WorldWideScience

Sample records for lung image database

  1. Development of a personalized training system using the Lung Image Database Consortium and Image Database resource Initiative Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongli; Wang, Weisheng; Luo, Jiawei; Yang, Xuedong

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a personalized training system using the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) and Image Database resource Initiative (IDRI) Database, because collecting, annotating, and marking a large number of appropriate computed tomography (CT) scans, and providing the capability of dynamically selecting suitable training cases based on the performance levels of trainees and the characteristics of cases are critical for developing a efficient training system. A novel approach is proposed to develop a personalized radiology training system for the interpretation of lung nodules in CT scans using the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) and Image Database Resource Initiative (IDRI) database, which provides a Content-Boosted Collaborative Filtering (CBCF) algorithm for predicting the difficulty level of each case of each trainee when selecting suitable cases to meet individual needs, and a diagnostic simulation tool to enable trainees to analyze and diagnose lung nodules with the help of an image processing tool and a nodule retrieval tool. Preliminary evaluation of the system shows that developing a personalized training system for interpretation of lung nodules is needed and useful to enhance the professional skills of trainees. The approach of developing personalized training systems using the LIDC/IDRL database is a feasible solution to the challenges of constructing specific training program in terms of cost and training efficiency. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Computerized comprehensive data analysis of Lung Imaging Database Consortium (LIDC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Jun; Pu Jiantao; Zheng Bin; Wang Xingwei; Leader, Joseph K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) is the largest public CT image database of lung nodules. In this study, the authors present a comprehensive and the most updated analysis of this dynamically growing database under the help of a computerized tool, aiming to assist researchers to optimally use this database for lung cancer related investigations. Methods: The authors developed a computer scheme to automatically match the nodule outlines marked manually by radiologists on CT images. A large variety of characteristics regarding the annotated nodules in the database including volume, spiculation level, elongation, interobserver variability, as well as the intersection of delineated nodule voxels and overlapping ratio between the same nodules marked by different radiologists are automatically calculated and summarized. The scheme was applied to analyze all 157 examinations with complete annotation data currently available in LIDC dataset. Results: The scheme summarizes the statistical distributions of the abovementioned geometric and diagnosis features. Among the 391 nodules, (1) 365 (93.35%) have principal axis length ≤20 mm; (2) 120, 75, 76, and 120 were marked by one, two, three, and four radiologists, respectively; and (3) 122 (32.48%) have the maximum volume overlapping ratios ≥80% for the delineations of two radiologists, while 198 (50.64%) have the maximum volume overlapping ratios <60%. The results also showed that 72.89% of the nodules were assessed with malignancy score between 2 and 4, and only 7.93% of these nodules were considered as severely malignant (malignancy ≥4). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that LIDC contains examinations covering a diverse distribution of nodule characteristics and it can be a useful resource to assess the performance of the nodule detection and/or segmentation schemes.

  3. The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) and Image Database Resource Initiative (IDRI): A Completed Reference Database of Lung Nodules on CT Scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: The development of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) methods for lung nodule detection, classification, and quantitative assessment can be facilitated through a well-characterized repository of computed tomography (CT) scans. The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) and Image Database Resource Initiative (IDRI) completed such a database, establishing a publicly available reference for the medical imaging research community. Initiated by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), further advanced by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH), and accompanied by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) through active participation, this public-private partnership demonstrates the success of a consortium founded on a consensus-based process. Methods: Seven academic centers and eight medical imaging companies collaborated to identify, address, and resolve challenging organizational, technical, and clinical issues to provide a solid foundation for a robust database. The LIDC/IDRI Database contains 1018 cases, each of which includes images from a clinical thoracic CT scan and an associated XML file that records the results of a two-phase image annotation process performed by four experienced thoracic radiologists. In the initial blinded-read phase, each radiologist independently reviewed each CT scan and marked lesions belonging to one of three categories (''nodule{>=}3 mm,''''nodule<3 mm,'' and ''non-nodule{>=}3 mm''). In the subsequent unblinded-read phase, each radiologist independently reviewed their own marks along with the anonymized marks of the three other radiologists to render a final opinion. The goal of this process was to identify as completely as possible all lung nodules in each CT scan without requiring forced consensus. Results: The Database contains 7371 lesions marked ''nodule'' by at least one radiologist. 2669 of these lesions were marked &apos

  4. The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) and Image Database Resource Initiative (IDRI): A Completed Reference Database of Lung Nodules on CT Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The development of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) methods for lung nodule detection, classification, and quantitative assessment can be facilitated through a well-characterized repository of computed tomography (CT) scans. The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) and Image Database Resource Initiative (IDRI) completed such a database, establishing a publicly available reference for the medical imaging research community. Initiated by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), further advanced by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH), and accompanied by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) through active participation, this public-private partnership demonstrates the success of a consortium founded on a consensus-based process. Methods: Seven academic centers and eight medical imaging companies collaborated to identify, address, and resolve challenging organizational, technical, and clinical issues to provide a solid foundation for a robust database. The LIDC/IDRI Database contains 1018 cases, each of which includes images from a clinical thoracic CT scan and an associated XML file that records the results of a two-phase image annotation process performed by four experienced thoracic radiologists. In the initial blinded-read phase, each radiologist independently reviewed each CT scan and marked lesions belonging to one of three categories (''nodule≥3 mm,''''nodule<3 mm,'' and ''non-nodule≥3 mm''). In the subsequent unblinded-read phase, each radiologist independently reviewed their own marks along with the anonymized marks of the three other radiologists to render a final opinion. The goal of this process was to identify as completely as possible all lung nodules in each CT scan without requiring forced consensus. Results: The Database contains 7371 lesions marked ''nodule'' by at least one radiologist. 2669 of these lesions were marked ''nodule≥3 mm'' by at least one radiologist, of which 928 (34.7%) received such marks from all

  5. Differentiation of several interstitial lung disease patterns in HRCT images using support vector machine: role of databases on performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Mandar; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Dash, Jatindra K.; Garg, Mandeep; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2016-03-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is complicated group of pulmonary disorders. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) considered to be best imaging technique for analysis of different pulmonary disorders. HRCT findings can be categorised in several patterns viz. Consolidation, Emphysema, Ground Glass Opacity, Nodular, Normal etc. based on their texture like appearance. Clinician often find it difficult to diagnosis these pattern because of their complex nature. In such scenario computer-aided diagnosis system could help clinician to identify patterns. Several approaches had been proposed for classification of ILD patterns. This includes computation of textural feature and training /testing of classifier such as artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM) etc. In this paper, wavelet features are calculated from two different ILD database, publically available MedGIFT ILD database and private ILD database, followed by performance evaluation of ANN and SVM classifiers in terms of average accuracy. It is found that average classification accuracy by SVM is greater than ANN where trained and tested on same database. Investigation continued further to test variation in accuracy of classifier when training and testing is performed with alternate database and training and testing of classifier with database formed by merging samples from same class from two individual databases. The average classification accuracy drops when two independent databases used for training and testing respectively. There is significant improvement in average accuracy when classifiers are trained and tested with merged database. It infers dependency of classification accuracy on training data. It is observed that SVM outperforms ANN when same database is used for training and testing.

  6. Recent lung imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taplin, G.V.; Chopra, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclide lung imaging procedures have been available for 11 years but only the perfusion examination has been used extensively and mainly for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (P.E.). Its ability to reveal localized ischemia makes it a valuable test of regional lung function as well as a useful diagnostic aid in P.E. Although it had been recognized for several years that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can cause lung perfusion defects which may simulate pulmonary embolism, relatively little use has been made of either the radioxenon or the radioaerosol inhalation lung imaging procedures until the last few years as a means of distinguishing P.E. from COPD. In this review emphasis is placed on our recent experience with both of these inhalation procedures in comparison with pulmonary function tests and roentgenography for the early detection of COPD in population studies. Equal emphasis is given to simultaneous aerosol ventilation-perfusion (V/P) imaging for a functional diagnosis of P.E. Two new developments in regional lung diffusion imaging, performed after the inhalation of radioactive gases and/or rapidly absorbed radioaerosols are described. The experimental basis for their potential clinical application in pulmonary embolism detection is presented

  7. An XCT image database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, Masaru; Minato, Kotaro; Koide, Harutoshi; Hirakawa, Akina; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Itoh, Harumi; Torizuka, Kanji; Yamasaki, Tetsuo; Kuwahara, Michiyoshi.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, an expansion of X-ray CT (XCT) examination history database to XCT image database is discussed. The XCT examination history database has been constructed and used for daily examination and investigation in our hospital. This database consists of alpha-numeric information (locations, diagnosis and so on) of more than 15,000 cases, and for some of them, we add tree structured image data which has a flexibility for various types of image data. This database system is written by MUMPS database manipulation language. (author)

  8. Database for radiation therapy images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalev, S.; Cosby, S.; Leszczynski, K.; Chu, T.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have developed a database for images acquired during simulation and verification of radiation treatments. Simulation images originate as planning films that are digitized with a video camera, or through direct digitization of fluoroscopic images. Verification images may also be digitized from portal films or acquired with an on-line portal imaging system. Images are classified by the patient, the fraction, the field direction, static or dynamic (movie) sequences, and the type of processing applied. Additional parameters indicate whether the source is a simulation or treatment, whether images are digitized film or real-time acquisitions, and whether treatment is portal or double exposure for beam localization. Examples are presented for images acquired, processed, stored, and displayed with on-line portal imaging system (OPIUM) and digital simulation system (FLIP)

  9. The dysmorphic lung: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, J.M.; Caceres, J.

    1996-01-01

    Congenital lung malformations are not infrequent and can be discovered in adults. It is, therefore, necessary to know their radiological manifestations in order to avoid diagnostic errors. We classify the congenital lung malformations in two main groups: dysmorphic lung and focal pulmonary malformations. We review the radiological spectrum of dysmorphic lung, based on a classification that emphasises the pulmonary abnormality, adding variants when diaphragmatic or venous abnormalities are present. In our opinion this approach allows for a rational use of advanced imaging techniques (CT, MRI). (orig.). With 13 figs

  10. The dysmorphic lung: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, J.M. [SDI-UDIAT, Consorci Hospitalari del Parc Tauli, Parc Tauli s/n, E-08208 Barcelona (Spain)]|[Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Caceres, J. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)]|[Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    1996-08-01

    Congenital lung malformations are not infrequent and can be discovered in adults. It is, therefore, necessary to know their radiological manifestations in order to avoid diagnostic errors. We classify the congenital lung malformations in two main groups: dysmorphic lung and focal pulmonary malformations. We review the radiological spectrum of dysmorphic lung, based on a classification that emphasises the pulmonary abnormality, adding variants when diaphragmatic or venous abnormalities are present. In our opinion this approach allows for a rational use of advanced imaging techniques (CT, MRI). (orig.). With 13 figs.

  11. Lung cancer imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ravenel, James G

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a guide to the diagnosis, staging and overview of the management of lung cancer relevant to practicing radiologists so that they can better understand the decision making issues and provide more useful communication to treating physicians.

  12. Common hyperspectral image database design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lixun; Liao, Ningfang; Chai, Ali

    2009-11-01

    This paper is to introduce Common hyperspectral image database with a demand-oriented Database design method (CHIDB), which comprehensively set ground-based spectra, standardized hyperspectral cube, spectral analysis together to meet some applications. The paper presents an integrated approach to retrieving spectral and spatial patterns from remotely sensed imagery using state-of-the-art data mining and advanced database technologies, some data mining ideas and functions were associated into CHIDB to make it more suitable to serve in agriculture, geological and environmental areas. A broad range of data from multiple regions of the electromagnetic spectrum is supported, including ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, thermal infrared, and fluorescence. CHIDB is based on dotnet framework and designed by MVC architecture including five main functional modules: Data importer/exporter, Image/spectrum Viewer, Data Processor, Parameter Extractor, and On-line Analyzer. The original data were all stored in SQL server2008 for efficient search, query and update, and some advance Spectral image data Processing technology are used such as Parallel processing in C#; Finally an application case is presented in agricultural disease detecting area.

  13. Database Description - Open TG-GATEs Pathological Image Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Open TG-GATEs Pathological Image Database Database Description General information of database Database... name Open TG-GATEs Pathological Image Database Alternative name - DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00954-0...iomedical Innovation 7-6-8, Saito-asagi, Ibaraki-city, Osaka 567-0085, Japan TEL:81-72-641-9826 Email: Database... classification Toxicogenomics Database Organism Taxonomy Name: Rattus norvegi... Article title: Author name(s): Journal: External Links: Original website information Database

  14. Lung imaging in pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taplin, G.V.; Chopra, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    Although it has been recognized for several years that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can cause lung perfusion defects which may simulate pulmonary embolism, relatively little use has been made of either the radioxenon or the radioaerosol inhalation lung imaging procedures until the last few years as a means of distinguishing pulmonary embolism (P.E.) from COPD is reported. Recent experience is reported with the use of both of these procedures in comparison with pulmonary function tests for the early detection of COPD in population studies and also in P.E. suspects. Equal emphasis is given to simultaneous aerosol ventilation-perfusion (V/P) imaging in the differential diagnosis of P.E. Finally, this paper is concerned with new developments in regional lung diffusion imaging following the inhalation of radioactive gases and rapidly absorbed radioaerosols. Their experimental basis is presented and their potential clinical applications in pulmonary embolism are discussed. As a result of these investigations, a functional (V/P) diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in patients may be possible in the near future with a sequential radioaerosol inhalation procedure alone

  15. Lung cancer mimicking lung abscess formation on CT images

    OpenAIRE

    Taira, Naohiro; Kawabata, Tsutomu; Gabe, Atsushi; Ichi, Takaharu; Kushi, Kazuaki; Yohena, Tomofumi; Kawasaki, Hidenori; Yamashiro, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 64 Final Diagnosis: Lung pleomorphic carcinoma Symptoms: Cough • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Oncology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: The diagnosis of lung cancer is often made based on computed tomography (CT) image findings if it cannot be confirmed on pathological examinations, such as bronchoscopy. However, the CT image findings of cancerous lesions are similar to those of abscesses.We herein report a case of lung cancer that resemble...

  16. Lung cancer mimicking lung abscess formation on CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Naohiro; Kawabata, Tsutomu; Gabe, Atsushi; Ichi, Takaharu; Kushi, Kazuaki; Yohena, Tomofumi; Kawasaki, Hidenori; Yamashiro, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Male, 64 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Lung pleomorphic carcinoma Symptoms: Cough • fever - Clinical Procedure: - Specialty: Oncology. Unusual clinical course. The diagnosis of lung cancer is often made based on computed tomography (CT) image findings if it cannot be confirmed on pathological examinations, such as bronchoscopy. However, the CT image findings of cancerous lesions are similar to those of abscesses.We herein report a case of lung cancer that resembled a lung abscess on CT. We herein describe the case of 64-year-old male who was diagnosed with lung cancer using surgery. In this case, it was quite difficult to distinguish between the lung cancer and a lung abscess on CT images, and a lung abscess was initially suspected due to symptoms, such as fever and coughing, contrast-enhanced CT image findings showing a ring-enhancing mass in the right upper lobe and the patient's laboratory test results. However, a pathological diagnosis of lung cancer was confirmed according to the results of a rapid frozen section biopsy of the lesion. This case suggests that physicians should not suspect both a lung abscesses and malignancy in cases involving masses presenting as ring-enhancing lesions on contrast-enhanced CT.

  17. Mass preserving image registration for lung CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a mass preserving image registration algorithm for lung CT images. To account for the local change in lung tissue intensity during the breathing cycle, a tissue appearance model based on the principle of preservation of total lung mass is proposed. This model is incorporated...... on four groups of data: 44 pairs of longitudinal inspiratory chest CT scans with small difference in lung volume; 44 pairs of longitudinal inspiratory chest CT scans with large difference in lung volume; 16 pairs of expiratory and inspiratory CT scans; and 5 pairs of images extracted at end exhale and end...

  18. Imaging of Occupational Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin, Jay; Edwards, Rachael; Pipavath, Sudhakar

    2016-11-01

    Occupational lung diseases span a variety of pulmonary disorders caused by inhalation of dusts or chemical antigens in a vocational setting. Included in these are the classic mineral pneumoconioses of silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, and asbestos-related diseases as well as many immune-mediated and airway-centric diseases, and new and emerging disorders. Although some of these have characteristic imaging appearances, a multidisciplinary approach with focus on occupational exposure history is essential to proper diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Transformation invariant image indexing and retrieval for image databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevers, Th.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a novel design of an image database system which supports storage, indexing and retrieval of images by content. The image retrieval methodology is based on the observation that images can be discriminated by the presence of image objects and their spatial relations. Images in the

  20. DEIMOS – an Open Source Image Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Blazek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The DEIMOS (DatabasE of Images: Open Source is created as an open-source database of images and videos for testing, verification and comparing of various image and/or video processing techniques such as enhancing, compression and reconstruction. The main advantage of DEIMOS is its orientation to various application fields – multimedia, television, security, assistive technology, biomedicine, astronomy etc. The DEIMOS is/will be created gradually step-by-step based upon the contributions of team members. The paper is describing basic parameters of DEIMOS database including application examples.

  1. Document image database indexing with pictorial dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohammad; Azimi, Reza

    2010-02-01

    In this paper we introduce a new approach for information retrieval from Persian document image database without using Optical Character Recognition (OCR).At first an attribute called subword upper contour label is defined then, a pictorial dictionary is constructed based on this attribute for the subwords. By this approach we address two issues in document image retrieval: keyword spotting and retrieval according to the document similarities. The proposed methods have been evaluated on a Persian document image database. The results have proved the ability of this approach in document image information retrieval.

  2. Automatic segmentation of tumor-laden lung volumes from the LIDC database

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Walter G.

    2012-03-01

    The segmentation of the lung parenchyma is often a critical pre-processing step prior to application of computer-aided detection of lung nodules. Segmentation of the lung volume can dramatically decrease computation time and reduce the number of false positive detections by excluding from consideration extra-pulmonary tissue. However, while many algorithms are capable of adequately segmenting the healthy lung, none have been demonstrated to work reliably well on tumor-laden lungs. Of particular challenge is to preserve tumorous masses attached to the chest wall, mediastinum or major vessels. In this role, lung volume segmentation comprises an important computational step that can adversely affect the performance of the overall CAD algorithm. An automated lung volume segmentation algorithm has been developed with the goals to maximally exclude extra-pulmonary tissue while retaining all true nodules. The algorithm comprises a series of tasks including intensity thresholding, 2-D and 3-D morphological operations, 2-D and 3-D floodfilling, and snake-based clipping of nodules attached to the chest wall. It features the ability to (1) exclude trachea and bowels, (2) snip large attached nodules using snakes, (3) snip small attached nodules using dilation, (4) preserve large masses fully internal to lung volume, (5) account for basal aspects of the lung where in a 2-D slice the lower sections appear to be disconnected from main lung, and (6) achieve separation of the right and left hemi-lungs. The algorithm was developed and trained to on the first 100 datasets of the LIDC image database.

  3. An image database structure for pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankovich, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    The operation of the Clinical Radiology Imaging System (CRIS) in Pediatric Radiology at UCLA relies on the orderly flow of text and image data among the three basic subsystems including acquisition, storage, and display. CRIS provides the radiologist, clinician, and technician with data at clinical image workstations by maintaining comprehensive database. CRIS is made up of sub-systems, each composed of one more programs or tasks which operate in parallel on a VAX-11/750 microcomputer in Pediatric Radiology. Tasks are coordinated through dynamic data structures that include system event flags and disk-resident queues. This report outlines: (1) the CRIS data model, (2) the flow of information among CRIS components, (3) the underlying database structures which support the acquisition, display, and storage of text and image information, and (4) current database statistics

  4. Unevenness on aerosol inhalation lung images and lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Takeo; Isawa, Toyoharu; Hirano, Tomio; Ebina, Akio; Shiraishi, Koichiro; Konno, Kiyoshi

    1985-01-01

    The unevenness or inhomogeneity of aerosol deposition patterns on radioaerosol inhalation lung images has been interpreted rather qualitatively in the clinical practice. We have reported our approach to quantitatively analyze the radioactive count distribution on radioaerosol inhalation lung images in relation to the actual lung function data. We have defined multiple indexes to express the shape and the unevenness of the count distribution of the lung images. To reduce as much as possible the number of indexes to be used in the regression functions, the method of selection of variables was introduced to the multiple regression analysis. Because some variables showed greater coefficients of simple correlation, while others did not, multicollinearity of variables had to be taken into consideration. For this reason, we chose a principal components regression analysis. The multiple regression function for each item of pulmonary function data thus established from analysis of 67 subjects appeared usable as a predictor of the actual lung function: for example, % VC (vital capacity) could be estimated by using four indexes out of the multiple ones with a coefficient of multiple correlation (R) of 0.753, and FEVsub(1.0) % (forced expiratory volume in one second divided by forced expiratory volume), by 7 indexes with R = 0.921. Pulmonary function data regarding lung volumes and lung mechanics were estimated more accurately with greater R's than those for lung diffusion, but even in the latter the prediction was still statistically significant at p less than 0.01. We believe the multiple regression functions thus obtained are useful for estimating not only the overall but also the regional function of the lungs. (author)

  5. Interactive searching of facial image databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert A.; Shepherd, John W.; Shepherd, Jean

    1995-09-01

    A set of psychological facial descriptors has been devised to enable computerized searching of criminal photograph albums. The descriptors have been used to encode image databased of up to twelve thousand images. Using a system called FACES, the databases are searched by translating a witness' verbal description into corresponding facial descriptors. Trials of FACES have shown that this coding scheme is more productive and efficient than searching traditional photograph albums. An alternative method of searching the encoded database using a genetic algorithm is currenly being tested. The genetic search method does not require the witness to verbalize a description of the target but merely to indicate a degree of similarity between the target and a limited selection of images from the database. The major drawback of FACES is that is requires a manual encoding of images. Research is being undertaken to automate the process, however, it will require an algorithm which can predict human descriptive values. Alternatives to human derived coding schemes exist using statistical classifications of images. Since databases encoded using statistical classifiers do not have an obvious direct mapping to human derived descriptors, a search method which does not require the entry of human descriptors is required. A genetic search algorithm is being tested for such a purpose.

  6. Diagnostic Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death in men and women. It is frequently seen among men than in women and male-female ratio is 1.5:1. Common epidemiological factors that increase risk of lung cancer is smoking. Early age to start smoking, high number of smoking cigarettes per a day and depth of inhalation increase risk of lung cancer. 25% of patients with lung cancer are nonsmokers that passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Occupational exposure to substances such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel, beryllium, mustard gas increases the risk of lung cancer. The well defined risk factor is exposure to asbestos. In addition advanced age, diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and genetic predisposition are the risk factors that increases lung cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 749-756

  7. Radioaerosol lung imaging in small airways disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, T; Dorow, P; Felix, R

    1981-06-01

    Aerosol inhalation lung imaging was performed in 35 asymptomatic smokers who have been selected on the basis of abnormal findings in small airways pulmonary function tests. Qualitative (image inspection) and quantitative (aerosol distribution index = ADI) analysis of the radioaerosol lung patterns was accomplished. Compared to healthy subjects as well as to patients with chronic obstructive lung disease significant differences of mean aerosol distribution homogeneity were observed. A characteristic type of abnormal aerosol pattern, indicating peripheral airways obstruction, was found in 71% of the patients with small airways disease.

  8. Noninvasive imaging of experimental lung fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Chen, Huaping; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Liu, Gang; Antony, Veena B; Ding, Qiang; Nath, Hrudaya; Eary, Janet F; Thannickal, Victor J

    2015-07-01

    Small animal models of lung fibrosis are essential for unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying human fibrotic lung diseases; additionally, they are useful for preclinical testing of candidate antifibrotic agents. The current end-point measures of experimental lung fibrosis involve labor-intensive histological and biochemical analyses. These measures fail to account for dynamic changes in the disease process in individual animals and are limited by the need for large numbers of animals for longitudinal studies. The emergence of noninvasive imaging technologies provides exciting opportunities to image lung fibrosis in live animals as often as needed and to longitudinally track the efficacy of novel antifibrotic compounds. Data obtained by noninvasive imaging provide complementary information to histological and biochemical measurements. In addition, the use of noninvasive imaging in animal studies reduces animal usage, thus satisfying animal welfare concerns. In this article, we review these new imaging modalities with the potential for evaluation of lung fibrosis in small animal models. Such techniques include micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and multimodal imaging systems including PET/CT and SPECT/CT. It is anticipated that noninvasive imaging will be increasingly used in animal models of fibrosis to gain insights into disease pathogenesis and as preclinical tools to assess drug efficacy.

  9. Tuberculosis in the lung (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis is caused by a group of organisms: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M bovis , M africanum and a few other rarer subtypes. Tuberculosis usually appears as a lung (pulmonary) infection. However, ...

  10. The reference ballistic imaging database revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ceuster, Jan; Dujardin, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    A reference ballistic image database (RBID) contains images of cartridge cases fired in firearms that are in circulation: a ballistic fingerprint database. The performance of an RBID was investigated a decade ago by De Kinder et al. using IBIS(®) Heritage™ technology. The results of that study were published in this journal, issue 214. Since then, technologies have evolved quite significantly and novel apparatus have become available on the market. The current research article investigates the efficiency of another automated ballistic imaging system, Evofinder(®) using the same database as used by De Kinder et al. The results demonstrate a significant increase in correlation efficiency: 38% of all matches were on first position of the Evofinder correlation list in comparison to IBIS(®) Heritage™ where only 19% were on the first position. Average correlation times are comparable to the IBIS(®) Heritage™ system. While Evofinder(®) demonstrates specific improvement for mutually correlating different ammunition brands, ammunition dependence of the markings is still strongly influencing the correlation result because the markings may vary considerably. As a consequence a great deal of potential hits (36%) was still far down in the correlation lists (positions 31 and lower). The large database was used to examine the probability of finding a match as a function of correlation list verification. As an example, the RBID study on Evofinder(®) demonstrates that to find at least 90% of all potential matches, at least 43% of the items in the database need to be compared on screen and this for breech face markings and firing pin impression separately. These results, although a clear improvement to the original RBID study, indicate that the implementation of such a database should still not be considered nowadays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Radioaerosol lung imaging - history and pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isawa, Toyoharu

    1994-01-01

    The first use of a radioactive tracer to study lung function was made by Knipping and others in 1955. They used radioactive 133 Xe (xenon) gas as an inhalation agent in a patient with lung cancer and found that distal to a tumor no radioactivity was detected indicating no ventilation although chest x-rays appeared as if there was active ventilation. Subsequently with advance in technology a number of radioactive gases such as 81m Kr (krypton) and cyclotron produced 15 O 2 (oxygen), 11 C (carbon) and 13 N 2 (nitrogen) became available to assess regional lung function. The advantages of these gases are manifold, but their utility is mostly limited due to high cost. An alternative to the use of radioactive gases to study regional ventilation is the use of particulate radioactive aerosol. Radioaerosol inhalation lung imaging technique was developed in 1965 almost simultaneously by Taplin and others and Pircher and others just 2 years following Taplin's invention of 131 I-MAA for perfusion lung imaging. Their main aim was to use 131 I-human serum albumin (HSA), and 99m Tc-HSA, 131 I-rose bengal, 197 Hg-chlormerodrin and colloidal 198 Au as agents for radioaerosol generation, and Taplin himself preferred 198 Au colloids for serial studies from economical reasons. Already in 1965, however, Taplin said that the best agent would be 99m Tc-HSA. Pircher used 131 I-HSA aerosol. Taplin already noted at that time that the inhaled aerosol was removed from the lungs mainly by ciliary action and that it was not absorbed either from the lungs or the intestine. Anyway it is noteworthy that the idea of radioaerosol inhalation lung imaging was proposed soon after the advent of perfusion lung imaging. Besides 131 I-HSA and colloidal 198 Au, the following agents have been or are currently being used. The superiority of 99m TC over other radioisotopes used in the past is beyond dispute

  12. Design and implementation of typical target image database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Kai; Zhao Yingjun

    2010-01-01

    It is necessary to provide essential background data and thematic data timely in image processing and application. In fact, application is an integrating and analyzing procedure with different kinds of data. In this paper, the authors describe an image database system which classifies, stores, manages and analyzes database of different types, such as image database, vector database, spatial database, spatial target characteristics database, its design and structure. (authors)

  13. Multiple image x-radiography for functional lung imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulakh, G. K.; Mann, A.; Belev, G.; Wiebe, S.; Kuebler, W. M.; Singh, B.; Chapman, D.

    2018-01-01

    Detection and visualization of lung tissue structures is impaired by predominance of air. However, by using synchrotron x-rays, refraction of x-rays at the interface of tissue and air can be utilized to generate contrast which may in turn enable quantification of lung optical properties. We utilized multiple image radiography, a variant of diffraction enhanced imaging, at the Canadian light source to quantify changes in unique x-ray optical properties of lungs, namely attenuation, refraction and ultra small-angle scatter (USAXS or width) contrast ratios as a function of lung orientation in free-breathing or respiratory-gated mice before and after intra-nasal bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) instillation. The lung ultra small-angle scatter and attenuation contrast ratios were significantly higher 9 h post lipopolysaccharide instillation compared to saline treatment whereas the refraction contrast decreased in magnitude. In ventilated mice, end-expiratory pressures result in an increase in ultra small-angle scatter contrast ratio when compared to end-inspiratory pressures. There were no detectable changes in lung attenuation or refraction contrast ratio with change in lung pressure alone. In effect, multiple image radiography can be applied towards following optical properties of lung air-tissue barrier over time during pathologies such as acute lung injury.

  14. Quantitative imaging features: extension of the oncology medical image database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M. N.; Looney, P. T.; Young, K. C.; Halling-Brown, M. D.

    2015-03-01

    Radiological imaging is fundamental within the healthcare industry and has become routinely adopted for diagnosis, disease monitoring and treatment planning. With the advent of digital imaging modalities and the rapid growth in both diagnostic and therapeutic imaging, the ability to be able to harness this large influx of data is of paramount importance. The Oncology Medical Image Database (OMI-DB) was created to provide a centralized, fully annotated dataset for research. The database contains both processed and unprocessed images, associated data, and annotations and where applicable expert determined ground truths describing features of interest. Medical imaging provides the ability to detect and localize many changes that are important to determine whether a disease is present or a therapy is effective by depicting alterations in anatomic, physiologic, biochemical or molecular processes. Quantitative imaging features are sensitive, specific, accurate and reproducible imaging measures of these changes. Here, we describe an extension to the OMI-DB whereby a range of imaging features and descriptors are pre-calculated using a high throughput approach. The ability to calculate multiple imaging features and data from the acquired images would be valuable and facilitate further research applications investigating detection, prognosis, and classification. The resultant data store contains more than 10 million quantitative features as well as features derived from CAD predictions. Theses data can be used to build predictive models to aid image classification, treatment response assessment as well as to identify prognostic imaging biomarkers.

  15. Exploring Human Cognition Using Large Image Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Thomas L; Abbott, Joshua T; Hsu, Anne S

    2016-07-01

    Most cognitive psychology experiments evaluate models of human cognition using a relatively small, well-controlled set of stimuli. This approach stands in contrast to current work in neuroscience, perception, and computer vision, which have begun to focus on using large databases of natural images. We argue that natural images provide a powerful tool for characterizing the statistical environment in which people operate, for better evaluating psychological theories, and for bringing the insights of cognitive science closer to real applications. We discuss how some of the challenges of using natural images as stimuli in experiments can be addressed through increased sample sizes, using representations from computer vision, and developing new experimental methods. Finally, we illustrate these points by summarizing recent work using large image databases to explore questions about human cognition in four different domains: modeling subjective randomness, defining a quantitative measure of representativeness, identifying prior knowledge used in word learning, and determining the structure of natural categories. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. Recent developments in NMR imaging of lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ailion, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    This presentation describes the phenomenon of tissue-induced inhomogeneous broadening due to the air/water interfaces in lung and includes a description of its physical basis, imaging and nonimaging techniques for its observation, recent theoretical development of the present stage of understanding of the mechanisms underlying the relaxation times T 1 and T 2 will also be given. Finally, a description of the rapid line scan (RLS) technique for obtaining rapid, artifactfree images of moving objects, such as the lungs of spontaneously breathing animals, is presented. (author). 19 refs.; 13 figs

  17. ASTER 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  18. MODIS 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  19. Emphysema. Imaging for endoscopic lung volume reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storbeck, B.; Oldigs, M.; Rabe, K.F.; Weber, C.; University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by two entities, the more airway-predominant type (''bronchitis'') on the one hand, and emphysema-predominant type on the other. Imaging via high-resolution computed tomography plays an important role in phenotyping COPD. For patients with advanced lung emphysema, new endoscopic lung volume reduction therapies (ELVR) have been developed. Proper selection of suitable patients requires thin-section reconstruction of volumetric CT image data sets also in coronal and sagittal orientation are required. In the current manuscript we will describe emphysema subtypes (centrilobular, paraseptal, panlobular), options for quantifying emphysema and this importance of regional distribution (homogeneous or heterogeneous, target area) as this is crucial for patient selection. Analysis of the interlobular fissures is obligatory despite the lack of standardization, as incomplete fissures indicate collateral ventilation (CV) via parenchymal bridges, which is an important criterion in choosing endoscopic methods of LVR. Every radiologist should be familiar with modern LVR therapies such as valves and coils, and furthermore should know what a lung doctor expects from radiologic evaluation (before and after ELVR). Finally we present a checklist as a quick reference for all steps concerning imaging for ELVR.

  20. Mobile object retrieval in server-based image databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manger, D.; Pagel, F.; Widak, H.

    2013-05-01

    The increasing number of mobile phones equipped with powerful cameras leads to huge collections of user-generated images. To utilize the information of the images on site, image retrieval systems are becoming more and more popular to search for similar objects in an own image database. As the computational performance and the memory capacity of mobile devices are constantly increasing, this search can often be performed on the device itself. This is feasible, for example, if the images are represented with global image features or if the search is done using EXIF or textual metadata. However, for larger image databases, if multiple users are meant to contribute to a growing image database or if powerful content-based image retrieval methods with local features are required, a server-based image retrieval backend is needed. In this work, we present a content-based image retrieval system with a client server architecture working with local features. On the server side, the scalability to large image databases is addressed with the popular bag-of-word model with state-of-the-art extensions. The client end of the system focuses on a lightweight user interface presenting the most similar images of the database highlighting the visual information which is common with the query image. Additionally, new images can be added to the database making it a powerful and interactive tool for mobile contentbased image retrieval.

  1. A COMPREHENSIVE FRAMEWORK FOR AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF PULMONARY NODULES IN LUNG CT IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Alilou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Solitary pulmonary nodules may indicate an early stage of lung cancer. Hence, the early detection of nodules is the most efficient way for saving the lives of patients. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive Computer Aided Diagnosis (CADx framework for detection of the lung nodules in computed tomography images. The four major components of the developed framework are lung segmentation, identification of candidate nodules, classification and visualization. The process starts with segmentation of lung regions from the thorax. Then, inside the segmented lung regions, candidate nodules are identified using an approach based on multiple thresholds followed by morphological opening and 3D region growing algorithm. Finally, a combination of a rule-based procedure and support vector machine classifier (SVM is utilized to classify the candidate nodules. The proposed CADx method was validated on CT images of 60 patients, containing the total of 211 nodules, selected from the publicly available Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC image dataset. Comparing to the other state of the art methods, the proposed framework demonstrated acceptable detection performance (Sensitivity: 0.80; Fp/Scan: 3.9. Furthermore, we visualize a range of anatomical structures including the 3D lung structure and the segmented nodules along with the Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP volume rendering method that will enable the radiologists to accurately and easily estimate the distance between the lung structures and the nodules which are frequently difficult at best to recognize from CT images.

  2. Intelligent retrieval of chest X-ray image database using sketches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Jun-ichi; Okada, Noritake; Toriwaki, Jun-ichiro

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents further experiments on intelligent retrieval in our chest X-ray image database system using 'sketches'. First, in the previous sketch extraction procedure, vertical-location-invariant thresholding and shape-oriented smoothing are newly developed to improve the precision of lung borders and rib images in each sketch, respectively. Then, two new ways for image retrieval using sketches; (1) image-description retrieval and (2) pattern-matching retrieval, are proposed. In each retrieval way, a procedure for understanding picture queries input through a sketch is described in detail. (author)

  3. Lung cancer and angiogenesis imaging using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoxia; Zhao Jun; Xu, Lisa X; Sun Jianqi; Gu Xiang; Liu Ping; Xiao Tiqiao

    2010-01-01

    Early detection of lung cancer is the key to a cure, but a difficult task using conventional x-ray imaging. In the present study, synchrotron radiation in-line phase-contrast imaging was used to study lung cancer. Lewis lung cancer and 4T1 breast tumor metastasis in the lung were imaged, and the differences were clearly shown in comparison to normal lung tissue. The effect of the object-detector distance and the energy level on the phase-contrast difference was investigated and found to be in good agreement with the theory of in-line phase-contrast imaging. Moreover, 3D image reconstruction of lung tumor angiogenesis was obtained for the first time using a contrast agent, demonstrating the feasibility of micro-angiography with synchrotron radiation for imaging tumor angiogenesis deep inside the body.

  4. Experience with CANDID: Comparison algorithm for navigating digital image databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, P.; Cannon, M.

    1994-10-01

    This paper presents results from the authors experience with CANDID (Comparison Algorithm for Navigating Digital Image Databases), which was designed to facilitate image retrieval by content using a query-by-example methodology. A global signature describing the texture, shape, or color content is first computed for every image stored in a database, and a normalized similarity measure between probability density functions of feature vectors is used to match signatures. This method can be used to retrieve images from a database that are similar to a user-provided example image. Results for three test applications are included.

  5. Image-guided radiotherapy and motion management in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine

    2015-01-01

    In this review, image guidance and motion management in radiotherapy for lung cancer is discussed. Motion characteristics of lung tumours and image guidance techniques to obtain motion information are elaborated. Possibilities for management of image guidance and motion in the various steps...

  6. Ventilation-perfusion lung imaging in diaphragmatic paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, S.K.; Taplin, G.V.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical, radiological, physiological, and lung imaging findings from a patient with paralysis of the diaphragm are described. Dyspnea, hypoxemia and hypercapnia increased when the patient changed from the upright to the supine positions. Ventilation (V) and perfusion (P) images of the right lung appeared to be relatively normal and remained nearly the same in the upright and supine positions. In contrast, V/P images of the left lung were smaller than those of the right lung in the upright position and decreased further in the supine position. In addition, the size of the ventilation image was much smaller than that of the perfusion

  7. Images - RPSD | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...ta file File name: rpsd_images.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/rpsd/LATEST/rpsd_images.zip ... History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Images - RPSD | LSDB Archive ...

  8. Kingfisher: a system for remote sensing image database management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzo, Michele; Giordano, Ferdinando; Dellepiane, Silvana G.

    2003-04-01

    At present retrieval methods in remote sensing image database are mainly based on spatial-temporal information. The increasing amount of images to be collected by the ground station of earth observing systems emphasizes the need for database management with intelligent data retrieval capabilities. The purpose of the proposed method is to realize a new content based retrieval system for remote sensing images database with an innovative search tool based on image similarity. This methodology is quite innovative for this application, at present many systems exist for photographic images, as for example QBIC and IKONA, but they are not able to extract and describe properly remote image content. The target database is set by an archive of images originated from an X-SAR sensor (spaceborne mission, 1994). The best content descriptors, mainly texture parameters, guarantees high retrieval performances and can be extracted without losses independently of image resolution. The latter property allows DBMS (Database Management System) to process low amount of information, as in the case of quick-look images, improving time performance and memory access without reducing retrieval accuracy. The matching technique has been designed to enable image management (database population and retrieval) independently of dimensions (width and height). Local and global content descriptors are compared, during retrieval phase, with the query image and results seem to be very encouraging.

  9. Automatic system for quantification and visualization of lung aeration on chest computed tomography images: the Lung Image System Analysis - LISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, John Hebert da Silva; Cortez, Paulo Cesar, E-mail: jhsfelix@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Teleinformatica; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Walter Cantidio. Dept. de Medicina Clinica

    2010-12-15

    High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is the exam of choice for the diagnostic evaluation of lung parenchyma diseases. There is an increasing interest for computational systems able to automatically analyze the radiological densities of the lungs in CT images. The main objective of this study is to present a system for the automatic quantification and visualization of the lung aeration in HRCT images of different degrees of aeration, called Lung Image System Analysis (LISA). The secondary objective is to compare LISA to the Osiris system and also to specific algorithm lung segmentation (ALS), on the accuracy of the lungs segmentation. The LISA system automatically extracts the following image attributes: lungs perimeter, cross sectional area, volume, the radiological densities histograms, the mean lung density (MLD) in Hounsfield units (HU), the relative area of the lungs with voxels with density values lower than -950 HU (RA950) and the 15th percentile of the least density voxels (PERC15). Furthermore, LISA has a colored mask algorithm that applies pseudo-colors to the lung parenchyma according to the pre-defined radiological density chosen by the system user. The lungs segmentations of 102 images of 8 healthy volunteers and 141 images of 11 patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were compared on the accuracy and concordance among the three methods. The LISA was more effective on lungs segmentation than the other two methods. LISA's color mask tool improves the spatial visualization of the degrees of lung aeration and the various attributes of the image that can be extracted may help physicians and researchers to better assess lung aeration both quantitatively and qualitatively. LISA may have important clinical and research applications on the assessment of global and regional lung aeration and therefore deserves further developments and validation studies. (author)

  10. Automatic system for quantification and visualization of lung aeration on chest computed tomography images: the Lung Image System Analysis - LISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, John Hebert da Silva; Cortez, Paulo Cesar; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara

    2010-01-01

    High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is the exam of choice for the diagnostic evaluation of lung parenchyma diseases. There is an increasing interest for computational systems able to automatically analyze the radiological densities of the lungs in CT images. The main objective of this study is to present a system for the automatic quantification and visualization of the lung aeration in HRCT images of different degrees of aeration, called Lung Image System Analysis (LISA). The secondary objective is to compare LISA to the Osiris system and also to specific algorithm lung segmentation (ALS), on the accuracy of the lungs segmentation. The LISA system automatically extracts the following image attributes: lungs perimeter, cross sectional area, volume, the radiological densities histograms, the mean lung density (MLD) in Hounsfield units (HU), the relative area of the lungs with voxels with density values lower than -950 HU (RA950) and the 15th percentile of the least density voxels (PERC15). Furthermore, LISA has a colored mask algorithm that applies pseudo-colors to the lung parenchyma according to the pre-defined radiological density chosen by the system user. The lungs segmentations of 102 images of 8 healthy volunteers and 141 images of 11 patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were compared on the accuracy and concordance among the three methods. The LISA was more effective on lungs segmentation than the other two methods. LISA's color mask tool improves the spatial visualization of the degrees of lung aeration and the various attributes of the image that can be extracted may help physicians and researchers to better assess lung aeration both quantitatively and qualitatively. LISA may have important clinical and research applications on the assessment of global and regional lung aeration and therefore deserves further developments and validation studies. (author)

  11. CANDID: Comparison algorithm for navigating digital image databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, P.M.; Cannon, T.M.

    1994-02-21

    In this paper, we propose a method for calculating the similarity between two digital images. A global signature describing the texture, shape, or color content is first computed for every image stored in a database, and a normalized distance between probability density functions of feature vectors is used to match signatures. This method can be used to retrieve images from a database that are similar to an example target image. This algorithm is applied to the problem of search and retrieval for database containing pulmonary CT imagery, and experimental results are provided.

  12. Automatic Solitary Lung Nodule Detection in Computed Tomography Images Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentana, I. W. B.; Jawas, N.; Asri, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Lung nodule is an early indicator of some lung diseases, including lung cancer. In Computed Tomography (CT) based image, nodule is known as a shape that appears brighter than lung surrounding. This research aim to develop an application that automatically detect lung nodule in CT images. There are some steps in algorithm such as image acquisition and conversion, image binarization, lung segmentation, blob detection, and classification. Data acquisition is a step to taking image slice by slice from the original *.dicom format and then each image slices is converted into *.tif image format. Binarization that tailoring Otsu algorithm, than separated the background and foreground part of each image slices. After removing the background part, the next step is to segment part of the lung only so the nodule can localized easier. Once again Otsu algorithm is use to detect nodule blob in localized lung area. The final step is tailoring Support Vector Machine (SVM) to classify the nodule. The application has succeed detecting near round nodule with a certain threshold of size. Those detecting result shows drawback in part of thresholding size and shape of nodule that need to enhance in the next part of the research. The algorithm also cannot detect nodule that attached to wall and Lung Chanel, since it depend the searching only on colour differences.

  13. Estimation of regional lung expansion via 3D image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yan; Kumar, Dinesh; Hoffman, Eric A.; Christensen, Gary E.; McLennan, Geoffrey; Song, Joo Hyun; Ross, Alan; Simon, Brett A.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    2005-04-01

    A method is described to estimate regional lung expansion and related biomechanical parameters using multiple CT images of the lungs, acquired at different inflation levels. In this study, the lungs of two sheep were imaged utilizing a multi-detector row CT at different lung inflations in the prone and supine positions. Using the lung surfaces and the airway branch points for guidance, a 3D inverse consistent image registration procedure was used to match different lung volumes at each orientation. The registration was validated using a set of implanted metal markers. After registration, the Jacobian of the deformation field was computed to express regional expansion or contraction. The regional lung expansion at different pressures and different orientations are compared.

  14. 3D Interpolation Method for CT Images of the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Asada

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A 3-D image can be reconstructed from numerous CT images of the lung. The procedure reconstructs a solid from multiple cross section images, which are collected during pulsation of the heart. Thus the motion of the heart is a special factor that must be taken into consideration during reconstruction. The lung exhibits a repeating transformation synchronized to the beating of the heart as an elastic body. There are discontinuities among neighboring CT images due to the beating of the heart, if no special techniques are used in taking CT images. The 3-D heart image is reconstructed from numerous CT images in which both the heart and the lung are taken. Although the outline shape of the reconstructed 3-D heart is quite unnatural, the envelope of the 3-D unnatural heart is fit to the shape of the standard heart. The envelopes of the lung in the CT images are calculated after the section images of the best fitting standard heart are located at the same positions of the CT images. Thus the CT images are geometrically transformed to the optimal CT images fitting best to the standard heart. Since correct transformation of images is required, an Area oriented interpolation method proposed by us is used for interpolation of transformed images. An attempt to reconstruct a 3-D lung image by a series of such operations without discontinuity is shown. Additionally, the same geometrical transformation method to the original projection images is proposed as a more advanced method.

  15. Cloud-Based NoSQL Open Database of Pulmonary Nodules for Computer-Aided Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Reproducible Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Junior, José Raniery; Oliveira, Marcelo Costa; de Azevedo-Marques, Paulo Mazzoncini

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world, and its main manifestation is pulmonary nodules. Detection and classification of pulmonary nodules are challenging tasks that must be done by qualified specialists, but image interpretation errors make those tasks difficult. In order to aid radiologists on those hard tasks, it is important to integrate the computer-based tools with the lesion detection, pathology diagnosis, and image interpretation processes. However, computer-aided diagnosis research faces the problem of not having enough shared medical reference data for the development, testing, and evaluation of computational methods for diagnosis. In order to minimize this problem, this paper presents a public nonrelational document-oriented cloud-based database of pulmonary nodules characterized by 3D texture attributes, identified by experienced radiologists and classified in nine different subjective characteristics by the same specialists. Our goal with the development of this database is to improve computer-aided lung cancer diagnosis and pulmonary nodule detection and classification research through the deployment of this database in a cloud Database as a Service framework. Pulmonary nodule data was provided by the Lung Image Database Consortium and Image Database Resource Initiative (LIDC-IDRI), image descriptors were acquired by a volumetric texture analysis, and database schema was developed using a document-oriented Not only Structured Query Language (NoSQL) approach. The proposed database is now with 379 exams, 838 nodules, and 8237 images, 4029 of them are CT scans and 4208 manually segmented nodules, and it is allocated in a MongoDB instance on a cloud infrastructure.

  16. The relationship between ventilatory lung motion and pulmonary perfusion shown by ventilatory lung motion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Nakatsuka, Tatsuya; Yoshimura, Kazuhiko; Hirose, Yoshiki; Hirayama, Jiro; Kobayashi, Toshio; Handa, Kenjiro

    1991-01-01

    Using ventilatory lung motion imaging, which was obtained from two perfusion lung scintigrams with 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin taken in maximal inspiration and maximal expiration, the lung motion (E-I/I) of the each unilateral lung was studied in various cardiopulmonary diseases. The sum of (E-I)/I(+) of the unilateral lung was decreased in the diseased lung for localized pleuropulmonary diseases, including primary lung cancer and pleural thickening, and in both lungs for heart diseases, and diffuse pulmonary diseases including diffuse interstitial pneumonia and diffuse panbronchiolitis. The sum of (E-I)/I(+) of the both lungs, which correlated with vital capacity and PaO 2 , was decreased in diffuse interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary emphysema, diffuse panbronchiolitis, primary lung cancer, pleural diseases and so on. (E-I)/I(+), correlated with pulmonary perfusion (n=49, r=0.51, p 81m Kr or 133 Xe (n=49, r=0.61, p<0.001) than pulmonary perfusion. The ventilatory lung motion imaging, which demonstrates the motion of the intra-pulmonary areas and lung edges, appears useful for estimating pulmonary ventilation of the perfused area as well as pulmonary perfusion. (author)

  17. Image files - RPD | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/rpd/LATEST/rpd_gel_image.zip File size: 38.5 MB Simple search URL - Data ... License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Image files - RPD | LSDB Archive ...

  18. Density-based retrieval from high-similarity image databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Edberg; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2004-01-01

    Many image classification problems can fruitfully be thought of as image retrieval in a "high similarity image database" (HSID) characterized by being tuned towards a specific application and having a high degree of visual similarity between entries that should be distinguished. We introduce a me...

  19. Effective Image Database Search via Dimensionality Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Aanæs, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Image search using the bag-of-words image representation is investigated further in this paper. This approach has shown promising results for large scale image collections making it relevant for Internet applications. The steps involved in the bag-of-words approach are feature extraction, vocabul......Image search using the bag-of-words image representation is investigated further in this paper. This approach has shown promising results for large scale image collections making it relevant for Internet applications. The steps involved in the bag-of-words approach are feature extraction......, vocabulary building, and searching with a query image. It is important to keep the computational cost low through all steps. In this paper we focus on the efficiency of the technique. To do that we substantially reduce the dimensionality of the features by the use of PCA and addition of color. Building...... of the visual vocabulary is typically done using k-means. We investigate a clustering algorithm based on the leader follower principle (LF-clustering), in which the number of clusters is not fixed. The adaptive nature of LF-clustering is shown to improve the quality of the visual vocabulary using this...

  20. Autofluorescence Imaging and Spectroscopy of Human Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyan Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers, with high mortality rate worldwide. Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy is a non-invasive, label-free, real-time technique for cancer detection. In this study, lung tissue sections excised from patients were detected by laser scan confocal microscopy and spectroscopy. The autofluorescence images demonstrated the cellular morphology and tissue structure, as well as the pathology of stained images. Based on the spectra study, it was found that the majority of the patients showed discriminating fluorescence in tumor tissues from normal tissues. Therefore, autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy may be a potential method for aiding the diagnosis of lung cancer.

  1. Landsat TM and ETM+ Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2000-2001 consists of terrain-corrected, precision rectified spring, summer, and fall Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and...

  2. Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID) 2004-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID) 2004-2005 consists of terrain-corrected, precision rectified spring, summer, and fall Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM)...

  3. Monotonicity-based electrical impedance tomography for lung imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liangdong; Harrach, Bastian; Seo, Jin Keun

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a monotonicity-based spatiotemporal conductivity imaging method for continuous regional lung monitoring using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The EIT data (i.e. the boundary current-voltage data) can be decomposed into pulmonary, cardiac and other parts using their different periodic natures. The time-differential current-voltage operator corresponding to the lung ventilation can be viewed as either semi-positive or semi-negative definite owing to monotonic conductivity changes within the lung regions. We used these monotonicity constraints to improve the quality of lung EIT imaging. We tested the proposed methods in numerical simulations, phantom experiments and human experiments.

  4. Application of I-123 HIPDM as a lung imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, W J; Coupal, J J; Dillon, M L; Kung, H F

    1988-04-01

    N,N,N'-Trimethyl-N'-(2-Hydroxyl-3-Methyl-5-/sup 123/I Iodobenzyl)-1,3-Propanediamine.Hcl (/sup 123/I-HIPDM) has been used for diagnosis of patients with strokes and demantias. Since this radiopharmaceutical is also accumulated in the lung, we routinely performed a lung image or images immediately prior to cerebral planar and SPECT images after a 3-5 mCi /sup 123/I-HIPDM injection. During the past 14 months, we obtained 78 (age from 41 to 92 years, average 66.7+-8.9 years; 64 males, 14 females) suspected stroke or dementia patients' lung images. All lung images were correlated to chest X-ray (CXR) or CT and other clinical data. Sixty five of 78 patients had normal lungs showing homogeneous distribution of activity throughout the lungs which correlated well to normal CXR and/or CT studies. Abnormal scintigraphic patterns of the 13 patients included lung defect (5 bronchogenic carcinoma with or without atelectasis) and decreased uptake in apices (8 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). The findings of pulmonary intrathoracic pathologies on lung images with /sup 123/I-HIPDM suggests further evaluation of the agent for detection of localized pulmonary diseases and pulmonary physiological studies relating to amine metabolism.

  5. Optical and Functional Imaging in Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. van der Leest (Cor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the second most common cancer in men and women, and is the leading cause of cancer related death. In industrialized countries the mortality rate of lung cancer is higher than the mortality rate of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer combined 1. When lung cancer is

  6. Early detection of lung cancer from CT images: nodule segmentation and classification using deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manu; Bhatt, Jignesh S.; Joshi, Manjunath V.

    2018-04-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most abundant causes of the cancerous deaths worldwide. It has low survival rate mainly due to the late diagnosis. With the hardware advancements in computed tomography (CT) technology, it is now possible to capture the high resolution images of lung region. However, it needs to be augmented by efficient algorithms to detect the lung cancer in the earlier stages using the acquired CT images. To this end, we propose a two-step algorithm for early detection of lung cancer. Given the CT image, we first extract the patch from the center location of the nodule and segment the lung nodule region. We propose to use Otsu method followed by morphological operations for the segmentation. This step enables accurate segmentation due to the use of data-driven threshold. Unlike other methods, we perform the segmentation without using the complete contour information of the nodule. In the second step, a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) is used for the better classification (malignant or benign) of the nodule present in the segmented patch. Accurate segmentation of even a tiny nodule followed by better classification using deep CNN enables the early detection of lung cancer. Experiments have been conducted using 6306 CT images of LIDC-IDRI database. We achieved the test accuracy of 84.13%, with the sensitivity and specificity of 91.69% and 73.16%, respectively, clearly outperforming the state-of-the-art algorithms.

  7. The preparation and characterization of peptide's lung cancer imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianfeng; Chu Liping; Wang Yan; Wang Yueying; Liu Jinjian; Wu Hongying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To screen in vivo lung cancer specific binding seven peptides by T7 phage display peptide library, so as to prepare peptide's lung cancer early diagnostic agent. Methods: Use phage display in vivo technology, the 7-peptide phage that binding the lung cancer specifically was obtained, then the DNA sequence was measured and the seven peptide was synthesized. After labeled by 125 I, the seven peptide was injected into mice via vein and the distribution was observed. Results: One peptide was obtained by four rounds screening, and the peptide can bind lung cancer tissue specifically. Two hours after injection get the best imaging of lung cancer, metabolism of peptide in mice is fast, the distribution in vivo is decrease six hours and almost disappear 20 hours after injection. Conclusion: The peptide can image and diagnose lung cancer better. (authors)

  8. Lung Nodule Detection in CT Images using Neuro Fuzzy Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Usman Akram

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Automated lung cancer detection using computer aided diagnosis (CAD is an important area in clinical applications. As the manual nodule detection is very time consuming and costly so computerized systems can be helpful for this purpose. In this paper, we propose a computerized system for lung nodule detection in CT scan images. The automated system consists of two stages i.e. lung segmentation and enhancement, feature extraction and classification. The segmentation process will result in separating lung tissue from rest of the image, and only the lung tissues under examination are considered as candidate regions for detecting malignant nodules in lung portion. A feature vector for possible abnormal regions is calculated and regions are classified using neuro fuzzy classifier. It is a fully automatic system that does not require any manual intervention and experimental results show the validity of our system.

  9. Construction of image database for newspapaer articles using CTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamio, Tatsuo

    Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc. developed a system of making articles' image database automatically by use of CTS (Computer Typesetting System). Besides the articles and the headlines inputted in CTS, it reproduces the image of elements of such as photography and graphs by article in accordance with information of position on the paper. So to speak, computer itself clips the articles out of the newspaper. Image database is accumulated in magnetic file and optical file and is output to the facsimile of users. With diffusion of CTS, newspaper companies which start to have structure of articles database are increased rapidly, the said system is the first attempt to make database automatically. This paper describes the device of CTS which supports this system and outline.

  10. Causes of death in long-term lung cancer survivors: a SEER database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Omar

    2017-07-01

    Long-term (>5 years) lung cancer survivors represent a small but distinct subgroup of lung cancer patients and information about the causes of death of this subgroup is scarce. The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database (1988-2008) was utilized to determine the causes of death of long-term survivors of lung cancer. Survival analysis was conducted using Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate analysis was conducted using a Cox proportional hazard model. Clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes were assessed for the whole cohort. A total of 78,701 lung cancer patients with >5 years survival were identified. This cohort included 54,488 patients surviving 5-10 years and 24,213 patients surviving >10 years. Among patients surviving 5-10 years, 21.8% were dead because of primary lung cancer, 10.2% were dead because of other cancers, 6.8% were dead because of cardiac disease and 5.3% were dead because of non-malignant pulmonary disease. Among patients surviving >10 years, 12% were dead because of primary lung cancer, 6% were dead because of other cancers, 6.9% were dead because of cardiac disease and 5.6% were dead because of non-malignant pulmonary disease. On multivariate analysis, factors associated with longer cardiac-disease-specific survival in multivariate analysis include younger age at diagnosis (p death from primary lung cancer is still significant among other causes of death even 20 years after diagnosis of lung cancer. Moreover, cardiac as well as non-malignant pulmonary causes contribute a considerable proportion of deaths in long-term lung cancer survivors.

  11. CT imaging of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Yan; Xie Ruming; Zhou Xinhua; Zhou Zhen; Xu Jinping; He Wei; Guo Lifang; Ning Fenggang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT characteristics of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer. Methods: One hundred and four patients of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer proved by histology, cytology or clinical underwent CT examination. All patients were divided into two groups, group Ⅰ were the patients with the lung cancer after tuberculosis or both found simultaneously (group Ⅰ a with peripheral lung cancer and group Ⅰ b with central lung cancer), group Ⅱ with tuberculosis during lung cancer chemotherapy (group Ⅱ a with peripheral lung cancer and group Ⅱ b with central lung cancer). Imaging characteristics of tuberculosis and lung cancer were compared. χ"2 test and t test were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Of 104 patients, there were 92 patients (88.5%) in group Ⅰ and 12 patients (11.5%) in group Ⅱ. Seventy patients (76.1%) of lung cancer and tuberculosis were located in the same lobe and 22 patients (23.9%) in the different lobes in group Ⅰ. There was no significant difference in distribution of tuberculosis between group Ⅰ and group Ⅱ (χ"2 = 4.302, P = 0.507). The fibrous stripes, nodules of calcification and pleural adhesion of tuberculosis were statistically significant between the two groups (χ"2 = 22.737, 15.193, 27.792, P < 0.05). There were 33 central lung cancers and 71 peripheral lung cancers. In group Ⅰ a (64 patients of peripheral lung cancers), 39 patients (60.9%) had typical manifestations and most of the lesions were ≥ 3 cm (n = 49, 76.6%), solid lesions showed variable enhancement. Conclusions: Secondary tuberculosis during lung cancer chemotherapy has the same CT characteristics with the common active tuberculosis. The morphology, enhancement pattern of lesion and follow-up are helpful for the diagnosis of lung cancer after tuberculosis. (authors)

  12. Compton scatter imaging: A promising modality for image guidance in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redler, Gage; Jones, Kevin C; Templeton, Alistair; Bernard, Damian; Turian, Julius; Chu, James C H

    2018-03-01

    Lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) requires delivering large radiation doses with millimeter accuracy, making image guidance essential. An approach to forming images of patient anatomy from Compton-scattered photons during lung SBRT is presented. To investigate the potential of scatter imaging, a pinhole collimator and flat-panel detector are used for spatial localization and detection of photons scattered during external beam therapy using lung SBRT treatment conditions (6 MV FFF beam). MCNP Monte Carlo software is used to develop a model to simulate scatter images. This model is validated by comparing experimental and simulated phantom images. Patient scatter images are then simulated from 4DCT data. Experimental lung tumor phantom images have sufficient contrast-to-noise to visualize the tumor with as few as 10 MU (0.5 s temporal resolution). The relative signal intensity from objects of different composition as well as lung tumor contrast for simulated phantom images agree quantitatively with experimental images, thus validating the Monte Carlo model. Scatter images are shown to display high contrast between different materials (lung, water, bone). Simulated patient images show superior (~double) tumor contrast compared to MV transmission images. Compton scatter imaging is a promising modality for directly imaging patient anatomy during treatment without additional radiation, and it has the potential to complement existing technologies and aid tumor tracking and lung SBRT image guidance. © 2018 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. Evaluation of lung injury induced by pingyangmycin with 99Tcm-HMPAO lung imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Changjiu; Yang Zhijie; Fu Peng; Zhang Rui

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the lung uptake of 99 Tc m -hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (HMPAO) in pingyangmycin-induced lung injury and its mechanism. Methods: 24 white rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group I: the control with normal diet. In group II, III and IV 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg pingyangmycin were given respectively by marginal vein of ear every other day. 99 Tc m -HMPAO static lung imaging was performed before and 8, 16, 24, 32 d after injection of pingyangmycin. 7 pixel x 5 pixel regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on the right lung(R) and right upper limb(B), R/B were calculated. Also, 2 ml venous blood was withdrawn for measurement of endothelin by radioimmunoassay. 16 d after pingyangmycin in group IV and 32 d in group I, II and III, all the rabbits were sacrificed. Both lungs were examined immediately under light and electron microscopy. Results: Compared with the control group, there were statistical differences of 99 Tc m -HMPAO lung uptake in group II, III and IV (P 99 Tc m -HMPAO lung imaging can detect early pingyangmycin-induced lung injury. The endothelium of lung microcapillary is presumably the main location site of 99 Tc m -HMPAO abnormal concentration. (authors)

  14. Uniform background assumption produces misleading lung EIT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Adler, Andy

    2013-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) estimates an image of conductivity change within a body from stimulation and measurement at body surface electrodes. There is significant interest in EIT for imaging the thorax, as a monitoring tool for lung ventilation. To be useful in this application, we require an understanding of if and when EIT images can produce inaccurate images. In this paper, we study the consequences of the homogeneous background assumption, frequently made in linear image reconstruction, which introduces a mismatch between the reference measurement and the linearization point. We show in simulation and experimental data that the resulting images may contain large and clinically significant errors. A 3D finite element model of thorax conductivity is used to simulate EIT measurements for different heart and lung conductivity, size and position, as well as different amounts of gravitational collapse and ventilation-associated conductivity change. Three common linear EIT reconstruction algorithms are studied. We find that the asymmetric position of the heart can cause EIT images of ventilation to show up to 60% undue bias towards the left lung and that the effect is particularly strong for a ventilation distribution typical of mechanically ventilated patients. The conductivity gradient associated with gravitational lung collapse causes conductivity changes in non-dependent lung to be overestimated by up to 100% with respect to the dependent lung. Eliminating the mismatch by using a realistic conductivity distribution in the forward model of the reconstruction algorithm strongly reduces these undesirable effects. We conclude that subject-specific anatomically accurate forward models should be used in lung EIT and extra care is required when analysing EIT images of subjects whose background conductivity distribution in the lungs is known to be heterogeneous or exhibiting large changes.

