility of BECs to influenza infection was not solely dependent on the sialic acid-bearing glycoprotein, and antiviral responses that occurred after viral endocytosis was more important in limiting viral replication. The early antiviral response and apoptosis correlated with the ability to limit viral replication. Both viruses reduced RIG-I associated antiviral responses and subsequent induction of IFN-β. However it was found that there was constitutive release of IFN-β by BECs and this was critical in inducing late antiviral signaling via type I IFN receptors, and was crucial in limiting viral infection. This study characterizes anti-influenza virus responses in airway epithelial cells and shows that constitutive IFN-β release plays a more important role in initiating protective late IFN-stimulated responses during human influenza infection in bronchial epithelial cells.

  8. Lung Development and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    The onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can arise either from failure to attain the normal spirometric plateau or from an accelerated decline in lung function. Despite reports from numerous big cohorts, no single adult life factor, including smoking, accounts for this accelerated decline. By contrast, five childhood risk factors (maternal and paternal asthma, maternal smoking, childhood asthma and respiratory infections) are strongly associated with an accelerated rate of lung function decline and COPD. Among adverse effects on lung development are transgenerational (grandmaternal smoking), antenatal (exposure to tobacco and pollution), and early childhood (exposure to tobacco and pollution including pesticides) factors. Antenatal adverse events can operate by causing structural changes in the developing lung, causing low birth weight and prematurity and altered immunological responses. Also important are mode of delivery, early microbiological exposures, and multiple early atopic sensitizations. Early bronchial hyperresponsiveness, before any evidence of airway inflammation, is associated with adverse respiratory outcomes. Overlapping cohort studies established that spirometry tracks from the preschool years to late middle age, and those with COPD in the sixth decade already had the worst spirometry at age 10 years. Alveolar development is now believed to continue throughout somatic growth and is adversely impacted by early tobacco smoke exposure. Genetic factors are also important, with genes important in lung development and early wheezing also being implicated in COPD. The inescapable conclusion is that the roots of COPD are in early life, and COPD is a disease of childhood adverse factors interacting with genetic factors.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of emphysematous changes in the lung by computed tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Yoshinari; Hirayama, Takanobu; Hiratsuka, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Yasushi; Takamoto, Masahiro; Ishibashi, Tsuneo; Shinoda, Atsushi

    1987-01-01

    The present studies were undertaken to quantitatively evaluate emphysematous changes in the lung by CT scan. CT scans were made at inspiration and expiration at three levels (base, mid thorax and apex). Low density lesion ratio (LL %) was measured as the proportion of the area under -950 Housfield Unit in each lung field at expiration. Each value of LL % was determined in 6 lung fields (both lung fields at three levels). The LL % was calculated from the mean of these six values. The results suggest that LL % of the emphysematous lungs shows significant elevation of the values compared with those of normal lungs and lungs with bronchial asthma. (author)

  10. Challenges in the Management of Bronchial Asthma Among Adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges in the Management of Bronchial Asthma Among Adults in Nigeria: A Systematic ... Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ... Nigerian Thoracic Society, pharmaceutical industries, and the health‑care workers in general.

  11. Myocardial Infarction as a Complication of Bronchial Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbé, Hugo, E-mail: hugo.labbe.1@ulaval.ca [Université Laval, Department of Medicine (Canada); Bordeleau, Simon [Université Laval, Department of Emergency Medicine (Canada); Drouin, Christine [Université Laval, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine (Canada); Archambault, Patrick [Université Laval, Department of Emergency Medicine (Canada)

    2017-03-15

    Bronchial artery embolization is now a common treatment for massive pulmonary hemoptysis if flexible bronchoscopy at the bedside failed to control the bleeding. Complications of this technique range from benign chest pain to devastating neurological impairments. We report the case of a 41-year-old man who developed an ST elevation myocardial infarction during bronchial artery embolization, presumably because of coronary embolism by injected particles. In this patient who had no previously known coronary artery disease, we retrospectively found a communication between the left bronchial artery and the circumflex coronary artery. This fistula was not visible on the initial angiographic view and likely opened because of the hemodynamic changes resulting from the embolization. This case advocates for careful search for bronchial-to-coronary arterial fistulas and the need for repeated angiographic views during embolization procedures.

  12. Thoracic lymphangiectasis presenting with chyloptysis and bronchial cast expectoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orliaguet, O.; Beauclair, P.; Gavazzi, G.; Winckel, P.; Laporte, F.; Coulomb, M.; Ferretti, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    A 70-year-old man with recurrent undiagnosed episodes of bronchial cast expectoration and pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiography for 15 years is described. The diagnosis of chyloptysis was established by chemical analysis of the bronchial aspiration. We emphasize the radiological findings of this rare observation. The CT-associated lymphangiography showed mediastinal lymphangiectasis with retrograde opacification of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes as well as submucosal lymphatic vessels protruding into the lumen of the tracheo-bronchial tree without evidence of thoracic duct obstruction as well as a ''crazy-paving appearance.'' Congenital incompetence of the valves of the lymphatic vessels originating from the thoracic duct is held to be the cause. Chyloptysis and pulmonary lymphatic disorder should be sought in cases of bronchial cast expectoration. (orig.)

  13. The innate immune response of equine bronchial epithelial cells is altered by training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frellstedt, Linda; Gosset, Philippe; Kervoaze, Gwenola; Hans, Aymeric; Desmet, Christophe; Pirottin, Dimitri; Bureau, Fabrice; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

    2015-01-17

    Respiratory diseases, including inflammatory airway disease (IAD), viral and bacterial infections, are common problems in exercising horses. The airway epithelium constitutes a major physical barrier against airborne infections and plays an essential role in the lung innate immune response mainly through toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. The aim of this study was to develop a model for the culture of equine bronchial epithelial cells (EBEC) in vitro and to explore EBEC innate immune responses in trained horses. Bronchial epithelial biopsies were taken from 6 adult horses during lower airway endoscopy. EBEC were grown in vitro by an explant method. The innate immune response of EBEC was evaluated in vitro by treatment with TLR ligands. TLR3 is the most strongly expressed TLR at the mRNA level in EBEC and stimulation of EBEC with Poly(I:C), an analog of viral dsRNA, triggers a strong secretion of IFN-β, TNF-α, IL-6 and CXCL8. We further evaluated the EBEC innate immune response in horses that underwent a 4-month-training program. While training had no effect on TLR mRNA expression in EBEC as well as in bronchial biopsies, it increased the production of IFN-β after stimulation with a TLR3 ligand and decreased the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 after stimulation with a TLR2 and TLR3 ligand. These findings may be implicated in the increased risk for viral and bacterial infections observed in sport horses. Altogether, we report a successful model for the culture of EBEC that can be applied to the investigation of pathophysiologic conditions in longitudinal studies.

  14. [State of higher nervous activity in women with bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, T M

    2001-01-01

    A total of 103 women were examined with bronchial asthma, who demonstrated disturbances in the intrapsychic adaptation presenting as hystero-hypochondriacal and anxious alterations in the personality pattern with formation of a certain modus of thinking and behavior. Differences have been ascertained in the personality profile of patients with varying clinicopathogenetic forms of bronchial astma in those groups of patients differing in age, degree of severity of the condition duration of the analysis.

  15. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  16. Effect of aerosolized acetylcholine on bronchial blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charan, N B; Carvalho, P; Johnson, S R; Thompson, W H; Lakshminarayan, S

    1998-08-01

    We studied the effects of aerosolized as well as intravenous infusion of acetylcholine on bronchial blood flow in six anesthetized sheep. Intravenous infusion of acetylcholine, at a dose of 2 microg/kg, increased bronchial blood flow from 45 +/- 15 (SE) to 74 +/- 30 ml/min, and vascular conductance increased by 76 +/- 22%. In contrast, aerosolized acetylcholine at doses of 2 and 20 microg/kg decreased bronchial vascular conductance by approximately 10%. At an aerosolized dose of 200 microg/kg, the bronchial vascular conductance increased by approximately 15%, and there was no further increase in conductance when the aerosolized dose was increased to 2,000 microg/kg. Pretreatment of animals with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, partially blocked the vasodilatory effects of intravenous acetylcholine and completely blocked the vasodilatory effects of high-dose aerosolized acetylcholine. These data suggest that aerosolized acetylcholine does not readily penetrate the vascular wall of bronchial circulatory system and, therefore, has minimal vasodilatory effects on the bronchial vasculature.

  17. Bronchial Artery Embolization for Massive Hemoptysis: a Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: To assess the efficacy and safety of bronchial artery embolization in the treatment of massive hemoptysis.   Materials and Methods: A retrospective study on 46 patients (26 males and 20 females who were referred to the Razavi Hospital from April 2009 to May 2012 with massive hemoptysis and had bronchial artery embolization procedures. General characteristics of the patients including age, gender, etiology, and thorax computed tomograms, findings of bronchial angiographic, results of the embolization, complications related to bronchial artery embolization and clinical outcome during follow-up were reviewed. Results: The etiology included previous pulmonary tuberculosis in 20 cases, previous tuberculosis with bronchiectasis in 16 cases, bronchiectasis in 6 cases, and active pulmonary tuberculosis in one case. No identifiable causes could be detected in three patients. Moreover, massive hemoptysis was successfully and immediately controlled following the embolization procedure in all patients. One patient developed recurrent hemoptysis during one month following the procedure and was treated by re-embolization. No major procedure–related complication such as bronchial infarction was identified However none of the patientsexperienced neurological complications. Conclusion: Bronchial artery embolization is a safe and effective means of controlling massive hemoptysis and should be regarded as the first-line treatment for this condition.

  18. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome: thin-section CT diagnosis of obstructive changes in infants and young children after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, D M; Siegel, M J; Hildebolt, C F; Cohen, A H

    1998-09-01

    To characterize the thin-section computed tomographic (CT) appearance of bronchiolitis fibrosa obliterans syndrome in infants and young children after lung transplantation. Thin-section CT studies in six patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (age range, 2 months to 5 1/2 years) and in 15 control patients without obstructive airway disease (age range, 2 months to 7 years) who underwent bilateral lung transplantation were retrospectively reviewed. The thin-section CT scans were obtained during quiet sleep at a median of 24 months (range, 6-36 months) after transplantation. The CT studies were evaluated for mosaic perfusion, bronchial dilatation, bronchial wall thickening, and mucous plugging Final diagnoses in all patients were based pulmonary function test results. Thin-section CT findings in the six patients with clinically proved bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome were mosaic perfusion in five (83%) bronchial dilation in three (50%), and bronchial wall thickening in one (17%). Of the 15 control patients with normal pulmonary function test results, six (40%) had mosaic perfusion; none had bronchial dilatation or bronchial wall thickening. Mucous plugging was not seen in either group. Only the association of bronchial dilatation with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome was significant (P = .02). Infants and young children with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation are more likely to have CT abnormalities than those with normal pulmonary function test results.

  19. Effectiveness of thin-slice axial images of multidetector row CT for visualization of bronchial artery before bronchial arterial embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shida, Yoshitaka; Hasuo, Kanehiro; Aibe, Hitoshi; Kubo, Yuko; Terashima, Kotaro; Kinjo, Maya; Kamano, H.; Yoshida, Atsuko

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the ability of visualization of bronchial artery (BA) by using thin-slice axial images of 4-detector multidetector row CT in 65 patients with hemoptysis. In all patients, the origins of BA were well identified with observation of consecutive axial images with 1 mm thickness by paging method and bronchial arterial embolization (BAE) was performed successfully. Thin-slice axial images were considered to be useful to recognize BA and to perform BAE in patients with hemoptysis. (author)

  20. Modified method for bronchial suture by Ramirez Gama compared to separate stitches suture: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Mayer de Moura

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To experimentally compare two classic techniques described for manual suture of the bronchial stump. METHODS: We used organs of pigs, with isolated trachea and lungs, preserved by refrigeration. We dissected 30 bronchi, which were divided into three groups of ten bronchi each, of 3mm, 5mm, and 7mm, respectively. In each, we performed the suture with simple, separated, extramucosal stitches in five other bronchi, and the technique proposed by Ramirez and modified by Santos et al in the other five. Once the sutures were finished, the anastomoses were tested using compressed air ventilation, applying an endotracheal pressure of 20mmHg. RESULTS: the Ramirez Gama suture was more effective in the bronchi of 3, 5 and 7 mm, and there was no air leak even after subjecting them to a tracheal pressure of 20mmHg. The simple interrupted sutures were less effective, with extravasation in six of the 15 tested bronchi, especially in the angles of the sutures. These figures were not significant (p = 0.08. CONCLUSION: manual sutures of the bronchial stumps were more effective when the modified Ramirez Gama suture was used in the caliber bronchi arms when tested with increased endotracheal pressure.

  1. Internal microdosimetry of inhaled radon progeny in bronchial airways: advantages and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Werner; Fakir, Hatim; Pihet, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify advantages and limitations of the application of microdosimetric concepts for inhaled radon progeny activities in the lungs. The methods employed for this analysis were a recently developed Monte- Carlo microdosimetry code for the calculation of energy deposition in bronchial target cells and the Probability Per Unit Track Length (PPUTL) model, which relates these microdosimetric parameters to cellular radiation effects. The major advantages of internal microdosimetry of radon progeny in bronchial airways are: (i) quantitative characterisation of non-uniform dose distributions and identification of target sites with enhanced carcinogenic potential, (ii) quantification of low doses of alpha particles by the number of cells hit and the dose received by those cells, (iii) illustration of the random variations of cellular doses by specific energy distributions and (iv) establishment of a direct link to cellular radiobiological effects. At present, a major limitation of microdosimetry is the extrapolation of the response of individual cells to the resulting tissue response, which is still not fully explored. (authors)

  2. Blunt traumatic rupture of a mainstem bronchus: spiral CT demonstration of the ''fallen lung'' sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintermark, M.; Schnyder, P.; Wicky, S. [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2001-03-01

    Tracheo-bronchial injuries occur in less than 1 % of blunt chest trauma patients. Indirect signs, such as pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and/or subcutaneous emphysema, are revealed on admission plain films and chest CT survey. In most instances, however, tracheo-bronchoscopy is mandatory in assessing the definite diagnosis of tracheo-bronchial lesion. Occasionally, an abnormal course of a mainstem bronchus or a ''fallen lung'' sign, featuring a collapsed lung in a dependent position, hanging on the hilum only by its vascular attachments, may allow for CT diagnosis of a blunt traumatic bronchial injury. (orig.)

  3. Proximal collagenous gastroenteritides:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Riis, Lene Buhl; Danese, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    AIM: While collagenous colitis represents the most common form of the collagenous gastroenteritides, the collagenous entities affecting the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract are much less recognized and possibly overlooked. The aim was to summarize the latest information through a syste...

  4. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  5. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  6. The effect of various breathing exercises (pranayama in patients with bronchial asthma of mild to moderate severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxena Tarun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: The incidence of bronchial asthma is on increase. Chemotherapy is helpful during early course of the disease, but later on morbidity and mortality increases. The efficacy of yoga therapy though appreciated is yet to be defined and modified. Aim: To study the effect of breathing exercises ( pranayama in patients with bronchial asthma of mild to moderate severity. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of bronchial asthma (Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1 > 70% were studied for 12 weeks. Patients were allocated to two groups: group A and group B (control group. Patients in group A were treated with breathing exercises (deep breathing, Brahmari , and Omkara , etc. for 20 minutes twice daily for a period of 12 weeks. Patients were trained to perform Omkara at high pitch (forceful with prolonged exhalation as compared to normal Omkara . Group B was treated with meditation for 20 minutes twice daily for a period of 12 weeks. Subjective assessment, FEV1%, and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR were done in each case initially and after 12 weeks. Results: After 12 weeks, group A subjects had significant improvement in symptoms, FEV1, and PEFR as compared to group B subjects. Conclusion: Breathing exercises ( pranayama , mainly expiratory exercises, improved lung function subjectively and objectively and should be regular part of therapy.

  7. Magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) in bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, R.; Bittner, R.; Schoerner, W.; Weiss, T.

    1988-01-01

    Comparative studies were made of 47 patients suffering from histologically and cytologically confirmed bronchial carcinoma, using CT and MRT respectively. CT examinations were performed before and after intravenous administration of contrast medium, whereas the MR examinations were conducted via EEG-triggered T 1 and T 2 marked SE sequences in the axial and coronary planes. Both methods were assessed in respect of tumour visualisation and documentation of tumour spread. Staging of tumour and lymph nodes yielded largely concurring results for CT and MRT. Exceptions were seen in 7 of 10 patients with malignant involvement of the pericardium and in 3 of 27 patients with lymph node metastases located mediastinally and subcarinally where only MRT showed a positive involvement of the pericardium or lymph nodes (with possible consequences for the staging of the tumour or lymph nodes). Decisive advantages of MRT compared with CT were seen in the identification of infiltration of the aortic-wall, in the differentiation of the poststenotic syndrome, in the visualisation of the thoracic wall infiltration and functional information on blood flow rate in upper venolus obstruction caused by a carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  8. Influence of age on bronchial mucociliary transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchelle, E.; Zahm, J.-M.; Bertrand, A.

    1979-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance was measured in 19 healthy non-smoking male subjects, aged between 21 and 69, by analysing the decrease in bronchial radioactivity of an aerosol of resin particles (mean diameter 7.4 +- 1.5 μm) labelled with sup(99m)Tc. The mucociliary clearance was expressed as the percentage of radioactivity eliminated after 1 h. The measurements were made on two occasions with an average time lapse of 5 weeks. The intra- and inter-individual coefficients of variation were 15.6% and 41.5% respectively. The mucociliary clearance was significantly lower (P 54 years) than that observed (mean 34.1 +- s.d. 14.1%) in the younger subjects (21 to 37 years). A significant negative correlation (r=-0.472, P<0.05) was obtained between the ages of the healthy subjects and their mucociliary clearance. However, the fact that the results varied considerably within each age group suggests that factors other than age may have an effect on the mucociliary clearance. (author)

  9. The pulmonary artery does not participate in the blood supply of lung cancer: experimental and DSA study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Mingjun; Feng Gansheng; Yang Jianyong; Su Hongying; Zhao Zhongchun

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether or not the pulmonary artery participates in the blood supply of lung cancer and its change of morphology and blood flow in lung cancer. Methods: Two different colors of silicone were injected separately into the bronchial and pulmonary arteries of 33 rat models with squamous cell carcinoma of lung. The origin of blood supply of lung cancer and the morphologic change of pulmonary artery were observed under a stereo-microscope. The DSA of bronchial and pulmonary artery were performed simultaneously in 28 patients with lung cancer. Results: The pulmonary branch of rat and patients were reduced,thinned and occluded in the affected lung. The pulmonary artery did not form tumor vessel,and pulmonary blood flow and perfusion were reduced or absent in the affected area. Conclusion: The pulmonary artery did not participate in the blood supply of lung cancer. It is unreasonable to perform transcatheter chemo-embolization for lung cancer via pulmonary artery

  10. Fast T1- and T2-weighted pulmonary MR-imaging in patients with bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both, M.; Schultze, J.; Reuter, M.; Bewig, B.; Hubner, R.; Bobis, I.; Noth, R.; Heller, M.; Biederer, J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: A prospective study to evaluate the diagnostic potential and limitations of three fast MRI sequences in patients with bronchial carcinoma based on the comparison with spiral CT. Material and methods: Three fast chest MRI sequences from 20 patients with central or peripheral bronchial carcinoma were evaluated by two observers for relation of tumour to adjacent structures, lymph node enlargement, additional pulmonary lesions and artefacts. The information from MR-imaging was compared with the results from spiral CT. MRI comprised a T1-3D-GRE breath-hold examination ('VIBE', TR/TE 4.5/1.9 ms, flip-angle 12 deg., matrix 502 x 512, 2.5 mm coronal slices), a breath-hold, T2-HASTE sequence (TR/TE 2000/43 ms, matrix 192 x 256, 10 mm coronal slices) and a respiration-triggered T2-TSE sequence (TR/TE 3000-6000/120 ms, matrix 270 x 512, 6 mm transverse slices). The FOV was adapted individually (380-480 mm). Results: The presence of the primary bronchial carcinoma and infiltration of thoracic structures by tumour tissue could be demonstrated by all sequences. VIBE sequence was more suitable for detecting small pulmonary nodules than the other MRI examinations, but compared to CT still 20% of these lesions were missed. Contrary to VIBE and T2-weighted TSE scans, HASTE sequence was limited in imaging mediastinal lymph nodes due to missing relevant findings in 2/20 patients. HASTE images significantly provided the lowest rate of artefacts in imaging lung parenchyma (P < 0.001 in peripheral parenchyma), but spatial resolution was limited in this sequence. Concerning the differentiation between tumour and adjacent atelectasis (n = 8), T2-weighted TSE imaging was superior to CT and VIBE in all cases and to HASTE sequence in 4/8 patients. Conclusion: The combination of VIBE and HASTE sequence allows for an adequate imaging of thoracic processes in patients with bronchial carcinoma, limited only in visualizing small pulmonary nodules. To obtain more detail resolution and to

  11. Usefulness of CT-guided trans-bronchial needle aspiration biopsy for mediastinal lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Bing; Rong Fu

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the nature of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes, the study of CT-guided trans-bronchial needle aspiration biopsy (CT-TBNA) was conducted. Methods: According to classification and locating standard of mediastinal lymph nodes, CT-TBNA was performed in 158 mediastinal lymph nodes of 73 patients, including 54 primary lung cancer with enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes, 5 malignant lymphoma, 3 mediastinal abscess and 11 mediastinal inflammatory adenopathy. Results: CT confirmed that the needles were inside all 158 lymph nodes. Adequate aspirates for histologic and/or cytologic diagnosis were obtained in 136 of 158(86%) lymph node biopsies. No serious complications occurred. Conclusion: Locating standard of CT-guided TBNA was reliable. Puncture was safe and cost-effective. CT-TBNA was important for ascertaining the nature of mediastinal adenopathy and staging of neoplasms

  12. The behaviour of the pulmonary vessels on X-ray films of children with asthma bronchiale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegenbarth, R.; Toeroek, M.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1986-01-01

    On X-ray films of 51 children with asthma bronchiale the authors determined the vascular diameter of the right ascending pulmonary artery, the right vein of the upper lobe, and the peripheral vessels in the upper and lower pulmonary fields at an exactly defined distance from the hilus point, and compared these data with those of a control group of 143 healthy children. During the asthma attack the width of the right descending pulmonary artery and of the vein of the upper lobe corresponded to the values of the control group, whereas the vascular diameters in the upper and lower fields were clearly narrowed. Moreover, in most of the asthmatic children the authors found arc-shaped vessels and irregularly occluded vessels in the periphery of the lungs. (orig.) [de

  13. Role of the Lung Microbiome in the Pathogenesis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Hao, Ke; Yang, Ting; Wang, Chen

    2017-09-05

    The development of culture-independent techniques for microbiological analysis shows that bronchial tree is not sterile in either healthy or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) individuals. With the advance of sequencing technologies, lung microbiome has become a new frontier for pulmonary disease research, and such advance has led to better understanding of the lung microbiome in COPD. This review aimed to summarize the recent advances in lung microbiome, its relationships with COPD, and the possible mechanisms that microbiome contributed to COPD pathogenesis. Literature search was conducted using PubMed to collect all available studies concerning lung microbiome in COPD. The search terms were "microbiome" and "chronic obstructive pulmonary disease", or "microbiome" and "lung/pulmonary". The papers in English about lung microbiome or lung microbiome in COPD were selected, and the type of articles was not limited. The lung is a complex microbial ecosystem; the microbiome in lung is a collection of viable and nonviable microbiota (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) residing in the bronchial tree and parenchymal tissues, which is important for health. The following types of respiratory samples are often used to detect the lung microbiome: sputum, bronchial aspirate, bronchoalveolar lavage, and bronchial mucosa. Disordered bacterial microbiome is participated in pathogenesis of COPD; there are also dynamic changes in microbiota during COPD exacerbations. Lung microbiome may contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD by manipulating inflammatory and/or immune process. Normal lung microbiome could be useful for prophylactic or therapeutic management in COPD, and the changes of lung microbiome could also serve as biomarkers for the evaluation of COPD.

  14. Effect of inhaled furosemide and torasemide on bronchial response to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresi, A; Pelucchi, A; Mastropasqua, B; Cavigioli, G; Carlesi, R M; Marazzini, L

    1992-08-01

    Inhaled furosemide has been shown to reduce the bronchoconstriction induced by several indirect stimuli, including ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (UNDW). Because the protective effect could be due to the inhibition of the Na(+)-2Cl(-)-K+ cotransport system of bronchial epithelium, we have compared the protective effect of inhaled furosemide with that of inhaled torasemide, a new and more potent loop diuretic, on UNDW-induced bronchoconstriction in a group of 12 asthmatic subjects. UNDW challenge was performed by constructing a stimulus-response curve with five increasing volume outputs of distilled water (from 0.5 to 5.2 ml/min) and the bronchial response expressed as the provocative output causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PO20UNDW). On different days, each subject inhaled an equal dose (28 mg) of furosemide and torasemide in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study 5 min prior to an UNDW challenge. Furosemide and torasemide had no significant effect on resting lung function. The geometric mean value of PO20UNDW measured after placebo was 1.73 ml/min. This was significantly lower than that recorded after furosemide (4.25 ml/min; p < 0.025), but not after torasemide (3.05 ml/min; p = 0.07). Inhaled furosemide totally blocked bronchial response to UNDW in five subjects. In two of five subjects the response was also blocked by inhaled torasemide. A remarkable increase in diuresis was noted only after torasemide in most subjects. We conclude that inhaled furosemide has a better protective effect than does inhaled torasemide against UNDW-induced bronchoconstriction. However, the protective effect of furosemide is variable, with some asthmatic patients showing no change in bronchial response to UNDW.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Lung Surfactant and Its Use in Lung Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Rosenberg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The review considers the present views of lung surfactant (LS functions with emphasis on its protective and barrier properties and ability to maintain local and adaptive immunity. The composition of commercial LS formulations is analyzed. Data on qualitative and quantitative LS abnormalities are presented in various diseases in neonates and adults. The results of clinical trials of different LS formulations in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults are analyzed in detail. Recent data on the results of and prospects for surfactant therapy for bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary tuberculosis are given. 

  16. Bronchoplastic operations for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicenas, S.; Naujokaitis, P.; Jackevicius, A. and others

    2002-01-01

    Objective of our work was to evaluate efficacy of bronchoplastic operations for lung cancer and time to progression in combined treatment. From 1997 till 2001, 57pts were operated for early I-IIB stages of lung cancer. Operations were: tracheal resections in 3pts (5.2%), window right pneumonectomies in 5pts (8.7%), window left pneumonectomies in 2pts (3.5%), window right upper lobe in 22pts (38.5%), bifurcation resections 2pts (3.5%), sleeve right upper lobe resections 7pts (12.2%), sleeve left upper lobe resections in 11pts (19.2%). We had complications: in 7pts (12.2%) suture failure, 26pts (45.6%) obstructive pneumonia, 3pts (5.2%) kinking of anastomosis, 2pts (3.7%) bronchial bleeding, 6pts (10.5%) covered bronchial fistulas, 5pts (8.7%) died after operations. 32pts (56%) underwent radiation after surgery, 13pts (22.8%) radiation and chemotherapy. Three-year survival was in 82.4% (47pts), in 10pts (17.4%) disease progressed. Bronchoplastic operations are sufficient for early lung cancer treatment. Three-year was in survival 82.7% of pts. Seventeen percent of patients failed after combined treatment. (author)

  17. Quantum Proximity Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that at long wavelengths λ an s-wave scatterer can have a scattering cross section σ on the order of λ 2 , much larger than its physical size, as measured by the range of its potential. Very interesting phenomena can arise when two or more identical scatterers are placed close together, well within one wavelength. We show that, for a pair of identical scatterers, an extremely narrow p-wave open-quote open-quote proximity close-quote close-quote resonance develops from a broader s-wave resonance of the individual scatterers. A new s-wave resonance of the pair also appears. The relation of these proximity resonances (so called because they appear when the scatterers are close together) to the Thomas and Efimov effects is discussed. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. Features of Atopic Reactivity in Schoolchildren with Severe Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.I. Marusyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study involved 30 students with severe bronchial asthma and 30 children with moderate to severe course. Patients with severe bronchial asthma revealed a clear tendency to increase the relative content of interleukin 4 in peripheral blood, which indirectly indicates the severity of inflammation in the bronchi. Almost every second child suffering from severe bronchial asthma reported an increase in the concentration of immunoglobulin E (more than 545.3 IU/ml, and the odds ratio was 1.9 (95% CI 1.1–3.4. In the group of patients with severe bronchial asthma, cases of increased skin sensitivity to household allergens were significantly more frequent compared to the second group. Thus, the size of hyperemia over 15.0 mm was recorded in 81.5 % of children of the first group and only in 51.9 % of persons (Pϕ < 0.05 in the second one. Clinical and epidemiological risk and diagnostic value of individual indicators of atopic reactivity were determined to verify the phenotype of severe bronchial asthma.

