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Sample records for lung fluid resolution

  1. K+ channel openers restore verapamil-inhibited lung fluid resolution and transepithelial ion transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Lung epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) are regulated by cell Ca2+ signal, which may contribute to calcium antagonist-induced noncardiogenic lung edema. Although K+ channel modulators regulate ENaC activity in normal lungs, the therapeutical relevance and the underlying mechanisms have not been completely explored. We hypothesized that K+ channel openers may restore calcium channel blocker-inhibited alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) by up-regulating both apical and basolateral ion transport. Methods Verapamil-induced depression of heterologously expressed human αβγ ENaC in Xenopus oocytes, apical and basolateral ion transport in monolayers of human lung epithelial cells (H441), and in vivo alveolar fluid clearance were measured, respectively, using the two-electrode voltage clamp, Ussing chamber, and BSA protein assays. Ca2+ signal in H441 cells was analyzed using Fluo 4AM. Results The rate of in vivo AFC was reduced significantly (40.6 ± 6.3% of control, P minoxidil) channel openers significantly recovered AFC. In addition to short-circuit current (Isc) in intact H441 monolayers, both apical and basolateral Isc levels were reduced by verapamil in permeabilized monolayers. Moreover, verapamil significantly altered Ca2+ signal evoked by ionomycin in H441 cells. Depletion of cytosolic Ca2+ in αβγ ENaC-expressing oocytes completely abolished verapamil-induced inhibition. Intriguingly, KV (pyrithione-Na), K Ca3.1 (1-EBIO), and KATP (minoxidil) channel openers almost completely restored the verapamil-induced decrease in Isc levels by diversely up-regulating apical and basolateral Na+ and K+ transport pathways. Conclusions Our observations demonstrate that K+ channel openers are capable of rescuing reduced vectorial Na+ transport across lung epithelial cells with impaired Ca2+ signal. PMID:20507598

  2. K+ channel openers restore verapamil-inhibited lung fluid resolution and transepithelial ion transport

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    Su Xue-Feng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC are regulated by cell Ca2+ signal, which may contribute to calcium antagonist-induced noncardiogenic lung edema. Although K+ channel modulators regulate ENaC activity in normal lungs, the therapeutical relevance and the underlying mechanisms have not been completely explored. We hypothesized that K+ channel openers may restore calcium channel blocker-inhibited alveolar fluid clearance (AFC by up-regulating both apical and basolateral ion transport. Methods Verapamil-induced depression of heterologously expressed human αβγ ENaC in Xenopus oocytes, apical and basolateral ion transport in monolayers of human lung epithelial cells (H441, and in vivo alveolar fluid clearance were measured, respectively, using the two-electrode voltage clamp, Ussing chamber, and BSA protein assays. Ca2+ signal in H441 cells was analyzed using Fluo 4AM. Results The rate of in vivo AFC was reduced significantly (40.6 ± 6.3% of control, P Ca3.1 (1-EBIO and KATP (minoxidil channel openers significantly recovered AFC. In addition to short-circuit current (Isc in intact H441 monolayers, both apical and basolateral Isc levels were reduced by verapamil in permeabilized monolayers. Moreover, verapamil significantly altered Ca2+ signal evoked by ionomycin in H441 cells. Depletion of cytosolic Ca2+ in αβγ ENaC-expressing oocytes completely abolished verapamil-induced inhibition. Intriguingly, KV (pyrithione-Na, K Ca3.1 (1-EBIO, and KATP (minoxidil channel openers almost completely restored the verapamil-induced decrease in Isc levels by diversely up-regulating apical and basolateral Na+ and K+ transport pathways. Conclusions Our observations demonstrate that K+ channel openers are capable of rescuing reduced vectorial Na+ transport across lung epithelial cells with impaired Ca2+ signal.

  3. TGF-β1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in diffuse parenchymal lung diseases and high-resolution computed tomography score

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    Artur Szlubowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the pathogenesis of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs, growth factors, including transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1, are responsible for cell proliferation, apoptosis, chemotaxis, and angiogenesis, and also for the production and secretion of some components of the extracellular matrix. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate correlations in DPLDs between TGF-β1 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT score. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was performed in 31 DPLD patients in whom a selection of lung segments with high and low intensity of abnormalities was estimated by HRCT score. All patients underwent BAL with TGF-β1 measured by an enzyme immunoassay in BAL fluid and video-assisted thoracic surgery lung biopsy from both selected segments. RESULTS: All 31 patients were diagnosed, and based on histopathology, they were classified into 2 groups: idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (usual interstitial pneumonia – 12, nonspecific interstitialpneumonia – 2, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia – 2, and desquamative interstitial pneumonia – 1 and granulomatous disease (sarcoidosis – 7, extrinsic allergic alveolitis – 5, and histiocytosis X – 2. The final analysis was performed in 28 patients who showed nonhomogenous distribution on HRCT. TGF-β1 levels in BAL fluid were significantly higher in the areas with high intensity of abnormalities assessed by HRCT score (P = 0.018, analysis of variance. These levels were not different between the groups, but a trend towards higher levels in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm that TGF-β1 may be a good but not specific marker of fibrosis in DPLDs. A significant positive correlation between TGF-β1 levels in BAL fluid and the HRCT score was observed.

  4. High resolution lung airway cast segmentation with proper topology suitable for computational fluid dynamic simulations.

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    Carson, James P; Einstein, Daniel R; Minard, Kevin R; Fanucchi, Michelle V; Wallis, Christopher D; Corley, Richard A

    2010-10-01

    Developing detailed lung airway models is an important step towards understanding the respiratory system. While modern imaging and airway casting approaches have dramatically improved the potential detail of such models, challenges have arisen in image processing as the demand for greater detail pushes the image processing approaches to their limits. Airway segmentations with proper topology have neither loops nor invalid voxel-to-voxel connections. Here we describe a new technique for segmenting airways with proper topology and apply the approach to an image volume generated by magnetic resonance imaging of a silicone cast created from an excised monkey lung.

  5. Lung fluid during postnatal transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sture Andersson; Olli Pitk(a)nen; Cecilia Janér; Otto Helve

    2010-01-01

    @@ Successful postnatal pulmonary adaptation is dependent on cessation of fetal fluid secretion into the luminal space of the lung and a switch to fluid absorption during the perinatal period. Most infants undergo this transformation rapidly, but some encounter difficulties.Failure in adaptation may result, in preterm infants, in respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and, in near-term and term infants, in transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN). In both entities, among other causes, lung liquid clearance, i.e. the inability to clear the lung of perinatal fluid, may be ineffective.1-4 In addition, there are data connecting bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) to decreased ion transport.5-7 However, only limited data are available on the association of lung fluid transport and neonatal respiratory distress in human infants.

  6. Ketamine Inhibits Lung Fluid Clearance through Reducing Alveolar Sodium Transport

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    Yong Cui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine is a broadly used anaesthetic for analgosedation. Accumulating clinical evidence shows that ketamine causes pulmonary edema with unknown mechanisms. We measured the effects of ketamine on alveolar fluid clearance in human lung lobes ex vivo. Our results showed that intratracheal instillation of ketamine markedly decreased the reabsorption of 5% bovine serum albumin instillate. In the presence of amiloride (a specific ENaC blocker, fluid resolution was not further decreased, suggesting that ketamine could decrease amiloride-sensitive fraction of AFC associated with ENaC. Moreover, we measured the regulation of amiloride-sensitive currents by ketamine in A549 cells using whole-cell patch clamp mode. Our results suggested that ketamine decreased amiloride-sensitive Na+ currents (ENaC activity in a dose-dependent fashion. These data demonstrate that reduction in lung ENaC activity and lung fluid clearance following administration of ketamine may be the crucial step of the pathogenesis of resultant pulmonary edema.

  7. Montmorillonite Dissolution in Simulated Lung Fluids

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    Schmidt, M.; Wendlandt, R. F.

    2008-12-01

    Because lung fluids" first interaction is with the surface of inhaled grains, the surface properties of inhaled mineral dusts may have a generally mitigating effect on cytotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Wendlandt et al. (Appl. Geochem. 22, 2007) investigated the surface properties of respirable-sized quartz grains in bentonites and recognized pervasive montmorillonite surface coatings on silica grains. The purpose of this study was to determine the dissolution rate and biodurability of montmorillonite in simulated lung fluids and to assess its potential to mitigate silica cytotoxicity. Modified batch reaction experiments were conducted on purified and size fractionated calcic (SAz-2; 0.4-5 μm) and sodic (DC-2; 0.4-2 μm) montmorillonites for 120 to 160 days of reaction time at 37°C in both simulated extracellular lung fluid (Lu) and simulated lysosomal fluid (Ly). Modified batch experiments simulated a flow-through setup and minimized sample handling difficulties. Reacted Lu and Ly fluid was analyzed for Mg, Al, and Si on an ICP-OE spectrometer. Steady state dissolution was reached 90-100 days after the start of the experiment and maintained for 40-60 days. Measured montmorillonite dissolution rates based on BET surface areas and Si steady state release range from 4.1x10-15 mol/m2/s at the slowest to 1.0x10-14 mol/m2/s at the fastest with relative uncertainties of less than 10%. Samples reacting in Ly (pH = 4.55) dissolved faster than those in Lu (pH = 7.40), and DC-2 dissolved faster than SAz-2. The measured range of biodurabilities was 1,300 to 3,400 years for a 1 μm grain assuming a spherical volume and a molar volume equal to that of illite. The difference in salinities of the two fluids was too slight to draw conclusions about the relationship of ionic strength to dissolution rate. Results indicate that montmorillonite dissolution is incongruent and edge controlled. Dissolution rates for DC- 2 and SAz-2 clays were comparable to those reported in the

  8. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of airflow inside lungs using heterogenous anisotropic lung tissue elastic properties.

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    Ilegbusi, Olusegun; Li, Ziang; Min, Yugang; Meeks, Sanford; Kupelian, Patrick; Santhanam, Anand P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to model the airflow inside lungs during breathing and its fluid-structure interaction with the lung tissues and the lung tumor using subject-specific elastic properties. The fluid-structure interaction technique simultaneously simulates flow within the airway and anisotropic deformation of the lung lobes. The three-dimensional (3D) lung geometry is reconstructed from the end-expiration 3D CT scan datasets of humans with lung cancer. The lung is modeled as a poro-elastic medium with anisotropic elastic property (non-linear Young's modulus) obtained from inverse lung elastography of 4D CT scans for the same patients. The predicted results include the 3D anisotropic lung deformation along with the airflow pattern inside the lungs. The effect is also presented of anisotropic elasticity on both the spatio-temporal volumetric lung displacement and the regional lung hysteresis.

  9. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and progression of scleroderma interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Maria; Bosello, Silvia Laura; Peluso, Giusy; Pinnelli, Michela; Alivernini, Stefano; Zizzo, Gaetano; Bocci, Mario; Capacci, Annunziata; La Torre, Giuseppe; Mannocci, Alice; Pagliari, Gabriella; Varone, Francesco; Pistelli, Roberto; Danza, Francesco Maria; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    So far no clinical or experimental evidences clearly explain how and which systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients will experience a functional and radiological progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD). The aim of the study was to investigate whether any bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) characteristic, compared with clinical, functional and radiological parameters, is associated with the risk of progression of ILD and worse survival in SSc patients. Lung involvement was evaluated in 110 consecutively examined SSc patients with pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT); 73 patients with evidence of ILD on HRCT underwent BAL. The progression of ILD was evaluated with PFTs and HRCT after 1-year follow-up. A 36-month survival analysis was assessed. ILD patients with alveolitis had a higher risk to have restrictive lung disease and honeycombing, to experience a worsening in honeycombing score or to develop honeycombing. ILD progression was associated with the evidence of honeycombing on HRCT, with the presence of eosinophils, with an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio and with a higher CD19 percentage count in the BALF or with a positive BALF microbiological culture. The patients with ILD had a worse overall survival. The diffuse disease was the only independent risk factor of overall mortality, and the extent of honeycombing on HRCT was the only independent risk factor of lung disease-related mortality. Our study suggests the importance of evaluating ILD with HRCT and BAL in order to characterize the risk factors of SSc lung involvement progression. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Validation of remote dielectric sensing (ReDS™) technology for quantification of lung fluid status: Comparison to high resolution chest computed tomography in patients with and without acute heart failure.

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    Amir, Offer; Azzam, Zaher S; Gaspar, Tamar; Faranesh-Abboud, Suzan; Andria, Nizar; Burkhoff, Daniel; Abbo, Aharon; Abraham, William T

    2016-10-15

    Pulmonary congestion is a common presentation of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). The ability to quantify increased pulmonary parenchymal water content in chest computed tomography (CCT) is well known. However, availability and radiation limitations make it unsuitable for serial assessment of lung fluid content. The ReDS™ technology allows quantification of lung fluid content. The objective of this work was to validate the ability of the ReDS™ technology to quantify total lung fluid when compared with CCT in ADHF and non-ADHF patients. Following CCT, ReDS measurements were obtained from consented subjects. ReDS measurements were then compared to the CCT using lung density analysis software. CCT results were converted from Hounsfield Units to percentage units, allowing comparison with the ReDS readings. The analyses, performed on 16 ADHF and 15 non-ADHF patients, were conducted by an independent observer blinded to ReDS outcomes. The fluid content averages and standard deviations for the non-ADHF group were 28.7±5.9% and 27.3±6.6% and for the ADHF patients 40.7±8.8% and 39.8±6.8% (CCT and ReDS respectively). Intraclass correlation was found to be 0.90, 95% CI [0.8-0.95]. Regression analysis yielded a slope of 0.94 (95% confidence interval [0.77-1.12]) and intercept 3.10 (95% confidence interval of [-3.02-9.21]). The absolute mean difference between the quantification of the two methods was 3.75 [%] with SD of 2.22 [%]. Current findings show high correlation between the ReDS noninvasive system and CCT in both ADHF and non-ADHF patients. Remote patient monitoring using ReDS™ based system may help in the management of patients with heart failure. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Automated lung segmentation of low resolution CT scans of rats

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    Rizzo, Benjamin M.; Haworth, Steven T.; Clough, Anne V.

    2014-03-01

    Dual modality micro-CT and SPECT imaging can play an important role in preclinical studies designed to investigate mechanisms, progression, and therapies for acute lung injury in rats. SPECT imaging involves examining the uptake of radiopharmaceuticals within the lung, with the hypothesis that uptake is sensitive to the health or disease status of the lung tissue. Methods of quantifying lung uptake and comparison of right and left lung uptake generally begin with identifying and segmenting the lung region within the 3D reconstructed SPECT volume. However, identification of the lung boundaries and the fissure between the left and right lung is not always possible from the SPECT images directly since the radiopharmaceutical may be taken up by other surrounding tissues. Thus, our SPECT protocol begins with a fast CT scan, the lung boundaries are identified from the CT volume, and the CT region is coregistered with the SPECT volume to obtain the SPECT lung region. Segmenting rat lungs within the CT volume is particularly challenging due to the relatively low resolution of the images and the rat's unique anatomy. Thus, we have developed an automated segmentation algorithm for low resolution micro-CT scans that utilizes depth maps to detect fissures on the surface of the lung volume. The fissure's surface location is in turn used to interpolate the fissure throughout the lung volume. Results indicate that the segmentation method results in left and right lung regions consistent with rat lung anatomy.

  12. Lung fluid clearance in chronic heart failure patients.

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    Dixon, Dani-Louise; De Pasquale, Carmine G; Lawrence, Mark D; Cavallaro, Elena; Rubino, Vito; Bersten, Andrew D

    2017-10-01

    Chronic elevation of pulmonary microvascular pressure (Pmv) consistently leads to alveolocapillary barrier thickening and reduction in the filtration coefficient. In animal models of chronic heart failure (CHF) the lung remains dry despite hydrostatic forces. As fluid flux is bi-directional, it has been postulated that an increase in alveolar fluid clearance may facilitate the dry lung when Pmv is chronically elevated. In this study we aimed to examine alveolar fluid clearance in ambulatory patients with CHF secondary to left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction compared against non-CHF controls. Lung clearance following aerosol delivery of (99m)technetium (Tc)-diethyl triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was measured non-invasively by scintigraphy and half time of (99m)Tc-DTPA clearance (T (1/2)) was calculated by mono-exponential curve fit. Alveolar fluid clearance measured as half time DTPA clearance was significantly faster in CHF patients than controls (P=0.001). This was further defined by NYHA classification. No correlation was found between DTPA clearance and plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine or aldosterone hormone (P>0.05). Our results support an association between increasing alveolar fluid clearance and disease severity in CHF, and the concept of controlled bi-directional fluid flux in CHF associated with increasing Pmv, and represents another defence mechanism of the lung against pulmonary oedema. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dissolution of beryllium in artificial lung alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A

    2011-05-01

    Dissolution of a lung burden of poorly soluble beryllium particles is hypothesized to be necessary for development of chronic beryllium lung disease (CBD) in humans. As such, particle dissolution rate must be sufficient to activate the lung immune response and dissolution lifetime sufficient to maintain chronic inflammation for months to years to support development of disease. The purpose of this research was to investigate the hypothesis that poorly soluble beryllium compounds release ions via dissolution in lung fluid. Dissolution kinetics of 17 poorly soluble particulate beryllium materials that span extraction through ceramics machining (ores, hydroxide, metal, copper-beryllium [CuBe] fume, oxides) and three CuBe alloy reference materials (chips, solid block) were measured over 31 d using artificial lung alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid (pH 4.5). Differences in beryllium-containing particle physicochemical properties translated into differences in dissolution rates and lifetimes in artificial phagolysosomal fluid. Among all materials, dissolution rate constant values ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-10)gcm(-2)d(-1) and half-times ranged from tens to thousands of days. The presence of magnesium trisilicate in some beryllium oxide materials may have slowed dissolution rates. Materials associated with elevated prevalence of CBD had faster beryllium dissolution rates [10(-7)-10(-8)gcm(-2)d(-1)] than materials not associated with elevated prevalence (p<0.05).

  14. Lung density on high resolution computer tomography (HRCT) reflects degree of inflammation in smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Smokers have increased cell concentration in the lower respiratory tract indicating a chronic inflammatory state, which in some individuals may lead to development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Computer tomography (CT) imaging provides means of quantifying pulmonary structure and early signs of disease. We investigated whether lung density on high resolution CT differs between smokers and never-smokers and if this were associated to intensity of inflammation. Methods Forty smoking volunteers with normal pulmonary function, 40 healthy never-smokers and 40 patients with COPD of GOLD stage I-II, were included. Mean lung attenuation and percentage of pixels in the lung with attenuation between −750 and −900 HU (percentage higher density spectrum (%HDS)) were calculated on inspiratory CT-scans. Markers of systemic inflammation in blood and cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were recorded. Results Lung density expressed as %HDS was increased in smokers (44.0 ± 5.8%) compared to both never-smokers (38.3 ± 5.8%) and patients with COPD (39.1 ± 5.8%), (p lungs than males, which was dependent on body height. Cell concentration in BAL were correlated to lung density in smokers (r = 0.50, p Lung density on CT is associated with cell concentration in BAL in smokers and may mirror an inflammatory response in the lung. Gender difference in lung density is dependent on height. In COPD with emphysema, loss of lung tissue may counterbalance the expected increase in density due to inflammation. The findings may help to interpret high resolution CT in the context of smoking and gender and highlight the heterogeneity of structural changes in COPD. PMID:24564813

  15. Perivascular fluid cuffs decrease lung compliance by increasing tissue resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Kevin; Alvarez, Diego F.; King, Judy A.; Stevens, Troy

    2010-01-01

    Objective Lung inflammation causes perivascular fluid cuffs to form around extra-alveolar blood vessels; however, the physiologic consequences of such cuffs remain poorly understood. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that perivascular fluid cuffs, without concomitant alveolar edema, are sufficient to decrease lung compliance. Design Prospective, randomized, controlled study. Setting Research laboratory. Subjects One hundred twenty male CD40 rats. Interventions To test this hypothesis, the plant alkaloid thapsigargin was used to activate store-operated calcium entry and increase cytosolic calcium in endothelium. Thapsigargin was infused into a central venous catheter of intact, sedated, and mechanically ventilated rats. Measurements Static and dynamic lung mechanics and hemodynamics were measured continuously. Main Results Thapsigargin produced perivascular fluid cuffs along extra-alveolar vessels but did not cause alveolar flooding or blood gas abnormalities. Lung compliance dose-dependently decreased after thapsigargin infusion, attributable to an increase in tissue resistance that was attributed to increased tissue damping and tissue elastance. Airway resistance was not changed. Neither central venous pressure nor left ventricular end diastolic pressure was altered by thapsigargin. Heart rate did not change, although thapsigargin decreased pressure over time sufficient to reduce cardiac output by 50%. Infusion of the type 4 phosphodiesterase inhibitor, rolipram, prevented thapsigargin from inducing perivascular cuffs and decreasing lung compliance. Rolipram also normalized pressure over time and corrected the deficit in cardiac output. Conclusions Our findings resolve for the first time that perivascular cuff formation negatively impacts mechanical coupling between the bronchovascular bundle and the lung parenchyma, decreasing lung compliance without impacting central venous pressure. PMID:20400904

  16. Expiratory high-resolution CT in diffuse lung disease

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    Arakawa, Hiroaki [St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    Expiratory high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is a powerful adjunct to inspiratory HRCT in the diagnosis of diffuse lung disease (DLD), revealing air-trapping even when the inspiratory scan is normal. Expiratory scans are also useful in the differentiation of inhomogeneous lung opacity, which is not uncommon in various types of DLD. The history and technique of expiratory HRCT are described as well as the basic understanding of lung attenuation and the diagnostic value of expiratory scans DLD. The clinical significance of the presence of expiratory air-trapping in the absence of inspiratory scan abnormality is also presented. (author)

  17. Respiratory mechanics and fluid dynamics after lung resection surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miserocchi, Giuseppe; Beretta, Egidio; Rivolta, Ilaria

    2010-08-01

    Thoracic surgery that requires resection of a portion of lung or of a whole lung profoundly alters the mechanical and fluid dynamic setting of the lung-chest wall coupling, as well as the water balance in the pleural space and in the remaining lung. The most frequent postoperative complications are of a respiratory nature, and their incidence increases the more the preoperative respiratory condition seems compromised. There is an obvious need to identify risk factors concerning mainly the respiratory function, without neglecting the importance of other comorbidities, such as coronary disease. At present, however, a satisfactory predictor of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications is lacking; postoperative morbidity and mortality have remained unchanged in the last 10 years. The aim of this review is to provide a pathophysiologic interpretation of the main respiratory complications of a respiratory nature by relying on new concepts relating to lung fluid dynamics and mechanics. New parameters are proposed to improve evaluation of respiratory function from pre- to the early postoperative period when most of the complications occur.

  18. Correlation of apical fluid-regulating channel proteins with lung function in human COPD lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runzhen Zhao

    Full Text Available Links between epithelial ion channels and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD are emerging through animal model and in vitro studies. However, clinical correlations between fluid-regulating channel proteins and lung function in COPD remain to be elucidated. To quantitatively measure epithelial sodium channels (ENaC, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, and aquaporin 5 (AQP5 proteins in human COPD lungs and to analyze the correlation with declining lung function, quantitative western blots were used. Spearman tests were performed to identify correlations between channel proteins and lung function. The expression of α and β ENaC subunits was augmented and inversely associated with lung function. In contrast, both total and alveolar type I (ATI and II (ATII-specific CFTR proteins were reduced. The expression level of CFTR proteins was associated with FEV1 positively. Abundance of AQP5 proteins and extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3 was decreased and correlated with spirometry test results and gas exchange positively. Furthermore, these channel proteins were significantly associated with severity of disease. Our study demonstrates that expression of ENaC, AQP5, and CFTR proteins in human COPD lungs is quantitatively associated with lung function and severity of COPD. These apically located fluid-regulating channels may thereby serve as biomarkers and potent druggable targets of COPD.

  19. Increased Interleukin-8 in Epithelial Lining Fluid of Collapsed Lungs During One-Lung Ventilation for Thoracotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Komatsu, Yoshimichi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Tsushima, Kenji; Furuya, Shino; Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Yasuo, Masanori; Kubo, Keishi; Yamazaki, Yoshitaka; Hasegawa, Joh; Eguchi, Takashi; Kondo, Ryuichi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Koizumi, Tomonobu

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate inflammatory changes in collapsed lungs during one-lung ventilation using the assistance of a bronchoscopic microsampling probe. Serial albumin and interleukin (IL)-8 concentrations in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) were measured in seven patients undergoing resection of lung tumors. The samples were taken after induction of anesthesia (baseline), 30 min after one-lung ventilation was started (point 2), just before resuming two-lung ventilation (point...

  20. Relative resolution: A hybrid formalism for fluid mixtures

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    Chaimovich, Aviel; Peter, Christine; Kremer, Kurt

    2015-12-01

    We show here that molecular resolution is inherently hybrid in terms of relative separation. While nearest neighbors are characterized by a fine-grained (geometrically detailed) model, other neighbors are characterized by a coarse-grained (isotropically simplified) model. We notably present an analytical expression for relating the two models via energy conservation. This hybrid framework is correspondingly capable of retrieving the structural and thermal behavior of various multi-component and multi-phase fluids across state space.

  1. Lessons from the biophysics of interfaces: Lung surfactant and tear fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantamaki, A.; Telenius, J.; Koivuniemi, A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide insight into the biophysical properties and functions of tear fluid and lung surfactant - two similar fluids covering the epithelium of two distinctive organs. Both fluids form a layer-like structure that essentially comprise of an aqueous layer next to th...

  2. CYTOLOGY OF BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID IN THE INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASES

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    Izidor Kern

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. By the bronchoscopic lavaging we obtain cytological specimen of the peripheral airways and lung parenchyma. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF examination gives us information about inflammation in the interstitial lung diseases. BALF sampling and its laboratory processing are standardized in our hospital. Quality assurance practice requires that each institution establish disease characteristic BALF profiles. The aim of this study was to find common cytological characteristics of BALF specimens in sarcoidosis, extrinsic allergic bronchoalveolitis (EABA, asbestosis and idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP.Material and methods. We included 135 BALF specimens of good quality from patients with one of the mentioned entities that were diagnosed clinically, radiographically and pathologically. Based on diferential cell counts and lymphocytic phenotypisation done by immunofluorescence, BALF specimens were categorized as normal type, lymphocytic, neutrophilic, eosinophilic, macrophagic and mixed cell alveolitis. Statistical comparison was performed by the analysis of variance which was done by SAS software.Results. BALF in sarcoidosis shown in 71% lymphocytic or mixed cell (lymphocytic and neutrophilic or eosinophilic type alveolitis with increased CD4/CD8 ratio (> 3.5 in 61.4% specimens. EABA patients had lymphocytic or mixed cell (lymphocytic and neutrophilic or eosinophilic type alveolitis in 53.3% of BALF specimens with decreased CD4/CD8 ratio (< 1 in 38.5% of specimens. Macrophagic alveolitis was the most common type found in asbestosis (52.9%. CD4/CD8 ratio was usually decreased or normal. Patients with IIP had all types of alveolitis and none of them prevailed, but neutrophils were increased often (53.3%. CD4/CD8 ratio was decreased in 65.5% of BALF specimens in IIP.Conclusions. Sarcoidosis has the most characteristic BALF profile (CD4 lymphocytic alveolitis. We often see macrophagic alveolitis in asbestosis. BALF specimens in

  3. Dispersion stabilization of silver nanoparticles in synthetic lung fluid studied under in situ conditions

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    MacCuspie, R.I.; Allen, A.J.; Hackley, V.A. (NIST)

    2014-09-24

    The dispersion stabilization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in synthetic lung fluid was studied to interrogate the effects on colloidal stability due to the principal constituents of the fluid. The colloidal stability of 20 nm citrate-AgNPs dispersed in the presence of each constituent of the synthetic lung fluid (individually, the complete fluid, and without additives) was observed during titration of increasing sodium chloride concentration. A variety of complementary in situ measurement techniques were utilized, including dynamic light scattering, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering, which provided a collective set of information that enabled far better understanding of the dispersion behavior in the fluid than any one technique alone. It was observed that AgNPs continued to adsorb bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein from the synthetic lung fluid solution as the sodium chloride concentration increased, until a maximum BSA coating was achieved prior to reaching the physiological sodium chloride concentration of 154 mmol L{sup -1}. BSA was determined to be the constituent of the synthetic lung fluid that is required to provide colloidal stability at high salt loadings, though the phospholipid constituent exerts a subtle effect. Additionally, as AgNPs are a distinctly different class of nanoparticles apart from the carbon nanotubes and titanium dioxide nanoparticles initially reported to be dispersible using this fluid, this work also demonstrates the broad applicability of synthetic lung fluid in providing stable dispersions for engineered nanoparticles for use in biological assays.

  4. Chloride transport-driven alveolar fluid secretion is a major contributor to cardiogenic lung edema.

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    Solymosi, Esther A; Kaestle-Gembardt, Stefanie M; Vadász, István; Wang, Liming; Neye, Nils; Chupin, Cécile Julie Adrienne; Rozowsky, Simon; Ruehl, Ramona; Tabuchi, Arata; Schulz, Holger; Kapus, Andras; Morty, Rory E; Kuebler, Wolfgang M

    2013-06-18

    Alveolar fluid clearance driven by active epithelial Na(+) and secondary Cl(-) absorption counteracts edema formation in the intact lung. Recently, we showed that impairment of alveolar fluid clearance because of inhibition of epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaCs) promotes cardiogenic lung edema. Concomitantly, we observed a reversal of alveolar fluid clearance, suggesting that reversed transepithelial ion transport may promote lung edema by driving active alveolar fluid secretion. We, therefore, hypothesized that alveolar ion and fluid secretion may constitute a pathomechanism in lung edema and aimed to identify underlying molecular pathways. In isolated perfused lungs, alveolar fluid clearance and secretion were determined by a double-indicator dilution technique. Transepithelial Cl(-) secretion and alveolar Cl(-) influx were quantified by radionuclide tracing and alveolar Cl(-) imaging, respectively. Elevated hydrostatic pressure induced ouabain-sensitive alveolar fluid secretion that coincided with transepithelial Cl(-) secretion and alveolar Cl(-) influx. Inhibition of either cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) or Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporters (NKCC) blocked alveolar fluid secretion, and lungs of CFTR(-/-) mice were protected from hydrostatic edema. Inhibition of ENaC by amiloride reproduced alveolar fluid and Cl(-) secretion that were again CFTR-, NKCC-, and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-dependent. Our findings show a reversal of transepithelial Cl(-) and fluid flux from absorptive to secretory mode at hydrostatic stress. Alveolar Cl(-) and fluid secretion are triggered by ENaC inhibition and mediated by NKCC and CFTR. Our results characterize an innovative mechanism of cardiogenic edema formation and identify NKCC1 as a unique therapeutic target in cardiogenic lung edema.

  5. Effect of lung resection on pleuro-pulmonary mechanics and fluid balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salito, C; Bovio, D; Orsetti, G; Salati, M; Brunelli, A; Aliverti, A; Miserocchi, G

    2016-01-15

    The aim of the study was to determine in human patients the effect of lung resection on lung compliance and on pleuro-pulmonary fluid balance. Pre and post-operative values of compliance were measured in anesthetized patients undergoing resection for lung cancer (N=11) through double-lumen bronchial intubation. Lung compliance was measured for 10-12 cm H2O increase in alveolar pressure from 5 cm H2O PEEP in control and repeated after resection. No air leak was assessed and pleural fluid was collected during hospital stay. A significant negative correlation (r(2)=0.68) was found between compliance at 10 min and resected mass. Based on the pre-operative estimated lung weight, the decrease in compliance following lung resection exceeded by 10-15% that expected from resected mass. Significant negative relationships were found by relating pleural fluid drainage flow to the remaining lung mass and to post-operative lung compliance. Following lung re-expansion, data suggest a causative relationship between the decrease in compliance and the perturbation in pleuro-pulmonary fluid balance.

  6. Increased interleukin-8 in epithelial lining fluid of collapsed lungs during one-lung ventilation for thoracotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Yoshimichi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Tsushima, Kenji; Furuya, Shino; Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Yasuo, Masanori; Kubo, Keishi; Yamazaki, Yoshitaka; Hasegawa, Joh; Eguchi, Takashi; Kondo, Ryuichi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Koizumi, Tomonobu

    2012-12-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate inflammatory changes in collapsed lungs during one-lung ventilation using the assistance of a bronchoscopic microsampling probe. Serial albumin and interleukin (IL)-8 concentrations in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) were measured in seven patients undergoing resection of lung tumors. The samples were taken after induction of anesthesia (baseline), 30 min after one-lung ventilation was started (point 2), just before resuming two-lung ventilation (point 3), and 30 min after two-lung ventilation was restarted (point 4). The albumin and IL-8 concentrations in ELF were significantly increased at point 2 and point 3, respectively, and remained to be high, compared to the baseline. The increase in IL-8 at point 3 was correlated with the interval of one-lung ventilation; however, none developed specific acute lung injury. These findings suggest that inflammatory changes can occur on the epithelium of a collapsed lung even in patients who underwent successful and standard thoracic surgery.

  7. Preemptive hemodynamic intervention restricting the administration of fluids attenuates lung edema progression in oleic acid-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Cano, A; Gracia Romero, M; Monge García, M I; Guijo González, P; Ruiz Campos, J

    2017-04-01

    A study is made of the influence of preemptive hemodynamic intervention restricting fluid administration upon the development of oleic acid-induced lung injury. A randomized in vivo study in rabbits was carried out. University research laboratory. Sixteen anesthetized, mechanically ventilated rabbits. Hemodynamic measurements obtained by transesophageal Doppler signal. Respiratory mechanics computed by a least square fitting method. Lung edema assessed by the ratio of wet weight to dry weight of the right lung. Histological examination of the left lung. Animals were randomly assigned to either the early protective lung strategy (EPLS) (n=8) or the early protective hemodynamic strategy (EPHS) (n=8). In both groups, lung injury was induced by the intravenous infusion of oleic acid (OA) (0.133mlkg(-1)h(-1) for 2h). At the same time, the EPLS group received 15mlkg(-1)h(-1) of Ringer lactate solution, while the EPHS group received 30mlkg(-1)h(-1). Measurements were obtained at baseline and 1 and 2h after starting OA infusion. After 2h, the cardiac index decreased in the EPLS group (p<0.05), whereas in the EPHS group it remained unchanged. Lung compliance decreased significantly only in the EPHS group (p<0.05). Lung edema was greater in the EPHS group (p<0.05). Histological damage proved similar in both groups (p=0.4). In this experimental model of early lung injury, lung edema progression was attenuated by preemptively restricting the administration of fluids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatial and temporal resolution of fluid flows: LDRD final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tieszen, S.R.; O`Hern, T.J.; Schefer, R.W.; Perea, L.D.