  15. Uniform background assumption produces misleading lung EIT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Adler, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) estimates an image of conductivity change within a body from stimulation and measurement at body surface electrodes. There is significant interest in EIT for imaging the thorax, as a monitoring tool for lung ventilation. To be useful in this application, we require an understanding of if and when EIT images can produce inaccurate images. In this paper, we study the consequences of the homogeneous background assumption, frequently made in linear image reconstruction, which introduces a mismatch between the reference measurement and the linearization point. We show in simulation and experimental data that the resulting images may contain large and clinically significant errors. A 3D finite element model of thorax conductivity is used to simulate EIT measurements for different heart and lung conductivity, size and position, as well as different amounts of gravitational collapse and ventilation-associated conductivity change. Three common linear EIT reconstruction algorithms are studied. We find that the asymmetric position of the heart can cause EIT images of ventilation to show up to 60% undue bias towards the left lung and that the effect is particularly strong for a ventilation distribution typical of mechanically ventilated patients. The conductivity gradient associated with gravitational lung collapse causes conductivity changes in non-dependent lung to be overestimated by up to 100% with respect to the dependent lung. Eliminating the mismatch by using a realistic conductivity distribution in the forward model of the reconstruction algorithm strongly reduces these undesirable effects. We conclude that subject-specific anatomically accurate forward models should be used in lung EIT and extra care is required when analysing EIT images of subjects whose background conductivity distribution in the lungs is known to be heterogeneous or exhibiting large changes. (paper)

  16. Study of the ventilatory lung motion imaging in primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Yazaki, Yosikazu; Kitabayashi, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Morie.

    1996-01-01

    Using perfusion lung scintigrams with Tc-99m macroaggregated alubumin at maximal inspiration (I) and expiration (E), images of the ventilatory lung motion, which was calculated and delineated by an expression as (E-I)/I, were obtained in 84 cases with primary lung cancer, and its clinical significance in the diagnosis of primary lung cancer was studied. The image of (E-I)/I consisted of positive and negative components. The former visualized the motion of the regional intrapulmonary areas and the latter showed the motion of the lung border. The sum of positive (E-I)/I in the lung with the primary lesion which was lower than that in the contralateral lung, was significantly low in cases with hilar mass, pleural effusion and TNM classification of T3+T4. The sum of positive (E-I)/I in both lungs and vital capacity was relatively low in cases with hilar mass, pleural effusion, TNM classification of T3+T4 and M1. The distribution pattern of pulmonary perfusion and positive (E-I)/I was fairly matched in 48 cases, but mismatch was observed in 36 cases. In the image of negative (E-I)/I, decreased motion of the lung border including the diaphragm was shown in cases with pleural adhesion and thickening, pleural effusion, phrenic nerve palsy and other conditions with hypoventilation. This technique seems to be useful for the estimation of regional pulmonary function of pulmonary perfusion and lung motion, the extent and pathophysiology of primary lung cancer. (author)

  17. Study of the ventilatory lung motion imaging in primary lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tadashige [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Shool of Allied Medical Sciences; Tanaka, Masao; Yazaki, Yosikazu; Kitabayashi, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Morie

    1996-12-01

    Using perfusion lung scintigrams with Tc-99m macroaggregated alubumin at maximal inspiration (I) and expiration (E), images of the ventilatory lung motion, which was calculated and delineated by an expression as (E-I)/I, were obtained in 84 cases with primary lung cancer, and its clinical significance in the diagnosis of primary lung cancer was studied. The image of (E-I)/I consisted of positive and negative components. The former visualized the motion of the regional intrapulmonary areas and the latter showed the motion of the lung border. The sum of positive (E-I)/I in the lung with the primary lesion which was lower than that in the contralateral lung, was significantly low in cases with hilar mass, pleural effusion and TNM classification of T3+T4. The sum of positive (E-I)/I in both lungs and vital capacity was relatively low in cases with hilar mass, pleural effusion, TNM classification of T3+T4 and M1. The distribution pattern of pulmonary perfusion and positive (E-I)/I was fairly matched in 48 cases, but mismatch was observed in 36 cases. In the image of negative (E-I)/I, decreased motion of the lung border including the diaphragm was shown in cases with pleural adhesion and thickening, pleural effusion, phrenic nerve palsy and other conditions with hypoventilation. This technique seems to be useful for the estimation of regional pulmonary function of pulmonary perfusion and lung motion, the extent and pathophysiology of primary lung cancer. (author)

  18. Diagnostic imaging of lung cancer with In-111-MDEGD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Susumu; Hayashi, Hideo; Maeda, Tomio

    1987-01-01

    Indium-111-mono DTPA-ethyleneglycol Ga deuterporphyrin (In-111-MDEGD) is a new tumor imaging agent in lung cancer. The agent has been studied with golden hamsters bearing adenocarcinoma, C57 black mice bearing Lewis lung adenocarcinoma, and nude mice bearing human lung adenocarcinoma xerografts. It has been revealed that the tumor-to-lung, tumor-to-kidney, and tumor-to-blood ratios are higher for In-111-MDEGD than for Ga-67 citrate widely used in imaging tumors, and that the agent is not accumulated in inflammatory lesions. The results were encouraging enough to start clinical diagnostic trials in lung cancer. In this paper, an overview of In-111-MDEGD, along with its preliminary data, is given. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the normal fetal lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Bankier, Alexander; Herold, Christian J.; Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Csapo, Bence; Bammer, Roland

    2008-01-01

    To quantify apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes in fetuses with normal lungs and to determine whether ADC can be used in the assessment of fetal lung development. In 53 pregnancies (20-37th weeks of gestation), we measured ADC on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the apical, middle, and basal thirds of the right lung. ADCs were correlated with gestational age. Differences between the ADCs were assessed. Fetal lung volumes were measured on T2-weighted sequences and correlated with ADCs and with age. ADCs were 2.13 ± 0.44 μm 2 /ms (mean ± SD) in the apex, 1.99 ± 0.42 μm 2 /ms (mean ± SD) in the middle third, and 1.91 ± 0.41 μm 2 /ms (mean ± SD) in the lung base. Neither the individual ADC values nor average ADC values showed a significant correlation with gestational age or with lung volumes. Average ADCs decreased significantly from the lung apex toward the base. Individual ADCs showed little absolute change and heterogeneity. Lung volumes increased significantly during gestation. We have not been able to identify a pattern of changes in the ADC values that correlate with lung maturation. Furthermore, the individual, gravity-related ADC changes are subject to substantial variability and show nonuniform behavior. ADC can therefore not be used as an indicator of lung maturity. (orig.)

  20. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the normal fetal lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Bankier, Alexander; Herold, Christian J.; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria); Csapo, Bence [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Gyneocology, Vienna (Austria); Bammer, Roland [University of Stanford, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2008-04-15

    To quantify apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes in fetuses with normal lungs and to determine whether ADC can be used in the assessment of fetal lung development. In 53 pregnancies (20-37th weeks of gestation), we measured ADC on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the apical, middle, and basal thirds of the right lung. ADCs were correlated with gestational age. Differences between the ADCs were assessed. Fetal lung volumes were measured on T2-weighted sequences and correlated with ADCs and with age. ADCs were 2.13 {+-} 0.44 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms (mean {+-} SD) in the apex, 1.99 {+-} 0.42 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms (mean {+-} SD) in the middle third, and 1.91 {+-} 0.41 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms (mean {+-} SD) in the lung base. Neither the individual ADC values nor average ADC values showed a significant correlation with gestational age or with lung volumes. Average ADCs decreased significantly from the lung apex toward the base. Individual ADCs showed little absolute change and heterogeneity. Lung volumes increased significantly during gestation. We have not been able to identify a pattern of changes in the ADC values that correlate with lung maturation. Furthermore, the individual, gravity-related ADC changes are subject to substantial variability and show nonuniform behavior. ADC can therefore not be used as an indicator of lung maturity. (orig.)

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of respiratory movement and lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetzlaff, R.; Eichinger, M.

    2009-01-01

    Lung function measurements are the domain of spirometry or plethysmography. These methods have proven their value in clinical practice, nevertheless, being global measurements the functional indices only describe the sum of all functional units of the lung. Impairment of only a single component of the respiratory pump or of a small part of lung parenchyma can be compensated by unaffected lung tissue. Dynamic imaging can help to detect such local changes and lead to earlier adapted therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seems to be perfect for this application as it is not hampered by image distortion as is projection radiography and it does not expose the patient to potentially harmful radiation like computed tomography. Unfortunately, lung parenchyma is not easy to image using MRI due to its low signal intensity. For this reason first applications of MRI in lung function measurements concentrated on the movement of the thoracic wall and the diaphragm. Recent technical advances in MRI however might allow measurements of regional dynamics of the lungs. (orig.) [de

  2. Imaging Primary Lung Cancers in Mice to Study Radiation Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, David G.; Grimm, Jan; Guimaraes, Alexander R.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Perez, Bradford A.; Santiago, Philip M.; Anthony, Nikolas K.; Forbes, Thomas; Doppke, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To image a genetically engineered mouse model of non-small-cell lung cancer with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to measure tumor response to radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The Cre-loxP system was used to generate primary lung cancers in mice with mutation in K-ras alone or in combination with p53 mutation. Mice were serially imaged by micro-CT, and tumor volumes were determined. A comparison of tumor volume by micro-CT and tumor histology was performed. Tumor response to radiation therapy (15.5 Gy) was assessed with micro-CT. Results: The tumor volume measured with free-breathing micro-CT scans was greater than the volume calculated by histology. Nevertheless, this imaging approach demonstrated that lung cancers with mutant p53 grew more rapidly than lung tumors with wild-type p53 and also showed that radiation therapy increased the doubling time of p53 mutant lung cancers fivefold. Conclusions: Micro-CT is an effective tool to noninvasively measure the growth of primary lung cancers in genetically engineered mice and assess tumor response to radiation therapy. This imaging approach will be useful to study the radiation biology of lung cancer.

  3. Animal Detection in Natural Images: Effects of Color and Image Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weina; Drewes, Jan; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.

    2013-01-01

    The visual system has a remarkable ability to extract categorical information from complex natural scenes. In order to elucidate the role of low-level image features for the recognition of objects in natural scenes, we recorded saccadic eye movements and event-related potentials (ERPs) in two experiments, in which human subjects had to detect animals in previously unseen natural images. We used a new natural image database (ANID) that is free of some of the potential artifacts that have plagued the widely used COREL images. Color and grayscale images picked from the ANID and COREL databases were used. In all experiments, color images induced a greater N1 EEG component at earlier time points than grayscale images. We suggest that this influence of color in animal detection may be masked by later processes when measuring reation times. The ERP results of go/nogo and forced choice tasks were similar to those reported earlier. The non-animal stimuli induced bigger N1 than animal stimuli both in the COREL and ANID databases. This result indicates ultra-fast processing of animal images is possible irrespective of the particular database. With the ANID images, the difference between color and grayscale images is more pronounced than with the COREL images. The earlier use of the COREL images might have led to an underestimation of the contribution of color. Therefore, we conclude that the ANID image database is better suited for the investigation of the processing of natural scenes than other databases commonly used. PMID:24130744

  4. Imaging of macrophage-related lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, Katharina; Hansell, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Macrophage-related pulmonary diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by macrophage accumulation, activation or dysfunction. These conditions include smoking-related interstitial lung diseases, metabolic disorders such as Niemann-Pick or Gaucher disease, and rare primary lung tumors. High-resolution computed tomography abnormalities include pulmonary ground-glass opacification secondary to infiltration by macrophages, centrilobular nodules or interlobular septal thickening reflecting peribronchiolar or septal macrophage accumulation, respectively, emphysema caused by macrophage dysfunction, and honeycombing following macrophage-related lung matrix remodeling. (orig.)

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal lung maturity by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Hitoshi; Kakizaki, Dai; Nagai, Atsushi; Akutagawa, Osamu; Itokazu, Isao; Iso, Kazuo; Abe, Kimihiko; Takayama, Masaomi [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan); Nohira, Tomoyoshi [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan). Hachioji Medical Center

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for prenatal diagnosis of fetal lung maturity. The subjects comprised 28 singleton fetuses, and underwent MRI in the third trimester (32.71{+-}3.00 wks). After obtaining axial and coronal scout images of the whole pelvis, we obtained a transverse image, a coronal image and a sagittal image of fetuses with a half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo-spin-echo (HASTE) sequence, determined the intensity level of the fetal lung (right lung intensity level: RL, left lung intensity level: LL). The intensity level of background outside of the maternal body was obtained as the control intensity level (CL). The contrast value (CV) of each fetal lung was calculated by the numerical formula; CV=(RL or LL-CL)/CL. We evaluated the changes of CV during the third trimester and relationship between CV and gestational weeks. There was no significant correlation between gestational weeks and RL (P=.3887), LL (P=.2367). There was a significant increase in both right and left CV (RCV=(RL-CL)/CL: P=.0108, LCV=(LL-CL)/CL: P=.0165) with gestational age. It was suggested that the fetal lung maturation could be diagnosed with HASTE using the CV formula. (author)

  6. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal lung maturity by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hitoshi; Kakizaki, Dai; Nagai, Atsushi; Akutagawa, Osamu; Itokazu, Isao; Iso, Kazuo; Abe, Kimihiko; Takayama, Masaomi; Nohira, Tomoyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for prenatal diagnosis of fetal lung maturity. The subjects comprised 28 singleton fetuses, and underwent MRI in the third trimester (32.71±3.00 wks). After obtaining axial and coronal scout images of the whole pelvis, we obtained a transverse image, a coronal image and a sagittal image of fetuses with a half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo-spin-echo (HASTE) sequence, determined the intensity level of the fetal lung (right lung intensity level: RL, left lung intensity level: LL). The intensity level of background outside of the maternal body was obtained as the control intensity level (CL). The contrast value (CV) of each fetal lung was calculated by the numerical formula; CV=(RL or LL-CL)/CL. We evaluated the changes of CV during the third trimester and relationship between CV and gestational weeks. There was no significant correlation between gestational weeks and RL (P=.3887), LL (P=.2367). There was a significant increase in both right and left CV (RCV=(RL-CL)/CL: P=.0108, LCV=(LL-CL)/CL: P=.0165) with gestational age. It was suggested that the fetal lung maturation could be diagnosed with HASTE using the CV formula. (author)

  7. Usefulness of gallium imaging in the evaluation of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazraki, N.

    1980-01-01

    The current enthusiasm for gallium (Ga) citrate as a tumor imaging agent reflects the need of clinical medicine for a good tumor imaging agent. Ga-67 was most consistently and reliably taken up in lung tumors, with sensitivities of Ga imaging positivity in lung cancer ranging from 85 to 95%. Subsequent studies on Ga-67 led to the recognition of its preferential concentration in inflammatory lesions and abscess. These reports resulted in the clinical application of Ga-67 imaging as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with suspected abscesses. Mechanisms of Ga localization in tumor and inflammatory lesions are not currently well understood. Data regarding the thresholds of various factors which determine visibility of a lung tumor by Ga-67 imaging have been described in some detail. The factors include lesion size, depth in tissue, gallium concentration in tumor relative to background, type of film and instrumentation used, and count rates obtained

  8. Distributed data collection for a database of radiological image interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, L. Rodney; Ostchega, Yechiam; Goh, Gin-Hua; Thoma, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine, in collaboration with the National Center for Health Statistics and the National Institute for Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, has built a system for collecting radiological interpretations for a large set of x-ray images acquired as part of the data gathered in the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This system is capable of delivering across the Internet 5- and 10-megabyte x-ray images to Sun workstations equipped with X Window based 2048 X 2560 image displays, for the purpose of having these images interpreted for the degree of presence of particular osteoarthritic conditions in the cervical and lumbar spines. The collected interpretations can then be stored in a database at the National Library of Medicine, under control of the Illustra DBMS. This system is a client/server database application which integrates (1) distributed server processing of client requests, (2) a customized image transmission method for faster Internet data delivery, (3) distributed client workstations with high resolution displays, image processing functions and an on-line digital atlas, and (4) relational database management of the collected data.

  9. Multimodal imaging of lung cancer and its microenvironment (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Niederst, Matthew J.; Mulvey, Hillary; Adams, David C.; Hu, Haichuan; Chico Calero, Isabel; Szabari, Margit V.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Bouma, Brett E.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Despite significant advances in targeted therapies for lung cancer, nearly all patients develop drug resistance within 6-12 months and prognosis remains poor. Developing drug resistance is a progressive process that involves tumor cells and their microenvironment. We hypothesize that microenvironment factors alter tumor growth and response to targeted therapy. We conducted in vitro studies in human EGFR-mutant lung carcinoma cells, and demonstrated that factors secreted from lung fibroblasts results in increased tumor cell survival during targeted therapy with EGFR inhibitor, gefitinib. We also demonstrated that increased environment stiffness results in increased tumor survival during gefitinib therapy. In order to test our hypothesis in vivo, we developed a multimodal optical imaging protocol for preclinical intravital imaging in mouse models to assess tumor and its microenvironment over time. We have successfully conducted multimodal imaging of dorsal skinfold chamber (DSC) window mice implanted with GFP-labeled human EGFR mutant lung carcinoma cells and visualized changes in tumor development and microenvironment facets over time. Multimodal imaging included structural OCT to assess tumor viability and necrosis, polarization-sensitive OCT to measure tissue birefringence for collagen/fibroblast detection, and Doppler OCT to assess tumor vasculature. Confocal imaging was also performed for high-resolution visualization of EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells labeled with GFP, and was coregistered with OCT. Our results demonstrated that stromal support and vascular growth are essential to tumor progression. Multimodal imaging is a useful tool to assess tumor and its microenvironment over time.

  10. Radiation pneumonitis: generalised lung changes detected by radionuclide imaging following focal lung irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.; Sephton, R.; Irving, L.; Crennan, E.

    1992-01-01

    The usefulness of a nuclear imaging technique as a means of detecting radiation-induced lung injury is examined. The technique involves the patient inhaling modified technegas TM , a gas-like radiotracer which is an ultra fine particulate dispersion. This crosses the alveolar-capillary membrane and the clearance rate of the tracer from the lungs is presumed to reflect membrane permeability. A case of a patient who, after receiving localised radiotherapy and chemotherapy for lung cancer, developed symptoms and signs of radiation pneumonitis is reported. Pre- and post-radiotherapy investigations using the nuclear technique showed acceleration of rates of tracer clearance from both lungs, consistent with generalised changes in alveolar-capillary membrane permeability. It is suggested that the symptoms of radiation pneumonitis may in part result from pathophysiologic changes in nonirradiated lung which may appear radiologically normal. 4 refs., 2 figs

  11. Medical image of the week: lung entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natt B

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 74-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer 10 years ago treated with lumpectomy and radiation presented for evaluation of shortness of breath. She was diagnosed with left sided pleural effusion which was recurrent requiring multiple thoracenteses. There was increased pleural fludeoxyglucose (FDG uptake on PET-CT indicative of recurrent metastatic disease. She underwent a medical pleuroscopy since the pleural effusion analysis did not reveal malignant cells although the suspicion was high and tunneled pleural catheter placement as adjuvant chemotherapy was initiated. Figure 1 shows a pleurscopic view of the collapsed left lung and the effusion in the left hemi thorax. Figure 2 shows extensive involvement of the visceral pleura with metastatic disease preventing complete lung inflation. Figure 3 shows persistent pneumothorax-ex-vacuo despite pleural catheter placement confirming the diagnosis of entrapment. Incomplete lung inflation can be due to pleural disease, endobronchial lesions or chronic telecasts. Lung entrapment and trapped lung ...

  12. Estimation of gas and tissue lung volumes by MRI: functional approach of lung imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qanadli, S D; Orvoen-Frija, E; Lacombe, P; Di Paola, R; Bittoun, J; Frija, G

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the accuracy of MRI for the determination of lung gas and tissue volumes. Fifteen healthy subjects underwent MRI of the thorax and pulmonary function tests [vital capacity (VC) and total lung capacity (TLC)] in the supine position. MR examinations were performed at inspiration and expiration. Lung volumes were measured by a previously validated technique on phantoms. Both individual and total lung volumes and capacities were calculated. MRI total vital capacity (VC(MRI)) was compared with spirometric vital capacity (VC(SP)). Capacities were correlated to lung volumes. Tissue volume (V(T)) was estimated as the difference between the total lung volume at full inspiration and the TLC. No significant difference was seen between VC(MRI) and VC(SP). Individual capacities were well correlated (r = 0.9) to static volume at full inspiration. The V(T) was estimated to be 836+/-393 ml. This preliminary study demonstrates that MRI can accurately estimate lung gas and tissue volumes. The proposed approach appears well suited for functional imaging of the lung.

  13. Dynamic Studies of Lung Fluid Clearance with Phase Contrast Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, Marcus J.; Williams, Ivan; Irvine, Sarah C.; Morgan, Michael J.; Paganin, David M.; Lewis, Rob A.; Pavlov, Konstantin; Hooper, Stuart B.; Wallace, Megan J.; Siu, Karen K. W.; Yagi, Naoto; Uesugi, Kentaro

    2007-01-01

    Clearance of liquid from the airways at birth is a poorly understood process, partly due to the difficulties of observing and measuring the distribution of air within the lung. Imaging dynamic processes within the lung in vivo with high contrast and spatial resolution is therefore a major challenge. However, phase contrast X-ray imaging is able to exploit inhaled air as a contrast agent, rendering the lungs of small animals visible due to the large changes in the refractive index at air/tissue interfaces. In concert with the high spatial resolution afforded by X-ray imaging systems (<100 μm), propagation-based phase contrast imaging is ideal for studying lung development. To this end we have utilized intense, monochromatic synchrotron radiation, together with a fast readout CCD camera, to study fluid clearance from the lungs of rabbit pups at birth. Local rates of fluid clearance have been measured from the dynamic sequences using a single image phase retrieval algorithm

  14. Multi-scale analysis of lung computed tomography images

    CERN Document Server

    Gori, I; Fantacci, M E; Preite Martinez, A; Retico, A; De Mitri, I; Donadio, S; Fulcheri, C

    2007-01-01

    A computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the identification of lung internal nodules in low-dose multi-detector helical Computed Tomography (CT) images was developed in the framework of the MAGIC-5 project. The three modules of our lung CAD system, a segmentation algorithm for lung internal region identification, a multi-scale dot-enhancement filter for nodule candidate selection and a multi-scale neural technique for false positive finding reduction, are described. The results obtained on a dataset of low-dose and thin-slice CT scans are shown in terms of free response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curves and discussed.

  15. Fuzzy modeling of electrical impedance tomography images of the lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Harki; Ortega, Neli Regina Siqueira; Galizia, Mauricio Stanzione; Borges, Joao Batista; Amato, Marcelo Britto Passos

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Aiming to improve the anatomical resolution of electrical impedance tomography images, we developed a fuzzy model based on electrical impedance tomography's high temporal resolution and on the functional pulmonary signals of perfusion and ventilation. Introduction: Electrical impedance tomography images carry information about both ventilation and perfusion. However, these images are difficult to interpret because of insufficient anatomical resolution, such that it becomes almost impossible to distinguish the heart from the lungs. Methods: Electrical impedance tomography data from an experimental animal model were collected during normal ventilation and apnoea while an injection of hypertonic saline was administered. The fuzzy model was elaborated in three parts: a modeling of the heart, the pulmonary ventilation map and the pulmonary perfusion map. Image segmentation was performed using a threshold method, and a ventilation/perfusion map was generated. Results: Electrical impedance tomography images treated by the fuzzy model were compared with the hypertonic saline injection method and computed tomography scan images, presenting good results. The average accuracy index was 0.80 when comparing the fuzzy modeled lung maps and the computed tomography scan lung mask. The average ROC curve area comparing a saline injection image and a fuzzy modeled pulmonary perfusion image was 0.77. Discussion: The innovative aspects of our work are the use of temporal information for the delineation of the heart structure and the use of two pulmonary functions for lung structure delineation. However, robustness of the method should be tested for the imaging of abnormal lung conditions. Conclusions: These results showed the adequacy of the fuzzy approach in treating the anatomical resolution uncertainties in electrical impedance tomography images. (author)

  16. Real-time images of tidal recruitment using lung ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusman, Gerardo; Acosta, Cecilia M; Nicola, Marco; Esperatti, Mariano; Bohm, Stephan H; Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    Ventilator-induced lung injury is a form of mechanical damage leading to a pulmonary inflammatory response related to the use of mechanical ventilation enhanced by the presence of atelectasis. One proposed mechanism of this injury is the repetitive opening and closing of collapsed alveoli and small airways within these atelectatic areas-a phenomenon called tidal recruitment. The presence of tidal recruitment is difficult to detect, even with high-resolution images of the lungs like CT scan. The purpose of this article is to give evidence of tidal recruitment by lung ultrasound. A standard lung ultrasound inspection detected lung zones of atelectasis in mechanically ventilated patients. With a linear probe placed in the intercostal oblique position. We observed tidal recruitment within atelectasis as an improvement in aeration at the end of inspiration followed by the re-collapse at the end of expiration. This mechanism disappeared after the performance of a lung recruitment maneuver. Lung ultrasound was helpful in detecting the presence of atelectasis and tidal recruitment and in confirming their resolution after a lung recruitment maneuver.

  17. Integrin αβ3-Targeted Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Chen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of radiolabeled cyclic arginine-glycineaspartic acid (RGD peptide ligands for cell adhesion molecule integrin αβ3-targeted tumor angiogenesis targeting are being developed in our laboratory. In this study, this effort continues by applying a positron emitter 64Cu-labeled PEGylated dimeric RGD peptide radiotracer 64Cu-DOTA-PEG-E[c(RGDyK]2 for lung cancer imaging. The PEGylated RGD peptide indicated integrin αβ3 avidity, but the PEGylation reduced the receptor binding affinity of this ligand compared to the unmodified RGD dimer. The radiotracer revealed rapid blood clearance and predominant renal clearance route. The minimum nonspecific activity accumulation in normal lung tissue and heart rendered high-quality orthotopic lung cancer tumor images, enabling clear demarcation of both the primary tumor at the upper lobe of the left lung, as well as metastases in the mediastinum, contralateral lung, diaphragm. As a comparison, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG scans on the same mice were only able to identify the primary tumor, with the metastatic lesions masked by intense cardiac uptake and high lung background. 64Cu-DOTA-PEGE[c(RGDyK]2 is an excellent positron emission tomography (PET tracer for integrin-positive tumor imaging. Further studies to improve the receptor binding affinity of the tracer and subsequently to increase the magnitude of tumor uptake without comprising the favorable in vivo kinetics are currently in progress.

  18. Standardized food images : A photographing protocol and image database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charbonnier, Lisette; van Meer, Floor; van der Laan, Laura N.; Viergever, Max A.; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of food intake has gained much research interest because of the current obesity epidemic. For research purposes, food images are a good and convenient alternative for real food because many dietary decisions are made based on the sight of foods. Food pictures are assumed to elicit

  19. Standardized food images: A photographing protocol and image database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charbonnier, L.; Meer, van der F.; Laan, van der L.N.; Viergever, M.A.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of food intake has gained much research interest because of the current obesity epidemic. For research purposes, food images are a good and convenient alternative for real food because many dietary decisions are made based on the sight of foods. Food pictures are assumed to elicit

  20. Image-derived biomarkers and multimodal imaging strategies for lung cancer management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauter, Alexander W. [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Werner Siemens Imaging Center, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Tuebingen (Germany); Schwenzer, Nina; Pfannenberg, Christina [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Divine, Mathew R.; Pichler, Bernd J. [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Werner Siemens Imaging Center, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. For this reason, advances in diagnosis and treatment are urgently needed. With the introduction of new, highly innovative hybrid imaging technologies such as PET/CT, staging and therapy response monitoring in lung cancer patients have substantially evolved. In this review, we discuss the role of FDG PET/CT in the management of lung cancer patients and the importance of new emerging imaging technologies and radiotracer developments on the path to personalized medicine. (orig.)

  1. Imaging of cystic fibrosis lung disease and clinical interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielpuetz, M.O.; Eichinger, M.; Kauczor, H.U. [Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC) (Germany); Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine; Biederer, J. [Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC) (Germany); Gross-Gerau Community Hospital (Germany). Radiologie Darmstadt; Wege, S. [Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine; Stahl, M.; Sommerburg, O. [Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC) (Germany); Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Div. of Pediatric Pulmonology and Allergy and Cystic Fibrosis Center; Mall, M.A. [Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC) (Germany); Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Div. of Pediatric Pulmonology and Allergy and Cystic Fibrosis Center; Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Translational Pulmonology; Puderbach, M. [Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC) (Germany); Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine; Hufeland Hospital, Bad Langensalza (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2016-09-15

    Progressive lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) is the life-limiting factor of this autosomal recessive genetic disorder. Increasing implementation of CF newborn screening allows for a diagnosis even in pre-symptomatic stages. Improvements in therapy have led to a significant improvement in survival, the majority now being of adult age. Imaging provides detailed information on the regional distribution of CF lung disease, hence longitudinal imaging is recommended for disease monitoring in the clinical routine. Chest X-ray (CXR), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are now available as routine modalities, each with individual strengths and drawbacks, which need to be considered when choosing the optimal modality adapted to the clinical situation of the patient. CT stands out with the highest morphological detail and has often been a substitute for CXR for regular severity monitoring at specialized centers. Multidetector CT data can be post-processed with dedicated software for a detailed measurement of airway dimensions and bronchiectasis and potentially a more objective and precise grading of disease severity. However, changing to CT was inseparably accompanied by an increase in radiation exposure of CF patients, a young population with high sensitivity to ionizing radiation and lifetime accumulation of dose. MRI as a cross-sectional imaging modality free of ionizing radiation can depict morphological hallmarks of CF lung disease at lower spatial resolution but excels with comprehensive functional lung imaging, with time-resolved perfusion imaging currently being most valuable.

  2. Imaging and screening in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giaj Levra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the main cause of death for neoplasia in the world. Hence it’s growing the necessity to investigate screening tests to detect tumoral lesions at the early stages: several trials have been performed to establish the best method, target and frequence of the screening to offer. CT, X-ray, PET, sputum citology and CAD software are here analyzed, together with the associated statistics and bias.

  3. Multimodality medical image database for temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siadat, Mohammad-Reza; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Fotouhi, Farshad A.; Elisevich, Kost

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents the development of a human brain multi-modality database for surgical candidacy determination in temporal lobe epilepsy. The focus of the paper is on content-based image management, navigation and retrieval. Several medical image-processing methods including our newly developed segmentation method are utilized for information extraction/correlation and indexing. The input data includes T1-, T2-Weighted and FLAIR MRI and ictal/interictal SPECT modalities with associated clinical data and EEG data analysis. The database can answer queries regarding issues such as the correlation between the attribute X of the entity Y and the outcome of a temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. The entity Y can be a brain anatomical structure such as the hippocampus. The attribute X can be either a functionality feature of the anatomical structure Y, calculated with SPECT modalities, such as signal average, or a volumetric/morphological feature of the entity Y such as volume or average curvature. The outcome of the surgery can be any surgery assessment such as non-verbal Wechsler memory quotient. A determination is made regarding surgical candidacy by analysis of both textual and image data. The current database system suggests a surgical determination for the cases with relatively small hippocampus and high signal intensity average on FLAIR images within the hippocampus. This indication matches the neurosurgeons expectations/observations. Moreover, as the database gets more populated with patient profiles and individual surgical outcomes, using data mining methods one may discover partially invisible correlations between the contents of different modalities of data and the outcome of the surgery.

  4. The Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gitte M.; Jensen, Peter S.; Erritzoe, David

    2016-01-01

    We here describe a multimodality neuroimaging containing data from healthy volunteers and patients, acquired within the Lundbeck Foundation Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi) in Copenhagen, Denmark. The data is of particular relevance for neurobiological research questions rela...... currently contains blood and in some instances saliva samples from about 500 healthy volunteers and 300 patients with e.g., major depression, dementia, substance abuse, obesity, and impulsive aggression. Data continue to be added to the Cimbi database and biobank....

  5. Animal detection in natural images: effects of color and image database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Zhu

    Full Text Available The visual system has a remarkable ability to extract categorical information from complex natural scenes. In order to elucidate the role of low-level image features for the recognition of objects in natural scenes, we recorded saccadic eye movements and event-related potentials (ERPs in two experiments, in which human subjects had to detect animals in previously unseen natural images. We used a new natural image database (ANID that is free of some of the potential artifacts that have plagued the widely used COREL images. Color and grayscale images picked from the ANID and COREL databases were used. In all experiments, color images induced a greater N1 EEG component at earlier time points than grayscale images. We suggest that this influence of color in animal detection may be masked by later processes when measuring reation times. The ERP results of go/nogo and forced choice tasks were similar to those reported earlier. The non-animal stimuli induced bigger N1 than animal stimuli both in the COREL and ANID databases. This result indicates ultra-fast processing of animal images is possible irrespective of the particular database. With the ANID images, the difference between color and grayscale images is more pronounced than with the COREL images. The earlier use of the COREL images might have led to an underestimation of the contribution of color. Therefore, we conclude that the ANID image database is better suited for the investigation of the processing of natural scenes than other databases commonly used.

  6. Imaging in lung transplants: Checklist for the radiologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madan, Rachna; Chansakul, Thanissara; Goldberg, Hilary J

    2014-01-01

    Post lung transplant complications can have overlapping clinical and imaging features, and hence, the time point at which they occur is a key distinguisher. Complications of lung transplantation may occur along a continuum in the immediate or longer postoperative period, including surgical and mechanical problems due to size mismatch and vascular as well as airway anastomotic complication, injuries from ischemia and reperfusion, acute and chronic rejection, pulmonary infections, and post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder. Life expectancy after lung transplantation has been limited primarily by chronic rejection and infection. Multiple detector computed tomography (MDCT) is critical for evaluation and early diagnosis of complications to enable selection of effective therapy and decrease morbidity and mortality among lung transplant recipients

  7. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukotynski, Katherine A; Gerbaudo, Victor H

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine allows tailoring of preventive or therapeutic interventions to avoid the expense and toxicity of futile treatment given to those who will not respond. Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease functionally and morphologically. PET is a sensitive molecular imaging technique with a major role in the precision medicine algorithm of patients with lung cancer. It contributes to the precision medicine of lung neoplasia by interrogating tumor heterogeneity throughout the body. It provides anatomofunctional insight during diagnosis, staging, and restaging of the disease. It is a biomarker of tumoral heterogeneity that helps direct selection of the most appropriate treatment, the prediction of early response to cytotoxic and cytostatic therapies, and is a prognostic biomarker in patients with lung cancer. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lung function imaging methods in Cystic Fibrosis pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziej, Magdalena; de Veer, Michael J; Cholewa, Marian; Egan, Gary F; Thompson, Bruce R

    2017-05-17

    Monitoring of pulmonary physiology is fundamental to the clinical management of patients with Cystic Fibrosis. The current standard clinical practise uses spirometry to assess lung function which delivers a clinically relevant functional readout of total lung function, however does not supply any visible or localised information. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is a well-established current 'gold standard' method for monitoring lung anatomical changes in Cystic Fibrosis patients. HRCT provides excellent morphological information, however, the X-ray radiation dose can become significant if multiple scans are required to monitor chronic diseases such as cystic fibrosis. X-ray phase-contrast imaging is another emerging X-ray based methodology for Cystic Fibrosis lung assessment which provides dynamic morphological and functional information, albeit with even higher X-ray doses than HRCT. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-ionising radiation imaging method that is garnering growing interest among researchers and clinicians working with Cystic Fibrosis patients. Recent advances in MRI have opened up the possibilities to observe lung function in real time to potentially allow sensitive and accurate assessment of disease progression. The use of hyperpolarized gas or non-contrast enhanced MRI can be tailored to clinical needs. While MRI offers significant promise it still suffers from poor spatial resolution and the development of an objective scoring system especially for ventilation assessment.

  9. Retrieving high-resolution images over the Internet from an anatomical image database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strupp-Adams, Annette; Henderson, Earl

    1999-12-01

    The Visible Human Data set is an important contribution to the national collection of anatomical images. To enhance the availability of these images, the National Library of Medicine has supported the design and development of a prototype object-oriented image database which imports, stores, and distributes high resolution anatomical images in both pixel and voxel formats. One of the key database modules is its client-server Internet interface. This Web interface provides a query engine with retrieval access to high-resolution anatomical images that range in size from 100KB for browser viewable rendered images, to 1GB for anatomical structures in voxel file formats. The Web query and retrieval client-server system is composed of applet GUIs, servlets, and RMI application modules which communicate with each other to allow users to query for specific anatomical structures, and retrieve image data as well as associated anatomical images from the database. Selected images can be downloaded individually as single files via HTTP or downloaded in batch-mode over the Internet to the user's machine through an applet that uses Netscape's Object Signing mechanism. The image database uses ObjectDesign's object-oriented DBMS, ObjectStore that has a Java interface. The query and retrieval systems has been tested with a Java-CDE window system, and on the x86 architecture using Windows NT 4.0. This paper describes the Java applet client search engine that queries the database; the Java client module that enables users to view anatomical images online; the Java application server interface to the database which organizes data returned to the user, and its distribution engine that allow users to download image files individually and/or in batch-mode.

  10. TH-CD-207A-08: Simulated Real-Time Image Guidance for Lung SBRT Patients Using Scatter Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redler, G; Cifter, G; Templeton, A; Lee, C; Bernard, D; Liao, Y; Zhen, H; Turian, J; Chu, J [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a comprehensive Monte Carlo-based model for the acquisition of scatter images of patient anatomy in real-time, during lung SBRT treatment. Methods: During SBRT treatment, images of patient anatomy can be acquired from scattered radiation. To rigorously examine the utility of scatter images for image guidance, a model is developed using MCNP code to simulate scatter images of phantoms and lung cancer patients. The model is validated by comparing experimental and simulated images of phantoms of different complexity. The differentiation between tissue types is investigated by imaging objects of known compositions (water, lung, and bone equivalent). A lung tumor phantom, simulating materials and geometry encountered during lung SBRT treatments, is used to investigate image noise properties for various quantities of delivered radiation (monitor units(MU)). Patient scatter images are simulated using the validated simulation model. 4DCT patient data is converted to an MCNP input geometry accounting for different tissue composition and densities. Lung tumor phantom images acquired with decreasing imaging time (decreasing MU) are used to model the expected noise amplitude in patient scatter images, producing realistic simulated patient scatter images with varying temporal resolution. Results: Image intensity in simulated and experimental scatter images of tissue equivalent objects (water, lung, bone) match within the uncertainty (∼3%). Lung tumor phantom images agree as well. Specifically, tumor-to-lung contrast matches within the uncertainty. The addition of random noise approximating quantum noise in experimental images to simulated patient images shows that scatter images of lung tumors can provide images in as fast as 0.5 seconds with CNR∼2.7. Conclusions: A scatter imaging simulation model is developed and validated using experimental phantom scatter images. Following validation, lung cancer patient scatter images are simulated. These simulated

  11. TH-CD-207A-08: Simulated Real-Time Image Guidance for Lung SBRT Patients Using Scatter Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redler, G; Cifter, G; Templeton, A; Lee, C; Bernard, D; Liao, Y; Zhen, H; Turian, J; Chu, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a comprehensive Monte Carlo-based model for the acquisition of scatter images of patient anatomy in real-time, during lung SBRT treatment. Methods: During SBRT treatment, images of patient anatomy can be acquired from scattered radiation. To rigorously examine the utility of scatter images for image guidance, a model is developed using MCNP code to simulate scatter images of phantoms and lung cancer patients. The model is validated by comparing experimental and simulated images of phantoms of different complexity. The differentiation between tissue types is investigated by imaging objects of known compositions (water, lung, and bone equivalent). A lung tumor phantom, simulating materials and geometry encountered during lung SBRT treatments, is used to investigate image noise properties for various quantities of delivered radiation (monitor units(MU)). Patient scatter images are simulated using the validated simulation model. 4DCT patient data is converted to an MCNP input geometry accounting for different tissue composition and densities. Lung tumor phantom images acquired with decreasing imaging time (decreasing MU) are used to model the expected noise amplitude in patient scatter images, producing realistic simulated patient scatter images with varying temporal resolution. Results: Image intensity in simulated and experimental scatter images of tissue equivalent objects (water, lung, bone) match within the uncertainty (∼3%). Lung tumor phantom images agree as well. Specifically, tumor-to-lung contrast matches within the uncertainty. The addition of random noise approximating quantum noise in experimental images to simulated patient images shows that scatter images of lung tumors can provide images in as fast as 0.5 seconds with CNR∼2.7. Conclusions: A scatter imaging simulation model is developed and validated using experimental phantom scatter images. Following validation, lung cancer patient scatter images are simulated. These simulated

  12. Status and Advances of RGD Molecular Imaging in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning YUE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer has been one of the most common and the highest mortality rates malignant tumors at home and abroad. Sustained angiogenesis was not only the characteristic of malignant tumors, but also the foundation of tumor proliferation, invasion, recurrence and metastasis, it was also one of the hot spots of treatments in lung cancer biology currently. Integrins played an important part in tumor angiogenesis. Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD peptides could combine with integrins specifically, and the application of radionuclide-labeled RGD molecular probes enabled imaging of tumor blood vessels to reflect its changes. The lung cancer imaging of RGD peptides at home and abroad in recent years was reviewed in this article.

  13. Low dose CT image restoration using a database of image patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sungsoo; Mueller, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the radiation dose in CT imaging has become an active research topic and many solutions have been proposed to remove the significant noise and streak artifacts in the reconstructed images. Most of these methods operate within the domain of the image that is subject to restoration. This, however, poses limitations on the extent of filtering possible. We advocate to take into consideration the vast body of external knowledge that exists in the domain of already acquired medical CT images, since after all, this is what radiologists do when they examine these low quality images. We can incorporate this knowledge by creating a database of prior scans, either of the same patient or a diverse corpus of different patients, to assist in the restoration process. Our paper follows up on our previous work that used a database of images. Using images, however, is challenging since it requires tedious and error prone registration and alignment. Our new method eliminates these problems by storing a diverse set of small image patches in conjunction with a localized similarity matching scheme. We also empirically show that it is sufficient to store these patches without anatomical tags since their statistics are sufficiently strong to yield good similarity matches from the database and as a direct effect, produce image restorations of high quality. A final experiment demonstrates that our global database approach can recover image features that are difficult to preserve with conventional denoising approaches.

  14. Role of radio-aerosol and perfusion lung imaging in early detection of chronic obstructive lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, A; Pande, J N; Guleria, J S; Gopinath, P G

    1983-04-01

    The efficacy of radio-aerosol and perfusion lung imaging in the early detection of chronic obstructive lung disease was evaluated in 38 subjects. The subjects included 5 non-smokers, 21 smokers with minimal or no respiratory symptoms and 12 patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. Each subject consented to a respiratory questionaire, detailed physical examination, chest X-ray examinations, detailed pulmonary function tests and sup(99m)Tc-radioaerosol-inhalation lung imaging. Perfusion lung imaging with sup(99m)Tc-labelled macroaggregated albumin was performed in 22 subjects. A significant correlation (P<0.001) was observed between the degree of abnormalities on radio-aerosol imaging and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) including forced expiratory volume in 1 s, maximum midexpiratory flow rate and mean transit time analysis. Abnormal radio-aerosol patterns and deranged PFTs were observed in 21 subjects each. Of 21 subjects with abnormal radioaerosol pattern 8 had normal PFTs. Of 21 subjects with abnormal PFTs 8 had normal aerosol images. Aerosol lung images and PFTs were abnormal more frequently than perfusion lung images. The results suggest that radio-aerosol lung imaging is as sensitive an indicator as PFTs for early detection of chronic obstructive lung disease and can be usefully combined with PFTs for early detection of alteration in pulmonary physiology in smokers.

  15. RECONSTRUCTION OF HUMAN LUNG MORPHOLOGY MODELS FROM MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reconstruction of Human Lung Morphology Models from Magnetic Resonance ImagesT. B. Martonen (Experimental Toxicology Division, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) and K. K. Isaacs (School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514)

  16. Combined semantic and similarity search in medical image databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Sascha; Thoma, Marisa; Stegmaier, Florian; Hammon, Matthias; Kramer, Martin; Huber, Martin; Kriegel, Hans-Peter; Cavallaro, Alexander; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2011-03-01

    The current diagnostic process at hospitals is mainly based on reviewing and comparing images coming from multiple time points and modalities in order to monitor disease progression over a period of time. However, for ambiguous cases the radiologist deeply relies on reference literature or second opinion. Although there is a vast amount of acquired images stored in PACS systems which could be reused for decision support, these data sets suffer from weak search capabilities. Thus, we present a search methodology which enables the physician to fulfill intelligent search scenarios on medical image databases combining ontology-based semantic and appearance-based similarity search. It enabled the elimination of 12% of the top ten hits which would arise without taking the semantic context into account.

  17. Computational morphology of the lung and its virtual imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaoka, Hiroko

    2002-01-01

    The author proposes an entirely new approach called 'virtual imaging' of an organ based on 'computational morphology'. Computational morphology describes mathematically design as principles of an organ structure to generate the organ model via computer, which can be called virtual organ. Virtual imaging simulates image data using the virtual organ. The virtual organ is divided into cubic voxels, and the CT value or other intensity value for each voxel is calculated according to the tissue properties within the voxel. The validity of the model is examined by comparing virtual images with clinical images. Computational image analysis methods can be developed based on validated models. In this paper, computational anatomy of the lung and its virtual X-ray imaging are introduced

  18. Repetitive Imaging of Reporter Gene Expression in the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Richard

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomographic imaging is emerging as a powerful technology to monitor reporter transgene expression in the lungs and other organs. However, little information is available about its usefulness for studying gene expression over time. Therefore, we infected 20 rats with a replication-deficient adenovirus containing a fusion gene encoding for a mutant Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase and an enhanced green fluorescent protein. Five additional rats were infected with a control virus. Pulmonary gene transfer was performed via intratracheal administration of vector using a surfactant-based method. Imaging was performed 4–6 hr, and 4, 7, and 10 days after gene transfer, using 9-(4-[18F]-fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutylguanine, an imaging substrate for the mutant kinase. Lung tracer uptake assessed with imaging was moderately but significantly increased 4–6 hr after gene transfer, was maximal after 4 days, and was no longer detectable by 10 days. The temporal pattern of transgene expression measured ex vivo with in vitro assays of thymidine kinase activity and green fluorescent protein was similar to imaging. In conclusion, positron emission tomography is a reliable new tool to evaluate the onset and duration of reporter gene expression noninvasively in the lungs of intact animals.

  19. Automatic lung segmentation in functional SPECT images using active shape models trained on reference lung shapes from CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheimariotis, Grigorios-Aris; Al-Mashat, Mariam; Haris, Kostas; Aletras, Anthony H; Jögi, Jonas; Bajc, Marika; Maglaveras, Nicolaos; Heiberg, Einar

    2018-02-01

    Image segmentation is an essential step in quantifying the extent of reduced or absent lung function. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a new tool for automatic segmentation of lungs in ventilation and perfusion SPECT images and compare automatic and manual SPECT lung segmentations with reference computed tomography (CT) volumes. A total of 77 subjects (69 patients with obstructive lung disease, and 8 subjects without apparent perfusion of ventilation loss) performed low-dose CT followed by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) SPECT examination in a hybrid gamma camera system. In the training phase, lung shapes from the 57 anatomical low-dose CT images were used to construct two active shape models (right lung and left lung) which were then used for image segmentation. The algorithm was validated in 20 patients, comparing its results to reference delineation of corresponding CT images, and by comparing automatic segmentation to manual delineations in SPECT images. The Dice coefficient between automatic SPECT delineations and manual SPECT delineations were 0.83 ± 0.04% for the right and 0.82 ± 0.05% for the left lung. There was statistically significant difference between reference volumes from CT and automatic delineations for the right (R = 0.53, p = 0.02) and left lung (R = 0.69, p automatic quantification of wide range of measurements.

  20. Interstitial lung disease induced by fluoxetine: Systematic review of literature and analysis of Vigiaccess, Eudravigilance and a national pharmacovigilance database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deidda, Arianna; Pisanu, Claudia; Micheletto, Laura; Bocchetta, Alberto; Del Zompo, Maria; Stochino, Maria Erminia

    2017-06-01

    We investigated a pulmonary adverse drug reaction possibly induced by fluoxetine, the Interstitial Lung Disease, by performing a systematic review of published case reports on this subject, a review of the World Health Organization VigiAccess database, of the European EudraVigilance database and of a national Pharmacovigilance database (Italian Pharmacovigilance Network). The research found a total of seven cases linking fluoxetine to Interstitial Lung Disease in the literature. 36 cases of interstitial lung disease related to fluoxetine were retrieved from the VigiAccess database (updated to July 2016), and 36 reports were found in EudraVigilance database (updated to June 2016). In the Italian Pharmacovigilance database (updated to August 2016), we found only one case of Interstitial Lung Disease, codified as "pulmonary disease". Our investigation shows that fluoxetine might be considered as a possible cause of Interstitial Lung Disease. In particular, although here we do not discuss the assessment of benefits and harms of fluoxetine, since this antidepressant is widely used, our review suggests that fluoxetine-induced Interstitial Lung Disease should be considered in patients with dyspnea, associated or not with dry cough, who are treated with this drug. An early withdrawn of fluoxetine could be useful to obtain a complete remission of this adverse drug reaction and special attention should be particularly devoted to long-term therapy, and to female and elderly patients. Although the spontaneous reporting system is affected by important limitations, drug post- marketing surveillance represents an important tool to evaluate the real world effectiveness and safety of drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Image Reference Database in Teleradiology: Migrating to WWW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqui, Valdo

    The paper presents a multimedia Image Reference Data Base (IRDB) used in Teleradiology. The application was developed at the University of Florence in the framework of the European Community TELEMED Project. TELEMED overall goals and IRDB requirements are outlined and the resulting architecture is described. IRDB is a multisite database containing radiological images, selected because their scientific interest, and their related information. The architecture consists of a set of IRDB Installations which are accessed from Viewing Stations (VS) located at different medical sites. The interaction between VS and IRDB Installations follows the client-server paradigm and uses an OSI level-7 protocol, named Telemed Communication Language. After reviewing Florence prototype implementation and experimentation, IRDB migration to World Wide Web (WWW) is discussed. A possible scenery to implement IRDB on the basis of WWW model is depicted in order to exploit WWW servers and browsers capabilities. Finally, the advantages of this conversion are outlined.

  2. Compression-Based Tools for Navigation with an Image Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Motta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present tools that can be used within a larger system referred to as a passive assistant. The system receives information from a mobile device, as well as information from an image database such as Google Street View, and employs image processing to provide useful information about a local urban environment to a user who is visually impaired. The first stage acquires and computes accurate location information, the second stage performs texture and color analysis of a scene, and the third stage provides specific object recognition and navigation information. These second and third stages rely on compression-based tools (dimensionality reduction, vector quantization, and coding that are enhanced by knowledge of (approximate location of objects.

  3. CT image construction of a totally deflated lung using deformable model extrapolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi Naini, Ali; Pierce, Greg; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A novel technique is proposed to construct CT image of a totally deflated lung from a free-breathing 4D-CT image sequence acquired preoperatively. Such a constructed CT image is very useful in performing tumor ablative procedures such as lung brachytherapy. Tumor ablative procedures are frequently performed while the lung is totally deflated. Deflating the lung during such procedures renders preoperative images ineffective for targeting the tumor. Furthermore, the problem cannot be solved using intraoperative ultrasound (U.S.) images because U.S. images are very sensitive to small residual amount of air remaining in the deflated lung. One possible solution to address these issues is to register high quality preoperative CT images of the deflated lung with their corresponding low quality intraoperative U.S. images. However, given that such preoperative images correspond to an inflated lung, such CT images need to be processed to construct CT images pertaining to the lung's deflated state. Methods: To obtain the CT images of deflated lung, we present a novel image construction technique using extrapolated deformable registration to predict the deformation the lung undergoes during full deflation. The proposed construction technique involves estimating the lung's air volume in each preoperative image automatically in order to track the respiration phase of each 4D-CT image throughout a respiratory cycle; i.e., the technique does not need any external marker to form a respiratory signal in the process of curve fitting and extrapolation. The extrapolated deformation field is then applied on a preoperative reference image in order to construct the totally deflated lung's CT image. The technique was evaluated experimentally using ex vivo porcine lung. Results: The ex vivo lung experiments led to very encouraging results. In comparison with the CT image of the deflated lung we acquired for the purpose of validation, the constructed CT image was very similar. The

  4. Dual modality CT/PET imaging in lung cancer staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Gabriel A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic capability of PET-HCT image fusion and helical computed tomography (HCT) for nodal and distant metastases detection in patients with lung cancer. Material and methods: Between February, 2003 and March, 2004 sixty-six consecutive lung cancer patients (45 men and 21 women, mean ages: 63 years old, range: 38 to 96 years old) who underwent HCT and PET-HCT fusion imaging were evaluated retrospectively. All patients had histological confirmation of lung cancer and a definitive diagnosis established on the basis of pathology results and/or clinical follow-up. Results: For global nodal staging (hilar and mediastinal) HCT showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 72%, 47%, 62% and 58% respectively, versus 94%, 77%, 83% and 92% corresponding to PET-HCT examination. For assessment of advanced nodal stage (N3) PET-HCT showed values of 92%, 100%, 100% and 98% respectively. For detection of distant metastasis, HCT alone had values of 67%, 93%, 84% and 83% respectively versus 100%, 98%, 96% and 100% for the PET-HCT fusion imaging. In 20 (30%) patients under-staged or over-staged on the basis of HCT results, PET-HCT allowed accurate staging. Conclusions: PET-HCT fusion imaging was more effective than HCT alone for nodal and distant metastasis detection and oncology staging. (author)

  5. Image processing based detection of lung cancer on CT scan images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdillah, Bariqi; Bustamam, Alhadi; Sarwinda, Devvi

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we implement and analyze the image processing method for detection of lung cancer. Image processing techniques are widely used in several medical problems for picture enhancement in the detection phase to support the early medical treatment. In this research we proposed a detection method of lung cancer based on image segmentation. Image segmentation is one of intermediate level in image processing. Marker control watershed and region growing approach are used to segment of CT scan image. Detection phases are followed by image enhancement using Gabor filter, image segmentation, and features extraction. From the experimental results, we found the effectiveness of our approach. The results show that the best approach for main features detection is watershed with masking method which has high accuracy and robust.

  6. Usefulness of computerized method for lung nodule detection on digital chest radiographs using similar subtraction images from different patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takatoshi; Oda, Nobuhiro; Yamashita, Yoshiko; Yamamoto, Keiji; Korogi, Yukunori

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of a novel computerized method to select automatically the similar chest radiograph for image subtraction in the patients who have no previous chest radiographs and to assist the radiologists’ interpretation by presenting the “similar subtraction image” from different patients. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained, and the requirement for informed patient consent was waived. A large database of approximately 15,000 normal chest radiographs was used for searching similar images of different patients. One hundred images of candidates were selected according to two clinical parameters and similarity of the lung field in the target image. We used the correlation value of chest region in the 100 images for searching the most similar image. The similar subtraction images were obtained by subtracting the similar image selected from the target image. Thirty cases with lung nodules and 30 cases without lung nodules were used for an observer performance test. Four attending radiologists and four radiology residents participated in this observer performance test. Results: The AUC for all radiologists increased significantly from 0.925 to 0.974 with the CAD (P = .004). When the computer output images were available, the average AUC for the residents was more improved (0.960 vs. 0.890) than for the attending radiologists (0.987 vs. 0.960). Conclusion: The novel computerized method for lung nodule detection using similar subtraction images from different patients would be useful to detect lung nodules on digital chest radiographs, especially for less experienced readers.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Ventilation and Perfusion in the Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisk, Gordon Kim (Inventor); Hopkins, Susan Roberta (Inventor); Buxton, Richard Bruce (Inventor); Pereira De Sa, Rui Carlos (Inventor); Theilmann, Rebecca Jean (Inventor); Cronin, Matthew Vincent (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Methods, devices, and systems are disclosed for implementing a fully quantitative non-injectable contrast proton MRI technique to measure spatial ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) matching and spatial distribution of ventilation and perfusion. In one aspect, a method using MRI to characterize ventilation and perfusion in a lung includes acquiring an MR image of the lung having MR data in a voxel and obtaining a breathing frequency parameter, determining a water density value, a specific ventilation value, and a perfusion value in at least one voxel of the MR image based on the MR data and using the water density value to determine an air content value, and determining a ventilation-perfusion ratio value that is the product of the specific ventilation value, the air content value, the inverse of the perfusion value, and the breathing frequency.

  8. The role of lung imaging in pulmonary embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Fred S.; Johnson, Philip M.

    1973-01-01

    The advantages of lung scanning in suspected pulmonary embolism are its diagnostic sensitivity, simplicity and safety. The ability to delineate regional pulmonary ischaemia, to quantitate its extent and to follow its response to therapy provides valuable clinical data available by no other simple means. The negative scan effectively excludes pulmonary embolism but, although certain of its features favour the diagnosis of embolism, the positive scan inherently lacks specificity and requires angiographic confirmation when embolectomy, caval plication or infusion of a thrombolytic agent are contemplated. The addition of simple ventilation imaging techniques with radioxenon overcomes this limitation by providing accurate analog estimation or digital quantitation of regional ventilation: perfusion (V/Q) ratios fundamental to understanding the pathophysiologic consequences of embolism and other diseases of the lung. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7p495-bFig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13 PMID:4602128

  9. Databases

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.

    Information on bibliographic as well as numeric/textual databases relevant to coastal geomorphology has been included in a tabular form. Databases cover a broad spectrum of related subjects like coastal environment and population aspects, coastline...

  10. ''Inhalation lung imaging with radioactive aerosols and gases''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taplin, G.V.; Chopra, S.K.

    1977-01-01

    Lung imaging procedures, performed after the inhalation of /sup 99m/Tc labeled aerosols, 133 Xe and /sup 81m/Kr gases, were used to visualize the sites of airway obstruction and regional abnormalities of ventilatory function in normal volunteers, patients with obstructive airway disease, and pulmonary embolism suspects. Comparisons were made of three methods regarding their functional significance, diagnostic merits, and limitations. A new nebulizer-radioaerosol delivery system is described

  11. Respiratory lung motion analysis using a nonlinear motion correction technique for respiratory-gated lung perfusion SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ue, Hidenori; Haneishi, Hideaki; Iwanaga, Hideyuki; Suga, Kazuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the respiratory motion of lungs using a nonlinear motion correction technique for respiratory-gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. The motion correction technique corrects the respiratory motion of the lungs nonlinearly between two-phase images obtained by respiratory-gated SPECT. The displacement vectors resulting from respiration can be computed at every location of the lungs. Respiratory lung motion analysis is carried out by calculating the mean value of the body axis component of the displacement vector in each of the 12 small regions into which the lungs were divided. In order to enable inter-patient comparison, the 12 mean values were normalized by the length of the lung region along the direction of the body axis. This method was applied to 25 Technetium (Tc)-99m-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) perfusion SPECT images, and motion analysis results were compared with the diagnostic results. It was confirmed that the respiratory lung motion reflects the ventilation function. A statistically significant difference in the amount of the respiratory lung motion was observed between the obstructive pulmonary diseases and other conditions, based on an unpaired Student's t test (P<0.0001). A difference in the motion between normal lungs and lungs with a ventilation obstruction was detected by the proposed method. This method is effective for evaluating obstructive pulmonary diseases such as pulmonary emphysema and diffuse panbronchiolitis. (author)

  12. Indexing, learning and content-based retrieval for special purpose image databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Huiskes (Mark); E.J. Pauwels (Eric)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter deals with content-based image retrieval in special purpose image databases. As image data is amassed ever more effortlessly, building efficient systems for searching and browsing of image databases becomes increasingly urgent. We provide an overview of the current

  13. Functional validation and comparison framework for EIT lung imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Elke, Gunnar; Meybohm, Patrick; Weiler, Norbert; Frerichs, Inéz; Adler, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an emerging clinical tool for monitoring ventilation distribution in mechanically ventilated patients, for which many image reconstruction algorithms have been suggested. We propose an experimental framework to assess such algorithms with respect to their ability to correctly represent well-defined physiological changes. We defined a set of clinically relevant ventilation conditions and induced them experimentally in 8 pigs by controlling three ventilator settings (tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure and the fraction of inspired oxygen). In this way, large and discrete shifts in global and regional lung air content were elicited. We use the framework to compare twelve 2D EIT reconstruction algorithms, including backprojection (the original and still most frequently used algorithm), GREIT (a more recent consensus algorithm for lung imaging), truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD), several variants of the one-step Gauss-Newton approach and two iterative algorithms. We consider the effects of using a 3D finite element model, assuming non-uniform background conductivity, noise modeling, reconstructing for electrode movement, total variation (TV) reconstruction, robust error norms, smoothing priors, and using difference vs. normalized difference data. Our results indicate that, while variation in appearance of images reconstructed from the same data is not negligible, clinically relevant parameters do not vary considerably among the advanced algorithms. Among the analysed algorithms, several advanced algorithms perform well, while some others are significantly worse. Given its vintage and ad-hoc formulation backprojection works surprisingly well, supporting the validity of previous studies in lung EIT.

  14. Smart travel guide: from internet image database to intelligent system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chareyron, Ga"l.; Da Rugna, Jérome; Cousin, Saskia

    2011-02-01

    To help the tourist to discover a city, a region or a park, many options are provided by public tourism travel centers, by free online guides or by dedicated book guides. Nonetheless, these guides provide only mainstream information which are not conform to a particular tourist behavior. On the other hand, we may find several online image databases allowing users to upload their images and to localize each image on a map. These websites are representative of tourism practices and constitute a proxy to analyze tourism flows. Then, this work intends to answer this question: knowing what I have visited and what other people have visited, where should I go now? This process needs to profile users, sites and photos. our paper presents the acquired data and relationship between photographers, sites and photos and introduces the model designed to correctly estimate the site interest of each tourism point. The third part shows an application of our schema: a smart travel guide on geolocated mobile devices. This android application is a travel guide truly matching the user wishes.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lung as an Alternative for a Pregnant Woman with Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloß, Manuel; Heckrodt, Jan; Schneider, Christian; Discher, Thomas; Krombach, Gabriele Anja

    2015-05-01

    We report a case of a pregnant 21-year-old woman with pulmonary tuberculosis in which magnetic resonance imaging of the lung was used to assess the extent and characteristics of the pathological changes. Although the lung has been mostly ignored in magnetic resonance imaging for many decades, today technical development enables detailed examinations of the lung. The technique is now entering the clinical arena and its indications are increasing. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lung is not only an alternative method without radiation exposure, it can provide additional information in pulmonary imaging compared to other modalities including computed tomography. We describe a successful application of magnetic resonance imaging of the lung and the imaging appearance of post-primary tuberculosis. This case report indicates that magnetic resonance imaging of the lung can potentially be the first choice imaging technique in pregnant women with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis.