  19. Psychological dysfunctions in women with bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia G. Astafieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The importance of psychosocial factors in the management of bronchial asthma (BA is discussed in clinical guidelines, including in international and national clinical guidelines. However, a specific evaluation of their role as a cause of poor asthma control in susceptible patients is required. Aim. Assessment of psychological health of women with different levels of asthma control.Materials and methods. The study included 108 women with asthma observed in Saratov center for Allergology who were stratified into 3 groups according to the control level (good, partial, uncontrolled, according to GINA. In establishing a diagnosis of asthma, standard methods were used (medical history, symptoms, spirography. To assess the level of control, ACQ-5 (Asthma Control Questionnaire 5 items-self-administered was used, to assess the quality of life, questionnaires AQLQ-S (Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire S; SF-36 (36-ltem MOS Short-Form Health Survey, a standardized and validated Russian version of the women’s health questionnaire WHQ (Women’s Health Questionnaire were used; for psychological diagnosis and evaluation of social and personal competencies that contribute to the preservation and improvement of human health (the intellectual, personal, emotional, physical, social, creative, spiritual aspects, integrated multimodal questionnaire was used. The comparison was conducted with a control group of men with bronchial asthma, comparable in age and level of control.Results. Women with poorly controlled asthma had worse performance of AQLQ-S (combined median score of 3,43 instead of 5,13 in the group of good control; p < 0,05; all scales of the SF-36, including the general condition (43,48 against 55,07, role of physical (25,93 against 57,76 and emotional problems (43,83 against 64,37; at p < 0.05. According to the WHQ questionnaire (the inverse relationship: the higher the score, the lower the quality of life in the group with poor control

  20. Delphi project in bronchial asthma. Two stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Benítez, M; Ibero Iborra, M; Sanz Ortega, J; Garde Garde, J

    2010-01-01

    From the paediatric point of view, we have undertaken two Delphi studies into bronchial asthma. The first is related to the consensus known as the consensus document of the five associations. The second is more recent and has been undertaken with GEMA (the Spanish Guidelines on the Management of Asthma). The aim of this paper is to carry out a descriptive study comparing the 2 Delphi processes and to objectively assess if in some way behaviour over the past two years has changed as far as expert opinion is concerned. In the consensus document those points giving rise to most controversy were the treatment of children under three years of age and treatment with immunotherapy in allergic asthma. It is also necessary to highlight how important it was at that particular point in time to define the phenotypes of wheezing and the predictive index of asthma in children of less than 3 years of age. Of the 52 questions in the questionnaire, in 13.6% the panel of experts reached no consensus in their positions. Following GEMA the Delphi methodology, 56 questions were asked in the first round of the questionnaire, and consensus was reached in 87.5%. As regards the paediatric part relating to diagnosis and treatment in children, agreement was reached on all the questions in the first round. Agreement was reached in 8.92% questions in the second round. Clinical guidelines and consensus documents can modify behaviour towards an illness, both in the diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2010 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. [Management of Lung Abscess].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, A; Hillejan, L; Ukena, D

    2015-10-01

    A lung abscess is an infectious pulmonary disease characterised by the presence of a pus-filled cavity within the lung parenchyma. The content of an abscess often drains into the airways spontaneously, leading to an air-fluid level visible on chest X-rays and CT scans. Primary lung abscesses occur in patients who are prone to aspiration or in otherwise healthy individuals; secondary lung abscesses typically develop in association with a stenosing lung neoplasm or a systemic disease that compromises immune defences, such as AIDS, or after organ transplantation. The organisms found in abscesses caused by aspiration pneumonia reflect the resident flora of the oropharynx. The most commonly isolated organisms are anaerobic bacteria (Prevotella, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Peptostreptococcus) or streptococci; in alcoholics with poor oral hygiene, the spectrum of pathogens includes Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Actinomyces. Chest radiography and computed tomography (CT) are mandatory procedures in the diagnostic algorithm. Standard treatment for a lung abscess consists of systemic antibiotic therapy, which is based on the anticipated or proven bacterial spectrum of the abscess. In most cases, primary abscesses are successfully treated by calculated empiric antibiotic therapy, with an estimated lethality rate of less than 10 %. Secondary abscesses, despite targeted antimicrobial therapy, are associated with a poor prognosis, which depends on the patient's general condition and underlying disease; lethality is as high as 75 %. Negative prognostic factors are old age, severe comorbidities, immunosuppression, bronchial obstruction, and neoplasms. Surgical intervention due to failure of conservative treatment is required in only 10 % of patients, with a success rate of up to 90 % and postoperative mortality rates ranging between 0 and 33 %. Treatment success after endoscopic or percutaneous drainage is achieved in 73 to 100 % of cases, with an

  2. Bronchoplastic and lung preservation surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, E.H.; Templeton, P.A.; Grillo, H.C.; Shepard, J.A.O.; McLoud, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Candidates for bronchoplastic surgery include patients previously considered inoperable because of central endobronchial tumors or inability to tolerate pneumonectomy, patients at risk for a second primary neoplasm, and young active patients. The authors reviewed over 50 bronchoplastic procedures, including carinal resections with bronchial reimplantations, carinal pneumonectomies, sleeve resections, and resections of the left interlobar carina. Conventional tomography provided the most accurate assessment of endobronchial anatomy. Computed tomography, unsuitable for intraluminal disease due to volume averaging of obliquely oriented bronchi, provided information about the extraluminal extent of disease, nodes, and the lung parenchyma. Complications including stricture, air leak, atelectasis, pneumonia, and residual tumor

  3. [Clinical features, diagnosis and surgical treatment of solitary air cysts of the lungs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudovskiĭ, L M; Platov, I I; Korenev, A E

    2001-01-01

    86 cases of solitary air cysts of the lung (6.83% of all maldevelopments) were analyzed. This maldevelopment of bronchial tree is found most often in men (10:7) and more often in the right lung than in the left (18:13). There were no clinical symptoms in 33 (38.37%) patients. Uncomplicated course of the disease was in 51 (59.3%) patients, the disease was complicated by infection in 28 (32.56%) patients. Solitary bronchial cysts were complicated by spontaneous pneumothorax in 8.14% cases, by hemoptysis--in 6.98%. Roentgenography of the chest thorax on two projections and tomography (including CT) are enough for diagnosis of solitary air bronchial cysts. Bronchoscopy, bronchography and APG are not much informative in diagnosis of cysts and should be used on special indications. Cystectomy or cystectomy with partial resection of lung tissue were performed in 67.14% patients with good results.

  4. IL-13 induces a bronchial epithelial phenotype that is profibrotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Bao T

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-13 and mechanical perturbations (e.g. scrape injury to the epithelium release profibrotic factors such as TGF-β2, which may, in turn, stimulate subepithelial fibrosis in asthma. We hypothesized that prolonged IL-13 exposure creates a plastic epithelial phenotype that is profibrotic through continuous secretion of soluble mediators at levels that stimulate subepithelial fibrosis. Methods Normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE were treated with IL-13 (0, 0.1, 1, or 10 ng/ml for 14 days (day 7 to day 21 following seeding at an air-liquid interface during differentiation, and then withdrawn for 1 or 7 days. Pre-treated and untreated NHBE were co-cultured for 3 days with normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF embedded in rat-tail collagen gels during days 22–25 or days 28–31. Results IL-13 induced increasing levels of MUC5AC protein, and TGF-β2, while decreasing β-Tubulin IV at day 22 and 28 in the NHBE. TGF-β2, soluble collagen in the media, salt soluble collagen in the matrix, and second harmonic generation (SHG signal from fibrillar collagen in the matrix were elevated in the IL-13 pre-treated NHBE co-cultures at day 25, but not at day 31. A TGF-β2 neutralizing antibody reversed the increase in collagen content and SHG signal. Conclusion Prolonged IL-13 exposure followed by withdrawal creates an epithelial phenotype, which continuously secretes TGF-β2 at levels that increase collagen secretion and alters the bulk optical properties of an underlying fibroblast-embedded collagen matrix. Extended withdrawal of IL-13 from the epithelium followed by co-culture does not stimulate fibrosis, indicating plasticity of the cultured airway epithelium and an ability to return to a baseline. Hence, IL-13 may contribute to subepithelial fibrosis in asthma by stimulating biologically significant TGF-β2 secretion from the airway epithelium.

  5. Lung dosimetry for inhaled radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.

    1986-01-01

    Lung cancer risk assessment for inhaled radon progeny requires a detailed knowledge of the dose distribution pattern throughout the human respiratory tract. Current lung dosimetry models take into acocunt aerosol deposition in a formalized airway structrue, modification of the initial deposition pattern by clearance mechanisms, and the energy deposited by alpha particles in sensitive cells of the bronchial epithelium. The resulting dose distribution pattern depends on the characteristics of the inhaled aerosol and the breathing pattern. Special emphasis has been laid on the age dependency of the anatomical structure of the human lung and the resulting doses, as well as on the rediological significance of enhanced aerosol deposition at bronchial bifuraction. The biological variability inherent in all morphometric, physiological and histological parameters involved in lung dosimetry suggests the application of stochastic modelling techniques. Examples for the use of Monte Carlo methods presented here are the random walk of inhaled particles through a random airway geometry, and the influence of the intra-subject variability of radiation doses on radiation protection standards. At the cellular level the concept of absorbed dose loses its significance and has to be replaced by microdosimetric concepts, such as internal microdosimtry or track structure theory. An image-analysis model allows us to construct specific energy distributions in sensitive lung cells. Application of a track structure model of alpha particle interaction with bronchial epithelial cells permits the calculation of probabilities for inactivation, transformation, and tumor induction. The latter has been used to analyse lung cancer risk at low doses in Chinese high background areas

  6. Wnt5a Is Associated with Cigarette Smoke-Related Lung Carcinogenesis via Protein Kinase C

    OpenAIRE

    Whang, Young Mi; Jo, Ukhyun; Sung, Jae Sook; Ju, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Park, Kyong Hwa; Lee, Jong Won; Koh, In Song; Kim, Yeul Hong

    2013-01-01

    Wnt5a is overexpressed during the progression of human non-small cell lung cancer. However, the roles of Wnt5a during smoking-related lung carcinogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. We investigated the associations between Wnt5a and the early development of cigarette smoke related lung cancer using human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells (NHBE, BEAS-2B, 1799, 1198 and 1170I) at different malignant stages established by exposure to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Abnormal up-regulation ...

  7. Problematic diagnosis of bronchial foreign bodies in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myllylae, V.; Paeivaensalo, M.; Seppaenen, U.; Hyrynkangas, K.; Linna, O.; Kortelainen, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Bronchial foreign bodies by children are dangerous and require immediate therapeutic measures. Findings and significance of chest film in the diagnosis of bronchial foreign bodies in 24 children were analysed. All patients were symptomatic. 18 patients had an abnormal and 6 normal auscultation finding. In three cases the physician did not suspect aspiration, and the diagnosis was delayed, which caused the death of one child. Roentgenpositive foreign bodies were found in 8 and -negative in 16 cases. Secondary changes (obstructive emphysema, atelectasis, pneumonia) were seen in 16 cases. In emergency cases the chest films were analysed by physician and later by a radiologist, who found 88% of them to be abnormal. Fluoroscopy of expiratory chest film helps to detect the unilateral emphysema more distinctly. The diagnosis must always be confirmed with bronchoscopy and extraction thereby is the adequate treatment of bronchial bodies. (orig.) [de

  8. OMALIZUMAB FOR CHILDREN WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA: INDICATIONS TO APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Kulichenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies to IgE are a totally new class of medications currently used to enhance the supervision over severe persistent atopic bronchial asthma. Omalizumab is the most well studied, first and only medication of this group, which is recommended for the application and is allowed for treatment of uncontrolled bronchial asthma among adults and children aged 12 and over in different countries of the world, including Russia. High omalizumab assisted treatment costs, as well as the need in the monthly visits to the doctor for the omalizumab injections are justified for the patients, requiring repeat hospitalizations, emergency medical aid, using high doses of the inhalation and/or systemic glucocorticosteroids. The article reviews the criteria for the selection of patients fit for omalizumab assisted treatment.Key words: omalizumab, anti-ige-antibodies, bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, treatment, children.

  9. Should the pulmonary scintigraphy of pre-surgery examination of bronchial carcinomas be made at rest or under effort?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, N.; Olivier, P.; Arsena, T.; Quiri, N.; Hassan, N.; Haouzi, P.; Borelly, J.; Marie, P.Y.; Karcher, G.; Bertrand, A.

    1997-01-01

    One of the key elements in deciding whether a patient, bearing a bronchial carcinoma, should be subject to a surgery is the predicted value of the post-surgery maximal exhaled volume per second (MEVS), usually determined by means of an at-rest pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy. At the same time, this parameter remains rather badly correlated to mortality and peri-surgical morbidity. The goal of this study was to determine whether under-effort pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy, i.e. in peri-surgical conditions gives different results in this case. Twenty patients bearing bronchial carcinoma have benefited by a pulmonary scintigraphy, successively, in the end of an exercise on ergo-metric bicycle and at rest. Two mCi of Tc-labelled macro-aggregate albumin were injected after effort, then 10 mCi one hour later, at rest. The homo-lateral lung perfusion to tumor, expresses in % of total pulmonary perfusion (% TP), was reduced at rest (-8 ± 6%) and at effort (-10 ± 8%), in comparison with the normal values. On the analysis of ensemble of population (43 ± 7% vs 41 ± 9%, NS) the % TP did not changed significantly between the at-rest and under-effort acquisitions. At the same time, 4 patients presented important variation, amounting up to 20% of total pulmonary perfusion: the % TP increased in 2 cases and decreased in the other 2 cases. In conclusion, in the patients bearing bronchial carcinoma, the relative perfusion of tumoral lung varies under effort in a non-negligible number of cases (4/20). Additional studies are necessary to establish the value of under-effort pulmonary scintigraphy, in the evaluation of the post-surgery respiratory functional capacity

  10. Dynamic innate immune responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Yoshikawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human lung epithelial cells are likely among the first targets to encounter invading severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV. Not only can these cells support the growth of SARS-CoV infection, but they are also capable of secreting inflammatory cytokines to initiate and, eventually, aggravate host innate inflammatory responses, causing detrimental immune-mediated pathology within the lungs. Thus, a comprehensive evaluation of the complex epithelial signaling to SARS-CoV is crucial for paving the way to better understand SARS pathogenesis. Based on microarray-based functional genomics, we report here the global gene response of 2B4 cells, a cloned bronchial epithelial cell line derived from Calu-3 cells. Specifically, we found a temporal and spatial activation of nuclear factor (NFkappaB, activator protein (AP-1, and interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3/7 in infected 2B4 cells at 12-, 24-, and 48-hrs post infection (p.i., resulting in the activation of many antiviral genes, including interferon (IFN-beta, -lambdas, inflammatory mediators, and many IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs. We also showed, for the first time, that IFN-beta and IFN-lambdas were capable of exerting previously unrecognized, non-redundant, and complementary abilities to limit SARS-CoV replication, even though their expression could not be detected in infected 2B4 bronchial epithelial cells until 48 hrs p.i. Collectively, our results highlight the mechanics of the sequential events of antiviral signaling pathway/s triggered by SARS-CoV in bronchial epithelial cells and identify novel cellular targets for future studies, aiming at advancing strategies against SARS.

  11. Lung clearance of polydispersed colloidal 198Au particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Addabbo, A.; Fanfani, G.

    1975-01-01

    Lung clearance was studied on a group of subjects over 65 years old and on subjects aged between 30 and 40. A slowing down of material deposited in the bronchial tubes (polydispersed colloidal 198 Au particles) was observed in the senile subjects. This phenomenon is apparently related not only to a reduced activity of the vibratile ciliae, in connection with the frequent metaplasia of the bronchial cylindrical epithelium, but also to a quantitative and qualitative change in the mucopolysaccharides forming the mucus secretion [fr

  12. [Iatrogenic bronchial obstruction: study of 4 atopic children with bronchial obstruction induced by acetyl salicylic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, L; Vuillemier, P L; Principe, A M; Petrillo, T

    1986-01-01

    The authors have studied the modification of the spirometric parameters in four atopic children, during nonallergic diet, after administration of ASA (400 mg). The examination of the respiratory functionality has showed a fall of parameters starting four hours after the challenge and with an increase of respiratory resistance. This bronchospastic reaction persisted for about eighteen hours to diminish 24 h. after administration of 400 mg of ASA. The study of spirometric values has showed a remarkable fall of MMEF, sign of small airways obstruction, but also of FEV1-CV for the involvement of the higher airways. The authors attribute the reaction to the metabolites of arachidonic acid (Leukotrienes) and to their different receptor site on the bronchial mucous membrane target cells. The authors conclude showing the gravity of injury that will induce imprudent administration of ASA in hypersensitive subject.

  13. A case of endobronchial lipoma mimicking bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevket Ozkaya

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sevket Ozkaya1, Hasan Demir1, Serhat Findik21Samsun Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Hospital, Samsun, Turkey; 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, Samsun, TurkeyAbstract: Endobronchial lipoma is a rare neoplasm of the tracheobronchial tree and it may cause irreversible pulmonary damage due to recurrent pneumonia. Rarely, it may mimic bronchial asthma. We present a 53-year-old woman with an endobronchial lipoma, which had been treated as a bronchial asthma for four years. She also had developed recurrent pneumonia three times.Keywords: endobronchial lipoma, asthma, radiology, bronchoscopy

  14. Cushing's syndrome associated with a bronchial adenoma. Possible periodic hormonogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, M S; Gutman, A; Bruderman, I; Myers, B; Griffel, W B

    1975-09-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic problems in a patient with ectopic ACTH syndrome caused by a malignant bronchial adenoma are discussed. Persistent Cushing's syndrome was present following apparent total adrenalectomy, but radioactive scanning with 131I-19-iodocholesterol showed the presence of residual adrenal tissue in the right suprarenal bed. Amelioration of the hypercortisolism occurred after removal of the bronchial adenoma. A paradoxical elevation of adrenocortical activity followed administration of dexamethasone and data are presented which suggest that periodic secretion of ACTH accounted for this phenomenon.

  15. Influence of bronchial diameter change on the airflow dynamics based on a pressure-controlled ventilation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shuai; Cai, Maolin; Shi, Yan; Xu, Weiqing; Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas

    2018-03-01

    Bronchial diameter is a key parameter that affects the respiratory treatment of mechanically ventilated patients. In this paper, to reveal the influence of bronchial diameter on the airflow dynamics of pressure-controlled mechanically ventilated patients, a new respiratory system model is presented that combines multigeneration airways with lungs. Furthermore, experiments and simulation studies to verify the model are performed. Finally, through the simulation study, it can be determined that in airway generations 2 to 7, when the diameter is reduced to half of the original value, the maximum air pressure (maximum air pressure in lungs) decreases by nearly 16%, the maximum flow decreases by nearly 30%, and the total airway pressure loss (sum of each generation pressure drop) is more than 5 times the original value. Moreover, in airway generations 8 to 16, with increasing diameter, the maximum air pressure, maximum flow, and total airway pressure loss remain almost constant. When the diameter is reduced to half of the original value, the maximum air pressure decreases by 3%, the maximum flow decreases by nearly 5%, and the total airway pressure loss increases by 200%. The study creates a foundation for improvement in respiratory disease diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Bronchial abnormalities found in a consecutive series of 40 brachycephalic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzi, Davide; Bertoncello, Diana; Drigo, Michele

    2009-10-01

    To detect abnormalities of the lower respiratory tract (trachea, principal bronchi, and lobar bronchi) in brachycephalic dogs by use of endoscopy, evaluate the correlation between laryngeal collapse and bronchial abnormalities, and determine whether dogs with bronchial abnormalities have a less favorable postsurgical long-term outcome following correction of brachycephalic syndrome. Prospective case series study. 40 client-owned brachycephalic dogs with stertorous breathing and clinical signs of respiratory distress. Brachycephalic dogs anesthetized for pharyngoscopy and laryngoscopy between January 2007 and June 2008 underwent flexible bronchoscopy for systematic evaluation of the principal and lobar bronchi. For dogs that underwent surgical correction of any component of brachycephalic syndrome, owners rated surgical outcome during a follow-up telephone survey. Correlation between laryngeal collapse and bronchial abnormalities and association between bronchial abnormalities and long-term outcome were assessed. Pugs (n = 20), English Bulldogs (13), and French Bulldogs (7) were affected. A fixed bronchial collapse was recognized in 35 of 40 dogs with a total of 94 bronchial stenoses. Abnormalities were irregularly distributed between hemithoraces; 15 of 94 bronchial abnormalities were detected in the right bronchial system, and 79 of 94 were detected in the left. The left cranial bronchus was the most commonly affected structure, and Pugs were the most severely affected breed. Laryngeal collapse was significantly correlated with severe bronchial collapse; no significant correlation was found between severity of bronchial abnormalities and postsurgical outcome. Bronchial collapse was a common finding in brachycephalic dogs, and long-term postsurgical outcome was not affected by bronchial stenosis.

  17. Two cases with giant lung abscess originating in the irradiated lung field following the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Takeshi; Inui, Hiroyuki; Yukawa, Susumu; Nomoto, Hiroshi (Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan)); Minakata, Yoshiaki; Yamagata, Toshiyuki

    1992-05-01

    Two patients with giant lung abscess originating in the irradiated lung field are reported. Lung abscesses occurred during the term of leukopenia following the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy of lung cancer. Both patients were diagnosed as small cell lung cancer, and were treated concurrently with chemotherapy (Cisplatin + Etoposide) and radiotherapy (total 40-50 Gy). Case 1 was a 59 years old male. Seven weeks after the first irradiation, a giant lung abscess was caused by methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) originated in the lung field with radiation pneumonitis, and giant bronchial fistula was formed, that showed the specific bronchofiberscopic findings. Case 2 was a 67 years old male. Twelve weeks after the first irradiation, a giant lung abscess was caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa originated in the irradiated lung field following the formation of a pneumatocele. MRSA and pseudomonas aeruginosa are important as cause of hospital infection, and both can cause lung abscess. However, in our cases, lung abscess were formed just in the irradiated lung field and rapidly enlarged. These clinical findings suggested that myelosuppression and radiation injury of lung tissue might cause such giant lung abscess. (author).

  18. Two cases with giant lung abscess originating in the irradiated lung field following the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Takeshi; Inui, Hiroyuki; Yukawa, Susumu; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Minakata, Yoshiaki; Yamagata, Toshiyuki.

    1992-01-01

    Two patients with giant lung abscess originating in the irradiated lung field are reported. Lung abscesses occurred during the term of leukopenia following the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy of lung cancer. Both patients were diagnosed as small cell lung cancer, and were treated concurrently with chemotherapy (Cisplatin + Etoposide) and radiotherapy (total 40-50 Gy). Case 1 was a 59 years old male. Seven weeks after the first irradiation, a giant lung abscess was caused by methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) originated in the lung field with radiation pneumonitis, and giant bronchial fistula was formed, that showed the specific bronchofiberscopic findings. Case 2 was a 67 years old male. Twelve weeks after the first irradiation, a giant lung abscess was caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa originated in the irradiated lung field following the formation of a pneumatocele. MRSA and pseudomonas aeruginosa are important as cause of hospital infection, and both can cause lung abscess. However, in our cases, lung abscess were formed just in the irradiated lung field and rapidly enlarged. These clinical findings suggested that myelosuppression and radiation injury of lung tissue might cause such giant lung abscess. (author)

  19. Proximity friction reexamined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krappe, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    The contribution of inelastic excitations to radial and tangential friction form-factors in heavy-ion collisions is investigated in the frame-work of perturbation theory. The dependence of the form factors on the essential geometrical and level-density parameters of the scattering system is exhibited in a rather closed form. The conditions for the existence of time-local friction coefficients are discussed. Results are compared to form factors from other models, in particular the transfer-related proximity friction. For the radial friction coefficient the inelastic excitation mechanism seems to be the dominant contribution in peripheral collisions. (orig.)

  20. Proximal femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Lawrence X

    2002-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal femur include fractures of the head, neck, intertrochanteric, and subtrochanteric regions. Head fractures commonly accompany dislocations. Neck fractures and intertrochanteric fractures occur with greatest frequency in elderly patients with a low bone mineral density and are produced by low-energy mechanisms. Subtrochanteric fractures occur in a predominantly strong cortical osseous region which is exposed to large compressive stresses. Implants used to address these fractures must be able to accommodate significant loads while the fractures consolidate. Complications secondary to these injuries produce significant morbidity and include infection, nonunion, malunion, decubitus ulcers, fat emboli, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolus, pneumonia, myocardial infarction, stroke, and death.

  1. Utility of 67Ga scintigraphy and bronchial washings in the diagnosis and treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuazon, C.U.; Delaney, M.D.; Simon, G.L.; Witorsch, P.; Varma, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and suspected Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were evaluated by 67 Ga scintigraphy and fiberoptic bronchoscopy for initial diagnosis and response to therapy. Lung uptake of 67 Ga was demonstrated in 100% of AIDS patients with P. carinii pneumonia, including those with subclinical infection. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy identified P. carinii in the bronchial washings of 100% of cases (19 patients), whereas only 13 of 16 (81%) patients had P. carinii in lung tissue obtained by transbronchial biopsy. Repeat fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed in 16 of 20 patients. After 2 to 4 wk of therapy, P. carinii was identified in bronchial washings in 8 of 16 (50%) patients and in transbronchial biopsy in 1 of 10 (10%) patients examined. Bronchial washing has a higher yield than transbronchial biopsy in demonstrating P. carinii in patients with AIDS and may evolve as the procedure of choice in such patients. Based on the clinical course and results of 67 Ga scintigraphy and fiberoptic bronchoscopy in AIDS patients with P. carinii pneumonia, optimal therapy may require at least 3 wk of treatment

  2. [Lung dysfunction in patients with severe chronic obstructive bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2005-01-01

    VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TCL, TGV, RV, Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 36 patients with severe chronic obstructive lung disease (FEV1 volumes and capacities; 83.3% of the patients had pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction. Impaired bronchial patency mainly appeared as decreased FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, Raw, Rin, Rex; altered lung volumes and capacities manifested by increased RV, TGV, and TLC, and by decreased VC and FVC; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction showed up as lowered PaO2 and DLCO-SS, as decreased or increased PaCO2. The observed bronchial patency disorders varied from significant to severe; functional changes in lung volumes and capacities were mild to severe.

  3. Echosonography with proximity sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaisiam, W; Laithong, T; Meekhun, S; Chaiwathyothin, N; Thanlarp, P; Danworaphong, S

    2013-01-01

    We propose the use of a commercial ultrasonic proximity sensor kit for profiling an altitude-varying surface by employing echosonography. The proximity sensor kit, two identical transducers together with its dedicated operating circuit, is used as a profiler for the construction of an image. Ultrasonic pulses are emitted from one of the transducers and received by the other. The time duration between the pulses allows us to determine the traveling distance of each pulse. In the experiment, the circuit is used with the addition of two copper wires for directing the outgoing and incoming signals to an oscilloscope. The time of flight of ultrasonic pulses can thus be determined. Square grids of 5 × 5 cm 2 are made from fishing lines, forming pixels in the image. The grids are designed to hold the detection unit in place, about 30 cm above a flat surface. The surface to be imaged is constructed to be height varying and placed on the flat surface underneath the grids. Our result shows that an image of the profiled surface can be created by varying the location of the detection unit along the grid. We also investigate the deviation in relation to the time of flight of the ultrasonic pulse. Such an experiment should be valuable for conveying the concept of ultrasonic imaging to physical and medical science undergraduate students. Due to its simplicity, the setup could be made in any undergraduate laboratory relatively inexpensively and it requires no complex parts. The results illustrate the concept of echosonography. (paper)

  4. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer

  5. [Clinical characteristics and condition of the bronchial tree in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in combination with hyperoxaluria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoseev, G B; Petrova, M A; Shaĭlieva, L O; Kakliugin, A P; Zorina, M L; Sakharov, A N; Pavliukova, N O

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate peculiarities of a clinical course and changes in bronchial mucosa in bronchial asthma (BA) patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in combination with hyperoxaluria (HOU); informative value of some laboratory and device findings including oxalates assay in bronchial lavage fluid for specification of the diagnosis, role of oxalates in development of obstructive syndrome and choice of optimal therapy. Oxalates were examined in daily urine, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and exhaled air condensate of 104 patients with BA and COPD, 77 of which had HOU and an atypical course of bronchial obstruction syndrome. Conception of airways inflammation in patients with oxalate metabolism disturbances is proposed. It is shown that insoluble oxalates participate in pathogenesis of bronchial obstruction. Oxalate metabolism disturbances are an important factor in pathogenesis of airways inflammation and development of bronchial obstruction in predisposed patients. Therefore, administration of insoluble oxalates lowering therapy may effectively prevent formation and progression of obstructive pulmonary diseases in this group of patients.