    1998-02-01

    This report describes a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) activity to develop a diagnostic technique for simultaneous temporal and spatial resolution of fluid flows. The goal is to obtain two orders of magnitude resolution in two spatial dimensions and time simultaneously. The approach used in this study is to scale up Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) to acquire meter-size images at up to 200 frames/sec. Experiments were conducted in buoyant, fully turbulent, non-reacting and reacting plumes with a base diameter of one meter. The PIV results were successful in the ambient gas for all flows, and in the plume for non-reacting helium and reacting methane, but not reacting hydrogen. No PIV was obtained in the hot combustion product region as the seed particles chosen vaporized. Weak signals prevented PLIF in the helium. However, in reacting methane flows, PLIF images speculated to be from Poly-Aromatic-Hydrocarbons were obtained which mark the flame sheets. The results were unexpected and very insightful. A natural fluorescence from the seed particle vapor was also noted in the hydrogen tests.

  9. Lung findings on high resolution CT in early ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiris, Adem E-mail: ademkiris@hotmail.com; Ozgocmen, Salih; Kocakoc, Ercan; Ardicoglu, Ozge; Ogur, Erkin

    2003-07-01

    Objective: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease mainly affecting the axial skeleton and pulmonary involvement is a well known feature of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the pulmonary high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of patients with early AS. The relationship between pulmonary function tests (PFT) and HRCT findings was also determined. Subjects and methods: Twenty-eight patients with AS (mean age 30.8{+-}7.4 and disease duration 7.0{+-}2.6) were included in the study. Patients with a disease duration of >10 years or had other pulmonary diseases were excluded. All patients underwent plain chest radiography (posteroanterior and lateral views), thoracic HRCT and PFT. Results: All chest radiographs were normal and HRCT revealed abnormalities in 18 patients. The most common abnormalities seen on HRCT were mosaic pattern (ten of 28), subpleural nodule (seven of 28) and parenchymal bands (five of 28). Seven of ten patients with mosaic pattern revealed air trapping areas on end expiratory scans. Twelve patients had abnormal PFT and all had restrictive type of involvement. Ten of these 12 patients had abnormal HRCT and the remaining two patients had normal HRCT. On the other hand, eight patients with normal PFT had abnormalities on HRCT. Conclusion: Patients with early AS frequently have abnormalities on HRCT, even though they have normal PFT and chest X-ray. Small airway involvement was found as frequent as interstitial lung disease in early AS.

  10. Sequential change of high-resolution CT findings of interstitial lung disease in polymyositis and dermatomyositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, Hiroshi; Furuizumi, Naoya; Akita, Shinichi; Oda, Junichi; Sakai, Kunio; Suzuki, Eiichi; Emura, Iwao (Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-01-01

    Sequential changes of interstitial lung disease in fourteen patients of polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) were followed up by high-resolution CT (HRCT). Most frequent CT findings were intense lung attenuation (ILA) with volume loss and slightly increased lung attenuation (SILA). Open lung biopsy was performed in a case with ILA shadow which revealed so-called usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Most intense ILA and SILA shadows resolved after steroid therapy. Some of ILA, however, reappeared and accompanied more prominent volume loss findings than before treatment. We think HRCT findings of interstitial lung disease in PM/DM may indicate prognosis of these diagnoses to some degree. (author).

  11. Smoking Related Interstitial Lung Disease - High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT findings in 40 smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssriah Yahia Sabri

    2014-06-01

    In the appropriate clinical context high-resolution CT plays an integral role in the evaluation of SR-ILD, the presence of typical changes at high-resolution CT renders the diagnosis almost certain and may obviate further testing. Lung biopsy may be needed when the findings at high-resolution CT are relatively nonspecific or when a confident definitive diagnosis is needed.

  12. Acoustic resolution photoacoustic Doppler velocimetry in blood-mimicking fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunker, Joanna; Beard, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Photoacoustic Doppler velocimetry provides a major opportunity to overcome limitations of existing blood flow measuring methods. By enabling measurements with high spatial resolution several millimetres deep in tissue, it could probe microvascular blood flow abnormalities characteristic of many different diseases. Although previous work has demonstrated feasibility in solid phantoms, measurements in blood have proved significantly more challenging. This difficulty is commonly attributed to the requirement that the absorber spatial distribution is heterogeneous relative to the minimum detectable acoustic wavelength. By undertaking a rigorous study using blood-mimicking fluid suspensions of 3 μm absorbing microspheres, it was discovered that the perceived heterogeneity is not only limited by the intrinsic detector bandwidth; in addition, bandlimiting due to spatial averaging within the detector field-of-view also reduces perceived heterogeneity and compromises velocity measurement accuracy. These detrimental effects were found to be mitigated by high-pass filtering to select photoacoustic signal components associated with high heterogeneity. Measurement under-reading due to limited light penetration into the flow vessel was also observed. Accurate average velocity measurements were recovered using “range-gating”, which furthermore maps the cross-sectional velocity profile. These insights may help pave the way to deep-tissue non-invasive mapping of microvascular blood flow using photoacoustic methods.

  13. Clinical value of serum and bronchial aspiration fluid HE-4 levels in patients with lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Jing; Lin Yuan; Yong-Biao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of serum and bronchial aspiration fluid HE-4 levels in patients with lung cancer.Methods:A total of 58 patients with lung cancer and 40 with benign lung disease were enrolled in our study. Compare the serum and bronchial aspiration fluid HE-4 levels between the two group. The specificity and sensitivity of serum and bronchial aspiration fluid HE-4 levels in determine whether lung cancer or not were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve; Spearman was used to evaluate the association of clinical and pathologic features with levels of LYVE-1.Results: Serum HE-4 levels were significantly higher in patients with lung cancer group than in benign lung disease group. No significant difference was observed in terms of BAF HE-4 values in two patient groups. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of serum HE-4 was 0.798 and that of BAF HE-4 was 0.598. A high cancer staging, occurrence of lymph-node metastases, and occurrence of distant metastases patient were associated with high HE-4 levels. No significant difference was observed with sex, tumor location and tumor histology.Conclusion: The increase of level of serum HE-4 is more prominent than the increase of the level of BAF HE-4, and has certain clinical significance for diagnosis of lung cancer and occurrence of metastases.

  14. Determination of the bioaccessible fraction of metals in urban aerosol using simulated lung fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coufalík, Pavel; Mikuška, Pavel; Matoušek, Tomáš; Večeřa, Zbyněk

    2016-09-01

    Determination of the bioaccessible fraction of metals in atmospheric aerosol is a significant issue with respect to air pollution in the urban environment. The aim of this work was to compare of metal bioaccessibility determined according to the extraction yields of six simulated lung fluids. Aerosol samples of the PM1 fraction were collected in Brno, Czech Republic. The total contents of Cd, Ce, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in the samples were determined and their enrichment factors were calculated. The bioaccessible proportions of elements were determined by means of extraction in Gamble's solution, Gamble's solution with dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC), artificial lysosomal fluid, saline, water, and in a newly proposed solution based on DPPC, referred to as "Simulated Alveoli Fluid" (SAF). The chemical composition and surface tension of the simulated lung fluids were the main parameters influencing extraction yields. Gamble's solutions and the newly designed solution of SAF exhibited the lowest extraction efficiency, and also had the lowest surface tensions. The bioaccessibility of particulate metals should be assessed by synthetic lung fluids with a low surface tension, which simulate better the behavior and composition of native lung surfactant. The bioaccessibility of metals in aerosol assessed by means of the extraction in water or artificial lysosomal fluid can be overestimated.

  15. Cytokine levels in pleural fluid as markers of acute rejection after lung transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Cilene León Bueno de Camargo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF, as well as the total and differential cell counts, in the pleural fluid of lung transplant recipients, correlating those levels with the occurrence and severity of rejection. We analyzed pleural fluid samples collected from 18 patients at various time points (up to postoperative day 4. The levels of IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF tended to elevate in parallel with increases in the severity of rejection. Our results suggest that these levels are markers of acute graft rejection in lung transplant recipients.

  16. Cytokine levels in pleural fluid as markers of acute rejection after lung transplantation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Priscila Cilene León Bueno; Afonso, José Eduardo; Samano, Marcos Naoyuki; Acencio, Milena Marques Pagliarelli; Antonangelo, Leila; Teixeira, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF, as well as the total and differential cell counts, in the pleural fluid of lung transplant recipients, correlating those levels with the occurrence and severity of rejection. We analyzed pleural fluid samples collected from 18 patients at various time points (up to postoperative day 4). The levels of IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF tended to elevate in parallel with increases in the severity of rejection. Our results suggest that these levels are markers of acute graft rejection in lung transplant recipients. PMID:25210966

  17. Amniotic fluid stem cells from EGFP transgenic mice attenuate hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Tao Wen

    Full Text Available High concentrations of oxygen aggravate the severity of lung injury in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Although mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to effectively attenuate various injured tissues, there is limited information regarding a role for amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs in treating acute lung injury. We hypothesized that intravenous delivery of AFSCs would attenuate lung injury in an experimental model of hyperoxia-induced lung injury. AFSCs were isolated from EGFP transgenic mice. The in vitro differentiation, surface markers, and migration of the AFSCs were assessed by specific staining, flow cytometry, and a co-culture system, respectively. The in vivo therapeutic potential of AFSCs was evaluated in a model of acute hyperoxia-induced lung injury in mice. The administration of AFSCs significantly reduced the hyperoxia-induced pulmonary inflammation, as reflected by significant reductions in lung wet/dry ratio, neutrophil counts, and the level of apoptosis, as well as reducing the levels of inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and early-stage fibrosis in lung tissues. Moreover, EGFP-expressing AFSCs were detected and engrafted into a peripheral lung epithelial cell lineage by fluorescence microscopy and DAPI stain. Intravenous administration of AFSCs may offer a new therapeutic strategy for acute lung injury (ALI, for which efficient treatments are currently unavailable.

  18. Mechanisms controlling the volume of pleural fluid and extravascular lung water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Miserocchi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pleural and interstitial lung fluid volumes are strictly controlled and maintained at the minimum thanks to the ability of lymphatics to match the increase in filtration rate. In the pleural cavity, fluid accumulation is easily accommodated by retraction of lung and chest wall (high compliance of the pleural space; the increase of lymph flow per unit increase in pleural fluid volume is high due to the great extension of the parietal lymphatic. However, for the lung interstitium, the increase in lymph flow to match increased filtration does not need to be so great. In fact, increased filtration only causes a minor increase in extravascular water volume (<10% due to a marked increase in interstitial pulmonary pressure (low compliance of the extracellular matrix which, in turn, buffers further filtration. Accordingly, a less extended lymphatic network is needed. The efficiency of lymphatic control is achieved through a high lymphatic conductance in the pleural fluid and through a low interstitial compliance for the lung interstitium. Fluid volume in both compartments is so strictly controlled that it is difficult to detect initial deviations from the physiological state; thus, a great physiological advantage turns to be a disadvantage on a clinical basis as it prevents an early diagnosis of developing disease.

  19. Chloride transport-driven alveolar fluid secretion is a major contributor to cardiogenic lung edema

    OpenAIRE

    Solymosi, Esther A.; Kaestle-Gembardt, Stefanie M.; Vadász, István; Wang, Liming; Neye, Nils; Chupin, Cécile Julie Adrienne; Rozowsky, Simon; Ruehl, Ramona; Tabuchi, Arata; Schulz, Holger; Kapus, Andras; Morty, Rory E.; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a novel mechanism for the formation of cardiogenic lung edema, a potentially fatal complication of left heart disease that was previously attributed to passive fluid filtration across an intact alveolo-capillary barrier. Instead, we demonstrate that a major part of cardiogenic edema results from active epithelial secretion of Cl− and secondary fluid flux into the alveolar space. Transepithelial Cl− secretion is triggered by inhibition of epithelial Na+ uptake and mediated...

  20. pattern of interstitial lung disease as seen by high resolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-01

    Sep 1, 2012 ... by dyspnoea (53.5%, n=53) and chest pain [24.8% (n = 25)]. ... Conclusion: The study demonstrated marked lung parenchymal ... lesions and their distribution compared to plain chest radiography. ... dates back to the foundation laid by Itoh et al(2) who ..... plain film radiographs had a pattern identified on.

  1. Inhibiting Glutathione Metabolism in Lung Lining Fluid as a Strategy to Augment Antioxidant Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Brady, Martin; Hiratake, Jun

    2011-07-01

    Glutathione is abundant in the lining fluid that bathes the gas exchange surface of the lung. On the one hand glutathione in this extracellular pool functions in antioxidant defense to protect cells and proteins in the alveolar space from oxidant injury; on the other hand, it functions as a source of cysteine to maintain cellular glutathione and protein synthesis. These seemingly opposing functions are regulated through metabolism by gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, EC 2.3.2.2). Even under normal physiologic conditions, lung lining fluid (LLF) contains a concentrated pool of GGT activity exceeding that of whole lung by about 7-fold and indicating increased turnover of glutathione at the epithelial surface of the lung. With oxidant stress LLF GGT activity is amplified even further as glutathione turnover is accelerated to meet the increased demands of cells for cysteine. Mouse models of GGT deficiency confirmed this biological role of LLF GGT activity and revealed the robust expansiveness and antioxidant capacity of the LLF glutathione pool in the absence of metabolism. Acivicin, an irreversible inhibitor of GGT, can be utilized to augment LLF fluid glutathione content in normal mice and novel GGT inhibitors have now been defined that provide advantages over acivicin. Inhibiting LLF GGT activity is a novel strategy to selectively augment the extracellular LLF glutathione pool. The enhanced antioxidant capacity can maintain lung epithelial cell integrity and barrier function under oxidant stress.

  2. Immunological priming requires regulatory T cells and IL-10-producing macrophages to accelerate resolution from severe lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil R; Tsushima, Kenji; Eto, Yoshiki; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Mandke, Pooja; Mock, Jason R; Garibaldi, Brian T; Singer, Benjamin D; Sidhaye, Venkataramana K; Horton, Maureen R; King, Landon S; D'Alessio, Franco R

    2014-05-01

    Overwhelming lung inflammation frequently occurs following exposure to both direct infectious and noninfectious agents and is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. In that context, immunomodulatory strategies may be used to limit severity of impending organ damage. We sought to determine whether priming the lung by activating the immune system, or immunological priming, could accelerate resolution of severe lung inflammation. We assessed the importance of alveolar macrophages, regulatory T cells, and their potential interaction during immunological priming. We demonstrate that oropharyngeal delivery of low-dose LPS can immunologically prime the lung to augment alveolar macrophage production of IL-10 and enhance resolution of lung inflammation induced by a lethal dose of LPS or by Pseudomonas bacterial pneumonia. IL-10-deficient mice did not achieve priming and were unable to accelerate lung injury resolution. Depletion of lung macrophages or regulatory T cells during the priming response completely abrogated the positive effect of immunological priming on resolution of lung inflammation and significantly reduced alveolar macrophage IL-10 production. Finally, we demonstrated that oropharyngeal delivery of synthetic CpG-oligonucleotides elicited minimal lung inflammation compared with low-dose LPS but nonetheless primed the lung to accelerate resolution of lung injury following subsequent lethal LPS exposure. Immunological priming is a viable immunomodulatory strategy used to enhance resolution in an experimental acute lung injury model with the potential for therapeutic benefit against a wide array of injurious exposures.

  3. Amniotic fluid embolism with involvement of the brain, lungs, adrenal glands, and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazic, J; Rott, T; Jancigaj, T; Popović, M; Zajfert-Slabe, M; Svigelj, V

    2003-06-01

    The case of a healthy 31-year-old woman in the 40th week of second pregnancy is presented. During preparation for an emergency caesarean section, she developed an amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) with unusual and unique features. The acute onset of disease with cardiorespiratory failure with hypotension, tachycardia, cyanosis, respiratory disturbances and loss of consciousness, suggested at first a pulmonary thromboembolism, but the appearance of convulsions led to the diagnosis of AFE. The patient died after 5 days due to an untreatable brain edema. At autopsy, AFE with the usually associated disseminated intravascular coagulation was found in the lungs, brain, left adrenal gland, kidneys, liver and heart. Eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrates were found in the lungs, hepatic portal fields and especially in the heart, suggesting a specific hypersensitivity reaction to fetal antigens. Moreover, intravascular accumulation of macrophages in the lungs also favored a non-specific immune reaction to amniotic fluid constituents.

  4. Effect of β2-adrenergic receptor stimulation on lung fluid in stable heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bryan J; Snyder, Eric M; Richert, Maile L; Wheatley, Courtney M; Chase, Steven C; Olson, Lyle J; Johnson, Bruce D

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) whether stable heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have elevated extravascular lung water (EVLW) when compared with healthy control subjects; and (2) the effect of acute β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonist inhalation on lung fluid balance. Twenty-two stable HFrEF patients and 18 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were studied. Lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DmCO), pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) (via re-breathe) and lung tissue volume (Vtis) (via computed tomography) were assessed before and within 30 minutes after administration of nebulized albuterol. EVLW was derived as Vtis - Vc. Before administration of albuterol, Vtis and EVLW were higher in HFrEF vs control (998 ± 200 vs 884 ± 123 ml, p = 0.041; and 943 ± 202 vs 802 ± 133 ml, p = 0.015, respectively). Albuterol decreased Vtis and EVLW in HFrEF patients (-4.6 ± 7.8%, p = 0.010; -4.6 ± 8.8%, p = 0.018) and control subjects (-2.8 ± 4.9%, p = 0.029; -3.0 ± 5.7%, p = 0.045). There was an inverse relationship between pre-albuterol values and pre- to post-albuterol change for EVLW (r(2) = -0.264, p = 0.015) and DmCO (r(2) = -0.343, p = 0.004) in HFrEF only. Lung fluid is elevated in stable HFrEF patients relative to healthy subjects. Stimulation of β2ARs may cause fluid removal in HFrEF, especially in patients with greater evidence of increased lung water at baseline. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stimulation of MAP kinase pathways after maternal IL-1β exposure induces fetal lung fluid absorption in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Ethan P

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We tested the hypothesis that maternal interleukin-1β (IL-1β pretreatment and induction of fetal cortisol synthesis activates MAP kinases and thereby affects lung fluid absorption in preterm guinea pigs. Methods IL-1β was administered subcutaneously daily to timed-pregnant guinea pigs for three days. Fetuses were obtained by abdominal hysterotomy and instilled with isosmolar 5% albumin into the lungs and lung fluid movement was measured over 1 h by mass balance. MAP kinase expression was measured by western blot. Results Lung fluid absorption was induced at 61 days (D gestation and stimulated at 68D gestation by IL-1β. Maternal IL-1β pretreatment upregulated ERK and upstream MEK expression at both 61 and 68D gestation, albeit being much more pronounced at 61D gestation. U0126 instillation completely blocked IL-1β-induced lung fluid absorption as well as IL-1β-induced/stimulated ERK expression. Cortisol synthesis inhibition by metyrapone attenuated ERK expression and lung fluid absorption in IL-1β-pretreated fetal lungs. JNK expression after maternal IL-1β pretreatment remained unaffected at either gestation age. Conclusion These data implicate the ERK MAP kinase pathway as being important for IL-1β induction/stimulation of lung fluid absorption in fetal guinea pigs.

  6. Stimulation of MAP kinase pathways after maternal IL-1beta exposure induces fetal lung fluid absorption in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Reshma; Li, Tianbo; Koshy, Shyny; Beard, LaMonta L; Sharma, Kapil; Carter, Ethan P; Garat, Chrystelle; Folkesson, Hans G

    2007-03-26

    We tested the hypothesis that maternal interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) pretreatment and induction of fetal cortisol synthesis activates MAP kinases and thereby affects lung fluid absorption in preterm guinea pigs. IL-1beta was administered subcutaneously daily to timed-pregnant guinea pigs for three days. Fetuses were obtained by abdominal hysterotomy and instilled with isosmolar 5% albumin into the lungs and lung fluid movement was measured over 1 h by mass balance. MAP kinase expression was measured by western blot. Lung fluid absorption was induced at 61 days (D) gestation and stimulated at 68D gestation by IL-1beta. Maternal IL-1beta pretreatment upregulated ERK and upstream MEK expression at both 61 and 68D gestation, albeit being much more pronounced at 61D gestation. U0126 instillation completely blocked IL-1beta-induced lung fluid absorption as well as IL-1beta-induced/stimulated ERK expression. Cortisol synthesis inhibition by metyrapone attenuated ERK expression and lung fluid absorption in IL-1beta-pretreated fetal lungs. JNK expression after maternal IL-1beta pretreatment remained unaffected at either gestation age. These data implicate the ERK MAP kinase pathway as being important for IL-1beta induction/stimulation of lung fluid absorption in fetal guinea pigs.

  7. Increased number of cancer cells in bronchial washing fluid detected by combining conventional cytology and high-resolution flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicconetti, F; Teodori, L; Persiani, M; Di Tondo, U; Alò, P; Marci, A; Brun, S; Göhde, W

    1997-01-01

    The present study was performed to improve early lung cancer diagnosis in bronchial washing fluid, thereby increasing the diagnostic sensitivity of bronchoscopy by means of high-resolution flow cytometry (FC). We combined dual-parameter DNA/protein FC and conventional cytology in bronchial washing fluid samples from 112 patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic lung diseases and found 43% of histologically confirmed tumor cases to be cytologically positive; 63% of the tumor samples were aneuploid, 52% of the aneuploid cases were cytologically positive and 48% were negative. In the negative cases, FC was an independent diagnostic factor. In 32% of the cases, FC also failed to detect abnormalities. However, the combination of both techniques increased the sensitivity in detecting neoplastic cells to 73%. Furthermore, simultaneous DNA/protein analysis allowed the recognition of aneuploid cell lines not detectable by single DNA measurement. Identification of aneuploid subpopulations by dual-parameter analysis in cytologically negative one-parameter FC "diploid" samples assumes an important diagnostic value. Dual-parameter DNA/protein FC is a valuable technique that increases the diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy with no risk for the patient and a low additional cost.

  8. High-resolution CT study of interstitial lung disease in polymyositis and dermatomyositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomii, Keisuke; Iwata, Takekuni; Oida, Kazukiyo (Tenri Hospital, Nara (Japan)) (and others)

    1992-01-01

    High-resolution CT scans of lung parenchyma were obtained in 8 patients with pure polymyositis or dermatomyositis (PM-DM) with interstitial lung involvement. The most frequent findings were subpleural curved band-like shadows (A 2), which were demonstrated in 7 patients (88%). Open lung biopsy was performed in a case of A 2 shadow, which revealed non-specific interstitial pneumonia (chronic interstitial pneumonia, not otherwise specified). Most of the A 2 shadows gradually shrinked with steroids or immunosuppressants, and then disappeared completely or changed into subpleural curvilinear shadows (A 1). Peri-bronchovascular shadows (B) were detected in 4 patients (50%). Acute exacerbation had occurred in the two of them, but after all every B shadow reduced or disappeared with therapy. We think A 2 and B shadows are characteristic HRCT findings of interstitial lung disease in PM-DM and their prognosis is fairly good. (author).

  9. Mortality studies of machining fluid exposure in the automobile industry. IV: A case-control study of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, J C; Tolbert, P E; Eisen, E A; Monson, R R; Hallock, M F; Smith, T J; Woskie, S R; Hammond, S K; Milton, D K

    1997-05-01

    Machining fluids are diverse products that contain numerous additives and contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Studies treating machining fluids as an aggregate exposure have found both positive and negative associations with lung cancer. In this nested case-control study of automotive workers (667 cases and 3,041 matched controls), individual estimates of exposure quantity and duration for specific classes of machining fluids were derived. An inverse dose-response relationship was found between synthetic machining fluids and lung cancer mortality, with an odds ratio of 0.6 (95% CI = 0.4, 0.8) for the highest level of lifetime exposure. The relationship was strongest for recent exposures. There was little evidence of an association with soluble or straight oil machining fluids. Risks were inconsistently elevated in workers exposed to aluminum. Results from this study provide strong evidence that exposure to machining fluids is not associated with an increased risk of lung cancer mortality in automotive workers.

  10. Cellular changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in hyperoxia-induced lung injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinbiao HE; Wei ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that high concentration oxy-gen exposure is a model of acute lung injury (ALI). However, controversy exists over the mechanism. This study was designed to clarify the cellular characteristics in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and body weight loss of rats exposed to oxygen(>90%). Young male Wistar rats, aged 6 weeks, were divided into three groups: (1) room air group (exposed to room air, n=22); (2) hyperoxia < 48 h group (exposed to over 90% oxygen for less than 48 h, n=18); (3) hyperoxia 66-72 h group (exposed to over 90% oxygen for 66-72 h group, n=7). Compared to the room air group, the total cell counts in the hyperoxia 66-72 h group decreased, whereas the neu-trophils increased significantly. The body weights of the rats exposed to room air continued to increase. However, the body weights of oxygen-exposed rats increased slightly on the first day and weight loss was seen from the second day. All rats were noted to have bilateral pleural effusion in the hyperoxia 66-72 h group. The data suggests that (1) an increase in neutrophil count is an evident feature of hyperoxia-induced lung injury; (2) high concentration oxygen exposure can give rise to anorexia and malnutri-tion, which may play a role in hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Blocking neutrophil influx into lung tissue in the early phase and improving malnutrition are two effective methods to reduce hyperoxic lung injury.

  11. Lung parenchymal change after the resolution of adenovirus pneumonia : chest radiographs and high-resolution CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung Hee; Kim, Joung Sook; Kim, Chang Kuen; Kang, Seung Pyung; Lee, Soo Hyun; Hur Gham [Inje Univ. Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate lung parenchymal change as seen on chest radiographs and high-resolution CT (HRCT) after the resolution of adenovirus pneumonia (a common cause of lower respiratory infection in infants and children),and the usefulness of HRCT during follow-up. Material and Methods : Four to 13(mean, 8) months after recovery, ten patients infected with adenovirus pneumonia underwent HRCT and chest radiographs. Eight were boys and two were girls, and their mean age was 26(range, 14-45) months. Adenovirus pneumonia had been confirmed by viral isolation in culture or serologic test. CT scanning was performed during quiet breathing ; collimation was 2 mm and the interval from apex to diaphragm was 5-10 mm. Lung settings were 1600 HU (window width) and -700 HU(level). CT findings were assessed and compared with chest radiographs by two chest radiologists, who reached a consensus. The patients were clinically followed up for one year. Result : On chest radiographs, hyperlucent lung was seen in 8 of 10 patients (80%) ; in one other there was partial collapse, and in one, findings were normal. The most common HRCT finding was a mosaic pattern of lung attenuation with decreased pulmonary vascularity in the area of lower attenuation ; this was seen in 8 of 10 patients (80%). Other findings were partial collapse, bronchiectasis, and bronchial wall thickening, each seen in two patients, and reticulonodular density, seen in one. In two patients HRCT findings were normal ; in one of these, chest findings were normal but a mosaic pattern of lung attenuation was found in all lobes. During follow-up, three patients wheezed continuously. Conclusion : In cases of adenovirus pneumonia, HRCT demonstrated more specific parenchymal change than did chest radiographs ; a mosaic pattern of lung attenuation was seen, with decreased pulmonary vascularity in areas of lower attenuation ; bronchiectasis,bronchial wall thickening, and reticulo-odular density were also noted. These findings were

  12. Elevated peptides in lung lavage fluid associated with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Stone

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this discovery-level investigation was to use mass spectrometry to identify low mass compounds in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from lung transplant recipients that associate with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from lung transplant recipients were evaluated for small molecules using ESI-TOF mass spectrometry and correlated to the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Peptides associated with samples from persons with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and controls were identified separately by MS/MS analysis. RESULTS: The average bronchoalveolar lavage fluid MS spectrum profile of individuals that developed bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome differed greatly compared to controls. Controls demonstrated close inter-sample correlation (R = 0.97+/-0.02, average+/-SD while bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome showed greater heterogeneity (R = 0.86+/-0.09, average+/-SD. We identified 89 features that were predictive of developing BOS grade 1 and 66 features predictive of developing BOS grade 2 or higher. Fractions from MS analysis were pooled and evaluated for peptide content. Nearly 10-fold more peptides were found in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome relative to controls. C-terminal residues suggested trypsin-like specificity among controls compared to elastase-type enzymes among those with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from individuals with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome has an increase in low mass components detected by mass spectrometry. Many of these features were peptides that likely result from elevated neutrophil elastase activity.

  13. Eicosanoids in Exhaled Breath Condensate and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Patients with Primary Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Ciebiada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although eicosanoids are involved in lung carcinogenesis they were poorly investigated in exhaled breath condensate (EBC and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf in patients with primary lung cancer. In this study 17 patients with diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer, 10 healthy smokers and 12 healthy nonsmokers were included. The levels of cys-LTs, 8-isoprostane, LTB4 and PGE2 were measured before any treatment in the EBC of all patients and in BALf of patients with lung cancer by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. 8-isoprostane, LTB4, cys-LTs and PGE2 were detectable in the EBC and BALf. There were no significant differences between healthy smokers and nonsmokers in concentrations of all measured mediators. Compared with both healthy controls, patients with diagnosed lung cancer displayed higher concentrations of cys-LTs (p < 0.05 and LTB4 (p < 0.05 in EBC. In patients with lung cancer, the mean concentrations of all measured mediators were significantly higher in BALf compared with EBC and there was a significant, positive correlation between concentration of cys-LTs, LTB4 and 8-isoprostane in BALf and their concentrations in the EBC (r = 0.64, p < 0.05, r = 0.59, p < 0.05, r = 0.53, p < 0.05 respectively. Since cys-LT, LTB4 and 8-isoprostane concentrations in EBC from patients with lung cancer reflect their concentrations in BALf, they may serve as a possible non-invasive method to monitor the disease and to assess the effectiveness of therapy.

  14. Spectrum of high-resolution computed tomography imaging in occupational lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Satija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage to the lungs caused by dusts or fumes or noxious substances inhaled by workers in certain specific occupation is known as occupational lung disease. Recognition of occupational lung disease is especially important not only for the primary worker, but also because of the implications with regard to primary and secondary disease prevention in the exposed co-workers. Although many of the disorders can be detected on chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT is superior in delineating the lung architecture and depicting pathology. The characteristic radiological features suggest the correct diagnosis in some, whereas a combination of clinical features, occupational history, and radiological findings is essential in establishing the diagnosis in others. In the presence of a history of exposure and consistent clinical features, the diagnosis of even an uncommon occupational lung disease can be suggested by the characteristic described HRCT findings. In this article, we briefly review the HRCT appearance of a wide spectrum of occupational lung diseases.

  15. Breathing Assistance by the Iron Lung Increases Sympathetic Tone and Modifies Fluid Excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisch, F. J.; Gerzer, R.

    Adaptation to weightlessness is not accompanied by an increase in sodium- and urine- excretion in humans in contrast to the expectations and the bed rest model in use to simulate effects of weightlessness on earth. On earth the thorax remains compressed by gravity in the horizontal body position while its unloading in weightlessness reduces transmural pressure in the mediastinal walls and membranes. Thus, wall stretching. or the Henry-Gauer mechanism, is reduced and may even result in a reduced water and sodium excretion. We have therefore lowered the transmural mediastinal pressure by the principle of the "Iron Lung" in a terrestrial model, and have studied whether or not this principle might reduce body fluid loss seen during onset of head down tilt bed rest. Methods: Two experiment runs were performed in a cross over design: one run pure 6° head down tilt body position (HDT) and the other with iron lung assistance. Six male subjects (26.5 +/- 8.1 years old; 187+/- 5 cm tall; 84.0 +/- 6.6 kg body weight) participated. Lung pressure was modified by the iron lung where the whole body except the head is enclosed in a box. The air pressure inside the box was 5 cm H2O lower than ambient during activation of the iron lung. For inspiration negative pressure increased up to 15 cm H2O, roughly doubling resting breath tide. The counteracting lung pressure was 8.1 +/- 0.6 cm H2O for 4 hours in mean. Breathing rate was reduced under iron lung to avoid hyperventilation (10.2 +/- 0.6 bpm [iron lung] versus 14.0 +/- 1.2 Bpm [spontaneously]). The relationship between expiration and inspiration remained at 2:1 in both runs. End expiratory CO2 was measured breath by breath via a nose clip. Heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, and sphygmomanometric blood pressure were determined every half hour. Urine volume was measured hourly. sodium excretion and pH was determined. Ambient conditions were kept constant at thermoneutral conditions. Evaporative fluid loss was evaluated by a

  16. Lung mechanics and high-resolution computed tomography of the chest in very low birth weight premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Reis de Mello

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Premature infant lung development may be affected by lung injuries during the first few weeks of life. Lung injuries have been associated with changes in lung mechanics. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an association between lung mechanics and lung structural alterations in very low birth weight infants (birth weight less than 1500 g. DESIGN: A cross-sectional evaluation of pulmonary mechanics (lung compliance and lung resistance and high resolution computed tomography of the chest at the time of discharge, in 86 very low birth weight infants born at Instituto Fernandes Figueira, a tertiary public healthcare institution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lung compliance and resistance were measured during quiet sleep. High resolution computed tomography was performed using Pro Speed-S equipment. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Statistical analysis was performed by means of variance analysis (ANOVA/ Kruskal Wallis. The significance level was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Abnormal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance were found in 34 babies (43%, whereas 20 (23.3% had normal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance. The mean lung compliance and lung resistance for the group were respectively 1.30 ml/cm H2O/kg and 63.7 cm H2O/l/s. Lung alterations were found via high-resolution computed tomography in 62 (72% infants. Most infants showed more than one abnormality, and these were described as ground glass opacity, parenchymal bands, atelectasis and bubble/cyst. The mean compliance values for infants with normal (1.49 ml/cm H2O/kg high resolution computed tomography, 1 or 2 abnormalities (1.31 ml/cm H2O/kg and 3 or more abnormalities (1.16 ml/cm H2O/kg were significantly different (p = 0.015. Our data were insufficient to find any association between lung resistance and the number of alterations via high-resolution computed tomography. CONCLUSION: The results show high prevalence of lung functional and tomographic abnormalities in asymptomatic very low

  17. Lung mechanics and high-resolution computed tomography of the chest in very low birth weight premature infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Rosane Reis de; Dutra, Maria Virginia Peixoto; Ramos, Jose Roberto; Daltro, Pedro; Boechat, Marcia; Andrade Lopes, Jose Maria de [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Fernandes Figueira

    2003-07-01

    Premature infant lung development may be affected by lung injuries during the first few weeks of life. Lung injuries have been associated with changes in lung mechanics. The objective is to evaluate an association between lung mechanics and lung structural alterations in very low birth weight infants (birth weight less than 1500 g). The design presents a cross-sectional evaluation of pulmonary mechanics (lung compliance and lung resistance) and high resolution computed tomography of the chest at the time of discharge, in 86 very low birth weight infants born at Instituto Fernandes Figueira, a tertiary public health care institution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lung compliance and resistance were measured during quiet sleep. High resolution computed tomography was performed using Pro Speed-S equipment. Statistical analysis was performed by means of variance analysis (ANOVA/ Kruskal Wallis). The significance level was set at 0.05. The results showed abnormal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance were found in 34 babies (43%), whereas 20 (23.3%) had normal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance. The mean lung compliance and lung resistance for the group were respectively 1.30 ml/cm H{sub 2} O/kg and 63.7 cm H{sub 2} O/l/s. Lung alterations were found via high-resolution computed tomography in 62 (72%) infants. Most infants showed more than one abnormality, and these were described as ground glass opacity, parenchymal bands, atelectasis and bubble/cyst. The mean compliance values for infants with normal (1.49 ml/cm H{sub 2} O/kg) high resolution computed tomography, 1 or 2 abnormalities (1.31 ml/cm H{sub 2} O/kg) and 3 or more abnormalities (1.16 ml/cm H{sub 2} O/kg) were significantly different (p = 0.015). Our data were insufficient to find any association between lung resistance and the number of alterations via high-resolution computed tomography. The conclusion was that the results show high prevalence of lung functional and tomographic

  18. Propagation-based phase-contrast tomography for high-resolution lung imaging with laboratory sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krenkel, Martin, E-mail: mkrenke@gwdg.de; Töpperwien, Mareike; Salditt, Tim, E-mail: tsaldit@gwdg.de [Institute for X-Ray Physics, University of Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Dullin, Christian [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Göttingen, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Alves, Frauke [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Göttingen, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Department of Haematology and Medical Oncology, Medical Center Göttingen, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Department of Molecular Biology of Neuronal Signals, Max-Planck-Institute of Experimental Medicine, 37075 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    We have performed high-resolution phase-contrast tomography on whole mice with a laboratory setup. Enabled by a high-brilliance liquid-metal-jet source, we show the feasibility of propagation-based phase contrast in local tomography even in the presence of strongly absorbing surrounding tissue as it is the case in small animal imaging of the lung. We demonstrate the technique by reconstructions of the mouse lung for two different fields of view, covering the whole organ, and a zoom to the local finer structure of terminal airways and alveoli. With a resolution of a few micrometers and the wide availability of the technique, studies of larger biological samples at the cellular level become possible.