  16. Regional assessment of treatment in lung cancer using lung perfusion and ventilation images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikoshi, Masaki; Teshima, Takeo; Yanagimachi, Tomohiro; Ogata, Yuuko; Nukiwa, Toshihiro

    2000-01-01

    In 30 patients with lung cancer undergoing non-surgical treatment, we performed perfusion lung imaging using 99m Tc-MAA and inhalation lung studies using Technegas before and after treatment and evaluated regional perfusion and ventilation status in the lung regions where bronchogenic carcinoma was located. Regional ventilation status was preserved rather than perfusion counterpart (V>P) in 18 patients (18/30=60.0%) before treatment, while the former was better than the latter in 27 patients (27/30=90.0%) after treatment, indicating that regional ventilation status improved more significantly than regional perfusion counterpart after treatment (P=0.005). We also classified the therapeutic effect for regional perfusion and ventilation status as improved, unchanged, or worsened, respectively; improvement in regional perfusion status was observed in 17 patients (56.7%) and that in regional ventilation status in 24 patients (80.0%). There was a statistically significant correlation between improved regional perfusion and ventilation status (P=0.0018) when therapeutic effect was recognized. The patients who showed improvement in regional perfusion status after treatment always showed improved regional ventilation status, but 7 patients showed either unchanged or worsened regional perfusion status after treatment, although regional ventilation status was improved. In conclusion the pulmonary vascular beds seem more vulnerable to bronchogenic carcinoma and improvement in regional perfusion status was revealed to be more difficult than that in regional ventilation status after treatment. (author)

  17. Landsat TM and ETM+ 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  18. Radioaerosol imaging of the lung. An IAEA [CRP] group study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Whee Bahk; Isawa, Toyoharu

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear scans, radiography and computed tomography (CT) of the lung make up three pantheonic pillars of the modem imaging diagnosis of pulmonary disorders and the contribution of these modalities to the progress of pulmonology has been immense. However the experiences accumulated during the past decades indicate that, with well-known advantages and drawbacks, not one of these imaging modalities can be perfect by itself alone, and it has become obvious that the individual tests are as much complementary to one another as unique. As a matter of fact, the nuclear lung imagings, that include inhalation scan, perfusion scan, ventilation scan and the most recently developed mucociliary transport and alveolar permeability tests, are very sensitive and efficient in respectively providing graphic information about airway patency and alveolar penetration, vascular patency and distribution pattern, alveolar gas exchange and bronchial epithelial integrity in both normal and pathological conditions. But these tests lack fine morphological information. In contrast, radiography with its extremely high level of resolution that is in the order of 30-100 line pairs/mm compared to 3-5 line/cm of nuclear scan resolution power, suffers from the lack of information about the alveolar gas exchange, pulmonary perfusion and respiratory function. Although incomparable to radiography, the resolution power of CT scan is also much greater than that of nuclear scan, but again this test cannot provide the information regarding function and physiology. The aerosol scan findings in each of these diseases are assessed in the i ht of and validated against chest radiography, conventional X-ray tomography and high resolution CT scan. The chapters in this monograph describe a history of radioaerosol lung imaging, radiopharmaceuticals, generation of aerosols by the BARC and other nebulizers, and pertinent lung physiology and the way how aerosol deposits in lung. The technical and constructional aspects

  19. Radioaerosol imaging of the lung. An IAEA [CRP] group study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Isawa, Toyoharu [Tohoku University Research Institute for Chest Disease and Cancer, Sendai (Japan); eds.

    1994-07-01

    Nuclear scans, radiography and computed tomography (CT) of the lung make up three pantheonic pillars of the modem imaging diagnosis of pulmonary disorders and the contribution of these modalities to the progress of pulmonology has been immense. However the experiences accumulated during the past decades indicate that, with well-known advantages and drawbacks, not one of these imaging modalities can be perfect by itself alone, and it has become obvious that the individual tests are as much complementary to one another as unique. As a matter of fact, the nuclear lung imagings, that include inhalation scan, perfusion scan, ventilation scan and the most recently developed mucociliary transport and alveolar permeability tests, are very sensitive and efficient in respectively providing graphic information about airway patency and alveolar penetration, vascular patency and distribution pattern, alveolar gas exchange and bronchial epithelial integrity in both normal and pathological conditions. But these tests lack fine morphological information. In contrast, radiography with its extremely high level of resolution that is in the order of 30-100 line pairs/mm compared to 3-5 line/cm of nuclear scan resolution power, suffers from the lack of information about the alveolar gas exchange, pulmonary perfusion and respiratory function. Although incomparable to radiography, the resolution power of CT scan is also much greater than that of nuclear scan, but again this test cannot provide the information regarding function and physiology. The aerosol scan findings in each of these diseases are assessed in the i ht of and validated against chest radiography, conventional X-ray tomography and high resolution CT scan. The chapters in this monograph describe a history of radioaerosol lung imaging, radiopharmaceuticals, generation of aerosols by the BARC and other nebulizers, and pertinent lung physiology and the way how aerosol deposits in lung. The technical and constructional aspects

  20. The FoodCast Research Image Database (FRIDa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eForoni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years we have witnessed to an increasing interest in food processing and eating behaviors. This is probably due to several reasons. The biological relevance of food choices, the complexity of the food-rich environment in which we presently live (making food-intake regulation difficult, and the increasing health care cost due to illness associated with food (food hazards, food contamination, and aberrant food-intake. Despite the importance of the issues and the relevance of this research, comprehensive and validated databases of stimuli are rather limited, outdated, or not available for noncommercial purposes to independent researchers who aim at developing their own research program. The FoodCast Research Image Database (FRIDa we present here is comprised of 877 images from eight different categories: natural-food (e.g., strawberry, transformed-food (e.g., French fries, rotten-food (e.g., moldy banana, natural-nonfood items (e.g., pinecone, artificial food-related objects (e.g., teacup, artificial objects (e.g., guitar, animals (e.g., camel, and scenes (e.g., airport. FRIDa has been validated on a sample of healthy participants (N=73 on standard variables (e.g., valence, familiarity etc. as well as on other variables specifically related to food items (e.g., perceived calorie content; it also includes data on the visual features of the stimuli (e.g., brightness, high frequency power etc.. FRIDa is a well-controlled, flexible, validated, and freely available (http://foodcast.sissa.it/neuroscience/ tool for researchers in a wide range of academic fields and industry.

  1. Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Ryan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Databases are deeply embedded in archaeology, underpinning and supporting many aspects of the subject. However, as well as providing a means for storing, retrieving and modifying data, databases themselves must be a result of a detailed analysis and design process. This article looks at this process, and shows how the characteristics of data models affect the process of database design and implementation. The impact of the Internet on the development of databases is examined, and the article concludes with a discussion of a range of issues associated with the recording and management of archaeological data.

  2. Automated Image Analysis of Lung Branching Morphogenesis from Microscopic Images of Fetal Rat Explants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Pedro L.; Rodrigues, Nuno F.; Duque, Duarte; Granja, Sara; Correia-Pinto, Jorge; Vilaça, João L.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Regulating mechanisms of branching morphogenesis of fetal lung rat explants have been an essential tool for molecular research. This work presents a new methodology to accurately quantify the epithelial, outer contour, and peripheral airway buds of lung explants during cellular development from microscopic images. Methods. The outer contour was defined using an adaptive and multiscale threshold algorithm whose level was automatically calculated based on an entropy maximization criterion. The inner lung epithelium was defined by a clustering procedure that groups small image regions according to the minimum description length principle and local statistical properties. Finally, the number of peripheral buds was counted as the skeleton branched ends from a skeletonized image of the lung inner epithelia. Results. The time for lung branching morphometric analysis was reduced in 98% in contrast to the manual method. Best results were obtained in the first two days of cellular development, with lesser standard deviations. Nonsignificant differences were found between the automatic and manual results in all culture days. Conclusions. The proposed method introduces a series of advantages related to its intuitive use and accuracy, making the technique suitable to images with different lighting characteristics and allowing a reliable comparison between different researchers. PMID:25250057

  3. Automated Image Analysis of Lung Branching Morphogenesis from Microscopic Images of Fetal Rat Explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L. Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regulating mechanisms of branching morphogenesis of fetal lung rat explants have been an essential tool for molecular research. This work presents a new methodology to accurately quantify the epithelial, outer contour, and peripheral airway buds of lung explants during cellular development from microscopic images. Methods. The outer contour was defined using an adaptive and multiscale threshold algorithm whose level was automatically calculated based on an entropy maximization criterion. The inner lung epithelium was defined by a clustering procedure that groups small image regions according to the minimum description length principle and local statistical properties. Finally, the number of peripheral buds was counted as the skeleton branched ends from a skeletonized image of the lung inner epithelia. Results. The time for lung branching morphometric analysis was reduced in 98% in contrast to the manual method. Best results were obtained in the first two days of cellular development, with lesser standard deviations. Nonsignificant differences were found between the automatic and manual results in all culture days. Conclusions. The proposed method introduces a series of advantages related to its intuitive use and accuracy, making the technique suitable to images with different lighting characteristics and allowing a reliable comparison between different researchers.

  4. Toward efficient biomechanical-based deformable image registration of lungs for image-guided radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mayah, Adil; Moseley, Joanne; Velec, Mike; Brock, Kristy

    2011-08-01

    Both accuracy and efficiency are critical for the implementation of biomechanical model-based deformable registration in clinical practice. The focus of this investigation is to evaluate the potential of improving the efficiency of the deformable image registration of the human lungs without loss of accuracy. Three-dimensional finite element models have been developed using image data of 14 lung cancer patients. Each model consists of two lungs, tumor and external body. Sliding of the lungs inside the chest cavity is modeled using a frictionless surface-based contact model. The effect of the type of element, finite deformation and elasticity on the accuracy and computing time is investigated. Linear and quadrilateral tetrahedral elements are used with linear and nonlinear geometric analysis. Two types of material properties are applied namely: elastic and hyperelastic. The accuracy of each of the four models is examined using a number of anatomical landmarks representing the vessels bifurcation points distributed across the lungs. The registration error is not significantly affected by the element type or linearity of analysis, with an average vector error of around 2.8 mm. The displacement differences between linear and nonlinear analysis methods are calculated for all lungs nodes and a maximum value of 3.6 mm is found in one of the nodes near the entrance of the bronchial tree into the lungs. The 95 percentile of displacement difference ranges between 0.4 and 0.8 mm. However, the time required for the analysis is reduced from 95 min in the quadratic elements nonlinear geometry model to 3.4 min in the linear element linear geometry model. Therefore using linear tetrahedral elements with linear elastic materials and linear geometry is preferable for modeling the breathing motion of lungs for image-guided radiotherapy applications.

  5. SU-E-J-86: Lobar Lung Function Quantification by PET Galligas and CT Ventilation Imaging in Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslick, E; Kipritidis, J; Keall, P; Bailey, D; Bailey, E

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the lobar lung function using the novel PET Galligas ([68Ga]-carbon nanoparticle) ventilation imaging and the investigational CT ventilation imaging in lung cancer patients pre-treatment. Methods: We present results on our first three lung cancer patients (2 male, mean age 78 years) as part of an ongoing ethics approved study. For each patient a PET Galligas ventilation (PET-V) image and a pair of breath hold CT images (end-exhale and end-inhale tidal volumes) were acquired using a Siemens Biograph PET CT. CT-ventilation (CT-V) images were created from the pair of CT images using deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms and the Hounsfield Unit (HU) ventilation metric. A comparison of ventilation quantification from each modality was done on the lobar level and the voxel level. A Bland-Altman plot was used to assess the difference in mean percentage contribution of each lobe to the total lung function between the two modalities. For each patient, a voxel-wise Spearmans correlation was calculated for the whole lungs between the two modalities. Results: The Bland-Altman plot demonstrated strong agreement between PET-V and CT-V for assessment of lobar function (r=0.99, p<0.001; range mean difference: −5.5 to 3.0). The correlation between PET-V and CT-V at the voxel level was moderate(r=0.60, p<0.001). Conclusion: This preliminary study on the three patients data sets demonstrated strong agreement between PET and CT ventilation imaging for the assessment of pre-treatment lung function at the lobar level. Agreement was only moderate at the level of voxel correlations. These results indicate that CT ventilation imaging has potential for assessing pre-treatment lobar lung function in lung cancer patients

  6. Clinical potential for imaging in patients with asthma and other lung disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, Emily M; Spielberg, David R; Brody, Alan S

    2017-01-01

    The ability of lung imaging to phenotype patients, determine prognosis, and predict response to treatment is expanding in clinical and translational research. The purpose of this perspective is to describe current imaging modalities that might be useful clinical tools in patients with asthma and other lung disorders and to explore some of the new developments in imaging modalities of the lung. These imaging modalities include chest radiography, computed tomography, lung magnetic resonance imaging, electrical impedance tomography, bronchoscopy, and others. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Spectral Skyline Separation: Extended Landmark Databases and Panoramic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Differt

    2016-09-01

    in the skyline databases, increasing, due to the increased variety of ground objects, the validity of our findings for novel environments. Third, we collected omnidirectional images, as often used for visual navigation tasks, of skylines using an UV-reflective hyperbolic mirror. We could show that “local” separation techniques can be adapted to the use of panoramic images by splitting the image into segments and finding individual thresholds for each segment. Contrarily, this is not possible for ‘global’ separation techniques.

  8. Weight preserving image registration for monitoring disease progression in lung CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Haseem, Ashraf

    2008-01-01

    We present a new image registration based method for monitoring regional disease progression in longitudinal image studies of lung disease. A free-form image registration technique is used to match a baseline 3D CT lung scan onto a following scan. Areas with lower intensity in the following scan...... the density of lung tissue with respect to local expansion or compression such that the total weight of the lungs is preserved during deformation. Our method provides a good estimation of regional destruction of lung tissue for subjects with a significant difference in inspiration level between CT scans...

  9. Brain imaging before primary lung cancer resection: a controversial topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Zoe; Internullo, Eveline; Edey, Anthony; Laurence, Isabel; Bianchi, Davide; Addeo, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    International and national recommendations for brain imaging in patients planned to undergo potentially curative resection of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are variably implemented throughout the United Kingdom [Hudson BJ, Crawford MB, and Curtin J et al (2015) Brain imaging in lung cancer patients without symptoms of brain metastases: a national survey of current practice in England Clin Radiol https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crad.2015.02.007]. However, the recommendations are not based on high-quality evidence and do not take into account cost implications and local resources. Our aim was to determine local practice based on historic outcomes in this patient cohort. This retrospective study took place in a regional thoracic surgical centre in the United Kingdom. Pathology records for all patients who had undergone lung resection with curative intent during the time period January 2012-December 2014 were analysed in October 2015. Electronic pathology and radiology reports were accessed for each patient and data collected about their histological findings, TNM stage, resection margins, and the presence of brain metastases on either pre-operative or post-operative imaging. From the dates given on imaging, we calculated the number of days post-resection that the brain metastases were detected. 585 patients were identified who had undergone resection of their lung cancer. Of these, 471 had accessible electronic radiology records to assess for the radiological evidence of brain metastases. When their electronic records were evaluated, 25/471 (5.3%) patients had radiological evidence of brain metastasis. Of these, five patients had been diagnosed with a brain metastasis at initial presentation and had undergone primary resection of the brain metastasis followed by resection of the lung primary. One patient had been diagnosed with both a primary lung and a primary bowel adenocarcinoma; on review of the case, it was felt that the brain metastasis was more likely to have

  10. Color-Based Image Retrieval from High-Similarity Image Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2003-01-01

    Many image classification problems can fruitfully be thought of as image retrieval in a "high similarity image database" (HSID) characterized by being tuned towards a specific application and having a high degree of visual similarity between entries that should be distinguished. We introduce...... a method for HSID retrieval using a similarity measure based on a linear combination of Jeffreys-Matusita (JM) distances between distributions of color (and color derivatives) estimated from a set of automatically extracted image regions. The weight coefficients are estimated based on optimal retrieval...... performance. Experimental results on the difficult task of visually identifying clones of fungal colonies grown in a petri dish and categorization of pelts show a high retrieval accuracy of the method when combined with standardized sample preparation and image acquisition....

  11. An Imaging Sensor-Aided Vision Navigation Approach that Uses a Geo-Referenced Image Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Hu, Qingwu; Wu, Meng; Gao, Yang

    2016-01-28

    In determining position and attitude, vision navigation via real-time image processing of data collected from imaging sensors is advanced without a high-performance global positioning system (GPS) and an inertial measurement unit (IMU). Vision navigation is widely used in indoor navigation, far space navigation, and multiple sensor-integrated mobile mapping. This paper proposes a novel vision navigation approach aided by imaging sensors and that uses a high-accuracy geo-referenced image database (GRID) for high-precision navigation of multiple sensor platforms in environments with poor GPS. First, the framework of GRID-aided vision navigation is developed with sequence images from land-based mobile mapping systems that integrate multiple sensors. Second, a highly efficient GRID storage management model is established based on the linear index of a road segment for fast image searches and retrieval. Third, a robust image matching algorithm is presented to search and match a real-time image with the GRID. Subsequently, the image matched with the real-time scene is considered to calculate the 3D navigation parameter of multiple sensor platforms. Experimental results show that the proposed approach retrieves images efficiently and has navigation accuracies of 1.2 m in a plane and 1.8 m in height under GPS loss in 5 min and within 1500 m.

  12. Functional validation and comparison framework for EIT lung imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Grychtol

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT is an emerging clinical tool for monitoring ventilation distribution in mechanically ventilated patients, for which many image reconstruction algorithms have been suggested. We propose an experimental framework to assess such algorithms with respect to their ability to correctly represent well-defined physiological changes. We defined a set of clinically relevant ventilation conditions and induced them experimentally in 8 pigs by controlling three ventilator settings (tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure and the fraction of inspired oxygen. In this way, large and discrete shifts in global and regional lung air content were elicited. METHODS: We use the framework to compare twelve 2D EIT reconstruction algorithms, including backprojection (the original and still most frequently used algorithm, GREIT (a more recent consensus algorithm for lung imaging, truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD, several variants of the one-step Gauss-Newton approach and two iterative algorithms. We consider the effects of using a 3D finite element model, assuming non-uniform background conductivity, noise modeling, reconstructing for electrode movement, total variation (TV reconstruction, robust error norms, smoothing priors, and using difference vs. normalized difference data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that, while variation in appearance of images reconstructed from the same data is not negligible, clinically relevant parameters do not vary considerably among the advanced algorithms. Among the analysed algorithms, several advanced algorithms perform well, while some others are significantly worse. Given its vintage and ad-hoc formulation backprojection works surprisingly well, supporting the validity of previous studies in lung EIT.

  13. Weight preserving image registration for monitoring disease progression in lung CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Lol, Pechin; Ashraf, Haseem; Dirksen, Asger; Nielsen, Mads; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2008-01-01

    We present a new image registration based method for monitoring regional disease progression in longitudinal image studies of lung disease. A free-form image registration technique is used to match a baseline 3D CT lung scan onto a following scan. Areas with lower intensity in the following scan compared with intensities in the deformed baseline image indicate local loss of lung tissue that is associated with progression of emphysema. To account for differences in lung intensity owing to differences in the inspiration level in the two scans rather than disease progression, we propose to adjust the density of lung tissue with respect to local expansion or compression such that the total weight of the lungs is preserved during deformation. Our method provides a good estimation of regional destruction of lung tissue for subjects with a significant difference in inspiration level between CT scans and may result in a more sensitive measure of disease progression than standard quantitative CT measures.

  14. Design and implementation of a biomedical image database (BDIM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, F; Badaoui, S; Kaplan, H; Di Paola, R

    1988-01-01

    We developed a biomedical image database (BDIM) which proposes a standardized representation of value arrays such as images and curves, and of their associated parameters, independently of their acquisition mode to make their transmission and processing easier. It includes three kinds of interactions, oriented to the users. The network concept was kept as a constraint to incorporate the BDIM in a distributed structure and we maintained compatibility with the ACR/NEMA communication protocol. The management of arrays and their associated parameters includes two distinct bases of objects, linked together via a gateway. The first one manages arrays according to their storage mode: long term storage on optionally on-line mass storage devices, and, for consultations, partial copies of long term stored arrays on hard disk. The second one manages the associated parameters and the gateway by means of the relational DBMS ORACLE. Parameters are grouped into relations. Some of them are in agreement with groups defined by the ACR/NEMA. The other relations describe objects resulting from processed initial objects. These new objects are not described by the ACR/NEMA but they can be inserted as shadow groups of ACR/NEMA description. The relations describing the storage and their pathname constitute the gateway. ORACLE distributed tools and the two-level storage technique will allow the integration of the BDIM into a distributed structure, Queries and array (alone or in sequences) retrieval module has access to the relations via a level in which a dictionary managed by ORACLE is included. This dictionary translates ACR/NEMA objects into objects that can be handled by the DBMS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Medical image of the week: achalasia with lung abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tey KR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. An 80-year old woman with past medical history of high grade serous fallopian tube carcinoma presented with 2 months history of productive cough. This was associated with shortness of breath and subjective fever, chills and weight loss of 5 pounds over 2 months. She was treated with outpatient antibiotics without improvement of symptoms. Patient was afebrile on presentation, hemodynamically stable, and saturating at 99% on room air. Lung examinations revealed dullness on percussion of left lower lung field and reduced breath sounds on the same area. Computed tomographic imaging revealed a large lung abscess on left lower lobe (Figure 1 and moderately dilated esophagus and fluid filled to the level of gastro-esophagus junction. Barium swallow study showed a classic bird-beak like appearance (Figure 2. There was no contrast that passed through the gastro-esophagus junction during the entire course of the barium study. Upper endoscopy was performed to rule out intraluminal ...

  16. Lung tumor segmentation in PET images using graph cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballangan, Cherry; Wang, Xiuying; Fulham, Michael; Eberl, Stefan; Feng, David Dagan

    2013-03-01

    The aim of segmentation of tumor regions in positron emission tomography (PET) is to provide more accurate measurements of tumor size and extension into adjacent structures, than is possible with visual assessment alone and hence improve patient management decisions. We propose a segmentation energy function for the graph cuts technique to improve lung tumor segmentation with PET. Our segmentation energy is based on an analysis of the tumor voxels in PET images combined with a standardized uptake value (SUV) cost function and a monotonic downhill SUV feature. The monotonic downhill feature avoids segmentation leakage into surrounding tissues with similar or higher PET tracer uptake than the tumor and the SUV cost function improves the boundary definition and also addresses situations where the lung tumor is heterogeneous. We evaluated the method in 42 clinical PET volumes from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our method improves segmentation and performs better than region growing approaches, the watershed technique, fuzzy-c-means, region-based active contour and tumor customized downhill. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Image-based query-by-example for big databases of galaxy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Lior; Kuminski, Evan

    2017-01-01

    Very large astronomical databases containing millions or even billions of galaxy images have been becoming increasingly important tools in astronomy research. However, in many cases the very large size makes it more difficult to analyze these data manually, reinforcing the need for computer algorithms that can automate the data analysis process. An example of such task is the identification of galaxies of a certain morphology of interest. For instance, if a rare galaxy is identified it is reasonable to expect that more galaxies of similar morphology exist in the database, but it is virtually impossible to manually search these databases to identify such galaxies. Here we describe computer vision and pattern recognition methodology that receives a galaxy image as an input, and searches automatically a large dataset of galaxies to return a list of galaxies that are visually similar to the query galaxy. The returned list is not necessarily complete or clean, but it provides a substantial reduction of the original database into a smaller dataset, in which the frequency of objects visually similar to the query galaxy is much higher. Experimental results show that the algorithm can identify rare galaxies such as ring galaxies among datasets of 10,000 astronomical objects.

  18. Mutual information as a measure of image quality for 3D dynamic lung imaging with EIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, M G; Davidson, J L; Little, R; Wright, P; Morgan, A R; Miller, C A; Naish, J H; Parker, G J M; Kikinis, R; McCann, H; Lionheart, W R B

    2014-05-01

    We report on a pilot study of dynamic lung electrical impedance tomography (EIT) at the University of Manchester. Low-noise EIT data at 100 frames per second were obtained from healthy male subjects during controlled breathing, followed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) subsequently used for spatial validation of the EIT reconstruction. The torso surface in the MR image and electrode positions obtained using MRI fiducial markers informed the construction of a 3D finite element model extruded along the caudal-distal axis of the subject. Small changes in the boundary that occur during respiration were accounted for by incorporating the sensitivity with respect to boundary shape into a robust temporal difference reconstruction algorithm. EIT and MRI images were co-registered using the open source medical imaging software, 3D Slicer. A quantitative comparison of quality of different EIT reconstructions was achieved through calculation of the mutual information with a lung-segmented MR image. EIT reconstructions using a linear shape correction algorithm reduced boundary image artefacts, yielding better contrast of the lungs, and had 10% greater mutual information compared with a standard linear EIT reconstruction.

  19. Classification of normal and abnormal images of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Divyesh; Tiwari, Amit Kumar; Vijayarajan, V.; Krishnamoorthy, A.

    2017-11-01

    To find the exact symptoms of lung cancer is difficult, because of the formation of the most cancers tissues, wherein large structure of tissues is intersect in a different way. This problem can be evaluated with the help of digital images. In this strategy images will be examined with basic operation of PCA Algorithm. In this paper, GLCM method is used for pre-processing of the snap shots and function extraction system and to test the level of diseases of a patient in its premature stage get to know it is regular or unusual. With the help of result stage of cancer will be evaluated. With the help of dataset and result survival rate of cancer patient can be estimated. Result is based totally on the precise and wrong arrangement of the patterns of tissues.

  20. The clinical usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hideo; Tanaka, Osamu; Hata, Enjyo; Fukushima, Kanae; Ishihara, Teruo; Matsuoka, Rokuro; Osawa, Tadashi; Kitamura, Satoshi

    1987-01-01

    Sixty patients with lung cancer, including 35 operated cases and 4 autopsy cases, were studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Transverse and coronal imaging were performed by spin-echo sequence with electrocardiogram gating. MRI clearly demonstrated the normal mediastinal and hilar structures. More than 90 % of pulmonary vessels and lobar bronchi were identified. Seventy six percent of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes shown on resected materials to be over than 1 cm in diameter were detected, as compared to 82 % for hilar nodes alone. Staging for T factor, tumor size were fairly accurate but P factor was correctly diagnosed of 64 %. In atelectasis, the pulmonary artery was presented as a linear structure, and this finding has not been reported yet. Our experience suggests that MRI is useful for the diagnosis of atelectasis, vascular involvement, and hilar lymphadenopathy. (author)

  1. Evaluation of radiographic imaging techniques in lung nodule detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, J.T.; Kruger, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Dual-energy radiography appears to be the most effective technique to address bone superposition that compromises conventional chest radiography. A dual-energy, single-exposure, film-based technique was compared with a dual-energy, dual-exposure technique and conventional chest radiography in a simulated lung nodule detection study. Observers detected more nodules on images produced by dual-energy techniques than on images produced by conventional chest radiography. The difference between dual-energy and conventional chest radiography is statistically significant and the difference between dual-energy, dual-exposure and single-exposure techniques is statistically insignificant. The single-exposure technique has the potential to replace the dual-exposure technique in future clinical application

  2. The incorporation of SPECT functional lung imaging into inverse radiotherapy planning for non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, Judith A.; Partridge, Mike; Nioutsikou, Elena; Cook, Gary; McNair, Helen A.; Cronin, Bernadette; Courbon, Frederic; Bedford, James L.; Brada, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) often have inhomogeneous lung perfusion. Radiotherapy planning computed tomography (CT) scans have been accurately co-registered with lung perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans to design radiotherapy treatments which limit dose to healthy 'perfused' lung. Patients and methods: Patients with localised NSCLC had CT and SPECT scans accurately co-registered in the planning system. The SPECT images were used to define a volume of perfused 'functioning' lung (FL). Inverse planning software was used to create 3D-conformal plans, the planning objective being either to minimise the dose to whole lungs (WL) or to minimise the dose to FL. Results: Four plans were created for each of six patients. The mean difference in volume between WL and FL was 1011.7 cm 3 (range 596.2-1581.1 cm 3 ). One patient with bilateral upper lobe perfusion deficits had a 16% reduction in FLV 2 (the percentage volume of functioning lung receiving ≥20 Gy). The remaining patients had inhomogeneous perfusion deficits such that inverse planning was not able to sufficiently optimise beam angles to avoid functioning lung. Conclusion: SPECT perfusion images can be accurately co-registered with radiotherapy planning CT scans and may be helpful in creating treatment plans for patients with large perfusion deficits

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging in children: common problems and possible solutions for lung and airways imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciet, Pierluigi; Tiddens, Harm A.W.M. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Sophia Children' s Hospital, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Allergology, Sophia Children' s Hospital, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Wielopolski, Piotr A. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Sophia Children' s Hospital, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Wild, Jim M. [University of Sheffield, Academic Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Departments of Radiology and Medicine, Pulmonary Divisions, Boston, MA (United States); Morana, Giovanni [Ca' Foncello Regional Hospital, Department of Radiology, Treviso (Italy); Lequin, Maarten H. [University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-12-15

    Pediatric chest MRI is challenging. High-resolution scans of the lungs and airways are compromised by long imaging times, low lung proton density and motion. Low signal is a problem of normal lung. Lung abnormalities commonly cause increased signal intensities. Among the most important factors for a successful MRI is patient cooperation, so the long acquisition times make patient preparation crucial. Children usually have problems with long breath-holds and with the concept of quiet breathing. Young children are even more challenging because of higher cardiac and respiratory rates giving motion blurring. For these reasons, CT has often been preferred over MRI for chest pediatric imaging. Despite its drawbacks, MRI also has advantages over CT, which justifies its further development and clinical use. The most important advantage is the absence of ionizing radiation, which allows frequent scanning for short- and long-term follow-up studies of chronic diseases. Moreover, MRI allows assessment of functional aspects of the chest, such as lung perfusion and ventilation, or airways and diaphragm mechanics. In this review, we describe the most common MRI acquisition techniques on the verge of clinical translation, their problems and the possible solutions to make chest MRI feasible in children. (orig.)

  4. Towards lung EIT image segmentation: automatic classification of lung tissue state from analysis of EIT monitored recruitment manoeuvres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Wolf, Gerhard K; Arnold, John H; Adler, Andy

    2010-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that the ventilation strategy used in acute lung injury (ALI) makes a significant difference in outcome and that an inappropriate ventilation strategy may produce ventilator-associated lung injury. Most harmful during mechanical ventilation are lung overdistension and lung collapse or atelectasis. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) as a non-invasive imaging technology may be helpful to identify lung areas at risk. Currently, no automated method is routinely available to identify lung areas that are overdistended, collapsed or ventilated appropriately. We propose a fuzzy logic-based algorithm to analyse EIT images obtained during stepwise changes of mean airway pressures during mechanical ventilation. The algorithm is tested on data from two published studies of stepwise inflation–deflation manoeuvres in an animal model of ALI using conventional and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. The timing of lung opening and collapsing on segmented images obtained using the algorithm during an inflation–deflation manoeuvre is in agreement with well-known effects of surfactant administration and changes in shunt fraction. While the performance of the algorithm has not been verified against a gold standard, we feel that it presents an important first step in tackling this challenging and important problem

  5. Towards lung EIT image segmentation: automatic classification of lung tissue state from analysis of EIT monitored recruitment manoeuvres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Wolf, Gerhard K; Adler, Andy; Arnold, John H

    2010-08-01

    There is emerging evidence that the ventilation strategy used in acute lung injury (ALI) makes a significant difference in outcome and that an inappropriate ventilation strategy may produce ventilator-associated lung injury. Most harmful during mechanical ventilation are lung overdistension and lung collapse or atelectasis. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) as a non-invasive imaging technology may be helpful to identify lung areas at risk. Currently, no automated method is routinely available to identify lung areas that are overdistended, collapsed or ventilated appropriately. We propose a fuzzy logic-based algorithm to analyse EIT images obtained during stepwise changes of mean airway pressures during mechanical ventilation. The algorithm is tested on data from two published studies of stepwise inflation-deflation manoeuvres in an animal model of ALI using conventional and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. The timing of lung opening and collapsing on segmented images obtained using the algorithm during an inflation-deflation manoeuvre is in agreement with well-known effects of surfactant administration and changes in shunt fraction. While the performance of the algorithm has not been verified against a gold standard, we feel that it presents an important first step in tackling this challenging and important problem.

  6. Studies on diagnosis of lung emphysema by CT image using experimental models and clinical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatani, Seiki

    1998-01-01

    Since the detailed report between the degree of functional disorder in lung emphysema and the analysis of CT image is quite unknown, the present study was attempted to produce the experimental model of lung emphysema with various stages by the administration of papain to the focal lobe in canine lung. Using this model or clinical lung emphysema, the relationship between the degree of destruction of alveolar walls, clinical pulmonary functions and CT images was investigated. CT scan was performed at the level of 50% vital capacity in both experimental models and clinical subjects by using spirometric gating CT. CT density histogram was obtained from CT image which was produced by using the developed software for this purpose. Densitometric parameters, such as mean CT value, %LAA, the peak in the histogram and 5% tile were selected from CT image. Papain solution of 5 mg/kg body weight was cumulatively administered to the left lower lobe in canine lung, resulting in the destruction of lung alveolar walls in parallel to the increasing dosage of papain. There was a significant correlation between not only the increasing dosage of papain, but also %FEV 1.0 and CT densitometric parameters, indicating that the histological changes of alveolar walls and the lung function in lung emphysema could be estimated by analysis of CT image. These experimental and clinical studies suggest that the analysis of CT image can reflect the pathophysiological changes in the lung and be useful for precise clinical diagnosis of lung emphysema. (author)

  7. MO-AB-BRA-02: A Novel Scatter Imaging Modality for Real-Time Image Guidance During Lung SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redler, G; Bernard, D; Templeton, A; Chu, J; Nair, C Kumaran; Turian, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A novel scatter imaging modality is developed and its feasibility for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer patients is assessed using analytic and Monte Carlo models as well as experimental testing. Methods: During treatment, incident radiation interacts and scatters from within the patient. The presented methodology forms an image of patient anatomy from the scattered radiation for real-time localization of the treatment target. A radiographic flat panel-based pinhole camera provides spatial information regarding the origin of detected scattered radiation. An analytical model is developed, which provides a mathematical formalism for describing the scatter imaging system. Experimental scatter images are acquired by irradiating an object using a Varian TrueBeam accelerator. The differentiation between tissue types is investigated by imaging simple objects of known compositions (water, lung, and cortical bone equivalent). A lung tumor phantom, simulating materials and geometry encountered during lung SBRT treatments, is fabricated and imaged to investigate image quality for various quantities of delivered radiation. Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code is used for validation and testing by simulating scatter image formation using the experimental pinhole camera setup. Results: Analytical calculations, MCNP simulations, and experimental results when imaging the water, lung, and cortical bone equivalent objects show close agreement, thus validating the proposed models and demonstrating that scatter imaging differentiates these materials well. Lung tumor phantom images have sufficient contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) to clearly distinguish tumor from surrounding lung tissue. CNR=4.1 and CNR=29.1 for 10MU and 5000MU images (equivalent to 0.5 and 250 second images), respectively. Conclusion: Lung SBRT provides favorable treatment outcomes, but depends on accurate target localization. A comprehensive

  8. MO-AB-BRA-02: A Novel Scatter Imaging Modality for Real-Time Image Guidance During Lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redler, G; Bernard, D; Templeton, A; Chu, J [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Nair, C Kumaran [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Turian, J [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Rush Radiosurgery LLC, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A novel scatter imaging modality is developed and its feasibility for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer patients is assessed using analytic and Monte Carlo models as well as experimental testing. Methods: During treatment, incident radiation interacts and scatters from within the patient. The presented methodology forms an image of patient anatomy from the scattered radiation for real-time localization of the treatment target. A radiographic flat panel-based pinhole camera provides spatial information regarding the origin of detected scattered radiation. An analytical model is developed, which provides a mathematical formalism for describing the scatter imaging system. Experimental scatter images are acquired by irradiating an object using a Varian TrueBeam accelerator. The differentiation between tissue types is investigated by imaging simple objects of known compositions (water, lung, and cortical bone equivalent). A lung tumor phantom, simulating materials and geometry encountered during lung SBRT treatments, is fabricated and imaged to investigate image quality for various quantities of delivered radiation. Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code is used for validation and testing by simulating scatter image formation using the experimental pinhole camera setup. Results: Analytical calculations, MCNP simulations, and experimental results when imaging the water, lung, and cortical bone equivalent objects show close agreement, thus validating the proposed models and demonstrating that scatter imaging differentiates these materials well. Lung tumor phantom images have sufficient contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) to clearly distinguish tumor from surrounding lung tissue. CNR=4.1 and CNR=29.1 for 10MU and 5000MU images (equivalent to 0.5 and 250 second images), respectively. Conclusion: Lung SBRT provides favorable treatment outcomes, but depends on accurate target localization. A comprehensive

  9. Rice8987 Array: Gel images - RMOS | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us RMOS Rice8987 Array: Gel images Data detail Data name Rice8987 Array: Gel images DOI 10.1890...e by Wako), was used to other Dplate. Gel images were scanned by scanner (Molecular Dynamics Co.). Number of...Database Site Policy | Contact Us Rice8987 Array: Gel images - RMOS | LSDB Archive ...

  10. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system for chest diagnosis based on multi-helical CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutarou; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2006-03-01

    Multi-helical CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for mass screening. Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router and Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system for safety of medical information. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have now developed a new computer-aided workstation and database that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. This paper describes basic studies that have been conducted to evaluate this new system. The results of this study indicate that our computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and safety of medical information.

  11. Appropriateness of the food-pics image database for experimental eating and appetite research with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chad D; Duraccio, Kara M; Barnett, Kimberly A; Stevens, Kimberly S

    2016-12-01

    Research examining effects of visual food cues on appetite-related brain processes and eating behavior has proliferated. Recently investigators have developed food image databases for use across experimental studies examining appetite and eating behavior. The food-pics image database represents a standardized, freely available image library originally validated in a large sample primarily comprised of adults. The suitability of the images for use with adolescents has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the appropriateness of the food-pics image library for appetite and eating research with adolescents. Three hundred and seven adolescents (ages 12-17) provided ratings of recognizability, palatability, and desire to eat, for images from the food-pics database. Moreover, participants rated the caloric content (high vs. low) and healthiness (healthy vs. unhealthy) of each image. Adolescents rated approximately 75% of the food images as recognizable. Approximately 65% of recognizable images were correctly categorized as high vs. low calorie and 63% were correctly classified as healthy vs. unhealthy in 80% or more of image ratings. These results suggest that a smaller subset of the food-pics image database is appropriate for use with adolescents. With some modifications to included images, the food-pics image database appears to be appropriate for use in experimental appetite and eating-related research conducted with adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Krypton for computed tomography lung ventilation imaging: preliminary animal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnken, Andreas H; Jost, Gregor; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of krypton ventilation imaging with intraindividual comparison to xenon ventilation computed tomography (CT). In a first step, attenuation of different concentrations of xenon and krypton was analyzed in a phantom setting. Thereafter, 7 male New Zealand white rabbits (4.4-6.0 kg) were included in an animal study. After orotracheal intubation, an unenhanced CT scan was obtained in end-inspiratory breath-hold. Thereafter, xenon- (30%) and krypton-enhanced (70%) ventilation CT was performed in random order. After a 2-minute wash-in of gas A, CT imaging was performed. After a 45-minute wash-out period and another 2-minute wash-in of gas B, another CT scan was performed using the same scan protocol. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were measured. Unenhanced and krypton or xenon data were registered and subtracted using a nonrigid image registration tool. Enhancement was quantified and statistically analyzed. One animal had to be excluded from data analysis owing to problems during intubation. The CT scans in the remaining 6 animals were completed without complications. There were no relevant differences in oxygen saturation or heart rate between the scans. Xenon resulted in a mean increase of enhancement of 35.3 ± 5.5 HU, whereas krypton achieved a mean increase of 21.9 ± 1.8 HU in enhancement (P = 0.0055). The use of krypton for lung ventilation imaging appears to be feasible and safe. Despite the use of a markedly higher concentration of krypton, enhancement is significantly worse when compared with xenon CT ventilation imaging, but sufficiently high for CT ventilation imaging studies.

  13. SU-E-J-91: Biomechanical Deformable Image Registration of Longitudinal Lung CT Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazoulat, G; Owen, D; Matuszak, M; Balter, J; Brock, K [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Spatial correlation of lung tissue across longitudinal images, as the patient responds to treatment, is a critical step in adaptive radiotherapy. The goal of this work is to expand a biomechanical model-based deformable registration algorithm (Morfeus) to achieve accurate registration in the presence of significant anatomical changes. Methods: Four lung cancer patients previously treated with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy that exhibited notable tumor shrinkage during treatment were retrospectively evaluated. Exhale breathhold CT scans were obtained at treatment planning (PCT) and following three weeks (W3CT) of treatment. For each patient, the PCT was registered to the W3CT using Morfeus, a biomechanical model-based deformable registration algorithm, consisting of boundary conditions on the lungs and incorporating a sliding interface between the lung and chest wall. To model the complex response of the lung, an extension to Morfeus has been developed: (i) The vessel tree was segmented by thresholding a vesselness image based on the Hessian matrix’s eigenvalues and the centerline was extracted; (ii) A 3D shape context method was used to find correspondences between the trees of the two images; (ii) Correspondences were used as additional boundary conditions (Morfeus+vBC). An expert independently identified corresponding landmarks well distributed in the lung to compute Target Registration Errors (TRE). Results: The TRE within 15mm of the tumor boundaries (on average 11 landmarks) is: 6.1±1.8, 4.6±1.1 and 3.8±2.3 mm after rigid registration, Morfeus and Morfeus+vBC, respectively. The TRE in the rest of the lung (on average 13 landmarks) is: 6.4±3.9, 4.7±2.2 and 3.6±1.9 mm, which is on the order of the 2mm isotropic dose grid vector (3.5mm). Conclusion: The addition of boundary conditions on the vessels improved the accuracy in modeling the response of the lung and tumor over the course of radiotherapy. Minimizing and modeling these

  14. Multi-Modal Imaging in a Mouse Model of Orthotopic Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Priya; Kato, Tatsuya; Ujiie, Hideki; Wada, Hironobu; Lee, Daiyoon; Hu, Hsin-pei; Hirohashi, Kentaro; Ahn, Jin Young; Zheng, Jinzi; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Investigation of CF800, a novel PEGylated nano-liposomal imaging agent containing indocyanine green (ICG) and iohexol, for real-time near infrared (NIR) fluorescence and computed tomography (CT) image-guided surgery in an orthotopic lung cancer model in nude mice. Methods CF800 was intravenously administered into 13 mice bearing the H460 orthotopic human lung cancer. At 48 h post-injection (peak imaging agent accumulation time point), ex vivo NIR and CT imaging was performed. A cli...

  15. Computer-aided beam arrangement based on similar cases in radiation treatment-planning databases for stereotactic lung radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magome, Taiki; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Arimura, Hidetaka

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided method for determination of beam arrangements based on similar cases in a radiotherapy treatment-planning database for stereotactic lung radiation therapy. Similar-case-based beam arrangements were automatically determined based on the following two steps. First, the five most similar cases were searched, based on geometrical features related to the location, size and shape of the planning target volume, lung and spinal cord. Second, five beam arrangements of an objective case were automatically determined by registering five similar cases with the objective case, with respect to lung regions, by means of a linear registration technique. For evaluation of the beam arrangements five treatment plans were manually created by applying the beam arrangements determined in the second step to the objective case. The most usable beam arrangement was selected by sorting the five treatment plans based on eight plan evaluation indices, including the D95, mean lung dose and spinal cord maximum dose. We applied the proposed method to 10 test cases, by using an RTP database of 81 cases with lung cancer, and compared the eight plan evaluation indices between the original treatment plan and the corresponding most usable similar-case-based treatment plan. As a result, the proposed method may provide usable beam arrangements, which have no statistically significant differences from the original beam arrangements (P>0.05) in terms of the eight plan evaluation indices. Therefore, the proposed method could be employed as an educational tool for less experienced treatment planners. (author)

  16. Application of CT perfusion imaging in radiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Guangrong; Liu Guimei; He Wen; Jin Guohua; Xie Ruming; Xu Yongxiang; Li Xiaobo; Li Xuebing

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of CT perfusion imaging in evaluation of therapeutic effect and prognosis in radiotherapy for lung cancer. Methods: Fifty-one cases of lung cancer who were unable or refused to be operated on, 36 males and 15 females, aged 37-80, underwent CT perfusion imaging, 29 of which only before radiotherapy and 22 before and after radiotherapy twice. The images were collected by cine dynamic scanning (5 mm/4 slices) and input into the GE AW4.0 workstation for data processing. The slice positions of CT imaging were determined according to the largest tumor size in CT scan. Regions of interest of tumor were drawn at the region corresponding to the original images of CT perfusion. Radiotherapy was performed after CT perfusion imaging. Relevant parameters, including blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT), and permeability surface (PS) were calculated. The treatment response after radiotherapy was evaluated by RECIST. At 2 -4 weeks after the treatment, CT examination was conducted once more. Results: The tests of the 51 patients showed that the BV was 13.6 ml·100 g -1 , the BF was 129.5 ml·min -1 ·100 g -1 , the MTT was 9.1 s, and the PS was 10.0 ml· min -1 · 100 g -1 before radiotherapy. The tests of the 22 of the 51 patients showed that the values of BV and BF after radiotherapy were 7.6 ml· 100 g -1 and 97.8 ml·min -1 · 100 g -1 , respectively, both lower than those before radiotherapy (11.2 and 108.7 ml·min -1 ·100 g -1 , respectively), however, both not significantly (t=1.28, 0.40, P>0.05); and the values of MTT and PS after radiotherapy were 8.9 s and 7.8 ml·min -1 · 100 g -1 , respectively, both not significantly higher than those before radiotherapy (7.2 s and 6.8 ml· min -1 · 100 g -1 , respectively, t=-1.15, -0.57, P>0.05). The mean area of tumor after radiotherapy was 1189.6 mm 2 , significantly less than that before radiotherapy (1920.3 mm 2 , t=3.98, P<0.05). The MTT of the SCLC patients was 12

  17. Clinical chest CAD system for lung cancer, COPD, and osteoporosis based on MDCT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhiro, Mikio; Suzuki, Hidenobu; Saita, Shinsuke

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer kills more people than any other cancer worldwide. Lung cancer screening using low-dose CT have been performed in many countries. Comparative reading of current and past CT images is important for evaluation of pulmonary nodules in lung cancer CT screening. However, primary problem in comparative reading is mismatch of slice and nodule positions caused by lung variation. It is hard for physicians to manually match slice positions, nodule positions, and evaluate the nodule's degree of change. A system to assist smooth comparative reading is necessary. We proposed a comparative reading system for lung cancer CT screening. A distinctive feature is highly accurate matching method of region of interest based on thoracic organs registration. Pulmonary blood vessels registration using analysis of the tree structure is performed. The system is evaluated by 1 mm and 2 mm slice thickness CT images obtained from lung cancer CT screening. We show how it is useful for lung cancer CT screening. (author)

  18. Assessment of tumors of the lung apex by imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueda, J.; Serrano, F.; Pain, M.I.; Rodriguez, F.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the value of MR in the preoperative staging of tumors of the lung apex and detection of local invasion of adjacent structures to determine its influence on the therapeutic approach. We obtained plain X-ray images in two planes, as well as CT and Mr images, in 12 patients with Pan coast tumor in whom there was surgical (n=8) or clinical (n=4) evidence of invasion. The objective was to assess local infiltration of brain stem and chest wall soft tissue, enveloping of the subclavian artery, substantial involvement of the brachial plexus and destruction of the vertebral body. In our series, MR was superior to the other imaging techniques in predicting the involvement of the structures surrounding the tumor. In conclusion, MR should be performed in a patient diagnosed by plain radiography as having an apical tumors to assess local tumor extension, while CT should be done to detect mediastinal lymph node involvement and distant metastases. 19 refs

  19. A 4DCT imaging-based breathing lung model with relative hysteresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Choi, Sanghun [IIHR – Hydroscience & Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Hoffman, Eric A. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Lin, Ching-Long, E-mail: ching-long-lin@uiowa.edu [IIHR – Hydroscience & Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, 3131 Seamans Center, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    To reproduce realistic airway motion and airflow, the authors developed a deforming lung computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on four-dimensional (4D, space and time) dynamic computed tomography (CT) images. A total of 13 time points within controlled tidal volume respiration were used to account for realistic and irregular lung motion in human volunteers. Because of the irregular motion of 4DCT-based airways, we identified an optimal interpolation method for airway surface deformation during respiration, and implemented a computational solid mechanics-based moving mesh algorithm to produce smooth deforming airway mesh. In addition, we developed physiologically realistic airflow boundary conditions for both models based on multiple images and a single image. Furthermore, we examined simplified models based on one or two dynamic or static images. By comparing these simplified models with the model based on 13 dynamic images, we investigated the effects of relative hysteresis of lung structure with respect to lung volume, lung deformation, and imaging methods, i.e., dynamic vs. static scans, on CFD-predicted pressure drop. The effect of imaging method on pressure drop was 24 percentage points due to the differences in airflow distribution and airway geometry. - Highlights: • We developed a breathing human lung CFD model based on 4D-dynamic CT images. • The 4DCT-based breathing lung model is able to capture lung relative hysteresis. • A new boundary condition for lung model based on one static CT image was proposed. • The difference between lung models based on 4D and static CT images was quantified.

  20. The preparation and identification of peptide imaging agent of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Liping; Wang Yan; Wang Yueying; Liu Jinjian; Wu Hongying; Liu Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To screen in vivo lung cancer specific binding 7-peptide from T7 phage display random peptide library and prepare peptide imaging agent in early in early diagnosis of lung cancer. Methods: Used phage display in vivo technology to get the 7-peptide phage that can bind the lung cancer specifically, then sequenced and synthesized 7-peptide. After being labeled by 125 I, this 7-peptide was injected into mice via vein and the distribution in the mice tumor mold was observed. Results: One 7-peptide was obtained after four rounds of screening, and the peptide could bind lung cancer tissue specifically. Metabolism of this peptide in mice was fast and imaging of lung cancer was best two hours later after injection. The distribution in vivo decreased and almost disappeared after six hours. Conclusion: This 7-peptide could be used to image and diagnose of lung cancer effectively. (authors)

  1. A multiscale MDCT image-based breathing lung model with time-varying regional ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Youbing, E-mail: youbing-yin@uiowa.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Choi, Jiwoong, E-mail: jiwoong-choi@uiowa.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Hoffman, Eric A., E-mail: eric-hoffman@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Tawhai, Merryn H., E-mail: m.tawhai@auckland.ac.nz [Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Lin, Ching-Long, E-mail: ching-long-lin@uiowa.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A novel algorithm is presented that links local structural variables (regional ventilation and deforming central airways) to global function (total lung volume) in the lung over three imaged lung volumes, to derive a breathing lung model for computational fluid dynamics simulation. The algorithm constitutes the core of an integrative, image-based computational framework for subject-specific simulation of the breathing lung. For the first time, the algorithm is applied to three multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) volumetric lung images of the same individual. A key technique in linking global and local variables over multiple images is an in-house mass-preserving image registration method. Throughout breathing cycles, cubic interpolation is employed to ensure C{sub 1} continuity in constructing time-varying regional ventilation at the whole lung level, flow rate fractions exiting the terminal airways, and airway deformation. The imaged exit airway flow rate fractions are derived from regional ventilation with the aid of a three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) coupled airway tree that connects the airways to the alveolar tissue. An in-house parallel large-eddy simulation (LES) technique is adopted to capture turbulent-transitional-laminar flows in both normal and deep breathing conditions. The results obtained by the proposed algorithm when using three lung volume images are compared with those using only one or two volume images. The three-volume-based lung model produces physiologically-consistent time-varying pressure and ventilation distribution. The one-volume-based lung model under-predicts pressure drop and yields un-physiological lobar ventilation. The two-volume-based model can account for airway deformation and non-uniform regional ventilation to some extent, but does not capture the non-linear features of the lung.

  2. A multiscale MDCT image-based breathing lung model with time-varying regional ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Youbing; Choi, Jiwoong; Hoffman, Eric A.; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2012-01-01

    A novel algorithm is presented that links local structural variables (regional ventilation and deforming central airways) to global function (total lung volume) in the lung over three imaged lung volumes, to derive a breathing lung model for computational fluid dynamics simulation. The algorithm constitutes the core of an integrative, image-based computational framework for subject-specific simulation of the breathing lung. For the first time, the algorithm is applied to three multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) volumetric lung images of the same individual. A key technique in linking global and local variables over multiple images is an in-house mass-preserving image registration method. Throughout breathing cycles, cubic interpolation is employed to ensure C1 continuity in constructing time-varying regional ventilation at the whole lung level, flow rate fractions exiting the terminal airways, and airway deformation. The imaged exit airway flow rate fractions are derived from regional ventilation with the aid of a three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) coupled airway tree that connects the airways to the alveolar tissue. An in-house parallel large-eddy simulation (LES) technique is adopted to capture turbulent-transitional-laminar flows in both normal and deep breathing conditions. The results obtained by the proposed algorithm when using three lung volume images are compared with those using only one or two volume images. The three-volume-based lung model produces physiologically-consistent time-varying pressure and ventilation distribution. The one-volume-based lung model under-predicts pressure drop and yields un-physiological lobar ventilation. The two-volume-based model can account for airway deformation and non-uniform regional ventilation to some extent, but does not capture the non-linear features of the lung. PMID:23794749

  3. Magnetic resonance lung function – a breakthrough for lung imaging and functional assessment? A phantom study and clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauh Manfred

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic lung diseases are a major issue in public health. A serial pulmonary assessment using imaging techniques free of ionizing radiation and which provides early information on local function impairment would therefore be a considerably important development. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a powerful tool for the static and dynamic imaging of many organs. Its application in lung imaging however, has been limited due to the low water content of the lung and the artefacts evident at air-tissue interfaces. Many attempts have been made to visualize local ventilation using the inhalation of hyperpolarized gases or gadolinium aerosol responding to MRI. None of these methods are applicable for broad clinical use as they require specific equipment. Methods We have shown previously that low-field MRI can be used for static imaging of the lung. Here we show that mathematical processing of data derived from serial MRI scans during the respiratory cycle produces good quality images of local ventilation without any contrast agent. A phantom study and investigations in 85 patients were performed. Results The phantom study proved our theoretical considerations. In 99 patient investigations good correlation (r = 0.8; p ≤ 0.001 was seen for pulmonary function tests and MR ventilation measurements. Small ventilation defects were visualized. Conclusion With this method, ventilation defects can be diagnosed long before any imaging or pulmonary function test will indicate disease. This surprisingly simple approach could easily be incorporated in clinical routine and may be a breakthrough for lung imaging and functional assessment.

  4. Towards adapting a normal patient database for SPECT brain perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, N D; Soleimani, M; Mitchell, C N; Holmes, R B; Evans, M J; Cade, S C

    2012-01-01

    Single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) is a tool which can be used to image perfusion in the brain. Clinicians can use such images to help diagnose dementias such as Alzheimer's disease. Due to the intrinsic stochasticity in the photon imaging system, some form of statistical comparison of an individual image with a 'normal' patient database gives a clinician additional confidence in interpreting the image. Due to the variations between SPECT camera systems, ideally a normal patient database is required for each individual system. However, cost or ethical considerations often prohibit the collection of such a database for each new camera system. Some method of adapting existing normal patient databases to new camera systems would be beneficial. This paper introduces a method which may be regarded as a 'first-pass' attempt based on 2-norm regularization and a codebook of discrete spatially stationary convolutional kernels. Some preliminary illustrative results are presented, together with discussion on limitations and possible improvements

  5. Effects of smoking on lung uptake of 201Tl during exercise myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Wei; He Guorong; Liu Jinhua

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of smoking on lung uptake of 201 Tl during myocardial perfusion imaging. Methods: Ninety-two healthy subjects, with normal 201 Tl myocardial perfusion imaging findings but no evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary disease, were divided into three groups, smoker, nonsmoker and quitted smoker groups. Exercise/delay 201 Tl myocardial perfusion imaging was performed on all subjects included. Lung/heart ratio was defined on the anterior planar image obtained during exercise tomography. Results: Both the lung/heart ratios during exercise in smoker (0.40 ± 0.07, F=10.635, P 201 Tl lung/heart ratios in smokers are higher than in nonsmokers and this must be kept in mind when 201 Tl lung/heart ratios are used clinically, even in quitted smokers

  6. Quantitative CT characterization of pediatric lung development using routine clinical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Jill M.; Brody, Alan S.; Fleck, Robert J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Walkup, Laura L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research, Pulmonary Medicine and Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Woods, Jason C. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research, Pulmonary Medicine and Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The use of quantitative CT analysis in children is limited by lack of normal values of lung parenchymal attenuation. These characteristics are important because normal lung development yields significant parenchymal attenuation changes as children age. To perform quantitative characterization of normal pediatric lung parenchymal X-ray CT attenuation under routine clinical conditions in order to establish a baseline comparison to that seen in pathological lung conditions. We conducted a retrospective query of normal CT chest examinations in children ages 0-7 years from 2004 to 2014 using standard clinical protocol. During these examinations semi-automated lung parenchymal segmentation was performed to measure lung volume and mean lung attenuation. We analyzed 42 CT examinations in 39 children, ages 3 days to 83 months (mean ± standard deviation [SD] = 42 ± 27 months). Lung volume ranged 0.10-1.72 liters (L). Mean lung attenuation was much higher in children younger than 12 months, with values as high as -380 Hounsfield units (HU) in neonates (lung volume 0.10 L). Lung volume decreased to approximately -650 HU by age 2 years (lung volume 0.47 L), with subsequently slower exponential decrease toward a relatively constant value of -860 HU as age and lung volume increased. Normal lung parenchymal X-ray CT attenuation decreases with increasing lung volume and age; lung attenuation decreases rapidly in the first 2 years of age and more slowly thereafter. This change in normal lung attenuation should be taken into account as quantitative CT methods are translated to pediatric pulmonary imaging. (orig.)

  7. Quantitative CT characterization of pediatric lung development using routine clinical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, Jill M.; Brody, Alan S.; Fleck, Robert J.; Walkup, Laura L.; Woods, Jason C.

    2016-01-01

    The use of quantitative CT analysis in children is limited by lack of normal values of lung parenchymal attenuation. These characteristics are important because normal lung development yields significant parenchymal attenuation changes as children age. To perform quantitative characterization of normal pediatric lung parenchymal X-ray CT attenuation under routine clinical conditions in order to establish a baseline comparison to that seen in pathological lung conditions. We conducted a retrospective query of normal CT chest examinations in children ages 0-7 years from 2004 to 2014 using standard clinical protocol. During these examinations semi-automated lung parenchymal segmentation was performed to measure lung volume and mean lung attenuation. We analyzed 42 CT examinations in 39 children, ages 3 days to 83 months (mean ± standard deviation [SD] = 42 ± 27 months). Lung volume ranged 0.10-1.72 liters (L). Mean lung attenuation was much higher in children younger than 12 months, with values as high as -380 Hounsfield units (HU) in neonates (lung volume 0.10 L). Lung volume decreased to approximately -650 HU by age 2 years (lung volume 0.47 L), with subsequently slower exponential decrease toward a relatively constant value of -860 HU as age and lung volume increased. Normal lung parenchymal X-ray CT attenuation decreases with increasing lung volume and age; lung attenuation decreases rapidly in the first 2 years of age and more slowly thereafter. This change in normal lung attenuation should be taken into account as quantitative CT methods are translated to pediatric pulmonary imaging. (orig.)

  8. Serial lung imaging with /sup 123/I-IMP in localized pulmonary lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajo, Masayuki; Shimada, Jurio; Shimozono, Michiko; Uchiyama, Noriaki; Hiraki, Yoshiyuki; Shinohara, Shinji.

    1988-05-01

    /sup 123/I-IMP (N-isopropyl-p-(/sup 123/I)-iodoamphetamine) dynamic (1 frame/min for 25 mins), 30-min and 4-hr static lung imaging was performed in a total of 65 patients with roentgenographic evidence of localized pulmonary lesion (12 with pneumonia, one with lung abscess, 5 with pulmonary tuberculosis, 3 with pneumoconiosis, one with lung fluke disease and 43 with various histological types of primary lung cancer). The findings in 65 of 70 (95 %) lesions in the initial 1 or 2-min dynamic /sup 123/I-IMP images were analogous to those obtained by /sup 99m/Tc-MAA lung perfusion imaging and decreased activity was observed in 68 of 70 (97 %) lesions, suggesting that the initial images mainly reflected the relative distribution of pulmonary arterial blood flow. However, /sup 123/I-IMP accumulated differently according to the pathological conditions afterwards. Decrease activity from /sup 123/I-IMP was contineously observed in a cavity of the lung abscess, 2 of 2 tuberculomas, 3 of 7 large nodules of pneumoconiosis and all of the 42 cancerous lesions which were possible to be evaluated. Gradual increased in activity relative to that of ''normal lung fields'' was observed in all 14 lesions of pneumonia; pneumonic lesions of the lung abscess, tuberculosis and lung fluke disease; 4 of 7 large nodules of pneumoconiosis; all of 8 atelectatic lesions and 32 of 44 areas surrounding cancers (most of them had roentgenographic evidence of infiltrating shadows). Thus /sup 123/I-IMP accumulated increasingly in pneumonic and atelectatic lesions, while it appeared not to accumulate in such lesions replacing lung tissues as cavity, caseous and fibrous lesions and primary lung cancers. /sup 123/I-IMP can be used as a new lung imaging agent to provide diagnostic informations on the property of pulmonary lesions.

  9. Serial lung imaging with 123I-IMP in localized pulmonary lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajo, Masayuki; Shimada, Jurio; Shimozono, Michiko; Uchiyama, Noriaki; Hiraki, Yoshiyuki; Shinohara, Shinji.