  6. Exposure to urban PM1 in rats: development of bronchial inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filep, Ágnes; Fodor, Gergely H; Kun-Szabó, Fruzsina; Tiszlavicz, László; Rázga, Zsolt; Bozsó, Gábor; Bozóki, Zoltán; Szabó, Gábor; Peták, Ferenc

    2016-03-10

    Several epidemiological and laboratory studies have evidenced the fact that atmospheric particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of respiratory morbidity. It is well known that the smallest fraction of PM (PM1 - particulate matter having a diameter below 1 μm) penetrates the deepest into the airways. The ratio of the different size fractions in PM is highly variable, but in industrial areas PM1 can be significant. Despite these facts, the health effects of PM1 have been poorly investigated and air quality standards are based on PM10 and PM2.5 (PM having diameters below 10 μm and 2.5 μm, respectively) concentrations. Therefore, this study aimed at determining whether exposure to ambient PM1 at a near alert threshold level for PM10 has respiratory consequences in rats. Rats were either exposed for 6 weeks to 100 μg/m(3) (alert threshold level for PM10 in Hungary) urban submicron aerosol, or were kept in room air. End-expiratory lung volume, airway resistance (Raw) and respiratory tissue mechanics were measured. Respiratory mechanics were measured under baseline conditions and following intravenous methacholine challenges to characterize the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AH). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed and lung histology was performed. No significant differences were detected in lung volume and mechanical parameters at baseline. However, the exposed rats exhibited significantly greater MCh-induced responses in Raw, demonstrating the progression of AH. The associated bronchial inflammation was evidenced by the accumulation of inflammatory cells in BALF and by lung histology. Our findings suggest that exposure to concentrated ambient PM1 (mass concentration at the threshold level for PM10) leads to the development of mild respiratory symptoms in healthy adult rats, which may suggest a need for the reconsideration of threshold limits for airborne PM1.

  7. Non-bronchial collateral supply from the left gastric artery in massive haemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellars, N.; Belli, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Two patients presented with recurrent, massive haemoptysis. Arteriography, including thoracoabdominal aortograms, revealed in both cases large non-bronchial collaterals arising from the left gastric artery. In the first case the non-bronchial collateral supplied the upper left lobe and in the second case it supplied the middle right lobe. Percutaneous embolisation of bronchial and non-bronchial collateral branches has become an accepted procedure in controlling massive or recurrent haemoptysis. Accurate identification of the non-bronchial collateral arterial feeders is essential for successful embolotherapy. (orig.)

  8. Challenges in the Management of Bronchial Asthma Among Adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World‑wide, it is estimated that 300 million people are affected with bronchial asthma. .... years of study, design, the focus of the challenge (diagnosis, treatment .... nebulizer for delivering large bronchodilator doses in patients with severe acute ..... Limitations UK Findings, poster presented at the British. Thoracic Society.

  9. Assessment of Serum Vitamin D in Patients with Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham E. Abd El Aaty

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent in asthmatic patients, there was a strong correlation between asthma severity and 25(OH vitamin D concentrations and there was a direct and a positive significant correlation between vitamin D levels and pulmonary function tests in asthmatic patients, so the measurement of serum vitamin D levels in patients with bronchial asthma is very useful.

  10. Bronchial asthma among workers in Alexandria and its association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noha S. Elshaer

    2011-06-23

    Jun 23, 2011 ... chest tightness and coughing particularly at night or in the early morning; (e) ... workers with bronchial asthma, bronchodilator treatment was withdrawn prior to ...... pared to subjects who had both active genes62; this finding ..... S-transferase genotypes GSTM1 and GSTT1 in cancer suscepti- bility. Cancer ...

  11. Features of Acute Treatment of Bronchial Obstruction Syndrome in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.N. Okhotnikova

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to a problem of bronchial obstruction in infants. There have been considered the pathogenesis of this pathology, its clinical manifestation and complications, features of treatment focusing on combined therapy use (medication Berodual containing β2-agonist of fenoterol hydrobromide and anticholinergic drug ipratropium bromide.

  12. Processing bronchial sonograms to detect respiratory cycle fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureev, A Sh; Zhdanov, D S; Zemlyakov, I Yu; Svetlik, M V

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the authors' results of work on the development of a method for the automated assessment of the state of the human bronchopulmonary system based on acoustic data. In particular, the article covers the method of detecting breath sounds on bronchial sonograms obtained during the auscultation process

  13. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis as a cause of bronchial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) occurs in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis. When aspergillus fumigatus spores are inhaled they grow in bronchial mucous as hyphae. It occurs in non immunocompromised patients and belongs to the hypersensitivity disorders induced by Aspergillus.

  14. Advice concerning the early diagnosis of bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Bronchial carcinoma is in the Netherlands for men the most frequent type of cancer; the incidence in women is rising. In the Netherlands nowadays, per year about 7100 persons die of this disease which therefore constitutes an important public health problem. The request of advice asks - among other things - whether in the future the periodical X-ray examination of the thorax for the detection of tuberculosis of persons over 40 years can be continued for presymptomatic cases of bronchial carcinoma. The available relevant literature does not yet give indications that periodical mass radiography has any influence on the morbidity and mortality of the disease. On the other hand, literature describing clinical experience shows that the prognosis of patients with bronchial carcinoma, detected in an early presymptomatic stage, is essentially better than in the case of patients with symptomatic disease. A critical analysis of the literature does not furnish epidemiological arguments to recommend periodical mass radiography for bronchial carcinoma. However, because lungcancer forms an extremely important public health problem and because the scarcity of randomized; controlled studies in this field, the committee advises - from a scientific point of view - to perform such a study in one or preferably two regions in the Netherlands. A number of conditions are mentioned which such a study at least should meet. (Auth.)

  15. Mechanical compression attenuates normal human bronchial epithelial wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malavia Nikita

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway narrowing associated with chronic asthma results in the transmission of injurious compressive forces to the bronchial epithelium and promotes the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and the denudation of the bronchial epithelium. While the individual effects of compression or denudation are well characterized, there is no data to elucidate how these cells respond to the application of mechanical compression in the presence of a compromised epithelial layer. Methods Accordingly, differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to one of four conditions: 1 unperturbed control cells, 2 single scrape wound only, 3 static compression (6 hours of 30 cmH2O, and 4 6 hours of static compression after a scrape wound. Following treatment, wound closure rate was recorded, media was assayed for mediator content and the cytoskeletal network was fluorescently labeled. Results We found that mechanical compression and scrape injury increase TGF-β2 and endothelin-1 secretion, while EGF content in the media is attenuated with both injury modes. The application of compression after a pre-existing scrape wound augmented these observations, and also decreased PGE2 media content. Compression stimulated depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton and significantly attenuated wound healing. Closure rate was partially restored with the addition of exogenous PGE2, but not EGF. Conclusion Our results suggest that mechanical compression reduces the capacity of the bronchial epithelium to close wounds, and is, in part, mediated by PGE2 and a compromised cytoskeleton.

  16. Children's proximal societal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt

    2018-01-01

    that is above or outside the institutional setting or the children’s everyday life, but something that is represented through societal structures and actual persons participating (in political ways) within the institutional settings, in ways that has meaning to children’s possibilities to participate, learn...... and develop. Understanding school or kindergarten as (part of) the children’s proximal societal conditions for development and learning, means for instance that considerations about an inclusive agenda are no longer simply thoughts about the school – for economic reasons – having space for as many pupils...... as possible (schools for all). Such thoughts can be supplemented by reflections about which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to present our children with, and which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to set up as the condition for children’s participation and development. The point is to clarify or sharpen...

  17. LINE-1 couples EMT programming with acquisition of oncogenic phenotypes in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Reyes, Elsa M; Aispuro, Ivan; Tavera-Garcia, Marco A; Field, Matthew; Moore, Sara; Ramos, Irma; Ramos, Kenneth S

    2017-11-28

    Although several lines of evidence have established the central role of epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) in malignant progression of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), the molecular events connecting EMT to malignancy remain poorly understood. This study presents evidence that Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposon couples EMT programming with malignancy in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). This conclusion is supported by studies showing that: 1) activation of EMT programming by TGF-β1 increases LINE-1 mRNAs and protein; 2) the lung carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene coregulates TGF-β1 and LINE-1 mRNAs, with LINE-1 positioned downstream of TGF-β1 signaling; and, 3) forced expression of LINE-1 in BEAS-2B cells recapitulates EMT programming and induces malignant phenotypes and tumorigenesis in vivo . These findings identify a TGFβ1-LINE-1 axis as a critical effector pathway that can be targeted for the development of precision therapies during malignant progression of intractable NSCLCs.

  18. Recurrent exposure to nicotine differentiates human bronchial epithelial cells via epidermal growth factor receptor activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Garcia, Eva; Irigoyen, Marta; Anso, Elena; Martinez-Irujo, Juan Jose; Rouzaut, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major preventable cause of lung cancer in developed countries. Nicotine (3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine) is one of the major alkaloids present in tobacco. Besides its addictive properties, its effects have been described in panoply of cell types. In fact, recent studies have shown that nicotine behaves as a tumor promoter in transformed epithelial cells. This research focuses on the effects of acute repetitive nicotine exposure on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE cells). Here we show that treatment of NHBE cells with recurrent doses of nicotine up to 500 μM triggered cell differentiation towards a neuronal-like phenotype: cells emitted filopodia and expressed neuronal markers such as neuronal cell adhesion molecule, neurofilament-M and the transcription factors neuronal N and Pax-3. We also demonstrate that nicotine treatment induced NF-kB translocation to the nucleus, phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and accumulation of heparin binding-EGF in the extracellular medium. Moreover, addition of AG1478, an inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, or cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that precludes ligand binding to the same receptor, prevented cell differentiation by nicotine. Lastly, we show that differentiated cells increased their adhesion to the extracellular matrix and their protease activity. Given that several lung pathologies are strongly related to tobacco consumption, these results may help to better understand the damaging consequences of nicotine exposure

  19. PKC activation induces inflammatory response and cell death in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunhee Kim

    Full Text Available A variety of airborne pathogens can induce inflammatory responses in airway epithelial cells, which is a crucial component of host defence. However, excessive inflammatory responses and chronic inflammation also contribute to different diseases of the respiratory system. We hypothesized that the activation of protein kinase C (PKC is one of the essential mechanisms of inflammatory response in airway epithelial cells. In the present study, we stimulated human bronchial lung epithelial (BEAS-2B cells with the phorbol ester Phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu, and examined gene expression profile using microarrays. Microarray analysis suggests that PKC activation induced dramatic changes in gene expression related to multiple cellular functions. The top two interaction networks generated from these changes were centered on NFκB and TNF-α, which are two commonly known pathways for cell death and inflammation. Subsequent tests confirmed the decrease in cell viability and an increase in the production of various cytokines. Interestingly, each of the increased cytokines was differentially regulated at mRNA and/or protein levels by different sub-classes of PKC isozymes. We conclude that pathological cell death and cytokine production in airway epithelial cells in various situations may be mediated through PKC related signaling pathways. These findings suggest that PKCs can be new targets for treatment of lung diseases.

  20. Proximity detection system underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Kent [Mine Site Technologies (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Mine Site Technologies (MST) with the support ACARP and Xstrata Coal NSW, as well as assistance from Centennial Coal, has developed a Proximity Detection System to proof of concept stage as per plan. The basic aim of the project was to develop a system to reduce the risk of the people coming into contact with vehicles in an uncontrolled manner (i.e. being 'run over'). The potential to extend the developed technology into other areas, such as controls for vehicle-vehicle collisions and restricting access of vehicle or people into certain zones (e.g. non FLP vehicles into Hazardous Zones/ERZ) was also assessed. The project leveraged off MST's existing Intellectual Property and experience gained with our ImPact TRACKER tagging technology, allowing the development to be fast tracked. The basic concept developed uses active RFID Tags worn by miners underground to be detected by vehicle mounted Readers. These Readers in turn provide outputs that can be used to alert a driver (e.g. by light and/or audible alarm) that a person (Tag) approaching within their vicinity. The prototype/test kit developed proved the concept and technology, the four main components being: Active RFID Tags to send out signals for detection by vehicle mounted receivers; Receiver electronics to detect RFID Tags approaching within the vicinity of the unit to create a long range detection system (60 m to 120 m); A transmitting/exciter device to enable inner detection zone (within 5 m to 20 m); and A software/hardware device to process & log incoming Tags reads and create certain outputs. Tests undertaken in the laboratory and at a number of mine sites, confirmed the technology path taken could form the basis of a reliable Proximity Detection/Alert System.

  1. Development of the Stochastic Lung Model for Asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobos, E.; Borbely-Kiss, I.; Kertesz, Zs.; Balashazy, I.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The Stochastic Lung Model is a state-of-the-art tool for the investigation of the health impact of atmospheric aerosols. This model has already been tested and applied to calculate the deposition fractions of aerosols in different regions of the human respiratory tract. The health effects of inhaled aerosols may strongly depend on the distribution of deposition within the respiratory tract. In the current study three Asthma Models have been incorporated into the Stochastic Lung Deposition Code. A common new feature of these models is that the breathing cycle may be asymmetric. It means that the inspiration time, the expiration time and the two breath hold times are independent. And the code can simulate the mucus blockage, too. The main characteristics of the models are the followings: a) ASTHMA MODEL I: One input bronchial asthma factor is applied for the whole tracheobronchial region. The code multiplies all tracheobroncial diameters with this single value. b) ASTHMA MODEL II: Bronchial asthma factors have to be given for each bronchial generation as input data (21 values). The program multiplies the diameter of bronchi with these factors. c) ASTHMA MODEL III: Here, only the range of bronchial asthma factors are presented as input data and the code selects randomly the exact factors in pre-described airway generations. In this case the stochastic character appears in the Asthma Model, as well. As an example, Figure 1 shows the deposition fractions in the tracheobronchial and acinar regions of the human lung in the case of healthy and asthmatic adults at sitting breathing conditions as a function of particle size computed by Asthma Model I where the bronchial asthma factor was 30%. These models have been tested and compared for different types of asthma at various breathing conditions and in a wide range of particle sizes. The distribution of deposition in the characteristic regions of the respiratory tract have been computed

  2. Clinical Application of Fully Covered Self-Expandable Metal Stents in the Treatment of Bronchial Fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ming; Zhu, Qiang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Tian Xiao; Jiang, Min Zhong; Zang, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Background The study was designed to access the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of fully covered self-expandable metal stents in the treatment of bronchial fistula. Methods Clinical data of nine patients (seven males and two females) who were treated with placement of tracheobronchial or bronchial fully covered self-expandable metal stents from August 2005 to November 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. Among these patients, seven were diagnosed with bronchopleural fistula, one with tracheopleural fistula, and one with left main bronchoesophageal fistula. Eight had accompanying thoracic empyema. The fistula orifices ranged from 3.5 mm to 25 mm in diameter. All patients received topical anesthesia. L-shaped stents were placed in six patients and I-shaped stents in three under fluoroscopic guidance. After stent placement, patients with empyema were treated with pleural lavage. Results Stent placement in the tracheobronchial tree was successful in all patients, without procedure-related complications. The operating time was 5 to 16 minutes. A small amount of bubble overflowed from the intrathoracic drainage tube of only one patient. In the other patients, the bubble in the intrathoracic drainage tube disappeared immediately or angiography showed no overflow of contrast agent from the fistula orifice. The effective rate of fistula orifice closure after stent placement was 100%, with 88.9% rated as excellent. One patient coughed the stent out 5 days after placement and hence a new stent was placed. Among the patients with empyema, one died of septicemia arising from empyema on day 8 and another died of brain metastases of lung cancer 6 months after stent insertion with persistent empyema. In the other six patients, empyema resolved after 2 to 5 months (cure rate 75%). Seven patients were followed up for 3 to 36 months. During follow-up, one stent was removed 8 months after implantation due to difficult expectoration, without recurrent empyema. The remaining

  3. Bronchial arterial RI-angiography; Evaluation of regional blood flow in pulmonary cancer using [sup 99m]TcO[sub 4][sup -] and [sup 99m]Tc-MAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazono, Nobuaki; Inoue, Hiroki; Kanetsuki, Ichiro; Takeshita, Tuyoshi; Mukai, Hiroyuki; Moriyama, Takaaki; Nakabeppu, Yoshiaki; Nakajo, Masayuki (Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1992-08-01

    Thirteen bronchial arterial perfusion studies were performed in a total of 13 patients with lung tumors (11 cases of lung cancer, one metastatic tumor and one abscess), utilizing [sup 99m]TcO[sub 4][sup -] or [sup 99m]Tc-labeled macroaggregated albumin ([sup 99m]Tc-MAA). Regions of interest (ROI) of the same size were set over areas of tumor, the mediastinum and healthy lung areas, and each ROI count was calculated by a nuclear medicine computer during an acquisition time period of 20 min with each tracer for 7 min to evaluate tumor part perfusion. The count ratios of tumor to healthy parts ranged from 1.7 to 6.5 (mean[+-]s.d.; 3.8[+-]1.9) in the [sup 99m]TcO[sub 4][sup -] group (10 patients) and from 130 to 230 (mean[+-]s.d.; 163[+-]30) in the [sup 99m]Tc-MAA group (3 patients), respectively. Tumor reduction rates 2 weeks after CDDP bronchial artery infusion therapy correlated positively to the count ratio in the [sup 99m]TcO[sub 4][sup -] lung cancer group, although significant correlation was not obtained. This study suggests that bronchial arterial infusion of anticancer agents may result in higher concentrations of anticancer agents in the tumors than with systemic chemotherapy and chemoembolic materials may exert more potent anticancer effects on tumors than nonparticulated anticancer agents. (author).

  4. Correspondence regarding "Effect of active smoking on the human bronchial epithelium transcriptome"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuyderduyn Scott D

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the work of Chari et al. entitled "Effect of active smoking on the human bronchial epithelium transcriptome" the authors use SAGE to identify candidate gene expression changes in bronchial brushings from never, former, and current smokers. These gene expression changes are categorized into those that are reversible or irreversible upon smoking cessation. A subset of these identified genes is validated on an independent cohort using RT-PCR. The authors conclude that their results support the notion of gene expression changes in the lungs of smokers which persist even after an individual has quit. Results This correspondence raises questions about the validity of the approach used by the authors to analyze their data. The majority of the reported results suffer deficiencies due to the methods used. The most fundamental of these are explained in detail: biases introduced during data processing, lack of correction for multiple testing, and an incorrect use of clustering for gene discovery. A randomly generated "null" dataset is used to show the consequences of these shortcomings. Conclusion Most of Chari et al.'s findings are consistent with what would be expected by chance alone. Although there is clear evidence of reversible changes in gene expression, the majority of those identified appear to be false positives. However, contrary to the authors' claims, no irreversible changes were identified. There is a broad consensus that genetic change due to smoking persists once an individual has quit smoking; unfortunately, this study lacks sufficient scientific rigour to support or refute this hypothesis or identify any specific candidate genes. The pitfalls of large-scale analysis, as exemplified here, may not be unique to Chari et al.

  5. Prevention of bronchial hyperreactivity in a rat model of precapillary pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beghetti Maurice

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR subsequent to precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PHT was prevented by acting on the major signalling pathways (endothelin, nitric oxide, vasoactive intestine peptide (VIP and prostacyclin involved in the control of the pulmonary vascular and bronchial tones. Methods Five groups of rats underwent surgery to prepare an aorta-caval shunt (ACS to induce sustained precapillary PHT for 4 weeks. During this period, no treatment was applied in one group (ACS controls, while the other groups were pretreated with VIP, iloprost, tezosentan via an intraperitoneally implemented osmotic pump, or by orally administered sildenafil. An additional group underwent sham surgery. Four weeks later, the lung responsiveness to increasing doses of an intravenous infusion of methacholine (2, 4, 8 12 and 24 μg/kg/min was determined by using the forced oscillation technique to assess the airway resistance (Raw. Results BHR developed in the untreated rats, as reflected by a significant decrease in ED50, the equivalent dose of methacholine required to cause a 50% increase in Raw. All drugs tested prevented the development of BHR, iloprost being the most effective in reducing both the systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa; 28%, p = 0.035 and BHR (ED50 = 9.9 ± 1.7 vs. 43 ± 11 μg/kg in ACS control and iloprost-treated rats, respectively, p = 0.008. Significant correlations were found between the levels of Ppa and ED50 (R = -0.59, p = 0.016, indicating that mechanical interdependence is primarily responsible for the development of BHR. Conclusions The efficiency of such treatment demonstrates that re-establishment of the balance of constrictor/dilator mediators via various signalling pathways involved in PHT is of potential benefit for the avoidance of the development of BHR.

  6. Naturally occurring variants of human Α9 nicotinic receptor differentially affect bronchial cell proliferation and transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chikova

    Full Text Available Isolation of polyadenilated mRNA from human immortalized bronchial epithelial cell line BEP2D revealed the presence of multiple isoforms of RNA coded by the CHRNA9 gene for α9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR. BEP2D cells were homozygous for the rs10009228 polymorphism encoding for N442S amino acid substitution, and also contained mRNA coding for several truncated isoforms of α9 protein. To elucidate the biologic significance of the naturally occurring variants of α9 nAChR, we compared the biologic effects of overexpression of full-length α9 N442 and S442 proteins, and the truncated α9 variant occurring due to a loss of the exon 4 sequence that causes frame shift and early termination of the translation. These as well as control vector were overexpressed in the BEP2D cells that were used in the assays of proliferation rate, spontaneous vs. tobacco nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK-induced cellular transformation, and tumorigenicity in cell culture and mice. Overexpression of the S442 variant significantly increased cellular proliferation, and spontaneous and NNK-induced transformation. The N442 variant significantly decreased cellular transformation, without affecting proliferation rate. Overexpression of the truncated α9 significantly decreased proliferation and suppressed cellular transformation. These results suggested that α9 nAChR plays important roles in regulation of bronchial cell growth by endogenous acetylcholine and exogenous nicotine, and susceptibility to NNK-induced carcinogenic transformation. The biologic activities of α9 nAChR may be regulated at the splicing level, and genetic polymorphisms in CHRNA9 affecting protein levels, amino acid sequence and RNA splicing may influence the risk for lung cancer.

  7. Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus of Liver Metastasis from Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoko Ogawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of liver metastasis of lung carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT. Although the primary lesion of lung tumor remained unchanged, the patient rapidly developed wide-spread metastases and formed PVTT of liver metastasis. The primary lesion showed features of mixed Clara and bronchial surface epithelial cell component type adenocarcinoma with small foci of micropapillary pattern. Micropapillary pattern was observed in the metastatic lesions in the liver and PVTT. Micropapillary pattern lung adenocarcinoma may develop rapid metastases and cause PVTT associated with liver metastasis. We should perform a detailed examination to establish correct diagnosis.

  8. PROXIMITY MANAGEMENT IN CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  9. Teaching basic lung isolation skills on human anatomy simulator: attainment and retention of lung isolation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Rana K; VanHorne, Edgar M; Kandadai, Sunitha Kanchi; Bautista, Alexander F; Neamtu, Aurel; Wadhwa, Anupama; Carter, Mary B; Ziegler, Craig H; Memon, Mohammed Faisal; Akça, Ozan

    2016-01-20

    Lung isolation skills, such as correct insertion of double lumen endobronchial tube and bronchial blocker, are essential in anesthesia training; however, how to teach novices these skills is underexplored. Our aims were to determine (1) if novices can be trained to a basic proficiency level of lung isolation skills, (2) whether video-didactic and simulation-based trainings are comparable in teaching lung isolation basic skills, and (3) whether novice learners' lung isolation skills decay over time without practice. First, five board certified anesthesiologist with experience of more than 100 successful lung isolations were tested on Human Airway Anatomy Simulator (HAAS) to establish Expert proficiency skill level. Thirty senior medical students, who were naive to bronchoscopy and lung isolation techniques (Novice) were randomized to video-didactic and simulation-based trainings to learn lung isolation skills. Before and after training, Novices' performances were scored for correct placement using pass/fail scoring and a 5-point Global Rating Scale (GRS); and time of insertion was recorded. Fourteen novices were retested 2 months later to assess skill decay. Experts' and novices' double lumen endobronchial tube and bronchial blocker passing rates showed similar success rates after training (P >0.99). There were no differences between the video-didactic and simulation-based methods. Novices' time of insertion decayed within 2 months without practice. Novices could be trained to basic skill proficiency level of lung isolation. Video-didactic and simulation-based methods we utilized were found equally successful in training novices for lung isolation skills. Acquired skills partially decayed without practice.

  10. Peribronchial innervation of the rat lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Marco; Bosco, Sandro; Bronzetti, Elena; Felici, Laura M; Pelusi, Giuseppe; Lo Vasco, Vincenza Rita; Vitale, Marco

    2004-10-01

    Mammalian peribronchial tissue is supplied by several peptide-containing nerve fibers. Although it is well established that different neuropeptides exert significant effects on bronchial and vascular tone in the lungs, the role played by some neuromediators on the general regulation, differentiation and release of locally active substances is still controversial. We studied the innervation of rat peribronchial tissue by immunohistochemical techniques. The immunoperoxidase method with nickel amplification was applied to detect the distribution of nerve fibers using antibodies against the general neuronal marker PGP 9.5 (neuron-specific cytoplasmic protein), while the cholinacetyltransferase immunoreactivity was studied by immunohistochemistry. A slight immunoreactivity for NT receptors is observed in lung bronchial epithelium. There is increasing evidence that NTs may act with a paracrine mechanism regulating functional activity of neuronal and non-neuronal structures. A specific immunoreactivity for NTs and NT receptors was also demonstrated within different layers of large, medium and small sized intrapulmonary arteries and veins, according to a recent study of our group. Moreover our data describe the expression of NTs and NT receptors in lymphoid aggregates of the lung (BALT) in which both lymphocytes and macrophages express TrkA receptor and synthesize NTs. Our results show the presence of an extensive network of innervation in the rat peribronchial tissue, confirming a morphological basis for a possible neural modulation of the respiratory mucosa and the physiological/pathophysiological mechanisms of the lung.

  11. Clinical application of SPECT-CT with 99mTc-Tektrotyd in bronchial and thymic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergieva, Sonya; Robev, Bozhil; Dimcheva, Milena; Fakirova, Albena; Hristoskova, Radka

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the thorax including bronchial and thymic tumors belong to foregut NETs. Limited loco-regional thoracic NETs can be resected with surgery, but in extensive metastatic disease the treatment is mainly palliative. A high incidence and density of somatostatin receptors (SSTR2, SSTR3, and SSTR5) are found in thoracic NETs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of SPECT-CT somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) with 99mTc-Tektrotyd for imaging, staging and follow up of patients with bronchial and thymic neuroendocrine tumors. Forty-one patients with thoracic tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation were studied. Sixty-eight examinations including SPECT-CT studies of the neck and chest and/or abdomen and pelvis were carried out 2-4 hrs. post i.v. administration of aver-age 740 MBq activity dose of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC (Tektrotyd, Polatom). In all 41 investigated patients we obtained 81.25% (13/16), 88% (22/25) and 85.36% (35/41) of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of this diagnostic approach, respectively. Somatostatin-receptor scintigraphy correctly identified all primary NETs located in the lungs and thymus. SPECT-CT studies with 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC resulted in exact pre-surgical and pre-treatment N/M staging of bronchial and thymic NETs, except 2 cases with multiple hepatic metastases and 1 with massive suprarenal metastasis. It can be concluded that SPECT-CT with 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC is a valuable tool for staging and follow-up of patients with thoracic NETs.