  19. Pooled population pharmacokinetic model of imipenem in plasma and the lung epithelial lining fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Matthew L.; Lala, Mallika; Chavez‐Eng, Cynthia; Visser, Sandra A. G.; Kerbusch, Thomas; Danhof, Meindert; Rao, Gauri; van der Graaf, Piet H.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Several clinical trials have confirmed the therapeutic benefit of imipenem for treatment of lung infections. There is however no knowledge of the penetration of imipenem into the lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF), the site of action relevant for lung infections. Furthermore, although the plasma pharmacokinetics (PK) of imipenem has been widely studied, most studies have been based on selected patient groups. The aim of this analysis was to characterize imipenem plasma PK across populations and to quantify imipenem ELF penetration. Methods A population model for imipenem plasma PK was developed using data obtained from healthy volunteers, elderly subjects and subjects with renal impairment, in order to identify predictors for inter‐individual variability (IIV) of imipenem PK. Subsequently, a clinical study which measured plasma and ELF concentrations of imipenem was included in order to quantify lung penetration. Results A two compartmental model best described the plasma PK of imipenem. Creatinine clearance and body weight were included as subject characteristics predictive for IIV on clearance. Typical estimates for clearance, central and peripheral volume, and inter‐compartmental clearance were 11.5 l h–1, 9.37 l, 6.41 l, 13.7 l h–1, respectively (relative standard error (RSE) <8%). The distribution of imipenem into ELF was described using a time‐independent penetration coefficient of 0.44 (RSE 14%). Conclusion The identified lung penetration coefficient confirms the clinical relevance of imipenem for treatment of lung infections, while the population PK model provided insights into predictors of IIV for imipenem PK and may be of relevance to support dose optimization in various subject groups. PMID:26852277

  20. Effectiveness and resolution of tests for evaluating the performance of cutting fluids in machining aerospace alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Axinte, Dragos A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses effectiveness and resolution of five cutting tests (turning, milling, drilling, tapping, VIPER grinding) and their quality output measures used in a multi-task procedure for evaluating the performance of cutting fluids when machining aerospace materials. The evaluation takes...

  1. Fluid displacive resin embedding of laminated sediments: preserving trace metals for high-resolution paleoclimate investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jilbert, T.; Lange, G.J. de; Reichart, G.-J.

    2008-01-01

    For the high-resolution study of trace metal profiles in laminated anoxic sediments, a specially adapted method of resin embedding has been developed. Fluid displacement is the preferred means of sediment dehydration, offering optimum structural preservation and facilitating desalination. Exchanges

  2. Fluorescence polarization of amniotic fluid to assess fetal lung maturity in high risk pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Gantus Simão Stefano

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and thepositive and negative predictive values of amniotic fluidfluorescence polarization for neonatal respiratory distresssyndrome in high risk pregnancies. Methods: A prospectivedescriptive study of 54 patients with high risk pregnancies. Fetallung maturity was assessed using amniotic fluid florescencepolarization obtained by amniocentesis up to 72 hours beforedelivery. Respiratory distress syndrome, stratified by gestationalage at birth, was the primary outcome analyzed. Amniotic fluidfluorescence polarization values equal to or over 50 mg/g (indicatingfetal lung maturity were considered as negative results. Results:The mean gestational age at birth was 35 weeks (SD 2.0.Respiratory distress syndrome was seen in 14 newborns(24%. Amniotic fluid fluorescence polarization had high sensitivity(86% and specificity (81%, with 14% false-negative and 19% falsepositiveresults. The positive predictive value was 60% and thenegative predictive value was 94%. The area under the ROC curveindicated the 50 mg/g albumin/surfactant ratio as the best cutoffpoint (85% sensitivity and 81% specificity. Conclusion: A negativevalue in amniotic fluid fluorescence polarization (results equal toor over 50 mg/g confirms lung maturity which translates into avery low risk of a newborn developing respiratory distresssyndrome in high risk pregnancies.

  3. A model of fluid, erythrocyte, and solute transport in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, R J; Tack, G; Harris, T R

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model of fluid, solute, and red cell transport in the lung has been developed that includes the effects of simultaneous changes in lung vascular and interstitial volumes. The model provides separate arterial, microvascular, and venous pulmonary regions and a systemic vascular region in addition to a pulmonary interstitial compartment. Pressure, volume, hematocrit, flow, and concentration of up to 12 solutes and tracers can be computed in each compartment. Computer code is written in the C programming language, with Microsoft Excel serving as a user interface. Implementation is currently on PC-486 microcomputer systems, but the core program can easily be moved to other computer systems. The user can select different models for the blood-interstitial barrier (e.g., multiple pore, nonlinear Patlak equation), osmotic pressure-concentration relationships (e.g., Nitta, Navar-Navar), solute reflection coefficients interstitial macromolecule exclusion, or lymph barrier characteristics. Each model parameter or a combination of parameters can be altered with time in a predetermined fashion. The model is particularly useful in interpreting lung experimental data where simultaneous changes occur in vascular and extravascular compartments. Several applications are presented and discussed, including interpretation of optical filtration experiments, venous occlusion experiments, external detection of macromolecular exchange, and blood-lymph studies that use exogenous tracers. A number of limitations of the model are identified and improvements are proposed. A major strength of the model is that it is specifically designed to incorporate newly discovered relationships as the field of lung physiology expands.

  4. The role of selected cytokines and proteins analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Jedynak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The early organism response to injury or infection involves activation of the innate immune system, in which pattern recognition receptors (PRRs participate. They recognize highly conservative structures that are called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs. The interactions between PRRs and PAMPs or DAMPs lead to the activation of transcriptional factors which are responsible for gene expression of inflammatory mediators and synthesis and release of these factors, and result in the development of inflammation. RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products and CD163 belonging to PRRs play a significant role in the early immune response in lungs. They are expressed on alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages, respectively. NK cells are also involved in lung response to injury, though their maturation and the ability to express PRRs depend on the presence of IL-15. Detailed knowledge about these factors enables us to understand the signal pathways that are activated in the course of infectious and noninfectious lung injury. The analysis of these proteins’ concentrations in body fluids creates new possibilities in monitoring lung injury and predicting the results of treatment. In the future, the discussed mediators may become the targets for new forms of treatment in life-threatening respiratory diseases.

  5. MARESIN 1 PREVENTS LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED NEUTROPHIL SURVIVAL AND ACCELERATES RESOLUTION OF ACUTE LUNG INJURY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jie; Liu, Hong; Wu, Jing; Qi, Hong; Wu, Zhou-Yang; Shu, Hua-Qing; Li, Hong-Bin; Chen, Lin; Wang, Ya-Xin; Li, Bo; Tang, Min; Ji, Yu-Dong; Yuan, Shi-Ying; Yao, Shang-Long; Shang, You

    2015-10-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by lung inflammation and diffuse infiltration of neutrophils. Neutrophil apoptosis is recognized as an important control point in the resolution of inflammation. Maresin 1 (MaR1) is a new docosahexaenoic acid-derived proresolving agent that promotes the resolution of inflammation. However, its function in neutrophil apoptosis is unknown. In this study, isolated human neutrophils were incubated with MaR1, the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to determine the mechanism of neutrophil apoptosis. Acute lung injury was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS. In addition, mice were treated with MaR1 intravenously at the peak of inflammation and administered z-VAD-fmk intraperitoneally. We found that culture of isolated human neutrophils with LPS dramatically delayed neutrophil apoptosis through the phosphorylation of AKT, ERK, and p38 to upregulate the expression of the antiapoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2, which was blocked by pretreatment with MaR1 in vitro. In mice, MaR1 accelerated the resolution of inflammation in LPS-induced ALI through attenuation of neutrophil accumulation, pathohistological changes, and pulmonary edema. Maresin 1 promoted resolution of inflammation by accelerating caspase-dependent neutrophil apoptosis. Moreover, MaR1 also reduced the LPS-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines and upregulated the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10. In contrast, treatment with z-VAD-fmk inhibited the proapoptotic action of MaR1 and attenuated the protective effects of MaR1 in LPS-induced ALI. Taken together, MaR1 promotes the resolution of LPS-induced ALI by overcoming LPS-mediated suppression of neutrophil apoptosis.

  6. Application of the high-resolution Godunov method to the multi-fluid flow calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Jing-Song; Li Ping; Zhang Zhan-Ji; Hua Jing-Song; Tan Hua

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we have numerically solved the multi-fluid problems using an operator-split two-step high-resolution Godunov PPM (parabolic piecewise method) for the flow in complex geometries. By using the front capturing method,the PPM integrator captures the interface in the solution process. The basic multi-fluid integrator is coupled to a Cartesian grid algorithm where a VOF (volume of fluid) representation of the fluid interface is also used. As an application of this method, we test the 2D interfacial advection example and simulate an experimental hypervelocity launcher model from Sandia National Laboratories. The computational design of the hypervelocity launcher is also given in the paper.

  7. Goal-Directed Fluid Therapy Using Stroke Volume Variation Does Not Result in Pulmonary Fluid Overload in Thoracic Surgery Requiring One-Lung Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Haas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Goal-directed fluid therapy (GDT guided by functional parameters of preload, such as stroke volume variation (SVV, seems to optimize hemodynamics and possibly improves clinical outcome. However, this strategy is believed to be rather fluid aggressive, and, furthermore, during surgery requiring thoracotomy, the ability of SVV to predict volume responsiveness has raised some controversy. So far it is not known whether GDT is associated with pulmonary fluid overload and a deleterious reduction in pulmonary function in thoracic surgery requiring one-lung-ventilation (OLV. Therefore, we assessed the perioperative course of extravascular lung water index (EVLWI and paO2/FiO2-ratio during and after thoracic surgery requiring lateral thoracotomy and OLV to evaluate the hypothesis that fluid therapy guided by SVV results in pulmonary fluid overload. Methods. A total of 27 patients (group T were enrolled in this prospective study with 11 patients undergoing lung surgery (group L and 16 patients undergoing esophagectomy (group E. Goal-directed fluid management was guided by SVV (SVV 0.05 in EVLWI during the observation period (BL: 7.8 ± 2.5, 24postop: 8.1 ± 2.4 mL/kg. A subgroup analysis for group L and group E also did not reveal significant changes of EVLWI. The paO2/FiO2-ratio decreased significantly during the observation period (group L: BL: 462 ± 140, OLVterm15: 338 ± 112 mmHg; group E: BL: 389 ± 101, 24postop: 303 ± 74 mmHg but remained >300 mmHg except during OLV. Conclusions. SVV-guided fluid management in thoracic surgery requiring lateral thoracotomy and one-lung ventilation does not result in pulmonary fluid overload. Although oxygenation was reduced, pulmonary function remained within a clinically acceptable range.

  8. Protectin D1 promotes resolution of inflammation in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury via enhancing neutrophil apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xingwang; Li Chunlai; Liang Wandong; Bi Yuntian; Chen Maohua; Dong Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Protectin D1 (PD1),derived from docosahexaenoic acid,has been shown to control and resolve inflammation in some experimental models of inflammatory disorders.We investigated the protective roles of protectin D1 in pulmonary inflammation and lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).Methods Mice were randomly assigned to six groups (n=6 per group):sham-vehicle group,sham-PD1 group,shamzVAD-fmk group,LPS-vehicle group,LPS-PD1 group,and LPS-PD1-zVAD-fmk group.Mice were injected intratracheally with 3 mg/kg LPS or saline,followed 24 hours later by intravenous injection of 200 μg/mouse PD1 or vehicle.At the same time,some mice were also injected intraperitoneally with the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk.Seventy-two hours after LPS challenge,samples of pulmonary tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were collected.Optical microscopy was used to examine pathological changes in lungs.Cellularity and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were analyzed.Lung wet/dry ratios and myeloperoxidase activity were measured.Apoptosis of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was also evaluated by flow cytometry.Results Intratracheal instillation of LPS increased neutrophil counts,protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and myeloperoxidase activity,it induced lung histological injury and edema,and also suppressed apoptosis of neutrophils in BALF.Posttreatment with PD1 inhibited LPS-evoked changes in BALF neutrophil counts and protein concentration and lung myeloperoxidase activity,with the outcome of decreased pulmonary edema and histological injury.In addition,PD1 promoted apoptosis of neutrophils in BALF.The beneficial effects of PD1 were blocked by zVAD-fmk.Conclusion Posttreatment with PD1 enhances resolution of lung inflammation during LPS-induced acute lung injury by enhancing apoptosis in emigrated neutrophils,which is,at least in part,caspase-dependent.

  9. Multi-platform metabolomics assays for human lung lavage fluids in an air pollution exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surowiec, Izabella; Karimpour, Masoumeh; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Wu, Junfang; Unosson, Jon; Bosson, Jenny A; Blomberg, Anders; Pourazar, Jamshid; Sandström, Thomas; Behndig, Annelie F; Trygg, Johan; Nording, Malin L

    2016-07-01

    Metabolomics protocols are used to comprehensively characterize the metabolite content of biological samples by exploiting cutting-edge analytical platforms, such as gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) assays, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assays. We have developed novel sample preparation procedures combined with GC-MS, LC-MS, and NMR metabolomics profiling for analyzing bronchial wash (BW) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from 15 healthy volunteers following exposure to biodiesel exhaust and filtered air. Our aim was to investigate the responsiveness of metabolite profiles in the human lung to air pollution exposure derived from combustion of biofuels, such as rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel, which are increasingly being promoted as alternatives to conventional fossil fuels. Our multi-platform approach enabled us to detect the greatest number of unique metabolites yet reported in BW and BAL fluid (82 in total). All of the metabolomics assays indicated that the metabolite profiles of the BW and BAL fluids differed appreciably, with 46 metabolites showing significantly different levels in the corresponding lung compartments. Furthermore, the GC-MS assay revealed an effect of biodiesel exhaust exposure on the levels of 1-monostearylglycerol, sucrose, inosine, nonanoic acid, and ethanolamine (in BAL) and pentadecanoic acid (in BW), whereas the LC-MS assay indicated a shift in the levels of niacinamide (in BAL). The NMR assay only identified lactic acid (in BW) as being responsive to biodiesel exhaust exposure. Our findings demonstrate that the proposed multi-platform approach is useful for wide metabolomics screening of BW and BAL fluids and can facilitate elucidation of metabolites responsive to biodiesel exhaust exposure. Graphical Abstract Graphical abstract illustrating the study workflow. NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, LC-TOFMS Liquid chromatography-Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry, GC Gas

  10. Effects of ubiquinol with fluid resuscitation following haemorrhagic shock on rat lungs, diaphragm, heart and kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, Paul; Shen, Qiuhua; Thimmesch, Amanda R; Diaz, Francisco J; Clancy, Richard L; Pierce, Janet D

    2014-07-01

    Haemorrhagic shock (HS) and fluid resuscitation can lead to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), contributing to ischaemia-reperfusion injury and organ damage. Ubiquinol is a potent antioxidant that decreases ROS. This study examined the effects of ubiquinol administered with fluid resuscitation following controlled HS. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to treatment [ubiquinol, 1 mg (100 g body weight)(-1)] or control groups. Rats were subjected to 60 min of HS by removing 40% of the total blood volume to a mean arterial pressure ∼45-55 mmHg. The animals were resuscitated with blood and lactated Ringer solution, with or without ubiquinol, and monitored for 120 min. At the end of the experiments, the rats were killed and the lungs, diaphragm, heart and kidneys harvested. Leucocytes were analysed for mitochondrial superoxide at baseline, end of shock and 120 min following fluid resuscitation using MitoSOX Red. Diaphragms were examined for hydrogen peroxide using dihydrofluorescein diacetate and confocal microscopy. The apoptosis in lungs, diaphragm, heart and kidneys was measured using fluorescence microscopy with acridine orange and ethidium bromide. Leucocyte mitochondrial superoxide levels were significantly lower in rats that received ubiquinol than in the control animals. Production of hydrogen peroxide and apoptosis were significantly reduced in the organs of rats treated with ubiquinol. These findings suggest that ubiquinol, administered with fluid resuscitation after HS, attenuates ROS production and apoptosis. Thus, ubiquinol is a potent antioxidant that may be used as a potential treatment to reduce organ injury following haemorrhagic events. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  11. Influence of lung volume, fluid and capillary recruitment during positional changes and exercise on thoracic impedance in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul-Ho; Fuglestad, Matthew A; Richert, Maile L Ceridon; Shen, Win K; Johnson, Bruce D

    2014-10-01

    It is unclear how dynamic changes in pulmonary-capillary blood volume (Vc), alveolar lung volume (derived from end-inspiratory lung volume, EILV) and interstitial fluid (ratio of alveolar capillary membrane conductance and pulmonary capillary blood volume, Dm/Vc) influence lung impedance (Z(T)). The purpose of this study was to investigate if positional change and exercise result in increased EILV, Vc and/or lung interstitial fluid, and if Z(T) tracks these variables. 12 heart failure (HF) patients underwent measurements (Z(T), EILV, Vc/Dm) at rest in the upright and supine positions, during exercise and into recovery. Inspiratory capacity was obtained to provide consistent measures of EILV while assessing Z(T). Z(T) increased with lung volume during slow vital capacity maneuvers (p0.05). Impedance appears sensitive to changes in lung volume and body position which appear to generally overwhelm small acute changes in lung fluid when assed dynamically at rest or during exercise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fluid mechanical proximity effects in high-resolution gravure printing for printed electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Gerd; Scheideler, William J.; Subramanian, Vivek

    2016-11-01

    Gravure printing is a very promising method for printed electronics because it combines high throughput with high resolution. Recently, printed lines with 2 micrometer resolution have been demonstrated at printing speeds on the order of 1m/s. In order to build realistic circuits, the fluid dynamics of complex pattern formation needs to be studied. Recently, we showed that highly-scaled lines printed in close succession exhibit proximity effects that can either improve or deteriorate print quality depending on a number of parameters. It was found that this effect occurs if cells are connected by a thin fluid film. Here, we present further experimental and modeling results explaining the mechanism by which this thin fluid film affects pattern formation. During the transfer of ink from the roll to the substrate, ink can flow in between connected cells. Asymmetry in the fluid distribution created by the preceding doctor blade wiping process results in net fluid flow from cells that transfer first to cells that transfer subsequently. The proximity of these cells thus affects the final ink distribution on the substrate, which is critically important to understand and design optimally when printing highly-scaled patterns of electronic materials. This work is based upon work supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Cooperative Agreement No. EEC-1160494.

  13. Effects of early bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected from dogs with smoke inhalation injury on the lungs of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Fa-chuan; SU Dong; YANG Zong-cheng; BI Min; HUANG Yue-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Whether early massive bronchoalveolar lavage can remove the harmful substances from the lungs injured with smoke inhalation remains uncertain. This study was designed to observe the effects of early massive bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) on the healthy lungs in rats. Methods: Mongrel dogs were inflicted with severe smoke inhalation injury. The injured lungs were lavaged with large amount of normal saline in the first hour after injury and the BALF was collected. The BALF was injected into the healthy lungs of 30 rats (group C) in the dosage of 5 ml/kg. The functions and pathological changes of the lungs were observed 24 h after perfusion with the BALF. The data were compared with those of 23 rats (group B) whose lungs were perfused with the BALF collected from normal dogs and those of 21 rats (group A)whose lungs were perfused with normal saline. Results: The mortality rate 24 h after lung perfusion was higher in group C than in groups A and B. The survivors of group C exhibited fluctuation of respiratory rate (RR), remarkable decrease of PaO2, significantly higher content of lung water, decrease of total static pulmonary compliance and pulmonary expansion index, and increasse of inflammatory cytokines in the tissues of lungs. Only slight mechanic obstructive effect on the airway was observed in rats of group A and B. The pathological changes of the lungs of the rats in group C were similar to those of the dogs with actual smoke inhalation injury. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the BALF collected from dogs with acute severe smoke inhalation injury in the early stage after injury injured the normal lungs of rats with the bioactive substances in the BALF. These findings show us that it is a valuable therapeutic procedure to apply massive bronchoalveolar fluid lavage in the early stage after inhalation injury.

  14. Laser-strophometry high-resolution technique for velocity gradient measurements in fluid flows

    CERN Document Server

    Staude, Wilfried

    2001-01-01

    This book describes techniques that allow the measurement of arbitrary velocity gradient components in fluids with high spatial and temporal resolution, e.g. turbulent fluids. The techniques are based on the properties of scattered laser light. The book gives a detailed and rigorous treatment of the physical and mathematical background in a pedagogical presentation accessible to students in physics and engineering. From both the theoretical and experimental points of view, four different schemes are discussed in detail; the schemes differ in the way the velocity of the moving pattern of the scattered laser light is measured.

  15. Acoustic resolution photoacoustic Doppler velocity measurements in fluids using time-domain cross-correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunker, J.; Beard, P.

    2013-03-01

    Blood flow measurements have been demonstrated using the acoustic resolution mode of photoacoustic sensing. This is unlike previous flowmetry methods using the optical resolution mode, which limits the maximum penetration depth to approximately 1mm. Here we describe a pulsed time correlation photoacoustic Doppler technique that is inherently flexible, lending itself to both resolution modes. Doppler time shifts are quantified via cross-correlation of pairs of photoacoustic waveforms generated in moving absorbers using pairs of laser light pulses, and the photoacoustic waves detected using an ultrasound transducer. The acoustic resolution mode is employed by using the transducer focal width, rather than the large illuminated volume, to define the lateral spatial resolution. The use of short laser pulses allows depth-resolved measurements to be obtained with high spatial resolution, offering the prospect of mapping flow within microcirculation. Whilst our previous work has been limited to a non-fluid phantom, we now demonstrate measurements in more realistic blood-mimicking phantoms incorporating fluid suspensions of microspheres flowing along an optically transparent tube. Velocities up to 110 mm/s were measured with accuracies approaching 1% of the known velocities, and resolutions of a few mm/s. The velocity range and resolution are scalable with excitation pulse separation, but the maximum measurable velocity was considerably smaller than the value expected from the detector focal beam width. Measurements were also made for blood flowing at velocities up to 13.5 mm/s. This was for a sample reduced to 5% of the normal haematocrit; increasing the red blood cell concentration limited the maximum measurable velocity so that no results were obtained for concentrations greater than 20% of a physiologically realistic haematocrit. There are several possible causes for this limitation; these include the detector bandwidth and irregularities in the flow pattern. Better

  16. RNA interference for CFTR attenuates lung fluid absorption at birth in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folkesson Hans G

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small interfering RNA (siRNA against αENaC (α-subunit of the epithelial Na channel and CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator was used to explore ENaC and CTFR function in newborn rat lungs. Methods Twenty-four hours after trans-thoracic intrapulmonary (ttip injection of siRNA-generating plasmid DNA (pSi-0, pSi-4, or pSi-C2, we measured CFTR and ENaC expression, extravascular lung water, and mortality. Results αENaC and CFTR mRNA and protein decreased by ~80% and ~85%, respectively, following αENaC and CFTR silencing. Extravascular lung water and mortality increased after αENaC and CFTR-silencing. In pSi-C2-transfected isolated DLE cells there were attenuated CFTR mRNA and protein. In pSi-4-transfected DLE cells αENaC mRNA and protein were both reduced. Interestingly, CFTR-silencing also reduced αENaC mRNA and protein. αENaC silencing, on the other hand, only slightly reduced CFTR mRNA and protein. Conclusion Thus, ENaC and CFTR are both involved in the fluid secretion to absorption conversion around at birth.

  17. Generation of Hydroxyl Radicals from Dissolved Transition Metals in Surrogate Lung Fluid Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrio, Edgar; Jung, Heejung; Anastasio, Cort

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological research has linked exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) to several adverse health effects, including cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and mortality. Despite these links, the mechanisms by which PM causes adverse health effects are poorly understood. The generation of hydroxyl radical (.OH) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) through transition metal-mediated pathways is one of the main hypotheses for PM toxicity. In order to better understand the ability of particulate transition metals to produce ROS, we have quantified the amounts of .OH produced from dissolved iron and copper in a cell-free, surrogate lung fluid (SLF). We also examined how two important biological molecules, citrate and ascorbate, affect the generation of .OH by these metals. We have found that Fe(II) and Fe(III) produce little .OH in the absence of ascorbate and citrate, but that they efficiently make .OH in the presence of ascorbate and this is further enhanced when citrate is also added. In the presence of ascorbate, with or without citrate, the oxidation state of iron makes little difference on the amount of .OH formed after 24 hours. In the case of Cu(II), the production of .OH is greatly enhanced in the presence of ascorbate, but is inhibited by the addition of citrate. The mechanism for this effect is unclear, but appears to involve formation of a citrate-copper complex that is apparently less reactive than free, aquated copper in either the generation of HOOH or in the Fenton-like reaction of copper with HOOH to make .OH. By quantifying the amount of .OH that Fe and Cu can produce in surrogate lung fluid, we have provided a first step into being able to predict the amounts of .OH that can be produced in the human lung from exposure to PM containing known amounts of transition metals.

  18. Glycoproteomics using so-called ‘fluid-biopsy’ specimens in the discovery of lung cancer biomarkers. Promise and challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing Kay; Gabrielson, Ed; Askin, Frederic; Chan, Daniel W; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the number one cancer in the US and worldwide. In spite of the rapid progression in personalized treatments, the overall survival rate of lung cancer patients is still suboptimal. Over the past decade, tremendous efforts have been focused on the discovery of protein biomarkers to facilitate the early detection and monitoring lung cancer progression during treatment. In addition to tumor tissues and cancer cell lines, a variety of biological material has been studied. Particularly in recent years, studies using fluid-based specimen or so-called “fluid-biopsy” specimen have progressed rapidly. Fluid specimens are relatively easier to collect than tumor tissue, and they can be repeatedly sampled during the disease progression. Glycoproteins have long been recognized to play fundamental roles in many physiological and pathological processes. In this review, we focus the discussion on recent advances of glycoproteomics, particularly in the identification of potential protein biomarkers using so-called fluid-based specimens in lung cancer. The purpose of this review is to summarize current strategies, achievements and perspectives in the field. This insight will highlight the discovery of tumor-associated glycoprotein biomarkers in lung cancer and their potential clinical applications. PMID:23112109

  19. Microvesicles Derived From Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Restore Alveolar Fluid Clearance in Human Lungs Rejected for Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennai, S; Monsel, A; Hao, Q; Park, J; Matthay, M A; Lee, J W

    2015-09-01

    The need to increase the donor pool for lung transplantation is a major public health issue. We previously found that administration of mesenchymal stem cells "rehabilitated" marginal donor lungs rejected for transplantation using ex vivo lung perfusion. However, the use of stem cells has some inherent limitation such as the potential for tumor formation. In the current study, we hypothesized that microvesicles, small anuclear membrane fragments constitutively released from mesenchymal stem cells, may be a good alternative to using stem cells. Using our well established ex vivo lung perfusion model, microvesicles derived from human mesenchymal stem cells increased alveolar fluid clearance (i.e. ability to absorb pulmonary edema fluid) in a dose-dependent manner, decreased lung weight gain following perfusion and ventilation, and improved airway and hemodynamic parameters compared to perfusion alone. Microvesicles derived from normal human lung fibroblasts as a control had no effect. Co-administration of microvesicles with anti-CD44 antibody attenuated these effects, suggesting a key role of the CD44 receptor in the internalization of the microvesicles into the injured host cell and its effect. In summary, microvesicles derived from human mesenchymal stem cells were as effective as the parent mesenchymal stem cells in rehabilitating marginal donor human lungs. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  20. THE ROLE OF POROUS MEDIA IN MODELING FLUID FLOW WITHIN HOLLOW FIBER MEMBRANES OF THE TOTAL ARTIFICIAL LUNG

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    A numerical study was conducted to analyze fluid flow within hollow fiber membranes of the artificial lungs. The hollow fiber bundle was approximated using a porous media model. In addition, the transport equations were solved using the finite-element formulation based on the Galerkin method of weighted residuals. Comparisons with previously published work on the basis of special cases were performed and found to be in excellent agreement. A Newtonian viscous fluid model for the blood was use...

  1. ICOS-expressing lymphocytes promote resolution of CD8-mediated lung injury in a mouse model of lung rejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wu

    Full Text Available Acute rejection, a common complication of lung transplantation, may promote obliterative bronchiolitis leading to graft failure in lung transplant recipients. During acute rejection episodes, CD8(+ T cells can contribute to lung epithelial injury but the mechanisms promoting and controlling CD8-mediated injury in the lung are not well understood. To study the mechanisms regulating CD8(+ T cell-mediated lung rejection, we used a transgenic model in which adoptively transferred ovalbumin (OVA-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL induce lung injury in mice expressing an ovalbumin transgene in the small airway epithelium of the lungs (CC10-OVA mice. The lung pathology is similar to findings in humans with acute lung transplant. In the presence of an intact immune response the inflammation resolves by day 30. Using CC10-OVA.RAG(-/- mice, we found that CD4(+ T cells and ICOS(+/+ T cells were required for protection against lethal lung injury, while neutrophil depletion was not protective. In addition, CD4(+Foxp3 (+ ICOS(+ T cells were enriched in the lungs of animals surviving lung injury and ICOS(+/+ Tregs promoted survival in animals that received ICOS(-/- T cells. Direct comparison of ICOS(-/- Tregs to ICOS(+/+ Tregs found defects in vitro but no differences in the ability of ICOS(-/- Tregs to protect from lethal lung injury. These data suggest that ICOS affects Treg development but is not necessarily required for Treg effector function.

  2. High-resolution compact shear stress sensor for direct measurement of skin friction in fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Muchen; Kim, Chang-Jin ``Cj''

    2015-11-01

    The high-resolution measurement of skin friction in complex flows has long been of great interest but also a challenge in fluid mechanics. Compared with indirect measurement methods (e.g., laser Doppler velocimetry), direct measurement methods (e.g., floating element) do not involve any analogy and assumption but tend to suffer from instrumentation challenges, such as low sensing resolution or misalignments. Recently, silicon micromachined floating plates showed good resolution and perfect alignment but were too small for general purposes and too fragile to attach other surface samples repeatedly. In this work, we report a skin friction sensor consisting of a monolithic floating plate and a high-resolution optical encoder to measure its displacement. The key for the high resolution is in the suspension beams, which are very narrow (e.g., 0.25 mm) to sense small frictions along the flow direction but thick (e.g., 5 mm) to be robust along all other directions. This compact, low profile, and complete sensor is easy to use and allows repeated attachment and detachment of surface samples. The sheer-stress sensor has been tested in water tunnel and towing tank at different flow conditions, showing high sensing resolution for skin friction measurement. Supported by National Science Foundation (NSF) (No. 1336966) and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) (No. HR0011-15-2-0021).

  3. Drug-induced lung disease: High-resolution CT and histological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleverley, Joanne R.; Screaton, Nicholas J.; Hiorns, Melanie P.; Flint, Julia D.A.; Mueller, Nestor L

    2002-04-01

    AIM: To compare the parenchymal high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) appearances with histological findings in patients with drug-induced lung disease and to determine the prognostic value of HRCT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Drug history, HRCT features, histological findings and outcome at 3 months in 20 patients with drug induced-lung disease were reviewed retrospectively. The HRCT images were assessed for the pattern and distribution of abnormalities and classified as most suggestive of interstitial pneumonitis/fibrosis, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), organizing pneumonia (OP) reaction, or a hypersensitivity reaction. RESULTS: On histopathological examination there were eight cases of interstitial pneumonitis/fibrosis, five of DAD, five of OP reactions, one of hypersensitivity reaction and one of pulmonary eosinophilia. The most common abnormalities on HRCT were ground-glass opacities (n = 17), consolidation (n = 14), interlobular septal thickening (n = 15) and centrilobular nodules (n 8). HRCT interpretation and histological diagnosis were concordant in only nine (45%) of 20 patients. The pattern, distribution, and extent of HRCT abnormalities were of limited prognostic value: all eight patients with histological findings of OP, hypersensitivity reaction, or eosinophilic infiltrate improved on follow-up compared to only five of 13 patients with interstitial pneumonitis/fibrosis or DAD. CONCLUSION: In many cases of drug-induced lung injury HRCT is of limited value in determining the histological pattern and prognosis. Cleverly, J.R. et al.