    1988-01-01

    123 I-IMP (N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]-iodoamphetamine) dynamic (1 frame/min for 25 mins), 30-min and 4-hr static lung imaging was performed in a total of 65 patients with roentgenographic evidence of localized pulmonary lesion (12 with pneumonia, one with lung abscess, 5 with pulmonary tuberculosis, 3 with pneumoconiosis, one with lung fluke disease and 43 with various histological types of primary lung cancer). The findings in 65 of 70 (95 %) lesions in the initial 1 or 2-min dynamic 123 I-IMP images were analogous to those obtained by 99m Tc-MAA lung perfusion imaging and decreased activity was observed in 68 of 70 (97 %) lesions, suggesting that the initial images mainly reflected the relative distribution of pulmonary arterial blood flow. However, 123 I-IMP accumulated differently according to the pathological conditions afterwards. Decrease activity from 123 I-IMP was contineously observed in a cavity of the lung abscess, 2 of 2 tuberculomas, 3 of 7 large nodules of pneumoconiosis and all of the 42 cancerous lesions which were possible to be evaluated. Gradual increased in activity relative to that of ''normal lung fields'' was observed in all 14 lesions of pneumonia; pneumonic lesions of the lung abscess, tuberculosis and lung fluke disease; 4 of 7 large nodules of pneumoconiosis; all of 8 atelectatic lesions and 32 of 44 areas surrounding cancers (most of them had roentgenographic evidence of infiltrating shadows). Thus 123 I-IMP accumulated increasingly in pneumonic and atelectatic lesions, while it appeared not to accumulate in such lesions replacing lung tissues as cavity, caseous and fibrous lesions and primary lung cancers. 123 I-IMP can be used as a new lung imaging agent to provide diagnostic informations on the property of pulmonary lesions. (author)

  10. Wavelet optimization for content-based image retrieval in medical databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quellec, G; Lamard, M; Cazuguel, G; Cochener, B; Roux, C

    2010-04-01

    We propose in this article a content-based image retrieval (CBIR) method for diagnosis aid in medical fields. In the proposed system, images are indexed in a generic fashion, without extracting domain-specific features: a signature is built for each image from its wavelet transform. These image signatures characterize the distribution of wavelet coefficients in each subband of the decomposition. A distance measure is then defined to compare two image signatures and thus retrieve the most similar images in a database when a query image is submitted by a physician. To retrieve relevant images from a medical database, the signatures and the distance measure must be related to the medical interpretation of images. As a consequence, we introduce several degrees of freedom in the system so that it can be tuned to any pathology and image modality. In particular, we propose to adapt the wavelet basis, within the lifting scheme framework, and to use a custom decomposition scheme. Weights are also introduced between subbands. All these parameters are tuned by an optimization procedure, using the medical grading of each image in the database to define a performance measure. The system is assessed on two medical image databases: one for diabetic retinopathy follow up and one for screening mammography, as well as a general purpose database. Results are promising: a mean precision of 56.50%, 70.91% and 96.10% is achieved for these three databases, when five images are returned by the system. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI: A viable functional lung imaging modality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patz, Samuel; Hersman, F. William; Muradian, Iga; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Ruset, Iulian C.; Ketel, Stephen; Jacobson, Francine; Topulos, George P.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Butler, James P.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of researchers investigating hyperpolarized gas MRI as a candidate functional lung imaging modality have used 3 He as their imaging agent of choice rather than 129 Xe. This preference has been predominantly due to, 3 He providing stronger signals due to higher levels of polarization and higher gyromagnetic ratio, as well as its being easily available to more researchers due to availability of polarizers (USA) or ease of gas transport (Europe). Most researchers agree, however, that hyperpolarized 129 Xe will ultimately emerge as the imaging agent of choice due to its unlimited supply in nature and its falling cost. Our recent polarizer technology delivers vast improvements in hyperpolarized 129 Xe output. Using this polarizer, we have demonstrated the unique property of xenon to measure alveolar surface area noninvasively. In this article, we describe our human protocols and their safety, and our results for the measurement of the partial pressure of pulmonary oxygen (pO 2 ) by observation of 129 Xe signal decay. We note that the measurement of pO 2 by observation of 129 Xe signal decay is more complex than that for 3 He because of an additional signal loss mechanism due to interphase diffusion of 129 Xe from alveolar gas spaces to septal tissue. This results in measurements of an equivalent pO 2 that accounts for both traditional T 1 decay from pO 2 and that from interphase diffusion. We also provide an update on new technological advancements that form the foundation for an improved compact design polarizer as well as improvements that provide another order-of-magnitude scale-up in xenon polarizer output

  12. A Fast, Background-Independent Retrieval Strategy for Color Image Databases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Das, M; Draper, B. A; Lim, W. J; Manmatha, R; Riseman, E. M

    1996-01-01

    .... The method is fast and has low storage overhead. Good retrieval results are obtained with multi-colored query objects even when they occur in arbitrary sizes, rotations and locations in the database images...

  13. Saharasar: An Interactive SAR Image Database for Desert Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, S.; Paillou, Ph.

    2017-06-01

    We present a dedicated tool for accessing radar images acquired by the ALOS/PALSAR mission over Sahara and Arabia. We developed a dedicated web site, using the Mapserver web mapping server and the Cesium javascript library.

  14. Correlation of emphysema score with perceived malignancy of pulmonary nodules: a multi-observer study using the LIDC-IDRI CT lung database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemker, Rafael; Bülow, Thomas; Blaffert, Thomas; Dharaiya, Ekta

    2009-02-01

    Presence of emphysema is recognized to be one of the single most significant risk factors in risk models for the prediction of lung cancer. Therefore, an automatically computed emphysema score would be a prime candidate as an additional numerical feature for computer aided diagnosis (CADx) for indeterminate pulmonary nodules. We have applied several histogram-based emphysema scores to 460 thoracic CT scans from the IDRI CT lung image database, and analyzed the emphysema scores in conjunction with 3000 nodule malignancy ratings of 1232 pulmonary nodules made by expert observers. Despite the emphysema being a known risk factor, we have not found any impact on the readers' malignancy rating of nodules found in a patient with higher emphysema score. We have also not found any correlation between the number of expert-detected nodules in a patient and his emphysema score, or the relative craniocaudal location of the nodules and their malignancy rating. The inter-observer agreement of the expert ratings was excellent on nodule diameter (as derived from manual delineations), good for calcification, and only modest for malignancy and shape descriptions such as spiculation, lobulation, margin, etc.

  15. Histological evaluation of lung cancer with T2-weighted magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Takashi; Matsuura, Yoshifumi; Shioya, Sumie; Ohta, Yasuyo

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the differences in signal intensity of lung cancer tissue and non-cancerous lung tissues on T 2 -weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. MR images were obtained from patients with squamous cell carcinoma (n=6), adenocarcinoma (n=5), small cell carcinoma (n=5), and large cell carcinoma (n=1). To compare the MR signal intensity between tissues, we calculated the signal intensity ratios for tumor/skeletal muscle and lung/skeletal muscle. The MR signal intensity for each tissue was measured with a densitometer and T 2 -weighted MR images with a similar window and a center. The value of the signal intensity ratio for squamous cell carcinoma (3.26±0.76) was greater than those for adenocarcinoma (1.99±0.50, p<0.05), small cell carcinoma (2.35±0.60), large cell carcinoma (2.46), and non-cancerous lung tissues (1.70±0.68, p<0.02). The values of the MR signal intensity ratio for non-cancerous lung tissues were 2.00 for a collapsed lung, 0.93 for a fibrotic lung, and 2.18 for a fibrotic lung with obstructive pneumonia. The results suggest that the MR signal intensity ratio for pathologic tissues/normal skeletal muscle can be a useful indicator for qualitative and quantitative MR imaging diagnosis. (author)

  16. RECONSTRUCTION OF A HUMAN LUNG MORPHOLOGY MODEL FROM MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE A description of lung morphological structure is necessary for modeling the deposition and fate of inhaled therapeutic aerosols. A morphological model of the lung boundary was generated from magnetic resonance (MR) images with the goal of creating a framework for anato...

  17. COMPUTER RECONSTRUCTION OF A HUMAN LUNG MORPHOLOGY MODEL FROM MAGNETIC RESONANCE (MR) IMAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mathematical description of the morphological structure of the lung is necessary for modeling and analysis of the deposition of inhaled aerosols. A morphological model of the lung boundary was generated from magnetic resonance (MR) images, with the goal of creating a frame...

  18. Proton magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of lung function and respiratory dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichinger, Monika; Tetzlaff, Ralf; Puderbach, Michael; Woodhouse, Neil; Kauczor, H.-U.

    2007-01-01

    Since many pulmonary diseases present with a variable regional involvement, modalities for assessment of regional lung function gained increasing attention over the last years. Together with lung perfusion and gas exchange, ventilation, as a result of the interaction of the respiratory pump and the lungs, is an indispensable component of lung function. So far, this complex mechanism is still mainly assessed indirectly and globally. A differentiation between the individual determining factors of ventilation would be crucial for precise diagnostics and adequate treatment. By dynamic imaging of the respiratory pump, the mechanical components of ventilation can be assessed regionally. Amongst imaging modalities applicable to this topic, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as a tool not relying on ionising radiation, is the most attractive. Recent advances in MRI technology have made it possible to assess diaphragmatic and chest wall motion, static and dynamic lung volumes, as well as regional lung function. Even though existing studies show large heterogeneity in design and applied methods, it becomes evident that MRI is capable to visualise pulmonary function as well as diaphragmatic and thoracic wall movement, providing new insights into lung physiology. Partly contradictory results and conclusions are most likely caused by technical limitations, limited number of studies and small sample size. Existing studies mainly evaluate possible imaging techniques and concentrate on normal physiology. The few studies in patients with lung cancer and emphysema already give a promising outlook for these techniques from which an increasing impact on improved and quantitative disease characterization as well as better patient management can be expected

  19. Quantification of heterogeneity in lung disease with image-based pulmonary function testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahr, Charlene S; Samarage, Chaminda R; Donnelley, Martin; Farrow, Nigel; Morgan, Kaye S; Zosky, Graeme; Boucher, Richard C; Siu, Karen K W; Mall, Marcus A; Parsons, David W; Dubsky, Stephen; Fouras, Andreas

    2016-07-27

    Computed tomography (CT) and spirometry are the mainstays of clinical pulmonary assessment. Spirometry is effort dependent and only provides a single global measure that is insensitive for regional disease, and as such, poor for capturing the early onset of lung disease, especially patchy disease such as cystic fibrosis lung disease. CT sensitively measures change in structure associated with advanced lung disease. However, obstructions in the peripheral airways and early onset of lung stiffening are often difficult to detect. Furthermore, CT imaging poses a radiation risk, particularly for young children, and dose reduction tends to result in reduced resolution. Here, we apply a series of lung tissue motion analyses, to achieve regional pulmonary function assessment in β-ENaC-overexpressing mice, a well-established model of lung disease. The expiratory time constants of regional airflows in the segmented airway tree were quantified as a measure of regional lung function. Our results showed marked heterogeneous lung function in β-ENaC-Tg mice compared to wild-type littermate controls; identified locations of airway obstruction, and quantified regions of bimodal airway resistance demonstrating lung compensation. These results demonstrate the applicability of regional lung function derived from lung motion as an effective alternative respiratory diagnostic tool.

  20. New techniques for imaging and analyzing lung tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggli, V.L.; Ingram, P.; Linton, R.W.; Gutknecht, W.F.; Mastin, P.; Shelburne, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The recent technological revolution in the field of imaging techniques has provided pathologists and toxicologists with an expanding repertoire of analytical techniques for studying the interaction between the lung and the various exogenous materials to which it is exposed. Analytical problems requiring elemental sensitivity or specificity beyond the range of that offered by conventional scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis are particularly appropriate for the application of these newer techniques. Electron energy loss spectrometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and laser microprobe mass analysis each offer unique advantages in this regard, but also possess their own limitations and disadvantages. Diffraction techniques provide crystalline structural information available through no other means. Bulk chemical techniques provide useful cross-checks on the data obtained by microanalytical approaches. It is the purpose of this review to summarize the methodology of these techniques, acknowledge situations in which they have been used in addressing problems in pulmonary toxicology, and comment on the relative advantages and disadvantages of each approach. It is necessary for an investigator to weigh6 each of these factors when deciding which technique is best suited for any given analytical problem; often it is useful to employ a combination of two or more of the techniques discussed. It is anticipated that there will be increasing utilization of these technologies for problems in pulmonary toxicology in the decades to come. 92 references, 10 figures, 2 tables

  1. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: histopathological and imaging perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, S.R.; Ryan, S.M.; Colby, T.V.

    2003-01-01

    The present review focuses on the interstitial lung diseases related to smoking. Thus, the pathology and radiology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis and respiratory bronchiolitis-associated-interstitial lung disease are considered. The more tenuous association between pulmonary fibrosis and smoking is also discussed

  2. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: histopathological and imaging perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, S.R.; Ryan, S.M.; Colby, T.V

    2003-04-01

    The present review focuses on the interstitial lung diseases related to smoking. Thus, the pathology and radiology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis and respiratory bronchiolitis-associated-interstitial lung disease are considered. The more tenuous association between pulmonary fibrosis and smoking is also discussed.

  3. A data model and database for high-resolution pathology analytical image informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusheng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The systematic analysis of imaged pathology specimens often results in a vast amount of morphological information at both the cellular and sub-cellular scales. While microscopy scanners and computerized analysis are capable of capturing and analyzing data rapidly, microscopy image data remain underutilized in research and clinical settings. One major obstacle which tends to reduce wider adoption of these new technologies throughout the clinical and scientific communities is the challenge of managing, querying, and integrating the vast amounts of data resulting from the analysis of large digital pathology datasets. This paper presents a data model, which addresses these challenges, and demonstrates its implementation in a relational database system. Context: This paper describes a data model, referred to as Pathology Analytic Imaging Standards (PAIS, and a database implementation, which are designed to support the data management and query requirements of detailed characterization of micro-anatomic morphology through many interrelated analysis pipelines on whole-slide images and tissue microarrays (TMAs. Aims: (1 Development of a data model capable of efficiently representing and storing virtual slide related image, annotation, markup, and feature information. (2 Development of a database, based on the data model, capable of supporting queries for data retrieval based on analysis and image metadata, queries for comparison of results from different analyses, and spatial queries on segmented regions, features, and classified objects. Settings and Design: The work described in this paper is motivated by the challenges associated with characterization of micro-scale features for comparative and correlative analyses involving whole-slides tissue images and TMAs. Technologies for digitizing tissues have advanced significantly in the past decade. Slide scanners are capable of producing high-magnification, high-resolution images from whole

  4. A data model and database for high-resolution pathology analytical image informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fusheng; Kong, Jun; Cooper, Lee; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Chen, Wenjin; Sharma, Ashish; Niedermayr, Cristobal; Oh, Tae W; Brat, Daniel; Farris, Alton B; Foran, David J; Saltz, Joel

    2011-01-01

    The systematic analysis of imaged pathology specimens often results in a vast amount of morphological information at both the cellular and sub-cellular scales. While microscopy scanners and computerized analysis are capable of capturing and analyzing data rapidly, microscopy image data remain underutilized in research and clinical settings. One major obstacle which tends to reduce wider adoption of these new technologies throughout the clinical and scientific communities is the challenge of managing, querying, and integrating the vast amounts of data resulting from the analysis of large digital pathology datasets. This paper presents a data model, which addresses these challenges, and demonstrates its implementation in a relational database system. This paper describes a data model, referred to as Pathology Analytic Imaging Standards (PAIS), and a database implementation, which are designed to support the data management and query requirements of detailed characterization of micro-anatomic morphology through many interrelated analysis pipelines on whole-slide images and tissue microarrays (TMAs). (1) Development of a data model capable of efficiently representing and storing virtual slide related image, annotation, markup, and feature information. (2) Development of a database, based on the data model, capable of supporting queries for data retrieval based on analysis and image metadata, queries for comparison of results from different analyses, and spatial queries on segmented regions, features, and classified objects. The work described in this paper is motivated by the challenges associated with characterization of micro-scale features for comparative and correlative analyses involving whole-slides tissue images and TMAs. Technologies for digitizing tissues have advanced significantly in the past decade. Slide scanners are capable of producing high-magnification, high-resolution images from whole slides and TMAs within several minutes. Hence, it is becoming

  5. The Establishment of the SAR images database System Based on Oracle and ArcSDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jijin; Li, Zhen; Chen, Quan; Tian, Bangsen

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar is a kind of microwave imaging system, and has the advantages of multi-band, multi-polarization and multi-angle. At present, there is no SAR images database system based on typical features. For solving problems in interpretation and identification, a new SAR images database system of the typical features is urgent in the current development need. In this article, a SAR images database system based on Oracle and ArcSDE was constructed. The main works involving are as follows: (1) SAR image data was calibrated and corrected geometrically and geometrically. Besides, the fully polarimetric image was processed as the coherency matrix[T] to preserve the polarimetric information. (2) After analyzing multiple space borne SAR images, the metadata table was defined as: IMAGEID; Name of features; Latitude and Longitude; Sensor name; Range and Azimuth resolution etc. (3) Through the comparison between GeoRaster and ArcSDE, result showed ArcSDE is a more appropriate technology to store images in a central database. The System stores and manages multisource SAR image data well, reflects scattering, geometry, polarization, band and angle characteristics, and combines with analysis of the managed objects and service objects of the database as well as focuses on constructing SAR image system in the aspects of data browse and data retrieval. According the analysis of characteristics of SAR images such as scattering, polarization, incident angle and wave band information, different weights can be given to these characteristics. Then an interpreted tool is formed to provide an efficient platform for interpretation

  6. Decrease in the ability to detect elevated lung thallium due to delay in commencing imaging after exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothendler, J.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.; Okada, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Post-exercise elevation of the lung/myocardial thallium ratio and a high lung clearance rate between initial and delayed images have been reported to be markers for exercise-induced left ventricular (LV) dysfunction associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). The authors performed thallium exercise tests on 60 patients, 42 with CAD, in order to determine the effect of delaying initial imaging on detection of elevated lung thallium. In addition to images obtained at 2 minutes and at 2 hours after exercise, 18-minute images were also obtained to simulate such a delay. Because of rapid isotope clearance in those with initially elevated lung activity, there was decreased sensitivity of both the initial lung/myocardial ratio and lung thallium clearance for detecting CAD, using the 18-minute image as the initial post exercise study. They conclude that initial imaging should be done in the anterior view early after exercise to optimize detection of elevated lung thallium

  7. A Public Image Database for Benchmark of Plant Seedling Classification Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giselsson, Thomas Mosgaard; Nyholm Jørgensen, Rasmus; Jensen, Peter Kryger

    A database of images of approximately 960 unique plants belonging to 12 species at several growth stages is made publicly available. It comprises annotated RGB images with a physical resolution of roughly 10 pixels per mm. To standardise the evaluation of classification results obtained...

  8. An online database for plant image analysis software tools

    OpenAIRE

    Lobet, Guillaume; Draye, Xavier; Périlleux, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent years have seen an increase in methods for plant phenotyping using image analyses. These methods require new software solutions for data extraction and treatment. These solutions are instrumental in supporting various research pipelines, ranging from the localisation of cellular compounds to the quantification of tree canopies. However, due to the variety of existing tools and the lack of central repository, it is challenging for researchers to identify the software that is...

  9. Boron absorption imaging in rat lung colon adenocarcinoma metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altieri, S [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica Universita degli Studi di Pavia (Italy); Bortolussi, S [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica Universita degli Studi di Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica Universita degli Studi di Pavia (Italy); Fossati, F [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica Universita degli Studi di Pavia (Italy); Vittor, K [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica Universita degli Studi di Pavia (Italy); Nano, R [Dipartimento di Biologia Animale Universita degli Studi di Pavia (Italy); Facoetti, A [Dipartimento di Biologia Animale Universita degli Studi di Pavia (Italy); Chiari, P [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica Universita degli Studi di Pavia (Italy); Bakeine, J [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Biotecnologie Universita degli Studi di Brescia (Italy); Clerici, A [Dipartimento di Chirurgia Universita degli Studi di Pavia (Italy); Ferrari, C [Dipartimento di Chirurgia Universita degli Studi di Pavia (Italy); Salvucci, O [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Biotecnologie Universita degli Studi di Brescia (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    Given the encouraging results from our previous work on the clinical application of BNCT on non-resectable, chemotherapy resistant liver metastases, we explore the possibility to extend our technique to lung metastases. A fundamental requirement for BNCT is achieving higher {sup 10}B concentrations in the metastases compared to those in healthy tissue. For this reason we developed a rat model with lung metastases in order to study the temporal distribution of {sup 10}B concentration in tissues and tumoral cells. Rats with induced lung metastases from colon adenocarcinoma were sacrificed two hours after intraperitoneal Boronphenylalanine infusion. The lungs were harvested, frozen in liquid nitrogen and subsequently histological sections underwent neutron autoradiography in the nuclear reactor Triga Mark II, University of Pavia. Our findings demonstrate higher Boron uptake in tumoral nodules compared to healthy lung parenchyma 2 hours after Boronphenylalanine infusion.

  10. Clinical significance of increased lung/heart ratio in 210Tl stress myocardial image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zaoli; Chang Fengqin; Zhang Fengge; Wang Xiaoyuan; Liu Liuhua

    1990-01-01

    230 cases were studied with 201 Tl stress image. The results showed that the lung/heart ratio closely correlated with the presence and severity of coronary heart disease (CHD). Among them, 18 cases (7.8%) showed significantly elevated lung/heart ratio (> 0.50). It was confirmed that all of the 18 cases have severe CHD with left ventricular insufficiency. The author emphasizes that measurement of the lung/heart ratio during 201 Tl stress myocardial image may be useful for the assessment of the severity, evalation of the left ventricular function and judgement of prognosis in CHD

  11. Preparation of 99Tcm-CLP imaging probe of lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang Yonggang; Liao Yonghua

    2004-01-01

    The process of preparing an imaging micro-probe 99 Tc m -CLP from bovine nose cartilage is described in detail. Both labeled rate and radiochemical purity of 99 Tc m -CLP are greater than 90%, and KA is 1.12 x 10 9 L/mol in vitro. After the Balb/c nu/nu mice with lung cancer were intravenously injected by the 99 Tc m -CLP, the radioactivity was found to be well concentrated at the lung-cancer region, which suggests that the 99 Tc m -CLP micro-probe can be used in imaging study of lung carcinoma. (authors)

  12. WE-AB-202-04: Statistical Evaluation of Lung Function Using 4DCT Ventilation Imaging: Proton Therapy VS IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Q; Zhang, M; Chen, T; Yue, N; Zou, J [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Variation in function of different lung regions has been ignored so far for conventional lung cancer treatment planning, which may lead to higher risk of radiation induced lung disease. 4DCT based lung ventilation imaging provides a novel yet convenient approach for lung functional imaging as 4DCT is taken as routine for lung cancer treatment. Our work aims to evaluate the impact of accounting for spatial heterogeneity in lung function using 4DCT based lung ventilation imaging for proton and IMRT plans. Methods: Six patients with advanced stage lung cancer of various tumor locations were retrospectively evaluated for the study. Proton and IMRT plans were designed following identical planning objective and constrains for each patient. Ventilation images were calculated from patients’ 4DCT using deformable image registration implemented by Velocity AI software based on Jacobian-metrics. Lung was delineated into two function level regions based on ventilation (low and high functional area). High functional region was defined as lung ventilation greater than 30%. Dose distribution and statistics in different lung function area was calculated for patients. Results: Variation in dosimetric statistics of different function lung region was observed between proton and IMRT plans. In all proton plans, high function lung regions receive lower maximum dose (100.2%–108.9%), compared with IMRT plans (106.4%–119.7%). Interestingly, three out of six proton plans gave higher mean dose by up to 2.2% than IMRT to high function lung region. Lower mean dose (lower by up to 14.1%) and maximum dose (lower by up to 9%) were observed in low function lung for proton plans. Conclusion: A systematic approach was developed to generate function lung ventilation imaging and use it to evaluate plans. This method hold great promise in function analysis of lung during planning. We are currently studying more subjects to evaluate this tool.

  13. Automated interpretation of PET/CT images in patients with lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutte, Henrik; Jakobsson, David; Olofsson, Fredrik

    2007-01-01

    cancer. METHODS: A total of 87 patients who underwent PET/CT examinations due to suspected lung cancer comprised the training group. The test group consisted of PET/CT images from 49 patients suspected with lung cancer. The consensus interpretations by two experienced physicians were used as the 'gold...... method measured as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, was 0.97 in the test group, with an accuracy of 92%. The sensitivity was 86% at a specificity of 100%. CONCLUSIONS: A completely automated method using artificial neural networks can be used to detect lung cancer......PURPOSE: To develop a completely automated method based on image processing techniques and artificial neural networks for the interpretation of combined [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) images for the diagnosis and staging of lung...

  14. Image-based querying of urban knowledge databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Peter; Bae, Soonmin; Durand, Fredo

    2009-05-01

    We extend recent automated computer vision algorithms to reconstruct the global three-dimensional structures for photos and videos shot at fixed points in outdoor city environments. Mosaics of digital stills and embedded videos are georegistered by matching a few of their 2D features with 3D counterparts in aerial ladar imagery. Once image planes are aligned with world maps, abstract urban knowledge can propagate from the latter into the former. We project geotagged annotations from a 3D map into a 2D video stream and demonstrate their tracking buildings and streets in a clip with significant panning motion. We also present an interactive tool which enables users to select city features of interest in video frames and retrieve their geocoordinates and ranges. Implications of this work for future augmented reality systems based upon mobile smart phones are discussed.

  15. Tracking Regional Tissue Volume and Function Change in Lung Using Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunlin Cao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated the 24-hour redistribution and reabsorption of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid delivered to the lung during a bronchoscopic procedure in normal volunteers. In this work we utilize image-matching procedures to correlate fluid redistribution and reabsorption to changes in regional lung function. Lung CT datasets from six human subjects were used in this study. Each subject was scanned at four time points before and after BAL procedure. Image registration was performed to align images at different time points and different inflation levels. The resulting dense displacement fields were utilized to track tissue volume changes and reveal deformation patterns of local parenchymal tissue quantitatively. The registration accuracy was assessed by measuring landmark matching errors, which were on the order of 1 mm. The results show that quantitative-assessed fluid volume agreed well with bronchoscopist-reported unretrieved BAL volume in the whole lungs (squared linear correlation coefficient was 0.81. The average difference of lung tissue volume at baseline and after 24 hours was around 2%, which indicates that BAL fluid in the lungs was almost absorbed after 24 hours. Regional lung-function changes correlated with the presence of BAL fluid, and regional function returned to baseline as the fluid was reabsorbed.

  16. Detection and Severity Scoring of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using Volumetric Analysis of Lung CT Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Mohammad Parsa; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Akhlaghpoor, Shahram

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a devastating disease.While there is no cure for COPD and the lung damage associated with this disease cannot be reversed, it is still very important to diagnose it as early as possible. In this paper, we propose a novel method based on the measurement of air trapping in the lungs from CT images to detect COPD and to evaluate its severity. Twenty-five patients and twelve normal adults were included in this study. The proposed method found volumetric changes of the lungs from inspiration to expiration. To this end, trachea CT images at full inspiration and expiration were compared and changes in the areas and volumes of the lungs between inspiration and expiration were used to define quantitative measures (features). Using these features,the subjects were classified into two groups of normal and COPD patients using a Bayesian classifier. In addition, t-tests were applied to evaluate discrimination powers of the features for this classification. For the cases studied, the proposed method estimated air trapping in the lungs from CT images without human intervention. Based on the results, a mathematical model was developed to relate variations of lung volumes to the severity of the disease. As a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system, the proposed method may assist radiologists in the detection of COPD. It quantifies air trapping in the lungs and thus may assist them with the scoring of the disease by quantifying the severity of the disease

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of respiratory movement and lung function; Magnetresonanztomographie der Atembewegung und Lungenfunktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetzlaff, R. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Radiologie (E010), Heidelberg (Germany); Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Medizinische und Biologische Informatik, Heidelberg (Germany); Eichinger, M. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Radiologie (E010), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Lung function measurements are the domain of spirometry or plethysmography. These methods have proven their value in clinical practice, nevertheless, being global measurements the functional indices only describe the sum of all functional units of the lung. Impairment of only a single component of the respiratory pump or of a small part of lung parenchyma can be compensated by unaffected lung tissue. Dynamic imaging can help to detect such local changes and lead to earlier adapted therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seems to be perfect for this application as it is not hampered by image distortion as is projection radiography and it does not expose the patient to potentially harmful radiation like computed tomography. Unfortunately, lung parenchyma is not easy to image using MRI due to its low signal intensity. For this reason first applications of MRI in lung function measurements concentrated on the movement of the thoracic wall and the diaphragm. Recent technical advances in MRI however might allow measurements of regional dynamics of the lungs. (orig.) [German] Die Lungenfunktion wird bislang hauptsaechlich durch die Spirometrie oder Plethysmographie untersucht. Diese Methoden sind zwar sehr leistungsfaehig zur Diagnostik von Lungenerkrankungen, sind jedoch globale Messmethoden, deren Messparameter immer die Summe aller funktionellen Einheiten der Lunge beschreiben. Veraenderungen, die auf eine Teilkomponente der Atempumpe beschraenkt sind oder kleine Teile des Lungengewebes betreffen, koennen durch gesunde Lungenanteile kompensiert werden. Mit dynamischen bildgebenden Verfahren koennten solche regionalen Veraenderungen erfasst und so eine fruehere Therapie ermoeglicht werden. Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) bietet sich hier ideal an, da sie als Schnittbildverfahren weder die Probleme der Bildverzerrung, der Projektionsverfahren noch die Strahlenbelastung der Computertomographie hat. Allerdings wird die MRT der Lunge durch das geringe Signal des

  18. MRI investigation of normal fetal lung maturation using signal intensities on different imaging sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Csapo, Bence; Mittermayer, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    To purpose of this paper is to study the relation between normal lung maturation signal and changes in intensity ratios (SIR) and to determine which magnetic resonance imaging sequence provides the strongest correlation of normal lung SIs with gestational age. 126 normal singleton pregnancies (20-37 weeks) were examined with a 1.5 Tesla unit. Mean SIs for lungs, liver, and gastric fluid were assessed on six different sequences, and SIRs of lung/liver (LLSIR) and lung/gastric fluid (LGSIR) were correlated with gestational age for each sequence. To evaluate the feasibility of SIRs in the prediction of the state of the lung maturity, accuracy of the predicted SIRs (D*) was measured by calculating relative residuals (D*-D)/D for each sequence. LLSIRs showed significant changes in every sequence (p<0.05), while LGSIRs only on two sequences. Significant differences were shown for the mean of absolute residuals for both LLSIRs (p<0.001) and for LGSIRs (p=0.003). Relative residuals of LLSIRs were significantly smaller on T1-weighted sequence, whereas they were significantly higher for LGSIRs on FLAIR sequence. Fetal liver seems to be adequate reference for the investigation of lung maturation. T1-weighted sequence was the most accurate for the measurement of the lung SIs; thus, we propose to determine LLSIR on T1-weighted sequence when evaluating lung development. (orig.)

  19. MRI investigation of normal fetal lung maturation using signal intensities on different imaging sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria); Csapo, Bence [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Gyneocology, Vienna (Austria); Mittermayer, Christoph [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Pediatrics, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-03-15

    To purpose of this paper is to study the relation between normal lung maturation signal and changes in intensity ratios (SIR) and to determine which magnetic resonance imaging sequence provides the strongest correlation of normal lung SIs with gestational age. 126 normal singleton pregnancies (20-37 weeks) were examined with a 1.5 Tesla unit. Mean SIs for lungs, liver, and gastric fluid were assessed on six different sequences, and SIRs of lung/liver (LLSIR) and lung/gastric fluid (LGSIR) were correlated with gestational age for each sequence. To evaluate the feasibility of SIRs in the prediction of the state of the lung maturity, accuracy of the predicted SIRs (D*) was measured by calculating relative residuals (D*-D)/D for each sequence. LLSIRs showed significant changes in every sequence (p<0.05), while LGSIRs only on two sequences. Significant differences were shown for the mean of absolute residuals for both LLSIRs (p<0.001) and for LGSIRs (p=0.003). Relative residuals of LLSIRs were significantly smaller on T1-weighted sequence, whereas they were significantly higher for LGSIRs on FLAIR sequence. Fetal liver seems to be adequate reference for the investigation of lung maturation. T1-weighted sequence was the most accurate for the measurement of the lung SIs; thus, we propose to determine LLSIR on T1-weighted sequence when evaluating lung development. (orig.)

  20. A unified approach for EIT imaging of regional overdistension and atelectasis in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Laberge, Camille; Arnold, John H; Wolf, Gerhard K

    2012-03-01

    Patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) are vulnerable to ventilator-induced lung injury. Although this syndrome affects the lung heterogeneously, mechanical ventilation is not guided by regional indicators of potential lung injury. We used electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to estimate the extent of regional lung overdistension and atelectasis during mechanical ventilation. Techniques for tidal breath detection, lung identification, and regional compliance estimation were combined with the Graz consensus on EIT lung imaging (GREIT) algorithm. Nine ALI/ARDS patients were monitored during stepwise increases and decreases in airway pressure. Our method detected individual breaths with 96.0% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity. The duration and volume of tidal breaths erred on average by 0.2 s and 5%, respectively. Respiratory system compliance from EIT and ventilator measurements had a correlation coefficient of 0.80. Stepwise increases in pressure could reverse atelectasis in 17% of the lung. At the highest pressures, 73% of the lung became overdistended. During stepwise decreases in pressure, previously-atelectatic regions remained open at sub-baseline pressures. We recommend that the proposed approach be used in collaborative research of EIT-guided ventilation strategies for ALI/ARDS.

  1. Image storage, cataloguing and retrieval using a personal computer database software application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.; Howman-Giles, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Interesting images and cases are collected and collated by most nuclear medicine practitioners throughout the world. Changing imaging technology has altered the way in which images may be presented and are reported, with less reliance on 'hard copy' for both reporting and archiving purposes. Digital image generation and storage is rapidly replacing film in both radiological and nuclear medicine practice. A personal computer database based interesting case filing system is described and demonstrated. The digital image storage format allows instant access to both case information (e.g. history and examination, scan report or teaching point) and the relevant images. The database design allows rapid selection of cases and images appropriate to a particular diagnosis, scan type, age or other search criteria. Correlative X-ray, CT, MRI and ultrasound images can also be stored and accessed. The application is in use at The New Children's Hospital as an aid to postgraduate medical education, with new cases being regularly added to the database

  2. Multi-Modal Imaging in a Mouse Model of Orthotopic Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priya; Kato, Tatsuya; Ujiie, Hideki; Wada, Hironobu; Lee, Daiyoon; Hu, Hsin-Pei; Hirohashi, Kentaro; Ahn, Jin Young; Zheng, Jinzi; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of CF800, a novel PEGylated nano-liposomal imaging agent containing indocyanine green (ICG) and iohexol, for real-time near infrared (NIR) fluorescence and computed tomography (CT) image-guided surgery in an orthotopic lung cancer model in nude mice. CF800 was intravenously administered into 13 mice bearing the H460 orthotopic human lung cancer. At 48 h post-injection (peak imaging agent accumulation time point), ex vivo NIR and CT imaging was performed. A clinical NIR imaging system (SPY®, Novadaq) was used to measure fluorescence intensity of tumor and lung. Tumor-to-background-ratios (TBR) were calculated in inflated and deflated states. The mean Hounsfield unit (HU) of lung tumor was quantified using the CT data set and a semi-automated threshold-based method. Histological evaluation using H&E, the macrophage marker F4/80 and the endothelial cell marker CD31, was performed, and compared to the liposomal fluorescence signal obtained from adjacent tissue sections. The fluorescence TBR measured when the lung is in the inflated state (2.0 ± 0.58) was significantly greater than in the deflated state (1.42 ± 0.380 (n = 7, p<0.003). Mean fluorescent signal in tumor was highly variable across samples, (49.0 ± 18.8 AU). CT image analysis revealed greater contrast enhancement in lung tumors (a mean increase of 110 ± 57 HU) when CF800 is administered compared to the no contrast enhanced tumors (p = 0.0002). Preliminary data suggests that the high fluorescence TBR and CT tumor contrast enhancement provided by CF800 may have clinical utility in localization of lung cancer during CT and NIR image-guided surgery.

  3. Constructing Benchmark Databases and Protocols for Medical Image Analysis: Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Kauppi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the performance evaluation practices for developing medical image analysis methods, in particular, how to establish and share databases of medical images with verified ground truth and solid evaluation protocols. Such databases support the development of better algorithms, execution of profound method comparisons, and, consequently, technology transfer from research laboratories to clinical practice. For this purpose, we propose a framework consisting of reusable methods and tools for the laborious task of constructing a benchmark database. We provide a software tool for medical image annotation helping to collect class label, spatial span, and expert's confidence on lesions and a method to appropriately combine the manual segmentations from multiple experts. The tool and all necessary functionality for method evaluation are provided as public software packages. As a case study, we utilized the framework and tools to establish the DiaRetDB1 V2.1 database for benchmarking diabetic retinopathy detection algorithms. The database contains a set of retinal images, ground truth based on information from multiple experts, and a baseline algorithm for the detection of retinopathy lesions.

  4. Overview of intelligent data retrieval methods for waveforms and images in massive fusion databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, J. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Center, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jesus.vega@ciemat.es; Murari, A. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Center, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM ENEA per la Fusione, I-35127 Padua (Italy); Pereira, A.; Portas, A.; Ratta, G.A.; Castro, R. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Center, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    JET database contains more than 42 Tbytes of data (waveforms and images) and it doubles its size about every 2 years. ITER database is expected to be orders of magnitude above this quantity. Therefore, data access in such huge databases can no longer be efficiently based on shot number or temporal interval. Taking into account that diagnostics generate reproducible signal patterns (structural shapes) for similar physical behaviour, high level data access systems can be developed. In these systems, the input parameter is a pattern and the outputs are the shot numbers and the temporal locations where similar patterns appear inside the database. These pattern oriented techniques can be used for first data screening of any type of morphological aspect of waveforms and images. The article shows a new technique to look for similar images in huge databases in a fast an efficient way. Also, previous techniques to search for similar waveforms and to retrieve time-series data or images containing any kind of patterns are reviewed.

  5. Fetal lung volume measurement by MRI with high-speed imaging systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osada, Hisao; Kaku, Kenshi [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2002-08-01

    Although ultrasonography is widely used for fetal morphologic observation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has gained popularity as a new prenatal diagnostic method with recent introduction of high-speed imaging systems. Infants with lung hypoplasia affecting respiratory function require intensive management starting immediately after birth. Therefore, accurate prenatal differential diagnosis and severity evaluation are extremely important for these fetuses. The aim of this study is to measure fetal lung volume using a computer-based, three-dimensional MRI imaging system and to evaluate the possibility of clinical applications of this procedure. A total of 96 fetuses were evaluated, all were morphologically abnormal, and MRI was done for advanced assessment from 24 to 39 weeks gestation. Three-directional views of fetal chest were imaged by Signa Horizon, 1.5 Tesla, version 5.6 (General Electronics) with the following conditions; coil: TORSO coil, sequence: SSFSE (single shot fast spin echo), slice thickness: 5 mm, and imaging speed: 2 seconds/slice. To calculate the lung volume and create three-dimensional image, the lung area in each slice was traced out, then multiplied using computer image processing. Simultaneously, the volumes of all slices were summed to give the volume of each lung. Linear regression analysis and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used for statistical analyses. In all cases, clear images were obtained, and were adequate for three-dimensional evaluation of the fetal lung. Thirty-five fetuses had poor outcomes, such as intrauterine fetal death, neonatal death, and intensive respiratory care. Regression lines of lung volume versus gestational week were calculated for these fetuses with poor outcome and 61 other fetuses with good outcome. ANCOVA, with gestational week as a covariant, revealed a significant intergroup difference in the lung volume (p<0.001). Similarly, regression lines of lung volume versus fetal body weight estimated by

  6. Level-set-based reconstruction algorithm for EIT lung images: first clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Peyman; Soleimani, Manuchehr; Pulletz, Sven; Frerichs, Inéz; Adler, Andy

    2012-05-01

    We show the first clinical results using the level-set-based reconstruction algorithm for electrical impedance tomography (EIT) data. The level-set-based reconstruction method (LSRM) allows the reconstruction of non-smooth interfaces between image regions, which are typically smoothed by traditional voxel-based reconstruction methods (VBRMs). We develop a time difference formulation of the LSRM for 2D images. The proposed reconstruction method is applied to reconstruct clinical EIT data of a slow flow inflation pressure-volume manoeuvre in lung-healthy and adult lung-injury patients. Images from the LSRM and the VBRM are compared. The results show comparable reconstructed images, but with an improved ability to reconstruct sharp conductivity changes in the distribution of lung ventilation using the LSRM.

  7. Level-set-based reconstruction algorithm for EIT lung images: first clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmati, Peyman; Adler, Andy; Soleimani, Manuchehr; Pulletz, Sven; Frerichs, Inéz

    2012-01-01

    We show the first clinical results using the level-set-based reconstruction algorithm for electrical impedance tomography (EIT) data. The level-set-based reconstruction method (LSRM) allows the reconstruction of non-smooth interfaces between image regions, which are typically smoothed by traditional voxel-based reconstruction methods (VBRMs). We develop a time difference formulation of the LSRM for 2D images. The proposed reconstruction method is applied to reconstruct clinical EIT data of a slow flow inflation pressure–volume manoeuvre in lung-healthy and adult lung-injury patients. Images from the LSRM and the VBRM are compared. The results show comparable reconstructed images, but with an improved ability to reconstruct sharp conductivity changes in the distribution of lung ventilation using the LSRM. (paper)

  8. Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy for Subcentimeter Lung Tumors: Clinical, Dosimetric, and Image Guidance Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louie, Alexander V.; Senan, Suresh; Dahele, Max; Slotman, Ben J.; Verbakel, Wilko F.A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Use of stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) for subcentimeter lung tumors is controversial. We report our outcomes for tumors with diameter ≤1 cm and their visibility on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans and retrospectively evaluate the planned dose using a deterministic dose calculation algorithm (Acuros XB [AXB]). Methods and Materials: We identified subcentimeter tumors from our institutional SABR database. Tumor size was remeasured on an artifact-free phase of the planning 4-dimensional (4D)-CT. Clinical plan doses were generated using either a pencil beam convolution or an anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA). All AAA plans were recalculated using AXB, and differences among D95 and mean dose for internal target volume (ITV) and planning target volume (PTV) on the average intensity CT dataset, as well as for gross tumor volume (GTV) on the end respiratory phases were reported. For all AAA patients, CBCT scans acquired during each treatment fraction were evaluated for target visibility. Progression-free and overall survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Thirty-five patients with 37 subcentimeter tumors were eligible for analysis. For the 22 AAA plans recalculated using AXB, Mean D95 ± SD values were 2.2 ± 4.4% (ITV) and 2.5 ± 4.8% (PTV) lower using AXB; whereas mean doses were 2.9 ± 4.9% (ITV) and 3.7 ± 5.1% (PTV) lower. Calculated AXB doses were significantly lower in one patient (difference in mean ITV and PTV doses, as well as in mean ITV and PTV D95 ranged from 22%-24%). However, the end respiratory phase GTV received at least 95% of the prescription dose. Review of 92 CBCT scans from all AAA patients revealed that the tumor was visualized in 82 images, and its position could be inferred in other images. The 2-year local progression-free survival was 100%. Conclusions: Patients with subcentimeter lung tumors are good candidates for SABR, given the dosimetry, ability to localize

  9. Prospective Evaluation of Dual-Energy Imaging in Patients Undergoing Image Guided Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer: Initial Clinical Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherertz, Tracy; Hoggarth, Mark; Luce, Jason; Block, Alec M.; Nagda, Suneel; Harkenrider, Matthew M.; Emami, Bahman; Roeske, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A prospective feasibility study was conducted to investigate the utility of dual-energy (DE) imaging compared to conventional x-ray imaging for patients undergoing kV-based image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for lung cancer. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved feasibility study enrolled patients with lung cancer undergoing IGRT and was initiated in September 2011. During daily setup, 2 sequential respiration-gated x-ray images were obtained using an on-board imager. Imaging was composed of 1 standard x-ray image at 120 kVp (1 mAs) and a second image obtained at 60 kVp (4 mAs). Weighted logarithmic subtraction of the 2 images was performed offline to create a soft tissue-selective DE image. Conventional and DE images were evaluated by measuring relative contrast and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and also by comparing spatial localization, using both approaches. Imaging dose was assessed using a calibrated ion chamber. Results: To date, 10 patients with stage IA to IIIA lung cancer were enrolled and 57 DE images were analyzed. DE subtraction resulted in complete suppression of overlying bone in all 57 DE images, with an average improvement in relative contrast of 4.7 ± 3.3 over that of 120 kVp x-ray images (P<.0002). The improvement in relative contrast with DE imaging was seen for both smaller (gross tumor volume [GTV] ≤5 cc) and larger tumors (GTV >5 cc), with average relative contrast improvement ratios of 3.4 ± 4.1 and 5.4 ± 3.6, respectively. Moreover, the GTV was reliably localized in 95% of the DE images versus 74% of the single energy (SE images, (P=.004). Mean skin dose per DE image set was 0.44 ± 0.03 mGy versus 0.43 ± 0.03 mGy, using conventional kV imaging parameters. Conclusions: Initial results of this feasibility study suggest that DE thoracic imaging may enhance tumor localization in lung cancer patients receiving kV-based IGRT without increasing imaging dose

  10. The image database management system of teaching file using personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, M. J.; Kim, G. W.; Chun, T. J.; Ahn, W. H.; Baik, S. K.; Choi, H. Y.; Kim, B. G.

    1995-01-01

    For the systemic management and easy using of teaching file in radiology department, the authors tried to do the setup of a database management system of teaching file using personal computer. We used a personal computer (IBM PC compatible, 486DX2) including a image capture card(Window vision, Dooin Elect, Seoul, Korea) and video camera recorder (8mm, CCD-TR105, Sony, Tokyo, Japan) for the acquisition and storage of images. We developed the database program by using Foxpro for Window 2.6(Microsoft, Seattle, USA) executed in the Window 3.1 (Microsoft, Seattle, USA). Each datum consisted of hospital number, name, sex, age, examination date, keyword, radiologic examination modalities, final diagnosis, radiologic findings, references and representative images. The images were acquired and stored as bitmap format (8 bitmap, 540 X 390 ∼ 545 X 414, 256 gray scale) and displayed on the 17 inch-flat monitor(1024 X 768, Samtron, Seoul, Korea). Without special devices, the images acquisition and storage could be done on the reading viewbox, simply. The image quality on the computer's monitor was less than the one of original film on the viewbox, but generally the characteristics of each lesions could be differentiated. Easy retrieval of data was possible for the purpose of teaching file system. Without high cost appliances, we could consummate the image database system of teaching file using personal computer with relatively inexpensive method

  11. Micropapillary Lung Cancer with Breast Metastasis Simulating Primary Breast Cancer due to Architectural Distortion on Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung Ran; Hong, Eun Kyung; Lee, See Yeon [Center for Breast Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Ro, Jae Yoon [The Methodist Hospital, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Houston (United States)

    2012-03-15

    A 47-year-old Korean woman with right middle lobe lung adenocarcinoma, malignant pleural effusion, and multiple lymph node and bone metastases, after three months of lung cancer diagnosis, presented with a palpable right breast mass. Images of the right breast demonstrated architectural distortion that strongly suggested primary breast cancer. Breast biopsy revealed metastatic lung cancer with a negative result for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and mammaglobin, and a positive result for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1). We present a case of breast metastasis from a case of lung cancer with an extensive micropapillary component, which was initially misinterpreted as a primary breast cancer due to unusual image findings with architectural distortion.

  12. A role of computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging for cystic lung diseases in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, Jun; Shimotake, Takashi; Deguchi, Eiichi; Tokiwa, Kazuaki; Iwai, Naomi

    1995-01-01

    Fourteen children with cystic lung diseases were imaged using computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These patients studied included 7 patients with bronchogenic cyst of lung, 4 with pulmonary sequestration, 1 with congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, 1 with lung abscess, and 1 with cystic bronchoectasis. MRI identified all lesions seen on the chest radiographs. It was particularly valuable delineating contents of bronchogenic cyst without the need for contrast material enhancement. However, MRI was not quite as sensitive as CT that detected very small abnormalities, because MRI had more artifacts than those of CT. In conclusion, we believe that both CT and MRI are needed for differential diagnosis of lung diseases in children. (author)

  13. A role of computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging for cystic lung diseases in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagihara, Jun; Shimotake, Takashi; Deguchi, Eiichi; Tokiwa, Kazuaki; Iwai, Naomi [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    Fourteen children with cystic lung diseases were imaged using computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These patients studied included 7 patients with bronchogenic cyst of lung, 4 with pulmonary sequestration, 1 with congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, 1 with lung abscess, and 1 with cystic bronchoectasis. MRI identified all lesions seen on the chest radiographs. It was particularly valuable delineating contents of bronchogenic cyst without the need for contrast material enhancement. However, MRI was not quite as sensitive as CT that detected very small abnormalities, because MRI had more artifacts than those of CT. In conclusion, we believe that both CT and MRI are needed for differential diagnosis of lung diseases in children. (author).

  14. Incidental lung cancers and positive computed tomography images in people living with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Kristensen, Thomas; Klitbo, Ditte M.

    2017-01-01

    in 901 patients, including 113 at high risk for lung cancer. A positive image was found in 28 (3.1% of the entire cohort and 9.7% of the high-risk group). Nine patients (all in the high-risk group) had invasive procedures undertaken with no serious adverse events. Lung cancer (stages IA, IIA, and IIIA......Objective: Lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) of high-risk groups in the general population is recommended by several authorities. This may not be feasible in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) due to higher prevalence of nodules. We therefore assessed the prevalence...... of positive computed tomography (CT) images and lung cancers in PLWHIV. Design: The Copenhagen comorbidity in HIV infection (COCOMO) study is an observational, longitudinal cohort study. Single-round LDCT was performed with subsequent clinical follow-up (NCT02382822). Method: Outcomes included histology...

  15. Evaluation of classification method of lung lobe for multi-slice CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Kousuke; Matsuhiro, Mikio; Saita, Shinsuke

    2010-01-01

    Recently, due to the introduction of multi-slice CT, to obtain a high resolution 3D CT image is possible in a short time. The temporal and spatial resolutions are high, so a highly accurate 3D image analysis is possible. To develop a structure analysis of the lung is needed and to be used as a fundamental technology for early detection of the disease. By separating the lung into lung lobes may provide important information for analysis, diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases. Therefore in this report, we adapt to abnormality example with the classification algorithms using the anatomical information of the bronchus, the pulmonary vein and interlobar fissure information, we evaluate the classification. (author)

  16. A new design for high stability pressure-controlled ventilation for small animal lung imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, M J; Habib, A; Lewis, R A; Fouras, A; Dubsky, S; Wallace, M J; Hooper, S B

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a custom-designed ventilator to deliver a stable pressure to the lungs of small animals for use in imaging experiments. Our ventilator was designed with independent pressure vessels to separately control the Peak Inspiratory Pressure (PIP) and Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) to minimise pressure fluctuations during the ventilation process. The ventilator was computer controlled through a LabVIEW interface, enabling experimental manipulations to be performed remotely whilst simultaneously imaging the lungs in situ. Mechanical ventilation was successfully performed on newborn rabbit pups to assess the most effective ventilation strategies for aerating the lungs at birth. Highly stable pressures enabled reliable respiratory gated acquisition of projection radiographs and a stable prolonged (15 minute) breath-hold for high-resolution computed tomography of deceased rabbit pups at different lung volumes.

  17. Estimation of lung volume and pulmonary blood volume from radioisotopic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Minoru

    1989-01-01

    Lung volume and pulmonary blood volume in man were estimated from the radioisotopic image using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Six healthy volunteers were studied in a supine position with normal and altered lung volumes by applying continuous negative body-surface pressure (CNP) and by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). 99m Tc labeled human serum albumin was administered as an aerosol to image the lungs. The CNP caused the diaphragm to be lowered and it increased the mean lung tissue volume obtained by SPECT from 3.09±0.49 l for baseline to 3.67±0.62 l for 10 cmH 2 O (p 2 O (p 2 O), respectively. The PEEP also increased the lung tissue volume to 3.68±0.68 l for 10 cmH 2 O as compared with the baseline (p 2 O PEEP. The lung tissue volume obtained by SPECT showed a positive correlation with functional residual capacity measured by the He dilution method (r=0.91, p 99m Tc-labeled red blood cells. The L/H ratio decreased after either the CNP or PEEP, suggesting a decrease in the blood volume per unit lung volume. However, it was suggested that the total pulmonary blood volume increased slightly either on the CNP (+7.4% for 10 cmH 2 O, p 2 O,p<0.05) when we extrapolated the L/H ratio to the whole lungs by multiplying the lung tissue volume obtained by SPECT. We concluded that SPECT could offer access to the estimation of lung volume and pulmonary blood volume in vivo. (author)

  18. T2 relaxation time in MR imaging of normal and abnormal lung parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, J.R.; McKay, A.; Mueller, N.L.

    1990-01-01

    To measure the T2 relaxation times of normal and abnormal lung parenchyma and to evaluate the influence of field strength and lung inflation on T2. Five healthy volunteers and five patients with diffuse lung disease were imaged at 0.15 and 1.5 T. Excised normal pig lung was imaged at 0.15 and 1.5 T and analyzed in a spectrometer at 2.0 T. Single-echo (Hahn) pulse sequences (TR, 2,000 msec; TE, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 msec) were compared with multiecho trains (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill [CPMG] at 0.15 T (TR, 2,000 msec; TE, 20-40-60... 240 msec) and 2.0 T (TR, 2,000 msec; TE, 1, 2, 3,..., 10msec). T2 relaxation times calculated from single-echo sequences showed considerable variation between 0.15 and 2.0 T. T2 also changed with lung inflation. However, the T2 measurements on CPMG sequences did not change significantly (P > .05) with field strength and were only minimally affected by lung inflation. The mean ± SD T2 values for normal lung were 99 ± 8 and for abnormal lung were 84 ± 17. Lung parenchyma T2 measurements obtained with the use of conventional single-echo pulse sequences are variable and inaccurate because of inflation and field strength dependent magnetic susceptibility effects that lead to rapid nonrecoverable dephasing. The results indicate that multiecho sequences with appropriately short echo spacings yield more reproducible determinations of T2, which are independent of field strength and less dependent on lung inflation

  19. A Medical Image Backup Architecture Based on a NoSQL Database and Cloud Computing Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Simões de Almeida, Luan Henrique; Costa Oliveira, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital systems for storing medical images generates a huge volume of data. Digital images are commonly stored and managed on a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), under the DICOM standard. However, PACS is limited because it is strongly dependent on the server's physical space. Alternatively, Cloud Computing arises as an extensive, low cost, and reconfigurable resource. However, medical images contain patient information that can not be made available in a public cloud. Therefore, a mechanism to anonymize these images is needed. This poster presents a solution for this issue by taking digital images from PACS, converting the information contained in each image file to a NoSQL database, and using cloud computing to store digital images.

  20. Learning with distribution of optimized features for recognizing common CT imaging signs of lung diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ling; Liu, Xiabi; Fei, Baowei

    2017-01-01

    Common CT imaging signs of lung diseases (CISLs) are defined as the imaging signs that frequently appear in lung CT images from patients. CISLs play important roles in the diagnosis of lung diseases. This paper proposes a novel learning method, namely learning with distribution of optimized feature (DOF), to effectively recognize the characteristics of CISLs. We improve the classification performance by learning the optimized features under different distributions. Specifically, we adopt the minimum spanning tree algorithm to capture the relationship between features and discriminant ability of features for selecting the most important features. To overcome the problem of various distributions in one CISL, we propose a hierarchical learning method. First, we use an unsupervised learning method to cluster samples into groups based on their distribution. Second, in each group, we use a supervised learning method to train a model based on their categories of CISLs. Finally, we obtain multiple classification decisions from multiple trained models and use majority voting to achieve the final decision. The proposed approach has been implemented on a set of 511 samples captured from human lung CT images and achieves a classification accuracy of 91.96%. The proposed DOF method is effective and can provide a useful tool for computer-aided diagnosis of lung diseases on CT images.

  1. Human Organotypic Lung Tumor Models: Suitable For Preclinical 18F-FDG PET-Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fecher

    Full Text Available Development of predictable in vitro tumor models is a challenging task due to the enormous complexity of tumors in vivo. The closer the resemblance of these models to human tumor characteristics, the more suitable they are for drug-development and -testing. In the present study, we generated a complex 3D lung tumor test system based on acellular rat lungs. A decellularization protocol was established preserving the architecture, important ECM components and the basement membrane of the lung. Human lung tumor cells cultured on the scaffold formed cluster and exhibited an up-regulation of the carcinoma-associated marker mucin1 as well as a reduced proliferation rate compared to respective 2D culture. Additionally, employing functional imaging with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET these tumor cell cluster could be detected and tracked over time. This approach allowed monitoring of a targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment in the in vitro lung tumor model non-destructively. Surprisingly, FDG-PET assessment of single tumor cell cluster on the same scaffold exhibited differences in their response to therapy, indicating heterogeneity in the lung tumor model. In conclusion, our complex lung tumor test system features important characteristics of tumors and its microenvironment and allows monitoring of tumor growth and -metabolism in combination with functional imaging. In longitudinal studies, new therapeutic approaches and their long-term effects can be evaluated to adapt treatment regimes in future.

  2. A method for smoothing segmented lung boundary in chest CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Yeny; Hong, Helen

    2007-03-01

    To segment low density lung regions in chest CT images, most of methods use the difference in gray-level value of pixels. However, radiodense pulmonary vessels and pleural nodules that contact with the surrounding anatomy are often excluded from the segmentation result. To smooth lung boundary segmented by gray-level processing in chest CT images, we propose a new method using scan line search. Our method consists of three main steps. First, lung boundary is extracted by our automatic segmentation method. Second, segmented lung contour is smoothed in each axial CT slice. We propose a scan line search to track the points on lung contour and find rapidly changing curvature efficiently. Finally, to provide consistent appearance between lung contours in adjacent axial slices, 2D closing in coronal plane is applied within pre-defined subvolume. Our method has been applied for performance evaluation with the aspects of visual inspection, accuracy and processing time. The results of our method show that the smoothness of lung contour was considerably increased by compensating for pulmonary vessels and pleural nodules.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of lung infections in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, Ville; Ruuskanen, Olli [Turku University Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Turku (Finland); Svedstroem, Erkki [Turku University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Turku (Finland)

    2008-11-15

    The advantages and limitations of MRI in lung infections in children have not been well established. This article illustrates the MRI findings in children with pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and other pathogens. Lung parenchymal, pleural, and lymph node abnormalities are well characterized by MRI. Loculation of pleural fluid is detected in children with empyema. Contrast enhancement may be useful in the differentiation of active inflammation from noninflammatory changes. MRI can be particularly useful in the follow-up of children with chronic pulmonary diseases. (orig.)

  4. A facial expression image database and norm for Asian population: a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Cho, Shu-ling; Horszowska, Katarzyna; Chen, Mei-Yen; Wu, Chia-Ching; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Yeh, Yi-Yu; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2009-01-01

    We collected 6604 images of 30 models in eight types of facial expression: happiness, anger, sadness, disgust, fear, surprise, contempt and neutral. Among them, 406 most representative images from 12 models were rated by more than 200 human raters for perceived emotion category and intensity. Such large number of emotion categories, models and raters is sufficient for most serious expression recognition research both in psychology and in computer science. All the models and raters are of Asian background. Hence, this database can also be used when the culture background is a concern. In addition, 43 landmarks each of the 291 rated frontal view images were identified and recorded. This information should facilitate feature based research of facial expression. Overall, the diversity in images and richness in information should make our database and norm useful for a wide range of research.

  5. Structural and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging of the lung in cystic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaxopoulou, Christina; Gnannt, Ralph; Kellenberger, Christian J. [University Children' s Hospital Zuerich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zuerich, CH (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital Zuerich, Children' s Research Center, Zuerich (Switzerland); Higashigaito, Kai [University Hospital Zuerich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Jung, Andreas [University Children' s Hospital Zuerich, Children' s Research Center, Zuerich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital Zuerich, Division of Pneumology, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2018-02-15

    Because of its absence of ionising radiation and possibility for obtaining functional information, MRI is promising for assessing lung disease in children who require repetitive imaging for long-term follow-up. To describe MRI findings in children with cystic fibrosis and evaluate semi-quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced lung perfusion. We retrospectively compared lung MRI in 25 children and young adults with cystic fibrosis (median age 3.7 years) to 12 children (median age 2 years) imaged for other pathologies. MRI at 1.5 T included respiratory-gated sequences and contrast-enhanced lung perfusion imaging. We described and graded any morphologic change. Signal enhancement and time to peak values of perfusion abnormalities were compared to those of normally enhancing lung parenchyma. Frequent findings in patients with cystic fibrosis were bronchial wall thickening (24/25, 96%), areas of consolidation (22/25, 88%), enlarged lymph nodes (20/25, 80%), bronchiectasis (5/25, 20%) and mucus plugging (3/25, 12%). Compared to normally enhancing lung, perfusion defects (21/25, 84%), characterised by decreased enhancement, showed prolonged time to peak. Areas of consolidation showed increased enhancement. While time to peak of procedure-related atelectasis was not significantly different from that of normal lung, disease-related consolidation showed prolonged time to peak (P=0.01). Lung MRI demonstrates structural and perfusion abnormalities in children and young people with cystic fibrosis. Semi-quantitative assessment of dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging might allow differentiation between procedure-related atelectasis and disease-related consolidation. (orig.)

  6. Structural and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging of the lung in cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaxopoulou, Christina; Gnannt, Ralph; Kellenberger, Christian J.; Higashigaito, Kai; Jung, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Because of its absence of ionising radiation and possibility for obtaining functional information, MRI is promising for assessing lung disease in children who require repetitive imaging for long-term follow-up. To describe MRI findings in children with cystic fibrosis and evaluate semi-quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced lung perfusion. We retrospectively compared lung MRI in 25 children and young adults with cystic fibrosis (median age 3.7 years) to 12 children (median age 2 years) imaged for other pathologies. MRI at 1.5 T included respiratory-gated sequences and contrast-enhanced lung perfusion imaging. We described and graded any morphologic change. Signal enhancement and time to peak values of perfusion abnormalities were compared to those of normally enhancing lung parenchyma. Frequent findings in patients with cystic fibrosis were bronchial wall thickening (24/25, 96%), areas of consolidation (22/25, 88%), enlarged lymph nodes (20/25, 80%), bronchiectasis (5/25, 20%) and mucus plugging (3/25, 12%). Compared to normally enhancing lung, perfusion defects (21/25, 84%), characterised by decreased enhancement, showed prolonged time to peak. Areas of consolidation showed increased enhancement. While time to peak of procedure-related atelectasis was not significantly different from that of normal lung, disease-related consolidation showed prolonged time to peak (P=0.01). Lung MRI demonstrates structural and perfusion abnormalities in children and young people with cystic fibrosis. Semi-quantitative assessment of dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging might allow differentiation between procedure-related atelectasis and disease-related consolidation. (orig.)