  12. Role of serum eosinophil cationic protein as a biological marker to assess the severity of bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, A.; Sattar, H.; Miah, R.A.; Saleh, A.A.; Hassan, R.; Salam, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study was carried out to evaluate the role of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) as a biological marker for the diagnosis and to assess the severity of bronchial asthma. Methodology: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted among 70 bronchial asthma patients and 45 disease controls (tuberculosis-15, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-15, interstitial lung disease-15) enrolled from patients attending the outpatient department of the National Institute of Disease of the Chest and Hospital (NIDCH), Dhaka, Bangladesh during July 2010 to June 2011. Global Initiative of Asthma Management and Prevention (GINA) criteria were followed for selection of both atopic and non-atopic patients with intermittent or persistent (mild, moderate and severe) asthma. Serum level of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), IgE, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1% predicted) and circulatory eosinophil (CE) count were estimated. Results: Mean serum ECP level (28.8 +- 42.9 vs. 6.82 +- 3.5 ng/mL; P<0.001), IgE level (383.59 - 225.3 vs. 135 +- 131.8 IU/mL; P<0.001) and percent circulatory eosinophil count (9.95 +- 3.7 vs. 5.95 +- 1.4; P<0.024) were all found significantly raised among asthma patients than disease controls but % FEV1 was equivocal. All grades of persistent asthma patients had significantly (P<0.025 and P<0.002) higher mean ECP level than intermittent cases but serum IgE level and CE count did not differ significantly. FEV1 % predicted correlated well among moderate and severe persistent asthma but was equivocal for intermittent and mild persistent cases. Conclusion: This study has reinforced that serum eosinophil cationic protein is a dependable biological marker with more discriminatory power over other indicators for bronchial asthma and to assess its severity. (author)

  13. Radiation dose reduction in CT with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) for patients with bronchial carcinoma and intrapulmonary metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schäfer, M.-L.; Lüdemann, L.; Böning, G.; Kahn, J.; Fuchs, S.; Hamm, B.; Streitparth, F.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the radiation dose and image quality of 64-row chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with bronchial carcinoma or intrapulmonary metastases using full-dose CT reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) at baseline and reduced dose with 40% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) at follow-up. Materials and methods: The chest CT images of patients who underwent FBP and ASIR studies were reviewed. Dose–length products (DLP), effective dose, and size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) were obtained. Image quality was analysed quantitatively by signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measurement. In addition, image quality was assessed by two blinded radiologists evaluating images for noise, contrast, artefacts, visibility of small structures, and diagnostic acceptability using a five-point scale. Results: The ASIR studies showed 36% reduction in effective dose compared with the FBP studies. The qualitative and quantitative image quality was good to excellent in both protocols, without significant differences. There were also no significant differences for SNR except for the SNR of lung surrounding the tumour (FBP: 35±17, ASIR: 39±22). Discussion: A protocol with 40% ASIR can provide approximately 36% dose reduction in chest CT of patients with bronchial carcinoma or intrapulmonary metastases while maintaining excellent image quality. - Highlights: • adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction in chest computed tomography scans. • patients with bronchial carcinoma or intrapulmonary metastases. • ASIR studies showed 36% reduction in effective dose compared with the FBP studies. • the qualitative and quantitative image quality was good to excellent in both protocols.

  14. The design of trachea-main bronchial covered embranchment stent and the primary clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xinwei; Wu Gang; Gao Xuemei; Li Yongdong; Wang Yanli; Ma Nan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To design the trachea-main bronchus covered embranchment stent and study the primary treatment for thoracostomach main bronchial fistula and main bronchial stenosis. Methods: The stent was designed on the bases of the peculiar anatomic structure and the pathological changes of thoracostomach-main bronchial fistula and main bronchial stenosis. Under the fluoroscopic guidance, implantations were carried out in thoracostomach-carina fistula 1 case thoracostomach-left main bronchial fistula 1, thoracostomach-right main bronchial fistula and left main bronchial stenosis 1 case, altogether with 5 stents. Results: Stents were placed successfully, not only improving the breathing and living quality but also completing the closure of the ora of the thoracostomach-airway fistula with further vanishing of the choke after drinking and eating together with the inhalation pneumonia. The bronchus became normal in a main bronchial stenosis after the stent was taken out. Conclusions: Trachea-main bronchial covered embranchment stent could be used to close thoracostomach-airway fistula and to treat main bronchial benign/malignant stenosis. The procedure is simple and safe. (authors)

  15. Effects of 0.2 ppm ozone on biomarkers of inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and bronchial mucosa of healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, M.T.; Madden, J.; Teran, L.M. [and others

    1998-08-01

    Short-term exposure to ozone at peak ambient levels induces neutrophil influx and impairs lung function in healthy humans. In order to investigate the mechanisms contributing to neutrophil recruitment and to examine the role of T-cells in the acute inflammatory response, we exposed 12 healthy humans to 0.2 parts per million (ppm) of ozone and filtered air on two separate occasions for 2 h with intermittent periods of rest and exercise (minute ventilation=30 L x min{sup -1}). Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed 6 h after the end of exposures. Total protein, tryptase, histamine, myeloperoxidase, interleukin (IL)-8 and growth-related oncogene-{alpha} (Gro-{alpha}) were measured and total and differential cell counts were performed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Flow cytometry was performed on BAL cells to study total T-cells, T-cell receptors ({alpha}{beta} and {gamma}{delta}), T-cell subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ cells) and activated T-cell subsets (CD25+). Using immunohistochemistry, neutrophils, mast cells, total T-cell numbers, T-cell subsets, CD25+ T-cells and leukocyte endothelial adhesion molecules including P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 were quantified in the bronchial biopsies. Paired samples were available from nine subjects. Following ozone exposure there was a threefold increase in the proportion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) (p=0.07) and epithelial cells (p=0.05) in BAL fluid. This was accompanied by increased concentrations of IL-8 (p=0.01), Gro-{alpha} (p=0.05) and total protein (p=0.058). A significant positive correlation was demonstrated between the two chemokines and proportion of PMNs in BAL fluid. After ozone exposure there was a significant decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio (p=0.05) and the proportion of activated CD4+ (p=001) and CD8+ T-cells (p=0.04). However, no significant changes were demonstrable in any of the inflammatory markers studied in the biopsies

  16. Lung Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at increased risk of sudden lung ...

  17. A Pilot Study on the Feasibility of Interventional Lung Volume Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wansheng; Dong Yonghua; Liu Bin; Zhu Chi; Yu Yongqiang

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of lung volume reduction by transbronchial alcohol and lipiodol suspension infusion with the aid of balloon-tipped catheter occlusion. Twenty-six healthy adult rabbits were divided into four treatment groups: alcohol and lipiodol suspension infusion (n = 8), lipiodol infusion (n = 8), alcohol infusion (n = 5), or bronchial lumen occlusion (n = 5). After selective lobar or segmental bronchial catheterization using a balloon-tipped occlusion catheter, the corresponding drug infusion was performed. Bone cement was used to occlude the bronchial lumen in the occlusion group. The animals were followed up for 10 weeks by chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT), and then the whole lungs were harvested for histological examination. Alcohol and lipiodol suspension or lipiodol could be stably retained in alveoli in the first two groups based on chest X-ray and CT, but obvious collapse only occurred in the group receiving alcohol and lipiodol suspension or the bronchial lumen occlusion group. Histological examination revealed damage and disruption of the alveolar epithelium and fibrosis in related lung tissue in the group receiving alcohol and lipiodol suspension. Similar changes were seen in the bronchial lumen occlusion group, apart from obvious marginal emphysema of the target areas in two animals. Interstitial pneumonia and dilated alveoli existed in some tissue in target areas in the lipiodol group, in which pulmonary fibrosis obliterating alveoli also occurred. Chronic alveolitis and pleural adhesion in target areas occurred in the group infused with alcohol alone, whereas visceral pleura of the other three groups was regular and no pleural effusion or adhesion was found. Alcohol and lipiodol suspension that is stably retained in alveoli can result in significant lung volume reduction. Through alcohol and lipiodol suspension infusion, obstructive emphysema or pneumonia arising from bronchial lumen

  18. Pulmonary ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy in patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Seiji; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Katsushi.

    1988-01-01

    Pulmonary ventilation and perfusion scan using Xe-133 gas and Tc-99m MAA were performed in 18 patients with bronchial asthma to evaluate the regional pulmonary function. The scintigraphic findings were compared with the results of the auscultation and the conventional pulmonary functioning examination (%FVC, %FEV 1.0 ). Ventilation image showed abnormality in 12 (70.6%) out of the asymptomatic 17 patients and perfusion image showed abnormality in 7 (41.2%) out of 17 patients. These 7 patients with abnormality on perfusion image all showed abnormality on ventilation image. The grade of abnormality in scintigraphic findings was compatible with the values of %FVC and %FEV 1.0 . In conclusion Xe-133 ventilation and Tc-99m MAA perfusion scan were useful procedures to estimate the pulmonary function of patients with bronchial asthma. (author)

  19. Bilateral renal dysplasia, nephroblastomatosis, and bronchial stenosis. A new syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria Matilde; Correa-Medina, Mayrin; Whittington, Elizabeth E

    2015-06-01

    Bilateral nephroblastomatosis (NB) is an uncommon renal anomaly characterized by multiple confluent nephrogenic rests scattered through both kidneys, with only a limited number of cases reported in the medical literature. Some of these children may have associated either Perlman or Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and others do not demonstrate syndromic features. We report a full-term boy with anteverted nose, bilateral bronchial stenosis due to lack of cartilage, bilateral obstructive renal dysplasia and NB with glomeruloid features. The infant had visceromegaly, but neither gigantism nor hemihypertrophy. Immunohistochemistry for PAX2 (Paired box gene-2) and WT-1 (Wilms Tumor 1) were strongly positive in the areas of NB. GLEPP-1 (Glomerular Epithelial Protein) did not stain the areas of NB with a glomeruloid appearance, but was positive in the renal glomeruli as expected. We found neither associated bronchial stenosis nor the histology of NB resembling giant glomeruli in any of the reported cases of NB.

  20. Asthma control during the year after bronchial thermoplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Gerard; Thomson, Neil C.; Rubin, Adalberto S.

    2007-01-01

    scheduled 2-week periods of abstinence from LABA at 3, 6, and 12 months. Airflow, airway responsiveness, asthma symptoms, the number of symptom-free days, use of rescue medication, and scores on the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) and the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) were also assessed....... RESULTS: The mean rate of mild exacerbations, as compared with baseline, was reduced in the bronchial-thermoplasty group but was unchanged in the control group (change in frequency per subject per week, -0.16+/-0.37 vs. 0.04+/-0.29; P=0.005). At 12 months, there were significantly greater improvements......-thermoplasty group than in the control group but were similar during the period from 6 weeks to 12 months after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchial thermoplasty in subjects with moderate or severe asthma results in an improvement in asthma control. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00214526 [ClinicalTrials.gov].)....

  1. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Become An Advocate Volunteer Ways To Give Lung Cancer www.lung.org > Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > ... Cancer Learn About Lung Cancer What Is Lung Cancer Lung Cancer Basics Causes & Risk Factors Lung Cancer Staging ...

  2. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulcun, Emel; Ekici, Mehmet; Ekici, Aydanur; Tireli, Gökhan; Karakoç, Tülay; Şentürk, Erol; Altınkaya, Volkan

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is not well known. In this study, we investigated the association between BHR and disease severity in patients with OSAS. Fourty seven (37 male/10 female) OSAS patients admitted with polysomnography enrolled to the study. Histamine bronchial challenge test was performed and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was calculated. Presence of BHR was diagnosed as positivity of bronchial provocative test (BPT) (PD values ≤ 16 mg/mL). Patients were questioned with Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). Histamine bronchial challenge test was positive in 21 of 47 patients. There were significant negative correlations between PD 20 value and AHI (r= -0.47, p= 0.03), BMI (r= -0.45, p= 0.03), and ESS score (r= -0.45, p= 0.03) in the patients with BHR. In addition, AHI (p= 0.03), BMI (p= 0.02), ESS scores (p= 0.03) were higher in patients with BHR (21 patients) than in patients not having BHR (26 patients). Significant negative relation was found between PD 20 value and AHI (b=-0.45, p= 0.03) and significant positive relation was found between presence of BHR and AHI (p= 0.04), BMI (p= 0.03) independently of age and sex in multiple regression analysis. BHR is common in patients with OSAS. As severity of OSAS increased, severity of BHR increased. In addition, obesity may trigger presence of BHR in patients with OSAS.

  3. Use motion games in exercise with children with bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Polkovnyk-Markova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the possibility of using moving games in the rehabilitation of children with bronchial asthma. Material & Methods: the modern scientific literature on integrated prevention and treatment of children with asthma. Results: A high frequency of morphological and functional deviations at children with asthma. Classification and examples of mobile games, which can be used for this group of children. Conclusions: the results of modern research that show the effectiveness the use of physical rehabilitation, including moving games.

  4. Results of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in microcellular bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topuz, E.; Aldemir, O.; Toere, G.; Bilge, N.; Kural, N.

    1986-01-01

    At the Radiotherapeutic Department of the Faculty of Medicine in Istanbul, 35 masculine patients with microcellular bronchial carcinoma, limited disease, were treated for two years, i.e. between 1980 and 1981, with a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Nine out of these patients are tumor-free after at least 46 months, i.e. about four years. This corresponds to a tumor-free survival rate of 25.7%. (orig.) [de

  5. Monomethylarsonous Acid (MMAIII Has an Adverse Effect on the Innate Immune Response of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily G Notch

    Full Text Available Arsenic is the number one contaminant of concern with regard to human health according to the World Health Organization. Epidemiological studies on Asian and South American populations have linked arsenic exposure with an increased incidence of lung disease, including pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, both of which are associated with bacterial infection. However, little is known about the effects of low dose arsenic exposure, or the contributions of organic arsenic to the innate immune response to bacterial infection. This study examined the effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa induced cytokine secretion by human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC by inorganic sodium arsenite (iAsIII and two major metabolites, monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII and dimethylarsenic acid (DMAV, at concentrations relevant to the U.S.Neither iAsIII nor DMAV altered P. aeruginosa induced cytokine secretion. By contrast, MMAIII increased P. aeruginosa induced secretion of IL-8, IL-6 and CXCL2. A combination of iAsIII, MMAIII and DMAV (10 pbb total reduced IL-8 and CXCL1 secretion. These data demonstrate for the first time that exposure to MMAIII alone, and a combination of iAsIII, MMAIII and DMAV at levels relevant to the U.S. may have negative effects on the innate immune response of human bronchial epithelial cells to P. aeruginosa.

  6. Bronchial Mucus as a Complex Fluid: Molecular Interactions and Influence of Nanostructured Particles on Rheological and Transport Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odziomek Marcin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport properties of bronchial mucus are investigated by two-stage experimental approach focused on: (a rheological properties and (b mass transfer rate through the stagnant layer of solutions of mucus components (mucine, DNA, proteins and simulated multi-component mucus. Studies were done using thermostated horizontal diffusion cells with sodium cromoglycate and carminic acid as transferred solutes. Rheological properties of tested liquids was studied by a rotational viscometer and a cone-plate rheometer (dynamic method. First part of the studies demonstrated that inter-molecular interactions in these complex liquids influence both rheological and permeability characteristics. Transfer rate is governed not only by mucus composition and concentration but also by hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties of transported molecules. Second part was focused on the properties of such a layer in presence of selected nanostructured particles (different nanoclays and graphene oxide which may be present in lungs after inhalation. It was shown that most of such particles increase visco-elasticity of the mucus and reduce the rate of mass transfer of model drugs. Measured effects may have adverse impact on health, since they will reduce mucociliary clearance in vivo and slow down drug penetration to the bronchial epithelium during inhalation therapy.

  7. Radiation dose reduction in CT with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) for patients with bronchial carcinoma and intrapulmonary metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M-L; Lüdemann, L; Böning, G; Kahn, J; Fuchs, S; Hamm, B; Streitparth, F

    2016-05-01

    To compare the radiation dose and image quality of 64-row chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with bronchial carcinoma or intrapulmonary metastases using full-dose CT reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) at baseline and reduced dose with 40% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) at follow-up. The chest CT images of patients who underwent FBP and ASIR studies were reviewed. Dose-length products (DLP), effective dose, and size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) were obtained. Image quality was analysed quantitatively by signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measurement. In addition, image quality was assessed by two blinded radiologists evaluating images for noise, contrast, artefacts, visibility of small structures, and diagnostic acceptability using a five-point scale. The ASIR studies showed 36% reduction in effective dose compared with the FBP studies. The qualitative and quantitative image quality was good to excellent in both protocols, without significant differences. There were also no significant differences for SNR except for the SNR of lung surrounding the tumour (FBP: 35±17, ASIR: 39±22). A protocol with 40% ASIR can provide approximately 36% dose reduction in chest CT of patients with bronchial carcinoma or intrapulmonary metastases while maintaining excellent image quality. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Identification and characterization of proteins from human bronchial secretion (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, A; Hayem, A

    1976-03-01

    An analysis of bronchial mucus proteins was carried out by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Before electrophoretic migration, sputum was treated with Ecteola-cellulose, which retains acid mucins. The proteins were then extracted by a phosphate/saline buffer pH 7.5. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis of the "bronchial extracts" was carried out with an anti-human serum: fifteen proteins were detected. Among them, IgA and protease inhibitiors play an important role in bronchial pathology. Bronchial extracts were also studied with immune serums against milk proteins, whole saliva and proteins of bronchial mucus. Bronchotransferrin, amylase and two esterases were characterized. Four other proteins were also detected with immune serums against bronchial mucus-proteins: their biological role is still unknown.

  9. ProxImaL: efficient image optimization using proximal algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix; Diamond, Steven; Nieß ner, Matthias; Ragan-Kelley, Jonathan; Heidrich, Wolfgang; Wetzstein, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    domain-specific language and compiler for image optimization problems that makes it easy to experiment with different problem formulations and algorithm choices. The language uses proximal operators as the fundamental building blocks of a variety

  10. Radiological appearance from 250 patients of the Clinic and Policlinic for Radiology at the University of Munich with histologically detected bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckmayer, G.

    1982-01-01

    From 250 patients of the Clinic and Policlinic for Radiology at the University of Munich from 1975 to 1979 the radiomorphology of the central and peripheral bronchial carcinoma is demonstrated. The sex ratio of 6.3/1, the age distribution with its peak between 60 and 70 years of age and the localisations with a predominance in the right lung and a preferred infection of the upper lobes from our study agreed with the results from the literature. Characteristic early symptoms are missing with bronchial carcinoma, although clinical symptoms in the rule are the first evidence. For early recognition the first and easiest diagnostic procedure is the radiological examination of the thorax in two planes. Circular foci and peripheral tumor shadows, which occur with the spreading of the mediastinum or the hilus, in these patients about 50%, are in large amounts suspicious of a malignancy and indicate an advanced stage. Because the prognosis of the bronchial carcinoma depends on the histological structure of the tumor and on the point in time of diagnosis, an improvement of the life expectancy can only be reached by early detection. In the risk group of smokers over 40 years of age and of professionally exposed people, even minor changes should be considered as carcinoma until the opposite can be proven. (orig./TRV) [de

  11. Experience gained with a case control study of risk factors in bronchial carcinoma - would the approach be suitable for assessment of the radon problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichmann, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    In the USA and in Sweden, case control studies are being done for investigating the incidence of lung cancer and a possible association with indoor exposure to radon daughters. In the F.R.G., methods and results of a case control study of other risk factors in bronchial carcinoma are available, and the question currently discussed is whether the data obtained by this study, together with additional measurements, could be used to assess the radon problem, or whether an individual radon study should be done, and what its requirements would be. (orig.) [de

  12. Computed tomography findings of postoperative complications in lung transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochhegger, Bruno; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Marchiori, Edson; Bello, Rodrigo; Moreira, Jose; Camargo, Jose Jesus; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

    2009-01-01

    Due to the increasing number and improved survival of lung transplant recipients, radiologists should be aware of the imaging features of the postoperative complications that can occur in such patients. The early treatment of complications is important for the long-term survival of lung transplant recipients. Frequently, HRCT plays a central role in the investigation of such complications. Early recognition of the signs of complications allows treatment to be initiated earlier, which improves survival. The aim of this pictorial review was to demonstrate the CT scan appearance of pulmonary complications such as reperfusion edema, acute rejection, infection, pulmonary thromboembolism, chronic rejection, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, bronchial dehiscence and bronchial stenosis. (author)

  13. A proximal point algorithm with generalized proximal distances to BEPs

    OpenAIRE

    Bento, G. C.; Neto, J. X. Cruz; Lopes, J. O.; Soares Jr, P. A.; Soubeyran, A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a bilevel problem involving two monotone equilibrium bifunctions and we show that this problem can be solved by a proximal point method with generalized proximal distances. We propose a framework for the convergence analysis of the sequences generated by the algorithm. This class of problems is very interesting because it covers mathematical programs and optimization problems under equilibrium constraints. As an application, we consider the problem of the stability and change dyna...

  14. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2013-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis...

  15. Diagnosis of bronchial artery aneurysm by computed tomography: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hyeon Bak, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial artery aneurysm is a rare vascular abnormality, with an incidence of <1% based on diagnosis by selective bronchial angiography. It is manifested in various forms, ranging from an incidental finding on radiologic examination to life-threatening hemorrhage resulting from aneurysm rupture. We report a case of a 60-year-old man with a mediastinal bronchial artery aneurysm which was incidentally detected on chest computed tomography.

  16. PHARMACOECONOMIC ASPECT OF OMALIZUMAB APPLICATION AMONG THE PATIENTS, SUFFERING FROM THE BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Kolbin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the given article, the authors discuss the most difficult issue of the pediatrics, which is the treatment of the severe bronchial asthma. Our columnist is professor A.S. Kolbin introduces omalizumab, a new medication from the monoclonal antibodies group, to our readers. It allows practitioners to control the severe persistent bronchial asthma. The article accentuates the clinical effectiveness and pharmacoeconomic aspects of the medication application.Key words: bronchial asthma, severe run, treatment, monoclonal antibodies, children.

  17. The clinical significance of the substance P in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Bangping; Jiang Changbin

    2003-01-01

    Using radioimmunoassay to measure the substance P (SP) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in thirty patients with bronchial asthma and thirty healthy persons. Compered with healthy group (33.4±24.5 pmol/L), the SP in bronchial asthma group (240.2±18.7 pmol/L) increased significantly (p < 0.01). SP may play a role in the development of bronchial asthma

  18. Three-dimensional anatomical evaluation of bronchial artery with CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hong; Li Huimin; Xiao Xiangsheng; Liu Shiyuan; Li Chengzhou; Tao Xiaofeng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of CT angiography in identifying and demonstrating the origins and courses of bronchial arteries by using the three-dimensional reformation technique. Methods Four hundred and forty-three eases were examined with thin-section enhanced MSCT. Three-dimensional images of bronchial arteries were processed at the workstation. Spatial anatomical characters of the bronchial arteries using volume rendering(VR), muhiplanar reconstruction (MPR), and maxium intensity projection (MIP) were observed. Results: At least one bronchial artery was clearly displayed in VR in 359 eases. The right bronchial arteries mainly appeared to originate from the right intercostal artery (213/436, 48.85% ) and descending aorta (207/436, 47.48%), while the left bronchial arteries mainly from the descending aorta (363/371, 97.84%). The right bronchial arteries of the descending aorta were mainly arised from fight wall (95/207, 45.89%), and then the anterior wall (88/207, 42.51%), while the left bronchial arteries of the descending aorta mainly arised from anterior wall of the aorta (272/363, 74.93%). The common trunk originated from the descending aorta mainly positioned in the anterior wall (57/77, 74.03%). 49.31% (215/436) of the fight bronchial arteries were coursing across the posterior edge of the right main bronchi, 35.55% (155/436) coursing the inferior edge, while 60.11% (223/371) of left bronchial arteries coursing forward across the superior edger of the left main bronchi, the others coursing the inferior or the posterior edge. There were eleven bronchial artery distribution patterns, with the right and left ones predominating (192/359, 53.48%), and then two right and one left (63/359, 17.55%). Conclusion: The bronchial artery anatomy was complicated, and CT angiography could clearly visualize the features. (authors)

  19. The normal anatomy and variations of the bronchial arteries: evaluation with multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yener, Özlem; Türkvatan, Aysel; Yüce, Gökhan; Yener, Ali Ümit

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to reveal the normal anatomy and variations of the bronchial arterial system and to determine the sex distribution of these variations by retrospectively reviewing the images of patients who underwent thoracal multidetector computed tomographic angiography for various reasons. Multidetector computed tomographic images of a total of 208 patients (151 men; mean age, 59 years) were retrospectively reviewed to assess the normal anatomy and variations of the bronchial arterial system. A total of 531 bronchial arteries (median, 3; minimum, 1; maximum, 5; mean, 2.5) were detected. The number (mean diameter) of the right bronchial arteries were higher than the left bronchial arteries (290 [1.43 mm] and 241 [1.26 mm], respectively; P arteries were higher with men than with women (2.58 [1.45 mm] and 2.47 [1.32 mm], respectively; P artery, and, secondarily (13.46%), the combination of 2 right (1 intercostal-bronchial trunk and 1 bronchial artery) and 1 left bronchial arteries. Seventy-eight ectopic bronchial arteries were detected in 59 cases (28.3%). They most commonly originated from the aortic arch (37.2%), the descending aorta below the level of T6 (35.9%), or the aortic branches (16.7%). The number of right ectopic bronchial arteries was significantly higher than the left ectopic bronchial arteries (50 [64%] vs 28 [36%]; P arteries was statistically higher with men versus women (45 [29.8%] vs 14 [24.6%]; P arteries can vary substantially among individuals. Multidetector computed tomographic angiography enables a detailed road map of the bronchial arterial system to interventional radiologists and thoracic surgeons. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Artificial life models in lung CTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorin, Cheran

    2006-01-01

    A new method for the analysis of 3D medical images is introduced. The algorithm is based on Biological Models of ants known as Artificial Life models. Test images (lung Computed Tomographies) undergo a 3D region growing procedure for the identification of the ribs cage. Active Contour Models (snakes) are used in order to build a confined area where ants are deployed. The ant-based approach, in which steps are allowed in any direction with different probabilities, allows a kind of tunneling effect for the successful identification of small 3D structures that are not clearly connected to the rest of the tree. The best approach is based on a gradient rule for the release of pheromone. A possible application, as part of a Computer Assisted Detection system for the identification of lung nodules, is the removal of the bronchial and vascular tree from lung CTs thus reducing the number of false positives a Nodule Hunter might report. (Full Text)

  1. Immediate and long-term outcomes of bronchial and non-bronchial systemic artery embolisation for the management of haemoptysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Joo-Young; Belli, Anna-Maria [St. George' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    To evaluate the immediate and long-term results of arterial embolisation in the management of haemoptysis and to identify factors influencing outcome. A retrospective analysis was carried out of the medical records and angiograms of 50 patients who underwent transarterial embolisation for haemoptysis. The most frequent causes of haemoptysis included bronchiectasis (16%), active tuberculosis (12%) and aspergilloma (12%). A total of 126 bronchial and non-bronchial systemic arteries were embolised in 62 procedures. Immediate cessation of haemoptysis was achieved in 43 patients (86%). Haemoptysis was controlled in 36 patients (72%), recurred in 14 (28%) and 11 (22%) required repeat embolisation. The worst outcomes were observed in patients with aspergilloma: all six suffered recurrent bleeding and three (50%) died from massive haemoptysis. Aspergilloma was also associated with an increased risk of haemoptysis recurrence (p<0.05). A good clinical outcome was achieved in those with active tuberculosis and malignancy. Complication rates were low and included transient chest pain, false aneurysm and one case of lower limb weakness. Bronchial artery embolisation (BAE) is an effective and safe procedure for haemoptysis control in most cases. However, high recurrence and mortality rates are associated with aspergilloma. Early intervention with repeat embolisation is recommended in these patients and elective surgery should be considered. (orig.)