  4. Fusing visual and clinical information for lung tissue classification in high-resolution computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depeursinge, Adrien; Racoceanu, Daniel; Iavindrasana, Jimison; Cohen, Gilles; Platon, Alexandra; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Müller, Henning

    2010-09-01

    We investigate the influence of the clinical context of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images of the chest on tissue classification. 2D regions of interest in HRCT axial slices from patients affected with an interstitial lung disease are automatically classified into five classes of lung tissue. Relevance of the clinical parameters is studied before fusing them with visual attributes. Two multimedia fusion techniques are compared: early versus late fusion. Early fusion concatenates features in one single vector, yielding a true multimedia feature space. Late fusion consisting of the combination of the probability outputs of two support vector machines. The late fusion scheme allowed a maximum of 84% correct predictions of testing instances among the five classes of lung tissue. This represents a significant improvement of 10% compared to a pure visual-based classification. Moreover, the late fusion scheme showed high robustness to the number of clinical parameters used, which suggests that it is appropriate for mining clinical attributes with missing values in clinical routine. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibiting Lung Lining Fluid Glutathione Metabolism with GGsTop as a Novel Treatment for Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eTuzova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation. Inflammation is associated with oxidant stress. Airway epithelial cells are shielded from this stress by a thin layer of lung lining fluid (LLF which contains an abundance of the antioxidant glutathione. LLF glutathione metabolism is regulated by γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT. Loss of LLF GGT activity in the mutant GGTenu1 mouse causes an increase in baseline LLF glutathione content which is magnified in an IL-13 model of allergic airway inflammation and protective against asthma. Normal mice are susceptible to asthma in this model but can be protected with acivicin, a GGT inhibitor. GGT is a target to treat asthma but acivicin toxicity limits clinical use. GGsTop is a novel GGT inhibitor. GGsTop inhibits LLF GGT activity only when delivered through the airway. In the IL-13 model, mice treated with IL-13 and GGsTop exhibit a lung inflammatory response similar to that of mice treated with IL-13 alone. But mice treated with IL-13 and GGsTop show attenuation of methacholine-stimulated airway hyper-reactivity, inhibition of Muc5ac and Muc5b gene induction, decreased airway epithelial cell mucous accumulation and a 4-fold increase in LLF glutathione content compared to mice treated with IL-13 alone. Mice treated with GGsTop alone are no different from that of mice treated with saline alone, and show no signs of toxicity. GGsTop could represent a valuable pharmacological tool to inhibit LLF GGT activity in pulmonary disease models. The associated increase in LLF glutathione can protect lung airway epithelial cells against oxidant injury associated with inflammation in asthma.

  6. Continuum-kinetic-microscopic model of lung clearance due to core-annular fluid entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitran, Sorin

    2013-07-01

    The human lung is protected against aspirated infectious and toxic agents by a thin liquid layer lining the interior of the airways. This airway surface liquid is a bilayer composed of a viscoelastic mucus layer supported by a fluid film known as the periciliary liquid. The viscoelastic behavior of the mucus layer is principally due to long-chain polymers known as mucins. The airway surface liquid is cleared from the lung by ciliary transport, surface tension gradients, and airflow shear forces. This work presents a multiscale model of the effect of airflow shear forces, as exerted by tidal breathing and cough, upon clearance. The composition of the mucus layer is complex and variable in time. To avoid the restrictions imposed by adopting a viscoelastic flow model of limited validity, a multiscale computational model is introduced in which the continuum-level properties of the airway surface liquid are determined by microscopic simulation of long-chain polymers. A bridge between microscopic and continuum levels is constructed through a kinetic-level probability density function describing polymer chain configurations. The overall multiscale framework is especially suited to biological problems due to the flexibility afforded in specifying microscopic constituents, and examining the effects of various constituents upon overall mucus transport at the continuum scale.

  7. Continuum-kinetic-microscopic model of lung clearance due to core-annular fluid entrainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitran, Sorin, E-mail: mitran@unc.edu

    2013-07-01

    The human lung is protected against aspirated infectious and toxic agents by a thin liquid layer lining the interior of the airways. This airway surface liquid is a bilayer composed of a viscoelastic mucus layer supported by a fluid film known as the periciliary liquid. The viscoelastic behavior of the mucus layer is principally due to long-chain polymers known as mucins. The airway surface liquid is cleared from the lung by ciliary transport, surface tension gradients, and airflow shear forces. This work presents a multiscale model of the effect of airflow shear forces, as exerted by tidal breathing and cough, upon clearance. The composition of the mucus layer is complex and variable in time. To avoid the restrictions imposed by adopting a viscoelastic flow model of limited validity, a multiscale computational model is introduced in which the continuum-level properties of the airway surface liquid are determined by microscopic simulation of long-chain polymers. A bridge between microscopic and continuum levels is constructed through a kinetic-level probability density function describing polymer chain configurations. The overall multiscale framework is especially suited to biological problems due to the flexibility afforded in specifying microscopic constituents, and examining the effects of various constituents upon overall mucus transport at the continuum scale.

  8. Monitoring of experimental rat lung transplants by high-resolution flat-panel volumetric computer tomography (fpVCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greschus, Susanne; Kuchenbuch, Tim; Plötz, Christian; Obert, Martin; Traupe, Horst; Padberg, Winfried; Grau, Veronika; Hirschburger, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive assessment of experimental lung transplants with high resolution would be favorable to exclude technical failure and to follow up graft outcome in the living animal. Here we describe a flat-panel Volumetric Computed Tomography (fpVCT) technique using a prototype scanner. Lung transplantation was performed in allogeneic as well as in corresponding syngeneic rat strain combinations. At different time points post-transplantation, fpVCT was performed. Lung transplants can be visualized in the living rat with high-spatial resolution. FpVCT allows a detailed analysis of the lung and the bronchi. Infiltrates developing during rejection episodes can be diagnosed and follow-up studies can easily be performed. With fpVCT it is possible to control the technical success of the surgical procedure. Graft rejection can be visualized individually in the living animal noninvasively, which is highly advantageous for studying the pathogenesis of chronic rejection or to monitor new therapies.

  9. Fluid flow along North American Cordillera detachments determined from stable isotope and high resolution chemical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilichini, A.; Teyssier, C.; Mulch, A.; Nachlas, W.

    2009-12-01

    Fluid flow is likely a major parameter controlling the dynamics of extensional detachment zones. Buoyancy-driven fluid flow is generated by high heat flow beneath the detachment zone, where heat is advected by crustal thinning and magma intrusions. This hydrothermal convective flow is focused in the detachment zone for the duration of activity of the detachment at relatively high temperature (300-500°C), resulting in very significant fluid-rock interaction and isotopic exchange. Quantifying sources and fluid flux in detachments is a challenge because permeability of ductilely deforming rocks is poorly understood. In order to solve these problems, we studied two different Eocene extensional systems in the North American Cordillera: the quartzitic detachment which borders the Kettle dome metamorphic core complex (WA), and the quartzo-feldspathic Bitterroot shear zone along the Idaho batholith (MT). The Kettle Dome detachment provides a continuous section of ~200 m thick quartzite mylonite where high-resolution sampling (~5 m) indicates that Deuterium isotopic ratios that are obtained from synkinematic muscovite grains are consistent with a meteoric fluid source (-130 per mil). In the Bitterroot shear zone, Coyner (2003) reported similar Deuterium isotopic ratios (down to -140 per mil) in muscovite from mylonites and ultramylonites. Microprobe analyses were obtained for white mica porphyroclasts by performing transects perpendicular to the basal (001) cleavage in order to determine intragrain chemical zoning. Preliminary results for the Kettle dome indicate increasing phengite composition with depth, suggesting enhanced activity of the Tschermak exchange. The variations of the phengitic signature in muscovite indicates that temperature diminuish downsection, which is contradictory with the results obtained by the Qz-Ms oxygen isotope thermometer along the Kettle section. Our recent work provides geologic data for numerical models that address the permeability of

  10. Measurement of Fluid Flow in Pipe and Porous Media by High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Lan-lan; SONG Yong-chen; LIU Yu; DOU Bin-lin; ZHU Ning-jun; ZHAO Jia-fei; BULITI Abudula

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the process of fluid flow in pipe and porous media with different pore structures.High-resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique was used to visualize the pore structure and measure fluid flow.The porous media was formed by packed bed of glass beads.Flow measurement was carried out by a modified spin echo sequence.The results show that the velocity distribution in pipe is annular and the linear relation between MRI velocity and actual velocity is found in pipe flow measurement.The flow distribution in porous media is rather heterogeneous,and it is consistent with heterogeneous pore structure.The flow through pores with the high volume flow rate is determined largely by geometrical effects such as pore size and cross-sectional area.

  11. Role of Alveolar β2-Adrenergic Receptors on Lung Fluid Clearance and Exercise Ventilation in Healthy Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolillo, Stefania; Pellegrino, Riccardo; Salvioni, Elisabetta; Contini, Mauro; Iorio, Annamaria; Bovis, Francesca; Antonelli, Andrea; Torchio, Roberto; Gulotta, Carlo; Locatelli, Alessandro; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Background In experimental conditions alveolar fluid clearance is controlled by alveolar β2-adrenergic receptors. We hypothesized that if this occurs in humans, then non-selective β-blockers should reduce the membrane diffusing capacity (DM), an index of lung interstitial fluid homeostasis. Moreover, we wondered whether this effect is potentiated by saline solution infusion, an intervention expected to cause interstitial lung edema. Since fluid retention within the lungs might trigger excessive ventilation during exercise, we also hypothesized that after the β2-blockade ventilation increased in excess to CO2 output and this was further enhanced by interstitial edema. Methods and Results 22 healthy males took part in the study. On day 1, spirometry, lung diffusion for carbon monoxide (DLCO) including its subcomponents DM and capillary volume (VCap), and cardiopulmonary exercise test were performed. On day 2, these tests were repeated after rapid 25 ml/kg saline infusion. Then, in random order 11 subjects were assigned to oral treatment with Carvedilol (CARV) and 11 to Bisoprolol (BISOPR). When heart rate fell at least by 10 beats·min−1, the tests were repeated before (day 3) and after saline infusion (day 4). CARV but not BISOPR, decreased DM (−13±7%, p = 0.001) and increased VCap (+20±22%, p = 0.016) and VE/VCO2 slope (+12±8%, p<0.01). These changes further increased after saline: −18±13% for DM (p<0.01), +44±28% for VCap (p<0.001), and +20±10% for VE/VCO2 slope (p<0.001). Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that in humans in vivo the β2-alveolar receptors contribute to control alveolar fluid clearance and that interstitial lung fluid may trigger exercise hyperventilation. PMID:23613962

  12. High-resolution computed tomography of the lungs in pediatric patients; Hochaufloesende Computertomographie der Lunge im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, M.; Oppermann, H.C.; Biederer, J.; Heller, M. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Kiel (Germany); Ankermann, T. [Klinik fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie, Universitaetsklinikum Kiel (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    Since the introduction of the high-resolution technique more than ten years ago, HRCT has become an established modality for diagnosing diseases of the respiratory system. This is especially true for the diagnosis of lung diseases in adults. Experience in HRCT of the lungs is limited in pediatric patients. This review gives an overview of frequent and less frequent HRCT findings in pulmonary diseases in childhood. A purely reticular pattern is rarely observed in infants. Pulmonary diseases associated with overinflation are relatively frequent. Paired inspiratory-expiratory scans combine morphological analysis with functional information and have improved the diagnosis of air trapping, e.g. in post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Especially in children the high radiation exposure is a problem. Even when applying a low-dose protocol the radiation dose of HRCT will still exceed the dose of a chest X-ray by 100 times. The indication for pediatric pulmonary HRCT is limited to selected cases and it should be decided in agreement with the pediatric radiologists and the pediatric pulmonologists. (orig.) [German] Seit Einfuehrung der hochaufloesenden Computertomographie (HRCT) vor gut 10 Jahren hat sich diese Untersuchungstechnik fuer die Diagnostik von Erkrankungen der Atemwege und des Lungenparenchyms etabliert. Dies gilt vor allem fuer Lungenerkrankungen im Erwachsenenalter. Demgegenueber bestehen vergleichsweise wenig Erfahrungen mit der HRCT in der paediatrischen Lungendiagnostik. In der vorliegenden Uebersichtsarbeit werden HRCT-Befunde bei haeufigen und seltener vorkommenden Lungenerkrankungen bei Kindern beschrieben. Ein rein retikulaeres Muster ist im Kindesalter selten. Demgegenueber werden mit einer pulmonalen Obstruktion (Air trapping) einhergehende Erkrankungen gehaeuft beobachtet. Paarige Inspirations-Exspirationsaufnahmen ergaenzen die rein strukturelle Analyse um eine funktionelle Komponente und haben sich bei obstruktiven

  13. Pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin in bovine plasma, lung tissue, and bronchial fluid (from live, nonanesthetized cattle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menge, M; Rose, M; Bohland, C; Zschiesche, E; Kilp, S; Metz, W; Allan, M; Röpke, R; Nürnberger, M

    2012-12-01

    The pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin (Zuprevo(®) 180 mg/mL solution for injection for cattle), a novel 16-membered macrolide for treatment, control, and prevention of bovine respiratory disease, were investigated in studies collecting blood plasma, lung tissue, and in vivo samples of bronchial fluid (BF) from cattle. After single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection at 4 mg/kg body weight, maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) was 0.7 μg/mL. T(max) was 23 min. Mean residence time from the time of dosing to the time of last measurable concentration (MRT(last)) and terminal half-life (T(1/2) ) was 6 and 9 days, respectively. A strong dose-response relationship with no significant sex effect was shown for both C(max) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to the last sampling time with a quantifiable drug concentration (AUC(last) ) over the range of doses up to 6 mg/kg. Absolute bioavailability was 78.9%. The volume of distribution based on the terminal phase (V(z)) was 49.4 L/kg, and the plasma clearance was 144 mL/h/kg. The time-concentration profile of tildipirosin in BF and lung far exceeded those in blood plasma. In lung, tildipirosin concentrations reached 9.2 μg/g at 4 h, peaked at 14.8 μg/g at day 1, and slowly declined to 2.0 μg/g at day 28. In BF, the concentration of tildipirosin reached 1.5 and 3.0 μg/g at 4 and 10 h, maintained a plateau of about 3.5 μg/g between day 1 and 3, and slowly declined to 1.0 at day 21. T(1/2) in lung and BF was approximately 10 and 11 days. Tildipirosin is rapidly and extensively distributed to the respiratory tract followed by slow elimination.

  14. Post-mortem high-resolution computed tomography of the lung: radiologic-morphologic correlation. Postmortale hochaufloesende Computertomographie der Lunge: Radiologisch-morphologische Korrelationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, N.; Diederich, X.; Lenzen, H.; Wiesmann, J.; Peters, P.E. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik und Poliklinik); Fahrenkamp, A.; Puskas, Z. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Gerhard-Domagk-Institut fuer Pathologie); Holst, D. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Anaesthesiologie und Operative Intensivmedizin); Lunkenheimer, P.P. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Thorax-, Herz- und Gefaesschirurgie)

    1993-03-01

    To establish precise correlations between high-resolution computed tomography (CT) and normal pulmonary anatomy and pulmonary pathology, 49 lungs affected by different diseases were analysed. Post-mortem high-resolution CT scans were compared with the corresponding macroscopic and microscopic pathological findings. For scanning, lungs were inflated and fixed, which avoided any decrease in the structural resolution of pulmonary parenchyma and allowed a topographically exact correlation between CT appearances and morphological changes. After demonstration of the structural details relevant for CT in normal pulmonary parenchyma, an attempt is made to establish the morphological basis of the following CT phenomena: thickening of interlobular septae, increase in pulmonary translucency, consolidation of the non-nodular alveolar and of the nodular type, and changes in the pleural region. Although CT findings in pulmonary lesions are mainly non-specific, knowledge of the corresponding morphological basis is helpful in diagnostic evaluation. (orig.).

  15. Changes in Stroke Volume Induced by Lung Recruitment Maneuver Predict Fluid Responsiveness in Mechanically Ventilated Patients in the Operating Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biais, Matthieu; Lanchon, Romain; Sesay, Musa; Le Gall, Lisa; Pereira, Bruno; Futier, Emmanuel; Nouette-Gaulain, Karine

    2017-02-01

    Lung recruitment maneuver induces a decrease in stroke volume, which is more pronounced in hypovolemic patients. The authors hypothesized that the magnitude of stroke volume reduction through lung recruitment maneuver could predict preload responsiveness. Twenty-eight mechanically ventilated patients with low tidal volume during general anesthesia were included. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, stroke volume, and pulse pressure variations were recorded before lung recruitment maneuver (application of continuous positive airway pressure of 30 cm H2O for 30 s), during lung recruitment maneuver when stroke volume reached its minimal value, and before and after volume expansion (250 ml saline, 0.9%, infused during 10 min). Patients were considered as responders to fluid administration if stroke volume increased greater than or equal to 10%. Sixteen patients were responders. Lung recruitment maneuver induced a significant decrease in mean arterial pressure and stroke volume in both responders and nonresponders. Changes in stroke volume induced by lung recruitment maneuver were correlated with those induced by volume expansion (r = 0.56; P recruitment maneuver predicted fluid responsiveness with a sensitivity of 88% (95% CI, 62 to 98) and a specificity of 92% (95% CI, 62 to 99). Pulse pressure variations more than 6% before lung recruitment maneuver discriminated responders with a sensitivity of 69% (95% CI, 41 to 89) and a specificity of 75% (95% CI, 42 to 95). The area under receiver operating curves generated for changes in stroke volume induced by lung recruitment maneuver (0.96; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.99) was significantly higher than that for pulse pressure variations (0.72; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.88; P recruitment maneuver could predict preload responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients in the operating room.

  16. Resolution of vocal fold leukoplakia during erlotinib treatment for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, David O; Misono, Stephanie; Somerville, Jessica; McWhorter, Andrew; Garrett, C Gaelyn

    2016-02-01

    Treatment of vocal fold leukoplakia is complicated because it is associated with a high rate of recurrence after excision and it has the potential for progression to malignancy. Authors have presented different approaches to management, one of which is directed serial excisional biopsies. Ideally, a topical or systemic agent could be administered to eradicate this troublesome condition. We present the case of a patient with an 8-year history of vocal fold leukoplakia treated with directed serial biopsies who was subsequently diagnosed with non-small-cell lung cancer and treated with erlotinib. He experienced a complete resolution after 2 months of erlotinib therapy for his lung cancer. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that his lesion exhibited a much higher than normal expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which supports the idea that EGFR antagonism may combat EGFR-avid leukoplakia. However, we caution that the clinical observation made herein is an association and should not be misconstrued as a recommendation regarding the safety, efficacy, or economy of using erlotinib for the treatment of vocal fold leukoplakia.

  17. Release of beryllium from mineral ores in artificial lung and skin surface fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duling, Matthew G; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Lawrence, Robert B; Chipera, Steve J; Virji, M Abbas

    2012-06-01

    Exposure to some manufactured beryllium compounds via skin contact or inhalation can cause sensitization. A portion of sensitized persons who inhale beryllium may develop chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Little is understood about exposures to naturally occurring beryllium minerals. The purpose of this study was to assess the bioaccessibility of beryllium from bertrandite ore. Dissolution of bertrandite from two mine pits (Monitor and Blue Chalk) was evaluated for both the dermal and inhalation exposure pathways by determining bioaccessibility in artificial sweat (pH 5.3 and pH 6.5), airway lining fluid (SUF, pH 7.3), and alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid (PSF, pH 4.5). Significantly more beryllium was released from Monitor pit ore than Blue Chalk pit ore in artificial sweat buffered to pH 5.3 (0.88 ± 0.01% vs. 0.36 ± 0.00%) and pH 6.5 (0.09 ± 0.00% vs. 0.03 ± 0.01%). Rates of beryllium released from the ores in artificial sweat were faster than previously measured for manufactured forms of beryllium (e.g., beryllium oxide), known to induce sensitization in mice. In SUF, levels of beryllium were below the analytical limit of detection. In PSF, beryllium dissolution was biphasic (initial rapid diffusion followed by latter slower surface reactions). During the latter phase, dissolution half-times were 1,400 to 2,000 days, and rate constants were ~7 × 10(-10) g/(cm(2)·day), indicating that bertrandite is persistent in the lung. These data indicate that it is prudent to control skin and inhalation exposures to bertrandite dusts.

  18. Rapid hybrid encoding for high-resolution whole-brain fluid-attenuated imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoonjae; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Jaeseok

    2013-12-01

    Single-slab three-dimensional (3D) turbo spin-echo (TSE) imaging combined with inversion recovery (IR), which employs short, spatially non-selective refocusing pulses and signal prescription based variable refocusing flip angles (VFA) to increase imaging efficiency, was recently introduced to produce fluid-attenuated brain images for lesion detection. Despite the advantages, the imaging efficiency in this approach still remains limited because a substantially long time of inversion is needed to selectively suppress the signal intensity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) while fully recovering that of brain tissues. The purpose of this work is to develop a novel, rapid hybrid encoding method for highly efficient whole-brain fluid-attenuated imaging. In each time of repetition, volumetric data are continuously encoded using the hybrid modular acquisition in a sequential fashion even during IR signal transition, wherein reversed fast imaging with steady-state free precession (PSIF) is employed to encode intermediate-to-high spatial frequency signals prior to CSF nulling, while VFA-TSE is used to collect low-to-intermediate spatial frequency signals afterwards. Gradient-induced spin de-phasing between a pair of neighboring radio-frequency (RF) pulses in both PSIF and TSE modules is kept identical to avoid the occurrence of multiple echoes in a single acquisition window. Additionally, a two-step, alternate RF phase-cycling scheme is employed in the low spatial frequency region to eliminate free induction decay induced edge artifacts. Numerical simulations of the Bloch equations were performed to evaluate signal evolution of brain tissues along the echo train while optimizing imaging parameters. In vivo studies demonstrate that the proposed technique produces high-resolution isotropic fluid-attenuated whole-brain images in a clinically acceptable imaging time with substantially high signal-to-noise ratio for white matter while retaining lesion conspicuity.

  19. High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, Andrew F. T.; Islam, M. Sirajul; Kitchen, Marcus J. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Fouras, Andreas [Division of Biological Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Wallace, Megan J.; Hooper, Stuart B. [Ritchie Centre and Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Described herein is a new technique for measuring regional lung air volumes from two-dimensional propagation-based phase contrast x-ray (PBI) images at very high spatial and temporal resolution. Phase contrast dramatically increases lung visibility and the outlined volumetric reconstruction technique quantifies dynamic changes in respiratory function. These methods can be used for assessing pulmonary disease and injury and for optimizing mechanical ventilation techniques for preterm infants using animal models. Methods: The volumetric reconstruction combines the algorithms of temporal subtraction and single image phase retrieval (SIPR) to isolate the image of the lungs from the thoracic cage in order to measure regional lung air volumes. The SIPR algorithm was used to recover the change in projected thickness of the lungs on a pixel-by-pixel basis (pixel dimensions {approx}16.2 {mu}m). The technique has been validated using numerical simulation and compared results of measuring regional lung air volumes with and without the use of temporal subtraction for removing the thoracic cage. To test this approach, a series of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups mechanically ventilated at different frequencies was employed. Results: Regional lung air volumes measured from PBI images of newborn rabbit pups showed on average an improvement of at least 20% in 16% of pixels within the lungs in comparison to that measured without the use of temporal subtraction. The majority of pixels that showed an improvement was found to be in regions occupied by bone. Applying the volumetric technique to sequences of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups, it is shown that lung aeration at birth can be highly heterogeneous. Conclusions: This paper presents an image segmentation technique based on temporal subtraction that has successfully been used to isolate the lungs from PBI chest images, allowing the change in lung air volume to be measured over regions as small as the pixel size. Using

  20. Generation of hydroxyl radicals from ambient fine particles in a surrogate lung fluid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrio, Edgar; Phuah, Chin H; Dillner, Ann M; Anastasio, Cort

    2009-02-01

    While it has been hypothesized that the adverse health effects associated with ambient particulate matter (PM) are due to production of hydroxyl radical (*OH), few studies have quantified *OH production from PM. Here we report the amounts of *OH produced from ambient fine particles (PM2.5) collected in northern California and extracted in a cell-free surrogate lung fluid (SLF). On average, the extracted particles produced 470 nmol *OH mg(-1)-PM2.5 during our 15-month collection period. There was a clear seasonal pattern in the efficiency with which particles generated *OH, with highest production during spring and summer and lowest during winter. In addition, nighttime PM was typically more efficient than daytime PM at generating *OH. Transition metals played the dominant role in *OH production: on average (+/-sigma), the addition of desferoxamine (a chelator that prevents metals from forming *OH) to the SLF removed (90 +/- 5) % of *OH generation. Furthermore, based on the concentrations of Fe in the PM2.5 SLF extracts, and the measured yield of *OH as a function of Fe concentration, dissolved iron can account for the majority of *OH produced in most of our PM2.5 extracts.

  1. THE ROLE OF POROUS MEDIA IN MODELING FLUID FLOW WITHIN HOLLOW FIBER MEMBRANES OF THE TOTAL ARTIFICIAL LUNG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanafer, Khalil; Cook, Keith; Marafie, Alia

    2012-01-01

    A numerical study was conducted to analyze fluid flow within hollow fiber membranes of the artificial lungs. The hollow fiber bundle was approximated using a porous media model. In addition, the transport equations were solved using the finite-element formulation based on the Galerkin method of weighted residuals. Comparisons with previously published work on the basis of special cases were performed and found to be in excellent agreement. A Newtonian viscous fluid model for the blood was used. Different flow models for porous media, such as the Brinkman-extended Darcy model, Darcy's law model, and the generalized flow model, were considered. Results were obtained in terms of streamlines, velocity vectors, and pressure distribution for various Reynolds numbers and Darcy numbers. The results from this investigation showed that the pressure drop across the artificial lung device increased with an increase in the Reynolds number. In addition, the pressure drop was found to increase significantly for small Darcy numbers.

  2. Comparative analysis of amniotic fluid lamellar body count and foam stability test as indices of fetal lung maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnjevac Nemanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn caused by the fetal lung immaturity is a very serious clinical problem. Different tests of prenatal analysis of amniotic fluid, such as lamellar body count and Clements’ test, are available for predicting the fetal lung maturity. Material and methods. A prospective clinical study was conducted on amniotic fluid samples from 2005 to 2006. The amniotic fluid samples were obtained at the gestational age of 30 to 42 weeks and collected by vaginal amniotomy, amniotomy during Caesarean section and 72 hours before the delivery by amniocentesis. A haematology analyzer (Nikon-Kohden® was used to determine the lamellar body counts. Clements’ test involved adding an equal volume of 96% ethanol to the multiple amniotic fluid volume (1:2, 1:4, 1:16, 1:32, followed by shaking and noting the presence of ring of bubbles. After the delivery, we compared the lamellar body count results and Clements’ test and the outcome of pregnancies, primarily the development of respiratory distress syndrome. The most specific lamellar body cutoffs for maturity and immaturity were determined according to receiver operating characteristic curves. Results and Discussion. Out of 232 amniotic fluid samples which were tested, 112 samples were collected after vaginal amniotomy, 88 during the Caesarean delivery and 32 samples by amniocentesis. The overall incidence of respiratory distress syndrome was 14.6%. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to identify cutoff points for the test. We found that both tests are good screening tests for predicting the fetal lung maturity with the area under the curve of 0.782 in Clements’ test and 0.751 in the lamellar body count. Clements’ cutoff 2 with sensitivity of 67.6% and specificity of 72.2%, proved best in the prediction of the fetal lung maturity. The lamellar body count cutoff of 42x10³/μl had the sensitivity of 82.4% and specificity of 64.6% in predicting

  3. Rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease: lung inflammation evaluated with high resolution computed tomography scan is correlated to rheumatoid arthritis disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Dórame, Renzo; Mejía, Mayra; Mateos-Toledo, Heidegger; Rojas-Serrano, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    To describe the association between rheumatoid arthritis disease activity (RA) and interstitial lung damage (inflammation and fibrosis), in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). A retrospective study of RA patients with interstitial lung disease (restrictive pattern in lung function tests and evidence of interstitial lung disease in high resolution computed tomography (HRCT)). Patients were evaluated to exclude other causes of pulmonary disease. RA disease activity was measured with the CDAI index. Interstitial lung inflammation and fibrosis were determined by Kazerooni scale. We compared Kazerooni ground-glass score with the nearest CDAI score to HRCT date scan of the first medical evaluation at our institution. In nine patients, we compared the first ground-glass score with a second one after treatment with DMARDs and corticosteroids. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to evaluate association between RA disease activity and the Kazerooni ground-glass and fibrosis scores. Thirty-four patients were included. A positive correlation between CDAI and ground-glass scores was found (rs=0.3767, PFibrosis and CDAI scores were not associated (rs=-0.0747, P<0.6745). After treatment, a downward tendency in the ground-glass score was observed (median [IQR]): (2.33 [2,3] vs. 2 [1.33-2.16]), P<0.056, along with a lesser CDAI score (27 [8-43] vs. 9 [5-12]), P<0.063. There is a correlation between RA disease activity and ground-glass appearance in the HRCT of RA-ILD patients. These results suggest a positive association between RA disease activity and lung inflammation in RA-ILD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Phenylephrine on Alveolar Fluid Clearance in Ventilator-induced Lung Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nai-jing Li; Xiu Gu; Wei Li; Yan Li; Sheng-qi Li; Ping He

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of phenylephrine (an α-adrenergic agonist) on alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) in ventilator-induced lung injury and the possible mechanism involved. Methods A total of 170 male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 17 groups (n=10) using ran-dom number tables. Short-term (40 minutes) mechanical ventilation with high tidal volume (HVT) was per-formed to induce lung injury,impair active Na+ transport and lung liquid clearance in the rats. Unventilated rats served as controls. To demonstrate the effect of phenylephrine on AFC,phenylephrine at different con-centrations (1×10-5,1×10-6,1×10-7,1×10-8,and 1×10-9 mol/L) was injected into the alveolar space of the HVT ventilated rats. To identify the influence of adrenergic antagonists,Na+ channel,and microtubular sys-tem on the effect of phenylephrine,phenylephrine at 1×10-5 mol/L combined with prazosin (an α1-adrener-gic antagonist,1×10-4 mol/L),yohimbine (an α2-adrenergic antagonist,1×10-4 mol/L),atenolol (a β1-adrenergic antagonist,1×10-5 mol/L),ICI-118551 (an β2-adrenergic antagonist,1×10-5 mol/L),amiloride (a Na+ channel blocker,5×10-4 mol/L),ouabain (a Na+/K+-ATPase blocker,5×10-4 mol/L),colchicine (a mi-crotubular disrupting agent,0.25 mg/100 g body weight),or β-lumicolchicine (an isomer of colchicine,0.25 mg/100 g body weight) were perfused into the alveolar space of the rats ventilated with HVT for 40 minutes. AFC and total lung water content were measured. Results Basal AFC in control rats was (17.47±2.56)%/hour,which decreased to (9.64± 1.32)%/hour in HVT ventilated rats (P=0.003). The perfusion of phenylephrine at 1×10-8,1×10-7,1×10-6,and 1×10-5 mol/L significantly increased the AFC in HVT ventilated rats (all P<0.05). This effect of phenylephrine on AFC was suppressed by prazosin,atenolol,and ICI-118551 in HVT ventilated rats by 53%,31%,and 37%,respectively (all P<0.05). The AFC-stimulating effect of phenylephrine was lowered by 33% and 42% with

  5. High-resolution computed tomographic findings of Aspergillus infection in lung transplant patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzoni, Fernando Ferreira, E-mail: gazzoni4@gmail.com [Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Av. Cristovão Colombo 4105, ap.603-C, Post Code: 90560-005, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Hochhegger, Bruno, E-mail: brunohochhegger@gmail.com [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Severo, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: severo@santacasa.tche.br [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2400, 2° andar, Post Code: 90035-003, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Radiology Department, Av. Pedro Calmon, n° 550 – Cidade Universitária, Post Code: 21941-901, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pasqualotto, Alessandro, E-mail: acpasqualotto@hotmail.com [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Sartori, Ana Paula Garcia, E-mail: ana_sartori@hotmail.com [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Schio, Sadi, E-mail: smschio@hotmail.com [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Camargo, José, E-mail: jjcamargo@terra.com.br [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings at presentation in lung transplant patients diagnosed with pulmonary Aspergillus infection. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed HRCT findings from 23 patients diagnosed with pulmonary aspergillosis. Imaging studies were performed 2–5 days after the onset of symptoms. The patient sample comprised 12 men and 11 women aged 22–59 years (mean age, 43.6 years). All patients had dyspnea, tachypnea, and cough. Diagnoses were established with Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassays for galactomannan antigen detection in bronchoalveolar lavage and recovery of symptoms, and HRCT findings after voriconazole treatment. The HRCT scans were reviewed independently by two observers who reached a consensus decision. Results: The main HRCT pattern, found in 65% (n = 15) of patients, was centrilobular tree-in-bud nodules associated with bronchial thickening. This pattern was described in association with areas of consolidation and ground-glass opacities in 13% (n = 3) of patients. Consolidation and ground-glass opacities were the main pattern in 22% (n = 5) of patients. The pattern of large nodules with and without the halo sign was observed in 13% (n = 3) of patients, and were associated with consolidation and ground-glass opacities in one case. Conclusion: The predominant HRCT findings in lung transplant patients with pulmonary aspergillosis were bilateral bronchial wall thickening and centrilobular opacities with the tree-in-bud pattern. Ground-glass opacities and/or bilateral areas of consolidation were also common findings. Pulmonary nodules with the halo sign were found in only 13% of patients.

  6. The subclinical involvement of the lung in rheumatoid arthritis: evaluation by high-resolution computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bichi Secchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary involvement is one of the most frequent extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA and represents a serious complication, being the second cause of death after infection. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT, owing to its increased sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy respect to the conventional chest radiograph (CXR, allows to detect pulmonary abnormalities in RA patients more frequently than CXR. The aim of this study was to assess pulmonary involvement by HRCT in lifelong non-smoking RA patients without symptoms and clinical signs of pulmonary disease. Seventy-two patients (54 women and 18 men with a mean age of 56.8±10.4 years (range, 40- 77 years and mean duration of disease of 6.9±4.7 years (range, 2-12 years entered the study. 52/72 (72% were positive for rheumatoid factor (> 20 UI/ml. Standard CXR and HRCT were carried out in each patient. CXR showed a mild interstitial fibrosis in 7 patients (9.7%, whereas HRCT demonstrated pulmonary abnormalities in an higher number of them (22/72 = 30.5%. The most frequent abnormal findings on HRCT were irregular pleural margins (13.8% and septal/subpleural lines (18%, both compatible with pulmonary fibrosis. Ground-glass opacities were found in 8.3% of the patients. Pulmonary nodules (diameter, range 0,5-2 cm predominantly located in the subpleural portions of the lung, were demonstrated in the same percentage (8.3% of patients. Small airway involvement, represented by bronchiectasis/bronchioloectasis, was shown in 15.2% of patients. Subpleural cysts were present in two cases (2.8%. No patient had evidence of honeycombing on HRCT. In conclusion, HRCT is an accurate, non-invasive and safe method of diagnosing lung abnormalities in RA patients without signs and clinical symptoms of pulmonary disease...