  7. A high-performance spatial database based approach for pathology imaging algorithm evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusheng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Algorithm evaluation provides a means to characterize variability across image analysis algorithms, validate algorithms by comparison with human annotations, combine results from multiple algorithms for performance improvement, and facilitate algorithm sensitivity studies. The sizes of images and image analysis results in pathology image analysis pose significant challenges in algorithm evaluation. We present an efficient parallel spatial database approach to model, normalize, manage, and query large volumes of analytical image result data. This provides an efficient platform for algorithm evaluation. Our experiments with a set of brain tumor images demonstrate the application, scalability, and effectiveness of the platform. Context: The paper describes an approach and platform for evaluation of pathology image analysis algorithms. The platform facilitates algorithm evaluation through a high-performance database built on the Pathology Analytic Imaging Standards (PAIS data model. Aims: (1 Develop a framework to support algorithm evaluation by modeling and managing analytical results and human annotations from pathology images; (2 Create a robust data normalization tool for converting, validating, and fixing spatial data from algorithm or human annotations; (3 Develop a set of queries to support data sampling and result comparisons; (4 Achieve high performance computation capacity via a parallel data management infrastructure, parallel data loading and spatial indexing optimizations in this infrastructure. Materials and Methods: We have considered two scenarios for algorithm evaluation: (1 algorithm comparison where multiple result sets from different methods are compared and consolidated; and (2 algorithm validation where algorithm results are compared with human annotations. We have developed a spatial normalization toolkit to validate and normalize spatial boundaries produced by image analysis algorithms or human annotations. The

  8. A high-performance spatial database based approach for pathology imaging algorithm evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fusheng; Kong, Jun; Gao, Jingjing; Cooper, Lee A D; Kurc, Tahsin; Zhou, Zhengwen; Adler, David; Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Katigbak, Bryan; Brat, Daniel J; Saltz, Joel H

    2013-01-01

    Algorithm evaluation provides a means to characterize variability across image analysis algorithms, validate algorithms by comparison with human annotations, combine results from multiple algorithms for performance improvement, and facilitate algorithm sensitivity studies. The sizes of images and image analysis results in pathology image analysis pose significant challenges in algorithm evaluation. We present an efficient parallel spatial database approach to model, normalize, manage, and query large volumes of analytical image result data. This provides an efficient platform for algorithm evaluation. Our experiments with a set of brain tumor images demonstrate the application, scalability, and effectiveness of the platform. The paper describes an approach and platform for evaluation of pathology image analysis algorithms. The platform facilitates algorithm evaluation through a high-performance database built on the Pathology Analytic Imaging Standards (PAIS) data model. (1) Develop a framework to support algorithm evaluation by modeling and managing analytical results and human annotations from pathology images; (2) Create a robust data normalization tool for converting, validating, and fixing spatial data from algorithm or human annotations; (3) Develop a set of queries to support data sampling and result comparisons; (4) Achieve high performance computation capacity via a parallel data management infrastructure, parallel data loading and spatial indexing optimizations in this infrastructure. WE HAVE CONSIDERED TWO SCENARIOS FOR ALGORITHM EVALUATION: (1) algorithm comparison where multiple result sets from different methods are compared and consolidated; and (2) algorithm validation where algorithm results are compared with human annotations. We have developed a spatial normalization toolkit to validate and normalize spatial boundaries produced by image analysis algorithms or human annotations. The validated data were formatted based on the PAIS data model and

  9. The use of the Kalman filter in the automated segmentation of EIT lung images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zifan, A; Chapman, B E; Liatsis, P

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new pipeline for the fast and accurate segmentation of impedance images of the lungs using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). EIT is an emerging, promising, non-invasive imaging modality that produces real-time, low spatial but high temporal resolution images of impedance inside a body. Recovering impedance itself constitutes a nonlinear ill-posed inverse problem, therefore the problem is usually linearized, which produces impedance-change images, rather than static impedance ones. Such images are highly blurry and fuzzy along object boundaries. We provide a mathematical reasoning behind the high suitability of the Kalman filter when it comes to segmenting and tracking conductivity changes in EIT lung images. Next, we use a two-fold approach to tackle the segmentation problem. First, we construct a global lung shape to restrict the search region of the Kalman filter. Next, we proceed with augmenting the Kalman filter by incorporating an adaptive foreground detection system to provide the boundary contours for the Kalman filter to carry out the tracking of the conductivity changes as the lungs undergo deformation in a respiratory cycle. The proposed method has been validated by using performance statistics such as misclassified area, and false positive rate, and compared to previous approaches. The results show that the proposed automated method can be a fast and reliable segmentation tool for EIT imaging. (paper)

  10. The use of the Kalman filter in the automated segmentation of EIT lung images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zifan, A; Liatsis, P; Chapman, B E

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a new pipeline for the fast and accurate segmentation of impedance images of the lungs using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). EIT is an emerging, promising, non-invasive imaging modality that produces real-time, low spatial but high temporal resolution images of impedance inside a body. Recovering impedance itself constitutes a nonlinear ill-posed inverse problem, therefore the problem is usually linearized, which produces impedance-change images, rather than static impedance ones. Such images are highly blurry and fuzzy along object boundaries. We provide a mathematical reasoning behind the high suitability of the Kalman filter when it comes to segmenting and tracking conductivity changes in EIT lung images. Next, we use a two-fold approach to tackle the segmentation problem. First, we construct a global lung shape to restrict the search region of the Kalman filter. Next, we proceed with augmenting the Kalman filter by incorporating an adaptive foreground detection system to provide the boundary contours for the Kalman filter to carry out the tracking of the conductivity changes as the lungs undergo deformation in a respiratory cycle. The proposed method has been validated by using performance statistics such as misclassified area, and false positive rate, and compared to previous approaches. The results show that the proposed automated method can be a fast and reliable segmentation tool for EIT imaging.

  11. A Generic Data Harmonization Process for Cross-linked Research and Network Interaction. Construction and Application for the Lung Cancer Phenotype Database of the German Center for Lung Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firnkorn, D; Ganzinger, M; Muley, T; Thomas, M; Knaup, P

    2015-01-01

    Joint data analysis is a key requirement in medical research networks. Data are available in heterogeneous formats at each network partner and their harmonization is often rather complex. The objective of our paper is to provide a generic approach for the harmonization process in research networks. We applied the process when harmonizing data from three sites for the Lung Cancer Phenotype Database within the German Center for Lung Research. We developed a spreadsheet-based solution as tool to support the harmonization process for lung cancer data and a data integration procedure based on Talend Open Studio. The harmonization process consists of eight steps describing a systematic approach for defining and reviewing source data elements and standardizing common data elements. The steps for defining common data elements and harmonizing them with local data definitions are repeated until consensus is reached. Application of this process for building the phenotype database led to a common basic data set on lung cancer with 285 structured parameters. The Lung Cancer Phenotype Database was realized as an i2b2 research data warehouse. Data harmonization is a challenging task requiring informatics skills as well as domain knowledge. Our approach facilitates data harmonization by providing guidance through a uniform process that can be applied in a wide range of projects.

  12. Accuracy of lung nodule density on HRCT: analysis by PSF-based image simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Ken; Ohkubo, Masaki; Marasinghe, Janaka C; Murao, Kohei; Matsumoto, Toru; Wada, Shinichi

    2012-11-08

    A computed tomography (CT) image simulation technique based on the point spread function (PSF) was applied to analyze the accuracy of CT-based clinical evaluations of lung nodule density. The PSF of the CT system was measured and used to perform the lung nodule image simulation. Then, the simulated image was resampled at intervals equal to the pixel size and the slice interval found in clinical high-resolution CT (HRCT) images. On those images, the nodule density was measured by placing a region of interest (ROI) commonly used for routine clinical practice, and comparing the measured value with the true value (a known density of object function used in the image simulation). It was quantitatively determined that the measured nodule density depended on the nodule diameter and the image reconstruction parameters (kernel and slice thickness). In addition, the measured density fluctuated, depending on the offset between the nodule center and the image voxel center. This fluctuation was reduced by decreasing the slice interval (i.e., with the use of overlapping reconstruction), leading to a stable density evaluation. Our proposed method of PSF-based image simulation accompanied with resampling enables a quantitative analysis of the accuracy of CT-based evaluations of lung nodule density. These results could potentially reveal clinical misreadings in diagnosis, and lead to more accurate and precise density evaluations. They would also be of value for determining the optimum scan and reconstruction parameters, such as image reconstruction kernels and slice thicknesses/intervals.

  13. MMP-13 In-Vivo Molecular Imaging Reveals Early Expression in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Salaün

    Full Text Available Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are overexpressed in lung cancer and may serve as potential targets for the development of bioactivable probes for molecular imaging.To characterize and monitor the activity of MMPs during the progression of lung adenocarcinoma.K-rasLSL-G12D mice were imaged serially during the development of adenocarcinomas using fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT and a probe specific for MMP-2, -3, -9 and -13. Lung tumors were identified using FMT and MRI co-registration, and the probe concentration in each tumor was assessed at each time-point. The expression of Mmp2, -3, -9, -13 was quantified by qRT-PCR using RNA isolated from microdissected tumor cells. Immunohistochemical staining of overexpressed MMPs in animals was assessed on human lung tumors.In mice, 7 adenomas and 5 adenocarcinomas showed an increase in fluorescent signal on successive FMT scans, starting between weeks 4 and 8. qRT-PCR assays revealed significant overexpression of only Mmp-13 in mice lung tumors. In human tumors, a high MMP-13 immunostaining index was found in tumor cells from invasive lesions (24/27, but in none of the non-invasive (0/4 (p=0.001.MMP-13 is detected in early pulmonary invasive adenocarcinomas and may be a potential target for molecular imaging of lung cancer.

  14. MMP-13 In-Vivo Molecular Imaging Reveals Early Expression in Lung Adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaün, Mathieu; Peng, Jing; Hensley, Harvey H.; Roder, Navid; Flieder, Douglas B.; Houlle-Crépin, Solène; Abramovici-Roels, Olivia; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Thiberville, Luc; Clapper, Margie L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are overexpressed in lung cancer and may serve as potential targets for the development of bioactivable probes for molecular imaging. Objective To characterize and monitor the activity of MMPs during the progression of lung adenocarcinoma. Methods K-rasLSL-G12D mice were imaged serially during the development of adenocarcinomas using fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and a probe specific for MMP-2, -3, -9 and -13. Lung tumors were identified using FMT and MRI co-registration, and the probe concentration in each tumor was assessed at each time-point. The expression of Mmp2, -3, -9, -13 was quantified by qRT-PCR using RNA isolated from microdissected tumor cells. Immunohistochemical staining of overexpressed MMPs in animals was assessed on human lung tumors. Results In mice, 7 adenomas and 5 adenocarcinomas showed an increase in fluorescent signal on successive FMT scans, starting between weeks 4 and 8. qRT-PCR assays revealed significant overexpression of only Mmp-13 in mice lung tumors. In human tumors, a high MMP-13 immunostaining index was found in tumor cells from invasive lesions (24/27), but in none of the non-invasive (0/4) (p=0.001). Conclusion MMP-13 is detected in early pulmonary invasive adenocarcinomas and may be a potential target for molecular imaging of lung cancer. PMID:26193700

  15. Combining deep learning and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging for automated differential diagnosis of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Sheng; Xu, Xiaoyun; Li, Jiasong; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is capable of providing cellular-level images and resolving pathologically related features on human lung tissues. However, conventional means of analyzing CARS images requires extensive image processing, feature engineering, and human intervention. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a deep learning algorithm to automatically differentiate normal and cancerous lung tissue images acquired by CARS. We leverage the features learned by pretrained deep neural networks and retrain the model using CARS images as the input. We achieve 89.2% accuracy in classifying normal, small-cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma lung images. This computational method is a step toward on-the-spot diagnosis of lung cancer and can be further strengthened by the efforts aimed at miniaturizing the CARS technique for fiber-based microendoscopic imaging.

  16. On the Perceptual Organization of Image Databases Using Cognitive Discriminative Biplots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiros Fotopoulos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A human-centered approach to image database organization is presented in this study. The management of a generic image database is pursued using a standard psychophysical experimental procedure followed by a well-suited data analysis methodology that is based on simple geometrical concepts. The end result is a cognitive discriminative biplot, which is a visualization of the intrinsic organization of the image database best reflecting the user's perception. The discriminating power of the introduced cognitive biplot constitutes an appealing tool for image retrieval and a flexible interface for visual data mining tasks. These ideas were evaluated in two ways. First, the separability of semantically distinct image classes was measured according to their reduced representations on the biplot. Then, a nearest-neighbor retrieval scheme was run on the emerged low-dimensional terrain to measure the suitability of the biplot for performing content-based image retrieval (CBIR. The achieved organization performance when compared with the performance of a contemporary system was found superior. This promoted the further discussion of packing these ideas into a realizable algorithmic procedure for an efficient and effective personalized CBIR system.

  17. Tracking lung tissue motion and expansion/compression with inverse consistent image registration and spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Gary E; Song, Joo Hyun; Lu, Wei; El Naqa, Issam; Low, Daniel A

    2007-06-01

    Breathing motion is one of the major limiting factors for reducing dose and irradiation of normal tissue for conventional conformal radiotherapy. This paper describes a relationship between tracking lung motion using spirometry data and image registration of consecutive CT image volumes collected from a multislice CT scanner over multiple breathing periods. Temporal CT sequences from 5 individuals were analyzed in this study. The couch was moved from 11 to 14 different positions to image the entire lung. At each couch position, 15 image volumes were collected over approximately 3 breathing periods. It is assumed that the expansion and contraction of lung tissue can be modeled as an elastic material. Furthermore, it is assumed that the deformation of the lung is small over one-fifth of a breathing period and therefore the motion of the lung can be adequately modeled using a small deformation linear elastic model. The small deformation inverse consistent linear elastic image registration algorithm is therefore well suited for this problem and was used to register consecutive image scans. The pointwise expansion and compression of lung tissue was measured by computing the Jacobian of the transformations used to register the images. The logarithm of the Jacobian was computed so that expansion and compression of the lung were scaled equally. The log-Jacobian was computed at each voxel in the volume to produce a map of the local expansion and compression of the lung during the breathing period. These log-Jacobian images demonstrate that the lung does not expand uniformly during the breathing period, but rather expands and contracts locally at different rates during inhalation and exhalation. The log-Jacobian numbers were averaged over a cross section of the lung to produce an estimate of the average expansion or compression from one time point to the next and compared to the air flow rate measured by spirometry. In four out of five individuals, the average log

  18. Tracking lung tissue motion and expansion/compression with inverse consistent image registration and spirometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Gary E.; Song, Joo Hyun; Lu, Wei; Naqa, Issam El; Low, Daniel A.

    2007-01-01

    Breathing motion is one of the major limiting factors for reducing dose and irradiation of normal tissue for conventional conformal radiotherapy. This paper describes a relationship between tracking lung motion using spirometry data and image registration of consecutive CT image volumes collected from a multislice CT scanner over multiple breathing periods. Temporal CT sequences from 5 individuals were analyzed in this study. The couch was moved from 11 to 14 different positions to image the entire lung. At each couch position, 15 image volumes were collected over approximately 3 breathing periods. It is assumed that the expansion and contraction of lung tissue can be modeled as an elastic material. Furthermore, it is assumed that the deformation of the lung is small over one-fifth of a breathing period and therefore the motion of the lung can be adequately modeled using a small deformation linear elastic model. The small deformation inverse consistent linear elastic image registration algorithm is therefore well suited for this problem and was used to register consecutive image scans. The pointwise expansion and compression of lung tissue was measured by computing the Jacobian of the transformations used to register the images. The logarithm of the Jacobian was computed so that expansion and compression of the lung were scaled equally. The log-Jacobian was computed at each voxel in the volume to produce a map of the local expansion and compression of the lung during the breathing period. These log-Jacobian images demonstrate that the lung does not expand uniformly during the breathing period, but rather expands and contracts locally at different rates during inhalation and exhalation. The log-Jacobian numbers were averaged over a cross section of the lung to produce an estimate of the average expansion or compression from one time point to the next and compared to the air flow rate measured by spirometry. In four out of five individuals, the average log

  19. Causes of death and competing risk analysis of the associated factors for non-small cell lung cancer using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shenhai; Tian, Jintao; Song, Xiaoping; Wu, Bingqun; Liu, Limin

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the probability of death (POD) from any causes by time after diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the factors associated with survival for NSCLC patients. A total of 202,914 patients with NSCLC from 2004 to 2013 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The overall survival (OS) and lung cancer-specific survival (LCSS) were calculated and POD from any causes at different time periods after diagnosis was explored. The predictive factors for OS, LCSS and survival from non-lung cancer deaths were investigated using multivariate analysis with Cox proportional hazards regression and competing risk regression analysis. The 5- and 10-year OS were 20.4% and 11.5%, accordingly that for LCSS were 25.5% and 18.4%, respectively. Lung cancer contributed 88.3% (n = 128,402) of the deaths. The POD from lung cancer decreased with time after diagnosis. In multivariate analysis, advanced age and advanced stage of NSCLC were associated with decreased OS and LCSS. Comparing to no surgery, any kind of resection conferred lower risk of death from lung cancer and higher risk of dying from non-lung cancer conditions except lobectomy or bilobectomy, which was associated with lower risk of death from both lung cancer and non-lung cancer conditions. Most of the patients with NSCLC died from lung cancer. Rational surveillance and treatment policies should be made for them. Early stage and lobectomy or bilobectomy were associated with improved OS and LCSS. It is reasonable to focus on early detection and optimal surgical treatment for NSCLC.

  20. Pixel based statistical analysis of differences between lung SPECT images: methodological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendada, S.; Rocchisani, J.L.M.; Moretti, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The statistical parametric mapping method is applied in Neurology for activation studies. We had adapted this powerful method on Lungs SPECT to help for the diagnosis and the follow-up of pulmonary embolism and other lung diseases. The SPECT slices of pairs of examination were normalized thanks to the total acquired counts, reconstruction background subtracted, smoothed and realigned. A parametric image of statistical differences was finally computed. We had thus obtained a 3D image showing regions of improved or altered region under treatment. A tuning of the various parameters could lead to more accurate image. This new approach of lung SPECT processing appears to be a promising useful tool for the physician. (author)

  1. Preparation and evaluation of (131I)AgI particles: potential lungs perfusion imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Das, Sujata Saha; Sinha, Samarendu; Sarkar, Bharat Ranjan; Ganguly, Shantanu; Chandra, Susmita; De, Kakali; Mishra, Mridula

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of iodine-131 (t 1/2 : 8 d) by Livingood and Seaborg (1938), this, and other radioisotopes of iodine, have found widespread use in nuclear medicine. The purpose of the present work was to formulate Ag 131 I particles and bio-evaluate the same. The Ag 131 I particles were prepared in acidic condition having 100% R.C. Purity. The biological evaluation of Ag 131 1 particles was made by injecting about 111-185 MBq of Ag 131 I particles preparations in female albino rabbits (2-2.5 kg weight) intravenously by femoral vein under urethane anesthesia. Imaging studies were performed under Gamma Camera. The entire amount of the Ag 131 I particles were found to deposit in the lungs and remained there almost unchanged for a certain period of time after the intervenous administration. The images showed excellent, uniform lung uptake with no interference from liver and spleen to the lower regions of right and left lobes. It showed a high accumulation in the rabbits lungs (>99%) and remained constant for at least for 20 min. It is also worthy to study with 123 I/ 124 I labelled AgI for lung imaging study. In conclusion, the synthetic radiopharmaceutical ( 131 I)-Silver iodide colloid can be prepared with a large particle size, in a simple and practical manner, and it has good potential for use as a perfusion imaging agent in lung scans

  2. Active contour modes Crisp: new technique for segmentation of the lungs in CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboucas Filho, Pedro Pedrosa; Cortez, Paulo Cesar; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new active contour model (ACM), called ACM Crisp, and evaluates the segmentation of lungs in computed tomography (CT) images. An ACM draws a curve around or within the object of interest. This curve changes its shape, when some energy acts on it and moves towards the edges of the object. This process is performed by successive iterations of minimization of a given energy, associated with the curve. The ACMs described in the literature have limitations when used for segmentations of CT lung images. The ACM Crisp model overcomes these limitations, since it proposes automatic initiation and new external energy based on rules and radiological pulmonary densities. The paper compares other ACMs with the proposed method, which is shown to be superior. In order to validate the algorithm a medical expert in the field of Pulmonology of the Walter Cantidio University Hospital from the Federal University of Ceara carried out a qualitative analysis. In these analyses 100 CT lung images were used. The segmentation efficiency was evaluated into 5 categories with the following results for the ACM Crisp: 73% excellent, without errors, 20% acceptable, with small errors, and 7% reasonable, with large errors, 0% poor, covering only a small part of the lung, and 0% very bad, making a totally incorrect segmentation. In conclusion the ACM Crisp is considered a useful algorithm to segment CT lung images, and with potential to integrate medical diagnosis systems. (author)

  3. Lung uptake of thallium-201 on resting myocardial imaging in assessment of pulmonary edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaki, N.; Yonekura, Y.; Yamamoto, K. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital)

    1981-03-01

    We have noted increased lung uptake of thallium-201 on resting myocardial images in patients with congestive heart failure. To evaluate this phenomenon, lung uptake of thallium on resting myocardial imaging was examined in 328 patients with various cardiovascular diseases. Increased lung uptake was observed in 117 cases (78%) with myocardial infarction, 32 (37%) with angina pectoris, 6 (27%) with hypertensive heart disease, 7 (30%) with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 6 (100%) with congestive cardiomyopathy, 11 (100%) with valvular heart disease, and 7 (71%) with congenital heart disease, however, only one (5%) of normal subjects revealed increased uptake. Left ventricular ejection fraction was evaluated in 32 cases with ischemic heart disease on the same day and it was significantly decreased as the lung uptake of thallium increased. Increased thallium activity in the lung seemed to be another noninvasive marker of lift heart failure in ischemic heart disease. Lung uptake of thallium was compared with pulmonary congestive signs on chest X-ray in 29 cases. The uptake was well correlated with the degree of pulmonary edema, and thallium myocardial image revealed remarkably increased lung uptake in all the patients accompanied with pulmonary interstitial edema on chest X-ray. Therefore, this phenomenon will demonstrate pulmonary edema, since thallium may be extracted to the increased interstitial distribution space of the lung as well as the myocardium in a patient with pulmonary edema. We conclude that thallium myocardial scintigraphy is useful not only in identification and localization of myocardial ischemia or infarction, but also in evaluation of pulmonary edema at the same time.

  4. Lung uptake of thallium-201 on resting myocardial imaging in assessment of pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Nagara; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    1981-01-01

    We have noted increased lung uptake of thallium-201 on resting myocardial images in patients with congestive heart failure. To evaluate this phenomenon, lung uptake of thallium on resting myocardial imaging was examined in 328 patients with various cardiovascular diseases. Increased lung uptake was observed in 117 cases (78%) with myocardial infarction, 32 (37%) with angina pectoris, 6 (27%) with hypertensive heart disease, 7 (30%) with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 6 (100%) with congestive cardiomyopathy, 11 (100%) with valvular heart disease, and 7 (71%) with congenital heart disease, however, only one (5%) of normal subjects revealed increased uptake. Left ventricular ejection fraction was evaluated in 32 cases with ischemic heart disease on the same day and it was significantly decreased as the lung uptake of thallium increased. Increased thallium activity in the lung seemed to be another noninvasive marker of lift heart failure in ischemic heart disease. Lung uptake of thallium was compared with pulmonary congestive signs on chest X-ray in 29 cases. The uptake was well correlated with the degree of pulmonary edema, and thallium myocardial image revealed remarkably increased lung uptake in all the patients accompanied with pulmonary interstitial edema on chest X-ray. Therefore, this phenomenon will demonstrate pulmonary edema, since thallium may be extracted to the increased interstitial distribution space of the lung as well as the myocardium in a patient with pulmonary edema. We conclude that thallium myocardial scintigraphy is useful not only in identification and localization of myocardial ischemia or infarction, but also in evaluation of pulmonary edema at the same time. (author)

  5. Lung cancer gene expression database analysis incorporating prior knowledge with support vector machine-based classification method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Desheng

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A reliable and precise classification is essential for successful diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Gene expression microarrays have provided the high-throughput platform to discover genomic biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Rational use of the available bioinformation can not only effectively remove or suppress noise in gene chips, but also avoid one-sided results of separate experiment. However, only some studies have been aware of the importance of prior information in cancer classification. Methods Together with the application of support vector machine as the discriminant approach, we proposed one modified method that incorporated prior knowledge into cancer classification based on gene expression data to improve accuracy. A public well-known dataset, Malignant pleural mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinoma gene expression database, was used in this study. Prior knowledge is viewed here as a means of directing the classifier using known lung adenocarcinoma related genes. The procedures were performed by software R 2.80. Results The modified method performed better after incorporating prior knowledge. Accuracy of the modified method improved from 98.86% to 100% in training set and from 98.51% to 99.06% in test set. The standard deviations of the modified method decreased from 0.26% to 0 in training set and from 3.04% to 2.10% in test set. Conclusion The method that incorporates prior knowledge into discriminant analysis could effectively improve the capacity and reduce the impact of noise. This idea may have good future not only in practice but also in methodology.

  6. Automatic lung tumor segmentation on PET/CT images using fuzzy Markov random field model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Feng, Yuanming; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Ning; Lin, Wang; Sa, Yu; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The combination of positron emission tomography (PET) and CT images provides complementary functional and anatomical information of human tissues and it has been used for better tumor volume definition of lung cancer. This paper proposed a robust method for automatic lung tumor segmentation on PET/CT images. The new method is based on fuzzy Markov random field (MRF) model. The combination of PET and CT image information is achieved by using a proper joint posterior probability distribution of observed features in the fuzzy MRF model which performs better than the commonly used Gaussian joint distribution. In this study, the PET and CT simulation images of 7 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were used to evaluate the proposed method. Tumor segmentations with the proposed method and manual method by an experienced radiation oncologist on the fused images were performed, respectively. Segmentation results obtained with the two methods were similar and Dice's similarity coefficient (DSC) was 0.85 ± 0.013. It has been shown that effective and automatic segmentations can be achieved with this method for lung tumors which locate near other organs with similar intensities in PET and CT images, such as when the tumors extend into chest wall or mediastinum.

  7. Radiomic features analysis in computed tomography images of lung nodule classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Chen

    Full Text Available Radiomics, which extract large amount of quantification image features from diagnostic medical images had been widely used for prognostication, treatment response prediction and cancer detection. The treatment options for lung nodules depend on their diagnosis, benign or malignant. Conventionally, lung nodule diagnosis is based on invasive biopsy. Recently, radiomics features, a non-invasive method based on clinical images, have shown high potential in lesion classification, treatment outcome prediction.Lung nodule classification using radiomics based on Computed Tomography (CT image data was investigated and a 4-feature signature was introduced for lung nodule classification. Retrospectively, 72 patients with 75 pulmonary nodules were collected. Radiomics feature extraction was performed on non-enhanced CT images with contours which were delineated by an experienced radiation oncologist.Among the 750 image features in each case, 76 features were found to have significant differences between benign and malignant lesions. A radiomics signature was composed of the best 4 features which included Laws_LSL_min, Laws_SLL_energy, Laws_SSL_skewness and Laws_EEL_uniformity. The accuracy using the signature in benign or malignant classification was 84% with the sensitivity of 92.85% and the specificity of 72.73%.The classification signature based on radiomics features demonstrated very good accuracy and high potential in clinical application.

  8. Automatic Lung Tumor Segmentation on PET/CT Images Using Fuzzy Markov Random Field Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of positron emission tomography (PET and CT images provides complementary functional and anatomical information of human tissues and it has been used for better tumor volume definition of lung cancer. This paper proposed a robust method for automatic lung tumor segmentation on PET/CT images. The new method is based on fuzzy Markov random field (MRF model. The combination of PET and CT image information is achieved by using a proper joint posterior probability distribution of observed features in the fuzzy MRF model which performs better than the commonly used Gaussian joint distribution. In this study, the PET and CT simulation images of 7 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients were used to evaluate the proposed method. Tumor segmentations with the proposed method and manual method by an experienced radiation oncologist on the fused images were performed, respectively. Segmentation results obtained with the two methods were similar and Dice’s similarity coefficient (DSC was 0.85 ± 0.013. It has been shown that effective and automatic segmentations can be achieved with this method for lung tumors which locate near other organs with similar intensities in PET and CT images, such as when the tumors extend into chest wall or mediastinum.

  9. Image dissimilarity-based quantification of lung disease from CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Loog, Marco; Lo, Pechin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to classify medical images using dissimilarities computed between collections of regions of interest. The images are mapped into a dissimilarity space using an image dissimilarity measure, and a standard vector space-based classifier is applied in this space. The classif......In this paper, we propose to classify medical images using dissimilarities computed between collections of regions of interest. The images are mapped into a dissimilarity space using an image dissimilarity measure, and a standard vector space-based classifier is applied in this space...

  10. Evaluation of Neonatal Lung Volume Growth by Pulmonary Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopper, Melissa A; Walkup, Laura L; Tkach, Jean A; Higano, Nara S; Lim, Foong Yen; Haberman, Beth; Woods, Jason C; Kingma, Paul S

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate postnatal lung volume in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and determine if a compensatory increase in lung volume occurs during the postnatal period. Using a novel pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging method for imaging neonatal lungs, the postnatal lung volumes in infants with CDH were determined and compared with prenatal lung volumes obtained via late gestation magnetic resonance imaging. Infants with left-sided CDH (2 mild, 9 moderate, and 1 severe) were evaluated. The total lung volume increased in all infants, with the contralateral lung increasing faster than the ipsilateral lung (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 3.0 mL/week vs 3.4 ± 2.1 mL/week, P = .005). In contrast to prenatal studies, the volume of lungs of infants with more severe CDH grew faster than the lungs of infants with more mild CDH (Spearman's ρ=-0.086, P = .01). Although the contralateral lung volume grew faster in both mild and moderate groups, the majority of total lung volume growth in moderate CDH came from increased volume of the ipsilateral lung (42% of total lung volume increase in the moderate group vs 32% of total lung volume increase in the mild group, P = .09). Analysis of multiple clinical variables suggests that increased weight gain was associated with increased compensatory ipsilateral lung volume growth (ρ = 0.57, P = .05). These results suggest a potential for postnatal catch-up growth in infants with pulmonary hypoplasia and suggest that weight gain may increase the volume growth of the more severely affected lung. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Feasibility of using ‘lung density’ values estimated from EIT images for clinical diagnosis of lung abnormalities in mechanically ventilated ICU patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebuya, Satoru; Koike, Tomotaka; Imai, Hiroshi; Iwashita, Yoshiaki; Brown, Brian H; Soma, Kazui

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a study which compares lung density values obtained from electrical impedance tomography (EIT), clinical diagnosis and CT values (HU) within a region of interest in the lung. The purpose was to assess the clinical use of lung density estimation using EIT data. In 11 patients supported by a mechanical ventilator, the consistency of regional lung density measurements as estimated by EIT was validated to assess the feasibility of its use in intensive care medicine. There were significant differences in regional lung densities recorded in the supine position between normal lungs and diseased lungs associated with pneumonia, atelectasis and pleural effusion (normal; 240 ± 71.7 kg m"−"3, pneumonia; 306 ± 38.6 kg m"−"3, atelectasis; 497 ± 130 kg m"−"3, pleural effusion; 467 ± 113 kg m"−"3: Steel–Dwass test, p < 0.05). In addition, in order to compare lung density with CT image pixels, the image resolution of CT images, which was originally 512 × 512 pixels, was changed to 16 × 16 pixels to match that of the EIT images. The results of CT and EIT images from five patients in an intensive care unit showed a correlation coefficient of 0.66 ± 0.13 between the CT values (HU) and the lung density values (kg m"−"3) obtained from EIT. These results indicate that it may be possible to obtain a quantitative value for regional lung density using EIT. (paper)

  12. Design and Implementation of CNEOST Image Database Based on NoSQL System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin

    2014-04-01

    The China Near Earth Object Survey Telescope is the largest Schmidt telescope in China, and it has acquired more than 3 TB astronomical image data since it saw the first light in 2006. After the upgrade of the CCD camera in 2013, over 10 TB data will be obtained every year. The management of the massive images is not only an indispensable part of data processing pipeline but also the basis of data sharing. Based on the analysis of requirement, an image management system is designed and implemented by employing the non-relational database.

  13. Audiovisual Biofeedback Improves Cine–Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measured Lung Tumor Motion Consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Danny [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sidney, NSW (Australia); Greer, Peter B. [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Ludbrook, Joanna; Arm, Jameen; Hunter, Perry [Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Pollock, Sean; Makhija, Kuldeep; O' brien, Ricky T. [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sidney, NSW (Australia); Kim, Taeho [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sidney, NSW (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Keall, Paul, E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sidney, NSW (Australia)

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of an audiovisual (AV) biofeedback on intra- and interfraction tumor motion for lung cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Lung tumor motion was investigated in 9 lung cancer patients who underwent a breathing training session with AV biofeedback before 2 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sessions. The breathing training session was performed to allow patients to become familiar with AV biofeedback, which uses a guiding wave customized for each patient according to a reference breathing pattern. In the first MRI session (pretreatment), 2-dimensional cine-MR images with (1) free breathing (FB) and (2) AV biofeedback were obtained, and the second MRI session was repeated within 3-6 weeks (mid-treatment). Lung tumors were directly measured from cine-MR images using an auto-segmentation technique; the centroid and outlier motions of the lung tumors were measured from the segmented tumors. Free breathing and AV biofeedback were compared using several metrics: intra- and interfraction tumor motion consistency in displacement and period, and the outlier motion ratio. Results: Compared with FB, AV biofeedback improved intrafraction tumor motion consistency by 34% in displacement (P=.019) and by 73% in period (P<.001). Compared with FB, AV biofeedback improved interfraction tumor motion consistency by 42% in displacement (P<.046) and by 74% in period (P=.005). Compared with FB, AV biofeedback reduced the outlier motion ratio by 21% (P<.001). Conclusions: These results demonstrated that AV biofeedback significantly improved intra- and interfraction lung tumor motion consistency for lung cancer patients. These results demonstrate that AV biofeedback can facilitate consistent tumor motion, which is advantageous toward achieving more accurate medical imaging and radiation therapy procedures.

  14. Audiovisual Biofeedback Improves Cine–Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measured Lung Tumor Motion Consistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Danny; Greer, Peter B.; Ludbrook, Joanna; Arm, Jameen; Hunter, Perry; Pollock, Sean; Makhija, Kuldeep; O'brien, Ricky T.; Kim, Taeho; Keall, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of an audiovisual (AV) biofeedback on intra- and interfraction tumor motion for lung cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Lung tumor motion was investigated in 9 lung cancer patients who underwent a breathing training session with AV biofeedback before 2 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sessions. The breathing training session was performed to allow patients to become familiar with AV biofeedback, which uses a guiding wave customized for each patient according to a reference breathing pattern. In the first MRI session (pretreatment), 2-dimensional cine-MR images with (1) free breathing (FB) and (2) AV biofeedback were obtained, and the second MRI session was repeated within 3-6 weeks (mid-treatment). Lung tumors were directly measured from cine-MR images using an auto-segmentation technique; the centroid and outlier motions of the lung tumors were measured from the segmented tumors. Free breathing and AV biofeedback were compared using several metrics: intra- and interfraction tumor motion consistency in displacement and period, and the outlier motion ratio. Results: Compared with FB, AV biofeedback improved intrafraction tumor motion consistency by 34% in displacement (P=.019) and by 73% in period (P<.001). Compared with FB, AV biofeedback improved interfraction tumor motion consistency by 42% in displacement (P<.046) and by 74% in period (P=.005). Compared with FB, AV biofeedback reduced the outlier motion ratio by 21% (P<.001). Conclusions: These results demonstrated that AV biofeedback significantly improved intra- and interfraction lung tumor motion consistency for lung cancer patients. These results demonstrate that AV biofeedback can facilitate consistent tumor motion, which is advantageous toward achieving more accurate medical imaging and radiation therapy procedures.

  15. Lung Nodule Image Classification Based on Local Difference Pattern and Combined Classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Keming; Deng, Zhuofu

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel lung nodule classification method for low-dose CT images. The method includes two stages. First, Local Difference Pattern (LDP) is proposed to encode the feature representation, which is extracted by comparing intensity difference along circular regions centered at the lung nodule. Then, the single-center classifier is trained based on LDP. Due to the diversity of feature distribution for different class, the training images are further clustered into multiple cores and the multicenter classifier is constructed. The two classifiers are combined to make the final decision. Experimental results on public dataset show the superior performance of LDP and the combined classifier.

  16. Lung Nodule Image Classification Based on Local Difference Pattern and Combined Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keming Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel lung nodule classification method for low-dose CT images. The method includes two stages. First, Local Difference Pattern (LDP is proposed to encode the feature representation, which is extracted by comparing intensity difference along circular regions centered at the lung nodule. Then, the single-center classifier is trained based on LDP. Due to the diversity of feature distribution for different class, the training images are further clustered into multiple cores and the multicenter classifier is constructed. The two classifiers are combined to make the final decision. Experimental results on public dataset show the superior performance of LDP and the combined classifier.

  17. Diagnostic yield of preoperative computed tomography imaging and the importance of a clinical decision for lung cancer surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shuichi; Koike, Teruaki; Yamato, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic yield of preoperative computed tomography (CT) imaging and the validity of surgical intervention based on the clinical decision to perform surgery for lung cancer or suspected lung cancer. We retrospectively evaluated 1755 patients who had undergone pulmonary resection for lung cancer or suspected lung cancer. CT scans were performed on all patients. Surgical intervention to diagnose and treat was based on a medical staff conference evaluation for the suspected lung cancer patients who were pathologically undiagnosed. We evaluated the relation between resected specimens and preoperative CT imaging in detail. A total of 1289 patients were diagnosed with lung cancer by preoperative pathology examination; another 466 were not pathologically diagnosed preoperatively. Among the 1289 patients preoperatively diagnosed with lung cancer, the diagnoses were confirmed postoperatively in 1282. Among the 466 patients preoperatively undiagnosed, 435 were definitively diagnosed with lung cancer, and there were 383 p-stage I disease patients. There were 38 noncancerous patients who underwent surgery with a diagnosis of confirmed or suspected lung cancer. Among the 1755 patients who underwent surgery, 1717 were pathologically confirmed with lung cancer, and the diagnostic yield of preoperative CT imaging was 97.8%. Among the 466 patients who were preoperatively undiagnosed, 435 were compatible with the predicted findings of lung cancer. Diagnostic yields of preoperative CT imaging based on clinical evaluation are sufficiently reliable. Diagnostic surgical intervention was acceptable when the clinical probability of malignancy was high and the malignancy was pathologically undiagnosed. (author)

  18. Fetal lung volume in congenital diaphragmatic hernia: association of prenatal MR imaging findings with postnatal chronic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, Angelika; Hagelstein, Claudia; Kilian, A Kristina; Weiss, Christel; Schönberg, Stefan O; Schaible, Thomas; Neff, K Wolfgang; Büsing, Karen A

    2013-03-01

    To assess whether chronic lung disease (CLD) in surviving infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is associated with lung hypoplasia on the basis of the results of antenatal observed-to-expected fetal lung volume (FLV) ratio measurement at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The study received approval from the institutional review board, with waiver of informed consent for this retrospective review from patients who had previously given informed consent for prospective studies. The ratio of observed to expected FLV at MR imaging was calculated in 172 fetuses with CDH. At postpartum day 28, the need for supplemental oxygen implicated the diagnosis of CLD. At day 56, patients with CLD were assigned to one of three groups-those with mild, moderate, or severe CLD-according to their demand for oxygen. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the prognostic value of the individual observed-to-expected FLV ratio for association with postnatal development of CLD. Children with CLD were found to have significantly smaller observed-to-expected FLV ratios at MR imaging than infants without CLD (P CLD revealed significant differences in observed-to-expected FLV ratio between patients with mild CLD and those with moderate (P = .012) or severe (P = .007) CLD. For an observed-to-expected FLV ratio of 5%, 99% of patients with CDH developed CLD, compared with less than 5% of fetuses with an observed-to-expected FLV ratio of 50%. Perinatally, development and grade of CLD were further influenced by the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (P CLD in surviving infants with CDH is associated with the prenatally determined observed-to-expected FLV ratio. Early neonatal therapeutic decisions can additionally be based on this ratio. Perinatally, ECMO requirement and gestational age at delivery are useful in further improving the estimated probability of CLD.

  19. Feasibility of using 'lung density' values estimated from EIT images for clinical diagnosis of lung abnormalities in mechanically ventilated ICU patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebuya, Satoru; Koike, Tomotaka; Imai, Hiroshi; Iwashita, Yoshiaki; Brown, Brian H; Soma, Kazui

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports on the results of a study which compares lung density values obtained from electrical impedance tomography (EIT), clinical diagnosis and CT values (HU) within a region of interest in the lung. The purpose was to assess the clinical use of lung density estimation using EIT data. In 11 patients supported by a mechanical ventilator, the consistency of regional lung density measurements as estimated by EIT was validated to assess the feasibility of its use in intensive care medicine. There were significant differences in regional lung densities recorded in the supine position between normal lungs and diseased lungs associated with pneumonia, atelectasis and pleural effusion (normal; 240 ± 71.7 kg m(-3), pneumonia; 306 ± 38.6 kg m(-3), atelectasis; 497 ± 130 kg m(-3), pleural effusion; 467 ± 113 kg m(-3): Steel-Dwass test, p EIT images. The results of CT and EIT images from five patients in an intensive care unit showed a correlation coefficient of 0.66 ± 0.13 between the CT values (HU) and the lung density values (kg m(-3)) obtained from EIT. These results indicate that it may be possible to obtain a quantitative value for regional lung density using EIT.

  20. Development of educational image databases and e-books for medical physics training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakov, S; Roberts, V C; Jonsson, B-A; Ljungberg, M; Lewis, C A; Wirestam, R; Strand, S-E; Lamm, I-L; Milano, F; Simmons, A; Deane, C; Goss, D; Aitken, V; Noel, A; Giraud, J-Y; Sherriff, S; Smith, P; Clarke, G; Almqvist, M; Jansson, T

    2005-09-01

    Medical physics education and training requires the use of extensive imaging material and specific explanations. These requirements provide an excellent background for application of e-Learning. The EU projects Consortia EMERALD and EMIT developed five volumes of such materials, now used in 65 countries. EMERALD developed e-Learning materials in three areas of medical physics (X-ray diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy). EMIT developed e-Learning materials in two further areas: ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. This paper describes the development of these e-Learning materials (consisting of e-books and educational image databases). The e-books include tasks helping studying of various equipment and methods. The text of these PDF e-books is hyperlinked with respective images. The e-books are used through the readers' own Internet browser. Each Image Database (IDB) includes a browser, which displays hundreds of images of equipment, block diagrams and graphs, image quality examples, artefacts, etc. Both the e-books and IDB are engraved on five separate CD-ROMs. Demo of these materials can be taken from www.emerald2.net.

  1. Food-pics: an image database for experimental research on eating and appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechert, Jens; Meule, Adrian; Busch, Niko A; Ohla, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Our current environment is characterized by the omnipresence of food cues. The sight and smell of real foods, but also graphically depictions of appetizing foods, can guide our eating behavior, for example, by eliciting food craving and influencing food choice. The relevance of visual food cues on human information processing has been demonstrated by a growing body of studies employing food images across the disciplines of psychology, medicine, and neuroscience. However, currently used food image sets vary considerably across laboratories and image characteristics (contrast, brightness, etc.) and food composition (calories, macronutrients, etc.) are often unspecified. These factors might have contributed to some of the inconsistencies of this research. To remedy this, we developed food-pics, a picture database comprising 568 food images and 315 non-food images along with detailed meta-data. A total of N = 1988 individuals with large variance in age and weight from German speaking countries and North America provided normative ratings of valence, arousal, palatability, desire to eat, recognizability and visual complexity. Furthermore, data on macronutrients (g), energy density (kcal), and physical image characteristics (color composition, contrast, brightness, size, complexity) are provided. The food-pics image database is freely available under the creative commons license with the hope that the set will facilitate standardization and comparability across studies and advance experimental research on the determinants of eating behavior.

  2. Automatic Classification of Normal and Cancer Lung CT Images Using Multiscale AM-FM Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Magdy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-aided diagnostic (CAD systems provide fast and reliable diagnosis for medical images. In this paper, CAD system is proposed to analyze and automatically segment the lungs and classify each lung into normal or cancer. Using 70 different patients’ lung CT dataset, Wiener filtering on the original CT images is applied firstly as a preprocessing step. Secondly, we combine histogram analysis with thresholding and morphological operations to segment the lung regions and extract each lung separately. Amplitude-Modulation Frequency-Modulation (AM-FM method thirdly, has been used to extract features for ROIs. Then, the significant AM-FM features have been selected using Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR for classification step. Finally, K-nearest neighbour (KNN, support vector machine (SVM, naïve Bayes, and linear classifiers have been used with the selected AM-FM features. The performance of each classifier in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity is evaluated. The results indicate that our proposed CAD system succeeded to differentiate between normal and cancer lungs and achieved 95% accuracy in case of the linear classifier.

  3. A proposed new imaging pathway for patients with suspected lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macpherson, R.; Benamore, R.; Panakis, N.; Sayeed, R.; Breen, D.; Bradley, K.; Carter, R.; Baldwin, D.; Craig, J.; Gleeson, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: PET-CT scans are routinely performed in patients with lung cancer after investigation by chest x-ray (CXR) and CT scan, when these have demonstrated potentially curable disease. If the majority of patients with lung cancer potentially suitable for curative treatment could be identified earlier in the diagnostic pathway on the basis of CXR findings they could be referred for PET-CT imaging without a prior CT scan. We investigated the clinical and financial implications of adopting such a strategy. Materials and methods: The details of 1187 patients referred with suspected lung cancer between July 2006 and August 2009 were analysed. The initial CXR and subsequent imaging of patients fit for curative treatment (Performance Status 0/1, FEV1 > 1.0) were reviewed (n = 251). The clinical and financial implications of referring patients for first line PET-CT if deemed potentially curable based on CXR findings were assessed. Results: 107 of 1187 patients had potentially curable lung cancer on PS, lung function, CT and PET-CT. 96 of these 107 patients (90%) were correctly identified on CXR. 149 patients overall were diagnosed as potentially curable on CXR. Referring suitable patients for an immediate PET-CT scan resulted in a reduction in the time to complete staging investigations. Conclusions: Early PET-CT scanning for patients with suspected lung cancer, potentially suitable for curative therapy could result in more efficient staging with little additional cost.

  4. A proposed new imaging pathway for patients with suspected lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macpherson, R.; Benamore, R. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); Panakis, N. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); Sayeed, R. [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); Breen, D. [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); Bradley, K.; Carter, R. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); Baldwin, D. [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Craig, J. [York Health Economics Consortium Ltd, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Gleeson, F., E-mail: fergus.gleeson@nds.ox.ac.uk [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    Aims: PET-CT scans are routinely performed in patients with lung cancer after investigation by chest x-ray (CXR) and CT scan, when these have demonstrated potentially curable disease. If the majority of patients with lung cancer potentially suitable for curative treatment could be identified earlier in the diagnostic pathway on the basis of CXR findings they could be referred for PET-CT imaging without a prior CT scan. We investigated the clinical and financial implications of adopting such a strategy. Materials and methods: The details of 1187 patients referred with suspected lung cancer between July 2006 and August 2009 were analysed. The initial CXR and subsequent imaging of patients fit for curative treatment (Performance Status 0/1, FEV1 > 1.0) were reviewed (n = 251). The clinical and financial implications of referring patients for first line PET-CT if deemed potentially curable based on CXR findings were assessed. Results: 107 of 1187 patients had potentially curable lung cancer on PS, lung function, CT and PET-CT. 96 of these 107 patients (90%) were correctly identified on CXR. 149 patients overall were diagnosed as potentially curable on CXR. Referring suitable patients for an immediate PET-CT scan resulted in a reduction in the time to complete staging investigations. Conclusions: Early PET-CT scanning for patients with suspected lung cancer, potentially suitable for curative therapy could result in more efficient staging with little additional cost.

  5. National Cancer Database Analysis of Proton Versus Photon Radiation Therapy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Kristin A., E-mail: kristin.higgins@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); O' Connell, Kelli [Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Liu, Yuan [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Gillespie, Theresa W. [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Surgery, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); McDonald, Mark W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Pillai, Rathi N. [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Patel, Kirtesh R.; Patel, Pretesh R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Robinson, Clifford G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Simone, Charles B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Owonikoko, Taofeek K. [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Belani, Chandra P. [Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute, Pennsylvania University, Hershey, Pennsylvania (United States); and others

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze outcomes and predictors associated with proton radiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the National Cancer Database. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Database was queried to capture patients with stage I-IV NSCLC treated with thoracic radiation from 2004 to 2012. A logistic regression model was used to determine the predictors for utilization of proton radiation therapy. The univariate and multivariable association with overall survival were assessed by Cox proportional hazards models along with log–rank tests. A propensity score matching method was implemented to balance baseline covariates and eliminate selection bias. Results: A total of 243,822 patients (photon radiation therapy: 243,474; proton radiation therapy: 348) were included in the analysis. Patients in a ZIP code with a median income of <$46,000 per year were less likely to receive proton treatment, with the income cohort of $30,000 to $35,999 least likely to receive proton therapy (odds ratio 0.63 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44-0.90]; P=.011). On multivariate analysis of all patients, non-proton therapy was associated with significantly worse survival compared with proton therapy (hazard ratio 1.21 [95% CI 1.06-1.39]; P<.01). On propensity matched analysis, proton radiation therapy (n=309) was associated with better 5-year overall survival compared with non-proton radiation therapy (n=1549), 22% versus 16% (P=.025). For stage II and III patients, non-proton radiation therapy was associated with worse survival compared with proton radiation therapy (hazard ratio 1.35 [95% CI 1.10-1.64], P<.01). Conclusions: Thoracic radiation with protons is associated with better survival in this retrospective analysis; further validation in the randomized setting is needed to account for any imbalances in patient characteristics, including positron emission tomography–computed tomography staging.

  6. PET imaging approaches for inflammatory lung diseases: Current concepts and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Delphine L., E-mail: chend@wustl.edu [Divisions of Radiological Sciences and Nuclear Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Campus Box 8225, 510S, Kingshighway Blvd, St. Louis, MO (United States); Schiebler, Mark L. [Department of Radiology, UW-Madison School of Medicine and Public Heath, Madison, WI (United States); Goo, Jin Mo [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Beek, Edwin J.R. van [Clinical Research Imaging Centre, Queen’s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Positron emission tomography can provide molecular information inflammatory lung disease mechanisms and assess targeted treatment responses. • {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose, {sup 18}F-(+/−)NOS, and {sup 18}F-fluciclatide have potential for serving as biomarkers of inflammation and fibrosis. • PET can complement computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to improve our understanding of inflammatory lung disease mechanisms. - Abstract: Inflammatory lung disease is one of the most common clinical scenarios, and yet, it is often poorly understood. Inflammatory lung disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, which are causing significant mortality and morbidity, have limited therapeutic options. Recently, new treatments have become available for pulmonary fibrosis. This review article will describe the new insights that are starting to be gained from positron emission tomography (PET) methods, by targeting molecular processes using dedicated radiotracers. Ultimately, this should aid in deriving better pathophysiological classification of these disorders, which will ultimately result in better evaluation of novel therapies.

  7. Comparison of aerosol inhalation lung images using BARC and other nebulizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isawa, Toyoharu; Teshima, Takeo; Anazawa, Yoshiki; Miki, Makoto

    1994-01-01

    Various factors determine the site of inhaled aerosol deposition in the lungs. They are the size of aerosol the composition of carrier gas of the aerosol, the airflow rate, physico-chemical properties of the carrier gas or the aerosol, the shape and structure of the airways, and the body position during inhalation. Aerosol inhalation lung images were obtained in the same subjects using 99m Tc-human serum albumin aerosol generated by 3 different aerosol generators each producing different-sized aerosol and 2 or 3 days apart from each study. The size of aerosol produced by an ultrasonic nebulizer (Mistogen) was 1.93 Micron in activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) with its geometric standard deviation (σg) of 1.73, that by a jet nebulizer (Ultra Vent) was 1.04 micron in AMAD with its σg of 1.71, and that by our BARC nebulizer, a type of a jet nebulizer, was 0.84 micron in AMAD with its σg of 1.73. In addition Technegas was also applied to selected patients. The latter produced aerosol of less than 0.2 micron in size at the largest and the majority, say, 95% or more of the generated aerosol was less than 0.1 micron in size by electron Microscopy. Each subject inhaled aerosol in resting tidal breathing through a mouth-piece with a one way double J valve with the nose clipped in the sitting position. After inhaling approximately 2-3 mCi (74 to 111 MBq) in the thorax, four view lung images were taken: anterior, posterior, and right and left laterals. 300 K counts per view were collected. They were not only pictured on polaroid films as analogue data but also recorded and stored in a computer as digital data. In case of Technegas breathing it for the RV (residual volume) to the TLC (total lung capacity) level followed by breath-holding for 5 to 10 sec in duration was repeated 2 to 3 times as a breathing maneuver instead of tidal breathing. Otherwise deposition efficiency of Technegas is very little because of the small size of the Technegas. Representative 10

  8. kV x-ray dual digital tomosynthesis for image guided lung SBRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partain, Larry; Boyd, Douglas; Kim, Namho; Hernandez, Andrew; Daly, Megan; Boone, John

    2016-03-01

    Two simulated sets of digital tomosynthesis images of the lungs, each acquired at a 90 degree angle from the other, with 19 projection images used for each set and SART iterative reconstructed, gives dual tomosynthesis slice image quality approaching that of spiral CT, and with a data acquisition time that is 3% of that of cone beam CT. This fast kV acquisition, should allow near real time tracking of lung tumors in patients receiving SBRT, based on a novel TumoTrakTM multi-source X-ray tube design. Until this TumoTrakTM prototype is completed over the next year, its projected performance was simulated from the DRR images created from a spiral CT data set from a lung cancer patient. The resulting dual digital tomosynthesis reconstructed images of the lung tumor were exceptional and approached that of the gold standard Feldkamp CT reconstruction of breath hold, diagnostic, spiral, multirow, CT data. The relative dose at 46 mAs was less than 10% of what it would have been if the digital tomosynthesis had been done at the 472 mAs of the CT data set. This is for a 0.77 fps imaging rate sufficient to resolve respiratory motion in many free breathing patients during SBRT. Such image guidance could decrease the magnitudes of targeting error margins by as much as 20 mm or more in the craniocaudal direction for lower lobe lesions while markedly reducing dose to normal lung, heart and other critical structures. These initial results suggest a wide range of topics for future work.

  9. Optimization of CT image reconstruction algorithms for the lung tissue research consortium (LTRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollough, Cynthia; Zhang, Jie; Bruesewitz, Michael; Bartholmai, Brian

    2006-03-01

    To create a repository of clinical data, CT images and tissue samples and to more clearly understand the pathogenetic features of pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) launched a cooperative effort known as the Lung Tissue Resource Consortium (LTRC). The CT images for the LTRC effort must contain accurate CT numbers in order to characterize tissues, and must have high-spatial resolution to show fine anatomic structures. This study was performed to optimize the CT image reconstruction algorithms to achieve these criteria. Quantitative analyses of phantom and clinical images were conducted. The ACR CT accreditation phantom containing five regions of distinct CT attenuations (CT numbers of approximately -1000 HU, -80 HU, 0 HU, 130 HU and 900 HU), and a high-contrast spatial resolution test pattern, was scanned using CT systems from two manufacturers (General Electric (GE) Healthcare and Siemens Medical Solutions). Phantom images were reconstructed using all relevant reconstruction algorithms. Mean CT numbers and image noise (standard deviation) were measured and compared for the five materials. Clinical high-resolution chest CT images acquired on a GE CT system for a patient with diffuse lung disease were reconstructed using BONE and STANDARD algorithms and evaluated by a thoracic radiologist in terms of image quality and disease extent. The clinical BONE images were processed with a 3 x 3 x 3 median filter to simulate a thicker slice reconstructed in smoother algorithms, which have traditionally been proven to provide an accurate estimation of emphysema extent in the lungs. Using a threshold technique, the volume of emphysema (defined as the percentage of lung voxels having a CT number lower than -950 HU) was computed for the STANDARD, BONE, and BONE filtered. The CT numbers measured in the ACR CT Phantom images were accurate for all reconstruction kernels for both manufacturers. As expected, visual evaluation of the

  10. Evaluation of imaging of the ventilatory lung motion in pulmonary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Kanai, Hisakata; Tanaka, Masao; Hirayama, Jiro; Handa, Kenjiro

    1988-01-01

    Using perfusion lung scintigram with 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin at maximal expiration (E) and inspiration (I), images of the motion of the regional pulmonary areas and lung margins during ventilation ((E-I)/I) was obtained in patients with various respiratory diseases. The image of (E-I)/I consisted of positive and negative components. The former component visualized the motion of the regional pulmonary areas that corresponded with the ventilatory amplitude of the videodensigram. The sum of the positive component of (E-I)/I in both lungs correlated with the vital capacity (n = 50, r = 0.62). It was 163.5 ± 52.5 in cases with a vital capacity of more than 3.01, 94.1 ± 61.5 in primary lung cancer, 89.2 ± 44.7 in chronic obstructive lung diseases and 69.0 ± 27.5 in diffuse interstitial pneumonia. The distribution pattern of pulmonary perfusion and the positive component of (E-I)/I matched fairly in many cases, but did not match in some cases. The negative component of (E-I)/I demonstrated the ventilatory motion of the lung margin and its decreased activity was shown in cases with hypoventilation of various causes including pleural diseases. The sum of the negative component of (E-I)/I in the both lungs correlated with the vital capacity (n = 50, r = 0.44). These results suggest that this technique is useful to estimate the regional pulmonary ventilatioin and motion of the lung margins. (author)

  11. Oxygen-enhanced magnetic resonance ventilation imaging of lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Chen Qun; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2001-01-01

    The oxygen-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) ventilation imaging is a new technique, and the full extent of its physiological significance has not been elucidated. This review article includes background on (1) respiratory physiology; (2) mechanism and optimization of oxygen-enhanced MR imaging technique; (3) recent applications in animal and human models; and (4) merits and demerits of the technique in comparison with hyperpolarized noble gas MR ventilation imaging. Application of oxygen-enhanced MR ventilation imaging to patients with pulmonary diseases has been very limited. However, we believe that further basic studies, as well as clinical applications of this new technique will define the real significance of oxygen-enhanced MR ventilation imaging in the future of pulmonary functional imaging and its usefulness for diagnostic radiology

  12. OPTICAL IMAGING OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN ACUTE LUNG INJURY FROM HYPEROXIA AND SEPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REYHANEH SEPEHR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic pulmonary disorders such as acute lung injury (ALI in adults and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD in premature infants. Bacterial infection and oxygen toxicity, which result in pulmonary vascular endothelial injury, contribute to impaired vascular growth and alveolar simplification seen in the lungs of premature infants with BPD. Hyperoxia induces ALI, reduces cell proliferation, causes DNA damage and promotes cell death by causing mitochondrial dysfunction. The objective of this study was to use an optical imaging technique to evaluate the variations in fluorescence intensities of the auto-fluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes, NADH and FAD in four different groups of rats. The ratio of these fluorescence signals (NADH/FAD, referred to as NADH redox ratio (NADH RR has been used as an indicator of tissue metabolism in injuries. Here, we investigated whether the changes in metabolic state can be used as a marker of oxidative stress caused by hyperoxia and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS exposure in neonatal rat lungs. We examined the tissue redox states of lungs from four groups of rat pups: normoxic (21% O2 pups, hyperoxic (90% O2 pups, pups treated with LPS (normoxic + LPS, and pups treated with LPS and hyperoxia (hyperoxic + LPS. Our results show that hyperoxia oxidized the respiratory chain as reflected by a ~ 31% decrease in lung tissue NADH RR as compared to that for normoxic lungs. LPS treatment alone or with hyperoxia had no significant effect on lung tissue NADH RR as compared to that for normoxic or hyperoxic lungs, respectively. Thus, NADH RR serves as a quantitative marker of oxidative stress level in lung injury caused by two clinically important conditions: hyperoxia and LPS exposure.

  13. Non-Invasive Detection of Lung Inflammation by Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Using Bimodal Liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desu, Hari R; Wood, George C; Thoma, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and its more severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome results in respiratory obstruction and severe lung inflammation. Critical characteristics of ALI are alveolar edema, infiltration of leukocytes (neutrophils and monocytes), release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines into broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, and activation of integrin receptors. The purpose of the study was to demonstrate non-invasive detection of lung inflammation using integrin receptor targeted fluorescence liposomes. An inflammation similar to that observed in ALI was elicited in rodents by intra-tracheal instillation of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). Cyclic arginine glycine-(D)-aspartic acid-peptide (cRGD-peptide) grafted fluorescence liposomes were administered to ALI induced male Sprague-Dawley rats for targeting lung integrin receptors. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRFI) was applied for visualization and quantitation of lung inflammation. NIRFI signals were correlated with inflammatory cellular and biochemical markers of lungs. A positive correlation was observed between NIRF signals and lung inflammation markers. Compared to control group, an intense NIRF signal was observed in ALI induced rats in the window 6-24 h post-IL-1beta instillation. Interaction of integrin receptors with targeted liposomes was assumed to contribute to intense NIRF signal. RT-PCR studies showed an elevated lung expression of alphavbeta5 integrin receptors, 12 h post-IL-1beta instillation. In vitro studies demonstrated integrin receptor specificity of targeted liposomes. These targeted liposomes showed binding to alphavbeta5 integrin receptors expressed on alveolar cells. Non-invasive detection of lung inflammation was demonstrated using a combination of integrin receptor targeting and NIRFI.

  14. Analysis of the ultrasonic image of adrenal metastasis in primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Ling; Yang Tao; Tang Ying; Mao Jingning; Chen Wei; Wang Yong; Zhang Yan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ultrasonic image of adrenal metastasis in primary lung cancer. Methods: The ultrasonic imaging characteristics of fourteen patients with adrenal metastasis in primary lung cancer were retrospectively reviewed. In all the cases, US-guided percutaneous biopsy was performed for pathological evaluation during the clinical diagnosis. Results and Conclusion: In ultrasonography the adrenal metastatic tumors were manifested as solitary in all the cases, well-defined in 10 cases, irregularly shaped in 10 cases, hypoechoic in 13 cases, and 1 case showed cystoid structure in the tumor. The maximum diameter of the tumor was 3.0-15.3 cm. 9 cases were metastatic adenocarcinoma. The sonographic appearance of adrenal metastasis in primary lung cancer has its characteristics. Ultrasonography can find adrenal metastalic tumors easily and contribute to diagnosis. (authors)

  15. Ant Colony Optimization Approaches to Clustering of Lung Nodules from CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran C. Gopalakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is becoming a threat to mankind. Applying machine learning algorithms for detection and segmentation of irregular shaped lung nodules remains a remarkable milestone in CT scan image analysis research. In this paper, we apply ACO algorithm for lung nodule detection. We have compared the performance against three other algorithms, namely, Otsu algorithm, watershed algorithm, and global region based segmentation. In addition, we suggest a novel approach which involves variations of ACO, namely, refined ACO, logical ACO, and variant ACO. Variant ACO shows better reduction in false positives. In addition we propose black circular neighborhood approach to detect nodule centers from the edge detected image. Genetic algorithm based clustering is performed to cluster the nodules based on intensity, shape, and size. The performance of the overall approach is compared with hierarchical clustering to establish the improvisation in the proposed approach.