  2. Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Response to Heavy Particle Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Minna, John; Park, Seong-mi; Peyton, Michael; Larsen, Jill

    2012-07-01

    A battery of non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) are being used to examine the molecular changes that lead to lung carcinogenesis after exposure to heavy particles found in the free space environment. The goal is to ultimately identify biomarkers of radioresponse that can be used for prediction of carcinogenic risk for fatal lung cancer. Our initial studies have focused on the cell line HBEC3 KT and the isogenic variant HBEC3 KTR53, which overexpresses the RASv12 mutant and where p53 has been knocked down by shRNA, and is considered to be a more oncogenically progressed variant. We have previously described the response of HBEC3 KT at the cellular and molecular level, however, the focus here is on the rate of cellular transformation after HZE radiation exposure and the molecular changes in transformed cells. When comparing the two cell lines we find that there is a maximum rate of cellular transformation at 0.25 Gy when cells are exposed to 1 GeV Fe particles, and, for the HBEC3 KTR53 there are multiple pathways upregulated that promote anchorage independent growth including the mTOR pathway, the TGF-1 pathway, RhoA signaling and the ERK/MAPK pathway as early as 2 weeks after radiation. This does not occur in the HBEC3 KT cell line. Transformed HBEC3 KT cells do not show any morphologic or phenotypic changes when grown as cell cultures. HBEC3 KTR53 cells on the other hand show substantial changes in morphology from a cobblestone epithelial appearance to a mesenchymal appearance with a lack of contact inhibition. This epithelial to mesenchymal change in morphology is accompanied by the expression of vimentin and a reduction in the expression of E-cadherin, which are hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Interestingly, for HBEC3 KT transformed cells there are no mutations in the p53 gene, 2 of 15 clones were found to be heterozygous for the RASV12 mutation, and 3 of 15 clones expressed high levels of BigH3, a TGFB

  3. High probability of comorbidities in bronchial asthma in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, S; Al-Shobash, S; Rapp, D; Le, D D; Omlor, A; Bekhit, A; Flaig, M; Al-Kadah, B; Herian, W; Bals, R; Wagenpfeil, S; Dinh, Q T

    2017-04-21

    Clinical experience has shown that allergic and non-allergic respiratory, metabolic, mental, and cardiovascular disorders sometimes coexist with bronchial asthma. However, no study has been carried out that calculates the chance of manifestation of these disorders with bronchial asthma in Saarland and Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Using ICD10 diagnoses from health care institutions, the present study systematically analyzed the co-prevalence and odds ratios of comorbidities in the asthma population in Germany. The odds ratios were adjusted for age and sex for all comorbidities for patients with asthma vs. without asthma. Bronchial asthma was strongly associated with allergic and with a lesser extent to non-allergic comorbidities: OR 7.02 (95%CI:6.83-7.22) for allergic rhinitis; OR 4.98 (95%CI:4.67-5.32) allergic conjunctivitis; OR 2.41 (95%CI:2.33-2.52) atopic dermatitis; OR 2.47 (95%CI:2.16-2.82) food allergy, and OR 1.69 (95%CI:1.61-1.78) drug allergy. Interestingly, increased ORs were found for respiratory diseases: 2.06 (95%CI:1.64-2.58) vocal dysfunction; 1.83 (95%CI:1.74-1.92) pneumonia; 1.78 (95%CI:1.73-1.84) sinusitis; 1.71 (95%CI:1.65-1.78) rhinopharyngitis; 2.55 (95%CI:2.03-3.19) obstructive sleep apnea; 1.42 (95%CI:1.25-1.61) pulmonary embolism, and 3.75 (95%CI:1.64-8.53) bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Asthmatics also suffer from psychiatric, metabolic, cardiac or other comorbidities. Myocardial infarction (OR 0.86, 95%CI:0.79-0.94) did not coexist with asthma. Based on the calculated chances of manifestation for these comorbidities, especially allergic and respiratory, to a lesser extent also metabolic, cardiovascular, and mental disorders should be taken into consideration in the diagnostic and treatment strategy of bronchial asthma. PREVALENCE OF CO-EXISTING DISEASES IN GERMANY: Patients in Germany with bronchial asthma are highly likely to suffer from co-existing diseases and their treatments should reflect this. Quoc Thai Dinh at Saarland

  4. Lung deposition of sub-micron aerosols calculated as a function of age and breathing rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental measurements of lung deposition and especially of regional deposition, of aerosols in the sub-micron size range have been so few that it is worthwhile establishing a method of calculation. A computer routine has therefore been developed to calculate aerosol deposition in successive bronchial and bronchiolar generations of the Weibel 'A' model of human lung for the sub-micron size range where deposition occurs solely by diffusion. This model can be scaled to represent lungs at various ages and vital capacities. Some calculated results are presented here and compared with measurements of lung deposition made under carefully controlled conditions in humans. (author)

  5. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the lung in a girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beluffi, G.; Pavia Univ.; Bertolotti, P.; Mietta, A.; Manara, G.; Luisetti, M.

    1986-01-01

    Leiomyosarcoma of the lung is a type of tumour rarely found in childhood. It arises from smooth muscle either of bronchial or arterial walls, has a variable pattern of local growth, blood-borne metastatic spread with lymph nodes sparing and a clinical course characterized by fever, cough and worsening dyspnea. We report a case which occurred in a 14-year-old girl, reviewing all the other cases found in literature. (orig.)

  6. Modelling the effect of non-uniform radon progeny activities on transformation frequencies in human bronchial airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakir, H.; Hofmann, W.; Aubineau-Laniece, I.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of radiological and morphological source heterogeneities in straight and Y-shaped bronchial airways on hit frequencies and Micro-dosimetric quantities in epithelial cells have been investigated previously. The goal of the present study is to relate these physical quantities to transformation frequencies in sensitive target cells and to radon-induced lung cancer risk. Based on an effect-specific track length model, computed linear energy transfer (LET) spectra were converted to corresponding transformation frequencies for different activity distributions and source - target configurations. Average transformation probabilities were considerably enhanced for radon progeny accumulations and target cells at the carinal ridge, relative to uniform activity distributions and target cells located along the curved and straight airway portions at the same exposure level. Although uncorrelated transformation probabilities produce a linear dose - effect relationship, correlated transformations first increase depending on the LET, but then decrease significantly when exceeding a defined number of hits or cumulative exposure level. (authors)

  7. Uranium miner lung cancer study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccomanno, G.

    1986-06-01

    This study on uranium miners was started in 1957 and extended through June 30, 1986. It consisted of the routine screening of sputum from uranium miners of the Colorado Plateau, and collection of surgical and autopsy material from uranium miners who developed lung cancer. The projects resulted in: (1) Proof, for the first time, that cancer takes from 10 to 15 years to develop from the maximum accumulated carcinogenic insult and can be demonstrated through progressive cellular changes of the bronchial tree; (2) Development of a method for preserving, concentrating, and processing sputum samples. This is known as the Saccomanno Technique, and is used worldwide in diagnosing lung cancer; (3) Publication of the 1st and 2nd editions of a full-color textbook entitled ''Diagnostic Pulmonary Cytology;'' (4) Presentation of conclusive data on the effects of cigarette smoking and alpha progeny radiation on uranium miners, and information on safe radiation exposure levels; (5) Development of a brush-wash tube for collecting, concentrating, and preparing bronchial brushings and washings; (6) Development of cytological criteria which has improved sensitivity from 30% to about 60%; (7) Development of criteria for cytologic identification of carcinoma in situ, making it possible to diagnose lung cancer before it can be detected on chest x-ray

  8. CHANGES IN LUNG FUNCTION IN THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH EXOGENOUS ALLERGIC ALVEOLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Nefedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Total lung capacity (TLC, lung capacity (LC, forced LC (FLC, intrathoracic volume (ITV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 , (FEV1 /LC%, peak expiratory flow (PEF, maximum expiratory flow rate (MEFR25, MEFR50, MEFR75, Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SB, DLCO-SB/VА, РаО2 , and РаСО2 were determined in 43 patients with exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA before, during, and after treatment with glucocorticosteroids, hemapheresis, ambroxol, and fluimucil. Lung function became better in more than half (53.5% of the patients and worse in one fourth (25.6%; a combination of positive and negative functional changes was detected in 14.0%. Improved lung function was noted in 75.0, 50.0, and 38.5% of the patients with acute, subacute, and chronic EAA, respectively. Deterioration of lung function was determined in 46.2, 22.2, and 8.3% of the patients with chronic, subacute, and acute alveolitis, respectively. Better lung function manifested itself mainly as positive changes in lung volumes and capacities and pulmonary gas exchange function, less frequently as improved bronchial patency in the patients with acute and subacute EAA whereas the rate of positive functional changes in lung volumes and capacities, bronchial patency, and pulmonary gas exchange function was equal in those with chronic EAA. Poorer lung function appeared as negative changes in lung volumes and capacities in the patients with acute EAA, as worse pulmonary gas exchange function and negative changes in lung volumes and capacities and deteriorated bronchial patency in those with subacute and chronic EAA.

  9. Proteomic analysis of secreted proteins by human bronchial epithelial cells in response to cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, De-Ju; Xu, Yan-Ming; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Dong-Yang; Wong, Wing-Yan; Tai, William Chi-Shing; Cho, Yong-Yeon; Lau, Andy T Y

    2015-09-01

    For years, many studies have been conducted to investigate the intracellular response of cells challenged with toxic metal(s), yet, the corresponding secretome responses, especially in human lung cells, are largely unexplored. Here, we provide a secretome analysis of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ), with the aim of identifying secreted proteins in response to Cd toxicity. Proteins from control and spent media were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and visualized by silver staining. Differentially-secreted proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis and database searching. We characterized, for the first time, the extracellular proteome changes of BEAS-2B dosed with Cd. Our results unveiled that Cd treatment led to the marked upregulation of molecular chaperones, antioxidant enzymes, enzymes associated with glutathione metabolic process, proteins involved in cellular energy metabolism, as well as tumor-suppressors. Pretreatment of cells with the thiol antioxidant glutathione before Cd treatment effectively abrogated the secretion of these proteins and prevented cell death. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Cd causes oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity; and the differentially-secreted protein signatures could be considered as targets for potential use as extracellular biomarkers upon Cd exposure. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The relationship between bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and airway smooth muscle structure and reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, C L; Black, J L; Berend, N; Woolcock, A J

    1984-11-01

    The airway responsiveness of a group of 25 patients scheduled for lung resection was studied. 10 of 25 patients had a greater than or equal to 20% fall in FEV1 in response to inhaled methacholine (responders), with PD20 FEV1 values ranging from 0.6 to 7.3 mumol. Methacholine did not induce a 20% fall in FEV1 in 15 patients (non-responders). The sensitivity to carbachol and histamine of the bronchial smooth muscle resected from these patients was similar in tissue from responders and non-responders. There was no correlation between in vivo responsiveness to methacholine and in vitro sensitivity to carbachol or histamine. The volume of smooth muscle in some of these airway preparations was quantitated. There was a significant correlation between the maximum tension change in response to histamine and the volume of smooth muscle in each airway. There was no similar correlation for carbachol. The in vivo responsiveness to methacholine and in vitro sensitivity to histamine or carbachol was not related to the degree of inflammation in the airways studied. It is concluded that in vivo responsiveness cannot be explained in terms of smooth muscle sensitivity and that there may be differences between histamine and carbachol in the mechanism of contraction of airway smooth muscle.

  11. Anti-inflammatory effects of antibacterials on human bronchial epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatz Rudolf

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Bronchial epithelial cells (hu-BEC have been claimed to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory airway diseases like COPD. In this context IL-8 and GM-CSF have been shown to be key cytokines. Some antibiotics which are routinely used to treat lower respiratory tract infections have been shown to exert additional immunomodulatory or anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated whether these effects can also be detected in hu-BEC. Methods Hu-BEC obtained from patients undergoing lung resections were transferred to air-liquid-interface (ALI culture. These cultures were incubated with cefuroxime (CXM, 10-62.5 mg/l, azithromycin (AZM, 0.1-1.5 mg/l, levofloxacin (LVX, 1-8 mg/l and moxifloxacin (MXF, 1-16 mg/l. The spontaneous and TNF-α (10 ng/ml induced expression and release of IL-8 and GM-CSF were measured using PCR and ELISA in the absence or presence of these antibiotics. Results The spontaneous IL-8 and GM-CSF release was significantly reduced with MXF (8 mg/l by 37 ± 20% and 45 ± 31%, respectively (both p Conclusion Using ALI cultures of hu-BEC we observed differential effects of antibiotics on spontaneous and TNF-α induced cytokine release. Our data suggest that MXF and AZM, beyond bactericidal effects, may attenuate the inflammatory process mediated by hu-BEC.

  12. Reclassifying bronchial-pulmonary carcinoma: Differentiating histological type in biopsies by immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Carvalho

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The current state of molecular knowledge on lung cancer demands a histological classification which goes beyond small-cell and non-small-cell carcinoma to provide support for tailored therapy in aiding in understanding of the drugs currently available.As diagnosis and follow-up in the vast majority of lung cancer cases is based on biopsies and cytology samples, Immunohistochemical Bronchial Pulmonary Carcinoma Classification (IBPCC is necessary to reveal the raft of characteristics available. This provides morphological support for the WHO's 1999/2004 classification, in addition to an understanding of carcinogenesis.The immunohistochemical panel clarifies the main morphology and cytology characteristics to maintain the leading histological types as squamous cell carcinoma (high weight molecular cytokeratins/HWMC, adenosquamous carcinoma (CK7, TTF1, HWMA, neuroendocrine carcinoma (Chrg, Syn, CD56, TTF1, Ki67, adenocarcinoma (CK7, CK20, TTF1 and bring the polymorphic and pleomorphic carcinomas under a single banner of pleomorphic carcinoma (Ck7, TTF1, HWMC, VMT, Desmin, Actin which shelters large cell carcinomas and sarcomatoid carcinomas.Lung cancer chemotherapy will still be based on platinum and gemcitabine for the near future and the IBPCC is a simple and efficient tool for streamlining the registration of lung cancer histological characteristics in biopsies and other reduced samples to support clinical evidence and trials. Resumo: Os conhecimentos actuais da patologia molecular do cancro do pulmão requerem outra caracterização histológica, para além de carcinoma de células pequenas e carcinoma não pequenas células para suporte da terapia personalizada e entendimento do valor real dos fármacos actualmente disponíveis.Como o diagnóstico e seguimento clínico da maioria dos casos de cancro do pulmão se baseia em produtos de biópsia e citologia, a classificação imunoistoquímica do carcinoma

  13. In vitro studies of human lung carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C C; Lechner, J F; Yoakum, G H; Amstad, P; Korba, B E; Gabrielson, E; Grafstrom, R; Shamsuddin, A; Trump, B F

    1985-01-01

    Advances in the methodology to culture normal human lung cells have provided opportunities to investigate fundamental problems in biomedical research, including the mechanism(s) of carcinogenesis. Using the strategy schematically shown in Figure 1, we have initiated studies of the effects of carcinogens on the normal progenitor cells of the human cancers caused by these carcinogens. Extended lifespans and aneuploidy were found after exposure of mesothelial cells to asbestos and bronchial epithelial cells to nickel sulfate. These abnormal cells may be considered to be preneoplastic and at an intermediate position in the multistage process of carcinogenesis. Human bronchial epithelial cells can also be employed to investigate the role of specific oncogenes in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Using the protoplast fusion method for high frequency gene transfection, vHa-ras oncogene initiates a cascade of events in the normal human bronchial cells leading to their apparent immortality, aneuploidy, and tumorigenicity in athymic nude mice. These results suggest that oncogenes may play an important role in human carcinogenesis.

  14. The lung tissue microbiota of mild and moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragman, Alexa A; Lyu, Tianmeng; Baller, Joshua A; Gould, Trevor J; Kelly, Rosemary F; Reilly, Cavan S; Isaacson, Richard E; Wendt, Chris H

    2018-01-09

    Oral taxa are often found in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) lung microbiota, but it is not clear if this is due to a physiologic process such as aspiration or experimental contamination at the time of specimen collection. Microbiota samples were obtained from nine subjects with mild or moderate COPD by swabbing lung tissue and upper airway sites during lung lobectomy. Lung specimens were not contaminated with upper airway taxa since they were obtained surgically. The microbiota were analyzed with 16S rRNA gene qPCR and 16S rRNA gene hypervariable region 3 (V3) sequencing. Data analyses were performed using QIIME, SourceTracker, and R. Streptococcus was the most common genus in the oral, bronchial, and lung tissue samples, and multiple other taxa were present in both the upper and lower airways. Each subject's own bronchial and lung tissue microbiota were more similar to each other than were the bronchial and lung tissue microbiota of two different subjects (permutation test, p = 0.0139), indicating more within-subject similarity than between-subject similarity at these two lung sites. Principal coordinate analysis of all subject samples revealed clustering by anatomic sampling site (PERMANOVA, p = 0.001), but not by subject. SourceTracker analysis found that the sources of the lung tissue microbiota were 21.1% (mean) oral microbiota, 8.7% nasal microbiota, and 70.1% unknown. An analysis using the neutral theory of community ecology revealed that the lung tissue microbiota closely reflects the bronchial, oral, and nasal microbiota (immigration parameter estimates 0.69, 0.62, and 0.74, respectively), with some evidence of ecologic drift occurring in the lung tissue. This is the first study to evaluate the mild-moderate COPD lung tissue microbiota without potential for upper airway contamination of the lung samples. In our small study of subjects with COPD, we found oral and nasal bacteria in the lung tissue microbiota, confirming that

  15. IL-17A induces Pendrin expression and chloride-bicarbonate exchange in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M Adams

    Full Text Available The epithelium plays an active role in the response to inhaled pathogens in part by responding to signals from the immune system. Epithelial responses may include changes in chemokine expression, increased mucin production and antimicrobial peptide secretion, and changes in ion transport. We previously demonstrated that interleukin-17A (IL-17A, which is critical for lung host defense against extracellular bacteria, significantly raised airway surface pH in vitro, a finding that is common to a number of inflammatory diseases. Using microarray analysis of normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE cells treated with IL-17A, we identified the electroneutral chloride-bicarbonate exchanger Pendrin (SLC26A4 as a potential mediator of this effect. These data were verified by real-time, quantitative PCR that demonstrated a time-dependent increase in Pendrin mRNA expression in HBE cells treated with IL-17A up to 48 h. Using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, we confirmed that Pendrin protein expression is increased in IL-17 treated HBE cells and that it is primarily localized to the mucosal surface of the cells. Functional studies using live-cell fluorescence to measure intracellular pH demonstrated that IL-17A induced chloride-bicarbonate exchange in HBE cells that was not present in the absence of IL-17A. Furthermore, HBE cells treated with short interfering RNA against Pendrin showed substantially reduced chloride-bicarbonate exchange. These data suggest that Pendrin is part of IL-17A-dependent epithelial changes and that Pendrin may therefore be a therapeutic target in IL-17A-dependent lung disease.

  16. A hybrid method for airway segmentation and automated measurement of bronchial wall thickness on CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ziyue; Bagci, Ulas; Foster, Brent; Mansoor, Awais; Udupa, Jayaram K; Mollura, Daniel J

    2015-08-01

    Inflammatory and infectious lung diseases commonly involve bronchial airway structures and morphology, and these abnormalities are often analyzed non-invasively through high resolution computed tomography (CT) scans. Assessing airway wall surfaces and the lumen are of great importance for diagnosing pulmonary diseases. However, obtaining high accuracy from a complete 3-D airway tree structure can be quite challenging. The airway tree structure has spiculated shapes with multiple branches and bifurcation points as opposed to solid single organ or tumor segmentation tasks in other applications, hence, it is complex for manual segmentation as compared with other tasks. For computerized methods, a fundamental challenge in airway tree segmentation is the highly variable intensity levels in the lumen area, which often causes a segmentation method to leak into adjacent lung parenchyma through blurred airway walls or soft boundaries. Moreover, outer wall definition can be difficult due to similar intensities of the airway walls and nearby structures such as vessels. In this paper, we propose a computational framework to accurately quantify airways through (i) a novel hybrid approach for precise segmentation of the lumen, and (ii) two novel methods (a spatially constrained Markov random walk method (pseudo 3-D) and a relative fuzzy connectedness method (3-D)) to estimate the airway wall thickness. We evaluate the performance of our proposed methods in comparison with mostly used algorithms using human chest CT images. Our results demonstrate that, on publicly available data sets and using standard evaluation criteria, the proposed airway segmentation method is accurate and efficient as compared with the state-of-the-art methods, and the airway wall estimation algorithms identified the inner and outer airway surfaces more accurately than the most widely applied methods, namely full width at half maximum and phase congruency. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Progression and prognostic indicators of bronchial disease in children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sophia N; Nussbaum, Eliezer; Yoonessi, Leila; Morphew, Tricia; Randhawa, Inderpal

    2014-06-01

    The pulmonary complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality (MacLean et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 178:1055-1059, 2008; Klings et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 173:1264-1269, 2006; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2009). Despite this recognition, predictive markers of lung dysfunction progression remain elusive (Klings et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 173:1264-1269, 2006; Platt et al. N Engl J Med 330:1639-1644, 1994; Caboot et al. Curr Opin Pediatr 20:279-287, 2008; Field et al. Am J Hematol 83:574-576, 2008; Shirlo et al. Peadiatr Respir Review 12:78-82, 2011). This study was designed describe the longitudinal progression and identify specific markers that influence bronchial disease in SCD. A retrospective, chart review of 89 patients with SCD was conducted. All patients underwent spirometry in conjunction with body plethysmography as part of routine care. Eleven lung function variables were assessed, five of which were selected to establish patterns of normal, obstructive, restrictive, or mixed obstructive-restrictive physiology (Klings et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 173:1264-1269, 2006; Field et al. Am J Hematol 83:574-576, 2008). In the unadjusted model, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)% of predicted trended downward with age, while total lung capacity (TLC)% of predicted showed a bimodal distribution and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity corrected for hemoglobin (DLCOcor)% of predicted remained stable. Adjusting for acute chest syndrome (ACS) episodes, medication status, and growth velocity (GV), the final model demonstrated that the downward trend between FEV1% of predicted with age was further influenced by the latter two factors. Initial decline in FEV1% of predicted is associated with worsening pulmonary dysfunction over time. Independent of ACS episodes, the factors most influential on the progression of FEV1% predicted include the introduction of medications as well as the

  18. Lung function; Lungenfunktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorichter, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Abteilung Pneumologie, Freiburg (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The term lung function is often restricted to the assessment of volume time curves measured at the mouth. Spirometry includes the assessment of lung volumes which can be mobilised with the corresponding flow-volume curves. In addition, lung volumes that can not be mobilised, such as the residual volume, or only partially as FRC and TLC can be measured by body plethysmography combined with the determination of the airway resistance. Body plethysmography allows the correct positioning of forced breathing manoeuvres on the volume-axis, e.g. before and after pharmacotherapy. Adding the CO single breath transfer factor (T{sub LCO}), which includes the measurement of the ventilated lung volume using He, enables a clear diagnosis of different obstructive, restrictive or mixed ventilatory defects with and without trapped air. Tests of reversibility and provocation, as well as the assessment of inspiratory mouth pressures (PI{sub max}, P{sub 0.1}) help to classify the underlying disorder and to clarify treatment strategies. For further information and to complete the diagnostic of disturbances of the ventilation, diffusion and/or perfusion (capillar-)arterial bloodgases at rest and under physical strain sometimes amended by ergospirometry are recommended. Ideally, lung function measurements are amended by radiological and nuclear medicine techniques. (orig.) [German] Unter dem Begriff Lungenfunktion wird die Bestimmung der Lungenvolumina am Mund verstanden. Dabei werden die mobilisierbaren Lungenvolumina mit den zugehoerigen Fluss-Volumen-Kurven mittels Spirometrie und Ganzkoerperplethysmographie (GKP) und die nicht (RV) und teilweise mobilisierbaren Lungenvolumina (FRC, TLC) einschliesslich der Atemwegswiderstaende bestimmt. Die GKP ermoeglicht zusaetzlich die korrekte (Volumenachsen-)Positionierung der forcierten Atemmanoever. Dieses erlaubt eine uebersichtlichere graphische Darstellung z. B. vor und nach der Applikation pharmakologisch wirksamer Substanzen. Wird die GKP

  19. The Role of Eosinophilic Cationic Proteins, Total IgE and Eosinophilia in Children with Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungureanu Adina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial hyperreactivity (HRB, is defined as an excessive bronchial constriction that acts as an exaggerated bronchoconstrictor of the airways. This occurs as a secondary action of a nonspecific stimuli.

  20. Fetal-juvenile origins of point mutations in the adult human tracheal-bronchial epithelium: Absence of detectable effects of age, gender or smoking status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, Hiroko [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories 10-1, Tebiro 6-chome, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan); Li-Sucholeiki, Xiao-Cheng [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Agencourt Bioscience Corp., 500 Cummings Center, Suite 2450, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States); Marcelino, Luisa A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Biomedical Engineering Department, Northwestern University, 633 Clark Street, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Gruhl, Amanda N. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Herrero-Jimenez, Pablo [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); SLC Ontario, 690 Dorval Drive, Suite 200, Oakville, Ontario L6K 3W7 Canada (Canada); Zarbl, Helmut [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, 170 Freylinghuysen Road, Room 426, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Willey, James C. [Medical College of Ohio, 3120 Glendale Avenue, Room 12, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Furth, Emma E. [University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Department of Pathology, 3400 Spruce Street, 6 Founders Building, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Morgenthaler, Stephan [Institute of Applied Mathematics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), SB/IMA, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] (and others)

    2008-11-10

    Allele-specific mismatch amplification mutation assays (MAMA) of anatomically distinct sectors of the upper bronchial tracts of nine nonsmokers revealed many numerically dispersed clusters of the point mutations C742T, G746T, G747T of the TP53 gene, G35T of the KRAS gene and G508A of the HPRT1 gene. Assays of these five mutations in six smokers have yielded quantitatively similar results. One hundred and eighty four micro-anatomical sectors of 0.5-6 x 10{sup 6} tracheal-bronchial epithelial cells represented en toto the equivalent of approximately 1.7 human smokers' bronchial trees to the fifth bifurcation. Statistically significant mutant copy numbers above the 95% upper confidence limits of historical background controls were found in 198 of 425 sector assays. No significant differences (P = 0.1) for negative sector fractions, mutant fractions, distributions of mutant cluster size or anatomical positions were observed for smoking status, gender or age (38-76 year). Based on the modal cluster size of mitochondrial point mutants, the size of the adult bronchial epithelial maintenance turnover unit was estimated to be about 32 cells. When data from all 15 lungs were combined the log 2 of nuclear mutant cluster size plotted against log 2 of the number of clusters of a given cluster size displayed a slope of {approx}1.1 over a range of cluster sizes from {approx}2{sup 6} to 2{sup 15} mutant copies. A parsimonious interpretation of these nuclear and previously reported data for lung epithelial mitochondrial point mutant clusters is that they arose from mutations in stem cells at a high but constant rate per stem cell doubling during at least ten stem cell doublings of the later fetal-juvenile period. The upper and lower decile range of summed point mutant fractions among lungs was about 7.5-fold, suggesting an important source of stratification in the population with regard to risk of tumor initiation.

  1. [Activity and safety of fenspiride in bronchial hyperexudation (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Labarthe, B; Gosset, X; Dourmap, C; Delaval, P; Le Rest, R

    This clinical trial of fenspiride (injectable and sustained-release 80 mg tablet) was carried out on patients selected because their bronchopathy was of a hypersecretory type. Interesting results were observed in 20 out of 37 cases, but they were often delayed. This group of patients included a high proportion of patients with major hypersecretion; the efficacy of fenspiride is often evident, (in 8 out of 11 cases) but it is unpredictable individually. It can be concluded from this trial that a long term treatment with fenspiride, well tolerated, can usefully be tried in patients with predominant signs of bronchial hyperexudation.

  2. Right main bronchial fracture resolution by digital thoracic drainage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés Julián, Gildardo; Mier, José M; Iñiguez, Marco A; Guzmán de Alba, Enrique

    2016-03-01

    Tracheobronchial stenosis is common in the thoracic surgery service, and iatrogenic injury of the airway after manipulation is not infrequent. When a digital thoracic drainage system came onto the market, many advantages were evident. A 24-year-old woman with critical right main bronchial stenosis underwent airway dilation that was complicated by a tear with a massive air leak, resulting in a total right pneumothorax. We employed a pleural drain connected to a digital thoracic drainage system. The drain was removed 2 days after successful resolution of the air leak. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Bronchial carcinoid tumor: helical CT and virtual bronchoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez, Eduardo; Carrascosa, Patricia; Capunay, Carlos; Spinozzi, German; Abramson, Horacio; Berna, Miguel

    2001-01-01

    The authors reported a case of a 61 years old man with recurrent neumonia of the inferior right lobe diagnosed by a chest radiography. A complementary helical CT showed an endobronquial mass on the right intermediate bronchus. Virtual bronchoscopy contributed to a better definition of this lesion, confirmed by a real bronchoscopy. The lesion was diagnosed as a carcinoid tumor by a bronchial biopsy. After surgery (sleeve resection of the tumor) the patient did not show any recurrence of his broncho-neumonic clinical features. (author)

  4. Multifactorial dyspahgia complicated by esophago-bronchial fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Julie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysphagia in an elderly patient necessitates urgent clinical evaluation to exclude the possibility of an underlying esophageal malignancy. Atherosclerotic aortic aneurysms are common in old age, but dysphagia aortica resulting from compression of the esophagus by an aortic aneurysm is a rare cause for dysphagia. Development of a malignant esophago-airway fistula can occur from a variety of tumors, the most common of which is esophageal cancer. A case of longstanding dysphagia resulting from dysphagia aortica later developing an esophageal malignancy complicated by esophago-bronchial fistula is outlined in this unique case report.

  5. Preliminary study on leadership proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghinea Valentina Mihaela

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In general, it is agreed that effective leadership requires a certain degree of proximity, either physical or mental, which enables leaders to maintain control over their followers and communicate their vision. Although we agree with the leadership proximity principles which states that leaders are able to efficiently serve only those people with whom they interact frequently, in this article we focus instead on the disadvantages of being too close and the way in which close proximity can actually hurt the effectiveness of leadership. The main effects that we discuss regard the way in which proximity and familiarity allow followers to see the weaknesses and faults of the leader much more easily and thus diminish the leader’s heroic aura, and the emotional bias that results from a leader being too familiar with his followers which will impede the process of rational decision making. As a result, we argue that there exists a functional proximity which allows the leader the necessary space in which to perform effective identity work and to hide the backstage aspects of leadership, while also allowing him an emotional buffer zone which will enable him to maintain the ability to see clearly and make rational decisions.

  6. Histological types of lung cancer in uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, T.; Tomasek, L.; Placek, V.