  7. Buffer optimization for high resolution of human lung cancer tissue proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kibeom; Pi, Kyungbae; Lee, Keeman

    2009-01-01

    A problem in proteomic analysis of lung cancer tissue is the presence of complex components of different histological backgrounds (squamous cell carcinoma, small cell lung carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma). The efficient solubilization of protein components before two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) is a very critical. Poor solubilization has been associated with a failure to detect proteins and diffuse, streaked and/or trailing protein spots. Here, we have optimized the solubilization of human lung cancer tissue to increase protein resolution. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) rehydration buffer containing a thiourea-urea mixture provided superior resolution, whereas a buffer without thiourea yielded consistently poor results. In addition, IEF rehydration buffers containing CHAPS and DTT gave superior resolution, whereas buffers containing Nonidet P-40 (NP-40) and/or Triton X-100 did not. A tributylphosphine-containing buffer gave consistently poor results. Using optimized conditions, we used 2-D gel analysis of human lung cancer tissue to identify 11 differentially-expressed protein spots by MALDI-mass spectrometry. This study provides a methodological tool to study the complex mammalian proteomes.

  8. Super-Resolution Microscopy of Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers as a Tool for Alzheimer's Disease Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William I; Antonios, Gregory; Rabano, Alberto; Bayer, Thomas A; Schneider, Anja; Rizzoli, Silvio O

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is neuropathologically characterized by aggregates of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) and tau proteins. The consensus in the AD field is that Aβ and tau should serve as diagnostic biomarkers for AD. However, their aggregates have been difficult to investigate by conventional fluorescence microscopy, since their size is below the diffraction limit (∼200 nm). To solve this, we turned to a super-resolution imaging technique, stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, which has a high enough precision to allow the discrimination of low- and high-molecular weight aggregates prepared in vitro. We used STED to analyze the structural organization of Aβ and tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 36 AD patients, 11 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 21 controls. We measured the numbers of aggregates in the CSF samples, and the aggregate sizes and intensities. These parameters enabled us to distinguish AD patients from controls with a specificity of ∼87% and a sensitivity of ∼79% . In addition, the aggregate parameters determined with STED microscopy correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment in AD patients. Finally, these parameters may be useful as predictive tools for MCI cases. The STED parameters of two MCI patients who developed AD during the course of the study, as well as of MCI patients whose Aβ ELISA values fall within the accepted range for AD, placed them close to the AD averages. We suggest that super-resolution imaging is a promising tool for AD diagnostics.

  9. Changes in lung parenchyma after acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): assessment with high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noebauer-Huhmann, I.-M.; Eibenberger, K.; Schaefer-Prokop, C.; Herold, C.J. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Steltzer, H.; Strasser, K.; Fridrich, P. [Dept. of General Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Schlick, W. [Dept. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the appearance, extent, and distribution of parenchymal changes in the lung after acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as a function of disease severity and therapeutic procedures. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), clinical examination, and lung function tests were performed in 15 patients, 6-10 months after ARDS. The appearance and extent of parenchymal changes were compared with the severity of ARDS, as well as with clinical and therapeutic data. Lung parenchymal changes resembling those found in the presence of pulmonary fibrosis were observed in 13 of 15 patients (87%). The changes were significantly more frequent and more pronounced in the ventral than in the dorsal portions of the lung (p<0.01). A significant correlation was observed between the extent of lung alterations and the severity of ARDS (p<0.01), and the duration in which patients had received mechanical ventilation either with a peak inspiratory pressure greater than 30 mmHg (p<0.05), or with more than 70% oxygen (p<0.01). Acute respiratory distress syndrome frequently is followed by fibrotic changes in lung parenchyma. The predominantly ventral distribution of these changes indicates that they may be caused by the ventilation regimen and the oxygen therapy rather than by the ARDS. (orig.)

  10. Ultra-High-Resolution Computed Tomography of the Lung: Image Quality of a Prototype Scanner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutaro Kakinuma

    Full Text Available The image noise and image quality of a prototype ultra-high-resolution computed tomography (U-HRCT scanner was evaluated and compared with those of conventional high-resolution CT (C-HRCT scanners.This study was approved by the institutional review board. A U-HRCT scanner prototype with 0.25 mm x 4 rows and operating at 120 mAs was used. The C-HRCT images were obtained using a 0.5 mm x 16 or 0.5 mm x 64 detector-row CT scanner operating at 150 mAs. Images from both scanners were reconstructed at 0.1-mm intervals; the slice thickness was 0.25 mm for the U-HRCT scanner and 0.5 mm for the C-HRCT scanners. For both scanners, the display field of view was 80 mm. The image noise of each scanner was evaluated using a phantom. U-HRCT and C-HRCT images of 53 images selected from 37 lung nodules were then observed and graded using a 5-point score by 10 board-certified thoracic radiologists. The images were presented to the observers randomly and in a blinded manner.The image noise for U-HRCT (100.87 ± 0.51 Hounsfield units [HU] was greater than that for C-HRCT (40.41 ± 0.52 HU; P < .0001. The image quality of U-HRCT was graded as superior to that of C-HRCT (P < .0001 for all of the following parameters that were examined: margins of subsolid and solid nodules, edges of solid components and pulmonary vessels in subsolid nodules, air bronchograms, pleural indentations, margins of pulmonary vessels, edges of bronchi, and interlobar fissures.Despite a larger image noise, the prototype U-HRCT scanner had a significantly better image quality than the C-HRCT scanners.

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Experimental Characterization of the Pediatric Pump-Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongjun J; Gellman, Barry; Zhang, Tao; Taskin, M Ertan; Dasse, Kurt A; Griffith, Bartley P

    2011-12-01

    The pediatric pump-lung (PediPL) is a miniaturized integrated pediatric pump-oxygenator specifically designed for cardiac or cardiopulmonary support for patients weighing 5-20 kg to allow mobility and extended use for 30 days. The PediPL incorporates a magnetically levitated impeller with uniquely configured hollow fiber membranes into a single unit capable of performing both pumping and gas exchange. A combined computational and experimental study was conducted to characterize the functional and hemocompatibility performances of this newly developed device. The three-dimensional flow features of the PediPL and its hemolytic characteristics were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics based modeling. The oxygen exchange was modeled based on a convection-diffusion-reaction process. The hollow fiber membranes were modeled as a porous medium which incorporates the flow resistance in the bundle by an added momentum sink term. The pumping function was evaluated for the required range of operating conditions (0.5-2.5 L/min and 1000-3000 rpm). The blood damage potentials were further analyzed in terms of flow and shear stress fields, and the calculations of hemolysis index. In parallel, the hydraulic pump performance, oxygen transfer and hemolysis level were quantified experimentally. Based on the computational and experimental results, the PediPL device is found to be functional to provide necessary oxygen transfer and blood pumping requirements for the pediatric patients. Smooth blood flow characteristics and low blood damage potential were observed in the entire device. The in-vitro tests further confirmed that the PediPL can provide adequate blood pumping and oxygen transfer over the range of intended operating conditions with acceptable hemolytic performance. The rated flow rate for oxygenation is 2.5 L/min. The normalized index of hemolysis is 0.065 g/100L at 1.0 L/min and 3000 rpm.

  12. Factors influencing the microbial composition of metalworking fluids and potential implications for machine operator's lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat, Jean-Benjamin; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Reboux, Gabriel; Penven, Emmanuelle; Batchili, Adam; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Thaon, Isabelle; Millon, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, also known as "machine operator's lung" (MOL), has been related to microorganisms growing in metalworking fluids (MWFs), especially Mycobacterium immunogenum. We aimed to (i) describe the microbiological contamination of MWFs and (ii) look for chemical, physical, and environmental parameters associated with variations in microbiological profiles. We microbiologically analyzed 180 MWF samples from nonautomotive plants (e.g., screw-machining or metal-cutting plants) in the Franche-Comté region in eastern France and 165 samples from three French automotive plants in which cases of MOL had been proven. Our results revealed two types of microbial biomes: the first was from the nonautomotive industry, showed predominantly Gram-negative rods (GNR), and was associated with a low risk of MOL, and the second came from the automotive industry that was affected by cases of MOL and showed predominantly Gram-positive rods (GPR). Traces of M. immunogenum were sporadically detected in the first type, while it was highly prevalent in the automotive sector, with up to 38% of samples testing positive. The use of chromium, nickel, or iron was associated with growth of Gram-negative rods; conversely, growth of Gram-positive rods was associated with the absence of these metals. Synthetic MWFs were more frequently sterile than emulsions. Vegetable oil-based emulsions were associated with GNR, while mineral ones were associated with GPR. Our results suggest that metal types and the nature of MWF play a part in MWF contamination, and this work shall be followed by further in vitro simulation experiments on the kinetics of microbial populations, focusing on the phenomena of inhibition and synergy.

  13. Clinical study of rheumatoid interstitial lung disease evaluated by high resolution CT

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    Okuda, Yasuaki; Takasugi, Kiyoshi; Imai, Atsuko; Oyama, Tetsu; Oyama, Hiroko (Dohgo Spa Hospital, Matsuyama (Japan)); Kawamura, Sachiko

    1993-02-01

    High resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans were obtained in 215 patients with rheumatoid arthritis to assess pulmonary fibrosis (PF). We classified the HRCT appearances as five-point scale (0-4) based on the degrees of PF. We found 117 cases (54.4%) of PF on HRCT. Patients with PF (grade 1-4) showed significantly increased leucocyte cell counts and significantly worsened pulmonary function test than patients without PF (grade 0). Patients with advanced articular involvement had significantly higher prevalence of PF than others without them. Patients who were previously or currently receiving gold sodium thiomalate (GST) injection or administration of methotrexate had higher prevalence of PF than others. However, patients who were receiving long term GST therapy (1 year long or [Sigma]1000 mg) had slightly lower prevalence of PF than others. This finding suggests that dose-dependent lung injury is not related to GST therapy. Patients with advanced PF (grade 3, 4) had high prevalence of male sex, smoker, extraarticular manifestation. (author).

  14. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in non-small-cell lung cancer: initial response to erlotinib followed by relapse despite continuing radiological resolution of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alvin J X; Benamore, Rachel; Hofer, Monika; Chitnis, Meenali

    2016-09-01

    A 60-year-old male was diagnosed with T3, N3, M1b epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant lung adenocarcinoma. Five months later he developed significant headaches, weakness and numbness of the left leg, and unsteadiness of gait. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain demonstrated subtle gyral enhancement indicative of early leptomeningeal infiltration. He was commenced on second-line erlotinib which improved his lower limb symptoms. Three months later he developed increased urinary frequency and redeveloped leg symptoms. MRI brain showed improvement in the gyral enhancement. Four weeks later, the patient developed new onset confusion and decrease in mobility. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) demonstrated leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. This case demonstrates radiological and clinical response of leptomeningeal disease to erlotinib in EGFR mutant lung cancer with subsequent clinical relapse despite continued radiological resolution of leptomeningeal disease. This suggests that CSF examination should be considered when monitoring leptomeningeal disease response following treatment as the disease can be undetectable on repeat radiological imaging.

  15. Bronchoalveolar lavage cellular analyses in conjunction with high-resolution computed tomography imaging as a diagnostic intervention for patients with suspected interstitial lung disease

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    Ammaiyappan Chockalingam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL has gained acceptance for diagnosis of Interstitial lung disease (ILD. The advent of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT has reduced the clinical utility of BAL. This work has utilized the recommendations of the American Thoracic Society (ATS to optimize BAL and the findings have been associated with clinical examination and HRCT to precisely narrow down the cause of ILD. Materials and Methods: BAL was performed on ILD suspects at the target site chosen based on HRCT. The procedure, transport, processing, and analysis of BAL fluid were performed as per the ATS guidelines. The clinical data, HRCT findings and BAL report were used to narrow down the diagnosis of ILD. The statistical analysis was performed to assess the significance. Results: The BAL procedure was optimized as per the recommendations of the ATS. In a cohort of 50 patients, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, (8 hypersensitivity pneumonitis, (17 connective tissue disorder, (9 sarcoidosis, (3 pneumoconiosis, (5 acute respiratory distress syndrome, (2 eosinophilic lung disease (2 and lymphangitic carcinomatosa, (2 aspiration bronchiolitis (1 and pulmonary histiocytosis (1 were diagnosed. Statistically significant variation in differential counts was found in different ILDs. The different ILDs were classified based on the criteria described by the ATS. Clinical Significance: BAL along with clinical and HRCT findings improved the diagnostic accuracy by incorporating, the acute or chronic nature of the disease and the cause for acute exacerbation, which helped in the better management of ILDs.

  16. Laser-assisted inkjet printing of highly viscous fluids with sub-nozzle resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrot, Paul; Modestino, Miguel A.; Psaltis, Demetri; Moser, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Drop-on-demand inkjet printing is mostly based on thermal and piezo-actuation, allowing for densely packed nozzles in inkjet printers. However, the droplet diameter is typically defined by the nozzle diameter, thus limiting the range of viscosity that can be jetted to 10-100 mPa.s to prevent nozzle clogging. Here, we present a laser-assisted system for the delivery of micro-droplets of highly viscous fluids with sub-nozzle resolution. Highly focused supersonic jets have recently been demonstrated by focusing a nanosecond pulse of light into a micro-capillary filled with dyed water, hence generating a cavitation bubble. The consequent pressure wave impact on the concave free surface of the liquid generated flow-focused micro-jets. We implemented this technique for the production of low velocity micro-droplets with photopolymer inks of increasing viscosity (0.6-148 mPa.s) into a 300 μm-wide glass capillary using low laser energies (3-70 μJ). Time-resolved imaging provided details on the droplet generation. Single micro-droplets of diameter 70-80 μm were produced on demand with inks of viscosity 0.6-9 mPa.s with good controllability and reproducibility, thus enabling to print two-dimensional patterns with a precision of 13 μm. Furthermore, the primary droplet produced with the most viscous fluid was about 66% of the capillary diameter. Preliminary results also showed that the process is linearly scalable to narrower capillaries (100-200 μm), thus paving the way for a compact laser-assisted inkjet printer. A possible application of the device would be additive manufacturing as the printed patterns could be consequently cured.

  17. Tumor necrosis factor-α accelerates the resolution of established pulmonary fibrosis in mice by targeting profibrotic lung macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redente, Elizabeth F; Keith, Rebecca C; Janssen, William; Henson, Peter M; Ortiz, Luis A; Downey, Gregory P; Bratton, Donna L; Riches, David W H

    2014-04-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a relentless, fibrotic parenchymal lung disease in which alternatively programmed macrophages produce profibrotic molecules that promote myofibroblast survival and collagen synthesis. Effective therapies to treat patients with IPF are lacking, and conventional therapy may be harmful. We tested the hypothesis that therapeutic lung delivery of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α into wild-type fibrotic mice would reduce the profibrotic milieu and accelerate the resolution of established pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrosis was assessed in bleomycin-instilled wild-type and TNF-α(-/-) mice by measuring hydroxyproline levels, static compliance, and Masson's trichrome staining. Macrophage infiltration and programming status was assessed by flow cytometry of enzymatically digested lung and in situ immunostaining. Pulmonary delivery of TNF-α to wild-type mice with established pulmonary fibrosis was found to reduce their fibrotic burden, to improve lung function and architecture, and to reduce the number and programming status of profibrotic alternatively programmed macrophages. In contrast, fibrosis and alternative macrophage programming were prolonged in bleomycin-instilled TNF-α(-/-) mice. To address the role of the reduced numbers of alternatively programmed macrophages in the TNF-α-induced resolution of established pulmonary fibrosis, we conditionally depleted macrophages in MAFIA (MAcrophage Fas-Induced Apoptosis) mice. Conditional macrophage depletion phenocopied the resolution of established pulmonary fibrosis observed after therapeutic TNF-α delivery. Taken together, our results show for the first time that TNF-α is involved in the resolution of established pulmonary fibrosis via a mechanism involving reduced numbers and programming status of profibrotic macrophages. We speculate that pulmonary delivery of TNF-α or augmenting its signaling pathway represent a novel therapeutic strategy to resolve

  18. High Resolution Ultrasound and Photoacoustic Imaging of Orthotopic Lung Cancer in Mice: New Perspectives for Onco-Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobilo, Julien; Le Mée, Marilyne; Rétif, Stéphanie; Natkunarajah, Sharuja; Lerondel, Stéphanie; Le Pape, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We have developed a relevant preclinical model associated with a specific imaging protocol dedicated to onco-pharmacology studies in mice. Materials and Methods We optimized both the animal model and an ultrasound imaging procedure to follow up longitudinally the lung tumor growth in mice. Moreover we proposed to measure by photoacoustic imaging the intratumoral hypoxia, which is a crucial parameter responsible for resistance to therapies. Finally, we compared ultrasound data to x-ray micro computed tomography and volumetric measurements to validate the relevance of this approach on the NCI-H460 human orthotopic lung tumor. Results This study demonstrates the ability of ultrasound imaging to detect and monitor the in vivo orthotopic lung tumor growth by high resolution ultrasound imaging. This approach enabled us to characterize key biological parameters such as oxygenation, perfusion status and vascularization of tumors. Conclusion Such an experimental approach has never been reported previously and it would provide a nonradiative tool for assessment of anticancer therapeutic efficacy in mice. Considering the absence of ultrasound propagation through the lung parenchyma, this strategy requires the implantation of tumors strictly located in the superficial posterior part of the lung. PMID:27070548

  19. Positive Fluid Balance Is Associated with Higher Mortality and Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation in Pediatric Patients with Acute Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi R. Flori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We analyzed a database of 320 pediatric patients with acute lung injury (ALI, to test the hypothesis that positive fluid balance is associated with worse clinical outcomes in children with ALI. Methods. This is a post-hoc analysis of previously collected data. Cumulative fluid balance was analyzed in ml per kilogram per day for the first 72 hours after ALI while in the PICU. The primary outcome was mortality; the secondary outcome was ventilator-free days. Results. Positive fluid balance (in increments of 10 mL/kg/24 h was associated with a significant increase in both mortality and prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation, independent of the presence of multiple organ system failure and the extent of oxygenation defect. These relationships remained unchanged when the subgroup of patients with septic shock (n=39 were excluded. Conclusions. Persistently positive fluid balance may be deleterious to pediatric patients with ALI. A confirmatory, prospective randomized controlled trial of fluid management in pediatric patients with ALI is warranted.

  20. Additional diagnostic value of tumor markers in cytological fluid for diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer

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    Hur Jin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytological fluid from a needle aspiration biopsy (NAB is obtained directly from tumor tissue, therefore many biomarker candidates will be present in high concentrations. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess and validate the tumor markers CYFRA 21–1, CEA, and SCC in cytological fluid obtained from NAB samples to determine if they improved the performance of NAB for diagnosing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods A total of 194 patients (M:F = 128:66, mean age 63.7 years with suspected malignant pulmonary lesions were prospectively enrolled and underwent percutaneous NAB. Levels of CYFRA 21–1, CEA, and SCC were measured by immunoassay in serum and cytological fluid obtained during aspiration biopsy. Cut-off values to determined malignancy were 3.3 ng/mL in serum and 15.7 ng/mL in cytological fluid for CYFRA 21–1, 5 ng/mL and 0.6 ng/mL for CEA, and 2 ng/mL and 0.86 ng/mL for SCC. Results Of 194 patients, 139 patients (71.6% had NSCLC and 55 (28.4% had benign lesions. Sensitivity increased significantly for NAB combined with cytological tumor markers compared with NAB alone (CYFRA 21–1: 95% versus 83.5%, p Conclusion Of the tested tumor markers, cytological fluid measurements of CYFRA 21–1 improved the diagnostic performance of NAB for NSCLC.

  1. Lung parenchyma changes in ankylosing spondylitis: demonstration with high resolution CT and correlation with disease duration

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    Senocak, Oezlem E-mail: emine.senocak@deu.edu.tr; Manisali, Metin; Oezaksoy, Dinc; Sevinc, Can; Akalin, Elif

    2003-02-01

    Objective: To analyze the spectrum of the lung parenchyma changes in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) with high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and correlate the findings with disease duration. Material and methods: Twenty patients (18 male, 2 female) with the diagnosis of AS according to New York criteria were included in the study. None of the patients had history of tuberculosis, prolonged inorganic dust exposure and hospitalization for pneumonia. Seven of the patients were smokers, three patients were ex-smokers, and 10 patients were nonsmokers. The patients were assigned to three groups depending on disease duration. Group 1: patients with disease duration {<=}5 years (n: four patients), group 2: patients with disease duration {>=}6 years but {<=}10 years (n: four patients), group 3: patients with disease duration {>=}11 years (n: 12 patients). HRCT and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were performed in all patients. Results: HRCT demonstrated pathology in 17 patients (85%). Two patients in group 1, 4 patients in group 2 and 11 patients in group 3 had pulmonary parenchyma changes. Emphysema (9/20), septal thickening (9/20) and pleural thickening (9/20) were the most common changes followed by nodule (8/20) and subpleural band formation (7/20). Three patients had apical fibrosis (AF). Septal and pleural thickening (both 4/10) were the most common changes when only nonsmokers were considered. Among nine patients with emphysema three were nonsmokers. Conclusion: There is a wide spectrum in pulmonary parenchyma changes in AS. These changes begin in early stages of the disease and increase with disease duration. Although smoking complicates the spectrum of changes in pulmonary parenchyma, they are predominately in the form of interstitial inflammation.

  2. The Tumor Cytosol miRNAs, Fluid miRNAs and Exosome miRNAs in Lung Cancer

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    Xin eQin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this review is to provide an update on the progress of microRNAs (miRNAs as potential biomarkers for lung cancer. miRNAs are single-stranded, small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression and show tissue-specific signatures. Accumulating evidence indicates that miRNA expression patterns represent the in vivo status in physiology and disease. Moreover, miRNAs are stable in serum and other clinically convenient and available tissue sources, so they are being developed as biomarkers for cancer and other diseases. Cancer is currently the primary driver of the field, but miRNA biomarkers are being developed for many other diseases such as cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases. Here we examine the framework and scope of the miRNA landscape as it specifically relates to the translation of miRNA expression patterns/signatures into biomarkers for developing diagnostics for lung cancer. We focus on examining tumor cytosol miRNAs, fluid miRNAs, and exosome miRNAs in lung cancer, the connections among these miRNAs, and the potential of miRNA biomarkers for the development of diagnostics. In lung cancer, miRNAs have been studied in both cell populations and in the circulation. However, a major challenge is to develop biomarkers to monitor cancer development and to identify circulating miRNAs that are linked to cancer stage. Importantly, the fact that miRNAs can be successfully harvested from biological fluids allows for the development of biofluid biopsies, in which miRNAs as circulating biomarkers can be captured and analyzed ex vivo. Our hope is that these minimally invasive entities provide a window to the in vivo milieu of the patients without the need for costly, complex invasive procedures, rapidly moving miRNAs from research to the clinic.

  3. Soluble leukocyte-Associated Ig-like Receptor-1 in amniotic fluid is of fetal origin and positively associates with lung compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Michiel L; Olde Nordkamp, Marloes J M; Nikkels, Peter G J; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Meyaard, Linde; Bont, Louis

    2013-01-01

    The soluble form of the inhibitory immune receptor leukocyte-Associated Ig-like Receptor-1 (sLAIR-1) is present in plasma, urine and synovial fluid and correlates to inflammation. We and others previously showed inflammatory protein expression in normal amniotic fluid at term. We hypothesized that sLAIR-1 is present in amniotic fluid during term parturition and is related to fetal lung function development. sLAIR-1 was detectable in all amniotic fluid samples (n=355) collected during term spontaneous deliveries. First, potential intra-uterine origins of amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 were explored. Although LAIR-1 was expressed on the surface of amniotic fluid neutrophils, LAIR-1 was not secreted upon ex vivo neutrophil stimulation with LPS, or PMA/ionomycin. Cord blood concentrations of sLAIR-1 were fourfold lower than and not related to amniotic fluid concentrations and placentas showed no or only sporadic LAIR-1 positive cells. Similarly, in post-mortem lung tissue of term neonates that died of non-pulmonary disorders LAIR-1 positive cells were absent or only sporadically present. In fetal urine samples, however, sLAIR-1 levels were even higher than in amniotic fluid and correlated with amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 concentrations. Second, the potential relevance of amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 was studied. sLAIR-1 concentrations had low correlation to amniotic fluid cytokines. We measured neonatal lung function in a convenient subset of 152 infants, using the single occlusion technique, at a median age of 34 days (IQR 30-39). The amniotic fluid concentration of sLAIR-1 was independently correlated to airway compliance (ρ=0.29, P=.001). Taken together, we show the consistent presence of sLAIR-1 in amniotic fluid, which originates from fetal urine. Concentrations of sLAIR-1 in amniotic fluid during term deliveries are independent from levels of other soluble immune mediators. The positive association between concentrations of amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 and neonatal lung compliance

  4. Soluble leukocyte-Associated Ig-like Receptor-1 in amniotic fluid is of fetal origin and positively associates with lung compliance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel L Houben

    Full Text Available The soluble form of the inhibitory immune receptor leukocyte-Associated Ig-like Receptor-1 (sLAIR-1 is present in plasma, urine and synovial fluid and correlates to inflammation. We and others previously showed inflammatory protein expression in normal amniotic fluid at term. We hypothesized that sLAIR-1 is present in amniotic fluid during term parturition and is related to fetal lung function development. sLAIR-1 was detectable in all amniotic fluid samples (n=355 collected during term spontaneous deliveries. First, potential intra-uterine origins of amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 were explored. Although LAIR-1 was expressed on the surface of amniotic fluid neutrophils, LAIR-1 was not secreted upon ex vivo neutrophil stimulation with LPS, or PMA/ionomycin. Cord blood concentrations of sLAIR-1 were fourfold lower than and not related to amniotic fluid concentrations and placentas showed no or only sporadic LAIR-1 positive cells. Similarly, in post-mortem lung tissue of term neonates that died of non-pulmonary disorders LAIR-1 positive cells were absent or only sporadically present. In fetal urine samples, however, sLAIR-1 levels were even higher than in amniotic fluid and correlated with amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 concentrations. Second, the potential relevance of amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 was studied. sLAIR-1 concentrations had low correlation to amniotic fluid cytokines. We measured neonatal lung function in a convenient subset of 152 infants, using the single occlusion technique, at a median age of 34 days (IQR 30-39. The amniotic fluid concentration of sLAIR-1 was independently correlated to airway compliance (ρ=0.29, P=.001. Taken together, we show the consistent presence of sLAIR-1 in amniotic fluid, which originates from fetal urine. Concentrations of sLAIR-1 in amniotic fluid during term deliveries are independent from levels of other soluble immune mediators. The positive association between concentrations of amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 and neonatal lung

  5. Novel methodology for accurate resolution of fluid signatures from multi-dimensional NMR well-logging measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Vivek

    2017-03-01

    A novel methodology for accurate fluid characterization from multi-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well-logging measurements is introduced. This methodology overcomes a fundamental challenge of poor resolution of features in multi-dimensional NMR distributions due to low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of well-logging measurements. Based on an unsupervised machine-learning concept of blind source separation, the methodology resolves fluid responses from simultaneous analysis of large quantities of well-logging data. The multi-dimensional NMR distributions from a well log are arranged in a database matrix that is expressed as the product of two non-negative matrices. The first matrix contains the unique fluid signatures, and the second matrix contains the relative contributions of the signatures for each measurement sample. No a priori information or subjective assumptions about the underlying features in the data are required. Furthermore, the dimensionality of the data is reduced by several orders of magnitude, which greatly simplifies the visualization and interpretation of the fluid signatures. Compared to traditional methods of NMR fluid characterization which only use the information content of a single measurement, the new methodology uses the orders-of-magnitude higher information content of the entire well log. Simulations show that the methodology can resolve accurate fluid responses in challenging SNR conditions. The application of the methodology to well-logging data from a heavy oil reservoir shows that individual fluid signatures of heavy oil, water associated with clays and water in interstitial pores can be accurately obtained.

  6. Effect of interleukin-2 treatment combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia on Lewis lung cancer-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Runlei; Ma, Shenglin; Ke, Xianfu; Jiang, Hong; Wei, Dongshan; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of interleukin-2 (IL-2) treatment combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) on Lewis lung cancer-bearing mice. Magnetic fluids were prepared in vitro and directly injected into the tumors in the mice, which were subjected to an alternating magnetic field. The temperature in the tumor reached 43°C and was maintained by controlling the strength of magnetic field for 30 min. Twenty-four hours later, IL-2 was injected directly into the tumors. Mice were divided into four groups: Group I (control), II (MFH), III (IL-2) and IV (IL-2+MFH). The tumor grew gradually in groups II and IV (both Pbearing mice.

  7. High Resolution Discovery Proteomics Reveals Candidate Disease Progression Markers of Alzheimer's Disease in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid.

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    Ronald C Hendrickson

    Full Text Available Disease modifying treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD constitute a major goal in medicine. Current trends suggest that biomarkers reflective of AD neuropathology and modifiable by treatment would provide supportive evidence for disease modification. Nevertheless, a lack of quantitative tools to assess disease modifying treatment effects remains a major hurdle. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biochemical markers such as total tau, p-tau and Ab42 are well established markers of AD; however, global quantitative biochemical changes in CSF in AD disease progression remain largely uncharacterized. Here we applied a high resolution open discovery platform, dMS, to profile a cross-sectional cohort of lumbar CSF from post-mortem diagnosed AD patients versus those from non-AD/non-demented (control patients. Multiple markers were identified to be statistically significant in the cohort tested. We selected two markers SME-1 (p<0.0001 and SME-2 (p = 0.0004 for evaluation in a second independent longitudinal cohort of human CSF from post-mortem diagnosed AD patients and age-matched and case-matched control patients. In cohort-2, SME-1, identified as neuronal secretory protein VGF, and SME-2, identified as neuronal pentraxin receptor-1 (NPTXR, in AD were 21% (p = 0.039 and 17% (p = 0.026 lower, at baseline, respectively, than in controls. Linear mixed model analysis in the longitudinal cohort estimate a decrease in the levels of VGF and NPTXR at the rate of 10.9% and 6.9% per year in the AD patients, whereas both markers increased in controls. Because these markers are detected by mass spectrometry without the need for antibody reagents, targeted MS based assays provide a clear translation path for evaluating selected AD disease-progression markers with high analytical precision in the clinic.

  8. High resolution computed tomography of the lung in neutropenic febrile patients; Hochaufloesende Computertomographie der Lunge bei neutropenischen Patienten mit Fieber

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    Heussel, C.P. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie; Kauczor, H.U. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie; Matzke, G. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Haematologie; Fischer, B. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Pneumologie; Mildenberger, P. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie

    1996-05-01

    Chest X-ray and HRCT were prospectively performed to exclude pneumonia in 34 patients (53 examinations) suffering from febrile neutropenia following antitumorous therapy. Diagnosis was confirmed by bronchoalveolar lavage or sputum cultures. Cest X-ray showed pneumonia in 13/53 examinations, in 12/13 a micro-organism was found. HRCT demonstrated pneumonia in 39/53, in 31/39 a mirco-organism was found. All cases with positive cultures showed suspicious HRCT findings. Changes in antibiotical treatment resulted in findings suspicious for pneumonia and evidence of a new or a just treated micro-organism (chest X-ray 8/53, HRCT 31/53); the search for the source of fever was escalated in cases without evidence of micro-organisms and without suspicion of pneumonia findings 14/53. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Prospektiv wurden bei 34 Patienten (53 Untersuchungen), bei denen im Rahmen einer antitumoroesen Therapie eine Neutropenie und Fieber aufgetreten waren, zum Pneumonieausschluss eine konventionelle Thoraxaufnahme und eine hochaufloesende Computertomographie (HRCT) durchgefuehrt. Die Sicherung der Diagnose erfolgte durch bronchoalveolaere Lavage sowie durch Routinesputumkulturen. In der konventionellen Roentgenuntersuchung der Lunge zeigte sich ein pneumonisches Infiltrat in 13/53 Faellen, ein Keimnachweis war in 12/13 Faellen zu fuehren. Die HRCT zeigte in 39/53 Faellen pneumonieverdaechtige Veraenderungen. In 31/39 Faellen liess sich ein Keim aus der Lunge nachweisen. Alle Faelle mit Keimnachweis waren in der HRCT pneumonieverdaechtig. Eine Aenderung des Antibiotikakonzeptes ergab sich durch pneumonieverdaechtige Befunde und den mikrobiologischen Nachweis eines nicht oder kurzzeitig abgedeckten Keimes (Roentgenthorax: 8/53, HRCT 31/53); aus dem fehlenden Keimnachweis bei unauffaelliger Lungenuntersuchung resultierte eine Ausdehnung der Suche nach der Fieberursache 14/53. (orig./MG)

  9. Dispersion of atmospheric fine particulate matters in simulated lung fluid and their effects on model cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiuhua; Wang, Lixin; Cao, Zhaoyu; Zhou, Xuehua; Yang, Fan; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Zhenhua; Hu, Jingtian; Ding, Lei; Jiang, Wei

    2016-01-15

    Atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was collected to investigate its dispersion in simulated lung fluid (SLF) and its interaction with model cell membranes. Organic acids, NH4(+), SO4(2-) and NO3(-) were detected in PM2.5 soluble fraction, and heavy metals were detected from the total mass. The insoluble fraction contained kaolinite, CaCO3, aliphatic carbons, aromatic rings, carboxyl and hydroxyl groups reflected by the infrared spectra. Proteins dispersed PM2.5 in SLF, resulted in smaller hydrodynamic diameter (dH) and slower sedimentation rate. Conversely, phospholipids increased dH value and accelerated sedimentation rate. Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) and supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) were used as model cell membranes. PM2.5 adhered on and disrupted the membrane containing positively-charged lipids but not the membrane containing neutrally- and negatively-charged lipids, which was monitored by microscopy and a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The cationic sites on membrane were necessary for PM2.5 adhesion, but membrane should be disrupted by the combined action of electrostatic forces and hydrogen bonds between PM2.5 oxygen containing groups and the lipid phosphate groups. Our results specified the roles of proteins and phospholipids in PM2.5 dispersion and transport, highly suggested that the health hazard of PM2.5 was related to the biomolecules in the lung fluid and the particle surface groups.