  16. Lung vessel segmentation in CT images using graph-cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zhiwei; Staring, Marius; Stoel, Berend C.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate lung vessel segmentation is an important operation for lung CT analysis. Filters that are based on analyzing the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix are popular for pulmonary vessel enhancement. However, due to their low response at vessel bifurcations and vessel boundaries, extracting lung vessels by thresholding the vesselness is not sufficiently accurate. Some methods turn to graph-cuts for more accurate segmentation, as it incorporates neighbourhood information. In this work, we propose a new graph-cuts cost function combining appearance and shape, where CT intensity represents appearance and vesselness from a Hessian-based filter represents shape. Due to the amount of voxels in high resolution CT scans, the memory requirement and time consumption for building a graph structure is very high. In order to make the graph representation computationally tractable, those voxels that are considered clearly background are removed from the graph nodes, using a threshold on the vesselness map. The graph structure is then established based on the remaining voxel nodes, source/sink nodes and the neighbourhood relationship of the remaining voxels. Vessels are segmented by minimizing the energy cost function with the graph-cuts optimization framework. We optimized the parameters used in the graph-cuts cost function and evaluated the proposed method with two manually labeled sub-volumes. For independent evaluation, we used 20 CT scans of the VESSEL12 challenge. The evaluation results of the sub-volume data show that the proposed method produced a more accurate vessel segmentation compared to the previous methods, with F1 score 0.76 and 0.69. In the VESSEL12 data-set, our method obtained a competitive performance with an area under the ROC curve of 0.975, especially among the binary submissions.

  17. Adaptable pattern recognition system for discriminating Melanocytic Nevi from Malignant Melanomas using plain photography images from different image databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, Spiros A; Asvestas, Pantelis A; Kalatzis, Ioannis K; Sakellaropoulos, George C; Sakkis, Theofilos H; Cavouras, Dionisis A; Glotsos, Dimitris T

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to propose features that evaluate pictorial differences between melanocytic nevus (mole) and melanoma lesions by computer-based analysis of plain photography images and to design a cross-platform, tunable, decision support system to discriminate with high accuracy moles from melanomas in different publicly available image databases. Digital plain photography images of verified mole and melanoma lesions were downloaded from (i) Edinburgh University Hospital, UK, (Dermofit, 330moles/70 melanomas, under signed agreement), from 5 different centers (Multicenter, 63moles/25 melanomas, publicly available), and from the Groningen University, Netherlands (Groningen, 100moles/70 melanomas, publicly available). Images were processed for outlining the lesion-border and isolating the lesion from the surrounding background. Fourteen features were generated from each lesion evaluating texture (4), structure (5), shape (4) and color (1). Features were subjected to statistical analysis for determining differences in pictorial properties between moles and melanomas. The Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) classifier, the exhaustive search features selection, the leave-one-out (LOO), and the external cross-validation (ECV) methods were used to design the PR-system for discriminating between moles and melanomas. Statistical analysis revealed that melanomas as compared to moles were of lower intensity, of less homogenous surface, had more dark pixels with intensities spanning larger spectra of gray-values, contained more objects of different sizes and gray-levels, had more asymmetrical shapes and irregular outlines, had abrupt intensity transitions from lesion to background tissue, and had more distinct colors. The PR-system designed by the Dermofit images scored on the Dermofit images, using the ECV, 94.1%, 82.9%, 96.5% for overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, on the Multicenter Images 92.0%, 88%, 93.7% and on the Groningen Images 76.2%, 73.9%, 77

  18. PET imaging of lung inflammation with [18F]FEDAC, a radioligand for translocator protein (18 kDa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Hatori

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The translocator protein (18 kDa (TSPO is highly expressed on the bronchial and bronchiole epithelium, submucosal glands in intrapulmonary bronchi, pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages in human lung. This study aimed to perform positron emission tomography (PET imaging of lung inflammation with [(18F]FEDAC, a specific TSPO radioligand, and to determine cellular sources enriching TSPO expression in the lung. METHODS: An acute lung injury model was prepared by intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS to rat. Uptake of radioactivity in the rat lungs was measured with small-animal PET after injection of [(18F]FEDAC. Presence of TSPO was examined in the lung tissue using Western blot and immunohistochemical assays. RESULTS: The uptake of [(18F]FEDAC increased in the lung with the progress of inflammation by treatment with LPS. Pretreatment with a TSPO-selective ligand PK11195 showed a significant decrease in the lung uptake of [(18F]FEDAC due to competitive binding to TSPO. TSPO expression was elevated in the inflamed lung section and its level responded to the [(18F]FEDAC uptake and severity of inflammation. Increase of TSPO expression was mainly found in the neutrophils and macrophages of inflamed lungs. CONCLUSION: From this study we conclude that PET with [(18F]FEDAC may be a useful tool for imaging TSPO expression and evaluating progress of lung inflammation. Study on human lung using [(18F]FEDAC-PET is promising.

  19. Deformable image registration for geometrical evaluation of DIBH radiotherapy treatment of lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosson, Wiviann; Lykkegaard Andersen, J. A.; Borrisova, S.

    2014-01-01

    locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients were included, each with a planning-, midterm- and final CT (pCT, mCT, fCT) and 7 CBCTs acquired weekly and on the same day as the mCT and fCT. All imaging were performed in both FB and DIBH, using Varian RPM system for respiratory tracking...

  20. Prognostic classification with laboratory parameters or imaging techniques in small-cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Wouter K.; Fidler, Vaclav; Groen, Harry J. M.

    PURPOSE: Our aim in this study was to compare prognostic models based on laboratory tests with a model including imaging information in small-cell lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 156 consecutive patients. Three existing models based on laboratory tests

  1. Pulmonary imaging techniques in the diagnosis of occupational interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, J.F.; Templeton, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    The chest radiograph is extensively used in evaluating workers at risk for developing occupational lung disease. Other pulmonary imaging techniques used in conjunction with the initial chest radiograph include conventional computed tomography, high resolution computed tomography, and gallium scintigraphy. This chapter evaluates the use of these techniques and their appropriate applications in the pneumoconioses, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, berylliosis, and hard metal diseases.65 references

  2. The aging lung. Clinical and imaging findings and the fringe of physiological state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, T.H.; Storbeck, B.; Rabe, K.F.; Weber, C.; Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg

    2015-01-01

    Since aspects of demographic transition have become an essential part of socioeconomic, medical and health-care research in the last decades, it is vital for the radiologist to discriminate between normal ageing related effects and abnormal imaging findings in the elderly. This article reviews functional and structural aspects of the ageing lung and focuses on typical ageing related radiological patterns.

  3. Tracking boundary movement and exterior shape modelling in lung EIT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biguri, A; Soleimani, M; Grychtol, B; Adler, A

    2015-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has shown significant promise for lung imaging. One key challenge for EIT in this application is the movement of electrodes during breathing, which introduces artefacts in reconstructed images. Various approaches have been proposed to compensate for electrode movement, but no comparison of these approaches is available. This paper analyses boundary model mismatch and electrode movement in lung EIT. The aim is to evaluate the extent to which various algorithms tolerate movement, and to determine if a patient specific model is required for EIT lung imaging. Movement data are simulated from a CT-based model, and image analysis is performed using quantitative figures of merit. The electrode movement is modelled based on expected values of chest movement and an extended Jacobian method is proposed to make use of exterior boundary tracking. Results show that a dynamical boundary tracking is the most robust method against any movement, but is computationally more expensive. Simultaneous electrode movement and conductivity reconstruction algorithms show increased robustness compared to only conductivity reconstruction. The results of this comparative study can help develop a better understanding of the impact of shape model mismatch and electrode movement in lung EIT. (paper)

  4. Tracking boundary movement and exterior shape modelling in lung EIT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biguri, A; Grychtol, B; Adler, A; Soleimani, M

    2015-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has shown significant promise for lung imaging. One key challenge for EIT in this application is the movement of electrodes during breathing, which introduces artefacts in reconstructed images. Various approaches have been proposed to compensate for electrode movement, but no comparison of these approaches is available. This paper analyses boundary model mismatch and electrode movement in lung EIT. The aim is to evaluate the extent to which various algorithms tolerate movement, and to determine if a patient specific model is required for EIT lung imaging. Movement data are simulated from a CT-based model, and image analysis is performed using quantitative figures of merit. The electrode movement is modelled based on expected values of chest movement and an extended Jacobian method is proposed to make use of exterior boundary tracking. Results show that a dynamical boundary tracking is the most robust method against any movement, but is computationally more expensive. Simultaneous electrode movement and conductivity reconstruction algorithms show increased robustness compared to only conductivity reconstruction. The results of this comparative study can help develop a better understanding of the impact of shape model mismatch and electrode movement in lung EIT.

  5. Quality control of technetium-labelled lung imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chervu, L.R.; Vallabhajosula, S.R.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    A study has been made of the labelling of macroaggregated albumin particles (MAA) with sup(99m)Tc using three commercial kits, and the results compared with those obtained with albumin microspheres. The tagging efficiency was measured by three different methods, and the chemistry and radiochemical nature of the sup(99m)Tc-MAA supernates or eluates were also investigated. The total body distribution of the sup(99m)Tc-MAA supernates was determined in mice after tail-vein injection. The results indicated that technetium-labelled MAA preparations may contain sup(99m)Tc-tagged albumin, similar to human serum albumin in solution. The nature of labelling pattern of MAA and the albumin microspheres indicated that the macroaggregates and microspheres were not completely or uniformly labelled during a one-step addition of pertechnetate. The lung aggregates had a large residual labelling capacity. Consideration is given to the significance of these results in lung perfusion studies. (U.K.)

  6. SCEGRAM: An image database for semantic and syntactic inconsistencies in scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhlschläger, Sabine; Võ, Melissa Le-Hoa

    2017-10-01

    Our visual environment is not random, but follows compositional rules according to what objects are usually found where. Despite the growing interest in how such semantic and syntactic rules - a scene grammar - enable effective attentional guidance and object perception, no common image database containing highly-controlled object-scene modifications has been publically available. Such a database is essential in minimizing the risk that low-level features drive high-level effects of interest, which is being discussed as possible source of controversial study results. To generate the first database of this kind - SCEGRAM - we took photographs of 62 real-world indoor scenes in six consistency conditions that contain semantic and syntactic (both mild and extreme) violations as well as their combinations. Importantly, always two scenes were paired, so that an object was semantically consistent in one scene (e.g., ketchup in kitchen) and inconsistent in the other (e.g., ketchup in bathroom). Low-level salience did not differ between object-scene conditions and was generally moderate. Additionally, SCEGRAM contains consistency ratings for every object-scene condition, as well as object-absent scenes and object-only images. Finally, a cross-validation using eye-movements replicated previous results of longer dwell times for both semantic and syntactic inconsistencies compared to consistent controls. In sum, the SCEGRAM image database is the first to contain well-controlled semantic and syntactic object-scene inconsistencies that can be used in a broad range of cognitive paradigms (e.g., verbal and pictorial priming, change detection, object identification, etc.) including paradigms addressing developmental aspects of scene grammar. SCEGRAM can be retrieved for research purposes from http://www.scenegrammarlab.com/research/scegram-database/ .

  7. Anesthesia condition for 18F-FDG imaging of lung metastasis tumors using small animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Sang-Keun; Lee, Tae Sup; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, June-Youp; Jung, Jae Ho; Kang, Joo Hyun; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo

    2008-01-01

    Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) with 18 F-FDG has been increasingly used for tumor imaging in the murine model. The aim of this study was to establish the anesthesia condition for imaging of lung metastasis tumor using small animal 18 F-FDG PET. Methods: To determine the impact of anesthesia on 18 F-FDG distribution in normal mice, five groups were studied under the following conditions: no anesthesia, ketamine and xylazine (Ke/Xy), 0.5% isoflurane (Iso 0.5), 1% isoflurane (Iso 1) and 2% isoflurane (Iso 2). The ex vivo counting, standard uptake value (SUV) image and glucose SUV of 18 F-FDG in various tissues were evaluated. The 18 F-FDG images in the lung metastasis tumor model were obtained under no anesthesia, Ke/Xy and Iso 0.5, and registered with CT image to clarify the tumor region. Results: Blood glucose concentration and muscle uptake of 18 F-FDG in the Ke/Xy group markedly increased more than in the other groups. The Iso 2 group increased 18 F-FDG uptake in heart compared with the other groups. The Iso 0.5 anesthesized group showed the lowest 18 F-FDG uptake in heart and chest wall. The small size of lung metastasis tumor (2 mm) was clearly visualized by 18 F-FDG image with the Iso 0.5 anesthesia. Conclusion: Small animal 18 F-FDG PET imaging with Iso 0.5 anesthesia was appropriate for the detection of lung metastasis tumor. To acquire 18 F-FDG PET images with small animal PET, the type and level of anesthetic should be carefully considered to be suitable for the visualization of target tissue in the experimental model

  8. A technique for adaptive image-guided helical tomotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, Chester R.; Langen, Katja M.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Scaperoth, Daniel D.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Mahan, Stephen L.; Seibert, Rebecca M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The gross tumor volume (GTV) for many lung cancer patients can decrease during the course of radiation therapy. As the tumor reduces in size during treatment, the margin added around the GTV effectively becomes larger, which can result in the excessive irradiation of normal lung tissue. The specific goal of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using image-guided adaptive radiation therapy to adjust the planning target volume weekly based on the previous week's CT image sets that were used for image-guided patient setup. Methods and Materials: Megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) images of the GTV were acquired daily on a helical tomotherapy system. These images were used to position the patient and to measure reduction in GTV volume. A planning study was conducted to determine the amount of lung-sparing that could have been achieved if adaptive therapy had been used. Treatment plans were created in which the target volumes were reduced after tumor reduction was measured. Results: A total of 158 MVCT imaging sessions were performed on 7 lung patients. The GTV was reduced by 60-80% during the course of treatment. The tumor reduction in the first 60 days of treatment can be modeled using the second-order polynomial R 0.0002t 2 - 0.0219t + 1.0, where R is the percent reduction in GTV, and t is the number of elapsed days. Based on these treatment planning studies, the absolute volume of ipsilateral lung receiving 20 Gy can be reduced between 17% and 23% (21% mean) by adapting the treatment delivery. The benefits of adaptive therapy are the greatest for tumor volumes ≥25 cm 3 and are directly dependent on GTV reduction during treatment. Conclusions: Megavoltage CT-based image guidance can be used to position lung cancer patients daily. This has the potential to decrease margins associated with daily setup error. Furthermore, the adaptive therapy technique described in this article can decrease the volume of healthy lung tissue receiving above 20 Gy

  9. Preserving Functional Lung Using Perfusion Imaging and Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Advanced-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Jang, Si Young; Liu, H. Helen; Guerrero, Thomas; Wang, Xuanmin; Gayed, Isis W.; Erwin, William D.; Liao, Zhongxing; Chang, Joe Y.; Jeter, Melenda; Yaremko, Brian P.; Borghero, Yerko O.; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Mohan, Radhe

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess quantitatively the impact of incorporating functional lung imaging into intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Sixteen patients with advanced-stage NSCLC who underwent radiotherapy were included in this study. Before radiotherapy, each patient underwent lung perfusion imaging with single-photon-emission computed tomography and X-ray computed tomography (SPECT-CT). The SPECT-CT was registered with simulation CT and was used to segment the 50- and 90-percentile hyperperfusion lung (F50 lung and F90 lung). Two IMRT plans were designed and compared in each patient: an anatomic plan using simulation CT alone and a functional plan using SPECT-CT in addition to the simulation CT. Dosimetric parameters of the two types of plans were compared in terms of tumor coverage and avoidance of normal tissues. Results: In incorporating perfusion information in IMRT planning, the median reductions in the mean doses to the F50 and F90 lung in the functional plan were 2.2 and 4.2 Gy, respectively, compared with those in the anatomic plans. The median reductions in the percentage of volume irradiated with >5 Gy, >10 Gy, and >20 Gy in the functional plans were 7.1%, 6.0%, and 5.1%, respectively, for F50 lung, and 11.7%, 12.0%, and 6.8%, respectively, for F90 lung. A greater degree of sparing of the functional lung was achieved for patients with large perfusion defects compared with those with relatively uniform perfusion distribution. Conclusion: Function-guided IMRT planning appears to be effective in preserving functional lung in locally advanced-stage NSCLC patients

  10. Investigation of the Relationship Between Gross Tumor Volume Location and Pneumonitis Rates Using a Large Clinical Database of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Tucker, Susan L.; Liao Zhongxing; Martel, Mary K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Studies have suggested that function may vary throughout the lung, and that patients who have tumors located in the base of the lung are more susceptible to radiation pneumonitis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the relationship between gross tumor volume (GTV) location and pneumonitis rates using a large clinical database of 547 patients with non–small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: The GTV centroids of all patients were mapped onto one common coordinate system, in which the boundaries of the coordinate system were defined by the extreme points of each individual patient lung. The data were qualitatively analyzed by graphing all centroids and displaying the data according to the presence of severe pneumonitis, tumor stage, and smoking status. The centroids were grouped according to superior–inferior segments, and the pneumonitis rates were analyzed. In addition, we incorporated the GTV centroid information into a Lyman–Kutcher–Burman normal tissue complication probability model and tested whether adding spatial information significantly improved the fit of the model. Results: Of the 547 patients analyzed, 111 (20.3%) experienced severe radiation pneumonitis. The pneumonitis incidence rates were 16%, 23%, and 21% for the superior, middle, and inferior thirds of the lung, respectively. Qualitatively, the GTV centroids of nonsmokers were notably absent from the superior portion of the lung. In addition, the GTV centroids of patients who had Stage III and IV clinical staging were concentrated toward the medial edge of the lung. The comparison between the GTV centroid model and the conventional dose–volume model did not yield a statistically significant difference in model fit. Conclusions: Lower pneumonitis rates were noted for the superior portion of the lung; however the differences were not statistically significant. For our patient cohort, incorporating GTV centroid information did not lead to a statistically significant

  11. Investigation of the relationship between gross tumor volume location and pneumonitis rates using a large clinical database of non-small-cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Tucker, Susan L; Liao, Zhongxing; Martel, Mary K

    2012-04-01

    Studies have suggested that function may vary throughout the lung, and that patients who have tumors located in the base of the lung are more susceptible to radiation pneumonitis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the relationship between gross tumor volume (GTV) location and pneumonitis rates using a large clinical database of 547 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. The GTV centroids of all patients were mapped onto one common coordinate system, in which the boundaries of the coordinate system were defined by the extreme points of each individual patient lung. The data were qualitatively analyzed by graphing all centroids and displaying the data according to the presence of severe pneumonitis, tumor stage, and smoking status. The centroids were grouped according to superior-inferior segments, and the pneumonitis rates were analyzed. In addition, we incorporated the GTV centroid information into a Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal tissue complication probability model and tested whether adding spatial information significantly improved the fit of the model. Of the 547 patients analyzed, 111 (20.3%) experienced severe radiation pneumonitis. The pneumonitis incidence rates were 16%, 23%, and 21% for the superior, middle, and inferior thirds of the lung, respectively. Qualitatively, the GTV centroids of nonsmokers were notably absent from the superior portion of the lung. In addition, the GTV centroids of patients who had Stage III and IV clinical staging were concentrated toward the medial edge of the lung. The comparison between the GTV centroid model and the conventional dose-volume model did not yield a statistically significant difference in model fit. Lower pneumonitis rates were noted for the superior portion of the lung; however the differences were not statistically significant. For our patient cohort, incorporating GTV centroid information did not lead to a statistically significant improvement in the fit of the pneumonitis model. Copyright

  12. New design of N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) lung imaging in the patient with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Eiko; Mishima, Michiaki; Kawakami, Kenzo; Sakai, Naoki; Sugiura, Naoharu; Ohi, Motoharu; Kuno, Kenshi; Taniguchi, Takashi; Itoh, Harumi.

    1995-01-01

    N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) was injected intravenously into primary non small cell lung carcinoma patients (n=17). The average pixel count ratios of the cancerous area to the whole lung was measured in the initial and delayed images. In the initial image, this ratio was less than 1.0 for the entire group of patients, and was thought to reflect decreased blood flow in the cancerous tissues. The rate of counts within a ROI in the delayed image to counts in the same ROI in the initial image was also calculated and called the remain rate. The remain rate (delayed count/initial count) was significantly higher in the cancerous area than in the whole lung (0.65±0.30, median 0.62, 0.38±0.05, median 0.38, p<0.01). This observation was thought to be due to a relative decrease in the blood flow and the accumulation of IMP, which forms pools within the alveolar spaces of the cancerous areas. The image prepared with the remain rate revealed a hot image in the cancerous regions, even when this was not apparent in the delayed image. The remain rate image may therefore be useful in the identification of cancerous areas in lung tissue if it is used in comparison with the initial image. (author)

  13. Establishing an international reference image database for research and development in medical image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsch, A.D.; Prinz, M.; Schneider, S.; Sipilä, O; Spinnler, K.; Vallée, J-P; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I; Vogl, R.; Wittenberg, T.; Zahlmann, G.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The lack of comparability of evaluation results is one of the major obstacles of research and development in Medical Image Processing (MIP). The main reason for that is the usage of different image datasets with different quality, size and Gold standard. OBJECTIVES: Therefore, one of

  14. Aerosolized gadolinium-DTPA for demonstration of pulmonary ventilation in MR imaging of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haage, P.; Adam, G.; Karaagac, S.; Pfeffer, J.G.; Glowinski, A.; Doehmen, S.; Guenther, R.W.; Misselwitz, B.; Tacke, J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance assessment of lung ventilation with aerosolized Gd-DTPA. Methods: Eleven experimental procedures were carried out in a domestic pig model. The intubated pigs were aerosolized for 30 minutes with an aqueous formulation of Gd-DTPA. The contrast agent aerosol was generated by a small particle aerosol generator. Imaging was performed on a 1.5 T MR imager using a T 1 -weighted turbo spin echo sequence with respiratory gating (T R 141 ms, T E 8.5 ms, 6 averages, slice thickness 10 mm). Pulmonary signal intensities before and after ventilation were measured in peripheral portions of both lungs. Results: Immediately after ventilation with aerosolized Gd-DTPA, the signal intensity in both lungs increased significantly in all animals with values up to 237% above baseline (mean 139%±48%), but within some cases considerable regional intra- and interindividual intensity differences. Distinctive parenchymal enhancement was readily visualized in all eleven cases with good spatial resolution. Conclusion: The presented data indicate that Gd-DTPA in aerosolized form can be used to demonstrate pulmonary ventilation in large animals with lung volumes comparable to man. Further experimental trials are necessary to improve reproducibility and to define the scope of this method for depicting lung disease. (orig.) [de

  15. Apparent diffusion coefficient values of diffusion-weighted imaging for distinguishing focal pulmonary lesions and characterizing the subtype of lung cancer: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Guohua; Jia, Zhiyun; Deng, Houfu [Sichuan University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, West China Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2016-02-15

    The potential performance of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for distinguishing malignant and benign pulmonary lesions, further characterizing the subtype of lung cancer was assessed. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, EBSCO, and three Chinese databases were searched to identify eligible studies on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of focal pulmonary lesions. ADC values of malignant and benign lesions were extracted by lesion type and statistically pooled based on a linear mixed model. Further analysis for subtype of lung cancer was also performed. The methodological quality was assessed using the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies tool. Thirty-four articles involving 2086 patients were included. Malignant pulmonary lesions have significantly lower ADC values than benign lesions [1.21 (95 % CI, 1.19-1.22) mm{sup 2}/s vs. 1.76 (95 % CI, 1.72-1.80) mm{sup 2}/s; P < 0.05]. There is a significant difference between ADC values of small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (P < 0.05), while the differences were not significant among histological subtypes of lung cancer. The methodological quality was relatively high, and the data points from Begg's test indicated that there was probably no obvious publication bias. The ADC value is helpful for distinguishing malignant and benign pulmonary lesions and provides a promising method for differentiation of SCLC from NSCLC. (orig.)

  16. A Systematic Review of the Prevalence and Pattern of Imaging Defined Post-TB Lung Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamilah Meghji

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is an important risk factor for chronic respiratory disease in resource poor settings. The persistence of abnormal spirometry and symptoms after treatment are well described, but the structural abnormalities underlying these changes remain poorly defined, limiting our ability to phenotype post-TB lung disease in to meaningful categories for clinical management, prognostication, and ongoing research. The relationship between post-TB lung damage and patient-centred outcomes including functional impairment, respiratory symptoms, and health related quality of life also remains unclear.We performed a systematic literature review to determine the prevalence and pattern of imaging-defined lung pathology in adults after medical treatment for pleural, miliary, or pulmonary TB disease. Data were collected on study characteristics, and the modality, timing, and findings of thoracic imaging. The proportion of studies relating imaging findings to spirometry results and patient morbidity was recorded. Study quality was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottowa score. (Prospero Registration number CRD42015027958.We identified 37 eligible studies. The principle features seen on CXR were cavitation (8.3-83.7%, bronchiectasis (4.3-11.2%, and fibrosis (25.0-70.4%, but prevalence was highly variable. CT imaging identified a wider range of residual abnormalities than CXR, including nodules (25.0-55.8%, consolidation (3.7-19.2%, and emphysema (15.0-45.0%. The prevalence of cavitation was generally lower (7.4-34.6% and bronchiectasis higher (35.0-86.0% on CT vs. CXR imaging. A paucity of prospective data, and data from HIV-infected adults and sub-Saharan Africa (sSA was noted. Few studies related structural damage to physiological impairment, respiratory symptoms, or patient morbidity.Post-TB structural lung pathology is common. Prospective data are required to determine the evolution of this lung damage and its associated morbidity over time. Further

  17. Lung metastases detection in CT images using 3D template matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng; DeNunzio, Andrea; Okunieff, Paul; O'Dell, Walter G.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate a novel, fully automatic computer detection method applicable to metastatic tumors to the lung with a diameter of 4-20 mm in high-risk patients using typical computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest. Three-dimensional (3D) spherical tumor appearance models (templates) of various sizes were created to match representative CT imaging parameters and to incorporate partial volume effects. Taking into account the variability in the location of CT sampling planes cut through the spherical models, three offsetting template models were created for each appearance model size. Lung volumes were automatically extracted from computed tomography images and the correlation coefficients between the subregions around each voxel in the lung volume and the set of appearance models were calculated using a fast frequency domain algorithm. To determine optimal parameters for the templates, simulated tumors of varying sizes and eccentricities were generated and superposed onto a representative human chest image dataset. The method was applied to real image sets from 12 patients with known metastatic disease to the lung. A total of 752 slices and 47 identifiable tumors were studied. Spherical templates of three sizes (6, 8, and 10 mm in diameter) were used on the patient image sets; all 47 true tumors were detected with the inclusion of only 21 false positives. This study demonstrates that an automatic and straightforward 3D template-matching method, without any complex training or postprocessing, can be used to detect small lung metastases quickly and reliably in the clinical setting

  18. Lung magnetic resonance imaging for pneumonia in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liszewski, Mark C.; Goerkem, Suereyya; Sodhi, Kushaljit S.; Lee, Edward Y.

    2017-01-01

    Technical factors have historically limited the role of MRI in the evaluation of pneumonia in children in routine clinical practice. As imaging technology has advanced, recent studies utilizing practical MR imaging protocols have shown MRI to be an accurate potential alternative to CT for the evaluation of pneumonia and its complications. This article provides up-to-date MR imaging techniques that can be implemented in most radiology departments to evaluate pneumonia in children. Imaging findings in pneumonia on MRI are also reviewed. In addition, the current literature describing the diagnostic performance of MRI for pneumonia is discussed. Furthermore, potential risks and limitations of MRI for the evaluation of pneumonia in children are described. (orig.)

  19. Lung magnetic resonance imaging for pneumonia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszewski, Mark C; Görkem, Süreyya; Sodhi, Kushaljit S; Lee, Edward Y

    2017-10-01

    Technical factors have historically limited the role of MRI in the evaluation of pneumonia in children in routine clinical practice. As imaging technology has advanced, recent studies utilizing practical MR imaging protocols have shown MRI to be an accurate potential alternative to CT for the evaluation of pneumonia and its complications. This article provides up-to-date MR imaging techniques that can be implemented in most radiology departments to evaluate pneumonia in children. Imaging findings in pneumonia on MRI are also reviewed. In addition, the current literature describing the diagnostic performance of MRI for pneumonia is discussed. Furthermore, potential risks and limitations of MRI for the evaluation of pneumonia in children are described.

  20. Lung magnetic resonance imaging for pneumonia in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liszewski, Mark C. [Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Goerkem, Suereyya [Erciyes University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Pediatric Radiology Section, Kayseri (Turkey); Sodhi, Kushaljit S. [Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Chandigarh (India); Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-10-15

    Technical factors have historically limited the role of MRI in the evaluation of pneumonia in children in routine clinical practice. As imaging technology has advanced, recent studies utilizing practical MR imaging protocols have shown MRI to be an accurate potential alternative to CT for the evaluation of pneumonia and its complications. This article provides up-to-date MR imaging techniques that can be implemented in most radiology departments to evaluate pneumonia in children. Imaging findings in pneumonia on MRI are also reviewed. In addition, the current literature describing the diagnostic performance of MRI for pneumonia is discussed. Furthermore, potential risks and limitations of MRI for the evaluation of pneumonia in children are described. (orig.)

  1. Assessment of lung ventilation by MR imaging: current status and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Hanke, Alexander; Beek, Edwin J.R. van

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the present status of novel MRI techniques as a new important instrument for functional ventilation imaging. The current status and future perspectives in research and clinical applications are summarized. Morphological lung imaging is based on chest radiography and computed tomography, whereas scintigraphy is used for ventilation imaging. During recent years, MRI has emerged as a new means for functional imaging of ventilation. Aerosolized contrast agents and oxygen are used in proton imaging, whereas non-proton imaging relies on fluorine compounds, such as sulfur hexafluoride and perfluorcarbons, or on hyperpolarized noble gases, such as helium-3 or xenon-129. All the gases are administered as inhaled ''contrast agents'' for imaging of the airways and airspaces. In general, straightforward images demonstrate the homogeneity of ventilation in a breath-hold and allow for determination of ventilated lung. The different properties of the different compounds enable the measurement of additional functional parameters. They comprise airspace size, regional oxygen partial pressure, and analysis of ventilation distribution, ventilation/perfusion ratios, and gas exchange, including oxygen uptake. Novel MRI techniques provide the potential for functional imaging of ventilation. The next steps include definition of the value and the potential of the different contrast mechanisms as well as determination of the significance of the functional information with regard to physiological research and patient management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and others. (orig.)

  2. Image-guided radiotherapy for fifty-eight patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jun; Zhang Tao; Wang Wenqin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) in lung cancer. Methods: From Mar. 2007 to Dec. 2007,58 patients with lung cancer were treated with IGRT. Set-up errors in each axial direction was calculated based on IGRT images of each patient. The change of GTV was evaluated on both cone-beam CT and CT simulator images. Results: Twenty-two patients with left lung cancer,30 with right lung cancer, 5 with mediastinal lymphanode metastasis and one with vertebra metastasis were included. The set-up error in x, y and z axes was (0.02±0.26) cm, (0.14±0.49) cm and ( -0.13± 0.27) cm, respectively,while the rotary set-up error in each axis was -0.15 degree ± 1.59 degree, -0.01 degree ± 1.50 degree and 0.12 degree ±1.08 degree, respectively. The set-up errors were significantly decreased by using of IGRT. GTV movement was observed in 15 patients (25.9%) ,including 5 with left upper lung cancer. GTV moving to the anterior direction was observed in 9 patients,including 4 with]eft upper lung cancer. GTV reduced in 23 (44.2%) patients during treatment. Asymmetric GTV reduction of 22 lesions was observed,with a mean reductive volume of 4.9 cm 3 . When GTV began to shrink,the irradiation dose was 4 -46 Gy, with 20 -30 Gy in 9 patients. Conclusions: The use of IGRT can significantly reduce set-up errors. GTV movement and reduction are observed in some cases. The time to modify the target volume needs to be further studied. (authors)

  3. 99Tcm-MIBI imaging in diagnosing benign/malign pulmonary disease and analysis of lung cancer DNA content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yanlin; Tan Jiaju; Yang Jie; Zhu Zheng; Yu Fengwen; He Xiaohong; Huang Kemin; Yuan Baihong; Su Shaodi

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of 99 Tc m -methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) lung imaging in diagnosing benign/malign pulmonary disease and the relation of 99 Tc m -MIBI uptake ratio (UR) with lung cancer DNA content. Methods: Early and delay imaging were performed on 27 cases of benign lung disease and 46 cases of malign lung disease. Visual analysis of the images and T/N uptake ratio measurement were performed on every case. Cancer cell DNA content and DNA index (DI) were measured in 24 cases of malign pulmonary disease. Results: The delay phase UR was 1.13 ± 0.19 in benign disease group, and the delay phase UR was 1.45 ± 0.21 in malign disease group (t6.51, P 99 Tc m -MIBI is not an ideal imaging agent for differentiating pulmonary benign/malign disease. Lung cancer DNA content may be reflected by delay phase UR

  4. Evaluation of usefulness of thallium-201-SPECT and CT images in differential diagnosis between organizing pneumonia and primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Fujiwara, Yoshio; Ogawa, Hirofumi; Nakano, Kenji; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2007-01-01

    We tried differential diagnosis between organizing pneumonia and primary lung cancer using CT and 201 Tl single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. CT images were estimated margin, air space consolidation, air bronchogram, ground-glass attenuation, spicula and indentation of the lesions. 201 Tl SPECT images were evaluated early and delayed lesion-to-normal contralateral lung uptake ratio (ER and DR) and retention index (RI). Clearness of margin and ground-glass attenuation of CT images of organizing pneumonia were significant different from those of primary lung cancer. On the other hand, DR and RI of organizing pneumonia were significant lower than those of primary lung cancer. We emphasized that 201 Tl SPECT was useful to evaluate differential diagnosis between organizing pneumonia and primary lung cancer. (author)

  5. Adjuvant chemotherapy versus chemoradiotherapy for small cell lung cancer with lymph node metastasis: a retrospective observational study with use of a national database in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Urushiyama, Hirokazu; Jo, Taisuke; Yasunaga, Hideo; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Matsui, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Wakae; Takeshima, Hideyuki; Hiraishi, Yoshihisa; Mitani, Akihisa; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Nagase, Takahide

    2017-01-01

    Background The optimal postoperative treatment strategy for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains unclear, especially in patients with lymph node metastasis. We aimed to compare the outcomes of patients with SCLC and lymph node metastasis treated with postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Methods We retrospectively collected data on patients with postoperative SCLC diagnosed with N1 and N2 lymph node metastasis from the Diagnosis Procedure Combination database in Japan, be...

  6. Image Format Conversion to DICOM and Lookup Table Conversion to Presentation Value of the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) Standard Digital Image Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagita, Satoshi; Imahana, Masato; Suwa, Kazuaki; Sugimura, Hitomi; Nishiki, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) standard digital image database contains many useful cases of chest X-ray images, and has been used in many state-of-the-art researches. However, the pixel values of all the images are simply digitized as relative density values by utilizing a scanned film digitizer. As a result, the pixel values are completely different from the standardized display system input value of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM), called presentation value (P-value), which can maintain a visual consistency when observing images using different display luminance. Therefore, we converted all the images from JSRT standard digital image database to DICOM format followed by the conversion of the pixel values to P-value using an original program developed by ourselves. Consequently, JSRT standard digital image database has been modified so that the visual consistency of images is maintained among different luminance displays.

  7. In vivo fluorescence imaging of bacteriogenic cyanide in the lungs of live mice infected with cystic fibrosis pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Won Nam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc, commonly found in the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF patients, often produce cyanide (CN, which inhibits cellular respiration. CN in sputa is a potential biomarker for lung infection by CF pathogens. However, its actual concentration in the infected lungs is unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This work reports observation of CN in the lungs of mice infected with cyanogenic PA or Bcc strains using a CN fluorescent chemosensor (4',5'-fluorescein dicarboxaldehyde with a whole animal imaging system. When the CN chemosensor was injected into the lungs of mice intratracheally infected with either PA or B. cepacia strains embedded in agar beads, CN was detected in the millimolar range (1.8 to 4 mM in the infected lungs. CN concentration in PA-infected lungs rapidly increased within 24 hours but gradually decreased over the following days, while CN concentration in B. cepacia-infected lungs slowly increased, reaching a maximum at 5 days. CN concentrations correlated with the bacterial loads in the lungs. In vivo efficacy of antimicrobial treatments was tested in live mice by monitoring bacteriogenic CN in the lungs. CONCLUSIONS: The in vivo imaging method was also found suitable for minimally invasive testing the efficacy of antibiotic compounds as well as for aiding the understanding of bacterial cyanogenesis in CF lungs.

  8. Dose distribution in lungs and thyroid from scatter photons of x-ray mammography imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, R.; Mehdizadeh, S.

    2006-01-01

    The contribution of scatter photons in dose of mammography image in thyroid and lungs are studied. Thyroid and in the form of distribution function and total delivered dose studied by direct measurement with Thermoluminescence dosimeter. The results of measurements compared to other published measurements and the total dose compared to our modelling with Monte Carlo method.. Our phantoms for direct measurement of Dose are a compressed breast phantom placed on a female RANDO phantom. The results of modelling and measurement are in agreement for the total delivered dose to thyroid and lungs and comparable to doses reported by the other researcher

  9. Imaging and Pathological Features of Percutaneous Cryosurgery on Normal Lung Evaluated in a Porcine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhi NIU

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer is one of the most commonly occurring malignancies and frequent causes of death in the world. Cryoablation is a safe and alternative treatment for unresectable lung cancer. Due to the lung being gas-containing organ and different from solid organs such as liver and pancreas, it is difficult to achieve the freezing range of beyond the tumor edge 1 cm safety border. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of different numbers of freeze cycles on the effectiveness of cryoablation on normal lung tissue and to create an operation guideline that gives the best effect. Methods Six healthy Tibetan miniature pigs were given a CT scan and histological investigation after percutaneous cryosurgery. Cryoablation was performed as 2 cycles of 10 min of active freezing in the left lung; each freeze followed by a 5 min thaw. In the right lung, we performed the same 2 cycles of 5 min of freezing followed by 5 min of thawing. However, for the right lung, we included a third cycle of consisting of 10 min of freezing followed by 5 min of thawing. Three cryoprobes were inserted into the left lung and three cryoprobes in the right lung per animal, one in the upper and two in the lower lobe, so as to be well away from each other. Comparison under the same experimental condition was necessary. During the experiment, observations were made regarding the imaging change of ice-ball. The lungs were removed postoperatively at 3 intervals: 4 h, 3 d of postoperation and 7 d of postoperation, respectively, to view microscopic and pathological change. Results The ice-ball grew gradually in relation to the increase in time, and the increase in number of cycles. The size of the cryolesion (hypothesis necrotic area in specimens, over time, became larger in size than the size of the ice-ball during operation, regardless of whether 2 or 3 freeze-thaw cycles were performed. The area of necrosis was gradually increased over the course of time

  10. Image findings and follow-up of lung echinococcosis after chemotherapy with liposome-entrapped albendazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhebaiti Mahesuti; Liu Wenyan; Ma Wenli; Wen Hao; Taxipulati

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the image features of lung echinococcosis under chemotherapy with liposome-entrapped albendazole. Methods: Sixteen patients with lung echinococcosis who took orally liposome-entrapped albendazole (10 mg/kg, Bid, 3 to 10 months) were examined by X-ray film, CT or MR before therapy and followed-up by those imaging studies after therapy. The morphological changes of the lesions as reflected on imaging findings were reviewed, with correlation of the clinic check-ups and laboratory tests, to judge effectiveness of the treatment. Results: Five cases were completely cured. The treatment was effective in 6 cases, partially effective in 4 and invalid in 1 case. The imaging findings included: cavity formation in 7 cases due to hydatid cyst degeneration and absorption of cyst liquid; reduction in lesion size in 6 cases; disappearance of lesion or decrease in lesion numbers in 2 cases; increase in lesion density and blurring of cyst wall in 6 cases duo to cyst consolidation; rupture, shrinkage, collapse of cyst inner membrane in 3 cases; calcification of the cyst wall or contents in 6 cases. Conclusions: It is shown that liposome-entrapped albendazole chemotherapy has curative effect for lung echinococcosis. Imaging examinations are effective for monitoring the evolution of the disease by depicting the morphologic-pathologic changes of the lesions. (authors)

  11. Food-pics: an image database for experimental research on eating and appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens eBlechert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our current environment is characterized by the omnipresence of food cues. The sight and smell of real foods, but also graphically depictions of appetizing foods, can guide our eating behavior, for example, by eliciting food craving and influencing food choice. The relevance of visual food cues on human information processing has been demonstrated by a growing body of studies employing food images across the disciplines of psychology, medicine, and neuroscience. However, currently used food image sets vary considerably across laboratories and image characteristics (contrast, brightness, etc. and food composition (calories, macronutrients, etc. are often unspecified. These factors might have contributed to some of the inconsistencies of this research. To remedy this, we developed food-pics, a picture database comprising 568 food images and 315 non-food images along with detailed meta-data. A total of N = 1988 individuals with large variance in age and weight from German speaking countries and North America provided normative ratings of valence, arousal, palatability, desire to eat, recognizability and visual complexity. Furthermore, data on macronutrients (g, energy density (kcal, and physical image characteristics (color composition, contrast, brightness, size, complexity are provided. The food-pics image data base is freely available under the creative commons license with the hope that the set will facilitate standardization and comparability across studies and advance experimental research on the determinants of eating behavior.

  12. Psychophysical studies of the performance of an image database retrieval system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathomas, Thomas V.; Conway, Tiffany E.; Cox, Ingemar J.; Ghosn, Joumana; Miller, Matt L.; Minka, Thomas P.; Yianilos, Peter N.

    1998-07-01

    We describe psychophysical experiments conducted to study PicHunter, a content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system. Experiment 1 studies the importance of using (a) semantic information, (2) memory of earlier input and (3) relative, rather than absolute, judgements of image similarity. The target testing paradigm is used in which a user must search for an image identical to a target. We find that the best performance comes from a version of PicHunter that uses only semantic cues, with memory and relative similarity judgements. Second best is use of both pictorial and semantic cues, with memory and relative similarity judgements. Most reports of CBIR systems provide only qualitative measures of performance based on how similar retrieved images are to a target. Experiment 2 puts PicHunter into this context with a more rigorous test. We first establish a baseline for our database by measuring the time required to find an image that is similar to a target when the images are presented in random order. Although PicHunter's performance is measurably better than this, the test is weak because even random presentation of images yields reasonably short search times. This casts doubt on the strength of results given in other reports where no baseline is established.

  13. Clinical outcome of hypofractionated breath-hold image-guided SABR of primary lung tumors and lung metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boda-Heggemann, Judit; Wenz, Frederik; Lohr, Frank; Frauenfeld, Anian; Weiss, Christel; Simeonova, Anna; Neumaier, Christian; Siebenlist, Kerstin; Attenberger, Ulrike; Heußel, Claus Peter; Schneider, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Stereotactic Ablative RadioTherapy (SABR) of lung tumors/metastases has been shown to be an effective treatment modality with low toxicity. Outcome and toxicity were retrospectively evaluated in a unique single-institution cohort treated with intensity-modulated image-guided breath-hold SABR (igSABR) without external immobilization. The dose–response relationship is analyzed based on Biologically Equivalent Dose (BED). 50 lesions in 43 patients with primary NSCLC (n = 27) or lung-metastases of various primaries (n = 16) were consecutively treated with igSABR with Active-Breathing-Coordinator (ABC®) and repeat-breath-hold cone-beam-CT. After an initial dose-finding/-escalation period, 5x12 Gy for peripheral lesions and single doses of 5 Gy to varying dose levels for central lesions were applied. Overall-survival (OS), progression-free-survival (PFS), progression pattern, local control (LC) and toxicity were analyzed. The median BED2 was 83 Gy. 12 lesions were treated with a BED2 of <80 Gy, and 38 lesions with a BED2 of >80 Gy. Median follow-up was 15 months. Actuarial 1- and 2-year OS were 67% and 43%; respectively. Cause of death was non-disease-related in 27%. Actuarial 1- and 2-year PFS was 42% and 28%. Progression site was predominantly distant. Actuarial 1- and 2 year LC was 90% and 85%. LC showed a trend for a correlation to BED2 (p = 0.1167). Pneumonitis requiring conservative treatment occurred in 23%. Intensity-modulated breath-hold igSABR results in high LC-rates and low toxicity in this unfavorable patient cohort with inoperable lung tumors or metastases. A BED2 of <80 Gy was associated with reduced local control

  14. Usefulness of CT based SPECT Fusion Image in the lung Disease : Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hoon Hee; Lyu, Kwang Yeul; Kim, Tae Hyung; Shin, Ji Yun

    2012-01-01

    Recently, SPECT/CT system has been applied to many diseases, however, the application is not extensively applied at pulmonary disease. Especially, in case that, the pulmonary embolisms suspect at the CT images, SPECT is performed. For the accurate diagnosis, SPECT/CT tests are subsequently undergoing. However, without SPECT/CT, there are some limitations to apply these procedures. With SPECT/CT, although, most of the examination performed after CT. Moreover, such a test procedures generate unnecessary dual irradiation problem to the patient. In this study, we evaluated the amount of unnecessary irradiation, and the usefulness of fusion images of pulmonary disease, which independently acquired from SPECT and CT. Using NEMA PhantomTM (NU2-2001), SPECT and CT scan were performed for fusion images. From June 2011 to September 2010, 10 patients who didn't have other personal history, except lung disease were selected (male: 7, female: 3, mean age: 65.3±12.7). In both clinical patient and phantom data, the fusion images scored higher than SPECT and CT images. The fusion images, which is combined with pulmonary vessel images from CT and functional images from SPECT, can increase the detection possibility in detecting pulmonary embolism in the resin of lung parenchyma. It is sure that performing SPECT and CT in integral SPECT/CT system were better. However, we believe this protocol can give more informative data to have more accurate diagnosis in the hospital without integral SPECT/CT system.

  15. The virtual microscopy database-sharing digital microscope images for research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lisa M J; Goldman, Haviva M; Hortsch, Michael

    2018-02-14

    Over the last 20 years, virtual microscopy has become the predominant modus of teaching the structural organization of cells, tissues, and organs, replacing the use of optical microscopes and glass slides in a traditional histology or pathology laboratory setting. Although virtual microscopy image files can easily be duplicated, creating them requires not only quality histological glass slides but also an expensive whole slide microscopic scanner and massive data storage devices. These resources are not available to all educators and researchers, especially at new institutions in developing countries. This leaves many schools without access to virtual microscopy resources. The Virtual Microscopy Database (VMD) is a new resource established to address this problem. It is a virtual image file-sharing website that allows researchers and educators easy access to a large repository of virtual histology and pathology image files. With the support from the American Association of Anatomists (Bethesda, MD) and MBF Bioscience Inc. (Williston, VT), registration and use of the VMD are currently free of charge. However, the VMD site is restricted to faculty and staff of research and educational institutions. Virtual Microscopy Database users can upload their own collection of virtual slide files, as well as view and download image files for their own non-profit educational and research purposes that have been deposited by other VMD clients. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Scattering features for lung cancer detection in fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotomamonjy, Alain; Petitjean, Caroline; Salaün, Mathieu; Thiberville, Luc

    2014-06-01

    To assess the feasibility of lung cancer diagnosis using fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM) imaging technique and scattering features for pattern recognition. FCFM imaging technique is a new medical imaging technique for which interest has yet to be established for diagnosis. This paper addresses the problem of lung cancer detection using FCFM images and, as a first contribution, assesses the feasibility of computer-aided diagnosis through these images. Towards this aim, we have built a pattern recognition scheme which involves a feature extraction stage and a classification stage. The second contribution relies on the features used for discrimination. Indeed, we have employed the so-called scattering transform for extracting discriminative features, which are robust to small deformations in the images. We have also compared and combined these features with classical yet powerful features like local binary patterns (LBP) and their variants denoted as local quinary patterns (LQP). We show that scattering features yielded to better recognition performances than classical features like LBP and their LQP variants for the FCFM image classification problems. Another finding is that LBP-based and scattering-based features provide complementary discriminative information and, in some situations, we empirically establish that performance can be improved when jointly using LBP, LQP and scattering features. In this work we analyze the joint capability of FCFM images and scattering features for lung cancer diagnosis. The proposed method achieves a good recognition rate for such a diagnosis problem. It also performs well when used in conjunction with other features for other classical medical imaging classification problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural-functional lung imaging using a combined CT-EIT and a Discrete Cosine Transformation reconstruction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullcke, Benjamin; Gong, Bo; Krueger-Ziolek, Sabine; Soleimani, Manuchehr; Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich; Moeller, Knut

    2016-05-16

    Lung EIT is a functional imaging method that utilizes electrical currents to reconstruct images of conductivity changes inside the thorax. This technique is radiation free and applicable at the bedside, but lacks of spatial resolution compared to morphological imaging methods such as X-ray computed tomography (CT). In this article we describe an approach for EIT image reconstruction using morphologic information obtained from other structural imaging modalities. This leads to recon- structed images of lung ventilation that can easily be superimposed with structural CT or MRI images, which facilitates image interpretation. The approach is based on a Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT) of an image of the considered transversal thorax slice. The use of DCT enables reduction of the dimensionality of the reconstruction and ensures that only conductivity changes of the lungs are reconstructed and displayed. The DCT based approach is well suited to fuse morphological image information with functional lung imaging at low computational costs. Results on simulated data indicate that this approach preserves the morphological structures of the lungs and avoids blurring of the solution. Images from patient measurements reveal the capabilities of the method and demonstrate benefits in possible applications.

  18. CT imaging of congenital lung lesions: effect of iterative reconstruction on diagnostic performance and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggerty, Jay E.; Smith, Ethan A.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Kunisaki, Shaun M.

    2015-01-01

    Different iterative reconstruction techniques are available for use in pediatric computed tomography (CT), but these techniques have not been systematically evaluated in infants. To determine the effect of iterative reconstruction on diagnostic performance, image quality and radiation dose in infants undergoing CT evaluation for congenital lung lesions. A retrospective review of contrast-enhanced chest CT in infants (<1 year) with congenital lung lesions was performed. CT examinations were reviewed to document the type of lung lesion, vascular anatomy, image noise measurements and image reconstruction method. CTDI vol was used to calculate size-specific dose estimates (SSDE). CT findings were correlated with intraoperative and histopathological findings. Analysis of variance and the Student's t-test were used to compare image noise measurements and radiation dose estimates between groups. Fifteen CT examinations used filtered back projection (FBP; mean age: 84 days), 15 used adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR; mean age: 93 days), and 11 used model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR; mean age: 98 days). Compared to operative findings, 13/15 (87%), 14/15 (93%) and 11/11 (100%) lesions were correctly characterized using FBP, ASiR and MBIR, respectively. Arterial anatomy was correctly identified in 12/15 (80%) using FBP, 13/15 (87%) using ASiR and 11/11 (100%) using MBIR. Image noise was less for MBIR vs. ASiR (P < 0.0001). Mean SSDE was different among groups (P = 0.003; FBP = 7.35 mGy, ASiR = 1.89 mGy, MBIR = 1.49 mGy). Congenital lung lesions can be adequately characterized in infants using iterative CT reconstruction techniques while maintaining image quality and lowering radiation dose. (orig.)

  19. CT imaging of congenital lung lesions: effect of iterative reconstruction on diagnostic performance and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggerty, Jay E.; Smith, Ethan A.; Dillman, Jonathan R. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kunisaki, Shaun M. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Different iterative reconstruction techniques are available for use in pediatric computed tomography (CT), but these techniques have not been systematically evaluated in infants. To determine the effect of iterative reconstruction on diagnostic performance, image quality and radiation dose in infants undergoing CT evaluation for congenital lung lesions. A retrospective review of contrast-enhanced chest CT in infants (<1 year) with congenital lung lesions was performed. CT examinations were reviewed to document the type of lung lesion, vascular anatomy, image noise measurements and image reconstruction method. CTDI{sub vol} was used to calculate size-specific dose estimates (SSDE). CT findings were correlated with intraoperative and histopathological findings. Analysis of variance and the Student's t-test were used to compare image noise measurements and radiation dose estimates between groups. Fifteen CT examinations used filtered back projection (FBP; mean age: 84 days), 15 used adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR; mean age: 93 days), and 11 used model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR; mean age: 98 days). Compared to operative findings, 13/15 (87%), 14/15 (93%) and 11/11 (100%) lesions were correctly characterized using FBP, ASiR and MBIR, respectively. Arterial anatomy was correctly identified in 12/15 (80%) using FBP, 13/15 (87%) using ASiR and 11/11 (100%) using MBIR. Image noise was less for MBIR vs. ASiR (P < 0.0001). Mean SSDE was different among groups (P = 0.003; FBP = 7.35 mGy, ASiR = 1.89 mGy, MBIR = 1.49 mGy). Congenital lung lesions can be adequately characterized in infants using iterative CT reconstruction techniques while maintaining image quality and lowering radiation dose. (orig.)

  20. A study on image diagnosis of lung impairment caused by aspiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Hidenao

    2000-01-01

    Purpose of the present study is to evaluate lung impairment in an acute aspiration model by using new CT method and to assess the application of the method for clinical cases. Subjects in experimental model were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated beagle dogs (n=5), and subjects in clinical cases were patients with aspiration in acute phase (n=5). For the preparation of the acute aspiration model, 2% Gastrografin (diatrizoate megulumine) aqueous solution was instilled cumulatively (0.1-3.0 ml/kg) into the right main bronchus through the endobronchial tube. Two methods of CT scan, Spirometric gating CT (SGCT) and Dynamic CT, were performed before and after instillation. SGCT can adjust the pulmonary volume at each scan by built-in spirometer. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the whole lung image was obtained with scan data by SGCT. Dynamic CT method was utilized for assessment of the ventilation dynamics. Continuous scan of the lung at the carina level was performed during ventilation and time-series image data were obtained at a rate of 5 frames/sec. The CT densitometry of the Dynamic CT images were carried out and time-attenuation curves with ventilation were analyzed. In experimental model, the whole lung images by SGCT after instillation showed invasion of Gastrografin into right lower lobe and the compensatory overinflation in the other lobes. The time-attenuation curves by Dynamic CT showed that both the mean and amplitude of the attenuation increased in the right lower lobe where the Gastrografin instilled. But the amplitude decreased when the mean value showed no apparent change at the first period of instillation. In acute phase of the aspiration, the amplitude will be the sensitive index of the ventilation impairment. In clinical case subjects were scanned during spontaneous breathing by Dynamic CT. Both the mean and amplitude of the attenuation of the time-increased when the aspiration occurred. After four days passed, the mean value increased

  1. Lung PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chest PET scan; Lung positron emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging; ... Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  2. Imaging of Combat-Related Thoracic Trauma - Blunt Trauma and Blast Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, John P; Kim, Andrew M; Fisher, Dane; Tatum, Peter S; Neubauer, Brian; Peterson, P Gabriel; Carter, Brett W

    2018-03-01

    Combat-related thoracic trauma (CRTT) is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality of the casualties from Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Penetrating, blunt, and blast injuries are the most common mechanisms of trauma to the chest. Imaging plays a key role in the battlefield management of CRTT casualties. This work discusses the imaging manifestations of thoracic injuries from blunt trauma and blast injury, emphasizing epidemiology and diagnostic clues seen during OEF and OIF. The assessment of radiologic findings in patients who suffer from combat-related blunt thoracic trauma and blast injury is the basis of this work. The imaging modalities for this work include multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and chest radiography. Multiple imaging modalities are available to imagers on or near the battlefront, including radiography, fluoroscopy, and MDCT. MDCT with multi-planar reconstructions is the most sensitive imaging modality available in combat hospitals for the evaluation of CRTT. In modern combat, blunt and blast injuries account for a significant portion of CRTT. Individual body armor converts penetrating trauma to blunt trauma, leading to pulmonary contusion that accounted for 50.2% of thoracic injuries during OIF and OEF. Flail chest, a subset of blunt chest injury, is caused by significant blunt force to the chest and occurs four times as frequently in combat casualties when compared with the civilian population. Imaging features of CRTT have significant diagnostic and prognostic value. Pulmonary contusions on chest radiography appear as patchy consolidations in the acute setting with ill-defined and non-segmental borders. MDCT of the chest is a superior imaging modality in diagnosing and evaluating pulmonary contusion. Contusions on MDCT appear as crescentic ground-glass opacities (opacities through which lung interstitium and vasculature are still visible) and areas of consolidation that often do not

  3. Use of morphologic filters in the computerized detection of lung nodules in digital chest images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.; Giger, M.L.; Doi, K.; Ahn, N.; MacMahon, H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have previously described a computerized scheme for the detection of lung nodules based on a difference-image approach, which had a detection accuracy of 70% with 7--8 false positives per image. Currently, they are investigating morphologic filters for the further enhancement/suppression of nodule-signals and the removal of false-positives. Gray-level morphologic filtering is performed on clinical chest radiographs digitized with an optical drum scanner. Various shapes and sequences of erosion and dilation filters (i.e., determination of the minimum and maximum gray levels, respectively) were examined for signal enhancement and suppression for sue in the difference- image approach

  4. The database of chromosome imbalance regions and genes resided in lung cancer from Asian and Caucasian identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Fang-Yi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer-related genes show racial differences. Therefore, identification and characterization of DNA copy number alteration regions in different racial groups helps to dissect the mechanism of tumorigenesis. Methods Array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH was analyzed for DNA copy number profile in 40 Asian and 20 Caucasian lung cancer patients. Three methods including MetaCore analysis for disease and pathway correlations, concordance analysis between array-CGH database and the expression array database, and literature search for copy number variation genes were performed to select novel lung cancer candidate genes. Four candidate oncogenes were validated for DNA copy number and mRNA and protein expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH, reverse transcriptase-qPCR (RT-qPCR, and immunohistochemistry (IHC in more patients. Results We identified 20 chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 459 genes for Caucasian and 17 regions containing 476 genes for Asian lung cancer patients. Seven common chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 117 genes, included gain on 3p13-14, 6p22.1, 9q21.13, 13q14.1, and 17p13.3; and loss on 3p22.2-22.3 and 13q13.3 were found both in Asian and Caucasian patients. Gene validation for four genes including ARHGAP19 (10q24.1 functioning in Rho activity control, FRAT2 (10q24.1 involved in Wnt signaling, PAFAH1B1 (17p13.3 functioning in motility control, and ZNF322A (6p22.1 involved in MAPK signaling was performed using qPCR and RT-qPCR. Mean gene dosage and mRNA expression level of the four candidate genes in tumor tissues were significantly higher than the corresponding normal tissues (PP=0.06. In addition, CISH analysis of patients indicated that copy number amplification indeed occurred for ARHGAP19 and ZNF322A genes in lung cancer patients. IHC analysis of paraffin blocks from Asian Caucasian patients demonstrated that the frequency of

  5. The database of chromosome imbalance regions and genes resided in lung cancer from Asian and Caucasian identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Fang-Yi; Nandi, Suvobroto; Salgia, Ravi; Wang, Yi-Ching; Chang, Jer-Wei; Chang, I-Shou; Chen, Yann-Jang; Hsu, Han-Shui; Huang, Shiu-Feng Kathy; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Jiang, Shih Sheng; Kanteti, Rajani

    2012-01-01

    Cancer-related genes show racial differences. Therefore, identification and characterization of DNA copy number alteration regions in different racial groups helps to dissect the mechanism of tumorigenesis. Array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) was analyzed for DNA copy number profile in 40 Asian and 20 Caucasian lung cancer patients. Three methods including MetaCore analysis for disease and pathway correlations, concordance analysis between array-CGH database and the expression array database, and literature search for copy number variation genes were performed to select novel lung cancer candidate genes. Four candidate oncogenes were validated for DNA copy number and mRNA and protein expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), reverse transcriptase-qPCR (RT-qPCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in more patients. We identified 20 chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 459 genes for Caucasian and 17 regions containing 476 genes for Asian lung cancer patients. Seven common chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 117 genes, included gain on 3p13-14, 6p22.1, 9q21.13, 13q14.1, and 17p13.3; and loss on 3p22.2-22.3 and 13q13.3 were found both in Asian and Caucasian patients. Gene validation for four genes including ARHGAP19 (10q24.1) functioning in Rho activity control, FRAT2 (10q24.1) involved in Wnt signaling, PAFAH1B1 (17p13.3) functioning in motility control, and ZNF322A (6p22.1) involved in MAPK signaling was performed using qPCR and RT-qPCR. Mean gene dosage and mRNA expression level of the four candidate genes in tumor tissues were significantly higher than the corresponding normal tissues (P<0.001~P=0.06). In addition, CISH analysis of patients indicated that copy number amplification indeed occurred for ARHGAP19 and ZNF322A genes in lung cancer patients. IHC analysis of paraffin blocks from Asian Caucasian patients demonstrated that the frequency of PAFAH1B1 protein overexpression was 68

  6. Expanded image database of pistachio x-ray images and classification by conventional methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keagy, Pamela M.; Schatzki, Thomas F.; Le, Lan Chau; Casasent, David P.; Weber, David

    1996-12-01

    In order to develop sorting methods for insect damaged pistachio nuts, a large data set of pistachio x-ray images (6,759 nuts) was created. Both film and linescan sensor images were acquired, nuts dissected and internal conditions coded using the U.S. Grade standards and definitions for pistachios. A subset of 1199 good and 686 insect damaged nuts was used to calculate and test discriminant functions. Statistical parameters of image histograms were evaluated for inclusion by forward stepwise discrimination. Using three variables in the discriminant function, 89% of test set nuts were correctly identified. Comparable data for 6 human subjects ranged from 67 to 92%. If the loss of good nuts is held to 1% by requiring a high probability to discard a nut as insect damaged, approximately half of the insect damage present in clean pistachio nuts may be detected and removed by x-ray inspection.

  7. Effective spatial database support for acquiring spatial information from remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peiquan; Wan, Shouhong; Yue, Lihua

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, a new approach to maintain spatial information acquiring from remote-sensing images is presented, which is based on Object-Relational DBMS. According to this approach, the detected and recognized results of targets are stored and able to be further accessed in an ORDBMS-based spatial database system, and users can access the spatial information using the standard SQL interface. This approach is different from the traditional ArcSDE-based method, because the spatial information management module is totally integrated into the DBMS and becomes one of the core modules in the DBMS. We focus on three issues, namely the general framework for the ORDBMS-based spatial database system, the definitions of the add-in spatial data types and operators, and the process to develop a spatial Datablade on Informix. The results show that the ORDBMS-based spatial database support for image-based target detecting and recognition is easy and practical to be implemented.