    1995-01-01

    The recent results confirm linear dependence of exposure and relative risk, decrease of alpha radiation effect with time since exposure and decrease of effect in older age categories. A detailed analysis of exposure -effect relationship for two main histologic types of lung cancer confirms hypothesis formulated by J. Sevc about parallel inhibition effect of alpha radiation in higher exposure rates which followed after period of initiation of malignant processes of bronchial epithelium cells. This phenomenon was observed only in small cell type of lung cancer (authors). 4 tabs., 5 refs

  7. Histological types of lung cancer in uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, T; Tomasek, L [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic); Placek, V [Inst. for Experises and Emergencies, Pribram0Kamenna (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The recent results confirm linear dependence of exposure and relative risk, decrease of alpha radiation effect with time since exposure and decrease of effect in older age categories. A detailed analysis of exposure -effect relationship for two main histologic types of lung cancer confirms hypothesis formulated by J. Sevc about parallel inhibition effect of alpha radiation in higher exposure rates which followed after period of initiation of malignant processes of bronchial epithelium cells. This phenomenon was observed only in small cell type of lung cancer (authors). 4 tabs., 5 refs.

  8. Vascular injury in lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, A D; Wyatt, J H; Barry, J M; Undery, D

    1975-10-01

    Inhaled particulates which stimulate a 'delayed', cellular mode of alveolar clearance are excreted to the airways through lymphoid foci in the bronchial bifurcations. The anatomic relations and developing pathology of the tissues adjacent to these foci, including the divisions of accompanying arteries, were studied by serial sectioning and photomicrographic modelling of rat lungs. The changes are typical of classic 'delayed' inflammatory reactions and, in the rat, the fully developed stage is characterised by fibrinoid necrosis involving all three layers of the arterial wall in a linear lesion across the leading edge of the flow divider. An hypothesis was developed to relate the injury to pulsatile forces. Recent published findings indicate that similarly placed lesions, with species-specific changes in development, are universal in both cerebral and extra-cranial arterial forks of man and animals. Possible associations of the microvascular changes with human atherosclerosis and their further significance in pulmonary and systemic effects arising from industrial and environmental contaminants are explored.

  9. Vascular injury in lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, A.D.; Wyatt, J.H.; Barry, J.M.; Undery, Dawn.

    1975-10-01

    Inhaled particulates which stimulate a 'delayed', cellular mode of alveolar clearance are excreted to the airways through lymphoid foci in the bronchial bifurcations. The anatomic relations and developing pathology of the tissues adjacent to these foci, including the divisions of accompanying arteries, were studied by serial sectioning and photomicrographic modelling of rat lungs. The changes are typical of classic 'delayed' inflammatory reactions and, in the rat, the fully developed stage is characterised by fibrinoid necrosis involving all three layers of the arterial wall in a linear lesion across the leading edge of the flow divider. An hypothesis was developed to relate the injury to pulsatile forces. Recent published findings indicate that similarly placed lesions, with species-specific changes in development, are universal in both cerebral and extra-cranial arterial forks of man and animals. Possible associations of the microvascular changes with human atherosclerosis and their further significance in pulmonary and systemic effects arising from industrial and environmental contaminants are explored. (author)

  10. Typhoid fever as a triggering factor in acute and intractable bronchial asthma attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardhana; Surachmanto, Eko E; Datau, E A

    2013-10-01

    Typhoid fever is an enteric infection caused by Salmonella typhi. In Indonesia, typhoid fever is endemic with high incidence of the disease. In daily practice we frequently have patients with bronchial asthma, and it is becoming worse when these patients get typhoid fever. After oral ingestion, Salmonella typhi invades the the intestine mucosa after conducted by microbial binding to epithelial cells, destroying the microfold cells (M cell) then passed through the lamina propria and detected by dendritic cells (DC) which express a variety of pathogen recognition receptors on the surfaces, including Toll-Like Receptor (TLR). expressed on macrophages and on intestinal epithelial cells inducing degradation of IB, and translocation of NF-B (Nuclear Factor-Kappa Beta). This process initiates the induction of pro-inflammatory gene expression profile adhesion molecules, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and other proteins that induce and perpetuate the inflammation in host cells then will induce acute ant intractable attack of bronchial asthma. The role of typhoid fever in bronchial asthma, especially in persons with acute attack of bronchial asthma, is not well understood. In this article, we will discuss the role of typhoid fever in the bronchial asthma patients which may cause bronchial asthma significantly become more severe even triggering the acute and intractable attack of bronchial asthma. This fact makes an important point, to treat completely the typhoid fever in patients with bronchial asthma.

  11. Clinical and Diagnostic Features of Bronchial Asthma in Children on the Background of Latent Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Levytskyi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on clinical and paraclinical examination of 112 children with bronchial asthma, there were studied the features of its course against the background of food allergy. It was found that only a set of clinical and paraclinical signs is the most important for the diagnosis of bronchial asthma in children on the background of latent food allergy.

  12. Mediastinoscopic Bilateral Bronchial Release for Long Segmental Resection and Anastomosis of the Trachea

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jeong-Han; Park, In Kyu; Bae, Mi-Kyung; Hwang, Yoohwa

    2011-01-01

    The extent of resection and release of the trachea is important for successful anastomosis. Bilateral bronchial dissection is one of the release techniques for resection of the lower trachea. We present the experience of cervical video-assisted mediastinoscopic bilateral bronchial release for long segmental resection and anastomosis of the lower trachea.

  13. Left Circumflex Coronary Artery Fistula Connected to the Right Bronchial Artery Associated with Bronchiectasis: Multidetector CT and Coronary Angiography Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Kyung Jin; Choo, Ki Seok [Dept. of Radiology, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Coronary to bronchial artery fistula is a rare vascular anomaly secondary to enlargement of pre-existing vascular anastomosis between the coronary and bronchial arteries. This occurs when there is a constant disturbance of the pressure equilibrium involving either coronary or broncho-pulmonary disorder. Localized bronchiectasis is the most common related condition in patients with a coronary to bronchial artery fistula. Herein, we report on a case of a large left circumflex coronary artery to right bronchial artery fistula associated with bronchiectasis.

  14. Digital video subtraction fluorography (DVSF) in the diagnosis of bronchial abnormality associated with congenital heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Tetsuya; Arisawa, Jun; Nakajima, Toru

    1990-01-01

    To assess bronchial morphology and abnormality, 14 children with congenital heart diseases including 2 postoperative patients (age, 2 m.-4 yr) were studied by digital video subtraction fluorography (DVSF) using digital subtraction and image processing system (Philips, DVI-2). This newly developed technique clearly defined bronchial anatomy in all 14 patients. Bronchial situs could be determined in all 8 patients with complex heart anomalies. Out of 8 patients with respiratory distress in this study, obvious bronchial stenosis or obstruction was found by DVSF in 5 patients. Thus, DVSF image defined anatomies of main and lobar bronchi more clearly than previous noninvasive methods. Moreover, DVSF is noninvasive and easily performed even for small infants and critically ill patients. In conclusion, DVSF may be a useful technique to assess bronchial morphology and abnormality in patients with congenital heart diseases. (author)

  15. Association between proximity to major roads and sputum cell counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Julie; D’silva, Liesel; Brannan, John; Hargreave, Frederick E; Kanaroglou, Pavlos; Nair, Parameswaran

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Air pollution caused by motor vehicle emissions has been associated with exacerbations of obstructive airway diseases; however, the nature of the resulting bronchitis has not been quantified. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether proximity to major roads or highways is associated with an increase in sputum neutrophils or eosinophils, and to evaluate the effect of proximity to roads on spirometry and exacerbations in patients with asthma. METHODS: A retrospective study of 485 sputum cell counts from patients attending a tertiary chest clinic in Hamilton, Ontario, identified eosinophilic or neutrophilic bronchitis. Patients’ residences were geocoded to the street network of Hamilton using geographic information system software. Associations among bronchitis, lung function, and proximity to major roads and highways were examined using multinomial logistic and multivariate linear regression analyses adjusted for patient age, smoking status and corticosteroid medications. RESULTS: Patients living within 1000 m of highways showed an increased risk of bronchitis (OR 3.8 [95% CI 1.0 to 13.7]; Proad were at increased risk for an asthma exacerbation (OR 1.9 [95% CI 1.5 to 15.5]; Proad was associated with neutrophilic bronchitis, an increased risk of asthma diagnosis, asthma exacerbations and lower lung function. PMID:21369545

  16. Age-dependent lung dosimetry of radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.; Martonen, T.B.; Menache, M.G.

    1988-02-01

    Two morphometric models differing in the tracheobronchial region, were compared in the present paper: Model 1 is based on the adult morphology of Weibel, assuming that all bronchial airways grow in equal proportion; while Model 2 adopts the adult structure proposed by Yeh and Schum, using measured airway dimensions in the right upper lobe as a function of age. Tidal volume and respiratory frequency also vary with age: while the breathing frequency decreases with rising age, tidal volume increases. Radiation doses in each bronchial airway generation were computed for the deep lying basal cells as well as for the more uniformly distributed serous (SMGS) cells, which are currently assumed to be the progenitor cells for bronchial carcinomas. Radiation doses to both target cells were significantly higher in the newborn than in the adult, for all simulated breathing patterns, showing the highest relative increase in upper bronchial airways. Comparing both tracheobronchial growth models, Model 1 predicts higher doses at early ages, but produced lower doses in the adult lung

  17. Five year remission of GHRH secreting bronchial neuroendocrine tumor with symptoms of acromegaly. Utility of chromogranin A in the monitoring of the disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolanowski, M.; Zatonska, K.; Kos-Kudla, B.; Rzeszutko, M.; Marciniak, M.

    2006-01-01

    Acromegaly is usually caused by excess GH (growth hormone) secretion by pituitary adenoma. Extremely rare (< 1% of cases) acromegaly can be a result of ectopic GHRH (growth hormone releasing hormone) secretion by bronchial tubes, lung, pancreatic or intestinal tumor. The aim of this description is to present the case of successfully treated acromegaly caused by ectopic GHRH secretion by bronchial neuroendocrine tumor and the usefulness of chromogranin A assay in the disease monitoring. The diagnosis of acromegaly in 61-year old woman was based on typical clinical picture and elevated GH and IGF-1(insulin-like growth factor-1) levels. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) images revealed no tumor in the pituitary but only the pituitary enlargement. Moreover, the right lung tumor (10 cm size) and elevated GHRH level were documented. The secretion of GH, IGF-1 and GHRH were normalized and progression of acromegaly was stopped after the carcinoid tumor surgery. Currently, 5 year after surgery, acromegaly is still in the remission, as the normal levels of GH, IGF-1, chromogranin A and normal chest and pituitary images confirm. The authors emphasize usefulness of measurement of chromogranin A concentration for the evaluation of the tumor remission in case the routine GHRH assay is not accessible. (authors)

  18. Molecular biology of the lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, S.Z.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Lung cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases and leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The advances in molecular biology and genetics, including the modern microarray technology and rapid sequencing techniques, have enabled a remarkable progress into elucidating the lung cancer ethiopathogenesis. Numerous studies suggest that more than 20 different genetic and epigenetic alterations are accumulating during the pathogenesis of clinically evident pulmonary cancers as a clonal, multistep process. Thus far, the most investigated alterations are the inactivational mutations and losses of tumour suppressor genes and the overexpression of growth-promoting oncogenes. More recently, the acquired epigenetic inactivation of tumour suppressor genes by promoter hypermethylation has been recognized. The early clonal genetic abnormalities that occur in preneoplastic bronchial epithelium damaged by smoking or other carcinogenes are being identified. The molecular distinctions between small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as well as between tumors with different clinical outcomes have been described. These investigations lead to the h allmarks of lung cancer . Conclusions. It is realistic to expect that the molecular and cell culture-based investigations will lead to discoveries of new clinical applications with the potential to provide new avenues for early diagnosis, risk assessment, prevention, and most important, new more effective treatment approaches for the lung cancer patients. (author)

  19. Expression of CD152 and CD137 on T regulatory cells in rhinitis and bronchial asthma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Rojas-Ramos

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Subjects with bronchial asthma and bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis disorders have a deficiency of CD4+, CD25hight and FoxP3+ Treg in peripheral blood; however, subjects with bronchial asthma had a higher frequency of CD152+ and CD137+ Treg cells.

  20. Virtual endoscopy of the tracheo-bronchial system: sub-millimeter collimation with the 16-row multidetector scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. Fawad; Herzog, Christopher; Maataoui, Adel; Harth, Marc; Abolmaali, Nasreddin D.; Jacobi, Volkmar; Vogl, Thomas J.; Ackermann, Hanns; Wagner, Thomas O.F.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the scope of sub-millimeter collimation reconstruction parameters using 16-row computer tomography and ECG triggering on image quality in virtual bronchoscopy. Thirty-two patients (5 women, 27 men, mean age 66.6±1.4) who had been admitted for coronary artery bypass graft surgery underwent CT examination of the thorax (Sensation 16, Siemens, Inc., Forchheim, Germany). All patients were examined with 16 x 0.75-mm collimation. Image reconstruction was performed for two groups. In group A (n=32), slice thickness of 1.5 mm and an overlap of 0.75 mm were used. In group B (n=32), slice thickness of 0.75 mm and an overlap of 0.4 mm were applied. Retrospective ECG triggering was performed in all patients. The maximum order of recognizable bronchi was determined in each data set. In addition to assessing the maximum order of bronchial bifurcation, bronchial diameter was determined in truly perpendicular sections in each patient. For every segment proximal to a bifurcation, image quality was subjectively graded as poor (grade 1), moderate (grade 2) or good (grade 3). The observers were asked to identify the minimum cardiac movement ECG-triggered image sets assuming that they would be of better quality than the maximum cardiac movement ECG-triggered image sets. The Mann-Whitney U-test and the Fisher's Exact Test were used for statistical evaluation. In group A, a mean of 4.8±0.2 bifurcations was ascertained vs. 6.5±0.3 bifurcations in group B [P<0.0003]. For bronchial diameters in group A, a mean of 7.5±0.4 mm was determined vs. 4.6±0.4 mm in group B [P<0.0001]. In group B, two independent radiologists observed a significant shift to better image quality in all segments evaluated [P<0.006 to P<0.000001]. Motion artifacts were judged as being significantly reduced by minimum cardiac movement ECG-triggering in group B [observer 1: P=0.0007 (20/32); observer 2: P=0.008 (18/32)], but not in group A [observer 1: P=0.286 (13

  1. Cellular morphometry of the bronchi of human and dog lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, E.S.

    1991-09-01

    One hundred and forty-seven bronchial samples (generations 3--6) from 66 patients (62 usable; 36 female, 26 male; median age 61) have been dissected by generation from fixed surgical lung specimens obtained after the removal of pathological lesions. In addition, one hundred and fifty-six mongol dog bronchi (generations 2--6) dissected from different lobes of 26 dog lungs have also been similarly prepared. One hundred and twenty-seven human samples have been completely processed for electron microscopy and have yielded 994 electron micrographs of which 655 have been entered into the Computerized Stereological Analysis System (COSAS) and been used for the measurement of the distances of basal and mucous cell nuclei to the epithelial free surface. Similarly 328 micrographs of dog epithelium from 33 bronchial samples have been used to measure the distances of basal and mucous cell nuclei to the epithelial free surface and have been entered into COSAS. Using the COSAS planimetry program, we continue to expand our established data bases which describe the volume density and nuclear numbers per electron micrograph for 5 cell types of the human bronchial epithelial lining of men and women, as well as smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers and similar parameters for the same 5 epithelial cell types of dog bronchi. Our micrographs of human bronchial epithelium have allowed us to analyze the recent suggestion that the DNA of lymphocytes may be subject to significant damage from Rn progeny while within the lung. Since the last progress report three papers have been submitted for publication. 17 refs., 4 tabs

  2. Radiologic management of haemoptysis. Diagnostic and interventional bronchial arterial embolisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ittrich, H.; Adam, G. [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Dept. and Clinic; Klose, H. [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany). Section Pneumology

    2015-04-15

    Hemoptysis can be a life-threatening pulmonary emergency with high mortality, is symptomatic of an underlying severe pulmonary disease and requires immediate diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostically, bronchoscopy, conventional chest x-ray and contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography (MSCT) with CT angiography (CTA) provide information regarding the underlying pulmonary disease, bleeding site, the vascular anatomy of the bronchial arteries (BA) and extrabronchial branches, as well a basis for planning of endovascular intervention. Therapeutically, bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is a safe and effective technique in the hands of an experienced interventionist with profound knowledge of the BA anatomy and possible pitfalls as well as experience with first-line therapy of recurrent and massive hemoptysis or as an intervention prior to elective surgery. Recurrent episodes of hemoptysis are not uncommon and require a prompt repeat BAE after exclusion of extrabronchial systemic and pulmonary artery bleeding sources. This review article should give an overview of the history, anatomical and pathophysiological basics and the clinical context of hemoptysis and diagnosis, as well as a survey of management, treatment and results of BAE.

  3. Effect of lidocaine 2% on bacterial culture of bronchial fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, M.; Meybodi, F.A.A.; Mokarianpour, T.; Fallah, T.; Mongabadi, F.D.; Ayatollahi, J.; Shahcherghi, S.H.; Yazdi, M.H.A

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the action of 2% lidocaine on the culture results of bronchial fluid in patients suspected of having lower respiratory tract infections. Study Design:Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study:Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran, from November 2014 to November 2015. Methodology:Patients suspected of lower respiratory tract infections referred to bronchoscopy unit of the Hospital were included. Those with incomplete questionnaire and bronchoscopy contraindication were excluded. Bronchial fluid was aspirated before and after local application of 2% lidocaine and cultured, according to the suspected clinical diagnosis. Finally, statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, version 17.0. For statistical comparisons, McNemar's test was used. Level of significance was kept at p <0.05. Results:The mean age of the study population was 51.83 +-15.93 with a range of 25 - 80 years. Out of 130 patients, 60 patients had positive culture results. Nineteen (31.7%) cases had positive culture for tuberculosis and 41 (63.3%) cases had positive results for other bacteria before intervention that did not change after using 2% lidocaine (p=1). In 70 (53.84%) cases, results were negative before and after use of 2% lidocaine. Conclusion:No significant difference was found between culture results before and after the use of lidocaine. Therefore, lidocaine can be used during bronchoscopy to increase patient tolerance. (author)

  4. [Preoperative Management of Patients with Bronchial Asthma or Chronic Bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihira, Satoshi

    2015-09-01

    Bronchial asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation. The primary goal of treatment of asthma is to maintain the state of control. According to the Japanese guidelines (JGL2012), long-term management consists of 4 therapeutic steps, and use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is recommended at all 4 steps. Besides ICS, inhalation of long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) is also effective. Recently, omalizumab (a humanized antihuman IgE antibody) can be available for patients with severe allergic asthma. Although there is no specific strategy for preoperative treatment of patients with asthma, preoperative systemic steroid administration seemed to be effective to prevent asthma attack during anesthesia. The most common cause of chronic bronchitis is smoking. Even the respiratory function is within normal limits, perioperative management of patients with chronic bronchitis is often troublesome. The most common problem is their sputum. To minimize perioperative pulmonary complication in these patients, smoking cessation and pulmonary rehabilitation are essential. It is known that more than 1 month of smoking cessation is required to reduce perioperative respiratory complication. However, even one or two weeks of smoking cessation can decrease sputum secretion. In summary, preoperative optimization is most important to prevent respiratory complication in patients with bronchial asthma or chronic bronchitis.

  5. Successful Treatment of Bronchoesophageal Fistula With Esophageal and Bronchial Stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yi Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bronchoesophageal fistula is reported in 5-10% of patients with esophageal cancer. In most of these cases, the insertion of a single stent, either a tracheobronchial or an esophageal stent, is sufficient to seal off the fistula. In this case we describe a 67-year-old man with esophageal cancer and complications of bronchoesophageal fistula, which resulted in repeated pneumonia and acute respiratory failure. Initially, two expandable metallic membranous esophageal stents were placed to cover the fistula. However, the esophageal stent failed to stop the air leak and dislodged into the stomach. Thereafter, a bronchial stent was placed at the right intermediate bronchus and successfully stopped the air leak. The patient was then weaned from the ventilator 1 week after the insertion of a bronchial stent. In conclusion, stenting in both the esophagus and airways should be considered when both are severely invaded by malignancy, when the airway is compressed, or when the fistula is insufficiently sealed by an esophageal stent.

  6. Sputum as a source of adipokines in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Mineev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-four patients with allergic (ABA and non-allergic (NABA variants of bronchial asthma (BA were examined to evaluate levels of key adipokines (leptin, resistin, adiponectin in sputum in different variants of BA. Adipokines in sputum and blood plasma were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The indices that reflect the percentage of adipokines in sputum regarding adipokines in plasma of the same patients were worked out to evaluate the ratio of levels of corresponding adipokines in plasma and sputum in patients with BA. Two regularities are clearly seen in the study: the first - levels of proinflammatory adipokines (leptin, resistin in sputum in ABA correlate directly with indicators of respiratory function but levels of anti-inflammatory adipokines (adiponectin in sputum correlate inversely with indicators of respiratory function; the second -correlation of levels of the studied adipokines with indicators of respiratory function are almost not revealed in NABA. The first regularity reflects the important fact that the content of adipokines in bronchial secretion is to a certain extent one of regulating local mechanisms in target organ controlled system levels of corresponding adipokines in exacerbation of BA.

  7. Pulmonary neutrophil recruitment and bronchial reactivity in formaldehyde-exposed rats are modulated by mast cells and differentially by neuropeptides and nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lino dos Santos Franco, Adriana; Damazo, Amilcar Sabino; Beraldo de Souza, Hyula Regines; Domingos, Helory Vanni; Oliveira-Filho, Ricardo Martins; Oliani, Sonia Maria; Costa, Soraia Katia Pereira; Tavares de Lima, Wothan

    2006-01-01

    We have used a pharmacological approach to study the mechanisms underlying the rat lung injury and the airway reactivity changes induced by inhalation of formaldehyde (FA) (1% formalin solution, 90 min once a day, 4 days). The reactivity of isolated tracheae and intrapulmonary bronchi were assessed in dose-response curves to methacholine (MCh). Local and systemic inflammatory phenomena were evaluated in terms of leukocyte countings in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, blood, bone marrow lavage and spleen. Whereas the tracheal reactivity to MCh did not change, a significant bronchial hyporesponsiveness (BHR) was found after FA inhalation as compared with naive rats. Also, FA exposure significantly increased the total cell numbers in BAL, in peripheral blood and in the spleen, but did not modify the counts in bone marrow. Capsaicin hindered the increase of leukocyte number recovered in BAL fluid after FA exposure. Both compound 48/80 and indomethacin were able to prevent the lung neutrophil influx after FA, but indomethacin had no effect on that of mononuclear cells. Following FA inhalation, the treatment with sodium cromoglycate (SCG), but not with the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor L-NAME, significantly reduced the total cell number in BAL. Compound 48/80, L-NAME and SCG significantly prevented BHR to MCh after FA inhalation, whereas capsaicin was inactive in this regard. On the other hand, indomethacin exacerbated BHR. These data suggest that after FA inhalation, the resulting lung leukocyte influx and BHR may involve nitric oxide, airway sensory fibers and mast cell-derived mediators. The effect of NO seemed to be largely restricted to the bronchial tonus, whereas neuropeptides appeared to be linked to the inflammatory response, therefore indicating that the mechanisms responsible for the changes of airway responsiveness caused by FA may be separate from those underlying its inflammatory lung effects

  8. The 15q24/25 Susceptibility Variant for Lung Cancer and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Is Associated with Emphysema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambrechts, Diether; Buysschaert, Ian; Zanen, Pieter; Coolen, Johan; Lays, Natacha; Cuppens, Harry; Groen, Harry J. M.; Dewever, Walter; van Klaveren, Rob J.; Verschakelen, Johny; Wijmenga, Cisca; Postma, Dirkje S.; Decramer, Marc; Janssens, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) on chromosome 15q24/25 as a risk for nicotine dependence, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Assessment of bronchial obstruction by spirometry,

  9. Lung scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalenz, Roberto.

    1994-01-01

    A review of lung scintigraphy, perfusion scintigraphy with SPECT, lung ventilation SPECT, blood pool SPECT. The procedure of lung perfusion studies, radiopharmaceutical, administration and clinical applications, imaging processing .Results encountered and evaluation criteria after Biello and Pioped. Recommendations and general considerations have been studied about relation of this radiopharmaceutical with other pathologies

  10. Related Changes of Autonomic Ganglia and Respiratory Compartments of Lungs in Case of Chronic Alcohol Intoxication in Experiments with Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkov Aleksandr Vladimirovich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with description of morphological alterations in lungs and their autonomic ganglia due to chronic alcohol intoxication caused by compulsory ethanol ingesting in Wistar rats. Progressive decrease of air content, superficial density of bronchial and alveolar epithelia, and the increase of quantitative density of bronchial and alveolar macrophages became quantitative morphological evidence of chronic lung injury. At the same time, in autonomic ganglia of lungs the volume fraction and quantitative density of neurons decreased dramatically and the characteristics of neurons in radial morphometry were altered. The quantitative density of glial cells and glia/neuron ratio were increased. The total loss of neurons in ganglia reached 7 % to the 60th day of experiment, the signs of compensatory reactions were revealed simultaneously. These peculiarities can particularly explain the mechanisms of chronic lung pathology in late stages of alcohol disease.

  11. [Self-expanding nitinol stents in proximal tracheal stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, B; Mann, W; Heussel, C P; Scherhag, A; Schlegel, J; Kauczor, H U

    2000-03-01

    The use of silicone- or metal stents in stenosis of the distal trachea and the bronchial system is a customary procedure [1-4], for example after tumor invasion or cicatricial stenosis after transplantation. In the proximal part of the trachea, on smaller, short and soft strictures we try to stabilise the trachea by the implantation of rings. Other methods are tracheal plasty or transverse tracheal resectomy [5-7]. In the case of longer or nearer subglottal stenoses the positioning of self-expanding nitinol stents has proven a simple, gentle and well-tolerated alternative procedure even in very serious disorders [1, 8, 9]. These stents can be placed in short narcosis under endoscopic control without great strain on the patient. We placed nitinol-stents in the proximal part of the trachea in eleven cases. In five cases dyspnoea caused by a tracheal collapse improved. In two further cases a tracheal stenosis with massive granulation tissue and cicatricial pull under an inlaid tracheal cannula was removed and the tracheostoma was closed. In four cases a solid, scarred and cartilaginous stenosis in the area of the cricoid and the upper tracheal rings was widened with laser and later on stented. Over an observation time of two years no complications showed safe one case in which a directly postoperative dislocation was repositioned quickly. The patients live without restrictions through the tracheal stenosis or a tracheostoma. In the best possible case epithelialization over the metal meshes develops so that a nearly normal mucus transportation is possible [1, 10-12].

  12. Autocrine Acetylcholine, Induced by IL-17A via NFκB and ERK1/2 Pathway Activation, Promotes MUC5AC and IL-8 Synthesis in Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Marina Montalbano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IL-17A is overexpressed in the lung during acute neutrophilic inflammation. Acetylcholine (ACh increases IL-8 and Muc5AC production in airway epithelial cells. We aimed to characterize the involvement of nonneuronal components of cholinergic system on IL-8 and Muc5AC production in bronchial epithelial cells stimulated with IL-17A. Bronchial epithelial cells were stimulated with recombinant human IL-17A (rhIL-17A to evaluate the ChAT expression, the ACh binding and production, the IL-8 release, and the Muc5AC production. Furthermore, the effectiveness of PD098,059 (inhibitor of MAPKK activation, Bay11-7082 (inhibitor of IkBα phosphorylation, Hemicholinium-3 (HCh-3 (choline uptake blocker, and Tiotropium bromide (Spiriva® (anticholinergic drug was tested in our in vitro model. We showed that rhIL-17A increased the expression of ChAT, the levels of ACh binding and production, and the IL-8 and Muc5AC production in stimulated bronchial epithelial cells compared with untreated cells. The pretreatment of the cells with PD098,059 and Bay11-7082 decreased the ChAT expression and the ACh production/binding, while HCh-3 and Tiotropium decreased the IL-8 and Muc5AC synthesis in bronchial epithelial cells stimulated with rhIL-17A. IL-17A is involved in the IL-8 and Muc5AC production promoting, via NFκB and ERK1/2 pathway activation, the synthesis of ChAT, and the related activity of autocrine ACh in bronchial epithelial cells.

  13. Aneurysms of proximal pulmonary arteries: CT diagnosis and preoperative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iula, G.; Ziviello, R.; Del Vecchio, W.

    1996-01-01

    We reviewed our experience with proximal pulmonary artery aneurysm (PPAA) to determine whether accurate preoperative evaluation (crucial to differential diagnosis and surgical planning) had been obtained on the basis of CT study alone. Three patients with PPAA were studied with contrast-enhanced CT. We evaluated the size and shape of PPAAs, their proximal and distal extent, eventual presence of intraluminal thrombi, dissection, perianeurysmal fibrosis, and rupture. The results were compared with surgical findings. In two patients the aneurysm involved the pulmonary trunk and both the right and left arteries origin. In one patient the aneurysm extended from the left artery origin to the hilum of the left lung. Contrast-enhanced CT alone allows detection of aneurysm in the pulmonary trunk, in right or left pulmonary arteries with precise preoperative evaluation of the extent, size, shape, and complications. The CT imaging was unable to establish the etiologic origin and presence of small intimal tears in PPAA. (orig.)