  10. Impacts of antioxidants on hydroxyl radical production from individual and mixed transition metals in a surrogate lung fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Jessica G.; Anastasio, Cort

    2011-12-01

    Inhalation of ambient particulate matter causes morbidity and mortality in humans. One hypothesized mechanism of toxicity is the particle-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - including the highly damaging hydroxyl radical ( rad OH) - followed by inflammation and a variety of diseases. While past studies have found correlations between ROS formation and a variety of metals, there are no quantitative measurements of rad OH formation from transition metals at concentrations relevant to 24-hour ambient particulate exposure. This research reports specific and quantitative measurements of rad OH formation from 10 individual transition metals (and several mixtures) in a cell-free surrogate lung fluid (SLF) with four antioxidants: ascorbate, citrate, glutathione, and uric acid. We find that Fe and Cu can produce rad OH under all antioxidant conditions as long as ascorbate is present and that mixtures of the two metals synergistically increase rad OH production. Manganese and vanadium can also produce rad OH under some conditions, but given that their ambient levels are typically very low, these metals are not likely to chemically produce significant levels of rad OH in the lung fluid. Cobalt, chromium, nickel, zinc, lead, and cadmium do not produce rad OH under any of our experimental conditions. The antioxidant composition of our SLF significantly affects rad OH production from Fe and Cu: ascorbate is required for rad OH formation, citrate increases rad OH production from Fe, and both citrate and glutathione suppress rad OH production from Cu. MINTEQ ligand speciation modeling indicates that citrate and glutathione affect rad OH production by changing metal speciation, altering the reactivity of the metals. In the most realistic SLF (i.e., with all four antioxidants), Fe generates approximately six times more rad OH than does the equivalent amount of Cu. Since levels of soluble Fe in PM are typically higher than those of Cu, our results suggest that Fe

  11. High-resolution signatures of oxygenation and microbiological activity in speleothem fluid inclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Blamey, Nigel J. F.; Penelope J. Boston; Laura Rosales-Lagarde

    2016-01-01

    Speleothems frequently host “fossil” fluids that were trapped in small inclusions during growth. Such fluids may provide valuable clues to past microbial, geochemical, and climatic processes during their formation. However, one difficulty is to understand which gases represent background atmosphere and fluids within a given cave system at a particular time, and which may be the product of post-trapping residual microbial activity or abiotic chemical reactions? Do we have any hope of sorting o...

  12. Time-resolved PIV technique for high temporal resolution measurement of mechanical prosthetic aortic valve fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, R; Morbiducci, U; Rossi, M; Scalise, L; Verdonck, P; Grigioni, M

    2007-02-01

    Prosthetic heart valves (PHVs) have been used to replace diseased native valves for more than five decades. Among these, mechanical PHVs are the most frequently implanted. Unfortunately, these devices still do not achieve ideal behavior and lead to many complications, many of which are related to fluid mechanics. The fluid dynamics of mechanical PHVs are particularly complex and the fine-scale characteristics of such flows call for very accurate experimental techniques. Adequate temporal resolution can be reached by applying time-resolved PIV, a high-resolution dynamic technique which is able to capture detailed chronological changes in the velocity field. The aim of this experimental study is to investigate the evolution of the flow field in a detailed time domain of a commercial bileaflet PHV in a mock-loop mimicking unsteady conditions, by means of time-resolved 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The investigated flow field corresponded to the region immediately downstream of the valve plane. Spatial resolution as in "standard" PIV analysis of prosthetic valve fluid dynamics was used. The combination of a Nd:YLF high-repetition-rate double-cavity laser with a high frame rate CMOS camera allowed a detailed, highly temporally resolved acquisition (up to 10000 fps depending on the resolution) of the flow downstream of the PHV. Features that were observed include the non-homogeneity and unsteadiness of the phenomenon and the presence of large-scale vortices within the field, especially in the wake of the valve leaflets. Furthermore, we observed that highly temporally cycle-resolved analysis allowed the different behaviors exhibited by the bileaflet valve at closure to be captured in different acquired cardiac cycles. By accurately capturing hemodynamically relevant time scales of motion, time-resolved PIV characterization can realistically be expected to help designers in improving PHV performance and in furnishing comprehensive validation with experimental data

  13. Impaired resolution of inflammatory response in the lungs of JF1/Msf mice following carbon nanoparticle instillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Angelis Martin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Declined lung function is a risk factor for particulate matter associated respiratory diseases like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Carbon nanoparticles (CNP are a prominent component of outdoor air pollution that causes pulmonary toxicity mainly through inflammation. Recently we demonstrated that mice (C3H/HeJ with higher than normal pulmonary function resolved the elicited pulmonary inflammation following CNP exposure through activation of defense and homeostasis maintenance pathways. To test whether CNP-induced inflammation is affected by declined lung function, we exposed JF1/Msf (JF1 mice with lower than normal pulmonary function to CNP and studied the pulmonary inflammation and its resolution. Methods 5 μg, 20 μg and 50 μg CNP (Printex 90 were intratracheally instilled in JF1 mice to determine the dose response and the time course of inflammation over 7 days (20 μg dosage. Inflammation was assessed using histology, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL analysis and by a panel of 62 protein markers. Results 24 h after instillation, 20 μg and 50 μg CNP caused a 25 fold and 19 fold increased polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN respectively while the 5 μg represented the 'no observable adverse effect level' as reflected by PMN influx (9.7 × 10E3 vs 8.9 × 10E3, and BAL/lung concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Time course assessment of the inflammatory response revealed that compared to day1 the elevated BAL PMN counts (246.4 × 10E3 were significantly decreased at day 3 (72.9 × 10E3 and day 7 (48.5 × 10E3 but did not reach baseline levels indicating slow PMN resolution kinetics. Strikingly on day 7 the number of macrophages doubled (455.0 × 10E3 vs 204.7 × 10E3 and lymphocytes were 7-fold induced (80.6 × 10E3 vs 11.2 × 10E3 compared to day1. At day 7 elevated levels of IL1B, TNF, IL4, MDC/CCL22, FVII, and vWF were detected in JF1 lungs which can be associated to macrophage and lymphocyte

  14. Fluid biopsy for circulating tumor cell identification in patients with early-and late-stage non-small cell lung cancer: a glimpse into lung cancer biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Marco; Bazhenova, Lyudmila; Boshuizen, Rogier; Kolatkar, Anand; Honnatti, Meghana; Cho, Edward H.; Marrinucci, Dena; Sandhu, Ajay; Perricone, Anthony; Thistlethwaite, Patricia; Bethel, Kelly; Nieva, Jorge; van den Heuvel, Michel; Kuhn, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC) counts are an established prognostic marker in metastatic prostate, breast and colorectal cancer, and recent data suggest a similar role in late stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, due to sensitivity constraints in current enrichment-based CTC detection technologies, there are few published data about CTC prevalence rates and morphologic heterogeneity in early-stage NSCLC, or the correlation of CTCs with disease progression and their usability for clinical staging. We investigated CTC counts, morphology and aggregation in early stage, locally advanced and metastatic NSCLC patients by using a fluid-phase biopsy approach that identifies CTCs without relying on surface-receptor-based enrichment and presents them in sufficiently high definition (HD) to satisfy diagnostic pathology image quality requirements. HD-CTCs were analyzed in blood samples from 78 chemotherapy-naïve NSCLC patients. 73% of the total population had a positive HD-CTC count (>0 CTC in 1 mL of blood) with a median of 4.4 HD-CTCs mL-1 (range 0-515.6) and a mean of 44.7 (±95.2) HD-CTCs mL-1. No significant difference in the medians of HD-CTC counts was detected between stage IV (n = 31, range 0-178.2), stage III (n = 34, range 0-515.6) and stages I/II (n = 13, range 0-442.3). Furthermore, HD-CTCs exhibited a uniformity in terms of molecular and physical characteristics such as fluorescent cytokeratin intensity, nuclear size, frequency of apoptosis and aggregate formation across the spectrum of staging. Our results demonstrate that despite stringent morphologic inclusion criteria for the definition of HD-CTCs, the HD-CTC assay shows high sensitivity in the detection and characterization of both early- and late-stage lung cancer CTCs. Extensive studies are warranted to investigate the prognostic value of CTC profiling in early-stage lung cancer. This finding has implications for the design of extensive studies examining screening, therapy and surveillance in

  15. Determination of 14 Elements in the Body Fluid and Hair of Lung Cancer Patients by Microwave Digestion with ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin DOU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The trace element contents in the body fluid and hair are the important monitoring indicators for many diseases. The analysis of the trace element contents in the samples of lung cancer patients is helpful to the early diagnosis and treatment effectiveness evaluation to the patients. The aim of this study is to develop an ICPMS method for the determination of Cr, Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, Se, Pb, Ca, Mg, Sr, P in the body fluid and hair of lung cancer patients. Methods Samples of body fluid and hair from lung cancer patients were digested with microwave and 14 trace elements were determined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results GBW09101 standard reference material of human hair was used to validate the accuracy of the established method, and the results indicated that there is no obvious difference between the measured values and the references values. Forty-eight samples from 16 lung cancer patients were analyzed with the established method, and several generalizations were discovered. Conclusion The established method can be used for the multielement simultaneous determination of the samples of lung cancer patients, which are helpful to the diagnosis and treatment of the lung cancer.

  16. Dexamethasone treatment and fluid balance in preterm infants at risk for chronic lung disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, AF; van Asselt, WA; Okken, A

    2000-01-01

    The influence of dexamethasone on diuresis in preterm infants has not been well studied. We examined 15 preterm infants at risk for chronic lung disease with gestational ages ranging from 26 to 29 wk (median 27.6 wk) and birthweights ranging from 700 to 1485 g (median 965 g). Urine output, blood glu

  17. Novel methodology for accurate resolution of fluid signatures from multi-dimensional NMR well-logging measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Vivek

    2017-03-01

    A novel methodology for accurate fluid characterization from multi-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well-logging measurements is introduced. This methodology overcomes a fundamental challenge of poor resolution of features in multi-dimensional NMR distributions due to low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of well-logging measurements. Based on an unsupervised machine-learning concept of blind source separation, the methodology resolves fluid responses from simultaneous analysis of large quantities of well-logging data. The multi-dimensional NMR distributions from a well log are arranged in a database matrix that is expressed as the product of two non-negative matrices. The first matrix contains the unique fluid signatures, and the second matrix contains the relative contributions of the signatures for each measurement sample. No a priori information or subjective assumptions about the underlying features in the data are required. Furthermore, the dimensionality of the data is reduced by several orders of magnitude, which greatly simplifies the visualization and interpretation of the fluid signatures. Compared to traditional methods of NMR fluid characterization which only use the information content of a single measurement, the new methodology uses the orders-of-magnitude higher information content of the entire well log. Simulations show that the methodology can resolve accurate fluid responses in challenging SNR conditions. The application of the methodology to well-logging data from a heavy oil reservoir shows that individual fluid signatures of heavy oil, water associated with clays and water in interstitial pores can be accurately obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of ovarian cyst fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, E A; Moolenaar, S H; Massuger, L F; Boonstra, H; Engelke, U F; de Jong, J G; Wevers, R A

    2000-08-01

    Most ovarian tumors are cystic structures containing variable amounts of fluid. Several studies of ovarian cyst fluid focus on one specific metabolite using conventional assay systems. We examined the potential of (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in evaluation of the overall metabolic composition of cyst fluid from different ovarian tumors. Ovarian cyst fluid samples obtained from 40 patients with a primary ovarian tumor (12 malignant and 28 benign) were examined. After deproteinization and pD standardization, we performed (1)H-NMR spectroscopy on a 600 MHz instrument. With (1)H-NMR spectroscopy we found detectable concentrations of 36 metabolites with high intersample variation. A number of unassigned resonances as well as unexpected metabolites were found. We introduce an overall inventory of the low-molecular-weight metabolites in ovarian cyst fluid with corresponding resonances. Significant differences in concentration (p overview of low-molecular-weight proton-containing metabolities present in ovarian cyst fluid samples. The metabolic composition of cyst fluid differs significantly between benign and malignant ovarian tumors. Furthermore, differences between benign subgroups possibly related to histopathological behaviour can be detected. The presence of N-acetyl aspartic acid and 5-oxoproline exclusively in serous cystadenoma samples is remarkable. Future studies will concentrate on these findings and explore the possibilities of extrapolating information from the in vitro studies to in vivo practice, in which metabolic differences between malignant and benign subtypes can be of great importance in a pre-operative phase.

  19. Role of high-resolution CT in the diagnosis of small pulmonary nodules coexisting with potentially operable lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Yue; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Hiyama, Atsuto; Miura, Goji; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether high-resolution CT (HRCT) could facilitate the preoperative diagnosis of one or two small nodules of 1 cm or less coexisting with a lung cancer, i.e., coexisting small nodule. This study included 27 coexisting small nodules in 24 potentially operable lung cancer patients. An observer study was performed by five radiologists. The observer performances in differentiating malignant from benign coexisting small nodules were evaluated on conventional CT and HRCT using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The area under the ROC curve of five observers was 0.731 on HRCT and 0.578 on conventional CT in the differential diagnosis of coexisting small nodules. A significant diagnostic improvement was found on HRCT (p=0.031). This was especially evident for nodules of ground-glass attenuation (p=0.005). HRCT plays an important role in determining the treatment of potentially operable lung cancer patients with coexisting small nodules. (author)

  20. Changes in structural lung disease in cystic fibrosis children over 4 years as evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpio, Carlos; Alvarez-Sala, Rodolfo; Prados, Concepcion [University Hospital La Paz, La Paz Hospital Research Institute, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Albi, Gustavo [Nino de Jesus Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madrid (Spain); Rayon-Aledo, Jose Carlos; Caballero, Paloma [University Hospital La Princesa, Department of Radiology, Madrid (Spain); Giron, Rosa [University Hospital La Princesa, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    To compare the worsening of structural lung disease on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with changes in spirometry results in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and analyse factors associated with the worsening of structural lung disease over time. A total of 31 CF subjects (mean age 11.03 ± 3.67 years old) were prospectively evaluated by two HRCT and spirometry tests performed 4 years apart. HRCT abnormalities were scored using the Bhalla scoring system. Comparisons between changes on HRCT and spirometry were made for all patients, and also for groups categorized by age, sex, genotypic alterations and lung obstruction. The mean HRCT Bhalla scoring, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1} %pred.) and forced vital capacity (FVC %pred.) were 7.92 ± 3.59, 87.76 ± 20.52 and 96.54 ± 15.12, respectively. There was a significant deterioration in the Bhalla score (p < 0.01) and in certain categories: severity of bronchiectasis, peribronchial thickening, mucous plugging and bronchial divisions. Females had a more pronounced worsening of the Bhalla score than males (p = 0.048). No change over time was found in FEV{sub 1} and FVC. Only sex was associated with a deterioration in HRCT. HRCT Bhalla scoring changes statistically significantly over 4 years, but spirometry results do not. Worsening on HRCT is more evident in females. (orig.)

  1. Third-space fluid distribution of pemetrexed in non-small cell lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, Per Gustaf Hartvig; Joensen, Sigrid Jóhansdóttir; Olsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Hydrophilic drugs particularly those with low plasma protein binding may accumulate in third-space fluid in the body. Cytotoxic drugs like methotrexate (MTX) cause damage in the tissue, and evacuation of the third-space fluid in pleura is strongly recommended before new dosing. Pemetrexed (PEM...... at various times after drug infusion from each patient; in two patients, sampling was done twice but on different occasions. The quantitative determination of PEM was performed with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and sample preparation was performed using protein precipitation...

  2. Levels of Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Patients with Various Inflammatory Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, Tetsuro; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Tokuda, Yuriko; Suzuki, Shoji; Asakura, Takanori; Yagi, Kazuma; Namkoong, Ho; Ishii, Makoto; Hasegawa, Naoki; Betsuyaku, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor of S100/calgranulins, high-mobility group box 1, and others, and it is associated with the pathogenesis of various inflammatory and circulatory diseases. The soluble form of RAGE (sRAGE) is a decoy receptor and competitively inhibits membrane-bound RAGE activation. In this study, we measured sRAGE levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 78 patients, including 41 with interstitial pneumonia, 11 with sarcoidosis, 9 with respiratory infection, 7 with ARDS, 5 with lung cancer, and 5 with vasculitis. Among them, sRAGE was detectable in BALF of 73 patients (94%). In patients with ARDS and vasculitis, the sRAGE levels were significantly higher than in the control subjects and those with interstitial pneumonia. The sRAGE levels were positively correlated with total cell counts in BALF and serum levels of surfactant protein-D, lactate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein. There was an inverse correlation between PaO2/FIO2 ratio and sRAGE levels. These results indicate that sRAGE in BALF might be considered as a biomarker of lung inflammatory disorders, especially ARDS and vasculitis. PMID:27147899

  3. Effects of tylosin, tilmicosin and tulathromycin on inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Ayse; Yazar, Enver

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides through kinetic parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury. Rats were divided into four groups: lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS + tylosin, LPS + tilmicosin and LPS + tulathromycin. BALF samples were collected at sampling times. TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2α (PGM) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analysed. Area under the curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) values of inflammatory mediators were determined by a pharmacokinetic computer programme. When inflammatory mediator concentrations were compared between the LPS group and other groups for each sampling time, the three macrolides had no pronounced depressor effect on cytokine levels, but they depressed PGM and CRP levels. In addition, tylosin and tilmicosin decreased the AUC0-24 level of TNF, while tilmicosin decreased the AUC0-24 level of IL-10. Tylosin and tulathromycin decreased the AUC0-24 of PGM, and all three macrolides decreased the AUC0-24 of CRP. Especially tylosin and tulathromycin may have more expressed anti-inflammatory effects than tilmicosin, via depressing the production of inflammatory mediators in the lung. The AUC may be used for determining the effects of drugs on inflammation. In this study, the antiinflammatory effects of these antibiotics were evaluated with kinetic parameters as a new and different approach.

  4. Morphometric and DNA image analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid macrophages nuclei in interstitial lung diseases with lymphocytic alveolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smojver-Jezek, Silvana; Peros-Golubicić, Tatjana; Tekavec-Trkanjec, Jasna; Alilović, Marija; Vrabec-Branica, Bozica; Juros, Zrinka; Mazuranić, Ivica

    2010-03-01

    Lymphocytic alveolitis is a characteristic of diverse interstitial lung diseases (ILD-s), but macrophages are often more numerous cell population in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Aim of this study is to analyze morphometric characteristics of macrophages nuclei in BALF in patients with ILD-s and to detect possible differences allowing distinguishing sarcoidosis from other lymphocytic alveolitis ILD-s. Thirty-one patient with interstitial lung disease who had lymphocytic alveolitis in BALF cell count (17 sarcoidosis and 14 other ILD-s) and nine controls were included in the study. The following patients data were numbered: age, lymphocyte percentage and CD4/CD8 ratio in BALE Investigated morphometric parameters of macrophages nuclei were: area, outline, maximal radius, minimal radius, length, breadth, form factor (FF), elongation factor (EF) and DNA image cytometry ploidy status determined with Van Velthoven method. Predicted classifications in classification matrix (forward step-wise method in multivariate discriminant function analysis) based on macrophages nuclei length mean, minimum and maximum, breadth SD, FF mean and lymphocyte % were 100% (9/9) correct for control group, 88.235% (15/17) correct for sarcoidosis, and 92.857% (13/14) correct for other lymphocytic alveolitis ILD group. In total, 92.5% (37/40) of the examinees were correctly classified in particular group upon the observed variables.

  5. The CT appearances of delayed amniotic fluid clearance from the lungs in an infant with absent pulmonary valve and congenital lobar emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, A. Michelle [Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Edis, Brian [Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Massie, John [University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Murdoch Children' s Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2005-09-01

    Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) is a cause of severe neonatal respiratory distress. Overexpansion of the affected pulmonary lobe in the fetus is due to narrowing of the airway, with a resultant 'ball-valve' effect. At birth, there may be delayed clearance of fetal lung fluid. Early chest radiographs show opacification of the hyperexpanded lobe. The CT findings in the immediate neonatal period have not been previously reported. We describe the imaging in a neonate with tetralogy of Fallot and absent pulmonary valve with secondary CLE. CT demonstrates the hyperexpanded lobe with initial thickening of the interlobular septa and alveolar ground glass attenuation, with subsequent clearing. This resorption of fetal lung fluid via the pulmonary interstitium should not be confused with interstitial lung disease. (orig.)

  6. Lung involvement in systemic sclerosis: role of high resolution computed tomography and its relationship with other pulmonary and clinico-serological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaci, M; Sebastiani, M; Manfredi, A; Giuggioli, D; Cassone, G; Manzini, C U; Ghizzoni, C; Cerri, S; Ferri, C

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the characteristic of interstitial lung disease in a large series of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients by means of HRCT and the correlations between functional lung parameters, serological features and the extent of lung involvement evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). One hundred and seven SSc patients, consecutively investigated by means of HRCT, standard chest X-ray, and pulmonary function tests, were retrospectively evaluated. Chest radiogram and HRCT scores were strongly associated (Pearson’'s r=0.82, p involvement in SSc evaluated with HRCT is directly proportional to functional lung parameters. HRCT, spirometry and DLco should be considered essential in the core-set of non-invasive diagnostic tools for the first-line assessment of scleroderma lung involvement.

  7. Trefoil factors (TFFs) are increased in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid from patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viby, Niels-Erik; Nexø, Ebba; Kissow, Hannelouise; Andreassen, Helle; Clementsen, Paul; Thim, Lars; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2015-01-01

    Trefoil factors (TFFs) 1, 2 and 3 are small polypeptides that are co-secreted with mucin throughout the body. They are up-regulated in cancer and inflammatory processes in the gastrointestinal system, where they are proposed to be involved in tissue regeneration, proliferation and protection. Our aim was to explore their presence in pulmonary secretions and to investigate whether they are up-regulated in pulmonary diseases characterized by mucin hypersecretion. Bronchioalveolar lavage fluid was obtained from 92 individuals referred to bronchoscopy. The patients were grouped according to diagnosis and pulmonary function. The concentrations of TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3 were measured by ELISA. All three peptides were detected in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had concentrations two to three times above the levels in the healthy reference group, and patients with pulmonary malignancies had concentrations of TFF1 and TFF2 three times that of the reference group. The results suggest that TFFs are involved in tissue regeneration, proliferation and protection in lung diseases.

  8. Genetic and environmental variation in lung function drives subsequent variation in aging of fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A; Emery, Charles F; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2013-07-01

    Longitudinal studies document an association of pulmonary function with cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults. Previous analyses have identified a genetic contribution to the relationship between pulmonary function with fluid intelligence. The goal of the current analysis was to apply the biometric dual change score model to consider the possibility of temporal dynamics underlying the genetic covariance between aging trajectories for pulmonary function and fluid intelligence. Longitudinal data from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging were available from 808 twins ranging in age from 50 to 88 years at the first wave. Participants completed up to six assessments covering a 19-year period. Measures at each assessment included spatial and speed factors and pulmonary function. Model-fitting indicated that genetic variance for FEV1 was a leading indicator of variation in age changes for spatial and speed factors. Thus, these data indicate a genetic component to the directional relationship from decreased pulmonary function to decreased function of fluid intelligence.

  9. Reader Accuracy and Confidence in Diagnosing Diffuse Lung Disease on High-Resolution Computed Tomography of the Lungs: Impact of Sampling Frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, B.; Gross, B.H.; Oh, E.; Mueller, N.; Myles, J.D.; Kazerooni, E.A. (Dept. of Radiology, Michigan Institute for Clinical Health Research, Univ. of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States))

    2008-10-15

    Background: The accuracy of the number of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images necessary to diagnose diffuse lung disease (DLD) is not well established. Purpose: To evaluate the impact of HRCT sampling frequency on reader confidence and accuracy for diagnosing DLD. Material and Methods: HRCT images of 100 consecutive patients with proven DLD were reviewed. They were: 48 usual interstitial pneumonia, 22 sarcoidosis, six hypersensitivity pneumonitis, five each of desquamative interstitial pneumonitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis, and lymphangioleiomyomatosis, and nine others. Inspiratory images at 1-cm increments throughout the lungs and three specified levels formed complete and limited examinations. In random order, three experts (readers 1, 2, and 3) ranked their top three diagnoses and rated confidence for their top diagnosis, independently and blinded to clinical information. Results: Using the complete versus limited examinations for correct first-choice diagnosis, accuracy for reader 1 (R1) was 81% versus 80%, respectively, for reader 2 (R2) 70% versus 70%, and for reader 3 (R3) 64% versus 59%. Reader accuracy within their top three choices for complete versus limited examinations was: R1 91% versus 91% of cases, respectively, R2 84% versus 83%, and R3 79% versus 72% of cases. No statistically significant differences were found between the diagnosis methods (P=0.28 for first diagnosis and P=0.17 for top three choices). The confidence intervals for individual raters showed considerable overlap, and the point estimates are almost identical. The mean interreader agreement for complete versus limited HRCT for both top and top three diagnoses were the same (moderate and fair, respectively). The mean intrareader agreement between complete and limited HRCT for top and top three diagnoses were substantial and moderate, respectively. Conclusion: Overall reader accuracy and confidence in diagnosis did not significantly differ when fewer or more HRCT images

  10. High-Resolution Single-Molecule Fluorescence Imaging of Zeolite Aggregates within Real-Life Fluid Catalytic Cracking Particles**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristanović, Zoran; Kerssens, Marleen M; Kubarev, Alexey V; Hendriks, Frank C; Dedecker, Peter; Hofkens, Johan; Roeffaers, Maarten B J; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2015-01-01

    Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is a major process in oil refineries to produce gasoline and base chemicals from crude oil fractions. The spatial distribution and acidity of zeolite aggregates embedded within the 50–150 μm-sized FCC spheres heavily influence their catalytic performance. Single-molecule fluorescence-based imaging methods, namely nanometer accuracy by stochastic chemical reactions (NASCA) and super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) were used to study the catalytic activity of sub-micrometer zeolite ZSM-5 domains within real-life FCC catalyst particles. The formation of fluorescent product molecules taking place at Brønsted acid sites was monitored with single turnover sensitivity and high spatiotemporal resolution, providing detailed insight in dispersion and catalytic activity of zeolite ZSM-5 aggregates. The results point towards substantial differences in turnover frequencies between the zeolite aggregates, revealing significant intraparticle heterogeneities in Brønsted reactivity. PMID:25504139

  11. Sinking, merging and stationary plumes in a coupled chemotaxis-fluid model: a high-resolution numerical approach

    KAUST Repository

    Chertock, A.

    2012-02-02

    Aquatic bacteria like Bacillus subtilis are heavier than water yet they are able to swim up an oxygen gradient and concentrate in a layer below the water surface, which will undergo Rayleigh-Taylor-type instabilities for sufficiently high concentrations. In the literature, a simplified chemotaxis-fluid system has been proposed as a model for bio-convection in modestly diluted cell suspensions. It couples a convective chemotaxis system for the oxygen-consuming and oxytactic bacteria with the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations subject to a gravitational force proportional to the relative surplus of the cell density compared to the water density. In this paper, we derive a high-resolution vorticity-based hybrid finite-volume finite-difference scheme, which allows us to investigate the nonlinear dynamics of a two-dimensional chemotaxis-fluid system with boundary conditions matching an experiment of Hillesdon et al. (Bull. Math. Biol., vol. 57, 1995, pp. 299-344). We present selected numerical examples, which illustrate (i) the formation of sinking plumes, (ii) the possible merging of neighbouring plumes and (iii) the convergence towards numerically stable stationary plumes. The examples with stable stationary plumes show how the surface-directed oxytaxis continuously feeds cells into a high-concentration layer near the surface, from where the fluid flow (recurring upwards in the space between the plumes) transports the cells into the plumes, where then gravity makes the cells sink and constitutes the driving force in maintaining the fluid convection and, thus, in shaping the plumes into (numerically) stable stationary states. Our numerical method is fully capable of solving the coupled chemotaxis-fluid system and enabling a full exploration of its dynamics, which cannot be done in a linearised framework. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  12. High-resolution signatures of oxygenation and microbiological activity in speleothem fluid inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel J.F. Blamey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Speleothems frequently host “fossil” fluids that were trapped in small inclusions during growth. Such fluids may provide valuable clues to past microbial, geochemical, and climatic processes during their formation. However, one difficulty is to understand which gases represent background atmosphere and fluids within a given cave system at a particular time, and which may be the product of post-trapping residual microbial activity or abiotic chemical reactions? Do we have any hope of sorting out these differences? The success depends on a quantitative understanding of the gas composition trapped in the inclusions and an understanding of the interactions of cave mineralogy, air and water chemistry, and microbiological processes that may interfere with climatic or geochemical interpretations. Our proof-of-concept project uses time synchronous samples from several sites. We report here on this pilot investigation of speleothem inclusions using a methodology for quantitatively analyzing gases dissolved in inclusion fluids. We use incremental crushing of highly spatially resolved samples by mass spectrometry. Here, we report primarily on CH4, CO2, O2, and N2, but have included other detectable gases. The detection limit for He within aqueous fluid inclusions is ~0.2 ppm and gas ratios have ~5% precision using natural standards. We used chemically inert argon as a tracer gas to normalize results to air or air saturated water. This enables interpretation of gas data despite variability in hydrological and geological cave histories. Results are variable. For example, in one case oxygen was depleted while nitrogen was increased, which may be attributable to the breakdown of nitrate or nitrogen-containing biomolecules. In other cases, oxygen is enriched which may be attributed to several factors both geochemical and biological. We suggest potential interpretations between the competing hypotheses with larger future data sets. This first attempt tackles

  13. Prognostic impact of cytological fluid tumor markers in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Arthur; Hur, Jin; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Young Jin; Hong, Sae Rom; Suh, Young Joo; Im, Dong Jin; Kim, Yun Jung; Lee, Jae Seok; Shim, Hyo Sup; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2016-03-01

    The serum tumor markers CYFRA 21-1, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) are useful in diagnosis and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cytologic tumor markers obtained during needle aspiration biopsies (NAB) of lung lesions are useful for NSCLC diagnosis. This study investigated the incremental prognostic value of cytologic tumor markers compared to serum tumor markers. This prospective study included 253 patients diagnosed with NSCLC by NAB with cytologic tumor marker analysis. Levels of cytologic CYFRA 21-1, CEA, SCCA, and their serum counterparts were followed up for survival analysis. Optimal cutoff values for each tumor marker were obtained for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) analyses. All patients were followed up for a median of 22.8 months. Using cutoff values of 0.44 ng/ml for C-SCCA, 2.0 ng/ml for S-SCCA, and 3.3 ng/ml for S-CYFRA, a multivariate analysis revealed that high S-SCCA (hazard ratio, HR, 1.84) and high C-SCCA (HR, 1.63) were independent predictive factors of OS. The 3-year overall survival rate was 55 vs. 80 % for high and low C-SCCA, respectively. Cytologic tumor marker level detection is easily obtainable and provides prognostic information for NSCLC. Cytologic tumor markers provide comparable prognostic information relative to serum tumor markers, with C-SCCA acting as a strong prognostic factor of overall survival and PFS.

  14. Lung ultrasound in systemic sclerosis: correlation with high-resolution computed tomography, pulmonary function tests and clinical variables of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Antonietta; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Lucci, Silvio; Barilaro, Giuseppe; Quarta, Silvia; Barbano, Biagio; Giovannetti, Antonello; Amoroso, Antonio; Rosato, Edoardo

    2016-03-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a hallmark of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Although high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the gold standard to diagnose ILD, recently lung ultrasound (LUS) has emerged in SSc patients as a new promising technique for the ILD evaluation, noninvasive and radiation-free. The aim of this study was to evaluate if there is a correlation between LUS, chest HRCT, pulmonary function tests findings and clinical variables of the disease. Thirty-nine patients (33 women and 6 men; mean age 51 ± 15.2 years) underwent clinical examination, HRCT, pulmonary function tests and LUS for detection of B-lines. A positive correlation exists between the number of B-lines and the HRCT score (r = 0.81, p < 0.0001), conversely a negative correlation exists between the number of B-lines and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (r = -0.63, p < 0.0001). The number of B-lines increases along with the progression of the capillaroscopic damage. A statistically significant difference in the number of B-lines was found between patients with and without digital ulcers [42 (3-84) vs 16 (4-55)]. We found that the number of B-lines increased with the progression of both HRCT score and digital vascular damage. LUS may therefore, be a useful tool to determine the best timing for HRCT execution, thus, preventing for many patients a continuous and useless exposure to ionizing radiation.

  15. Mild hypothermia attenuates changes in respiratory system mechanics and modifies cytokine concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during low lung volume ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostál, P; Senkeřík, M; Pařízková, R; Bareš, D; Zivný, P; Zivná, H; Cerný, V

    2010-01-01

    Hypothermia was shown to attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury due to large tidal volumes. It is unclear if the protective effect of hypothermia is maintained under less injurious mechanical ventilation in animals without previous lung injury. Tracheostomized rats were randomly allocated to non-ventilated group (group C) or ventilated groups of normothermia (group N) and mild hypothermia (group H). After two hours of mechanical ventilation with inspiratory fraction of oxygen 1.0, respiratory rate 60 min(-1), tidal volume 10 ml x kg(-1), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 2 cm H2O or immediately after tracheostomy in non-ventilated animals inspiratory pressures were recorded, rats were sacrificed, pressure-volume (PV) curve of respiratory system constructed, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and aortic blood samples obtained. Group N animals exhibited a higher rise in peak inspiratory pressures in comparison to group H animals. Shift of the PV curve to right, higher total protein and interleukin-6 levels in BAL fluid were observed in normothermia animals in comparison with hypothermia animals and non-ventilated controls. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha was lower in the hypothermia group in comparison with normothermia and non-ventilated groups. Mild hypothermia attenuated changes in respiratory system mechanics and modified cytokine concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during low lung volume ventilation in animals without previous lung injury.

  16. Wide band Fresnel super-resolution applied to capillary break up of viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Fiscina, Jorge E; Sattler, Rainer; Wagner, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We report a technique based on Fresnel diffraction with white illumination that permits the resolution of capillary surface patterns of less than 100 nanometers. We investigate Rayleigh Plateaux like instability on a viscoelastic capillary bridge and show that we can overcome the resolution limit of optical microscopy. The viscoelastic filaments are approximately 20 microns thick at the end of the thinning process when the instability sets in. The wavy distortions grow exponentially in time and the pattern is resolved by an image treatment that is based on an approximation of the measured rising flank of the first Fresnel peak.