  8. Automatic Detection of Lung and Liver Lesions in 3-D Positron Emission Tomography Images: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartizien, Carole; Marache-Francisco, Simon; Prost, Rémy

    2012-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using fluorine-18 deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) has become an increasingly recommended tool in clinical whole-body oncology imaging for the detection, diagnosis, and follow-up of many cancers. One way to improve the diagnostic utility of PET oncology imaging is to assist physicians facing difficult cases of residual or low-contrast lesions. This study aimed at evaluating different schemes of computer-aided detection (CADe) systems for the guided detection and localization of small and low-contrast lesions in PET. These systems are based on two supervised classifiers, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and the nonlinear support vector machine (SVM). The image feature sets that serve as input data consisted of the coefficients of an undecimated wavelet transform. An optimization study was conducted to select the best combination of parameters for both the SVM and the LDA. Different false-positive reduction (FPR) methods were evaluated to reduce the number of false-positive detections per image (FPI). This includes the removal of small detected clusters and the combination of the LDA and SVM detection maps. The different CAD schemes were trained and evaluated based on a simulated whole-body PET image database containing 250 abnormal cases with 1230 lesions and 250 normal cases with no lesion. The detection performance was measured on a separate series of 25 testing images with 131 lesions. The combination of the LDA and SVM score maps was shown to produce very encouraging detection performance for both the lung lesions, with 91% sensitivity and 18 FPIs, and the liver lesions, with 94% sensitivity and 10 FPIs. Comparison with human performance indicated that the different CAD schemes significantly outperformed human detection sensitivities, especially regarding the low-contrast lesions.

  9. Using Dual Fluorescence Reporting Genes to Establish an In Vivo Imaging Model of Orthotopic Lung Adenocarcinoma in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Yen, Chih-Ching; Wang, Jiun-Long; Yang, Shang-Hsun; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2016-12-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma is characterized by a poor prognosis and high mortality worldwide. In this study, we purposed to use the live imaging techniques and a reporter gene that generates highly penetrative near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence to establish a preclinical animal model that allows in vivo monitoring of lung cancer development and provides a non-invasive tool for the research on lung cancer pathogenesis and therapeutic efficacy. A human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549), which stably expressed the dual fluorescence reporting gene (pCAG-iRFP-2A-Venus), was used to generate subcutaneous or orthotopic lung cancer in nude mice. Cancer development was evaluated by live imaging via the NIR fluorescent signals from iRFP, and the signals were verified ex vivo by the green fluorescence of Venus from the gross lung. The tumor-bearing mice received miR-16 nucleic acid therapy by intranasal administration to demonstrate therapeutic efficacy in this live imaging system. For the subcutaneous xenografts, the detection of iRFP fluorescent signals revealed delicate changes occurring during tumor growth that are not distinguishable by conventional methods of tumor measurement. For the orthotopic xenografts, the positive correlation between the in vivo iRFP signal from mice chests and the ex vivo green fluorescent signal from gross lung tumors and the results of the suppressed tumorigenesis by miR-16 treatment indicated that lung tumor size can be accurately quantified by the emission of NIR fluorescence. In addition, orthotopic lung tumor localization can be accurately visualized using iRFP fluorescence tomography in vivo, thus revealing the trafficking of lung tumor cells. We introduced a novel dual fluorescence lung cancer model that provides a non-invasive option for preclinical research via the use of NIR fluorescence in live imaging of lung.

  10. Functional image-based radiotherapy planning for non-small cell lung cancer: A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, Emma L.; Bragg, Christopher M.; Wild, Jim M.; Hatton, Matthew Q.F.; Ireland, Rob H.

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: To investigate the incorporation of data from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or hyperpolarized helium-3 magnetic resonance imaging ( 3 He-MRI) into intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Material and methods: Seven scenarios were simulated that represent cases of NSCLC with significant functional lung defects. Two independent IMRT plans were produced for each scenario; one to minimise total lung volume receiving ≥20 Gy (V 20 ), and the other to minimise only the functional lung volume receiving ≥20 Gy (FV 20 ). Dose-volume characteristics and a plan quality index related to planning target volume coverage by the 95% isodose (V PTV95 /FV 20 ) were compared between anatomical and functional plans using the Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Results: Compared to anatomical IMRT plans, functional planning reduced FV 20 (median 2.7%, range 0.6-3.5%, p = 0.02), and total lung V 20 (median 1.5%, 0.5-2.7%, p = 0.02), with a small reduction in mean functional lung dose (median 0.4 Gy, 0-0.7 Gy, p = 0.03). There were no significant differences in target volume coverage or organ-at-risk doses. Plan quality index was improved for functional plans (median increase 1.4, range 0-11.8, p = 0.02). Conclusions: Statistically significant reductions in FV 20 , V 20 and mean functional lung dose are possible when IMRT planning is supplemented by functional information derived from SPECT or 3 He-MRI.

  11. Choice of reconstructed tissue properties affects interpretation of lung EIT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Adler, Andy

    2014-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) estimates an image of change in electrical properties within a body from stimulations and measurements at surface electrodes. There is significant interest in EIT as a tool to monitor and guide ventilation therapy in mechanically ventilated patients. In lung EIT, the EIT inverse problem is commonly linearized and only changes in electrical properties are reconstructed. Early algorithms reconstructed changes in resistivity, while most recent work using the finite element method reconstructs conductivity. Recently, we demonstrated that EIT images of ventilation can be misleading if the electrical contrasts within the thorax are not taken into account during the image reconstruction process. In this paper, we explore the effect of the choice of the reconstructed electrical properties (resistivity or conductivity) on the resulting EIT images. We show in simulation and experimental data that EIT images reconstructed with the same algorithm but with different parametrizations lead to large and clinically significant differences in the resulting images, which persist even after attempts to eliminate the impact of the parameter choice by recovering volume changes from the EIT images. Since there is no consensus among the most popular reconstruction algorithms and devices regarding the parametrization, this finding has implications for potential clinical use of EIT. We propose a program of research to develop reconstruction techniques that account for both the relationship between air volume and electrical properties of the lung and artefacts introduced by the linearization.

  12. Choice of reconstructed tissue properties affects interpretation of lung EIT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Adler, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) estimates an image of change in electrical properties within a body from stimulations and measurements at surface electrodes. There is significant interest in EIT as a tool to monitor and guide ventilation therapy in mechanically ventilated patients. In lung EIT, the EIT inverse problem is commonly linearized and only changes in electrical properties are reconstructed. Early algorithms reconstructed changes in resistivity, while most recent work using the finite element method reconstructs conductivity. Recently, we demonstrated that EIT images of ventilation can be misleading if the electrical contrasts within the thorax are not taken into account during the image reconstruction process. In this paper, we explore the effect of the choice of the reconstructed electrical properties (resistivity or conductivity) on the resulting EIT images. We show in simulation and experimental data that EIT images reconstructed with the same algorithm but with different parametrizations lead to large and clinically significant differences in the resulting images, which persist even after attempts to eliminate the impact of the parameter choice by recovering volume changes from the EIT images. Since there is no consensus among the most popular reconstruction algorithms and devices regarding the parametrization, this finding has implications for potential clinical use of EIT. We propose a program of research to develop reconstruction techniques that account for both the relationship between air volume and electrical properties of the lung and artefacts introduced by the linearization. (paper)

  13. Impact of field number and beam angle on functional image-guided lung cancer radiotherapy planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Bilal A.; Bragg, Chris M.; Wild, Jim M.; Swinscoe, James A.; Lawless, Sarah E.; Hart, Kerry A.; Hatton, Matthew Q.; Ireland, Rob H.

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of beam angles and field number on functionally-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) normal lung avoidance treatment plans that incorporate hyperpolarised helium-3 magnetic resonance imaging (3He MRI) ventilation data. Eight non-small cell lung cancer patients had pre-treatment 3He MRI that was registered to inspiration breath-hold radiotherapy planning computed tomography. IMRT plans that minimised the volume of total lung receiving  ⩾20 Gy (V20) were compared with plans that minimised 3He MRI defined functional lung receiving  ⩾20 Gy (fV20). Coplanar IMRT plans using 5-field manually optimised beam angles and 9-field equidistant plans were also evaluated. For each pair of plans, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to compare fV20 and the percentage of planning target volume (PTV) receiving 90% of the prescription dose (PTV90). Incorporation of 3He MRI led to median reductions in fV20 of 1.3% (range: 0.2-9.3% p  =  0.04) and 0.2% (range: 0 to 4.1%; p  =  0.012) for 5- and 9-field arrangements, respectively. There was no clinically significant difference in target coverage. Functionally-guided IMRT plans incorporating hyperpolarised 3He MRI information can reduce the dose received by ventilated lung without comprising PTV coverage. The effect was greater for optimised beam angles rather than uniformly spaced fields.

  14. Image processing algorithm of computer-aided diagnosis in lung cancer screening by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shinji

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, an image processing algorithm for computer-aided diagnosis of lung cancer by X-ray CT is described, which has been developed by my research group for these 10 years or so. CT lung images gathered at the mass screening stage are almost all normal, and lung cancer nodules will be found as the rate of less than 10%. To pick up such a very rare nodules with the high accuracy, a very sensitive detection algorithm is requested which is detectable local and very slight variation of the image. On the contrary, such a sensitive detection algorithm introduces a bad effect that a lot of normal shadows will be detected as abnormal shadows. In this paper I describe how to compromise this complicated subject and realize a practical computer-aided diagnosis tool by the image processing algorithm developed by my research group. Especially, I will mainly focus my description to the principle and characteristics of the Quoit filter which is newly developed as a high sensitive filter by my group. (author)

  15. A naturally occurring contrast agent for OCT imaging of smokers' lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ying; Bagnaninchi, Pierre O; Whiteman, Suzanne C; Pittius, Daniel Gey van; Haj, Alicia J El; Spiteri, Monica A; Wang, Ruikang K

    2005-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) offers great potential for clinical applications in terms of its cost, safety and real-time imaging capability. Improvement of its resolution for revealing sub-layers or sub-cellular components within a tissue will further widen its application. In this study we report that carbon pigment, which is frequently present in the lungs of smokers, could be used as a contrast agent to improve the OCT imaging of lung tissue. Carbon produced an intense bright OCT image at a relatively deep location. The parallel histopathological section analysis confirmed the presence of carbon pigment in such tissues. The underlying mechanism of the OCT image formation has been discussed based on a model system in which carbon particles were dispersed in agar gel. Calculations and in-depth intensity profiles of OCT revealed that higher refractive index particles with a size close to or smaller than the wavelength would greatly increase backscattering and generate a sharp contrast, while a particle size several times larger than the wavelength would absorb or obstruct the light path. The naturally occurring contrast agent could provide a diagnostic biomarker of lung tissue in smokers. Furthermore, carbon under such circumstances, can be used as an effective exogenous contrast agent, with which specific components or tissues exhibiting early tumour formation can be optically labelled to delineate the location and boundary, providing potential for early cancer detection and its treatment

  16. Grid Databases for Shared Image Analysis in the MammoGrid Project

    CERN Document Server

    Amendolia, S R; Hauer, T; Manset, D; McClatchey, R; Odeh, M; Reading, T; Rogulin, D; Schottlander, D; Solomonides, T

    2004-01-01

    The MammoGrid project aims to prove that Grid infrastructures can be used for collaborative clinical analysis of database-resident but geographically distributed medical images. This requires: a) the provision of a clinician-facing front-end workstation and b) the ability to service real-world clinician queries across a distributed and federated database. The MammoGrid project will prove the viability of the Grid by harnessing its power to enable radiologists from geographically dispersed hospitals to share standardized mammograms, to compare diagnoses (with and without computer aided detection of tumours) and to perform sophisticated epidemiological studies across national boundaries. This paper outlines the approach taken in MammoGrid to seamlessly connect radiologist workstations across a Grid using an "information infrastructure" and a DICOM-compliant object model residing in multiple distributed data stores in Italy and the UK

  17. TU-A-12A-04: Quantitative Texture Features Calculated in Lung Tissue From CT Scans Demonstrate Consistency Between Two Databases From Different Institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunliffe, A; Armato, S; Castillo, R; Pham, N; Guerrero, T; Al-Hallaq, H

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the consistency of computed tomography (CT) scan texture features, previously identified as stable in a healthy patient cohort, in esophageal cancer patient CT scans. Methods: 116 patients receiving radiation therapy (median dose: 50.4Gy) for esophageal cancer were retrospectively identified. For each patient, diagnostic-quality pre-therapy (0-183 days) and post-therapy (5-120 days) scans (mean voxel size: 0.8mm×0.8mm×2.5mm) and a treatment planning scan and associated dose map were collected. An average of 501 32x32-pixel ROIs were placed randomly in the lungs of each pre-therapy scan. ROI centers were mapped to corresponding locations in post-therapy and planning scans using the displacement vector field output by demons deformable registration. Only ROIs with mean dose <5Gy were analyzed, as these were expected to contain minimal post-treatment damage. 140 texture features were calculated in pre-therapy and post-therapy scan ROIs and compared using Bland-Altman analysis. For each feature, the mean feature value change and the distance spanned by the 95% limits of agreement were normalized to the mean feature value, yielding normalized range of agreement (nRoA) and normalized bias (nBias). Using Wilcoxon signed rank tests, nRoA and nBias were compared with values computed previously in 27 healthy patient scans (mean voxel size: 0.67mm×0.67mm×1mm) acquired at a different institution. Results: nRoA was significantly (p<0.001) larger in cancer patients than healthy patients. Differences in nBias were not significant (p=0.23). The 20 features identified previously as having nRoA<20% for healthy patients had the lowest nRoA values in the current database, with an average increase of 5.6%. Conclusion: Despite differences in CT scanner type, scan resolution, and patient health status, the same 20 features remained stable (i.e., low variability and bias) in the absence of disease changes for databases from two institutions. Identification of

  18. WE-AB-303-08: Direct Lung Tumor Tracking Using Short Imaging Arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, C; Huang, C; Keall, P; Feain, I

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Most current tumor tracking technologies rely on implanted markers, which suffer from potential toxicity of marker placement and mis-targeting due to marker migration. Several markerless tracking methods have been proposed: these are either indirect methods or have difficulties tracking lung tumors in most clinical cases due to overlapping anatomies in 2D projection images. We propose a direct lung tumor tracking algorithm robust to overlapping anatomies using short imaging arcs. Methods: The proposed algorithm tracks the tumor based on kV projections acquired within the latest six-degree imaging arc. To account for respiratory motion, an external motion surrogate is used to select projections of the same phase within the latest arc. For each arc, the pre-treatment 4D cone-beam CT (CBCT) with tumor contours are used to estimate and remove the contribution to the integral attenuation from surrounding anatomies. The position of the tumor model extracted from 4D CBCT of the same phase is then optimized to match the processed projections using the conjugate gradient method. The algorithm was retrospectively validated on two kV scans of a lung cancer patient with implanted fiducial markers. This patient was selected as the tumor is attached to the mediastinum, representing a challenging case for markerless tracking methods. The tracking results were converted to expected marker positions and compared with marker trajectories obtained via direct marker segmentation (ground truth). Results: The root-mean-squared-errors of tracking were 0.8 mm and 0.9 mm in the superior-inferior direction for the two scans. Tracking error was found to be below 2 and 3 mm for 90% and 98% of the time, respectively. Conclusions: A direct lung tumor tracking algorithm robust to overlapping anatomies was proposed and validated on two scans of a lung cancer patient. Sub-millimeter tracking accuracy was observed, indicating the potential of this algorithm for real-time guidance

  19. PVOL: The Planetary Virtual Observatory & Laboratory. An online database of the Outer Planets images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, A.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Rojas, J. F.; Hueso, R.

    2005-08-01

    The collaboration between amateurs astronomers and the professional community has been fruitful on many areas of astronomy. The development of the Internet has allowed a better than ever capability of sharing information worldwide and access to other observers data. For many years now the International Jupiter Watch (IJW) Atmospheric discipline has coordinated observational efforts for long-term studies of the atmosphere of Jupiter. The International Outer Planets Watch (IOPW) has extended its labours to the four Outer Planets. Here we present the Planetary Virtual Observatory & Laboratory (PVOL), a website database where we integer IJW and IOPW images. At PVOL observers can submit their data and professionals can search for images under a wide variety of useful criteria such as date and time, filters used, observer, or central meridian longitude. PVOL is aimed to grow as an organized easy to use database of amateur images of the Outer Planets. The PVOL web address is located at http://www.pvol.ehu.es/ and coexists with the traditional IOPW site: http://www.ehu.es/iopw/ Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MCYT PNAYA2003-03216, fondos FEDER and Grupos UPV 15946/2004. R. Hueso acknowledges a post-doc fellowship from Gobierno Vasco.

  20. Immuno PET/MR imaging allows specific detection of Aspergillus fumigatus lung infection in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolle, Anna-Maria; Hasenberg, Mike; Thornton, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    -infected mice allowed specific localization of lung infection when combined with PET. Optical imaging with a fluorochrome-labeled version of the mAb showed colocalization with invasive hyphae. The mAb-based newly developed PET tracer [64Cu]DOTA-JF5 distinguishedIPA from bacterial lung infections and...

  1. Needs assessment for next generation computer-aided mammography reference image databases and evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsch, Alexander; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Elter, Matthias

    2011-11-01

    Breast cancer is globally a major threat for women's health. Screening and adequate follow-up can significantly reduce the mortality from breast cancer. Human second reading of screening mammograms can increase breast cancer detection rates, whereas this has not been proven for current computer-aided detection systems as "second reader". Critical factors include the detection accuracy of the systems and the screening experience and training of the radiologist with the system. When assessing the performance of systems and system components, the choice of evaluation methods is particularly critical. Core assets herein are reference image databases and statistical methods. We have analyzed characteristics and usage of the currently largest publicly available mammography database, the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) from the University of South Florida, in literature indexed in Medline, IEEE Xplore, SpringerLink, and SPIE, with respect to type of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) (detection, CADe, or diagnostics, CADx), selection of database subsets, choice of evaluation method, and quality of descriptions. 59 publications presenting 106 evaluation studies met our selection criteria. In 54 studies (50.9%), the selection of test items (cases, images, regions of interest) extracted from the DDSM was not reproducible. Only 2 CADx studies, not any CADe studies, used the entire DDSM. The number of test items varies from 100 to 6000. Different statistical evaluation methods are chosen. Most common are train/test (34.9% of the studies), leave-one-out (23.6%), and N-fold cross-validation (18.9%). Database-related terminology tends to be imprecise or ambiguous, especially regarding the term "case". Overall, both the use of the DDSM as data source for evaluation of mammography CAD systems, and the application of statistical evaluation methods were found highly diverse. Results reported from different studies are therefore hardly comparable. Drawbacks of the DDSM

  2. Spirometrically gated /sup 133/Xe ventilation imaging and phase analysis for assessment of regional lung function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Tomio (Kanto Teishin Hospital, Tokyo (Japan))

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the technique of performing spirometrically gated /sup 133/Xe ventilation imaging and to evaluate its clinical usefulness for the assessment of regional ventilatory function in various lung diseases. Patients rebreathed /sup 133/Xe gas through the system with constant rates signaled by a metronome. The trigger signals from the patients were recorded in a minicomputer for 60 respiratory cycles simultaneously with posterior lung images. Functional images (phase analysis images) indicating phase and amplitude of regional ventilation were constructed by the first harmonic Fourier analysis. Materials included 13 normal volunteers and patients with COPD (24), lung cancer (5), pulmonary embolism (4) and others (20). In normal controls, phase analysis images before respiratory motion correction revealed gradual decrease in amplitude from base to apex with uniform phase distribution. The amplitude and phase distribution after respiratory motion correction became even more uniform. In patients with COPD, phase analysis images showed asymmetrical and irregular amplitude distribution with non-uniform phase distribution. The standard deviation (S.D.) of phase histogram correlated well with FEVsub(1.0)% (r=0.71, p < 0.001) and down slope of flow-volume curve (r=0.55, p < 0.001), and less prominently with %VC (r=0.42, p < 0.01). Mean S.D. in patients with COPD (12.3 +- 6.5 degree, mean+-1 s.d.) was significantly larger than in normal controls (6.3 +- 1.5). Amplitude profile curve analysis revealed 83% sensitivity for the detection of abnormal spirometric respiratory function test. Data aquisition and processing of present method are rapid and easy to perform. The phase analysis of the gated ventilation images should prove useful in the clinical evaluation of patients with uneven ventilation such as COPD.

  3. Spirometrically gated 133Xe ventilation imaging and phase analysis for assessment of regional lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tomio

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the technique of performing spirometrically gated 133 Xe ventilation imaging and to evaluate its clinical usefulness for the assessmentof regional ventilatory function in various lung diseases. Patients rebreathe d 133 Xe gas through the system with constant rates signaled by a metronom. The trigger signals from the patients were recorded in a minicomputer for 60 respiratory cycles simultaneously with posterior lung images. Functional images (phase analysis images) indicating phase and amplitude of regional ventilation were constructed by the first harmonic Fourier analysis. Materials included 13 normal volunteers and patients with COPD (24), lung cancer (5), pulmonary embolism (4) and others (20). In normal controls, phase analysis images before respiratory motion correction revealed gradual decrease in amplitude from base to apex with uniform phase distribution. The amplitude and phase distribution after respiratory motion correction became even more uniform. In patients with COPD, phase analysis images showed asymmetrical and irregular amplitude distribution with non-uniform phase distribution. The standard deviation (S.D.) of phase histogram correlated well with FEVsub(1.0)% (r=0.71, p<0.001) and down slope of flowvolume curve (r=0.55, p<0.001), and less prominently with %VC (r=0.42, p<0.01). Mean S.D. in patients with COPD (12.3+-6.5 degree, mean+-1 s.d.) was significantly larger than in normal controls (6.3+-1.5). Amplitude profile curve analysis revealed 83% sensitivity for the detection of abnormal spirometric respiratory function test. Data aquisition and processing of present method are rapid and easy to perform. The phase analysis of the gated ventilation images should prove useful in the clinical evaluation of patients with uneven ventilation such as COPD. (J.P.N.)

  4. Multiphoton microscopy based cryo-imaging of inflated frozen human lung sections at -60°C in healthy and COPD lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Thomas; Kayra, Damian; Zhang, Angela; Suzuki, Masaru; McDonough, John; Elliott, W. M.; Cooper, Joel D.; Hogg, James C.

    2013-02-01

    Lung is a complex gas exchanger with interfacial area (where the gas exchange takes place) is about the size of a tennis court. Respiratory function is linked to the biomechanical stability of the gas exchange or alveolar regions which directly depends on the spatial distributions of the extracellular matrix fibers such fibrillar collagens and elastin fibers. It is very important to visualize and quantify these fibers at their native and inflated conditions to have correct morphometric information on differences between control and diseased states. This can be only achieved in the ex vivo states by imaging directly frozen lung specimens inflated to total lung capacity. Multiphoton microscopy, which uses ultra-short infrared laser pulses as the excitation source, produces multiphoton excitation fluorescence (MPEF) signals from endogenously fluorescent proteins (e.g. elastin) and induces specific second harmonic generation (SHG) signals from non-centrosymmetric proteins such as fibrillar collagens in fresh human lung tissues [J. Struct. Biol. (2010)171,189-196]. Here we report for the first time 3D image data obtained directly from thick frozen inflated lung specimens (~0.7- 1.0 millimeter thick) visualized at -60°C without prior fixation or staining in healthy and diseased states. Lung specimens donated for transplantation and released for research when no appropriate recipient was identified served as controls, and diseased lung specimens donated for research by patients receiving lung transplantation for very severe COPD (n=4) were prepared as previously described [N. Engl. J. Med. (2011) 201, 1567]. Lung slices evenly spaced between apex and base were examined using multiphoton microscopy while maintained at -60°C using a temperature controlled cold stage with a temperature resolution of 0.1°C. Infrared femto-second laser pulses tuned to 880nm, dry microscopic objectives, and non-de-scanned detectors/spectrophotometer located in the reflection geometry were

  5. Do Tumors in the Lung Deform During Normal Respiration? An Image Registration Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianzhou; Lei Peng; Shekhar, Raj; Li Huiling; Suntharalingam, Mohan; D'Souza, Warren D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether lung tumors may be described adequately using a rigid body assumption or whether they deform during normal respiration. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with early stage non-small-cell lung cancer underwent four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) simulation. The gross tumor volume (GTV) was delineated on the 4D CT images. Image registration was performed in the vicinity of the GTV. The volume of interest for registration was the GTV and minimal volume of surrounding non-GTV tissue. Three types of registration were performed: translation only, translation + rotation, and deformable. The GTV contour from end-inhale was mapped to end-exhale using the registration-derived transformation field. The results were evaluated using three metrics: overlap index (OI), root-mean-squared distance (RMS), and Hausdorff distance (HD). Results: After translation only image registration, on average OI increased by 21.3%, RMS and HD reduced by 1.2 mm and 2.0 mm, respectively. The succeeding increases in OI after translation + rotation and deformable registration were 1.1% and 1.4% respectively. The succeeding reductions in RMS were 0.1 mm and 0.2 mm respectively. No reduction in HD was observed after translation + rotation and deformable image registration compared with translation only registration. The difference in the results from the three registration scenarios was independent of GTV size and motion amplitude. Conclusions: The primary effect of normal respiration on lung tumors was the translation of tumors. Rotation and deformation of lung tumors was determined to be minimal.

  6. Poster - 48: Clinical assessment of ExacTrac stereoscopic imaging of spine alignment for lung SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattarivand, Mike; Summers, Clare; Robar, James

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the validity of using spine as a surrogate for tumor positioning with ExacTrac stereoscopic imaging in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods: Using the Novalis ExacTrac x-ray system, 39 lung SBRT patients (182 treatments) were aligned before treatment with 6 degrees (6D) of freedom couch (3 translations, 3 rotations) based on spine matching on stereoscopic images. The couch was shifted to treatment isocenter and pre-treatment CBCT was performed based on a soft tissue match around tumor volume. The CBCT data were used to measure residual errors following ExacTrac alignment. The thresholds for re-aligning the patients based on CBCT were 3mm shift or 3° rotation (in any 6D). In order to evaluate the effect of tumor location on residual errors, correlations between tumor distance from spine and individual residual errors were calculated. Results: Residual errors were up to 0.5±2.4mm. Using 3mm/3° thresholds, 80/182 (44%) of the treatments required re-alignment based on CBCT soft tissue matching following ExacTrac spine alignment. Most mismatches were in sup-inf, ant-post, and roll directions which had larger standard deviations. No correlation was found between tumor distance from spine and individual residual errors. Conclusion: ExacTrac stereoscopic imaging offers a quick pre-treatment patient alignment. However, bone matching based on spine is not reliable for aligning lung SBRT patients who require soft tissue image registration from CBCT. Spine can be a poor surrogate for lung SBRT patient alignment even for proximal tumor volumes.

  7. Lung ventilation image by visualisation of the 133Xe elimination coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehier, H.; Mallet, J.J.; Veillas, G.; Cabocel, J.P.; Peyrin, J.O.

    1975-01-01

    A simple method is proposed for calculation of the 133 Xe elimination coefficient and its graphical representation giving a functional lung ventilation image, the advantages of the method are that it uses a small computing unit and above all involves only the start of the wash out phase, the only moment when xenon elimination belongs to a decreasing monoexponential time function. The validity of the method is illustrated by three typical results [fr

  8. Imaging of tumor viability in lung cancer. Initial results using 23Na-MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzler, T.; Apfaltrer, P.; Haneder, S.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Fink, C.; Konstandin, S.; Schad, L.; Schmid-Bindert, G.; Manegold, C.; Wenz, F.

    2012-01-01

    23 Na-MRI has been proposed as a potential imaging biomarker for the assessment of tumor viability and the evaluation of therapy response but has not yet been evaluated in patients with lung cancer. We aimed to assess the feasibility of 23 Na-MRI in patients with lung cancer. Three patients with stage IV adenocarcinoma of the lung were examined on a clinical 3 Tesla MRI system (Magnetom TimTrio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). Feasibility of 23 Na-MRI images was proven by comparison and fusion of 23 Na-MRI with 1 H-MR, CT and FDG-PET-CT images. 23 Na signal intensities (SI) of tumor and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the spinal canal were measured and the SI ratio in tumor and CSF was calculated. One chemonaive patient was examined before and after the initiation of combination therapy (Carboplatin, Gemcitabin, Cetuximab). All 23 Na-MRI examinations were successfully completed and were of diagnostic quality. Fusion of 23 Na-MRI images with 1 H-MRI, CT and FDG-PET-CT was feasible in all patients and showed differences in solid and necrotic tumor areas. The mean tumor SI and the tumor/CSF SI ratio were 13.3 ± 1.8 x 103 and 0.83 ± 0.14, respectively. In necrotic tumors, as suggested by central non-FDG-avid areas, the mean tumor SI and the tumor/CSF ratio were 19.4 x 103 and 1.10, respectively. 23 Na-MRI is feasible in patients with lung cancer and could provide valuable functional molecular information regarding tumor viability, and potentially treatment response. (orig.)

  9. Poster - 48: Clinical assessment of ExacTrac stereoscopic imaging of spine alignment for lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattarivand, Mike; Summers, Clare; Robar, James [Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, Nova Scotia Cancer Centre (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the validity of using spine as a surrogate for tumor positioning with ExacTrac stereoscopic imaging in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods: Using the Novalis ExacTrac x-ray system, 39 lung SBRT patients (182 treatments) were aligned before treatment with 6 degrees (6D) of freedom couch (3 translations, 3 rotations) based on spine matching on stereoscopic images. The couch was shifted to treatment isocenter and pre-treatment CBCT was performed based on a soft tissue match around tumor volume. The CBCT data were used to measure residual errors following ExacTrac alignment. The thresholds for re-aligning the patients based on CBCT were 3mm shift or 3° rotation (in any 6D). In order to evaluate the effect of tumor location on residual errors, correlations between tumor distance from spine and individual residual errors were calculated. Results: Residual errors were up to 0.5±2.4mm. Using 3mm/3° thresholds, 80/182 (44%) of the treatments required re-alignment based on CBCT soft tissue matching following ExacTrac spine alignment. Most mismatches were in sup-inf, ant-post, and roll directions which had larger standard deviations. No correlation was found between tumor distance from spine and individual residual errors. Conclusion: ExacTrac stereoscopic imaging offers a quick pre-treatment patient alignment. However, bone matching based on spine is not reliable for aligning lung SBRT patients who require soft tissue image registration from CBCT. Spine can be a poor surrogate for lung SBRT patient alignment even for proximal tumor volumes.

  10. Efficacy of 67 gallium ECT imaging in lymphoma, infection, and lung carcinoma: A comparison with planar imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, S.J.; Anderson, M.W.; Klein, R.C.; Friedman, B.I.; Carroll, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Emission computed tomography (ECT) studies were performed on a GE 400 A/T camera and ADAC computers (system 3 and system 3300). Thirty-three sets of ECT and planar images were obtained in 20 patients over a six month period. Imaging was performed 48 hours after the intravenous administration of 5 mc of Gallium 67 citrate. No bowel preparation was employed. Comparison is made of the initial nuclear medicine report derived from planar and ECT imaging aided by clinical knowledge versus the consensus opinion of two nuclear medicine physicians reading the planar images along with minimal clinical information. The lymphoma series consists of 18 scans in 10 patients. There were 5 scans in which a false negative planar interpretation was changed to a true positive ECT interpretation. Sensitivity of planar imaging for lymphoma was 58% which rose to 100% with addition of ECT information. There were no false positives by either technique. There were 5 sets of scans in 5 lung carcinoma patients. Sensitivity of the planar images was 60% because of 2 false negative results. Sensitivity of the ECT technique was 100%. There were no false positives. The infection series consists of 10 scans in 5 patients. Sensitivity of ECT was 100%, sensitivity of planar was 66%. There was 1 false positive planar. For the total series the accuracy of planar imaging was 69% and the predictive value of a negative planar interpretation was 44%. Corresponding values for ECT imaging were 100%. The authors' experience demonstrates significant increase in sensitivity without loss of specificity resulting from the use of Emission Computed Tomography in both chest and abdomen in patients with lymphoma, infection, and lung cancer

  11. Assessment of lung development in isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia using signal intensity ratios on fetal MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Herold, Christian; Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Csapo, Bence

    2010-01-01

    To investigate developmental changes in the apparently unaffected contralateral lung by using signal intensity ratios (SIR) and lung volumes (LV), and to search for correlation with clinical outcome. Twenty-five fetuses (22-37 weeks' gestation) were examined. Lung/liver signal intensity ratios (LLSIR) were assessed on T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences for both lungs, then together with LV compared with age-matched controls of 91 fetuses by using the U test. Differences in LLSIRs and lung volumes were correlated with neonatal outcomes. LLSIRs in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) were significantly higher in both lungs on T1-weighted images and significantly lower on T2-weighted images, compared with normals (p < 0.05), increasing on T2-weighted imaging and decreasing on T1-weighted imaging during gestation. Total LV were significantly smaller in the CDH group than in controls (p < 0.05). No significant differences in LLSIR of the two lungs were found. Outcomes correlated significantly with total LV, but not with LLSIR. Changes in LLSIR seem to reflect developmental impairment in CDH; however, they provide no additional information in predicting outcome. LV remains the best indicator on fetal MR imaging of neonatal survival in isolated, left-sided CDH. (orig.)

  12. Assessment of lung development in isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia using signal intensity ratios on fetal MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Herold, Christian; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Centre of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria); Csapo, Bence [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Gyneocology, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-04-15

    To investigate developmental changes in the apparently unaffected contralateral lung by using signal intensity ratios (SIR) and lung volumes (LV), and to search for correlation with clinical outcome. Twenty-five fetuses (22-37 weeks' gestation) were examined. Lung/liver signal intensity ratios (LLSIR) were assessed on T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences for both lungs, then together with LV compared with age-matched controls of 91 fetuses by using the U test. Differences in LLSIRs and lung volumes were correlated with neonatal outcomes. LLSIRs in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) were significantly higher in both lungs on T1-weighted images and significantly lower on T2-weighted images, compared with normals (p < 0.05), increasing on T2-weighted imaging and decreasing on T1-weighted imaging during gestation. Total LV were significantly smaller in the CDH group than in controls (p < 0.05). No significant differences in LLSIR of the two lungs were found. Outcomes correlated significantly with total LV, but not with LLSIR. Changes in LLSIR seem to reflect developmental impairment in CDH; however, they provide no additional information in predicting outcome. LV remains the best indicator on fetal MR imaging of neonatal survival in isolated, left-sided CDH. (orig.)

  13. Respiration-correlated image guidance is the most important radiotherapy motion management strategy for most lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine; Persson, Gitte; Nygaard, Ditte Eklund

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT), 4D image guidance (4D-IG), and beam gating on calculated treatment field margins in a lung cancer patient population....

  14. Emphysema. Imaging for endoscopic lung volume reduction; Lungenemphysem. Bildgebung bei endoskopischer Lungenvolumenreduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storbeck, B. [LungenClinic Grosshansdorf (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Schroeder, T.H. [Amalie Sieveking-Hospital, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Oldigs, M.; Rabe, K.F. [LungenClinic Grosshansdorf (Germany). Dept. of Pulmonology; Weber, C. [Amalie Sieveking-Hospital, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-07-15

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by two entities, the more airway-predominant type (''bronchitis'') on the one hand, and emphysema-predominant type on the other. Imaging via high-resolution computed tomography plays an important role in phenotyping COPD. For patients with advanced lung emphysema, new endoscopic lung volume reduction therapies (ELVR) have been developed. Proper selection of suitable patients requires thin-section reconstruction of volumetric CT image data sets also in coronal and sagittal orientation are required. In the current manuscript we will describe emphysema subtypes (centrilobular, paraseptal, panlobular), options for quantifying emphysema and this importance of regional distribution (homogeneous or heterogeneous, target area) as this is crucial for patient selection. Analysis of the interlobular fissures is obligatory despite the lack of standardization, as incomplete fissures indicate collateral ventilation (CV) via parenchymal bridges, which is an important criterion in choosing endoscopic methods of LVR. Every radiologist should be familiar with modern LVR therapies such as valves and coils, and furthermore should know what a lung doctor expects from radiologic evaluation (before and after ELVR). Finally we present a checklist as a quick reference for all steps concerning imaging for ELVR.

  15. Differentiating invasive and pre-invasive lung cancer by quantitative analysis of histopathologic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuan; Sun, Hongliu; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Kazerooni, Ella

    2018-02-01

    We are developing automated radiopathomics method for diagnosis of lung nodule subtypes. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using quantitative methods to analyze the tumor nuclei and cytoplasm in pathologic wholeslide images for the classification of pathologic subtypes of invasive nodules and pre-invasive nodules. We developed a multiscale blob detection method with watershed transform (MBD-WT) to segment the tumor cells. Pathomic features were extracted to characterize the size, morphology, sharpness, and gray level variation in each segmented nucleus and the heterogeneity patterns of tumor nuclei and cytoplasm. With permission of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) project, a data set containing 90 digital haematoxylin and eosin (HE) whole-slide images from 48 cases was used in this study. The 48 cases contain 77 regions of invasive subtypes and 43 regions of pre-invasive subtypes outlined by a pathologist on the HE images using the pathological tumor region description provided by NLST as reference. A logistic regression model (LRM) was built using leave-one-case-out resampling and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for classification of invasive and pre-invasive subtypes. With 11 selected features, the LRM achieved a test area under the ROC curve (AUC) value of 0.91+/-0.03. The results demonstrated that the pathologic invasiveness of lung adenocarcinomas could be categorized with high accuracy using pathomics analysis.

  16. TU-A-12A-02: Novel Lung Ventilation Imaging with Single Energy CT After Single Inhalation of Xenon: Comparison with SPECT Ventilation Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negahdar, M [Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Yamamoto, T [UC Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA (United States); Shultz, D; Gable, L; Shan, X; Mittra, E; Loo, B; Maxim, P [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Diehn, M [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: We propose a novel lung functional imaging method to determine the spatial distribution of xenon (Xe) gas in a single inhalation as a measure of regional ventilation. We compare Xe-CT ventilation to single-photon emission CT (SPECT) ventilation, which is the current clinical reference. Regional lung ventilation information may be useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of pulmonary diseases such as COPD, radiotherapy planning, and assessing the progression of toxicity after radiation therapy. Methods: In an IRB-approved clinical study, Xe-CT and SPECT ventilation scans were acquired for three patients including one patient with severe emphysema and two lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. For Xe- CT, we acquired two breath-hold single energy CT images of the entire lung with inspiration of 100% O2 and a mixture of 70% Xe and 30% O2, respectively. A video biofeedback system was used to achieve reproducible breath-holds. We used deformable image registration to align the breathhold images with each other to accurately subtract them, producing a map of the distribution of Xe as a surrogate of lung ventilation. We divided each lung into twelve parts and correlated the Hounsfield unit (HU) enhancement at each part with the SPECT ventilation count of the corresponding part of the lung. Results: The mean of the Pearson linear correlation coefficient values between the Xe-CT and ventilation SPECT count for all three patients were 0.62 (p<0.01). The Xe-CT image had a higher resolution than SPECT, and did not show central airway deposition artifacts that were present in the SPECT image. Conclusion: We developed a rapid, safe, clinically practical, and potentially widely accessible method for regional lung functional imaging. We demonstrated strong correlations between the Xe-CT ventilation image and SPECT ventilation image as the clinical reference. This ongoing study will investigate more patients to confirm this finding.

  17. TU-A-12A-02: Novel Lung Ventilation Imaging with Single Energy CT After Single Inhalation of Xenon: Comparison with SPECT Ventilation Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negahdar, M; Yamamoto, T; Shultz, D; Gable, L; Shan, X; Mittra, E; Loo, B; Maxim, P; Diehn, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We propose a novel lung functional imaging method to determine the spatial distribution of xenon (Xe) gas in a single inhalation as a measure of regional ventilation. We compare Xe-CT ventilation to single-photon emission CT (SPECT) ventilation, which is the current clinical reference. Regional lung ventilation information may be useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of pulmonary diseases such as COPD, radiotherapy planning, and assessing the progression of toxicity after radiation therapy. Methods: In an IRB-approved clinical study, Xe-CT and SPECT ventilation scans were acquired for three patients including one patient with severe emphysema and two lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. For Xe- CT, we acquired two breath-hold single energy CT images of the entire lung with inspiration of 100% O2 and a mixture of 70% Xe and 30% O2, respectively. A video biofeedback system was used to achieve reproducible breath-holds. We used deformable image registration to align the breathhold images with each other to accurately subtract them, producing a map of the distribution of Xe as a surrogate of lung ventilation. We divided each lung into twelve parts and correlated the Hounsfield unit (HU) enhancement at each part with the SPECT ventilation count of the corresponding part of the lung. Results: The mean of the Pearson linear correlation coefficient values between the Xe-CT and ventilation SPECT count for all three patients were 0.62 (p<0.01). The Xe-CT image had a higher resolution than SPECT, and did not show central airway deposition artifacts that were present in the SPECT image. Conclusion: We developed a rapid, safe, clinically practical, and potentially widely accessible method for regional lung functional imaging. We demonstrated strong correlations between the Xe-CT ventilation image and SPECT ventilation image as the clinical reference. This ongoing study will investigate more patients to confirm this finding

  18. Evolutionary image simplification for lung nodule classification with convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lückehe, Daniel; von Voigt, Gabriele

    2018-05-29

    Understanding decisions of deep learning techniques is important. Especially in the medical field, the reasons for a decision in a classification task are as crucial as the pure classification results. In this article, we propose a new approach to compute relevant parts of a medical image. Knowing the relevant parts makes it easier to understand decisions. In our approach, a convolutional neural network is employed to learn structures of images of lung nodules. Then, an evolutionary algorithm is applied to compute a simplified version of an unknown image based on the learned structures by the convolutional neural network. In the simplified version, irrelevant parts are removed from the original image. In the results, we show simplified images which allow the observer to focus on the relevant parts. In these images, more than 50% of the pixels are simplified. The simplified pixels do not change the meaning of the images based on the learned structures by the convolutional neural network. An experimental analysis shows the potential of the approach. Besides the examples of simplified images, we analyze the run time development. Simplified images make it easier to focus on relevant parts and to find reasons for a decision. The combination of an evolutionary algorithm employing a learned convolutional neural network is well suited for the simplification task. From a research perspective, it is interesting which areas of the images are simplified and which parts are taken as relevant.

  19. FDG-PET imaging for the staging and follow-up of small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, T.; Brink, I.; Mix, M.; Reinhardt, M.; Moser, E.; Nitzsche, E.; Herget, G.; Digel, W.; Henke, M.

    2001-01-01

    The staging procedures for small cell lung cancer do not differ appreciably from those for other forms of lung cancer. For practical purposes, the TNM stages are usually collapsed into a simple binary classification: limited disease and extensive disease. This study was performed to answer the question of whether fluorine-18 labelled 2-deoxy-2-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging permits appropriate work-up (including both primary and follow-up staging) of patients presenting with small cell lung cancer, as compared with currently recommended staging procedures. Thirty-six FDG-PET examinations were performed in 30 patients with histologically proven small cell lung cancer. Twenty-four patients were examined for primary staging while four were imaged for therapy follow-up only. Two patients underwent both primary staging and up to four examinations for therapy follow-up. Static PET imaging was performed according to a standard protocol. Image reconstruction was based on an ordered subset expectation maximization algorithm including post-injection segmented attenuation correction. Results of FDG-PET were compared with those of the sum of other staging procedures. Identical results from FDG-PET and the sum of the other staging procedures were obtained in 23 of 36 examinations (6 x limited disease, 12 x extensive disease, 5 x no evidence of disease). In contrast to the results of conventional staging, FDG-PET indicated extensive disease resulting in an up-staging in seven patients. In one patient in whom there was no evidence for tumour on conventional investigations following treatment, FDG-PET was suggestive of residual viability of the primary tumour. Furthermore, discordant results were observed in five patients with respect to lung, bone, liver and adrenal gland findings, although in these cases the results did not affect staging as limited or extensive disease. Moreover, FDG-PET appeared to be more sensitive for the detection of metastatic

  20. Automated segmentation of murine lung tumors in x-ray micro-CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swee, Joshua K. Y.; Sheridan, Clare; de Bruin, Elza; Downward, Julian; Lassailly, Francois; Pizarro, Luis

    2014-03-01

    Recent years have seen micro-CT emerge as a means of providing imaging analysis in pre-clinical study, with in-vivo micro-CT having been shown to be particularly applicable to the examination of murine lung tumors. Despite this, existing studies have involved substantial human intervention during the image analysis process, with the use of fully-automated aids found to be almost non-existent. We present a new approach to automate the segmentation of murine lung tumors designed specifically for in-vivo micro-CT-based pre-clinical lung cancer studies that addresses the specific requirements of such study, as well as the limitations human-centric segmentation approaches experience when applied to such micro-CT data. Our approach consists of three distinct stages, and begins by utilizing edge enhancing and vessel enhancing non-linear anisotropic diffusion filters to extract anatomy masks (lung/vessel structure) in a pre-processing stage. Initial candidate detection is then performed through ROI reduction utilizing obtained masks and a two-step automated segmentation approach that aims to extract all disconnected objects within the ROI, and consists of Otsu thresholding, mathematical morphology and marker-driven watershed. False positive reduction is finally performed on initial candidates through random-forest-driven classification using the shape, intensity, and spatial features of candidates. We provide validation of our approach using data from an associated lung cancer study, showing favorable results both in terms of detection (sensitivity=86%, specificity=89%) and structural recovery (Dice Similarity=0.88) when compared against manual specialist annotation.

  1. Lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, G.L.; Blankenship, W.J.; Burdine, J.A. Jr.; DeNardo, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    At present no simple statement can be made relative to the role of radionuclidic lung studies in the pediatric population. It is safe to assume that they will be used with increasing frequency for research and clinical applications because of their sensitivity and ready applicability to the pediatric patient. Methods comparable to those used in adults can be used in children older than 4 years. In younger children, however, a single injection of 133 Xe in solution provides an index of both regional perfusion and ventilation which is easier to accomplish. This method is particularly valuable in infants and neonates because it is rapid, requires no patient cooperation, results in a very low radiation dose, and can be repeated in serial studies. Radionuclidic studies of ventilation and perfusion can be performed in almost all children if the pediatrician and the nuclear medicine specialist have motivation and ingenuity. S []ontaneous pulmonary vascular occlusive disease which occurs in infants and pulmonary emboli in children are easily detected using radionuclides. The pathophysiologic defects of pulmonary agenesis, bronchopulmonary sequestration, and foreign body aspiration may be demonstrated by these techniques. These techniques also appear to be useful in following patients with bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, congenital emphysema, and postinfection pulmonary abnormalities. (auth)

  2. Comparative analysis of radionuclide inhalation and perfusion lung imaging with X ray pulmonary angiography for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanyan; Chen Man; Shao Maogang; Zhang Songlin; Mao Jieming; Guo Jingxuan

    1993-01-01

    The result of radionuclide lung imaging was compared in 18 patients of pulmonary embolism (PE) and 2 normal persons. The discovered perfusion defects correlated well with the location of angiographic obstruction. The positive angiographic and radionuclide finding was in 141 and 104 emboli arteries respectively. The sensitivity of total emboli pulmonary segments of lung imaging was 73.8%, the specificity was 82.7 and the accuracy was 79%. The techniques correlated quite well (r = 0.83, P<0.001)

  3. Evaluation of an automated deformable image matching method for quantifying lung motion in respiration-correlated CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pevsner, A.; Davis, B.; Joshi, S.; Hertanto, A.; Mechalakos, J.; Yorke, E.; Rosenzweig, K.; Nehmeh, S.; Erdi, Y.E.; Humm, J.L.; Larson, S.; Ling, C.C.; Mageras, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    We have evaluated an automated registration procedure for predicting tumor and lung deformation based on CT images of the thorax obtained at different respiration phases. The method uses a viscous fluid model of tissue deformation to map voxels from one CT dataset to another. To validate the deformable matching algorithm we used a respiration-correlated CT protocol to acquire images at different phases of the respiratory cycle for six patients with nonsmall cell lung carcinoma. The position and shape of the deformable gross tumor volumes (GTV) at the end-inhale (EI) phase predicted by the algorithm was compared to those drawn by four observers. To minimize interobserver differences, all observers used the contours drawn by a single observer at end-exhale (EE) phase as a guideline to outline GTV contours at EI. The differences between model-predicted and observer-drawn GTV surfaces at EI, as well as differences between structures delineated by observers at EI (interobserver variations) were evaluated using a contour comparison algorithm written for this purpose, which determined the distance between the two surfaces along different directions. The mean and 90% confidence interval for model-predicted versus observer-drawn GTV surface differences over all patients and all directions were 2.6 and 5.1 mm, respectively, whereas the mean and 90% confidence interval for interobserver differences were 2.1 and 3.7 mm. We have also evaluated the algorithm's ability to predict normal tissue deformations by examining the three-dimensional (3-D) vector displacement of 41 landmarks placed by each observer at bronchial and vascular branch points in the lung between the EE and EI image sets (mean and 90% confidence interval displacements of 11.7 and 25.1 mm, respectively). The mean and 90% confidence interval discrepancy between model-predicted and observer-determined landmark displacements over all patients were 2.9 and 7.3 mm, whereas interobserver discrepancies were 2.8 and 6

  4. Molecular imaging of hypoxia in non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yip, Connie; Blower, Philip J.; Goh, Vicky; Landau, David B.; Cook, Gary J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the commonest cancer worldwide but survival remains poor with a high risk of relapse, particularly after nonsurgical treatment. Hypoxia is present in a variety of solid tumours, including NSCLC. It is associated with treatment resistance and a poor prognosis, although when recognised may be amenable to different treatment strategies. Thus, noninvasive assessment of intratumoral hypoxia could be used to stratify patients for modification of subsequent treatment to improve tumour control. Molecular imaging approaches targeting hypoxic cells have shown some early success in the clinical setting. This review evaluates the evidence for hypoxia imaging using PET in NSCLC and explores its potential clinical utility. (orig.)

  5. Molecular imaging of hypoxia in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, Connie [King' s College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Cancer Imaging, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); National Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Singapore (Singapore); St Thomas' Hospital, Imaging 2, London (United Kingdom); Blower, Philip J. [King' s College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Imaging Chemistry and Biology, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Goh, Vicky [King' s College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Cancer Imaging, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Radiology, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Landau, David B. [King' s College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Cancer Imaging, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Clinical Oncology, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Cook, Gary J.R. [King' s College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Cancer Imaging, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); St Thomas' Hospital, Clinical PET Imaging Centre, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the commonest cancer worldwide but survival remains poor with a high risk of relapse, particularly after nonsurgical treatment. Hypoxia is present in a variety of solid tumours, including NSCLC. It is associated with treatment resistance and a poor prognosis, although when recognised may be amenable to different treatment strategies. Thus, noninvasive assessment of intratumoral hypoxia could be used to stratify patients for modification of subsequent treatment to improve tumour control. Molecular imaging approaches targeting hypoxic cells have shown some early success in the clinical setting. This review evaluates the evidence for hypoxia imaging using PET in NSCLC and explores its potential clinical utility. (orig.)

  6. Chronic diseases of lung parenchyma in children: the role of imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haran Jogeesvaran, K.; Owens, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic diseases of the lung parenchyma (CDoLP) in children encompass a vast number of distinct clinico-pathological conditions. The prevalence of CDoLP has continued to increase in the last 10-15 years and the paediatric radiologist will therefore have to become more familiar with the imaging appearances of CDoLP. This review highlights some of the key imaging appearances of CDoLP, focussing mainly on airways disease. We also explore issues around technique optimisation and dose minimisation that remain of paramount importance in children. (orig.)

  7. Registration-based assessment of regional lung function via volumetric CT images of normal subjects vs. severe asthmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sanghun; Hoffman, Eric A.; Wenzel, Sally E.; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Yin, Youbing; Castro, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the use of image registration-derived variables associated with computed tomographic (CT) imaging of the lung acquired at multiple volumes. As an evaluation of the utility of such an imaging approach, we explored two groups at the extremes of population ranging from normal subjects to severe asthmatics. A mass-preserving image registration technique was employed to match CT images at total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual capacity (FRC) for assessment of regional air volume change and lung deformation between the two states. Fourteen normal subjects and thirty severe asthmatics were analyzed via image registration-derived metrics together with their pulmonary function test (PFT) and CT-based air-trapping. Relative to the normal group, the severely asthmatic group demonstrated reduced air volume change (consistent with air trapping) and more isotropic deformation in the basal lung regions while demonstrating increased air volume change associated with increased anisotropic deformation in the apical lung regions. These differences were found despite the fact that both PFT-derived TLC and FRC in the two groups were nearly 100% of predicted values. Data suggest that reduced basal-lung air volume change in severe asthmatics was compensated by increased apical-lung air volume change and that relative increase in apical-lung air volume change in severe asthmatics was accompanied by enhanced anisotropic deformation. These data suggest that CT-based deformation, assessed via inspiration vs. expiration scans, provides a tool for distinguishing differences in lung mechanics when applied to the extreme ends of a population range. PMID:23743399

  8. [Using cancer case identification algorithms in medico-administrative databases: Literature review and first results from the REDSIAM Tumors group based on breast, colon, and lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, P-J; Caillet, P; Coeuret-Pellicer, M; Goulard, H; Kudjawu, Y C; Le Bihan, C; Lecuyer, A I; Séguret, F

    2017-10-01

    The development and use of healthcare databases accentuates the need for dedicated tools, including validated selection algorithms of cancer diseased patients. As part of the development of the French National Health Insurance System data network REDSIAM, the tumor taskforce established an inventory of national and internal published algorithms in the field of cancer. This work aims to facilitate the choice of a best-suited algorithm. A non-systematic literature search was conducted for various cancers. Results are presented for lung, breast, colon, and rectum. Medline, Scopus, the French Database in Public Health, Google Scholar, and the summaries of the main French journals in oncology and public health were searched for publications until August 2016. An extraction grid adapted to oncology was constructed and used for the extraction process. A total of 18 publications were selected for lung cancer, 18 for breast cancer, and 12 for colorectal cancer. Validation studies of algorithms are scarce. When information is available, the performance and choice of an algorithm are dependent on the context, purpose, and location of the planned study. Accounting for cancer disease specificity, the proposed extraction chart is more detailed than the generic chart developed for other REDSIAM taskforces, but remains easily usable in practice. This study illustrates the complexity of cancer detection through sole reliance on healthcare databases and the lack of validated algorithms specifically designed for this purpose. Studies that standardize and facilitate validation of these algorithms should be developed and promoted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. GREIT: a unified approach to 2D linear EIT reconstruction of lung images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Andy; Arnold, John H; Bayford, Richard; Borsic, Andrea; Brown, Brian; Dixon, Paul; Faes, Theo J C; Frerichs, Inéz; Gagnon, Hervé; Gärber, Yvo; Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Hahn, Günter; Lionheart, William R B; Malik, Anjum; Patterson, Robert P; Stocks, Janet; Tizzard, Andrew; Weiler, Norbert; Wolf, Gerhard K

    2009-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an attractive method for clinically monitoring patients during mechanical ventilation, because it can provide a non-invasive continuous image of pulmonary impedance which indicates the distribution of ventilation. However, most clinical and physiological research in lung EIT is done using older and proprietary algorithms; this is an obstacle to interpretation of EIT images because the reconstructed images are not well characterized. To address this issue, we develop a consensus linear reconstruction algorithm for lung EIT, called GREIT (Graz consensus Reconstruction algorithm for EIT). This paper describes the unified approach to linear image reconstruction developed for GREIT. The framework for the linear reconstruction algorithm consists of (1) detailed finite element models of a representative adult and neonatal thorax, (2) consensus on the performance figures of merit for EIT image reconstruction and (3) a systematic approach to optimize a linear reconstruction matrix to desired performance measures. Consensus figures of merit, in order of importance, are (a) uniform amplitude response, (b) small and uniform position error, (c) small ringing artefacts, (d) uniform resolution, (e) limited shape deformation and (f) high resolution. Such figures of merit must be attained while maintaining small noise amplification and small sensitivity to electrode and boundary movement. This approach represents the consensus of a large and representative group of experts in EIT algorithm design and clinical applications for pulmonary monitoring. All software and data to implement and test the algorithm have been made available under an open source license which allows free research and commercial use.

  10. GREIT: a unified approach to 2D linear EIT reconstruction of lung images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Andy; Arnold, John H; Bayford, Richard; Tizzard, Andrew; Borsic, Andrea; Brown, Brian; Dixon, Paul; Faes, Theo J C; Frerichs, Inéz; Weiler, Norbert; Gagnon, Hervé; Gärber, Yvo; Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Hahn, Günter; Lionheart, William R B; Malik, Anjum; Patterson, Robert P; Stocks, Janet; Wolf, Gerhard K

    2009-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an attractive method for clinically monitoring patients during mechanical ventilation, because it can provide a non-invasive continuous image of pulmonary impedance which indicates the distribution of ventilation. However, most clinical and physiological research in lung EIT is done using older and proprietary algorithms; this is an obstacle to interpretation of EIT images because the reconstructed images are not well characterized. To address this issue, we develop a consensus linear reconstruction algorithm for lung EIT, called GREIT (Graz consensus Reconstruction algorithm for EIT). This paper describes the unified approach to linear image reconstruction developed for GREIT. The framework for the linear reconstruction algorithm consists of (1) detailed finite element models of a representative adult and neonatal thorax, (2) consensus on the performance figures of merit for EIT image reconstruction and (3) a systematic approach to optimize a linear reconstruction matrix to desired performance measures. Consensus figures of merit, in order of importance, are (a) uniform amplitude response, (b) small and uniform position error, (c) small ringing artefacts, (d) uniform resolution, (e) limited shape deformation and (f) high resolution. Such figures of merit must be attained while maintaining small noise amplification and small sensitivity to electrode and boundary movement. This approach represents the consensus of a large and representative group of experts in EIT algorithm design and clinical applications for pulmonary monitoring. All software and data to implement and test the algorithm have been made available under an open source license which allows free research and commercial use

  11. Wavelet versus DCT-based spread spectrum watermarking of image databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrea, Mihai P.; Zaharia, Titus B.; Preteux, Francoise J.; Vlad, Adriana

    2004-05-01

    This paper addresses the issue of oblivious robust watermarking, within the framework of colour still image database protection. We present an original method which complies with all the requirements nowadays imposed to watermarking applications: robustness (e.g. low-pass filtering, print & scan, StirMark), transparency (both quality and fidelity), low probability of false alarm, obliviousness and multiple bit recovering. The mark is generated from a 64 bit message (be it a logo, a serial number, etc.) by means of a Spread Spectrum technique and is embedded into DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform) domain, into certain low frequency coefficients, selected according to the hierarchy of their absolute values. The best results were provided by the (9,7) bi-orthogonal transform. The experiments were carried out on 1200 image sequences, each of them of 32 images. Note that these sequences represented several types of images: natural, synthetic, medical, etc. and each time we obtained the same good results. These results are compared with those we already obtained for the DCT domain, the differences being pointed out and discussed.

  12. Improving customs’ border control by creating a reference database of cargo inspection X-ray images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Kolokytha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Countries’ effective and efficient border security is becoming increasingly important in today’s global world of economy and trade. To ensure these, customs organisations are responsible for the prevention of illicit goods’ transportation across borders, particularly upon entry. The predicament of the customs administrations will soon be aggravated by both the increase of global trade and the trend towards 100% screening. It is therefore a goal to advance inspection methods to enable successful cargo handling, a scope towards which this research was aimed at. This work was carried out as part of the project ACXIS “Automated Comparison of X-ray Images for cargo Scanning” a European research project within the seventh framework programme answering the call SEC-2012.3.4-1: « Research on Automated Comparison of X-ray Images for cargo Scanning », to improve the process with the largest impact to trade flow: the procedures of freight X-ray scanning. As such, this project was focused on to implementing a manufacturer independent reference database for X-ray images of illicit and non-illicit cargo, developing procedures and algorithms in order to uniform X-ray images of different cargo scanners, and developing a training simulator for inspection officers and a toolbox enclosing several assisted and automated identification techniques for potentially illicit cargo.