  14. Local Control and Toxicity in a Large Cohort of Central Lung Tumors Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modh, Ankit; Rimner, Andreas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Williams, Eric [Department of Medical Physics Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Foster, Amanda; Shah, Mihir [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Shi, Weiji; Zhang, Zhigang [Department of Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Gelblum, Daphna Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Rosenzweig, Kenneth E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Yorke, Ellen D.; Jackson, Andrew [Department of Medical Physics Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wu, Abraham J., E-mail: wua@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in central lung tumors has been associated with higher rates of severe toxicity. We sought to evaluate toxicity and local control in a large cohort and to identify predictive dosimetric parameters. Methods and Materials: We identified patients who received SBRT for central tumors according to either of 2 definitions. Local failure (LF) was estimated using a competing risks model, and multivariate analysis (MVA) was used to assess factors associated with LF. We reviewed patient toxicity and applied Cox proportional hazard analysis and log-rank tests to assess whether dose-volume metrics of normal structures correlated with pulmonary toxicity. Results: One hundred twenty-five patients received SBRT for non-small cell lung cancer (n=103) or metastatic lesions (n=22), using intensity modulated radiation therapy. The most common dose was 45 Gy in 5 fractions. Median follow-up was 17.4 months. Incidence of toxicity ≥ grade 3 was 8.0%, including 5.6% pulmonary toxicity. Sixteen patients (12.8%) experienced esophageal toxicity ≥ grade 2, including 50% of patients in whom PTV overlapped the esophagus. There were 2 treatment-related deaths. Among patients receiving biologically effective dose (BED) ≥80 Gy (n=108), 2-year LF was 21%. On MVA, gross tumor volume (GTV) was significantly associated with LF. None of the studied dose-volume metrics of the lungs, heart, proximal bronchial tree (PBT), or 2 cm expansion of the PBT (“no-fly-zone” [NFZ]) correlated with pulmonary toxicity ≥grade 2. There were no differences in pulmonary toxicity between central tumors located inside the NFZ and those outside the NFZ but with planning target volume (PTV) intersecting the mediastinum. Conclusions: Using moderate doses, SBRT for central lung tumors achieves acceptable local control with low rates of severe toxicity. Dosimetric analysis showed no significant correlation between dose to the lungs, heart, or NFZ and

  15. Lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G

    1977-01-01

    The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...... breathing in the sitting position ranged from 0.25 to 0.37 g.cm-3. Subnormal values were found in patients with emphsema. In patients with pulmonary congestion and edema, lung density values ranged from 0.33 to 0.93 g.cm-3. The lung density measurement correlated well with the findings in chest radiographs...... but the lung density values were more sensitive indices. This was particularly evident in serial observations of individual patients....

  16. What Is Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shareable Graphics Infographics “African-American Men and Lung Cancer” “Lung Cancer Is the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ...

  17. Abscess in the Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Lung and Airway Disorders Abscess in the Lungs Abscess in the Lungs Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Resources ... here for the Professional Version Abscess in the Lungs Abscess in the Lungs A lung abscess is a ...

  18. Unusual case of a lung abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Duduzile; Godbole, Gauri; Chiodini, Peter L; Phillips, Russell

    2013-04-16

    A 56-year-old Caucasian lady presented with a short history of pleuritic chest pain on the background of a 2-month history of fever, chills, 10-kg weight loss and cough with brown sputum after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. She had persistent eosinophilia and was diagnosed with a lung abscess as seen on chest x-ray. She did not respond to standard intravenous broad spectrum antibacterial medication and her chest CT scan showed a moderate pleural collection in continuity with the abscess. She also underwent bronchoscopy, the microscopy of the bronchial washings revealing eggs of the trematode Fasciola. The bacterial and fungal cultures of the washings were sterile. She had visited Turkey in the previous year but did not remember consuming any watercress or aquatic plants. She was successfully treated with two doses of the antiparasitic agent triclabendazole. Ectopic Fasciola can be a rare cause of a lung abscess.

  19. Bronchodilatory effect of deep inspiration in freshly isolated sheep lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William D; Wang, Lu; Paré, Peter D; Seow, Chun Y

    2017-02-01

    Taking a big breath is known to reverse bronchoconstriction induced by bronchochallenge in healthy subjects; this bronchodilatory effect of deep inspiration (DI) is diminished in asthmatics. The mechanism underlying the DI effect is not clear. Observations from experiments using isolated airway smooth muscle (ASM) preparations and airway segments suggest that straining of ASM due to DI could lead to bronchodilation, possibly due to strain-induced reduction in ASM contractility. However, factors external to the lung cannot be excluded as potential causes for the DI effect. Neural reflex initiated by stretch receptors in the lung are known to inhibit the broncho-motor tone and enhance vasodilatation; the former directly reduces airway resistance, and the latter facilitates removal of contractile agonists through the bronchial circulation. If the DI effect is solely mediated by factors extrinsic to the lung, the DI effect would be absent in isolated, nonperfused lungs. Here we examined the DI effect in freshly isolated, nonperfused sheep lungs. We found that imposition of DI on isolated lungs resulted in significant bronchodilation, that this DI effect was present only after the lungs were challenged with a contractile agonist (acetylcholine or histamine), and that the effect was independent of the difference in lung volume observed pre- and post-DI. We conclude that a significant portion of the bronchodilatory DI effect stems from factors internal to the lung related to the activation of ASM. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Bronchial morphometry in smokers: comparison with healthy subjects by using 3D CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montaudon, Michel; Berger, Patrick; Marthan, Roger; Lederlin, Mathieu; Tunon-de-Lara, Jose Manuel; Laurent, Francois

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of airway dimensions in patients with airway disease by using computed tomography (CT) has been limited by the obliquity of bronchi, the ability to identify the bronchial generation, and the limited number of bronchial measurements. The aims of the present study were (i) to analyze cross-sectional bronchial dimensions after automatic orthogonal reconstruction of all visible bronchi on CT images, and (ii) to compare bronchial morphometry between smokers and nonsmokers. CT and pulmonary function tests were performed in 18 males separated into two groups: 9 nonsmokers and 9 smokers. Bronchial wall area (WA) and lumen area (LA) were assessed using dedicated 3D software able to provide accurate cross-sectional measurements of all visible bronchi on CT. WA/LA and WA/(WA+LA) ratios were computed and all parameters were compared between both groups. Smokers demonstrated greater WA, smaller LA, and consequently greater LA/WA and LA/(WA+LA) ratios than nonsmokers. These differences occurred downward starting at the fourth bronchial generation. 3D quantitative CT method is able to demonstrate significant changes in bronchial morphometry related to tobacco consumption. (orig.)

  1. [Bronchial reactivity and mucosal bioamines as criteria for acute bronchitis becoming chronic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artem'eva, E G; Latfullin, I A

    2002-01-01

    To study bronchial reactivity and sensitivity with consideration of histamine, serotonin and catecholamines concentration in bronchial mucosa in patients with acute bronchitis (AB) as possible criteria of its becoming chronic. Before the treatment 116 patients with verified AB were examined using inhalation provocative tests (IPT) with histamine, serotonin and obsidian in increasing doses. Also, external respiration function was studied. IPT were repeated after the course of treatment. 87 of 116 AB patients exhibited high bronchial sensitivity and reactivity to inhalations of histamine, serotonin, obsidian. In parallel, there was a rise in the levels of histamine and serotonin and a fall in the level of catecholamines in bronchial mucosa (alveolar macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, mast and APUD-cells). Changes in monoamines concentration in bronchial mucosa were relevant to activity of bronchial inflammation and the presence of obstructive syndrome. Persistent bronchial hyperreactivity to inhalations of histamine and obsidian along with high histamine levels and low level of catecholamines in alveolar macrophages, lymphocytes and mucus is a criterion of bronchitis transformation to chronic one.

  2. Hypothalamic digoxin and hemispheric chemical dominance in relation to the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-08-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--digoxin (membrane sodium-potassium ATPase inhibitor and regulator of neurotransmitter transport), dolichol (regulator of N-glycosylation of proteins), and ubiquinone (free radical scavenger). The isoprenoid pathway was assessed in patients with bronchial asthma. The pathway was also assessed in patients with right hemispheric, left hemispheric, and bihemispheric dominance to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. The pathway was upregulated with increase in digoxin synthesis in bronchial asthma. There was an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites in patients with bronchial asthma. The ubiquinone levels were low and lipid peroxidation increased in these patients. There was increase in dolichol and glycoconjugate levels and reduction in lysosomal stability in these patients. The cholesterol:phospholipid ratio was increased and glycoconjugate levels were reduced in the membranes of these patients. The patterns noticed in bronchial asthma were similar to those in patients with right hemispheric chemical dominance. Bronchial asthma occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals. Ninety percent of the patients with bronchial asthma were right-handed and left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. But their biochemical patterns were similar to those obtained in right hemispheric chemical dominance. Hemispheric chemical dominance is a different entity and has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test.

  3. ProxImaL: efficient image optimization using proximal algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2016-07-11

    Computational photography systems are becoming increasingly diverse, while computational resources-for example on mobile platforms-are rapidly increasing. As diverse as these camera systems may be, slightly different variants of the underlying image processing tasks, such as demosaicking, deconvolution, denoising, inpainting, image fusion, and alignment, are shared between all of these systems. Formal optimization methods have recently been demonstrated to achieve state-of-the-art quality for many of these applications. Unfortunately, different combinations of natural image priors and optimization algorithms may be optimal for different problems, and implementing and testing each combination is currently a time-consuming and error-prone process. ProxImaL is a domain-specific language and compiler for image optimization problems that makes it easy to experiment with different problem formulations and algorithm choices. The language uses proximal operators as the fundamental building blocks of a variety of linear and nonlinear image formation models and cost functions, advanced image priors, and noise models. The compiler intelligently chooses the best way to translate a problem formulation and choice of optimization algorithm into an efficient solver implementation. In applications to the image processing pipeline, deconvolution in the presence of Poisson-distributed shot noise, and burst denoising, we show that a few lines of ProxImaL code can generate highly efficient solvers that achieve state-of-the-art results. We also show applications to the nonlinear and nonconvex problem of phase retrieval.

  4. Cellular morphometry of the bronchi of human and dog lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, E.S.

    1991-03-01

    One hundred and thirty-one bronchial samples from 62 patients have been dissected by generation from fixed surgical lung specimens obtained after the removal of pathological lesions. Complete patient records including occupational and smoking histories, as well as possible exposure to radon, are obtained. In addition, one hundred and sixty-two mongol dog bronchi dissected from different lobes of 23 dog lungs have also been similarly prepared. Ninety-four human samples have been completely processed for electron microscopy and have yielded 994 electron micrographs of which 532 have been entered into the Computerized Stereological Analysis System (COSAS) and been used for the measurement of the distances of basal and mucous cell nuclei to the epithelial free surface. Similarly 240 micrographs of dog epithelium from 31 bronchial samples have been entered into COSAS. We have, using the COSAS planimetry program, established data bases which describe the volume density and nuclear numbers per electron micrograph for 5 cell types of the human bronchial epithelial lining of men and women, as well as smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers and similar parameters for the epithelial cell types of dog bronchi. The data are being used to develop weighting factors for dosimetry and radon risk analysis. 26 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Salvage Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Local Failure After Primary Lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hearn, Jason W.D., E-mail: hearnj@ccf.org; Videtic, Gregory M.M.; Djemil, Toufik; Stephans, Kevin L.

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: Local failure after definitive stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is uncommon. We report the safety and efficacy of SBRT for salvage of local failure after previous SBRT with a biologically effective dose (BED) of ≥100 Gy{sub 10}. Methods and Materials: Using an institutional review board–approved lung SBRT registry, we identified all patients initially treated for early-stage NSCLC between August 2004 and January 2012 who received salvage SBRT for isolated local failure. Failure was defined radiographically and confirmed histologically unless contraindicated. All patients were treated on a Novalis/BrainLAB system using ExacTrac for image guidance, and received a BED of ≥100 Gy{sub 10} for each SBRT course. Tumor motion control involved a Bodyfix vacuum system for immobilization along with abdominal compression. Results: Of 436 patients treated from August 2004 through January 2012, we identified 22 patients with isolated local failure, 10 of whom received SBRT for salvage. The median length of follow-up was 13.8 months from salvage SBRT (range 5.3-43.5 months). Median tumor size was 3.4 cm (range 1.7-4.8 cm). Two of the 10 lesions were “central” by proximity to the mediastinum, but were outside the zone of the proximal bronchial tree. Since completing salvage, 3 patients are alive and without evidence of disease. A fourth patient died of medical comorbidities without recurrence 13.0 months after salvage SBRT. Two patients developed distant disease only. Four patients had local failure. Toxicity included grade 1-2 fatigue (3 patients) and grade 1-2 chest wall pain (5 patients). There was no grade 3-5 toxicity. Conclusions: Repeat SBRT with a BED of ≥100 Gy{sub 10} after local failure in patients with early-stage medically inoperable NSCLC was well tolerated in this series and may represent a viable salvage strategy in select patients with peripheral tumors ≤5 cm.

  6. An attempt to use immunohistochemical methods for semi-quantitative determination of surfactant in bronchial secretion after hyperbaric exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Siermontowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The most significant index of pulmonary oxygen toxicity is a decrease in vital capacity (VC dependent on the duration of exposure and partial pressure of oxygen. The only method to measure this decrease is spirometry performed directly after exposure. Objective The aim of the study was to check whether the extent of lung damage could be assessed by quantitative determination of pulmonary surfactant in bronchial secretion. Design Sputum samples were collected before, during and after hyperbaric air or oxygen exposures; histological preparations were prepared and stained immunohistochemically to visualize surfactant. Amongst 781 samples collected, only 209 contained sputum and only 126 were included in the study. In this group, only 64 preparations could be paired for comparison. Results The semi-quantitative method used and statistical findings have not demonstrated any significance. Conclusions The method suggested for assessing the extent of lung damage has been found unsuitable for practical use due to difficulties in obtaining the proper material; moreover, the study findings do not allow to draw conclusions concerning its effectiveness.

  7. Calcitonin gene-related peptide promotes the wound healing of human bronchial epithelial cells via PKC and MAPK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Min; Sun, Guo-Ying; Liu, Yong-Ping; Ran, Wen-Zhuo; Peng, Li; Guan, Cha-Xiang

    2013-06-10

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino acid neuropeptide derived from the calcitonin gene. CGRP is widely distributed in the central and peripheral neuronal systems. In the lung, CGRP could modulate dendritic cell function, stimulate proliferation of alveolar epithelial cells and mediate lung injury in mice. In this study, we investigated the effect of CGRP on the wound healing of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) in vitro. The results showed that CGRP accelerated the recovery of wound area of monolayer HBECs in a dose-dependent manner. CGRP inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in HBECs. The percentage of S phase and G2/M phase was increased in HBECs after CGRP treatment. CGRP upregulated the expression of Ki67 in a dose-dependent manner. Some pathway inhibitors were used to investigate the signal pathway in which CGRP was involved. We found out that PKC pathway inhibitor (H-7) and MAPK pathway inhibitor (PD98059) could partially attenuate the effect of CGRP, which indicated that CGRP might promote the wound healing of HBECs via PKC and/or MAPK dependent pathway by accelerating migration and proliferation, and inhibiting apoptosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Benazepril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor: drug interaction with salbutamol and bronchial response to histamine in normal subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K. G.; Brunel, P.; Nell, G.; Quinn, G.; Kaik, G. A.

    1997-01-01

    Aims To investigate the effect of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, benazepril, on pulmonary function. Methods We investigated the influence of benazepril, on lung function and the interaction with inhaled salbutamol (0.1 to 6.6 mg) and histamine (0.03 to 30.69 g l−1 ) in normal subjects. Benazepril 20 mg, salbutamol 8 mg, propranolol 160 mg, and placebo were given orally once daily over 10 days. Results On day 8, there was no difference in the area under the salbutamol dose-response curves between benazepril, placebo and oral salbutamol (P >0.05), propranolol shifted the curves to the right (Pbenazepril 1.04 (0.99–1.08), salbutamol 1.19 (1.13–1.25), propranolol 0.57 (0.50–0.65). Conclusions Benazepril had no influence on baseline lung function, caused no interaction with inhaled salbutamol and the bronchial response to histamine was similar to placebo. However, our findings in normal subjects cannot be extrapolated automatically to asthmatics. PMID:9431834

  9. [Successful One-lung Ventilation with a Right-sided Double-lumen Tube in a Patient with a Right Upper Tracheal Bronchus, who Underwent Left Pneumonectomy for Left Hilar Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagoe, Izumi; Kohchiyama, Tsukasa; Hayashida, Masakazu; Satoh, Daizoh; Suzuki, Kenji; Inada, Eiichi

    2016-06-01

    A 60-year-old male patient with left hilar lung cancer was scheduled to undergo left pneumonectomy or left sleeve lower lobectomy. Preoperative computer tomographic and bronchoscopic examinations revealed that the bronchus (B1) to the right apical segment (S1) was a tracheal bronchus (TB) originating from the trachea approximately 10 mm above the carina. Because the left main bronchus was to be dissected, a right-sided double-lumen tube (DLT) was selected to completely protect the right lung from spillage of secretions or cancer cells from the left lung. The right-sided DLT was placed so as to fit its lateral opening of the bronchial lumen to normal upper branches (B2, B3), while sacrificing ventilation of S1 with an abnormal branch (B1). However, one-lung ventilation (OLV) of the right lung could not be achieved, since a gas leakage from the opened tracheal lumen occurred, most probably due to intra-lobar micro-airway communications between S1 and S2/S3. The DLT was withdrawn until the blue bronchial cuff occluded the orifice of the TB (B1). Although the upper half of the blue bronchial cuff appeared above the tracheal carina, OLV through the two bronchial lumen openings could be achieved due to a specific, slanted doughnut shape of the blue bronchial cuff and the location of the abnormal branch (B1) approximate to the carina. Left pneumonectomy using successful OLV was completed safely without hypoxemia or hypercapnea. Our experience indicates that management of OLV for patients with a thoracheal bronchus needs special considerations of the exact location of the TB and intra-lobar micro-airway communications, in addition to types of scheduled surgical procedures.

  10. Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaker G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gerrit Haaker, Albert Fujak Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective "survival motor neuron" (SMN protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. Keywords: spinal muscular atrophy, scoliosis, contractures, fractures, lung function, treatment, rehabilitation, surgery, ventilation, nutrition, perioperative management

  11. Continuous positive airway pressure treatment increases bronchial reactivity in obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczynski, Piotr; Gorska, Katarzyna; Przybylowski, Tadeusz; Bielicki, Piotr; Zielinski, Jan; Chazan, Ryszarda

    2009-01-01

    The effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on the function of the lower airways are poorly understood. One of the methods used to determine the influence of positive pressure breathing on lower airways is the bronchial hyperreactivity test. Some authors report that CPAP increases bronchial hyperreactivity, while others report decreases. To assess the influence of CPAP treatment on bronchial reactivity and the effects of bronchial hyperreactivity on compliance to CPAP treatment. The study group consisted of 101 obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients (88 men and 13 women) with a mean age of 51 ± 11 years, mean apnea-hypopnea index of 53 ± 20 and mean body mass index of 32.6 ± 5.4. Patients were randomly assigned to a treatment group that received 3 weeks of CPAP therapy (group 1) or to a nontreatment control group (group 2). Pulmonary function tests and the methacholine bronchial provocation test were performed at baseline and 3 weeks later. There were no statistically significant differences between treated and control groups in anthropometry and polysomnography variables. At baseline, bronchial hyperreactivity was found in 6 patients from group 1 and 5 patients from group 2. A significant increase in bronchial reactivity was observed after CPAP treatment. Log PC20M decreased from 1.38 ± 0.30 at baseline to 1.26 ± 0.50 (p bronchial hyperreactivity during CPAP treatment were characterized by significantly lower FEV1, FVC and MEF50 values. CPAP produces statistically significant bronchial hyperreactivity. However, there were no clinical symptoms and it is not necessary to withdraw previous therapies. Copyright © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Prediction of the effect of indoor smoking on the lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhm, Radoslav; Holý, Karol; Sedlák, Antonín

    2018-01-01

    Inhalation of tobacco smoke leads to hyperproduction of mucus, which acts as a radioprotective layer for the target cells. On the other hand, long-term smoking affects adversely the lungs function, damages the lung tissue and frequently leads to the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: This serious disease results in the accumulation of radon progeny in the lung tissue and hence, in an increased radiation dose to the target cells. The aim of this work was to quantify the effect of such changes on the bronchial dose and radon risk for current population. (orig.)

  13. Bronchial effects of leukotriene D4 inhalation in normal human lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Groth, S

    1987-01-01

    obstruction had decreased by 50% of the maximum effect, and no delayed reaction was observed within 10 h. The reactivity of the airways did not change during 10 h after inhalation of LTD4 as tested by repeated exercise challenges. Pretreatment with ipratropium bromide prevented the effect of LTD4 on FEV1, yet...

  14. Single-Cell RNA Sequencing of the Bronchial Epithelium in Smokers with Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    and to discuss library preparations protocols and data analysis techniques. The goal is to develop a single cell sequencing analysis toolkit . In...Research Support LUNGevity Career Development Award What other organizations were involved as partners? Organization Name: Broad Institute 19

  15. Auscultation versus Point-of-care Ultrasound to Determine Endotracheal versus Bronchial Intubation: A Diagnostic Accuracy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsingh, Davinder; Frank, Ethan; Haughton, Robert; Schilling, John; Gimenez, Kimberly M; Banh, Esther; Rinehart, Joseph; Cannesson, Maxime

    2016-05-01

    Unrecognized malposition of the endotracheal tube (ETT) can lead to severe complications in patients under general anesthesia. The focus of this double-blinded randomized study was to assess the accuracy of point-of-care ultrasound in verifying the correct position of the ETT and to compare it with the accuracy of auscultation. Forty-two adult patients requiring general anesthesia with ETT were consented. Patients were randomized to right main bronchus, left main bronchus, or tracheal intubation. After randomization, the ETT was placed via fiber-optic visualization. Next, the location of the ETT was assessed using auscultation by a separate blinded anesthesiologist, followed by an ultrasound performed by a third blinded anesthesiologist. Ultrasound examination included assessment of tracheal dilation via cuff inflation with air and evaluation of pleural lung sliding. Statistical analysis included sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and interobserver agreement for the ultrasound examination (95% CI). In differentiating tracheal versus bronchial intubations, auscultation showed a sensitivity of 66% (0.39 to 0.87) and a specificity of 59% (0.39 to 0.77), whereas ultrasound showed a sensitivity of 93% (0.66 to 0.99) and specificity of 96% (0.79 to 1). Identification of tracheal versus bronchial intubation was 62% (26 of 42) in the auscultation group and 95% (40 of 42) in the ultrasound group (P = 0.0005) (CI for difference, 0.15 to 0.52), and the McNemar comparison showed statistically significant improvement with ultrasound (P auscultation in determining the location of ETT.

  16. Non-genomic estrogen regulation of ion transport and airway surface liquid dynamics in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinciane Saint-Criq

    Full Text Available Male cystic fibrosis (CF patients survive longer than females and lung exacerbations in CF females vary during the estrous cycle. Estrogen has been reported to reduce the height of the airway surface liquid (ASL in female CF bronchial epithelium. Here we investigated the effect of 17β-estradiol on the airway surface liquid height and ion transport in normal (NuLi-1 and CF (CuFi-1 bronchial epithelial monolayers. Live cell imaging using confocal microscopy revealed that airway surface liquid height was significantly higher in the non-CF cells compared to the CF cells. 17β-estradiol (0.1-10 nM reduced the airway surface liquid height in non-CF and CF cells after 30 min treatment. Treatment with the nuclear-impeded Estrogen Dendrimer Conjugate mimicked the effect of free estrogen by reducing significantly the airway surface liquid height in CF and non-CF cells. Inhibition of chloride transport or basolateral potassium recycling decreased the airway surface liquid height and 17β-estradiol had no additive effect in the presence of these ion transporter inhibitors. 17β-estradiol decreased bumetanide-sensitive transepithelial short-circuit current in non-CF cells and prevented the forskolin-induced increase in ASL height. 17β-estradiol stimulated an amiloride-sensitive transepithelial current and increased ouabain-sensitive basolateral short-circuit current in CF cells. 17β-estradiol increased PKCδ activity in CF and non-CF cells. These results demonstrate that estrogen dehydrates CF and non-CF ASL, and these responses to 17β-estradiol are non-genomic rather than involving the classical nuclear estrogen receptor pathway. 17β-estradiol acts on the airway surface liquid by inhibiting cAMP-mediated chloride secretion in non-CF cells and increasing sodium absorption via the stimulation of PKCδ, ENaC and the Na(+/K(+ATPase in CF cells.

  17. Genetic Polymorphism of Secretoglobin SCGB1A1 and Development of Lung Pathology in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Malaya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of investigation — to study of A(38G genetic polymorphism of the first exon of secretoglobin SCGB1A1 in Crimean children and to identify the possible correlation between the degree of polymorphism and development of lung pathology (bronchial asthma and recurrent bronchitis. There were investigated DNA samples from children with bronchial asthma (75 persons, recurrent bronchitis (19 persons and healthy children (20 persons aged from 6 to 16 years. The genetic polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction with method of allele discrimination with registration the results by electrophoresis. Frequency of allele combinations of genetic variants of studied polymorphism was different in patients with bronchial asthma, recurrent bronchitis and in control group. Thus, among patients with bronchial asthma the frequency of homozygous allele AA carriers is lower, and among patients with recurrent bronchitis it is higher then in control group. Contrary, the frequency of AG heterozygotes was higher among patients with bronchial asthma then in patients with recurrent bronchitis and in control group. Also the frequency of AG heterozygotes in patients with recurrent bronchitis is much lower than homozygotes. The obtained results can be used for prognostic purpose to evaluate the prospects of the obstructive syndrome development.

  18. Randomized controlled study of CBT in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover Naveen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to find out efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy, as an adjunct to standard pharmacotherapy, in bronchial asthma. In a random-ized two-group design with pre-and post assessments, forty asthma patients were randomly allotted to two groups: self management group and cognitive behavior therapy group. Both groups were exposed to 6-8 weeks of intervention, asthma self management program and cognitive behavior therapy. Assessment measures used were-Semi structured interview schedule, Asthma Symptom Checklist, Asthma di-ary, Asthma Bother Profile, Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, AQLQ and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate. Within group comparison showed significant improvement in both groups at the post assessment. Between group comparisons showed that CBT group reported significantly greater change than that of SM group. Cognitive behavior therapy helps in improving the managment of asthma.

  19. [Poor tolerance of exertion during sports and bronchial hyperreactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potiron-Josse, M; Boutet, S; Ginet, J

    1992-11-01

    135 sportsmen and women, 55 girls, 80 boys, aged from 7 to 30 years, from various sports, who complained of bad tolerance of exertion were examined with an exercise test and isocapnic spontaneous hyperventilation. 61, about 45%, during a hyperventilation test had a fall of V.E.M.S. greater than or equal to 20%, showing bronchial hyperreactivity. After three tests, this fall index was greater than or equal to 50%. 68% of the positive responses were seen in boys and 2/3 of the subjects with a positive response were atopics. No other argument could be maintained from the questioning or clinical history to predict the positive or negative character of the hyperventilation (age, sporting level, symptoms, previous asthma or asthmatic, allergy). H.S.V.I. of the chests of a sporting population that complains of exertion intolerance, therefore allows verification of an H.R.B. assessment of its severity and to follow evolution after treatment.

  20. APPLICATION OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NONMEDICAMENTOUS PREVENTION AND TREATMENT METHODS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Bezrukova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors justify the necessity to apply non medicamentous treatment methods to the children with bronchial asthma. The scientists familiarize us with a new me dication, whose effect is based on the noninvasive impact of the electromagnetic radiation of the knowingly non thermal intensity. It is for normalization of the disturbed function of the respiratory system. The researchers showed the efficiency of the above said innovative medication, while treating bronchial asthma among children with no side effects whatsoever.Key words: bronchial asthma, nonmedicamentous treatment methods, children.

  1. Risk assessment of bronchial asthma development in children with atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vуsotska, Olena V.; Klymenko, Viktoriia A.; Trubitcin, Alexei A.; Pecherska, Anna I.; Savchuk, Tamara O.; Kolimoldayev, Maksat; Wójcik, Waldemar; Szatkowska, Małgorzata; Burlibay, Aron

    2017-08-01

    This article offers a risk assessment of bronchial asthma development in children with atopic dermatitis by applying fuzzy-set theory to accumulated statistical data. It is shown that with a view to executing the said task one should exercise a complex approach involving factors such as "IgE level", "existence of obstructions" and "burdened bronchial asthma heredity of immediate relatives". The obtained results will assist in making adequate and well-informed medical decisions as well as facilitate the decrease of the risk of developing bronchial asthma in children with atopic dermatitis.