  17. Exudative v/s transudative ascites: differentiation based on fluid echogenicity on high resolution sonography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malde H

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Real time sonography was performed in 52 patients with ascites to evaluate the accuracy of sonography in differentiating an exudative from a transudative collection. The echogenicity of ascites was graded I, II and III using the echogenicity of normal abdominal viscera as comparative standard reference points. Grade I collections (31 patients were either absolutely anechoic, or showed few internal echoes secondary to particulate matter. Grade II collections (7 patients were hypoechoic as compared to the liver and spleen. Grade III collections (14 patients had an echogenicity similar to or greater than that of the liver and spleen. The results of diagnostic aspiration in all patients were then compared to the sonographic grade of the ascitic fluid. All transudates (28 patients had a Grade I echogenicity. Only 3 patients with an exudative ascites had a Grade I echogenicity. The remaining 21 patients with an exudative collection had an echogenicity equal to or greater than Grade II. Using these results, an ascitic fluid echogenicity of Grade I had a 92.32% sensitivity, 100% specificity, a positive predictive value of 1 and a negative predictive value of 0.875 in diagnosing transudates. An ascitic fluid echogenicity of Grade II or more had a sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 1 and a negative predictive value of 0.903 in diagnosing transudates.

  18. Effectiveness and resolution of tests for evaluating the performance of cutting fluids in machining aerospace alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Axinte, Dragos A.

    2008-01-01

    into account the following process output measures: tool wear, cutting forces, torque, spindle power, geometrical accuracy, texture and integrity of workpiece surface. Using statistics, through calculation of the Hellinger distance, the resolution given by experimental data was evaluated and a comparison...

  19. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of lung infections in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franquet, Tomas [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Thoracic Radiology Section, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-03-15

    Non-AIDS immunocompromised patients are susceptible to infections by a wide range of organisms. In the past several decades, advances in the treatment of cancer, organ transplantation, and immunosuppressive therapy have resulted in large numbers of patients who develop abnormalities in their immune system. Moreover, mildly impaired host immunity as it occurs in chronic debilitating illness, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, alcoholism, advanced age, prolonged corticosteroid administration, and chronic obstructive lung disease have also been regarded as predisposing factors of pulmonary infections. Imaging plays a crucial role in the detection and management of patients with pulmonary infectious diseases. When pulmonary infection is suspected, knowledge of the varied radiographic manifestations will narrow the differential diagnosis, helping to direct additional diagnostic measures and serving as an ideal tool for follow-up examinations. Combination of pattern recognition with knowledge of the clinical setting is the best approach to pulmonary infection occurring in the immunocompromised patients. (orig.)

  20. Risk assessment of bioaccessible trace elements in smoke haze aerosols versus urban aerosols using simulated lung fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xian; Betha, Raghu; Tan, Li Yun; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2016-01-01

    Smoke-haze episodes, caused by uncontrolled peat and forest fires, occur almost every year in the South-East Asian region with increased concentrations of PM2.5 (airborne particulate matter (PM) with diameter ≤ 2.5 μm). Particulate-bound trace elements (TrElems), especially carcinogenic and toxic elements, were measured during smoke haze as well as non-haze periods in 2014 as they are considered to be indicators of potential health effects. The bioaccessibilities of 13 TrElems were investigated using two types of simulated lung fluids (SLFs), Gamble's solution and artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF), instead of the commonly used leaching agent (water). The dissolution kinetics was also examined for these TrElems. Many TrElems showed higher solubility in SLFs, and were more soluble in ALF compared to the Gamble's solution. Cu, Mn and Cd were observed to be the most soluble trace elements in ALF, while in Gamble's solution the most soluble trace elements were Cu, Mn and Zn. The dissolution rates were highly variable among the elements. Health risk assessment was conducted based on the measured concentrations of TrElems and their corresponding toxicities for three possible scenarios involving interactions between carcinogenic and toxic TrElems and SLFs, using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human health risk assessment model. The cumulative cancer risks exceeded the acceptable level (1 in a million i.e. 1 × 10-6). However, the estimation of health quotient (HQ) indicated no significant chronic toxic health effects. The risk assessment results revealed that the assessment of bioaccessibility of particulate-bound TrElems using water as the leaching agent may underestimate the health risk.

  1. Diffuse lung neoplasms. Correlation between high resolution computerized tomography and anatomopathology; Neoplasias pulmonares difusas: correlacao da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao com a anatomopatologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Irion, Klaus L. [Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia do Pavilhao Pereira Filho; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: edmarchiori@zipmail.com.br

    2002-08-01

    A short comparative evaluation study between high resolution computerized tomography and anatomopathologic findings is presented. The association of these two diagnostic techniques is discussed as a factor to enhance the accuracy of diffuse lung diseases, such as carcinomatous lymphangitis, Kaposi's Sarcoma, lymphomas, hematogenic metastases, bronchiole-alveolar carcinoma and leukemia. (MAC)

  2. Structure and function of airway surface layer of the human lungs & mobility of probe particles in complex fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liheng

    Numerous infectious particles such as bacteria and pathogens are deposited on the airway surface of the human lungs during our daily breathing. To avoid infection the lung has evolved to develop a smart and powerful defense system called mucociliary clearance. The airway surface layer is a critical component of this mucus clearance system, which consists of two parts: (1) a mucus layer, that traps inhaled particles and transports them out of the lung by cilia-generated flow; and (2) a periciliary layer, that provides a favorable environment for ciliary beating and cell surface lubrication. For 75 years, it has been dogma that a single gel-like mucus layer, which is composed of secreted mucin glycoproteins, is transported over a "watery" periciliary layer. This one-gel model, however, does not explain fundamental features of the normal system, e.g. formation of a distinct mucus layer, nor accurately predict how the mucus clearance system fails in disease. In the first part of this thesis we propose a novel "Gel-on-Brush" model with a mucus layer (the "gel") and a "brush-like" periciliary layer, composed of mucins tethered to the luminal of airway surface, and supporting data accurately describes both the biophysical and cell biological bases for normal mucus clearance and its failure in disease. Our "Gel-on-Brush" model describes for the first time how and why mucus is efficiently cleared in health and unifies the pathogenesis of major human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is expected that this "Gel-on-Brush" model of airway surface layer opens new directions for treatments of airway diseases. A dilemma regarding the function of mucus is that, although mucus traps any inhaled harmful particulates, it also poses a long-time problem for drug delivery: mobility of cargos carrying pharmaceutical agents is slowed down in mucus. The second part of this thesis aims to answer the question: can we theoretically understand the

  3. Inhibition of Lung Fluid Clearance and Epithelial Na+ Channels by Chlorine, Hypochlorous Acid, and Chloramines*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weifeng; Wei, Shipeng; Zhou, Yongjian; Lazrak, Ahmed; Liu, Gang; Londino, James D.; Squadrito, Giuseppe L.; Matalon, Sadis

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms by which chlorine (Cl2) and its reactive byproducts inhibit Na+-dependent alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) in vivo and the activity of amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) by measuring AFC in mice exposed to Cl2 (0–500 ppm for 30 min) and Na+ and amiloride-sensitive currents (INa and Iamil, respectively) across Xenopus oocytes expressing human α-, β-, and γ-ENaC incubated with HOCl (1–2000 μm). Both Cl2 and HOCl-derived products decreased AFC in mice and whole cell and single channel INa in a dose-dependent manner; these effects were counteracted by serine proteases. Mass spectrometry analysis of the oocyte recording medium identified organic chloramines formed by the interaction of HOCl with HEPES (used as an extracellular buffer). In addition, chloramines formed by the interaction of HOCl with taurine or glycine decreased INa in a similar fashion. Preincubation of oocytes with serine proteases prevented the decrease of INa by HOCl, whereas perfusion of oocytes with a synthetic 51-mer peptide corresponding to the putative furin and plasmin cleaving segment in the γ-ENaC subunit restored the ability of HOCl to inhibit INa. Finally, INa of oocytes expressing wild type α- and γ-ENaC and a mutant form of βENaC (S520K), known to result in ENaC channels locked in the open position, were not altered by HOCl. We concluded that HOCl and its reactive intermediates (such as organic chloramines) inhibit ENaC by affecting channel gating, which could be relieved by proteases cleavage. PMID:20106988

  4. Clinical, pathological, and radiological characteristics of solitary ground-glass opacity lung nodules on high-resolution computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu ZX

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Zhi-Xin Qiu,1 Yue Cheng,1 Dan Liu,1 Wei-Ya Wang,2 Xia Wu,2 Wei-Lu Wu,2 Wei-Min Li1,2 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, 2Department of Pathology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Background: Lung nodules are being detected at an increasing rate year by year with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT being widely used. Ground-glass opacity nodule is one of the special types of pulmonary nodules that is confirmed to be closely associated with early stage of lung cancer. Very little is known about solitary ground-glass opacity nodules (SGGNs. In this study, we analyzed the clinical, pathological, and radiological characteristics of SGGNs on HRCT.Methods: A total of 95 resected SGGNs were evaluated with HRCT scan. The clinical, pathological, and radiological characteristics of these cases were analyzed.Results: Eighty-one adenocarcinoma and 14 benign nodules were observed. The nodules included 12 (15% adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, 14 (17% minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA, and 55 (68% invasive adenocarcinoma (IA. No patients with recurrence till date have been identified. The positive expression rates of anaplastic lymphoma kinase and ROS-1 (proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase ROS were only 2.5% and 8.6%, respectively. The specificity and accuracy of HRCT of invasive lung adenocarcinoma were 85.2% and 87.4%. The standard uptake values of only two patients determined by 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT were above 2.5. The size, density, shape, and pleural tag of nodules were significant factors that differentiated IA from AIS and MIA. Moreover, the size, shape, margin, pleural tag, vascular cluster, bubble-like sign, and air bronchogram of nodules were significant determinants for mixed ground-glass opacity nodules (all P<0.05.Conclusion: We analyzed the clinical, pathological, and radiological characteristics of SGGNs on HRCT and found that the size, density

  5. High-resolution CT of the lung (HRCT) in collagen diseases: A prospective study of 73 patients. Hochaufloesende Computertomographie der Lunge (HRCT) bei Kollagenosen: eine prospektive Untersuchung an 73 Patienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Leisse, C. (Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, RWTH Aachen (Germany)); Bussmann, A.; Mayer, O. (Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, RWTH Aachen (Germany)); Genth, E.; Guenther, R.W. (Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, RWTH Aachen (Germany))

    1994-07-01

    To determine pulmonary features of collagenous vascular diseases as assessed by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) we performed a prospective study of 73 consecutive patients, 44 with rheumatoid arthritis (ra), 11 with progressive systemic sclerosis (pss), 8 with systemic lupus erythematosus (sle), 5 with sjoegren's syndrome, 3 with dermato-/polymyositis and 2 with mixed connective-tissue disease. Pathological lung changes were demonstrated in 70% of patients with ra, 91% with pss, 63% with sle and 60% with the rest. HRCT features included: Intralobular thickening (48%) with a predominance in posterior lower and middle lung areas, pleural thickening (48%) with a predominance in upper lung areas, prominent interlobular septa (37%), subpleural lines (33%), parenchymal bands (33%) with a predominance in lower and anterior lung areas, honeycombing (33%), groundglass pattern (29%) with a predominance in upper and middle, micronodules (18%) with a predominance in upper lung areas and bronchiectasis (14%). HRCT is an important means for the assessment of lung changes associated with collagenous vascular diseases and a definite diagnosis is possible in most cases. (orig.)

  6. Windowed direct exponential curve resolution quantification of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with applications to amniotic fluid metabonomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botros, L.L

    2007-07-01

    This thesis presents a quantitative protocol of proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) that allows the determination of human amniotic fluid metabolite concentrations, which are then used in a metabonomic study to establish patient health during gestation. {sup 1}H NMR free inductive decays (FIDs) of 258 human amniotic fluid samples from a 500MHz spectrometer are acquired. Quantitative analyses methods in both the frequency- and time-domain are carried out and compared. Frequency-domain analysis is accomplished by integration of the metabolite peaks before and after the inclusion of a known standard addition of alanine. Time-domain analysis is accomplished by the direct exponential curve resolution algorithm (DECRA). Both techniques are assessed by applications to calibration biological solutions and a simulated data set. The DECRA method proves to be a more accurate and precise route for quantitative analysis, and is included in the developed protocol. Well-defined peaks of various components are visible in the frequency-domain {sup 1}H NMR spectra, including lactate, alanine, acetate, citrate, choline, glycine, and glucose. All are quantified with the proposed protocol. Statistical t-test and notched box and whisker plots are used to compare means of metabolite concentrations for diabetic and normal patients. Glucose, glycine, and choline are all found to correlate with gestational diabetes mellitus early in gestation. With further development, time-domain quantitative {sup 1}H NMR has potential to become a robust diagnostic tool for gestational health. (author)

  7. A solver for the two-phase two-fluid model based on high-resolution total variation diminishing scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu Saleem, Rabie A., E-mail: raabusaleem@just.edu.jo [Nuclear Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan); Kozlowski, Tomasz, E-mail: txk@illinois.edu [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 216 Talbot Laboratory, 104 S. Wright St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Shrestha, Rijan, E-mail: rijan.shrestha@intel.com [Portland Technology Development, Intel Corporation, 2501 NW 229th Ave Hillsboro OR 97124 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The two-fluid model and the challenges associated with its numerical modeling are investigated. • A high-order solver based on flux limiter schemes and the theta method was developed. • The solver was compared to existing thermal hydraulics codes used in nuclear industry. • The solver was shown to handle fast transients with discontinuities and phase change. - Abstract: Finite volume techniques with staggered mesh are used to develop a new numerical solver for the one-dimensional two-phase two-fluid model using a high-resolution, Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) scheme. The solver is implemented to analyze numerical benchmark problems for verification and testing its abilities to handle discontinuities and fast transients with phase change. Convergence rates are investigated by comparing numerical results to analytical solutions available in literature for the case of the faucet flow problem. The solver based on a new TVD scheme is shown to exhibit higher-order of accuracy compared to other numerical schemes. Mass errors are also examined when phase change occurs for the shock tube problem, and compared to those of the 1st-order upwind scheme implemented in the nuclear thermal-hydraulics code TRACE. The solver is shown to exhibit numerical stability when applied to problems with discontinuous solutions and results of the new solver are free of spurious oscillations.

  8. Rapid and high resolution capillary supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and SFC/MS of trichothecene mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R D; Udseth, H R; Wright, B W

    1985-05-01

    The potential application of capillary column supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and SFC/mass spectrometry (SFC/MS) for the separation and analysis of mycotoxins of the trichothecene group was examined. Trichothecenes present significant analytical problems for both gas and liquid chromatography with a major difficulty for the latter being the lack of sufficiently sensitive and selective detectors. Supercritical carbon dioxide mobile phases at temperatures up to 100 degrees C were used with deactivated fused silica columns coated with crosslinked stationary phases. Separations were obtained under pressure ramped conditions using long (15 m) 50-micron i.d. columns for several trichothecenes (diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, and T-2 toxin) and related higher molecular weight macrocyclic (roridin and verrucarin) trichothecenes. In addition, new rapid pressure programming techniques with short (less than 2m) 25- to 50-micron i.d. capillary columns were used to obtain fast separations in as little as 1 min. SFC/MS with ammonia chemical ionization provided high selectivity and sensitive detection (with approximately 1-pg detection limits) for trichothecene mixtures. The extension to complex sample matrices is discussed and the application of selective MS/MS detection is demonstrated.

  9. Fluid dynamics and convective heat transfer in impinging jets through implementation of a high resolution liquid crystal technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Wiedner, B.; Camci, C.

    1993-01-01

    A combined convective heat transfer and fluid dynamics investigation in a turbulent round jet impinging on a flat surface is presented. The experimental study uses a high resolution liquid crystal technique for the determination of the convective heat transfer coefficients on the impingement plate. The heat transfer experiments are performed using a transient heat transfer method. The mean flow and the character of turbulent flow in the free jet is presented through five hole probe and hot wire measurements, respectively. The flow field character of the region near the impingement plate plays an important role in the amount of convective heat transfer. Detailed surveys obtained from five hole probe and hot wire measurements are provided. An extensive validation of the liquid crystal based heat transfer method against a conventional technique is also presented. After a complete documentation of the mean and turbulent flow field, the convective heat transfer coefficient distributions on the impingement plate are presented. The near wall of the impingement plate and the free jet region is treated separately. The current heat transfer distributions are compared to other studies available from the literature. The present paper contains complete sets of information on the three dimensional mean flow, turbulent velocity fluctuations, and convective heat transfer to the plate. The experiments also prove that the present nonintrusive heat transfer method is highly effective in obtaining high resolution heat transfer maps with a heat transfer coefficient uncertainty of 5.7 percent.

  10. Incomplete and accessory fissures of the lung evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heřmanová, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.hermanova2@fnol.cz; Čtvrtlík, Filip, E-mail: filip.ctvrtlik@fnol.cz; Heřman, Miroslav, E-mail: herman@fnol.cz

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of our study was to assess incomplete and accessory interlobar fissures using volumetric thin-section high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Materials and methods: Retrospective assessment of HRCT examinations of 250 patients was performed. We assessed the localization, extension, and type of the incompleteness of fissures as well as the presence and localization of accessory fissures. We searched for possible correlation among the localization of interlobar fissures, the presence of incompleteness, and accessory fissures. Results: On the left side, an incomplete oblique fissure was found in 24%. The discontinuity was present in the parahilar region and the area of the incompleteness was most frequently between 21% and 40%. The right oblique fissure was incomplete in 35%, mostly parahilarly, with the most frequent discontinuity below 20%. An incomplete horizontal fissure was found in 74%. Accessory fissures were identified in 16% of patients, with the same frequency on both sides. The most frequent finding was accessory horizontal fissure with 8.0% on the left side, superior accessory fissure (7.2%) and inferior accessory fissure (5.2%) on the right side. No correlation was found among the localization of interlobar fissures, the presence of incompleteness, and accessory fissures. Conclusion: Incomplete and accessory fissures are frequent anatomic variations of interlobar fissures.

  11. Bronchoalveoloar lavage fluid cytokines and chemokines as markers and predictors for the outcome of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Katrin; Martinez-Gamboa, Lorena; Meier, Susan; Witt, Christian; Meisel, Christian; Hanitsch, Leif G; Becker, Mike O; Huscher, Doerte; Burmester, Gerd R; Riemekasten, Gabriela

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a frequent manifestation of systemic sclerosis (SSc), and cytokines can contribute to the disease pathology. The aim of the current study was to identify specific changes in cytokine levels that may serve as disease markers and possible targets for therapy. Methods Cytokines were measured with bioplex analysis in 38 bronchoalveolar fluids (BALFs) from 32 SSc patients (27 with alveolitis and 11 without alveolitis) and 26 control patients. In the case of SSc patients, cytokines were correlated with the respective bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell differentiation, lung function, and thoracic HR-CT score. For 35 BALF samples derived from 29 SSc patients, follow-up investigations of clinical data, lung-function parameter, or thoracic HR-CT scans were available to evaluate the predictive capacity of BALF cytokines and chemokines. Results High IL-7 levels were characteristic of SSc-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD) and, in addition, when compared with ILD-negative SSc patients, ILD-positive SSc patients revealed higher IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and CCL2 (MCP-1) BALF levels. High CCL2 and IL-8 BALF concentrations were associated with neutrophilic and mixed alveolitis. Cytokine levels of IL-4, IL-8, and CCL2 correlated negatively with lung-function parameters; CCL2 concentrations also correlated with HR-CT scores. High concentrations of several cytokines were associated with the progress of ILD and end-stage ILD. Univariate analyses revealed high IL-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels as the best predictors for progressive disease, together with lung-function parameters, young age, and neutrophilic alveolitis. Multivariate analyses partially confirmed these results but did not sufficiently converge because of the limited number of patients. Conclusions The association of BALF cytokines with lung fibrosis and its progress suggests that cytokines contribute to the pathogenesis of ILD and hence could be regarded as

  12. Progressing features of atypical mycobacterial infection in the lung on conventional and high resolution CT (HRCT) images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Daizo; Niwatsukino, Hiroshi; Nakajo, Masayuki [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Oyama, Takao

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the localization of abnormalities within secondary pulmonary lobules and the changes in follow-up studies of pulmonary atypical mycobacterial infection (AMI) by conventional and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Forty-six patients (16 men and 30 women; 43-84 years) with pulmonary AMI (M. intracellulare 36; M. avium 10) in the lung were examined by conventional and HRCT. In peripheral zones, all patients had the nodule located in the terminal or lobular bronchiole, and most of the patients also had nodules accompanied with a wedge-shaped or linear shadow connected with the pleura. In the follow-up scans, new centrilobular nodules appeared in other segments, and consolidation or ground-glass pattern appeared newly and was preceded by nodules. Bronchiectasis became more severe in five of 38 follow-up patients. The common HRCT findings of AMI were centrilobular, peribronchovascular nodules, bronchiectasis, consolidation, and pleural thickening/adhesion. The nodules frequently connected with the pleura. The initial and follow-up studies suggest that the disease may begin in the terminal bronchiole or as preexisting bronchiectasis and spread transbronchially along the draining bronchus or towards the pleura to produce lesions such as new nodules, cavities, consolidation, pleuritis, and bronchiectasis, or more severe bronchiectasis. (author)

  13. Amniotic fluid stem cells rescue both in vitro and in vivo growth, innervation, and motility in nitrofen-exposed hypoplastic rat lungs through paracrine effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederiva, F; Ghionzoli, M; Pierro, A; De Coppi, P; Tovar, J A

    2013-01-01

    Lung hypoplasia can be prevented in vitro by retinoic acid (RA). Recent evidence suggests that amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells may integrate injured lungs and influence their recovery. We tested the hypothesis that AFS cells might improve lung growth and motility by paracrine mechanisms. Pregnant rats received either nitrofen or vehicle on E9.5. In vitro E13 embryonic lungs were cultured in the presence of culture medium alone or with RA, basophils, or AFS cells. In vivo green fluorescent protein-expressing (GFP(+)) rat AFS cells were transplanted in nitrofen-exposed rats on E10.5. E13 lung explants were cultured before analysis. The surface, the number of terminal buds, and the frequency of bronchial contractions were assessed. Protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and α-actin protein levels were measured. The lung explants transplanted with AFS cells were stained for α-actin, PGP 9.5, and TTF-1. The levels of FGF-10, VEGFα, and TGF-β1 secreted by the AFS cells in the culture medium were measured. Comparison between groups was made by ANOVA. In vitro, the surface, the number of terminal buds, and the bronchial peristalsis were increased in nitrofen+AFS cell explants in comparison with nitrofen-exposed lungs. While nitrofen+RA lungs were similar to nitrofen+AFS ones, basophils did not normalize these measurements. PGP 9.5 protein was decreased in nitrofen lungs, but after adding AFS cells, the value was similar to controls. No differences were found in the expression of α-actin. In vivo, the surface, number of terminal buds, and peristalsis were similar to control after injection of AFS cells in nitrofen-exposed rats. Colocalization with TTF-1-positive cells was found. The levels of FGF-10 and VEGFα were increased in nitrofen+AFS cell explants, while the levels of TGF-β1 were similar to controls. Lung growth, bronchial motility, and innervation were decreased in nitrofen explants and rescued by AFS cells both in vitro and in vivo, similarly to that observed

  14. Limit of the speed-resolution properties in adiabatic supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2013-06-21

    the column efficiency at high speeds. Eventually, for the same stationary phase and speed of analysis, SFC methods using pure CO2 may provide at least a twice column efficiency than LC methods using pure acetonitrile. For a constant pressure drop and resolution power, SFC methods may generate four times faster analyses than LC methods. Ultimately, a standard commercial 4.6mm × 50mm long column packed with 2.6 μm core-shell particles, operated with an inlet flow rate of 25 mL/min in fast SFC (200 bar back pressure, 40 °C) may provide a hold-up time of about 1s requiring data acquisition at a frequency of 400 Hz, with a variance of 0.35 μL(2). This performance will require the use of new, ultra-low dispersion SFC system.

  15. The effect of resolution on viscous dissipation measured with 4D flow MRI in patients with Fontan circulation: Evaluation using computational fluid dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Cibiş (Merih); K. Jarvis (Kelly); M. Markl (Michael); M. Rose (Michael); C. Rigsby (Cynthia); A.J. Barker (Alex J.); J.J. Wentzel (Jolanda)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractViscous dissipation inside Fontan circulation, a parameter associated with the exercise intolerance of Fontan patients, can be derived from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or 4D flow MRI velocities. However, the impact of spatial resolution and measurement noise on the estimation of

  16. Fingerprinting fluid sources in Troodos ophiolite complex orbicular glasses using high spatial resolution isotope and trace element geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Raúl O. C.; Kirchenbaur, Maria; Ballhaus, Chris; Münker, Carsten; Zirner, Aurelia; Gerdes, Axel; Heuser, Alexander; Botcharnikov, Roman; Lenting, Christoph

    2017-03-01

    The Troodos igneous complex (Cyprus) is a ca. 90 Ma old, well preserved supra-subduction zone ophiolite. Troodos is unique in that it shows evidence of fluid-saturation throughout the complex, from its base (i.e. podiform chromitites) to its uppermost units - the upper pillow lavas (UPL). However, it is unclear what the source of dissolved water in UPL tholeiites is, with possibilities including shallow seawater infiltration, assimilation of altered Troodos oceanic crust, recycled serpentinized oceanic crust, or subducted pelagic sediments. In order to identify and characterize these components we have carried out a detailed high-resolution study on tholeiitic lavas on orbicular structures and glasses from the UPL in Troodos. Basaltic orbicules were measured for their Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope compositions, and in situ for their B isotopes using LA-MC-ICP-MS. UPL orbicules display a very narrow range in ɛ Nd and ɛ Hf (+7 to +8 and +13 to +15, respectively) indicating melting of a depleted mantle source. Lead isotopes, specifically 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb, form a mixing array with pelagic sediments. Furthermore, high-resolution characterization of individual orbicules revealed that UPL tholeiites display strong variability in 87Sr/86Sr (0.7039-0.7060) at the outcrop scale. Samples display δ11 B between -8.2 (± 0.5)‰ and +5.9 (± 1.1)‰ with an average B content of ca. 5 μg/g. Contrary to expectation, altered orbicules and their associated hyaloclastite matrixes display lower δ11 B (down to -10‰) and higher B contents (max. 200 μg/g) when compared to fresh glass. Furthermore, the orbicules studied here show little or no evidence of interaction with seawater, which is supported by their trace element contents and isotope compositions. When all isotope systems are taken into account, UPL lavas reflect melting of a depleted mantle source that was overprinted by hydrous sediment melts, and potentially, fluid-like subduction components that in part originate

  17. Multi-detector CT (MDCT) evaluation in interstitial lung disease (ILD): Comparison of MinIP and volumetric high resolution CT (HRCT) images

    OpenAIRE

    Youssriah Y. Sabri; Iman M. Hamdy Ibrahim; Shady Mohamed Tarek Gamal; Hebatallah H. Assal

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study: Is to compare the role of minimum intensity projection (MinIP) images with that of volumetric high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). Patients and methods: 180 patients (149 females and 31 males) were included in this prospective study that took place over a duration of two and half years. All patients underwent HRCT and MinIP images. The positive findings were compared recording which technique was bette...

  18. Contribution of CFTR to Alveolar Fluid Clearance by Lipoxin A4 via PI3K/Akt Pathway in LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipoxins are the first proresolution mediators to be recognized and described as the endogenous “braking signals” for inflammation. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory and proresolution bioactions of lipoxin A4 in our lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced lung injury model. We demonstrated that lipoxin A4 significantly improved histology of rat lungs and inhibited IL-6 and TNF-α in LPS-induced lung injury. In addition, lipoxin A4 increased alveolar fluid clearance (AFC and the effect of lipoxin A4 on AFC was abolished by CFTRinh-172 (a specific inhibitor of CFTR. Moreover, lipoxin A4 could increase cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR protein expression in vitro and in vivo. In rat primary alveolar type II (ATII cells, LPS decreased CFTR protein expression via activation of PI3K/Akt, and lipoxin A4 suppressed LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt. These results showed that lipoxin A4 enhanced CFTR protein expression and increased AFC via PI3K/Akt pathway. Thus, lipoxin A4 may provide a potential therapeutic approach for acute lung injury.

  19. [The phenol turbidity test for measurement of pulmonary surfactants in amniotic fluid--rapid test for fetal lung maturity (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, H; Shimada, N; Kuramoto, R; Mochizuki, Y; Nishizima, M; Arai, M; Osanai, K; Ishihara, K; Goso, K; Hotta, K

    1981-05-01

    A simple and sensitive procedure for the quantitative estimation of pulmonary surfactants in the amniotic fluid is described. The method is based on the formation of turbidity from the amniotic fluid surfactants with phenol. Amniotic fluid drawn through an intrauterine catheter was centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 5 min. One ml of 5% aqueous phenol solution was added to 1.0 ml of the diluted supernatant. Control solution was prepared by addition of 1.0 ml of distilled water to the supernatant, instead of phenol solution. The turbidity was measured spectrophotometrically against control at 340 nm 5 to 10 min after agitation on a Vortex mixer for 5 sec. The turbidity obtained from amniotic fluid with phenol was proportional to the increase in total phospholipids in the fluid measured enzymatically. Moreover, only lecithin in the phospholipids was related to the turbidity formation. Sphyngomyelin, lysolecithin, phosphatidylethanolamin did not produce any turbidity with phenol. The spectrophotometric reading of 87 cases (31-41 weeks) was ranged at 0.18-3.52. Four cases with lower value (0.40) showed neonatal respiratory problem. The phenol turbidity test is more useful for the detection of fetal lung maturity comparing with the generally used shake test.

  20. Generation of realistic virtual nodules based on three-dimensional spatial resolution in lung computed tomography: A pilot phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Akihiro; Ohkubo, Masaki; Murao, Kohei; Matsumoto, Toru; Wada, Shinichi

    2017-08-04

    The aim of this feasibility study using phantoms was to propose a novel method for obtaining computer-generated realistic virtual nodules in lung computed tomography (CT). In the proposed methodology, pulmonary nodule images obtained with a CT scanner are deconvolved with the point spread function (PSF) in the scan plane and slice sensitivity profile (SSP) measured for the scanner; the resultant images are referred to as nodule-like object functions. Next, by convolving the nodule-like object function with the PSF and SSP of another (target) scanner, the virtual nodule can be generated so that it has the characteristics of the spatial resolution of the target scanner. To validate the methodology, the authors applied physical nodules of 5-, 7- and 10-mm-diameter (uniform spheres) included in a commercial CT test phantom. The nodule-like object functions were calculated from the sphere images obtained with two scanners (Scanner A and Scanner B); these functions were referred to as nodule-like object functions A and B, respectively. From these, virtual nodules were generated based on the spatial resolution of another scanner (Scanner C). By investigating the agreement of the virtual nodules generated from the nodule-like object functions A and B, the equivalence of the nodule-like object functions obtained from different scanners could be assessed. In addition, these virtual nodules were compared with the real (true) sphere images obtained with Scanner C. As a practical validation, five types of laboratory-made physical nodules with various complicated shapes and heterogeneous densities, similar to real lesions, were used. The nodule-like object functions were calculated from the images of these laboratory-made nodules obtained with Scanner A. From them, virtual nodules were generated based on the spatial resolution of Scanner C and compared with the real images of laboratory-made nodules obtained with Scanner C. Good agreement of the virtual nodules generated from

  1. High Resolution Melting Analysis for Detecting p53 Gene Mutations in Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong CHEN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that p53 gene was related to many human cancers. The mutations in p53 gene play an important role in carcinogensis and mostly happened in exon 5-8. The aim of this study is to establish a high resolution melting (HRM assay to detect p53 mutations from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, to investigate the characteristics of p53 gene mutations, and to analyze the relationship between p53 mutations and evolution regularity of pathogenesis. Methods p53 mutations in exon 5-8 were detected by HRM assay on DNA insolated from 264 NSCLC samples derived from tumor tissues and 54 control samples from pericancerous pulmonary tissues. The mutation samples by the HRM assay were confirmed by sequencing technique. Samples which were positive by HRM but wild type by sequencing were further confirmed by sub-clone and sequencing. Results No mutation was found in 54 pericancerous pulmonary samples by HRM assay. 104 of the 264 tumor tissues demonstrated mutation curves by HRM assay, 102 samples were confirmed by sequencing, including 95 point mutations and 7 frame shift mutations by insertion or deletion. The mutation rate of p53 gene was 39.4%. The mutation rate from exon 5-8 were 11.7%, 8%, 12.5% and 10.6%, respectively and there was no statistically significant difference between them (P=0.35. p53 mutations were significantly more frequent in males than that in females, but not related to the other clinicopathologic characteristics. Conclusion The results indicate that HRM is a sensitive in-tube methodology to detect for mutations in clinical samples. The results suggest that the arising p53 mutations in NSCLC may be due to spontaneous error in DNA synthesis and repair.

  2. SAPHIR - a multi-scale, multi-resolution modeling environment targeting blood pressure regulation and fluid homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S; Abdulhay, Enas; Baconnier, Pierre; Fontecave, Julie; Francoise, Jean-Pierre; Guillaud, Francois; Hannaert, Patrick; Hernandez, Alfredo; Le Rolle, Virginie; Maziere, Pierre; Tahi, Fariza; Zehraoui, Farida

    2007-01-01

    We present progress on a comprehensive, modular, interactive modeling environment centered on overall regulation of blood pressure and body fluid homeostasis. We call the project SAPHIR, for "a Systems Approach for PHysiological Integration of Renal, cardiac, and respiratory functions". The project uses state-of-the-art multi-scale simulation methods. The basic core model will give succinct input-output (reduced-dimension) descriptions of all relevant organ systems and regulatory processes, and it will be modular, multi-resolution, and extensible, in the sense that detailed submodules of any process(es) can be "plugged-in" to the basic model in order to explore, eg. system-level implications of local perturbations. The goal is to keep the basic core model compact enough to insure fast execution time (in view of eventual use in the clinic) and yet to allow elaborate detailed modules of target tissues or organs in order to focus on the problem area while maintaining the system-level regulatory compensations.