  13. LungMAP: The Molecular Atlas of Lung Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardini-Poleske, Maryanne E; Clark, Robert F; Ansong, Charles; Carson, James P; Corley, Richard A; Deutsch, Gail H; Hagood, James S; Kaminski, Naftali; Mariani, Thomas J; Potter, Steven S; Pryhuber, Gloria S; Warburton, David; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Palmer, Scott M; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2017-11-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute is funding an effort to create a molecular atlas of the developing lung (LungMAP) to serve as a research resource and public education tool. The lung is a complex organ with lengthy development time driven by interactive gene networks and dynamic cross talk among multiple cell types to control and coordinate lineage specification, cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, morphogenesis, and injury repair. A better understanding of the processes that regulate lung development, particularly alveologenesis, will have a significant impact on survival rates for premature infants born with incomplete lung development and will facilitate lung injury repair and regeneration in adults. A consortium of four research centers, a data coordinating center, and a human tissue repository provides high-quality molecular data of developing human and mouse lungs. LungMAP includes mouse and human data for cross correlation of developmental processes across species. LungMAP is generating foundational data and analysis, creating a web portal for presentation of results and public sharing of data sets, establishing a repository of young human lung tissues obtained through organ donor organizations, and developing a comprehensive lung ontology that incorporates the latest findings of the consortium. The LungMAP website (www.lungmap.net) currently contains more than 6,000 high-resolution lung images and transcriptomic, proteomic, and lipidomic human and mouse data and provides scientific information to stimulate interest in research careers for young audiences. This paper presents a brief description of research conducted by the consortium, database, and portal development and upcoming features that will enhance the LungMAP experience for a community of users. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. An accurate algorithm to match imperfectly matched images for lung tumor detection without markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozario, Timothy; Bereg, Sergey; Yan, Yulong; Chiu, Tsuicheng; Liu, Honghuan; Kearney, Vasant; Jiang, Lan; Mao, Weihua

    2015-05-08

    In order to locate lung tumors on kV projection images without internal markers, digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) are created and compared with projection images. However, lung tumors always move due to respiration and their locations change on projection images while they are static on DRRs. In addition, global image intensity discrepancies exist between DRRs and projections due to their different image orientations, scattering, and noises. This adversely affects comparison accuracy. A simple but efficient comparison algorithm is reported to match imperfectly matched projection images and DRRs. The kV projection images were matched with different DRRs in two steps. Preprocessing was performed in advance to generate two sets of DRRs. The tumors were removed from the planning 3D CT for a single phase of planning 4D CT images using planning contours of tumors. DRRs of background and DRRs of tumors were generated separately for every projection angle. The first step was to match projection images with DRRs of background signals. This method divided global images into a matrix of small tiles and similarities were evaluated by calculating normalized cross-correlation (NCC) between corresponding tiles on projections and DRRs. The tile configuration (tile locations) was automatically optimized to keep the tumor within a single projection tile that had a bad matching with the corresponding DRR tile. A pixel-based linear transformation was determined by linear interpolations of tile transformation results obtained during tile matching. The background DRRs were transformed to the projection image level and subtracted from it. The resulting subtracted image now contained only the tumor. The second step was to register DRRs of tumors to the subtracted image to locate the tumor. This method was successfully applied to kV fluoro images (about 1000 images) acquired on a Vero (BrainLAB) for dynamic tumor tracking on phantom studies. Radiation opaque markers were

  15. High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Andrew F T; Fouras, Andreas; Islam, M Sirajul; Wallace, Megan J; Hooper, Stuart B; Kitchen, Marcus J

    2013-04-01

    Described herein is a new technique for measuring regional lung air volumes from two-dimensional propagation-based phase contrast x-ray (PBI) images at very high spatial and temporal resolution. Phase contrast dramatically increases lung visibility and the outlined volumetric reconstruction technique quantifies dynamic changes in respiratory function. These methods can be used for assessing pulmonary disease and injury and for optimizing mechanical ventilation techniques for preterm infants using animal models. The volumetric reconstruction combines the algorithms of temporal subtraction and single image phase retrieval (SIPR) to isolate the image of the lungs from the thoracic cage in order to measure regional lung air volumes. The SIPR algorithm was used to recover the change in projected thickness of the lungs on a pixel-by-pixel basis (pixel dimensions ≈ 16.2 μm). The technique has been validated using numerical simulation and compared results of measuring regional lung air volumes with and without the use of temporal subtraction for removing the thoracic cage. To test this approach, a series of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups mechanically ventilated at different frequencies was employed. Regional lung air volumes measured from PBI images of newborn rabbit pups showed on average an improvement of at least 20% in 16% of pixels within the lungs in comparison to that measured without the use of temporal subtraction. The majority of pixels that showed an improvement was found to be in regions occupied by bone. Applying the volumetric technique to sequences of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups, it is shown that lung aeration at birth can be highly heterogeneous. This paper presents an image segmentation technique based on temporal subtraction that has successfully been used to isolate the lungs from PBI chest images, allowing the change in lung air volume to be measured over regions as small as the pixel size. Using this technique, it is possible to measure

  16. Diagnostic Accuracy of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Characterizing Lung Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Nagihan; Arslan, Arzu; Donmez, Muhammed; Sarisoy, Hasan Tahsin

    2016-01-01

    Background Imaging plays a critical role not only in the detection, but also in the characterization of lung masses as benign or malignant. Objectives To determine the diagnostic accuracy of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lung masses. Patients and Methods Ninety-four masses were included in this prospective study. Five dynamic series of T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (FFE) images were obtained, followed by a T1-weighted FFE sequence in the late phase (5th minutes). Contrast enhancement patterns in the early (25th second) and late (5th minute) phase images were evaluated. For the quantitative evaluation, signal intensity (SI)-time curves were obtained and the maximum relative enhancement, wash-in rate, and time-to-peak enhancement of masses in both groups were calculated. Results The early phase contrast enhancement patterns were homogeneous in 78.2% of the benign masses, while heterogeneous in 74.4% of the malignant tumors. On the late phase images, 70.8% of the benign masses showed homogeneous enhancement, while most of the malignant masses showed heterogeneous enhancement (82.4%). During the first pass, the maximum relative enhancement and wash-in rate values of malignant masses were significantly higher than those of the benign masses (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). The cutoff value at 15% yielded a sensitivity of 85.4%, specificity of 61.2%, and positive predictive value of 68.7% for the maximum relative enhancement. Conclusion Contrast enhancement patterns and SI-time curve analysis of MRI are helpful in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lung masses. PMID:27703654

  17. Measurement of the Inter-Rater Reliability Rate Is Mandatory for Improving the Quality of a Medical Database: Experience with the Paulista Lung Cancer Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauricella, Leticia L; Costa, Priscila B; Salati, Michele; Pego-Fernandes, Paulo M; Terra, Ricardo M

    2018-06-01

    Database quality measurement should be considered a mandatory step to ensure an adequate level of confidence in data used for research and quality improvement. Several metrics have been described in the literature, but no standardized approach has been established. We aimed to describe a methodological approach applied to measure the quality and inter-rater reliability of a regional multicentric thoracic surgical database (Paulista Lung Cancer Registry). Data from the first 3 years of the Paulista Lung Cancer Registry underwent an audit process with 3 metrics: completeness, consistency, and inter-rater reliability. The first 2 methods were applied to the whole data set, and the last method was calculated using 100 cases randomized for direct auditing. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated using percentage of agreement between the data collector and auditor and through calculation of Cohen's κ and intraclass correlation. The overall completeness per section ranged from 0.88 to 1.00, and the overall consistency was 0.96. Inter-rater reliability showed many variables with high disagreement (>10%). For numerical variables, intraclass correlation was a better metric than inter-rater reliability. Cohen's κ showed that most variables had moderate to substantial agreement. The methodological approach applied to the Paulista Lung Cancer Registry showed that completeness and consistency metrics did not sufficiently reflect the real quality status of a database. The inter-rater reliability associated with κ and intraclass correlation was a better quality metric than completeness and consistency metrics because it could determine the reliability of specific variables used in research or benchmark reports. This report can be a paradigm for future studies of data quality measurement. Copyright © 2018 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Powerful functional imaging of respiratory nuclear medicine. Is CT imaging alone really sufficient for diagnosis and pathophysiologic assessment of lung diseases?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Ventilation (V)-perfusion (Q) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides important information of functional impairment in various lung diseases, and often sensitively detects CT-undetectable lesions. V·Q SPECT also provides objective and quantitative assessment of severity of lung functional impairment. Functional-morphological correlation on V·Q SPECT-CT fusion images further facilitates these advantages of V·Q SPECT. This article describes clinical feasibility of V·Q SPECT in functional assessment and diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, interstitial lung diseases, and lung right-to-left shunt diseases. This article hopefully provides sufficient responses to the crucial query of ''Is CT imaging alone really sufficient for diagnosis and pathophysiological assessment of various lung diseases?'' (author)

  19. Significance of increased lung thallium-201 activity on serial cardiac images after dipyridamole treatment in coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, R.D.; Dai, Y.H.; Boucher, C.A.; Pohost, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Increased lung thallium-201 (Tl-201) activity occurs in patients with severe coronary artery disease (CAD) on initial postexercise images. To determine the significance of assessing lung Tl-201 on serial imaging after dipyridamole therapy, initial and delayed (2 to 3 hours) Tl-201 imaging was performed in 40 patients with CAD and 26 normal control subjects. Lung Tl-201 activity was quantitated as a percentage of maximal myocardial activity for each imaging time (lung Tl-201 index). The mean initial lung Tl-201 activity was 42 +/- 2% (+/- standard error of the mean) in 26 control subjects, 56 +/- 2% in 25 patients with 2- or 3-vessel CAD (p less than 0.001) and 53 +/- 2% in 15 patients with 1-vessel CAD (p less than 0.005 compared with control subjects) (difference not significant between 1-vessel and multivessel CAD). Dipyridamole lung Tl-201 activity decreased relative to the myocardium from initial to delayed images (p less than 0.001) in patients with CAD but not in control subjects. When a dipyridamole lung Tl-201 index of 58% (mean +/- 2 standard deviations for control subjects) was chosen as the upper limit of normal, 14 of 40 of the CAD patients (35%) had abnormal values and all control patients had values within normal limits. These 14 patients with CAD and abnormal initial lung Tl-201 indexes had rest ejection fractions that were not significantly different from those in patients with CAD, and normal initial dipyridamole lung Tl-201 index (58 +/- 4% and 63 +/- 2%, respectively)

  20. Anatomic, functional and molecular imaging in lung cancer precision radiation therapy: treatment response assessment and radiation therapy personalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, Sarah; Schimek-Jasch, Tanja; Li, X. Allen; Nestle, Ursula; Kong, Feng-Ming (Spring)

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews key imaging modalities for lung cancer patients treated with radiation therapy (RT) and considers their actual or potential contributions to critical decision-making. An international group of researchers with expertise in imaging in lung cancer patients treated with RT considered the relevant literature on modalities, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). These perspectives were coordinated to summarize the current status of imaging in lung cancer and flag developments with future implications. Although there are no useful randomized trials of different imaging modalities in lung cancer, multiple prospective studies indicate that management decisions are frequently impacted by the use of complementary imaging modalities, leading both to more appropriate treatments and better outcomes. This is especially true of 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT which is widely accepted to be the standard imaging modality for staging of lung cancer patients, for selection for potentially curative RT and for treatment planning. PET is also more accurate than CT for predicting survival after RT. PET imaging during RT is also correlated with survival and makes response-adapted therapies possible. PET tracers other than FDG have potential for imaging important biological process in tumors, including hypoxia and proliferation. MRI has superior accuracy in soft tissue imaging and the MRI Linac is a rapidly developing technology with great potential for online monitoring and modification of treatment. The role of imaging in RT-treated lung cancer patients is evolving rapidly and will allow increasing personalization of therapy according to the biology of both the tumor and dose limiting normal tissues. PMID:29218270

  1. The role of medical imaging in staging and followup of primary lung cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    There has been a significant improvement in the rate of resectability of lung cancers, a situation that has resulted from improved preoperative staging. A large measure of this improvement has resulted from the application of CT and more recently, magnetic resonance imaging in this pre-surgical staging process. The application and evaluation of these imaging procedures has resulted in significant controversy. The size criteria of lymph nodes chosen in defining the abnormal mediastinal lymph node is responsible for part of the controversy. If the lymph node size is set below 2.0 cm, a higher false-positive rate must be accepted. In addition, chest wall extension is often inaccurately assessed with CT as is mediastinal invasion. The status of CT and MRI in staging the patient with lung cancer prior to surgery will be discussed in detail. It should be remembered that the ultimate goal of radiographic procedures in this staging process should be in determining which patients need mediastinoscopy prior to surgery and not in attempting to exclude patients from surgery. The appropriate formula for the application of CT and MRI will also be included. Finally, a recommendation for the post-treatment followup of the patient with lung cancer will also be presented. (Author)

  2. Prediction of Early Response to Chemotherapy in Lung Cancer by Using Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether change of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC value could predict early response to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Materials and Methods. Twenty-five patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer underwent chest MR imaging including DWI before and at the end of the first cycle of chemotherapy. The tumor’s mean ADC value and diameters on MR images were calculated and compared. The grouping reference was based on serial CT scans according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Logistic regression was applied to assess treatment response prediction ability of ADC value and diameters. Results. The change of ADC value in partial response group was higher than that in stable disease group (P=0.004. ROC curve showed that ADC value could predict treatment response with 100% sensitivity, 64.71% specificity, 57.14% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value, and 82.7% accuracy. The area under the curve for combination of ADC value and longest diameter change was higher than any parameter alone (P≤0.01. Conclusions. The change of ADC value may be a sensitive indicator to predict early response to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Prediction ability could be improved by combining the change of ADC value and longest diameter.

  3. Lung region extraction based on the model information and the inversed MIP method by using chest CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Toshihiro; Miguchi, Ryosuke; Okumura, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Shinji; Matsumoto, Mitsuomi; Tateno, Yukio; Iinuma, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Toru.

    1997-01-01

    We developed a lung region extraction method based on the model information and the inversed MIP method in the Lung Cancer Screening CT (LSCT). Original model is composed of typical 3-D lung contour lines, a body axis, an apical point, and a convex hull. First, the body axis. the apical point, and the convex hull are automatically extracted from the input image Next, the model is properly transformed to fit to those of input image by the affine transformation. Using the same affine transformation coefficients, typical lung contour lines are also transferred, which correspond to rough contour lines of input image. Experimental results applied for 68 samples showed this method quite promising. (author)

  4. Small average differences in attenuation corrected images between men and women in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy: a novel normal stress database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trägårdh, Elin; Sjöstrand, Karl; Jakobsson, David; Edenbrandt, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The American Society of Nuclear Cardiology and the Society of Nuclear Medicine state that incorporation of attenuation-corrected (AC) images in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) will improve image quality, interpretive certainty, and diagnostic accuracy. However, commonly used software packages for MPS usually include normal stress databases for non-attenuation corrected (NC) images but not for attenuation-corrected (AC) images. The aim of the study was to develop and compare different normal stress databases for MPS in relation to NC vs. AC images, male vs. female gender, and presence vs. absence of obesity. The principal hypothesis was that differences in mean count values between men and women would be smaller with AC than NC images, thereby allowing for construction and use of gender-independent AC stress database. Normal stress perfusion databases were developed with data from 126 male and 205 female patients with normal MPS. The following comparisons were performed for all patients and separately for normal weight vs. obese patients: men vs. women for AC; men vs. women for NC; AC vs. NC for men; and AC vs. NC for women. When comparing AC for men vs. women, only minor differences in mean count values were observed, and there were no differences for normal weight vs. obese patients. For all other analyses major differences were found, particularly for the inferior wall. The results support the hypothesis that it is possible to use not only gender independent but also weight independent AC stress databases

  5. An automated classification system for the differentiation of obstructive lung diseases based on the textural analysis of HRCT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Hoon; Seo, Joon Beom; Kim, Nam Kug; Lee, Young Kyung; Kim, Song Soo; Chae, Eun Jin; Lee, June Goo

    2007-01-01

    To develop an automated classification system for the differentiation of obstructive lung diseases based on the textural analysis of HRCT images, and to evaluate the accuracy and usefulness of the system. For textural analysis, histogram features, gradient features, run length encoding, and a co-occurrence matrix were employed. A Bayesian classifier was used for automated classification. The images (image number n = 256) were selected from the HRCT images obtained from 17 healthy subjects (n = 67), 26 patients with bronchiolitis obliterans (n = 70), 28 patients with mild centrilobular emphysema (n = 65), and 21 patients with panlobular emphysema or severe centrilobular emphysema (n = 63). An five-fold cross-validation method was used to assess the performance of the system. Class-specific sensitivities were analyzed and the overall accuracy of the system was assessed with kappa statistics. The sensitivity of the system for each class was as follows: normal lung 84.9%, bronchiolitis obliterans 83.8%, mild centrilobular emphysema 77.0%, and panlobular emphysema or severe centrilobular emphysema 95.8%. The overall performance for differentiating each disease and the normal lung was satisfactory with a kappa value of 0.779. An automated classification system for the differentiation between obstructive lung diseases based on the textural analysis of HRCT images was developed. The proposed system discriminates well between the various obstructive lung diseases and the normal lung

  6. WE-AB-202-05: Validation of Lung Stress Maps for CT-Ventilation Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazoulat, G; Jolly, S; Matuszak, M; Balter, J; Brock, K [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kipritidis, J; Keall, P [University of Sydney, Sydney NSW (Australia); Siva, S; Hofman, M [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne VIC (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To date, lung CT-ventilation imaging has been based on quantification of local breathing-induced changes in Hounsfield Units (HU) or volume. This work investigates the use of a stress map resulting from a biomechanical deformable image registration (DIR) algorithm as a metric of the ventilation function. Method: Eight lung cancer patients presenting different kinds of ventilation defects were retrospectively analyzed. Additionally, to the 4DCT acquired for radiotherapy planning, five of them had PET and three had SPECT imaging following inhalation of Ga-68 and Tc-99m, respectively. For each patient, the inhale phase of the 4DCT was registered to the exhale phase using Morfeus, a biomechanical DIR algorithm based on the determination of boundary conditions on the lung surfaces and vessel tree. To take into account the heterogeneity of the tissue stiffness in the stress map estimation, each tetrahedral element of the finite-element model was assigned a Young’s modulus ranging from 60kPa to 12MPa, as a function of the HU in the inhale CT. The node displacements and element stresses resulting from the numerical simulation were used to generate three CT-ventilation maps based on: (i) volume changes (Jacobian determinant), (ii) changes in HU, (iii) the maximum principal stress. The voxel-wise correlation between each CT-ventilation map and the PET or SPECT V image was computed in a lung mask. Results: For patients with PET, the mean (min-max) Spearman correlation coefficients r were: 0.33 (0.19–0.45), 0.36 (0.16–0.51) and 0.42 (0.21–0.59) considering the Jacobian, changes in HU and maximum principal stress, respectively. For patients with SPECT V, the mean r were: 0.12 (−0.12–0.43), 0.29 (0.22–0.45) and 0.33 (0.25–0.39). Conclusion: The maximum principal stress maps showed a stronger correlation with the ventilation images than the previously proposed Jacobian or change in HU maps. This metric thus appears promising for CT-ventilation imaging

  7. Quantitative image variables reflect the intratumoral pathologic heterogeneity of lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, E-Ryung; Lee, Ho Yun; Jeong, Ji Yun; Choi, Yoon-La; Kim, Jhingook; Bae, Jungmin; Lee, Kyung Soo; Shim, Young Mog

    2016-10-11

    We aimed to compare quantitative radiomic parameters from dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) of lung adenocarcinoma and pathologic complexity.A total 89 tumors with clinical stage I/II lung adenocarcinoma were prospectively included. Fifty one radiomic features were assessed both from iodine images and non-contrast images of DECT datasets. Comprehensive histologic subtyping was evaluated with all surgically resected tumors. The degree of pathologic heterogeneity was assessed using pathologic index and the number of mixture histologic subtypes in a tumor. Radiomic parameters were correlated with pathologic index. Tumors were classified as three groups according to the number of mixture histologic subtypes and radiomic parameters were compared between the three groups.Tumor density and 50th through 97.5th percentile Hounsfield units (HU) of histogram on non-contrast images showed strong correlation with the pathologic heterogeneity. Radiomic parameters including 75th and 97.5th percentile HU of histogram, entropy, and inertia on 1-, 2- and 3 voxel distance on non-contrast images showed incremental changes while homogeneity showed detrimental change according to the number of mixture histologic subtypes (all Ps heterogeneity, which may help in the prediction of intratumoral heterogeneity of the whole tumor.

  8. Investigating the Feasibility of Rapid MRI for Image-Guided Motion Management in Lung Cancer Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sawant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycle-to-cycle variations in respiratory motion can cause significant geometric and dosimetric errors in the administration of lung cancer radiation therapy. A common limitation of the current strategies for motion management is that they assume a constant, reproducible respiratory cycle. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of using rapid MRI for providing long-term imaging of the thorax in order to better capture cycle-to-cycle variations. Two nonsmall-cell lung cancer patients were imaged (free-breathing, no extrinsic contrast, and 1.5 T scanner. A balanced steady-state-free-precession (b-SSFP sequence was used to acquire cine-2D and cine-3D (4D images. In the case of Patient 1 (right midlobe lesion, ~40 mm diameter, tumor motion was well correlated with diaphragmatic motion. In the case of Patient 2, (left upper-lobe lesion, ~60 mm diameter, tumor motion was poorly correlated with diaphragmatic motion. Furthermore, the motion of the tumor centroid was poorly correlated with the motion of individual points on the tumor boundary, indicating significant rotation and/or deformation. These studies indicate that image quality and acquisition speed of cine-2D MRI were adequate for motion monitoring. However, significant improvements are required to achieve comparable speeds for truly 4D MRI. Despite several challenges, rapid MRI offers a feasible and attractive tool for noninvasive, long-term motion monitoring.

  9. Investigating the feasibility of rapid MRI for image-guided motion management in lung cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Amit; Keall, Paul; Pauly, Kim Butts; Alley, Marcus; Vasanawala, Shreyas; Loo, Billy W; Hinkle, Jacob; Joshi, Sarang

    2014-01-01

    Cycle-to-cycle variations in respiratory motion can cause significant geometric and dosimetric errors in the administration of lung cancer radiation therapy. A common limitation of the current strategies for motion management is that they assume a constant, reproducible respiratory cycle. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of using rapid MRI for providing long-term imaging of the thorax in order to better capture cycle-to-cycle variations. Two nonsmall-cell lung cancer patients were imaged (free-breathing, no extrinsic contrast, and 1.5 T scanner). A balanced steady-state-free-precession (b-SSFP) sequence was used to acquire cine-2D and cine-3D (4D) images. In the case of Patient 1 (right midlobe lesion, ~40 mm diameter), tumor motion was well correlated with diaphragmatic motion. In the case of Patient 2, (left upper-lobe lesion, ~60 mm diameter), tumor motion was poorly correlated with diaphragmatic motion. Furthermore, the motion of the tumor centroid was poorly correlated with the motion of individual points on the tumor boundary, indicating significant rotation and/or deformation. These studies indicate that image quality and acquisition speed of cine-2D MRI were adequate for motion monitoring. However, significant improvements are required to achieve comparable speeds for truly 4D MRI. Despite several challenges, rapid MRI offers a feasible and attractive tool for noninvasive, long-term motion monitoring.

  10. Regional variance of visually lossless threshold in compressed chest CT images: Lung versus mediastinum and chest wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Jung; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Bohyoung; Kim, Kil Joong; Chun, Eun Ju; Bajpai, Vasundhara; Kim, Young Hoon; Hahn, Seokyung; Lee, Kyung Won

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the visually lossless threshold (VLT) for the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) 2000 compression of chest CT images and to demonstrate the variance of the VLT between the lung and mediastinum/chest wall. Subjects and methods: Eighty images were compressed reversibly (as negative control) and irreversibly to 5:1, 10:1, 15:1 and 20:1. Five radiologists determined if the compressed images were distinguishable from their originals in the lung and mediastinum/chest wall. Exact tests for paired proportions were used to compare the readers' responses between the reversible and irreversible compressions and between the lung and mediastinum/chest wall. Results: At reversible, 5:1, 10:1, 15:1, and 20:1 compressions, 0%, 0%, 3-49% (p < .004, for three readers), 69-99% (p < .001, for all readers), and 100% of the 80 image pairs were distinguishable in the lung, respectively; and 0%, 0%, 74-100% (p < .001, for all readers), 100%, and 100% were distinguishable in the mediastinum/chest wall, respectively. The image pairs were less frequently distinguishable in the lung than in the mediastinum/chest wall at 10:1 (p < .001, for all readers) and 15:1 (p < .001, for two readers). In 321 image comparisons, the image pairs were indistinguishable in the lung but distinguishable in the mediastinum/chest wall, whereas there was no instance of the opposite. Conclusion: For JPEG2000 compression of chest CT images, the VLT is between 5:1 and 10:1. The lung is more tolerant to the compression than the mediastinum/chest wall.

  11. Regional variance of visually lossless threshold in compressed chest CT images: Lung versus mediastinum and chest wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Jung [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 300 Gumi-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Ho [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 300 Gumi-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kholee@snubhrad.snu.ac.kr; Kim, Bohyoung; Kim, Kil Joong; Chun, Eun Ju; Bajpai, Vasundhara; Kim, Young Hoon [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 300 Gumi-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Hahn, Seokyung [Medical Research Collaborating Center, Seoul National University Hospital, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Won [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 300 Gumi-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    Objective: To estimate the visually lossless threshold (VLT) for the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) 2000 compression of chest CT images and to demonstrate the variance of the VLT between the lung and mediastinum/chest wall. Subjects and methods: Eighty images were compressed reversibly (as negative control) and irreversibly to 5:1, 10:1, 15:1 and 20:1. Five radiologists determined if the compressed images were distinguishable from their originals in the lung and mediastinum/chest wall. Exact tests for paired proportions were used to compare the readers' responses between the reversible and irreversible compressions and between the lung and mediastinum/chest wall. Results: At reversible, 5:1, 10:1, 15:1, and 20:1 compressions, 0%, 0%, 3-49% (p < .004, for three readers), 69-99% (p < .001, for all readers), and 100% of the 80 image pairs were distinguishable in the lung, respectively; and 0%, 0%, 74-100% (p < .001, for all readers), 100%, and 100% were distinguishable in the mediastinum/chest wall, respectively. The image pairs were less frequently distinguishable in the lung than in the mediastinum/chest wall at 10:1 (p < .001, for all readers) and 15:1 (p < .001, for two readers). In 321 image comparisons, the image pairs were indistinguishable in the lung but distinguishable in the mediastinum/chest wall, whereas there was no instance of the opposite. Conclusion: For JPEG2000 compression of chest CT images, the VLT is between 5:1 and 10:1. The lung is more tolerant to the compression than the mediastinum/chest wall.

  12. Imaging of lung metastasis tumor mouse model using [{sup 18}F]FDG small animal PET and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, June Youp; Woo, Sang Keun; Lee, Tae Sup [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this study is to image metastaic lung melanoma model with optimal pre-conditions for animal handling by using [{sup 18}F]FDG small animal PET and clinical CT. The pre-conditions for lung region tumor imaging were 16-22 h fasting and warming temperature at 30 .deg. C. Small animal PET image was obtained at 60 min postinjection of 7.4 MBq [{sup 18}F]FDG and compared pattern of [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake and glucose standard uptake value (SUVG) of lung region between Ketamine/Xylazine (Ke/Xy) and Isoflurane (Iso) anesthetized group in normal mice. Metastasis tumor mouse model to lung was established by intravenous injection of B16-F10 cells in C57BL/6 mice. In lung metastasis tumor model, [{sup 18}F]FDG image was obtained and fused with anatomical clinical CT image. Average blood glucose concentration in normal mice were 128.0 {+-} 22.87 and 86.0 {+-} 21.65 mg/dL in Ke/Xy group and Iso group, respectively. Ke/Xy group showed 1.5 fold higher blood glucose concentration than Iso group. Lung to Background ratio (L/B) in SUVG image was 8.6 {+-} 0.48 and 12.1 {+-}0.63 in Ke/Xy group and Iso group, respectively. In tumor detection in lung region, [{sup 18}F]FDG image of Iso group was better than that of Ke/Xy group, because of high L/B ratio. Metastatic tumor location in [{sup 18}F]FDG small animal PET image was confirmed by fusion image using clinical CT. Tumor imaging in small animal lung region with [{sup 18}F]FDG small animal PET should be considered pre-conditions which fasting, warming and an anesthesia during [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake. Fused imaging with small animal PET and CT image could be useful for the detection of metastatic tumor in lung region.

  13. Ultra-High-Resolution Computed Tomography of the Lung: Image Quality of a Prototype Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Muramatsu, Yukio; Gomi, Shiho; Suzuki, Masahiro; Nagasawa, Hirobumi; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Aso, Tomohiko; Muramatsu, Yoshihisa; Tsuchida, Takaaki; Tsuta, Koji; Maeshima, Akiko Miyagi; Tochigi, Naobumi; Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Sugihara, Naoki; Tsukagoshi, Shinsuke; Saito, Yasuo; Kazama, Masahiro; Ashizawa, Kazuto; Awai, Kazuo; Honda, Osamu; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Koizumi, Naoya; Komoto, Daisuke; Moriya, Hiroshi; Oda, Seitaro; Oshiro, Yasuji; Yanagawa, Masahiro; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Asamura, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The image noise and image quality of a prototype ultra-high-resolution computed tomography (U-HRCT) scanner was evaluated and compared with those of conventional high-resolution CT (C-HRCT) scanners. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board. A U-HRCT scanner prototype with 0.25 mm x 4 rows and operating at 120 mAs was used. The C-HRCT images were obtained using a 0.5 mm x 16 or 0.5 mm x 64 detector-row CT scanner operating at 150 mAs. Images from both scanners were reconstructed at 0.1-mm intervals; the slice thickness was 0.25 mm for the U-HRCT scanner and 0.5 mm for the C-HRCT scanners. For both scanners, the display field of view was 80 mm. The image noise of each scanner was evaluated using a phantom. U-HRCT and C-HRCT images of 53 images selected from 37 lung nodules were then observed and graded using a 5-point score by 10 board-certified thoracic radiologists. The images were presented to the observers randomly and in a blinded manner. Results The image noise for U-HRCT (100.87 ± 0.51 Hounsfield units [HU]) was greater than that for C-HRCT (40.41 ± 0.52 HU; P < .0001). The image quality of U-HRCT was graded as superior to that of C-HRCT (P < .0001) for all of the following parameters that were examined: margins of subsolid and solid nodules, edges of solid components and pulmonary vessels in subsolid nodules, air bronchograms, pleural indentations, margins of pulmonary vessels, edges of bronchi, and interlobar fissures. Conclusion Despite a larger image noise, the prototype U-HRCT scanner had a significantly better image quality than the C-HRCT scanners. PMID:26352144

  14. Ultra-High-Resolution Computed Tomography of the Lung: Image Quality of a Prototype Scanner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutaro Kakinuma

    Full Text Available The image noise and image quality of a prototype ultra-high-resolution computed tomography (U-HRCT scanner was evaluated and compared with those of conventional high-resolution CT (C-HRCT scanners.This study was approved by the institutional review board. A U-HRCT scanner prototype with 0.25 mm x 4 rows and operating at 120 mAs was used. The C-HRCT images were obtained using a 0.5 mm x 16 or 0.5 mm x 64 detector-row CT scanner operating at 150 mAs. Images from both scanners were reconstructed at 0.1-mm intervals; the slice thickness was 0.25 mm for the U-HRCT scanner and 0.5 mm for the C-HRCT scanners. For both scanners, the display field of view was 80 mm. The image noise of each scanner was evaluated using a phantom. U-HRCT and C-HRCT images of 53 images selected from 37 lung nodules were then observed and graded using a 5-point score by 10 board-certified thoracic radiologists. The images were presented to the observers randomly and in a blinded manner.The image noise for U-HRCT (100.87 ± 0.51 Hounsfield units [HU] was greater than that for C-HRCT (40.41 ± 0.52 HU; P < .0001. The image quality of U-HRCT was graded as superior to that of C-HRCT (P < .0001 for all of the following parameters that were examined: margins of subsolid and solid nodules, edges of solid components and pulmonary vessels in subsolid nodules, air bronchograms, pleural indentations, margins of pulmonary vessels, edges of bronchi, and interlobar fissures.Despite a larger image noise, the prototype U-HRCT scanner had a significantly better image quality than the C-HRCT scanners.

  15. Correlation between computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of parenchymal lung diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Miriam Menna; Rafful, Patricia Piazza [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rodrigues, Rosana Souza [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); D’Or Institute for Research and Education, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zanetti, Gláucia [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Hochhegger, Bruno [Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Souza, Arthur Soares [Department of Radiology, Medical School of Rio Preto (FAMERP) and Ultra X, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Guimarães, Marcos Duarte [Department of Imaging, Hospital AC Camargo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is considered to be the gold standard method for the assessment of morphological changes in the pulmonary parenchyma. Although its spatial resolution is lower than that of CT, MRI offers the advantage of characterizing different aspects of tissue based on the degree of contrast on T1-weighted image (WI) and T2-WI. In this article, we describe and correlate the MRI and CT features of several common patterns of parenchymal lung disease (air trapping, atelectasis, bronchiectasis, cavitation, consolidation, emphysema, ground-glass opacities, halo sign, interlobular septal thickening, masses, mycetoma, nodules, progressive massive fibrosis, reverse halo sign and tree-in-bud pattern). MRI may be an alternative modality for the collection of morphological and functional information useful for the management of parenchymal lung disease, which would help reduce the number of chest CT scans and radiation exposure required in patients with a variety of conditions.

  16. Computed tomography lung iodine contrast mapping by image registration and subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goatman, Keith; Plakas, Costas; Schuijf, Joanne; Beveridge, Erin; Prokop, Mathias

    2014-03-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a relatively common and potentially life threatening disease, affecting around 600,000 people annually in the United States alone. Prompt treatment using anticoagulants is effective and saves lives, but unnecessary treatment risks life threatening haemorrhage. The specificity of any diagnostic test for PE is therefore as important as its sensitivity. Computed tomography (CT) angiography is routinely used to diagnose PE. However, there are concerns it may over-report the condition. Additional information about the severity of an occlusion can be obtained from an iodine contrast map that represents tissue perfusion. Such maps tend to be derived from dual-energy CT acquisitions. However, they may also be calculated by subtracting pre- and post-contrast CT scans. Indeed, there are technical advantages to such a subtraction approach, including better contrast-to-noise ratio for the same radiation dose, and bone suppression. However, subtraction relies on accurate image registration. This paper presents a framework for the automatic alignment of pre- and post-contrast lung volumes prior to subtraction. The registration accuracy is evaluated for seven subjects for whom pre- and post-contrast helical CT scans were acquired using a Toshiba Aquilion ONE scanner. One hundred corresponding points were annotated on the pre- and post-contrast scans, distributed throughout the lung volume. Surface-to-surface error distances were also calculated from lung segmentations. Prior to registration the mean Euclidean landmark alignment error was 2.57mm (range 1.43-4.34 mm), and following registration the mean error was 0.54mm (range 0.44-0.64 mm). The mean surface error distance was 1.89mm before registration and 0.47mm after registration. There was a commensurate reduction in visual artefacts following registration. In conclusion, a framework for pre- and post-contrast lung registration has been developed that is sufficiently accurate for lung subtraction

  17. Computer-aided classification of lung nodules on computed tomography images via deep learning technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua KL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kai-Lung Hua,1 Che-Hao Hsu,1 Shintami Chusnul Hidayati,1 Wen-Huang Cheng,2 Yu-Jen Chen3 1Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 2Research Center for Information Technology Innovation, Academia Sinica, 3Department of Radiation Oncology, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: Lung cancer has a poor prognosis when not diagnosed early and unresectable lesions are present. The management of small lung nodules noted on computed tomography scan is controversial due to uncertain tumor characteristics. A conventional computer-aided diagnosis (CAD scheme requires several image processing and pattern recognition steps to accomplish a quantitative tumor differentiation result. In such an ad hoc image analysis pipeline, every step depends heavily on the performance of the previous step. Accordingly, tuning of classification performance in a conventional CAD scheme is very complicated and arduous. Deep learning techniques, on the other hand, have the intrinsic advantage of an automatic exploitation feature and tuning of performance in a seamless fashion. In this study, we attempted to simplify the image analysis pipeline of conventional CAD with deep learning techniques. Specifically, we introduced models of a deep belief network and a convolutional neural network in the context of nodule classification in computed tomography images. Two baseline methods with feature computing steps were implemented for comparison. The experimental results suggest that deep learning methods could achieve better discriminative results and hold promise in the CAD application domain. Keywords: nodule classification, deep learning, deep belief network, convolutional neural network

  18. SU-F-I-50: Finite Element-Based Deformable Image Registration of Lung and Heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penjweini, R [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Kim, M [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Zhu, T [University Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used after surgical resection to treat the microscopic disease for malignant pleural mesothelioma and to increase survival rates. Although accurate light delivery is imperative to PDT efficacy, the deformation of the pleural volume during the surgery impacts the delivered light dose. To facilitate treatment planning, we use a finite-element-based (FEM) deformable image registration to quantify the anatomical variation of lung and heart volumes between CT pre-(or post-) surgery and surface contours obtained during PDT using an infrared camera-based navigation system (NDI). Methods: NDI is used during PDT to obtain the information of the cumulative light fluence on every cavity surface point that is being treated. A wand, comprised of a modified endotrachial tube filled with Intralipid and an optical fiber inside the tube, is used to deliver the light during PDT. The position of the treatment is tracked using an attachment with nine reflective passive markers that are seen by the NDI system. Then, the position points are plotted as three-dimensional volume of the pleural cavity using Matlab and Meshlab. A series of computed tomography (CT) scans of the lungs and heart, in the same patient, are also acquired before and after the surgery. The NDI and CT contours are imported into COMSOL Multiphysics, where the FEM-based deformable image registration is obtained. The NDI and CT contours acquired during and post-PDT are considered as the reference, and the Pre-PDT CT contours are used as the target, which will be deformed. Results: Anatomical variation of the lung and heart volumes, taken at different times from different imaging devices, was determined by using our model. The resulting three-dimensional deformation map along x, y and z-axes was obtained. Conclusion: Our model fuses images acquired by different modalities and provides insights into the variation in anatomical structures over time.

  19. Imaging and imagining chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Uruguayans draw their lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Megan

    2017-09-11

    This anthropological study investigated what people imagined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to look like in their lungs, what may be influencing these images and how this imagery shapes embodiment. Employing graphic elicitation, in one of multiple ethnographic interviews, participants were asked to draw their lungs: "If we could look inside your chest now, what would we see?" Lung drawings and accompanying narratives and fieldnotes from 14 participants were analyzed for themes and patterns. The theme of "imaging/imagining" emerged and three distinct patterns within this theme were identified: the microscope perspective, the X-ray perspective and the reduced pulmonary capacity perspective. These patterns demonstrate how embodiment can be shaped by an integration and reinterpretation of the medical images that form part of everyday clinic visits and pulmonary rehabilitation. Medical technology and images impact patients' embodiment. Understanding this is important for rehabilitation practitioners who work in a challenging space created by potentially conflicting medical narratives: on the one hand, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is incurable permanent damage, and on the other, improvement is possible through rehabilitation. Drawing could be integrated into pulmonary rehabilitation and may help identify perceptions of the body that could hinder the rehabilitation process. Implications for rehabilitation Drawings, when combined with interviews, can lead to a deeper and more complex understanding of patients' perspectives and embodiment. Rehabilitation practitioners should be concerned with how patients embody the medical technology and imagery they are exposed to as part of the educational component of pulmonary rehabilitation and healthcare generally. Asking patients to visualize their illness through drawing may help pulmonary rehabilitation practitioners identify perceptions of the body which could hinder the patient's ability to reap the full benefit

  20. Lung nodule detection in pediatric chest CT: quantitative relationship between image quality and radiologist performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Samei, Ehsan; Barnhart, Huiman X; Gaca, Ana Maria; Hollingsworth, Caroline L; Maxfield, Charles M; Carrico, Caroline W T; Colsher, James G; Frush, Donald P

    2011-05-01

    To determine the quantitative relationship between image quality and radiologist performance in detecting small lung nodules in pediatric CT. The study included clinical chest CT images of 30 pediatric patients (0-16 years) scanned at tube currents of 55-180 mA. Calibrated noise addition software was used to simulate cases at three nominal mA settings: 70, 35, and 17.5 mA, resulting in quantum noise of 7-32 Hounsfield Unit (HU). Using a validated nodule simulation technique, lung nodules with diameters of 3-5 mm and peak contrasts of 200-500 HU were inserted into the cases, which were then randomized and rated independently by four experienced pediatric radiologists for nodule presence on a continuous scale from 0 (definitely absent) to 100 (definitely present). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) data were analyzed to quantify the relationship between diagnostic accuracy (area under the ROC curve, AUC) and image quality (the product of nodule peak contrast and displayed diameter to noise ratio, CDNR display). AUC increased rapidly from 0.70 to 0.87 when CDNR display increased from 60 to 130 mm, followed by a slow increase to 0.94 when CDNR display further increased to 257 mm. For the average nodule diameter (4 mm) and contrast (350 HU), AUC decreased from 0.93 to 0.71 with noise increased from 7 to 28 HU. We quantified the relationship between image quality and the performance of radiologists in detecting lung nodules in pediatric CT. The relationship can guide CT protocol design to achieve the desired diagnostic performance at the lowest radiation dose.

  1. Beam’s-eye-view imaging during non-coplanar lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, Stephen S. F., E-mail: syip@lroc.harvard.edu; Rottmann, Joerg; Berbeco, Ross I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Beam’s-eye-view (BEV) imaging with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) can be performed during lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to monitor the tumor location in real-time. Image quality for each patient and treatment field depends on several factors including the patient anatomy and the gantry and couch angles. The authors investigated the angular dependence of automatic tumor localization during non-coplanar lung SBRT delivery. Methods: All images were acquired at a frame rate of 12 Hz with an amorphous silicon EPID. A previously validated markerless lung tumor localization algorithm was employed with manual localization as the reference. From ten SBRT patients, 12 987 image frames of 123 image sequences acquired at 48 different gantry–couch rotations were analyzed. δ was defined by the position difference of the automatic and manual localization. Results: Regardless of the couch angle, the best tracking performance was found in image sequences with a gantry angle within 20° of 250° (δ = 1.40 mm). Image sequences acquired with gantry angles of 150°, 210°, and 350° also led to good tracking performances with δ = 1.77–2.00 mm. Overall, the couch angle was not correlated with the tracking results. Among all the gantry–couch combinations, image sequences acquired at (θ = 30°, ϕ = 330°), (θ = 210°, ϕ = 10°), and (θ = 250°, ϕ = 30°) led to the best tracking results with δ = 1.19–1.82 mm. The worst performing combinations were (θ = 90° and 230°, ϕ = 10°) and (θ = 270°, ϕ = 30°) with δ > 3.5 mm. However, 35% (17/48) of the gantry–couch rotations demonstrated substantial variability in tracking performances between patients. For example, the field angle (θ = 70°, ϕ = 10°) was acquired for five patients. While the tracking errors were ≤1.98 mm for three patients, poor performance was found for the other two patients with δ ≥ 2.18 mm, leading to average tracking error of 2.70 mm. Only one

  2. Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic Image Guidance for Lung Cancer Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre; Purdie, Thomas G.; Higgins, Jane A.; Li, Winnie; Bezjak, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the geometric accuracy of lung cancer radiotherapy using daily volumetric, cone-beam CT (CBCT) image guidance and online couch position adjustment. Methods and Materials: Initial setup accuracy using localization CBCT was analyzed in three lung cancer patient cohorts. The first (n = 19) involved patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated using stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). The second (n = 48) and third groups (n = 20) involved patients with locally advanced NSCLC adjusted with manual and remote-controlled couch adjustment, respectively. For each group, the couch position was adjusted when positional discrepancies exceeded ±3 mm in any direction, with the remote-controlled couch correcting all three directions simultaneously. Adjustment accuracy was verified with a second CBCT. Population-based setup margins were derived from systematic (Σ) and random (σ) positional errors for each group. Results: Localization imaging demonstrates that 3D positioning errors exceeding 5 mm occur in 54.5% of all delivered fractions. CBCT reduces these errors; post-correction Σ and σ ranged from 1.2 to 1.9 mm for Group 1, with 82% of all fractions within ±3 mm. For Group 2, Σ and σ ranged between 0.8 and 1.8 mm, with 76% of all treatment fractions within ±3 mm. For Group 3, the remote-controlled couch raised this to 84%, and Σ and σ were reduced to 0.4 to 1.7 mm. For each group, the postcorrection setup margins were 4 to 6 mm, 3 to 4 mm, and 2 to 3 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Using IGRT, high geometric accuracy is achievable for NSCLC patients, potentially leading to reduced PTV margins, improved outcomes and empowering adaptive radiation therapy for lung cancer

  3. A hybrid biomechanical intensity based deformable image registration of lung 4DCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samavati, Navid; Velec, Michael; Brock, Kristy

    2015-01-01

    Deformable image registration (DIR) has been extensively studied over the past two decades due to its essential role in many image-guided interventions (IGI). IGI demands a highly accurate registration that maintains its accuracy across the entire region of interest. This work evaluates the improvement in accuracy and consistency by refining the results of Morfeus, a biomechanical model-based DIR algorithm.A hybrid DIR algorithm is proposed based on, a biomechanical model–based DIR algorithm and a refinement step based on a B-spline intensity-based algorithm. Inhale and exhale reconstructions of four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) lung images from 31 patients were initially registered using the biomechanical DIR by modeling contact surface between the lungs and the chest cavity. The resulting deformations were then refined using the intensity-based algorithm to reduce any residual uncertainties. Important parameters in the intensity-based algorithm, including grid spacing, number of pyramids, and regularization coefficient, were optimized on 10 randomly-chosen patients (out of 31). Target registration error (TRE) was calculated by measuring the Euclidean distance of common anatomical points on both images after registration. For each patient a minimum of 30 points/lung were used.Grid spacing of 8 mm, 5 levels of grid pyramids, and regularization coefficient of 3.0 were found to provide optimal results on 10 randomly chosen patients. Overall the entire patient population (n = 31), the hybrid method resulted in mean ± SD (90th%) TRE of 1.5 ± 1.4 (2.9) mm compared to 3.1 ± 1.9 (5.6) using biomechanical DIR and 2.6 ± 2.5 (6.1) using intensity-based DIR alone.The proposed hybrid biomechanical modeling intensity based algorithm is a promising DIR technique which could be used in various IGI procedures. The current investigation shows the efficacy of this approach for the registration of 4DCT images of the lungs with average accuracy of 1.5

  4. Expression image data of Drosophila GAL4 enhancer trap lines - GETDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us GETDB Expression image data of Drosophila GAL4 enhancer trap lines Data detail Data name Exp...ta contents 3,075 expression image data by developmental stages of Drosophila Images are classified into the...escription Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Expression image data of Drosophila GAL4 enhancer trap lines - GETDB | LSDB Archive ... ...ression image data of Drosophila GAL4 enhancer trap lines DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00236-004 Description of da

  5. Redox-responsive manganese dioxide nanoparticles for enhanced MR imaging and radiotherapy of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Mi Hyeon; Choi, Eun-Seok; Kim, Sehee; Goh, Sung-Ho; Choi, Yongdoo

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we synthesized manganese dioxide nanoparticles (MnO2 NPs) stabilized with biocompatible polymers (polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyacrylic acid) and analyzed their effect on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells with or without gefitinib resistance in vitro. MnO2 NPs showed glutathione (GSH)-responsive dissolution and subsequent enhancement in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Of note, treatment with MnO2 NPs induced significant cytotoxic effects on NSCLC cells, and additional dose-dependent therapeutic effects were obtained upon X-ray irradiation. Normal cells treated with MnO2 NPs were viable at the tested concentrations. In addition, increased therapeutic efficacy could be achieved when the cells were treated with MnO2 NPs in hypoxic conditions. Therefore, we conclude that the use of MnO2 NPs in MR imaging and combination radiotherapy may be an efficient strategy for the imaging and therapy of NSCLC.

  6. Conversion to use of digital chest images for surveillance of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (black lung).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Betty A; Ingeholm, Mary Lou; Prior, Fred; Mun, Seong K; Freedman, Matthew; Weissman, David; Attfield, Michael; Wolfe, Anita; Petsonk, Edward

    2009-01-01

    To protect the health of active U.S. underground coal miners, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has a mandate to carry out surveillance for coal workers' pneumoconiosis, commonly known as Black Lung (PHS 2001). This is accomplished by reviewing chest x-ray films obtained from miners at approximately 5-year intervals in approved x-ray acquisition facilities around the country. Currently, digital chest images are not accepted. Because most chest x-rays are now obtained in digital format, NIOSH is redesigning the surveillance program to accept and manage digital x-rays. This paper highlights the functional and security requirements for a digital image management system for a surveillance program. It also identifies the operational differences between a digital imaging surveillance network and a clinical Picture Archiving Communication Systems (PACS) or teleradiology system.

  7. The MIND PALACE: A Multi-Spectral Imaging and Spectroscopy Database for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshelman, E.; Doloboff, I.; Hara, E. K.; Uckert, K.; Sapers, H. M.; Abbey, W.; Beegle, L. W.; Bhartia, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Multi-Instrument Database (MIND) is the web-based home to a well-characterized set of analytical data collected by a suite of deep-UV fluorescence/Raman instruments built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Samples derive from a growing body of planetary surface analogs, mineral and microbial standards, meteorites, spacecraft materials, and other astrobiologically relevant materials. In addition to deep-UV spectroscopy, datasets stored in MIND are obtained from a variety of analytical techniques obtained over multiple spatial and spectral scales including electron microscopy, optical microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and direct fluorescence imaging. Multivariate statistical analysis techniques, primarily Principal Component Analysis (PCA), are used to guide interpretation of these large multi-analytical spectral datasets. Spatial co-referencing of integrated spectral/visual maps is performed using QGIS (geographic information system software). Georeferencing techniques transform individual instrument data maps into a layered co-registered data cube for analysis across spectral and spatial scales. The body of data in MIND is intended to serve as a permanent, reliable, and expanding database of deep-UV spectroscopy datasets generated by this unique suite of JPL-based instruments on samples of broad planetary science interest.

  8. Scintigraphic and MR perfusion imaging in preoperative evaluation for lung volume reduction surgery. Pilot study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johkoh, Takeshi; Mueller, N.L.; Kavanagh, P.V

    2000-01-01

    To compare MR perfusion imaging with perfusion scintigraphy in the evaluation of patients with pulmonary emphysema being considered for lung volume reduction surgery. Six patients with pulmonary emphysema and two normal individuals were evaluated by MR perfusion imaging, perfusion scintigraphy, and selective bilateral pulmonary angiography. MR images were obtained with an enhanced fast gradient recalled echo with three-dimensional Fourier transformation technique (efgre 3D) (6.3/1.3; flip angle, 30 deg C; field of view, 45-48 cm; matrix, 256 x 160). The presence or absence of perfusion defects in each segment was evaluated by two independent observers. Using angiography as the gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MR perfusion imaging in detecting focal perfusion abnormalities were 90%, 87%, and 89%, respectively, while those of perfusion scintigraphy were 71%, 76%, and 71%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of MR perfusion imaging was significantly higher than that of scintigraphy (p<0.001, McNemar test). There was good agreement between two observers for MR perfusion imaging (kappa statistic, 0.66) and only moderate agreement for perfusion scintigraphy (kappa statistic, 0.51). MR perfusion imaging is superior to perfusion scintigraphy in the evaluation of pulmonary parenchymal perfusion in patients with pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  9. Improved correction for the tissue fraction effect in lung PET/CT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Beverley F.; Cuplov, Vesna; Millner, Lynn; Hutton, Brian F.; Maher, Toby M.; Groves, Ashley M.; Thielemans, Kris

    2015-09-01

    Recently, there has been an increased interest in imaging different pulmonary disorders using PET techniques. Previous work has shown, for static PET/CT, that air content in the lung influences reconstructed image values and that it is vital to correct for this ‘tissue fraction effect’ (TFE). In this paper, we extend this work to include the blood component and also investigate the TFE in dynamic imaging. CT imaging and PET kinetic modelling are used to determine fractional air and blood voxel volumes in six patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. These values are used to illustrate best and worst case scenarios when interpreting images without correcting for the TFE. In addition, the fractional volumes were used to determine correction factors for the SUV and the kinetic parameters. These were then applied to the patient images. The kinetic parameters K1 and Ki along with the static parameter SUV were all found to be affected by the TFE with both air and blood providing a significant contribution to the errors. Without corrections, errors range from 34-80% in the best case and 29-96% in the worst case. In the patient data, without correcting for the TFE, regions of high density (fibrosis) appeared to have a higher uptake than lower density (normal appearing tissue), however this was reversed after air and blood correction. The proposed correction methods are vital for quantitative and relative accuracy. Without these corrections, images may be misinterpreted.

  10. Improved correction for the tissue fraction effect in lung PET/CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, Beverley F; Cuplov, Vesna; Millner, Lynn; Hutton, Brian F; Groves, Ashley M; Thielemans, Kris; Maher, Toby M

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increased interest in imaging different pulmonary disorders using PET techniques. Previous work has shown, for static PET/CT, that air content in the lung influences reconstructed image values and that it is vital to correct for this ‘tissue fraction effect’ (TFE). In this paper, we extend this work to include the blood component and also investigate the TFE in dynamic imaging. CT imaging and PET kinetic modelling are used to determine fractional air and blood voxel volumes in six patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. These values are used to illustrate best and worst case scenarios when interpreting images without correcting for the TFE. In addition, the fractional volumes were used to determine correction factors for the SUV and the kinetic parameters. These were then applied to the patient images. The kinetic parameters K 1 and K i along with the static parameter SUV were all found to be affected by the TFE with both air and blood providing a significant contribution to the errors. Without corrections, errors range from 34–80% in the best case and 29–96% in the worst case. In the patient data, without correcting for the TFE, regions of high density (fibrosis) appeared to have a higher uptake than lower density (normal appearing tissue), however this was reversed after air and blood correction. The proposed correction methods are vital for quantitative and relative accuracy. Without these corrections, images may be misinterpreted. (paper)

  11. Helical Tomotherapy Planning for Lung Cancer Based on Ventilation Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Jing; McLawhorn, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Altes, Tallisa A.; Lange, Eduard de [Department of Radiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Read, Paul W.; Larner, James M.; Benedict, Stanley H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Sheng Ke, E-mail: ks2mc@virginia.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of lung ventilation-based treatment planning, computed tomography and hyperpolarized (HP) helium-3 (He-3) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ventilation images of 6 subjects were coregistered for intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning in Tomotherapy. Highly-functional lungs (HFL) and less-functional lungs (LFL) were contoured based on their ventilation image intensities, and a cylindrical planning-target-volume was simulated at locations adjacent to both HFL and LFL. Annals of an anatomy-based plan (Plan 1) and a ventilation-based plan (Plan 2) were generated. The following dosimetric parameters were determined and compared between the 2 plans: percentage of total/HFL volume receiving {>=}20 Gy, 15 Gy, 10 Gy, and 5 Gy (TLV{sub 20}, HFLV{sub 20}, TLV{sub 15}, HFLV{sub 15}, TLV{sub 10}, HFLV{sub 10}, TLV{sub 5}, HFLV{sub 5}), mean total/HFL dose (MTLD/HFLD), maximum doses to all organs at risk (OARs), and target dose conformality. Compared with Plan 1, Plan 2 reduced mean HFLD (mean reduction, 0.8 Gy), MTLD (mean reduction, 0.6 Gy), HFLV{sub 20} (mean reduction, 1.9%), TLV{sub 20} (mean reduction, 1.5%), TLV{sub 15} (mean reduction, 1.7%), and TLV{sub 10} (mean reduction, 2.1%). P-values of the above comparisons are less than 0.05 using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. For HFLV{sub 15}, HFLV{sub 10}, TLV{sub 5}, and HTLV{sub 5}, Plan 2 resulted in lower values than plan 1 but the differences are not significant (P-value range, 0.063-0.219). Plan 2 did not significantly change maximum doses to OARs (P-value range, 0.063-0.563) and target conformality (P = 1.000). HP He-3 MRI of patients with lung disease shows a highly heterogeneous ventilation capacity that can be utilized for functional treatment planning. Moderate but statistically significant improvements in sparing functional lungs were achieved using helical tomotherapy plans.

  12. Lung scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalenz, Roberto.

    1994-01-01

    A review of lung scintigraphy, perfusion scintigraphy with SPECT, lung ventilation SPECT, blood pool SPECT. The procedure of lung perfusion studies, radiopharmaceutical, administration and clinical applications, imaging processing .Results encountered and evaluation criteria after Biello and Pioped. Recommendations and general considerations have been studied about relation of this radiopharmaceutical with other pathologies

  13. An automated landmark-based elastic registration technique for large deformation recovery from 4-D CT lung images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahdar, Mohammadreza; Zacarias, Albert; Milam, Rebecca A.; Dunlap, Neal; Woo, Shiao Y.; Amini, Amir A.

    2012-03-01

    The treatment plan evaluation for lung cancer patients involves pre-treatment and post-treatment volume CT imaging of the lung. However, treatment of the tumor volume lung results in structural changes to the lung during the course of treatment. In order to register the pre-treatment volume to post-treatment volume, there is a need to find robust and homologous features which are not affected by the radiation treatment along with a smooth deformation field. Since airways are well-distributed in the entire lung, in this paper, we propose use of airway tree bifurcations for registration of the pre-treatment volume to the post-treatment volume. A dedicated and automated algorithm has been developed that finds corresponding airway bifurcations in both images. To derive the 3-D deformation field, a B-spline transformation model guided by mutual information similarity metric was used to guarantee the smoothness of the transformation while combining global information from bifurcation points. Therefore, the approach combines both global statistical intensity information with local image feature information. Since during normal breathing, the lung undergoes large nonlinear deformations, it is expected that the proposed method would also be applicable to large deformation registration between maximum inhale and maximum exhale images in the same subject. The method has been evaluated by registering 3-D CT volumes at maximum exhale data to all the other temporal volumes in the POPI-model data.

  14. Techniques for virtual lung nodule insertion: volumetric and morphometric comparison of projection-based and image-based methods for quantitative CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Marthony; Solomon, Justin; Sahbaee, Pooyan; Sedlmair, Martin; Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy; Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Samei, Ehsan

    2017-09-01

    Virtual nodule insertion paves the way towards the development of standardized databases of hybrid CT images with known lesions. The purpose of this study was to assess three methods (an established and two newly developed techniques) for inserting virtual lung nodules into CT images. Assessment was done by comparing virtual nodule volume and shape to the CT-derived volume and shape of synthetic nodules. 24 synthetic nodules (three sizes, four morphologies, two repeats) were physically inserted into the lung cavity of an anthropomorphic chest phantom (KYOTO KAGAKU). The phantom was imaged with and without nodules on a commercial CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens) using a standard thoracic CT protocol at two dose levels (1.4 and 22 mGy CTDIvol). Raw projection data were saved and reconstructed with filtered back-projection and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE, strength 5) at 0.6 mm slice thickness. Corresponding 3D idealized, virtual nodule models were co-registered with the CT images to determine each nodule’s location and orientation. Virtual nodules were voxelized, partial volume corrected, and inserted into nodule-free CT data (accounting for system imaging physics) using two methods: projection-based Technique A, and image-based Technique B. Also a third Technique C based on cropping a region of interest from the acquired image of the real nodule and blending it into the nodule-free image was tested. Nodule volumes were measured using a commercial segmentation tool (iNtuition, TeraRecon, Inc.) and deformation was assessed using the Hausdorff distance. Nodule volumes and deformations were compared between the idealized, CT-derived and virtual nodules using a linear mixed effects regression model which utilized the mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation (Mea{{n}RHD} , ST{{D}RHD} and C{{V}RHD}{) }~ of the regional Hausdorff distance. Overall, there was a close concordance between the volumes of the CT-derived and

  15. MR imaging-guided percutaneous cryotherapy for lung tumors: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shangang; Ren, Ruimei; Liu, Ming; Lv, Yubo; Li, Bin; Li, Chengli

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate prospectively the initial clinical experience of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided percutaneous cryotherapy of lung tumors. MR imaging-guided percutaneous cryotherapy was performed in 21 patients with biopsy-proven lung tumors (12 men, 9 women; age range, 39-79 y). Follow-up consisted of contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) scan performed at 3-month intervals to assess tumor control; CT scanning was carried out for 12 months or until death. Cryotherapy procedures were successfully completed in all 21 patients. Pneumothorax occurred in 7 (33.3%) of 21 patients. Chest tube placement was required in one (4.8%) case. Hemoptysis was exhibited by 11 (52.4%) patients, and pleural effusion occurred in 6 (28.6%) patients. Other complications were observed in 14 (66.7%) patients. The mean follow-up period was 10.5 months (range, 9-12 mo) in patients who died. At month 12 of follow-up, 7 (33.3%) patients had a complete response to therapy, and 10 (47.6%) patients showed a partial response. In addition, two patients had stable disease, and two patients developed progressive disease; one patient developed a tumor in the liver, and the other developed a tumor in the brain. The 1-year local control rate was 81%, and 1-year survival rate was 90.5%. MR imaging-guided percutaneous cryotherapy appears feasible, effective, and minimally invasive for lung tumors. Copyright © 2014 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A texton-based approach for the classification of lung parenchyma in CT images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gangeh, Mehrdad J.; Sørensen, Lauge; Shaker, Saher B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a texton-based classification system based on raw pixel representation along with a support vector machine with radial basis function kernel is proposed for the classification of emphysema in computed tomography images of the lung. The proposed approach is tested on 168 annotated...... regions of interest consisting of normal tissue, centrilobular emphysema, and paraseptal emphysema. The results show the superiority of the proposed approach to common techniques in the literature including moments of the histogram of filter responses based on Gaussian derivatives. The performance...

  17. Multiple classifier systems in texton-based approach for the classification of CT images of Lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gangeh, Mehrdad J.; Sørensen, Lauge; Shaker, Saher B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose using texton signatures based on raw pixel representation along with a parallel multiple classifier system for the classification of emphysema in computed tomography images of the lung. The multiple classifier system is composed of support vector machines on the texton.......e., texton size and k value in k-means. Our results show that while aggregation of single decisions by SVMs over various k values using multiple classifier systems helps to improve the results compared to single SVMs, combining over different texton sizes is not beneficial. The performance of the proposed...

  18. Ventilation/perfusion SPECT or SPECT/CT for lung function imaging in patients with pulmonary emphysema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froeling, Vera; Heimann, Uwe; Huebner, Ralf-Harto; Kroencke, Thomas J; Maurer, Martin H; Doellinger, Felix; Geisel, Dominik; Hamm, Bernd; Brenner, Winfried; Schreiter, Nils F

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the utility of attenuation correction (AC) of V/P SPECT images for patients with pulmonary emphysema. Twenty-one patients (mean age 67.6 years) with pulmonary emphysema who underwent V/P SPECT/CT were included. AC/non-AC V/P SPECT images were compared visually and semiquantitatively. Visual comparison of AC/non-AC images was based on a 5-point likert scale. Semiquantitative comparison assessed absolute counts per lung (aCpLu) and lung lobe (aCpLo) for AC/non-AC images using software-based analysis; percentage counts (PC = (aCpLo/aCpLu) × 100) were calculated. Correlation between AC/non-AC V/P SPECT images was analyzed using Spearman's rho correlation coefficient; differences were tested for significance with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Visual analysis revealed high conformity for AC and non-AC V/P SPECT images. Semiquantitative analysis of PC in AC/non-AC images had an excellent correlation and showed no significant differences in perfusion (ρ = 0.986) or ventilation (ρ = 0.979, p = 0.809) SPECT/CT images. AC of V/P SPECT images for lung lobe-based function imaging in patients with pulmonary emphysema do not improve visual or semiquantitative image analysis.

  19. Quantitative measurement of Y90 brehmmstrahlung images after of Y90 Sir-Spheres implantation to assess lung shunting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forwood, Nicholas J.; Pocock, Nicholas; Shin, Jane; Young, Andy M; Szeto, Edwin R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Background: In clinical practice the dose of Y 9 0 Sir-Spheres is calculated using a pre injection of Tc 9 9 m MAA. There is however a potential difference due to the different properties of Tc 9 9 m MAA and Y 9 0 Sir-Spheres. We assessed the concordance of lung shunting of Y 9 0 Sir-Spheres estimated using Y 9 0 Bremsstrahlung imaging, compared to shunting assessed using Tc 9 9 m MAA. Methods: 15 Patients were evaluated using 150-200 MBq of Tc 9 9 m MAA injected into the hepatic artery under angiographic guidance. Whole body images were acquired using a LEAP collimator (window of 140 kEv+/-10%). The patients were subsequently treated with Y 9 0 Sir-Spheres. After microspheres injection, whole body brehmsstrahlung images were acquired using a medium energy collimator (window settings of 75 kEv +/- 20%). Tc 9 9 m MAA images were paired with their corresponding bremsstrahlung image and lung shunting in the stu ides calculated simultaneously. Each paired dataset was analyzed by 5 operators. Results: The mean lung shunting for Tc 9 9 m MAA acquisition was 3.32% (SD 2.03) which was significantly lower than the lung shunting using the Y 9 0 acquisitions: mean 16.19% (SD of 6.43). The Pearson coefficient was r = 0.62 (p 9 0 Sir-Spheres bremsstrahlung imaging is higher than that calculated by Tc 9 9 m MAA imaging. The relationship is not sufficiently strong to use bremsstahlung imaging to retrospectively quantify the lung-to-liver shunting as indicated using Tc 9 9 M AA. Further studies are underway to assess the reliability of Tc 9 9 m MAA lung uptake calculations in determining the dose of Y 9 0 Sir-Spheres.