  2. Understanding the mechanisms of lung mechanical stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S.N.B. Garcia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical forces affect both the function and phenotype of cells in the lung. Bronchial, alveolar, and other parenchymal cells, as well as fibroblasts and macrophages, are normally subjected to a variety of passive and active mechanical forces associated with lung inflation and vascular perfusion as a result of the dynamic nature of lung function. These forces include changes in stress (force per unit area or strain (any forced change in length in relation to the initial length and shear stress (the stress component parallel to a given surface. The responses of cells to mechanical forces are the result of the cell's ability to sense and transduce these stimuli into intracellular signaling pathways able to communicate the information to its interior. This review will focus on the modulation of intracellular pathways by lung mechanical forces and the intercellular signaling. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which lung cells transduce physical forces into biochemical and biological signals is of key importance for identifying targets for the treatment and prevention of physical force-related disorders.

  3. Respiratory muscle strength in children with mild bronchial asthma disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Neumannová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory muscle strength can be decreased in patients with asthma; however, it is not well-documented whether a mild bronchial asthma disease can affect respiratory muscle strength in children and can be associated with higher presence of breathing difficulties. Objective: The main aim of the present study was to compare respiratory muscle strength between children with asthma and age-matched healthy children. The next aim of this study was to assess the incidence of decreased respiratory muscle strength in children with asthma and healthy children and assess the effect of decreased respiratory muscle strength on the incidence of breathing difficulties. Methods: Children with mild bronchial asthma (n = 167 and age-matched, healthy children (n = 100 were recruited into this study. Pulmonary function tests, maximal inspiratory (PImax and expiratory (PEmax mouth pressures and the incidence of breathing difficulty were evaluated in children with asthma and healthy controls. Results: The inspiratory muscle strength was similar between children with asthma and healthy children. Conversely, the expiratory muscle strength was lower in asthmatic children. There was a statistically significant difference between girls with asthma and healthy girls (PEmax = 81.7 ± 29.8% vs. 100.1 ± 23.7% of predicted, p < .001. PEmax was significantly higher in boys with asthma than in girls with asthma (PEmax = 92.9 ± 26.4 % vs. 81.7 ± 29.8% of predicted, p = .03. A higher incidence of breathing difficulties during physical activity (uphill walking, running, swimming was confirmed in children with asthma with lower respiratory muscle strength. Conclusions: There was a higher prevalence of decreased expiratory muscle strength in children with asthma; therefore, respiratory muscle strength should be tested in these children, especially in those who are symptomatic.

  4. Bronchial stump closure with amniotic membrane in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Mohajeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coverage of the bronchial stumps (BSs with adjacent tissues can improve healing and reduce bronchial complications in complex thoracic surgery. There is no evidence for the application of human amnion allograft for prevention of air leak from the BS. The comparison of the amniotic membrane (AM and pleural patch for BS healing after lobectomy in dogs was our aim in this study. Materials and Methods: A total of eight males and females 12-24-month-old dogs between 17 and 22 kg body-weight were used in this study in 2010, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Animals were separated into two groups: group A (n = 4; amniotic membrane and group P (n = 4; pleural patch according to the BS closure technique performed. After lobectomy of the right middle lobe, the BS was closed, while a small bronchopleural fistula (BPF was created by inserting a catheter via edges of closed stump. Then, it was covered with a piece of AM3 × 3 cm in group A and with a pedicle graft of pleura in group P. Rethoracotomy was performed after 15 days of observation, and the BS was removed for histological examination. Histological healing was classified as complete or incomplete healing. Neoangiogenesis was measured by Von Willebrand expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15 using Fisher′s exact test, Mann-Whitney test, and T tests. Results: BPF complications were not seen during observation period. There was no significant difference in histological healing between two groups. Similarly, no significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of neoangiogenesis based on IHC examination (P value = 0.69. Conclusion: Human amnion allograft could be as effective as pleural patch for BS wrapping following pulmonary resections.

  5. Electromagnetic properties of proximity systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresin, Vladimir Z.

    1985-07-01

    Magnetic screening in the proximity system Sα-Mβ, where Mβ is a normal metal N, semiconductor (semimetal), or a superconductor, is studied. Main attention is paid to the low-temperature region where nonlocality plays an important role. The thermodynamic Green's-function method is employed in order to describe the behavior of the proximity system in an external field. The temperature and thickness dependences of the penetration depth λ are obtained. The dependence λ(T) differs in a striking way from the dependence in usual superconductors. The strong-coupling effect is taken into account. A special case of screening in a superconducting film backed by a size-quantizing semimetal film is considered. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data.

  6. Electromagnetic properties of proximity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresin, V.Z.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic screening in the proximity system S/sub α/-M/sub β/, where M/sub β/ is a normal metal N, semiconductor (semimetal), or a superconductor, is studied. Main attention is paid to the low-temperature region where nonlocality plays an important role. The thermodynamic Green's-function method is employed in order to describe the behavior of the proximity system in an external field. The temperature and thickness dependences of the penetration depth lambda are obtained. The dependence lambda(T) differs in a striking way from the dependence in usual superconductors. The strong-coupling effect is taken into account. A special case of screening in a superconducting film backed by a size-quantizing semimetal film is considered. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data

  7. Nasal mucosa secretion exudation response to cold air in bronchial asthma patients

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    Eduard V. Nekrasov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Combined airway hyper responsiveness to cold and hypoosmotic stimuli in asthma patients results in impairment of lung respiration function and poor disease control compared to patients with isolated airway hyper responsiveness to only one of the stimuli or without such responsiveness that can be connected with edema or mucus hypersecretion.Aim. The purpose of the study is the estimation of the processes of mucin secretion, plasma exudation and oxidative stress in response to cold air in asthma patients with combined airway responsiveness to cold and hypoosmotic stimuli using nasal mucosa as a model.Materials and methods. 23 patients with asthma participated in the study. For the nasal lavage procedure, a nasal cavity was pre-washed at least three times in 5-min intervals with 5 ml saline solution (~36 °C. A control nasal lavage was done 5 min after the last washing with a dwelling time of 1 min in the nasal cavity. Directly after the control lavage, a cold air nasal challenge was done: a participant was asked to breathe deeply at the pace of a metronome to ensure hyperventilation inhaling cold air (–20 °C through the nose and exhaling through the mouth for 5 min. Nasal lavages were taken at 1 min, 15, and 30 min after the challenge. Mucin secretion was estimated on the basis of total protein (TP content, total carbohydrates (TC, and water-soluble forms of mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B in the lavage fluids. For the estimation of plasma exudation, the concentration of α2-macroglobulin (α2-MG was measured. Oxidative stress was estimated by the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS in lavage fluid. Lung function and airway responsiveness were studied by the forced expiration spirometry method and the bronchial challenge tests with isocapnic cold air hyperventilation (CAHV and distilled water inhalation (DWI.Results. According to the bronchial challenge tests, the patients were divided into groups: 1 without airway

  8. Proximity effect at Millikelvin temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Proximity effects have been studied extensively for the past 25 years. Typically, they are in films several thousand angstroms thick at temperatures not so far below T/sub CNS/, the transition temperature of the NS system. Interesting is, however, the proximity effect at temperatures much lower than T/sub CNS/. In this case, the Cooper-pair amplitudes are not small and very long pair penetration lengths into the normal metal can be expected. Thus, we have observed pair penetration lengths. For these investigations very suitable specimens are commercial wires of one filament of NbTi or Nb embedded in a copper matrix. The reasons are the high transmission coefficient at the interface between the copper and the superconductor and the fact that the copper in these commercial wires is rather clean with electron free paths between 5 to 10 μm long. In this paper, the magnetic properties of thick proximity systems in the range of temperatures between T/sub CNS/ and 5 x 10/sup -4/ T/sub CNS/ in both low and high magnetic fields are discussed

  9. Mechanism of cigarette smoke condensate-induced acute inflammatory response in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohapatra Shyam S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To demonstrate the involvement of tobacco smoking in the pathophysiology of lung disease, the responses of pulmonary epithelial cells to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC — the particulate fraction of tobacco smoke — were examined. Methods The human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 and normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEs were exposed to 0.4 μg/ml CSC, a concentration that resulted in >90% cell survival and Results NHBEs exposed to CSC showed increased expression of the inflammatory mediators sICAM-1, IL-1β, IL-8 and GM-CSF, as determined by RT-PCR. CSC-induced IL-1β expression was reduced by PD98059, a blocker of mitogen-actived protein kinase (MAPK kinase (MEK, and by PDTC, a NFκB inhibitor. Analysis of intracellular signaling pathways, using antibodies specific for phosphorylated MAPKs (extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK]-1/2, demonstrated an increased level of phosphorylated ERK1/2 with increasing CSC concentration. Nuclear localization of phosphorylated ERK1/2 was seen within 30 min of CSC exposure and was inhibited by PD98059. Increased phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IκB was also seen after CSC exposure. A549 cells transfected with a luciferase reporter plasmid containing a NFκB-inducible promoter sequence and exposed to CSC (0.4 μg/ml or TNF-α (50 ng/ml had an increased reporter activity of approximately 2-fold for CSC and 3.5-fold for TNF-α relative to untreated controls. Conclusion The acute phase response of NHBEs to cigarette smoke involves activation of both MAPK and NFκB.

  10. Methacholine bronchial provocation measured by spirometry versus wheeze detection in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahav Yaacov

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determination of PC20-FEV1 during Methacholine bronchial provocation test (MCT is considered to be impossible in preschool children, as it requires repetitive spirometry sets. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of determining PC20-FEV1 in preschool age children and compares the results to the wheeze detection (PCW method. Methods 55 preschool children (ages 2.8–6.4 years with recurrent respiratory symptoms were recruited. Baseline spirometry and MCT were performed according to ATS/ERS guidelines and the following parameters were determined at baseline and after each inhalation: spirometry-indices, lung auscultation at tidal breathing, oxygen saturation, respiratory and heart rate. Comparison between PCW and PC20-FEV1 and clinical parameters at these end-points was done by paired Student's t-tests. Results and discussion Thirty-six of 55 children (65.4% successfully performed spirometry-sets up to the point of PCW. PC20-FEV1 occurred at a mean concentration of 1.70+/-2.01 while PCW occurred at a mean concentration of 4.37+/-3.40 mg/ml (p 1 by 44.7+/-14.5%; PEFR by 40.5+/-14.5 and FEF25–75 by 54.7+/-14.4% (P Conclusion Determination of PC20-FEV1 by spirometry is feasible in many preschool children. PC20-FEV1 often appears at lower provocation dose than PCW. The lower dose may shorten the test and encourage participation. Significant decrease in spirometry indices at PCW suggests that PC20-FEV1 determination may be safer.

  11. Radiographic findings of oat cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y. H.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, S. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Growth of oat cell carcinoma tends to be invasive and extends rapidly through the bronchial lymphatics to the hilus and mediastinum, where bulky mass of tumor develop. Authors have analysed roentgenologic manifestations of 22 cases of histologically proven oat cell carcinoma of the lung seen during the period of 3 years from Jan, 1980 to May. 1983. The results 18 males and 4 females. Incidence was the most common in 7th decade as 45%. 2. Chief complaints are cough, sputum and dyspnea. Metastatic symptoms are hoarseness, SVC syndrome and back pain. 3. The radiographic findings of oat cell carcinoma were as follows. 1) hilar and perihilar mass 73% 2) Mediastinal mass 64% 3) Bronchial obstruction sign 55% 4) Peripheral mass 18% 5) Pleural effusion 18%

  12. 222Rn alpha dose to organs other than lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Robbins, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The alpha dose to cells in tissues or organs other theft the lung has been calculated using the solubility coefficients for 222 Rn measured in human tissue. The annual alpha dose equivalent f rom 222 Rn and decay products in most tissues is a maximum of 30% of the annual average natural background dose equivalent (1 mSv) for external and internally deposited nuclides. The dose to the small population of lymphocytes located in or under the bronchial epithelium is a special case and their annual dose equivalent is essentially the same as that to basal cells in bronchial epithelium (200 mSv) for continuous exposure to 200 Bq M -3 . The significance of this dose is uncertain because the only excess cancer observed in follow up studies of underground miners with high 222 Rn exposure is bronchogenic carcinoma

  13. Histological analysis of trachea and lung of newborn dogs

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    Andrezza Braga Soares da Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The neonatology science is, in Veterinary Medicine, studying the post-birth to the development of certain characteristics of resistance, which for canines occurs until the second week of life. The newborn requires a precise approach given the particularities of their physiology and immunology extremely immature. The histological study elucidates problems morphological and functional abnormalities, as it provides a reliable and microscopic analysis. Aimed to analyze trachea and lung of newborn dogs through techniques of basic histology. We used five neonates that died postpartum. These were weighed, measured and dissected. Proceeded to the extraction of the trachea, bronchus and lung for submitting these samples to histological routine. The tracheal tissue presents a pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with globet cells, a small amount of glands in the lamina propria and hyaline cartilage not fully developed. As regards the bronchial tissue may be observed well defined layers, pulmonary pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells in the lamina propria several bundles of smooth muscle and thick vascularized tissue. Likewise, the signs of bronchial cartilage present under development. The bronchioles also feature the common pulmonary epithelium and lamina propria also normal pens without smooth muscle. The bags alveolar lung cells showed typical. The lung tissues of newborn dogs present is still in development stage. It is possible to understand patterns of histogenesis and morphogenesis in newborn dogs.

  14. VALVE BRONCHIAL BLOCK IN THE INTEGRATED TREATMENT OF BRONCHIAL PLEURAL FISTULAS AFTER SURGICAL REDUCTION OF PULMONARY VOLUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Tseymakh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of bronchopleural fistulas after surgical reduction of pulmonary volume is one of the most frequent complications of surgical treatment of pulmonary emphysema. In order to control bronchopleural fistulas in the patients after surgical reduction of pulmonary volume the technique of valve bronchial block has been o}ered. This technique has been applied in 7 patients, and the favorable outcomes have been achieved in 6 (85.7% patients. The use of endobronchial valve for occlusion of fistulous bronchi allowed stopping air leaking through drainages, reducing time for pleural cavity drain and decreasing duration of patients' hospital stay.

  15. Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghfoor, Irfan; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Since tobacco smoking is the cause in vast majority of cases, the incidence of lung cancer is expected to rise in those countries with high or rising incidence of tobacco smoking. Even though population at a risk of developing lung cancer are easily identified, mass screening for lung cancer is not supported by currently available evidence. In case of non-small cell lung cancer, a cure may be possible with surgical resection followed by post-operative chemotherapy in those diagnosed at an early stage. A small minority of patients who present with locally advanced disease may also benefit from preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to down stage the tumor to render it potentially operable. In a vast majority of patients, however, lung cancer presents at an advanced stage and a cure is not possible with currently available therapeutic strategies. Similarly small cell lung cancer confined to one hemi-thorax may be curable with a combination of chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation, if complete remission is achieved at the primary site. Small cell lung cancer that is spread beyond the confines of one hemi-thorax is however, considered incurable. In this era of molecular targeted therapies, new agents are constantly undergoing pre-clinical and clinical testing with the aim of targeting the molecular pathways thought to involved in etiology and pathogenesis of lung cancer. (author)

  16. Bronchial and non-bronchial systemic arteries: value of multidetector CT angiography in diagnosis and angiographic embolisation feasibility analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yuning; Chen, Ziqian; Yang, Xizhang; Zhong, Qun; Zhang, Hongwen; Yang, Li; Xu, Shangwen; Li, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of multidetector CT angiography (CTA) in depicting bronchial and non-bronchial systemic arteries in patients with haemoptysis and to assess whether this modality helps determine the feasibility of angiographic embolisation. Fifty-two patients with haemoptysis between January 2010 and July 2011 underwent both preoperative multidetector CTA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) imaging. Diagnostic performance of CTA in depicting arteries causing haemoptysis was assessed on a per-patient and a per-artery basis. The feasibility of the endovascular treatment evaluated by CTA was analysed. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for those analyses were determined. Fifty patients were included in the artery-presence-number analysis. In the per-patient analysis, neither CTA (P=0.25) nor DSA (P=1.00) showed statistical difference in the detection of arteries causing haemoptysis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 94%, 100%, 100%, and 40%, respectively, for the presence of pathologic arteries evaluated by CTA, and 98%, 100%, 100%, and 67%, respectively, for DSA. On the per-artery basis, CTA correctly identified 97% (107/110). Fifty-two patients were included in the feasibility analysis. The performance of CTA in predicting the feasibility of angiographic embolisation was not statistically different from the treatment performed (P=1.00). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 96%, 80%, 98% and 67%, respectively, for CTA. Multidetector CTA is an accurate imaging method in depicting the presence and number of arteries causing haemoptysis. This modality is also useful for determining the feasibility of angiographic embolisation for haemoptysis.

  17. Bronchial and non-bronchial systemic arteries: value of multidetector CT angiography in diagnosis and angiographic embolisation feasibility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuning; Chen, Ziqian; Yang, Xizhang; Zhong, Qun; Zhang, Hongwen; Yang, Li; Xu, Shangwen; Li, Hui

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of multidetector CT angiography (CTA) in depicting bronchial and non-bronchial systemic arteries in patients with haemoptysis and to assess whether this modality helps determine the feasibility of angiographic embolisation. Fifty-two patients with haemoptysis between January 2010 and July 2011 underwent both preoperative multidetector CTA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) imaging. Diagnostic performance of CTA in depicting arteries causing haemoptysis was assessed on a per-patient and a per-artery basis. The feasibility of the endovascular treatment evaluated by CTA was analysed. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for those analyses were determined. Fifty patients were included in the artery-presence-number analysis. In the per-patient analysis, neither CTA (P = 0.25) nor DSA (P = 1.00) showed statistical difference in the detection of arteries causing haemoptysis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 94%, 100%, 100%, and 40%, respectively, for the presence of pathologic arteries evaluated by CTA, and 98%, 100%, 100%, and 67%, respectively, for DSA. On the per-artery basis, CTA correctly identified 97% (107/110). Fifty-two patients were included in the feasibility analysis. The performance of CTA in predicting the feasibility of angiographic embolisation was not statistically different from the treatment performed (P = 1.00). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 96%, 80%, 98% and 67%, respectively, for CTA. Multidetector CTA is an accurate imaging method in depicting the presence and number of arteries causing haemoptysis. This modality is also useful for determining the feasibility of angiographic embolisation for haemoptysis. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  18. ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoid: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, J H

    2008-09-01

    We describe a case of Cushing\\'s syndrome due to ectopic ACTH secretion, where the only potential source on conventional imaging was a tiny benign-appearing lung nodule, which failed to take up radiolabelled octreotide.

  19. Elevated Plasma Level of Leukotrienes in Bronchial Asthma Patients: A Possible Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mansour

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma from bronchial asthma patients and healthy controls was investigated for the content of lipoxygenase products. After lipid extraction using SEP-PAK C18 Cartridges, the lipoxygenase products were measured by Enzyme-Immunoassay. Elevated chemotactic B4 was found in plasma from asthmatic patients with mean value (483±75 pmoUL, while the mean value in normal healthy donors was (140± 12.1 pmol/L (M±SE. The levels of spasmogenic cysteinyl containing leukotrienes were also very high in the bronchial asthma patients. Elevations of leukotriene B4 and cysteinyl containing leukotrienes were detected during attacks of bronchial asthma. These results suggest that leukotriene B4 may be important in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma and confirmed that peptidoleukotrienes playa role as chemical mediators during the asthmatic attack.

  20. [Surgical Treatment of Bronchial Stricture due to Endobronchial Tuberculosis: 
Results in 36 Consecutive Cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Junzhong; Zhang, Tianhui; Li, Fugen; Duan, Yong; Han, Ming; Wang, Zitong

    2018-04-20

    Bronchial tuberculosis is a common complication of pulmonary tuberculosis. The present report is to investigate and analyze the indication and efficacy of surgical treatment of bronchial stricture due to severe endobronchial tuberculosis, when the drug and endoscopic treatment were no effect. Reviewed the clinical-pathological records documenting the surgical outcomes in 36 bronchial stricture due to severe endobronchial tuberculosis who underwent lobectomy or pneumonectomy enrolled in our hospital between January 2000 and February 2016. Pneumonectomy in 8 cases, lobectomy in 23 cases, sleeve resection in 5 cases. No intraoperative or early postoperative death occurred. Six patients developed complications. All 6 cases recovered well after treatment. Surgical treatment is still the recommended treatment modatity for bronchial stricture caused by endobronchial tuberculosis due to its good results. It should be performed in time when the drug and intraluninal treatment were no effect for avoiding of being progeressed.

  1. The effect of gas cooking on bronchial hyperresponsiveness and the role of immunoglobulin E

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M; de Monchy, JGR; Rijken, B; Schouten, JP

    1999-01-01

    Some studies have shown an association between gas cooking and respiratory symptoms. This study investigated whether gas cooking affects bronchial responsiveness and whether particular subjects are more sensitive to this effect. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed with the

  2. Neutrophil-induced human bronchial hyperresponsiveness in vitro--pharmacological modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J M; McKay, K O; Johnson, P R; Tragoulias, S; Black, J L; Armour, C L

    1993-04-01

    Although it has been postulated that inflammatory cells cause the bronchial hyperresponsiveness which is diagnostic of asthma, until recently there has been little direct evidence of such a link. We have recently shown that calcium ionophore-activated human neutrophils and eosinophils can induce a state of human airway hyperresponsiveness in vitro. In this study we have shown that the anti-inflammatory agent nedocromil sodium, 10(-7) M, inhibited the hyperresponsiveness induced by products released from ionophore activated neutrophils but did not inhibit the release of leukotriene B4 from the same cells. Neutrophil-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness was also inhibited by pre-treatment of the bronchial tissues with a thromboxane A2 and prostaglandin receptor antagonist, GR32191, 10(-7) M. These findings indicate that cyclooxygenase products are involved in bronchial hyperresponsiveness induced by inflammatory cell products in vitro and that their release can be inhibited by nedocromil sodium.

  3. RATIONALE FOR A SPECIFIC THERAPY OF CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION IN CHILDREN WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Suprun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We propose a protocol of treatment in cases of bronchial asthma with cytomegalovirus (CMV persistence. This basic therapy is administered depending on the disease severity, according to the National Programme 2009. The treatment includes administration of human immunoglobulin, with dosage according on CMV antibodies titers. The study has revealed that such regimen of antibody administration based on the content of anti-CMV antibodies in bronchial asthma treatment stops active CMV replication in bronchial mucous membrane, alleviates clinical course of the disease, diminishes changes of immune system typical to children suffering from bronchial asthma and CMV reactivation, thus allowing to reduce the volume of basic therapy, along with maintaining control of asthma control.

  4. [Survey of studies on time factor in acupoint sticking therapy for the bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong-e; Guo, Jian-hong; Lin, Ying

    2010-02-01

    Based on the retrieval of literatures in recent fifteen years, the time factors in the acupoint sticking therapy for the bronchial asthma are analyzed and compared in terms of the stage classification of patients, timing selection of acupoint sticking therapy and medication application, and times of application. The acupoint sticking therapy is mostly practiced during remittent stage of bronchial asthma; the timing selection is mostly during the hottest period of summer, the timing selection in certain cases is the coldest period of winter or any day; the duration of medication application is not consistent; therefore, the effectiveness of these cases is different. It may be that the ef fectiveness is proportional to the times and courses of acupoint sticking therapy for the bronchial asthma. In the future, the scientific designs which involve time factor are needed to elucidate the importance of time factor in acupoint sticking therapy for the bronchial asthma.

  5. Peak expiratory flow variability, bronchial responsiveness, and susceptibility to ambient air pollution in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boezen, M; Schouten, Jan; Rijcken, B; Vonk, J; Gerritsen, J; Hoek, G; Brunekreef, B; Postma, D

    1998-01-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability are associated expressions of airway lability, yet probably reflect different underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. We investigated whether both measures can be used interchangeably to identify subjects who are

  6. Torsion (volvulus) of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felson, B.

    1986-01-01

    Torsion or volvulus of the lung is a relatively rare but serious condition that can often be recognized or at least suspected radiographically. It occurs under three different sets of circumstances: spontaneously, usually in association with some other pulmonary abnormality; with traumatic pneumothorax; and as a complication of thoracic surgery. The author studied nine cases of torsion of the lung, including examples from each of these categories. The radiographic signs of torsion are as follows: a collapsed or consolidated lobe that occupies an unusual position, hilar displacement in a direction inappropriate for an apparently collapsed lobe, alteration of the normal position and sweep of the pulmonary vasculature, raid opacification of an ipsilateral lobe after trauma or lobectomy, marked change in position of an opacified lobe on sequential films, bronchial cutoff with no evidence of a mass, abnormal position of an affected lobe (shown on CT, angiography, or bronchography), and lobar air trapping. Mortality is high if the torsion goes unrecognized and operation is delayed

  7. Radioaerosol Inhalation Lung Scan in Pulmonary Emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jeong Soo; Park, Yong Ha; Kyo, Chung Soo; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Perfusion and ventilation imagings of the lung are well established procedure for diagnosing pulmonary embolism, differentiation it from chronic obstructive lung disease, and making an early detection of chronic obstructive lung disease. To evaluate the usefulness of radioaerosol inhalation imaging (RII) in chronic obstructive lung disease, especially pulmonary emphysema, we analyzed RIIs of five normal adult non-smokers, five asymptomatic smokers (age 25-42 years with the mean 36), and 21 patients with pulmonary emphysema (age 59-78 years with the mean 67). Scintigrams were obtained with radioaerosol produced by a BARC nebuliser with 15 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-phytate. Scanning was performed in the anterior, posterior, and lateral projections after five to 10-minute inhalation of the radioaerosol on sitting position. The scans were analyzed and correlated with the results of pulmonary function studies and chest radiographs. Also lung perfusion scan with {sup 99m}Tc-MAA was performed in 12 patients. In five patients, we performed follow-up scans for the evaluation of the effects of a bronchodilator. Based on the X-ray findings and clinical symptoms, pulmonary emphysema was classified into four types: centrilobular (3 patients), panlobular (4 patients), intermediate (10 patients), and combined (4 patients). RII findings were patternized according to the type, extent, and intensity of the aerosol deposition in the central bronchial and bronchopulmonary system and lung parenchyma. 10 controls, normal five non-smokers and three asymptomatic smokers revealed homogeneous parenchymal deposition in the entire lung fields without central bronchial deposition. The remaining two of asymptomatic smokers revealed mild central airway deposition. The great majority of the patients showed either central (9/21) or combined type (10/21) of bronchopulmonary deposition and the remaining two patients peripheral bronchopulmonary deposition. Parenchymal aerosol deposition in pulmonary

  8. Radioaerosol Inhalation Lung Scan in Pulmonary Emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jeong Soo; Park, Yong Ha; Chung Soo Kyo; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1990-01-01

    Perfusion and ventilation imagings of the lung are well established procedure for diagnosing pulmonary embolism, differentiation it from chronic obstructive lung disease, and making an early detection of chronic obstructive lung disease. To evaluate the usefulness of radioaerosol inhalation imaging (RII) in chronic obstructive lung disease, especially pulmonary emphysema, we analyzed RIIs of five normal adult non-smokers, five asymptomatic smokers (age 25-42 years with the mean 36), and 21 patients with pulmonary emphysema (age 59-78 years with the mean 67). Scintigrams were obtained with radioaerosol produced by a BARC nebuliser with 15 mCi of 99m Tc-phytate. Scanning was performed in the anterior, posterior, and lateral projections after five to 10-minute inhalation of the radioaerosol on sitting position. The scans were analyzed and correlated with the results of pulmonary function studies and chest radiographs. Also lung perfusion scan with 99m Tc-MAA was performed in 12 patients. In five patients, we performed follow-up scans for the evaluation of the effects of a bronchodilator. Based on the X-ray findings and clinical symptoms, pulmonary emphysema was classified into four types: centrilobular (3 patients), panlobular (4 patients), intermediate (10 patients), and combined (4 patients). RII findings were patternized according to the type, extent, and intensity of the aerosol deposition in the central bronchial and bronchopulmonary system and lung parenchyma. 10 controls, normal five non-smokers and three asymptomatic smokers revealed homogeneous parenchymal deposition in the entire lung fields without central bronchial deposition. The remaining two of asymptomatic smokers revealed mild central airway deposition. The great majority of the patients showed either central (9/21) or combined type (10/21) of bronchopulmonary deposition and the remaining two patients peripheral bronchopulmonary deposition. Parenchymal aerosol deposition in pulmonary emphysema was

  9. Impact of Persistent Intracellular Infections on the Processes of Airway Remodeling in Children with Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Ye. Chernyshova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents information about the impact of persistent intracellular infections on the processes of airway remodeling in bronchial asthma in children. The influence of matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase, transforming growth factor, antibodies to type III collagen, endothelin-1 on the processes of morphological reconstruction of the airway by way of smooth muscle hypertrophy, enhanced neovascularization, epithelial cell hyperplasia, collagen deposition, thickening of the basal membrane, observed in bronchial asthma in children, were described.