  3. Formation of hydroxyl radical from San Joaquin Valley particles extracted in a cell-free surrogate lung fluid

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    H. Shen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that the adverse health effects from ambient particulate matter (PM are linked to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS by PM in cardiopulmonary tissues. While hydroxyl radical (OH is the most reactive of the ROS species, there are few quantitative studies of OH generation from PM. Here we report on OH formation from PM collected at an urban (Fresno and rural (Westside site in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV of California. We quantified OH in PM extracts using a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS solution with or without 50 μM ascorbate (Asc. The results show that generally the urban Fresno PM generates much more OH than the rural Westside PM. The presence of Asc at a physiologically relevant concentration in the extraction solution greatly enhances OH formation from all the samples. Fine PM (PM2.5 generally makes more OH than the corresponding coarse PM (PMcf, i.e. with diameters of 2.5 to 10 μm normalized by air volume collected, while the coarse PM typically generates more OH normalized by PM mass. OH production by SJV PM is reduced on average by (97 ± 6 % when the transition metal chelator desferoxamine (DSF is added to the extraction solution, indicating a dominant role of transition metals. By measuring calibration curves of OH generation from copper and iron, and quantifying copper and iron concentrations in our particle extracts, we find that PBS-soluble copper is primarily responsible for OH production by the SJV PM, while iron often makes a significant contribution. Extrapolating our results to expected burdens of PM-derived OH in human lung lining fluid suggests that typical daily PM exposures in the San Joaquin Valley are unlikely to result in a high amount of pulmonary OH, although high

  4. The targeted inhibitory effects of human amniotic fluid stem cells carrying CXCR4 promoter and DAL-1 on non-small cell lung carcinoma growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Li, S; Cai, T; Wang, H; Xie, X; Liu, Z; Zhang, Y

    2016-02-01

    The differentially expressed in adenocarcinoma of the lung-1 (DAL-1) protein has been demonstrated to be suppressive to various types of tumors including lung cancer. This study aimed to determine the targeted effects of human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFS cells) carrying CXCR4 promoter driven conditionally replicable adenovirus vector overexpressing DAL-1 (Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1) on non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) growth. The apoptotic effects of virus vectors were assessed using flow cytometry, and the cytotoxicity analyzed by CCK-8 assay. In vivo imaging system was used to determine the homing capability of hAFS cells. A549 cell xenograft mouse model was created to assess the in vivo effect of DAL-1 overexpression on NSCLC growth. We found that infection of Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1 increased the apoptosis of A549 NSCLC cells but not 16HBE normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1 administered via intratumoral injection led to significant reduced growth and greater necrosis of A549 xenograft tumors comparing to null vector treated animals. When infused via tail vein, hAFS cells carrying Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1 homed to lung cancer xenografts, caused virus replication and DAL-1 overexpression, and led to significant lower growth and greater necrosis of A549 cell xenografts comparing to non-treatment control. In conclusion, hAFS cells are capable of carrying Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1 vectors, specifically targeting to lung cancer, and causing oncolytic effects when administered in vivo.

  5. Pathway focused protein profiling indicates differential function for IL-1B, -18 and VEGF during initiation and resolution of lung inflammation evoked by carbon nanoparticle exposure in mice

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    Hamelmann Eckard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbonaceous nanoparticles possess an emerging source of human exposure due to the massive release of combustion products and the ongoing revolution in nanotechnology. Pulmonary inflammation caused by deposited nanoparticles is central for their adverse health effects. Epidemiological studies suggest that individuals with favourable lung physiology are at lower risk for particulate matter associated respiratory diseases probably due to efficient control of inflammation and repair process. Therefore we selected a mouse strain C3H/HeJ (C3 with robust lung physiology and exposed it to moderately toxic carbon nanoparticles (CNP to study the elicited pulmonary inflammation and its resolution. Methods 5 μg, 20 μg and 50 μg CNP were intratracheally (i.t. instilled in C3 mice to identify the optimal dose for subsequent time course studies. Pulmonary inflammation was assessed using histology, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL analysis and by a panel of 62 protein markers. Results 1 day after instillation of CNP, C3 mice exhibited a typical dose response, with the lowest dose (5 μg representing the 'no effect level' as reflected by polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN, and BAL/lung concentrations of pro-inflammatory proteins. Histological analysis and BAL-protein concentration did not reveal any evidence of tissue injury in 20 μg CNP instilled animals. Accordingly time course assessment of the inflammatory response was performed after 3 and 7 days with this dose (20 μg. Compared to day 1, BAL PMN counts were significantly decreased at day 3 and completely returned to normal by day 7. We have identified protein markers related to the acute response and also to the time dependent response in lung and BAL. After complete resolution of PMN influx on day 7, we detected elevated concentrations of 20 markers that included IL1B, IL18, FGF2, EDN1, and VEGF in lung and/or BAL. Biological pathway analysis revealed these factors to be involved in a

  6. Phosphatidylglycerol determination in the amniotic fluid from a PAD placed over the vulva: a method for diagnosis of fetal lung maturity in cases of premature ruptured membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estol, P C; Poseiro, J J; Schwarcz, R

    1992-01-01

    Four hundred and forty seven pregnant women with ruptured membranes, were prospectively studied in order to assess the diagnostic capacity of Phosphatidylglycerol (PhG) determination in amniotic fluid recovered from vulval pads in the diagnosis of Hyaline Membrane Disease (HMD). The identification of PhG was performed using one dimensional silica gel thin layer chromatography. The sensitivity of PhG determination in the diagnosis of HMD in newborns of the total population was found to be 88.2%, with a specificity of 76.9%. In the study population, the incidence of HMD was 7.6%, the negative predictive value was 98.8% and, the positive predictive value was 24.0%. When the 265 newborns of the gestational age group of less than or equal to 34 weeks is considered, we observed an incidence of HMD of 12.1%. The diagnostic capacity of PhG in this group was shown by a sensitivity of 87.5%, a specificity of 76.4%, a positive predictive value of 33.7% and a negative predictive value of 97.8%. This method of assessment of fetal lung maturity has a diagnostic capability similar to that described by other authors, who used amniotic fluid obtained vaginally or transabdominally. The procedure described here of amniotic fluid collection is non-invasive, harmless to the mother and fetus and simple to perform. The characteristics of this method, allow serial studies of the amniotic fluid to be carried out.

  7. Regulation of ENaC-mediated alveolar fluid clearance by insulin via PI3K/Akt pathway in LPS-induced acute lung injury

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    Deng Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stimulation of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC increases Na+ transport, a driving force of alveolar fluid clearance (AFC to keep alveolar spaces free of edema fluid that is beneficial for acute lung injury (ALI. It is well recognized that regulation of ENaC by insulin via PI3K pathway, but the mechanism of this signaling pathway to regulate AFC and ENaC in ALI remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of insulin on AFC in ALI and clarify the pathway in which insulin regulates the expression of ENaC in vitro and in vivo. Methods A model of ALI (LPS at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg with non-hyperglycemia was established in Sprague-Dawley rats receiving continuous exogenous insulin by micro-osmotic pumps and wortmannin. The lungs were isolated for measurement of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF, total lung water content(TLW, and AFC after ALI for 8 hours. Alveolar epithelial type II cells were pre-incubated with LY294002, Akt inhibitor and SGK1 inhibitor 30 minutes before insulin treatment for 2 hours. The expressions of α-,β-, and γ-ENaC were detected by immunocytochemistry, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blotting. Results In vivo, insulin decreased TLW, enchanced AFC, increased the expressions of α-,β-, and γ-ENaC and the level of phosphorylated Akt, attenuated lung injury and improved the survival rate in LPS-induced ALI, the effects of which were blocked by wortmannin. Amiloride, a sodium channel inhibitor, significantly reduced insulin-induced increase in AFC. In vitro, insulin increased the expressions of α-,β-, and γ-ENaC as well as the level of phosphorylated Akt but LY294002 and Akt inhibitor significantly prevented insulin-induced increase in the expression of ENaC and the level of phosphorylated Akt respectively. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that levels of Nedd4-2 binding to ENaC were decreased by insulin via PI3K/Akt pathway. Conclusions Our study

  8. Effect of Noise and Flow Field Resolution on the Evaluation of Fluid Dynamic Forces on Bodies Using only the Velocity Field and its Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Maria Cecilia; Krueger, Paul S.

    2010-11-01

    Determining unsteady fluid dynamic forces on bodies using only measurements of the velocity field and its derivatives is essential in many investigations, including studies of freely swimming or flying animals. In this project, all terms in a control-volume force equation utilizing only the velocity field and its derivatives discussed by Noca et al. (J. Fluids Struct., 13, 551 - 578) will be analyzed with regard to the influence of flow field noise and resolution to determine which terms dominate the error in the computed force and which factor has the greatest effect on the error. Using analytical and computational flow fields for which the lift and drag forces are known, irregularities found in real experimental results including noise and reduced spatial/temporal resolution will be added to assess their effect on the computed forces. Results for several canonical flows will be presented.

  9. Bronchial microdialysis of cytokines in the epithelial lining fluid in experimental intestinal ischemia and reperfusion before onset of manifest lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyvold, Stig Sverre; Solligård, Erik; Gunnes, Sigurd; Lyng, Oddveig; Johannisson, Anders; Grønbech, Jon E; Aadahl, Petter

    2010-11-01

    Today, there is no continuous monitoring of the bronchial epithelial lining fluid. This study used microdialysis as a method of continuous monitoring of early lung cytokine response secondary to intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in pigs. The authors aimed to examine bronchial microdialysis for continuous monitoring of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, and fluorescein isothiocyanate Dextran 4,000 Da (FD-4). The superior mesenteric artery was cross-clamped for 120 min followed by 240 min of reperfusion (ischemia group, n = 8). Four sham-operated pigs served as controls. The pigs were anesthetized and normoventilated (peak inspiratory pressure, intestinal and arterial microdialysis catheters (flow-rate of 1 μL/min) were collected during reperfusion in 60-min fractions. Samples were analyzed for TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, and FD-4. Data are presented as median (interquartile range). A lung biopsy was collected at the end of the experiment. During reperfusion, there was an increase in bronchial concentrations of both IL-8 (3.70 [1.47-8.93] ng/mL per h vs. controls, 0.61 [0.47-0.91] ng/mL per h; P intestinal lumen, IL-8 was increased in the ischemia group (6.33 [3.13-9.23] ng/mL per h vs. controls, 0.89 [0.21-1.86] ng/mL per h; P lining fluid and can be used for continuous monitoring of the immediate local lung cytokine response secondary to intestinal ischemia-reperfusion.

  10. Goal-directed fluid optimization based on stroke volume variation and cardiac index during one-lung ventilation in patients undergoing thoracoscopy lobectomy operations: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This pilot study was designed to utilize stroke volume variation and cardiac index to ensure fluid optimization during one-lung ventilation in patients undergoing thoracoscopic lobectomies. METHODS: Eighty patients undergoing thoracoscopic lobectomy were randomized into either a goal-directed therapy group or a control group. In the goal-directed therapy group, the stroke volume variation was controlled at 10%±1%, and the cardiac index was controlled at a minimum of 2.5 L.min-1.m-2. In the control group, the MAP was maintained at between 65 mm Hg and 90 mm Hg, heart rate was maintained at between 60 BPM and 100 BPM, and urinary output was greater than 0.5 mL/kg-1/h-1. The hemodynamic variables, arterial blood gas analyses, total administered fluid volume and side effects were recorded. RESULTS: The PaO2/FiO2-ratio before the end of one-lung ventilation in the goal-directed therapy group was significantly higher than that of the control group, but there were no differences between the goal-directed therapy group and the control group for the PaO2/FiO2-ratio or other arterial blood gas analysis indices prior to anesthesia. The extubation time was significantly earlier in the goal-directed therapy group, but there was no difference in the length of hospital stay. Patients in the control group had greater urine volumes, and they were given greater colloid and overall fluid volumes. Nausea and vomiting were significantly reduced in the goal-directed therapy group. CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrated that an optimization protocol, based on stroke volume variation and cardiac index obtained with a FloTrac/Vigileo device, increased the PaO2/FiO2-ratio and reduced the overall fluid volume, intubation time and postoperative complications (nausea and vomiting in thoracic surgery patients requiring one-lung ventilation.

  11. High resolution computed tomography findings on the lung of early breast-cancer patients treated by postoperative breast irradiation with a hypofractionated radiotherapy schedule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plataniotis G

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hypofractionated breast radiotherapy (RT, although convenient for patients and health care systems, could have a negative impact on normal tissues such as lung. Aims: To evaluate radiation-induced lung toxicity in early breast-cancer patients treated by hypofractionated RT. Settings and Design: We have been using the 42.5 Gy/16 fractions RT schedule since May 2003. As large fraction size is related to increased normal tissue toxicity we intended to investigate the possible radiation-induced lung toxicity to these patients, by performing high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT 6 months after the completion of the treatment. Methods and Material: A group of 30 consecutive early breast cancer patients (T1-2N0M0 have been treated by the above-mentioned RT schedule, using a pair of opposing tangential fields. The impact of chemotherapy and hormonotherapy and various breast size-related parameters on HRCT lung changes were investigated. Acute skin and breast tissue reactions were also recorded. Statistical analysis: used Correlation of numerical variables was investigated by Pearson correlation coefficient. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate correlation between HRCT findings (present vs absent with other variables. Results: Minimal HRCT findings were evident in 15/30 patients. These included small septal lines, linear and subpleural opacities and to a lesser extend, focal-ground glass opacification. The HRCT findings were positively correlated only to field separation (distance between the entrance points of the tangential beams on the breast (H.R.=1.33, 95% CI: 1.013-1.75. Conclusions: The short 16-fraction RT schedule for early breast-cancer patients appears to have a minor effect on the underlying lung parenchyma.

  12. Characterizing metal(loid) solubility in airborne PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in Frankfurt, Germany using simulated lung fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Clare L. S.; Zereini, Fathi

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the solubility of traffic-related metal(loid)s associated with airborne PM of human health concern, employing a physiologically-based extraction test with simulated lung fluids (artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) and Gamble's solution). Airborne PM (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) samples were collected in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, using a high volume sampler. Following extraction of the soluble metal(loid) fractions, sample filters were digested with a high pressure asher. Metal(loid) concentrations (As, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti and V) were determined in extracts and digests per ICP-Q-MS. All metal(loid)s occurred at detectable concentrations in the three airborne PM fractions. Copper was the most abundant element in mass terms, with mean concentrations of 105 and 53 ng/m3 in PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. Many of the metal(loid)s were observed to be soluble in simulated lung fluids, with Cu, As, V and Sb demonstrating the highest overall mobility in airborne PM. For instance, all four elements associated with PM10 had a solubility of >80% in ALF (24 h). Clearly, solubility is strongly pH dependent, as reflected by the higher relative mobility of samples extracted with the acidic ALF. Given their demonstrated solubility, this study provides indirect evidence that a number of toxic metal(loid)s are likely to possess an enhanced pulmonary toxic potential upon their inhalation. The co-presence of many toxic elements of concern in airborne PM suggests an assessment of health risk must consider the possible interactive impacts of multi-element exposures.

  13. Assessment of CCL2 and CXCL8 chemokines in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue samples from dogs affected with canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roels, Elodie; Krafft, Emilie; Farnir, Frederic; Holopainen, Saila; Laurila, Henna P; Rajamäki, Minna M; Day, Michael J; Antoine, Nadine; Pirottin, Dimitri; Clercx, Cecile

    2015-10-01

    Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) is a progressive disease of the lung parenchyma that is more prevalent in dogs of the West Highland white terrier (WHWT) breed. Since the chemokines (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8) have been implicated in pulmonary fibrosis in humans, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these same chemokines are involved in the pathogenesis of CIPF. CCL2 and CXCL8 concentrations were measured by ELISA in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from healthy dogs and WHWTs affected with CIPF. Expression of the genes encoding CCL2 and CXCL8 and their respective receptors, namely (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) and (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2), was compared in unaffected lung tissue and biopsies from dogs affected with CIPF by quantitative PCR and localisation of CCL2 and CXCL8 proteins were determined by immunohistochemistry. Significantly greater CCL2 and CXCL8 concentrations were found in the BALF from WHWTs affected with CIPF, compared with healthy dogs. Significantly greater serum concentrations of CCL2, but not CXCL8, were found in CIPF-affected dogs compared with healthy WHWTs. No differences in relative gene expression for CCL2, CXCL8, CCR2 or CXCR2 were observed when comparing lung biopsies from control dogs and those affected with CIPF. In affected lung tissues, immunolabelling for CCL2 and CXCL8 was observed in bronchial airway epithelial cells in dogs affected with CIPF. The study findings suggest that both CCL2 and CXCL8 are involved in the pathogenesis of CIPF. Further studies are required to determine whether these chemokines might have a clinical use as biomarkers of fibrosis or as targets for therapeutic intervention.

  14. 99mTc-IgG-Lung Scintigraphy in the Assessment of Pulmonary Involvement in Interstitial Lung Disease and Its Comparison With Pulmonary Function Tests and High-Resolution Computed Tomography: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahtouee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The discrimination of inactive inflammatory processes from the active form of the disease is of great importance in the management of interstitial lung disease (ILD. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of 99mTc-IgG scan for the detection of severity of disease compared to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT and pulmonary function test (PFT. Patients and Methods Eight known cases of ILD including four cases of Mustard gas (MG intoxication and four patients with ILD of unknown cause were included in this study. A population of six patients without lung disease was considered as the control group. The patients underwent PFT and high-resolution computed tomography, followed by 99mTc-IgG scan. They were followed up for one year. 99mTc-IgG scan assessment of IgG uptake was accomplished both qualitatively (subjectively and semiquantitatively. Results All eight ILD patients demonstrated a strong increase in 99mTc-IgG uptake in the lungs, compared to the control patients. The 99mTc-IgG scan scores were higher in the patient group (0.64[95% confidence interval(CI=0.61-0.69] than the control group (0.35 (0.35[95% CI=0.28-0.40], (P 0.05. There were no significant correlations between 99mTc-IgG score and HRCT patterns including ground glass opacity, reticular fibrosis and honeycombing (P value > 0.05. Conclusion The present results confirmed that 99mTc-IgG scan could be applied to detect the severity of pulmonary involvement, which was well correlated with HRCT findings. This data also showed that the 99mTc-IgG scan might be used as a complement to HRCT in the functional evaluation of the clinical status in ILD; however, further studies are recommended.

  15. Subdural fluid collection and hydrocephalus following cervical schwannoma resection: hydrocephalus resolution after spinal pseudomeningocele repair: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Nicola; Cagnazzo, Federico; Gambacciani, Carlo; Perrini, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    The authors report the case of a 31-year-old man who developed neck pain and headache 2 months after the uncomplicated resection of a cervical schwannoma. MR imaging revealed infratentorial subdural fluid collections and obstructive hydrocephalus associated with cervical pseudomeningocele. The clinical symptoms, subdural fluid collections, and ventricular dilation resolved after surgical correction of the pseudomeningocele. This report emphasizes that hydrocephalus may be related to disorders of cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics induced by cervical pseudomeningocele. In these rare cases, both the hydrocephalus and the symptoms are resolved by the simple correction of the pseudomeningocele.

  16. 99mTc-MIBI Lung Scintigraphy in the Assessment of Pulmonary Involvement in Interstitial Lung Disease and Its Comparison With Pulmonary Function Tests and High-Resolution Computed Tomography: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtouee, Mehrzad; Saberifard, Jamshid; Javadi, Hamid; Nabipour, Iraj; Raeisi, Alireza; Assadi, Majid; Eftekhari, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    The differentiation of active inflammatory processes from an inactive form of the disease is of great value in the management of interstitial lung disease (ILD). The aim of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of 99mTc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) scans in distinguishing the severity of the disease compared to radiological and clinical parameters.In total, 19 known cases of ILD were included in this study and were followed up for 1 year. Five patients without lung disease were considered as the control group. The patients underwent pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and high-resolution computed tomography scans, followed by 99mTc-MIBI scanning. The 99mTc-MIBI scans were analyzed either qualitatively (subjectively) or semiquantitatively.All 19 ILD patients demonstrated a strong increase in 99mTc-MIBI uptake in the lungs compared to the control group. The 99mTc-MIBI scan scores were higher in the patient group in both the early phase (0.24[0.19-0.31] vs 0.11[0.10-0.15], P 0.14). The 99mTc-MIBI scan scores were not significantly correlated with the PFT findings (P > 0.05). In total, 5 patients died and 14 patients were still alive over the 1-year follow-up period. There was also a significant difference between the uptake intensity of 99mTc-MIBI and the outcome in the early phase (dead: 0.32[0.29-0.43] vs alive: 0.21[0.18-0.24], P pulmonary involvement in early views, which were well correlated with HRCT findings. These results also revealed that 99mTc-MIBI lung scans might be used as a complement to other diagnostic and clinical examinations in terms of functional information in ILD; however, further investigations are strongly required.

  17. High-resolution computed tomography to differentiate chronic diffuse interstitial lung diseases with predominant ground-glass pattern using logical analysis of data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Sophie Grivaud; Brauner, Michel W.; Rety, Frederique [Universite Paris 13, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Avicenne, UPRES EA 2363, Department of Radiology, Bobigny (France); Kronek, Louis-Philippe; Brauner, Nadia [Universite Joseph Fourier, Laboratoire G-SCOP, Grenoble (France); Valeyre, Dominique; Nunes, Hilario [Universite Paris 13, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Avicenne, UPRES EA 2363, Department of Pneumology, Bobigny (France); Brillet, Pierre-Yves [Universite Paris 13, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Avicenne, UPRES EA 2363, Department of Radiology, Bobigny (France); Hopital Avicenne, Service de Radiologie, Bobigny Cedex (France)

    2010-06-15

    We evaluated the performance of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) to differentiate chronic diffuse interstitial lung diseases (CDILD) with predominant ground-glass pattern by using logical analysis of data (LAD). A total of 162 patients were classified into seven categories: sarcoidosis (n = 38), connective tissue disease (n = 32), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n = 18), drug-induced lung disease (n = 15), alveolar proteinosis (n = 12), idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia (n = 10) and miscellaneous (n = 37). First, 40 CT attributes were investigated by the LAD to build up patterns characterising a category. From the association of patterns, LAD determined models specific to each CDILD. Second, data were recomputed by adding eight clinical attributes to the analysis. The 20 x 5 cross-folding method was used for validation. Models could be individualised for sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, connective tissue disease and alveolar proteinosis. An additional model was individualised for drug-induced lung disease by adding clinical data. No model was demonstrated for idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia and the miscellaneous category. The results showed that HRCT had a good sensitivity ({>=}64%) and specificity ({>=}78%) and a high negative predictive value ({>=}93%) for diseases with a model. Higher sensitivity ({>=}78%) and specificity ({>=}89%) were achieved by adding clinical data. The diagnostic performance of HRCT is high and can be increased by adding clinical data. (orig.)

  18. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF THE MANIFESTATIONS OF INTERSTITIAL LUNG INJURYIN SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION COMPUTER T OMOGRAPHY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L P Anan'eva

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion. Chest HRCT reveals the characteristic symptoms of ILI and reflects different phases of a fibrosing process in the lung. It is essential to make an in-depth examination using HRCT in all patients with SDD, irrespective of its clinical form in the earliest periods for the timely detection and treatment of ILI.

  19. Transthoracic ultrasound assessment of B-lines for identifying the increment of extravascular lung water in shock patients requiring fluid resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongdhep Theerawit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies have shown that the number of B-lines was related to the amount of extravascular lung water (EVLW. In our study, we aimed to demonstrate the magnitude of the incremental B-lines in shock patients with positive net fluid balance and the association with gas exchange impairment. Materials and Methods: We performed trans-thoracic ultrasound at admission (T 0 and at follow-up period (T FL to demonstrate the change of B lines ( B-lines after fluid therapy. We compared the total B-line score (TBS at T 0 and T FL and calculated the Pearson′s correlation coefficient between the B-lines and PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio. Results: A total of 20 patients were analyzed. All patients had septic shock. Net fluid balance was + 2228.05 ± 1982.15 ml. The TBS at T 0 and T FL were 36.6 ± 23.73 and 63.80 ± 29.25 (P < 0.01. The B-lines along anterior axillary line (AAL correlated to the TBS (r = 0.90, P < 0.01. The B-lines along AAL had inverse correlation to PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio (r = −0.704, P < 0.05. The increase of B-lines ≥ 10 was related to the decrease of PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio. The inter-observer reliability between two ultrasound readers was high (r = 0.92, P < 0.01. Discussion : The number of B-lines increased in shock patients with positive net fluid balance and correlated to impaired oxygenation. These data supported the benefit of ultrasound for assessing the EVLW.

  20. Feasibility of Automated Quantification of Regional Disease Patterns Depicted on High-Resolution Computed Tomography in Patients with Various Diffuse Lung Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Ok; Seo, Joon Beom; Kim, Nam Kug; Park, Bum Woo; Sung, Yu Sub; Lee, Young Joo [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Hoon [Wonkwang University Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Kyung [East-West Neo Medical Center of Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Jin [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Suk Ho [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    This study was designed to develop an automated system for quantification of various regional disease patterns of diffuse lung diseases as depicted on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and to compare the performance of the automated system with human readers. A total of 600 circular regions-of-interest (ROIs), 10 pixels in diameter, were utilized. The 600 ROIs comprised 100 ROIs that represented six typical regional patterns (normal, ground-glass opacity, reticular opacity, honeycombing, emphysema, and consolidation). The ROIs were used to train the automated classification system based on the use of a Support Vector Machine classifier and 37 features of texture and shape. The performance of the classification system was tested with a 5-fold cross-validation method. An automated quantification system was developed with a moving ROI in the lung area, which helped classify each pixel into six categories. A total of 92 HRCT images obtained from patients with different diseases were used to validate the quantification system. Two radiologists independently classified lung areas of the same CT images into six patterns using the manual drawing function of dedicated software. Agreement between the automated system and the readers and between the two individual readers was assessed. The overall accuracy of the system to classify each disease pattern based on the typical ROIs was 89%. When the quantification results were examined, the average agreement between the system and each radiologist was 52% and 49%, respectively. The agreement between the two radiologists was 67%. An automated quantification system for various regional patterns of diffuse interstitial lung diseases can be used for objective and reproducible assessment of disease severity.

  1. Ground-glass opacity in diffuse lung diseases: high-resolution computed tomography-pathology correlation; Opacidades em vidro fosco nas doencas pulmonares difusas: correlacao da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao com a anatomopatologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maria Lucia de Oliveira; Vianna, Alberto Domingues; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Disciplina de Radiologia; Moraes, Heleno Pinto de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Patologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@zipmail.com.br

    2003-12-01

    Ground-glass opacity is a finding frequently seen in high-resolution computed tomography examinations of the chest and is characterized by hazy increased attenuation of lung, however without blurring of bronchial and vascular margins. Due to its un specificity, association with other radiological, clinical and pathological findings must be considered for an accurate diagnostic interpretation. In this paper were reviewed 62 computed tomography examinations of patients with diffuse pulmonary diseases of 14 different etiologies in which ground-glass opacity was the only or the most remarkable finding, and correlated this findings with pathology abnormalities seen on specimens obtained from biopsies or necropsies. In pneumocystosis, ground-glass opacities correlated histologically with alveolar occupation by a foaming material containing parasites, in bronchiole alveolar cell carcinoma with thickening of the alveolar septa and occupation of the lumen by mucus and tumoral cells, in paracoccidioidomycosis with thickening of the alveolar septa, areas of fibrosis and alveolar bronchopneumonia exudate, in sarcoidosis with fibrosis or clustering of granulomas and in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with alveolar septa thickening due to fibrosis. Alveolar occupation by blood was found in cases of leptospirosis, idiopathic hemo siderosis, metastatic kidney tumor and invasive aspergillosis whereas oily vacuole were seen in lipoid pneumonia, proteinaceous and lipo proteinaceous material in silico proteinosis and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and edematous fluid in cardiac failure. (author)

  2. Distribution characteristics of clarithromycin and azithromycin, macrolide antimicrobial agents used for treatment of respiratory infections, in lung epithelial lining fluid and alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togami, Kohei; Chono, Sumio; Morimoto, Kazuhiro

    2011-10-01

    The distribution characteristics of clarithromycin (CAM) and azithromycin (AZM), macrolide antimicrobial agents, in lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and alveolar macrophages (AMs) were evaluated. In the in vivo animal experiments, the time-courses of the concentrations of CAM and AZM in ELF and AMs following oral administration (50 mg/kg) to rats were markedly higher than those in plasma, and the area under the drug concentration-time curve (AUC) ratios of ELF/plasma of CAM and AZM were 12 and 2.2, and the AUC ratios of AMs/ELF were 37 and 291, respectively. In the in vitro transport experiments, the basolateral-to-apical transport of CAM and AZM through model lung epithelial cell (Calu-3) monolayers were greater than the apical-to-basolateral transport. MDR1 substrates reduced the basolateral-to-apical transport of CAM and AZM. In the in vitro uptake experiments, the intracellular concentrations of CAM and AZM in cultured AMs (NR8383) were greater than the extracellular concentrations. The uptake of CAM and AZM by NR8383 was inhibited by ATP depletors. These data suggest that the high distribution of CAM and AZM to AMs is due to the sustained distribution to ELF via MDR1 as well as the high uptake by the AMs themselves via active transport mechanisms.

  3. Distribution characteristics of telithromycin, a novel ketolide antimicrobial agent applied for treatment of respiratory infection, in lung epithelial lining fluid and alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togami, Kohei; Chono, Sumio; Seki, Toshinobu; Morimoto, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    The distribution characteristics of telithromycin (TEL), a novel ketolide antimicrobial agent, in lung epithelial fluid (ELF) and alveolar macrophages (AMs) were evaluated. In vivo animal experiments, the time-courses of the concentrations of TEL in ELF and AMs following oral administration of TEL solution (50 mg/4 mL/kg) to rats were markedly higher than in plasma, and areas under drug concentration-time curve (AUC) ratios of ELF/plasma and AMs/plasma were 2.4 and 65.3, respectively. In vitro transport experiments, the basolateral-to-apical transport of TEL through model lung epithelial cell (Calu-3) monolayers was greater than apical-to-basolateral transport. Rhodamine123 and verapamil, MDR1 substrates, reduced the basolateral-to-apical transport of TEL. In vitro uptake experiments, the intracellular equilibrated concentration of TEL in cultured AMs (NR8383) was approximately 40 times the extracellular concentration. The uptake of TEL by NR8383 was inhibited by rotenone and FCCP, ATP depletors and was temperature-dependent. These data suggest that the high distribution of TEL to AMs is due to the sustained distribution to ELF via MDR1 as well as the high uptake by AMs themselves via active transport mechanisms.

  4. High-Resolution Computed Tomography and Chest X-Ray Findings of Interstitial Lung Disease Related to Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sheikh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Interstitial lung disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with scleroderma. For this reason an early diagnosis of lung involvement is warranted. The best approach to detect pulmonary disease particularly alveolitis (inflammatory NSIP as a reversible phase is controversial. The aim of this study is estimating the advantage of HRCT as a noninvasive screening test to detect the pattern of ILD related to systemic sclerosis.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study, 52 patients with scleroderma who referred to rheumatologic medical center from 2010 to 2011 were evaluated for ILD by the use of history, physical examination, CXR and HRCT. Finally, all the data were analyzed using SPSS13 software.Results: HRCT was normal in 21 patients (40.4%, and NSIP in 19 patients (36.5% and UIP in 12 patients (23.1% were reported. CXR was normal in 19 (36.5% and mild reticular pattern in 15 (28.8%, overt reticular pattern in 14 (26.9% and honey combing in 4 (7.7% were seen. HRCT findings were abnormal in 6(11.5% patients without dyspnea, 22(42.3% without cough, 20(38.4% without crackle in lung auscultation and 26(50% without clubbing in physical examination. In 2(3.8% patients no pulmonary signs and symptoms UIP were reported.Conclusion: HRCT is a noninvasive method to detect lung involvement in early phases independent of presence or absence of pulmonary signs and symptoms.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(2:16-22

  5. 99mTc-MIBI Lung Scintigraphy in the Assessment of Pulmonary Involvement in Interstitial Lung Disease and Its Comparison With Pulmonary Function Tests and High-Resolution Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtouee, Mehrzad; Saberifard, Jamshid; Javadi, Hamid; Nabipour, Iraj; Raeisi, Alireza; Assadi, Majid; Eftekhari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The differentiation of active inflammatory processes from an inactive form of the disease is of great value in the management of interstitial lung disease (ILD). The aim of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of 99mTc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) scans in distinguishing the severity of the disease compared to radiological and clinical parameters. In total, 19 known cases of ILD were included in this study and were followed up for 1 year. Five patients without lung disease were considered as the control group. The patients underwent pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and high-resolution computed tomography scans, followed by 99mTc-MIBI scanning. The 99mTc-MIBI scans were analyzed either qualitatively (subjectively) or semiquantitatively. All 19 ILD patients demonstrated a strong increase in 99mTc-MIBI uptake in the lungs compared to the control group. The 99mTc-MIBI scan scores were higher in the patient group in both the early phase (0.24[0.19–0.31] vs 0.11[0.10–0.15], P  0.14). The 99mTc-MIBI scan scores were not significantly correlated with the PFT findings (P > 0.05). In total, 5 patients died and 14 patients were still alive over the 1-year follow-up period. There was also a significant difference between the uptake intensity of 99mTc-MIBI and the outcome in the early phase (dead: 0.32[0.29–0.43] vs alive: 0.21[0.18–0.24], P lung scans might distinguish the severity of pulmonary involvement in early views, which were well correlated with HRCT findings. These results also revealed that 99mTc-MIBI lung scans might be used as a complement to other diagnostic and clinical examinations in terms of functional information in ILD; however, further investigations are strongly required. PMID:26632717

  6. Trefoil factors (TFFs) are increased in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid from patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viby, Niels-Erik; Nexø, Ebba; Kissow, Hannelouise;

    2015-01-01

    Trefoil factors (TFFs) 1, 2 and 3 are small polypeptides that are co-secreted with mucin throughout the body. They are up-regulated in cancer and inflammatory processes in the gastrointestinal system, where they are proposed to be involved in tissue regeneration, proliferation and protection. Our......, and patients with pulmonary malignancies had concentrations of TFF1 and TFF2 three times that of the reference group. The results suggest that TFFs are involved in tissue regeneration, proliferation and protection in lung diseases....

  7. High-resolution simulations of multi-phase flow in magmatic-hydrothermal systems with realistic fluid properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, S.; Driesner, T.; Matthai, S.; Heinrich, C.

    2002-12-01

    Realistic modelling of multi-phase fluid flow, energy and component transport in magmatic-hydrothermal systems is very challenging because hydrological properties of fluids and rocks vary over many orders of magnitude and the geometric complexities of such systems. Furthermore, density dependent component transport and transient permeability variations due to P-T changes and fluid-rock interactions introduce additional difficulties. As a result, the governing equations for the hydrodynamics, energy and component transport, and thermodynamics in magmatic hydrothermal systems are highly non-linear and strongly coupled. Essential requirements of a numerical formulation for such a system are: (1) a treatment of the hydrodynamics that can accurately resolve complex geological structures and represent the highly variable fluid velocities herein, (2) a realistic thermodynamic representation of the fluid properties including the wide P-T-X range of liquid+vapour coexistence for the highly saline fluids, and (3) an accurate handling of the highly contrasting transport properties of the two fluids. We are combining higher order finite-element (FE) methods with total variation diminishing finite volume (TVDFV) methods to model the hydrodynamics and energy and component transport of magmatic hydrothermal systems. Combined FE and TVDFV methods are mass and shock preserving, yield great geometric flexibility in 2D and 3D [2]. Furthermore, efficient matrix solvers can be employed to model fluid flow in geologically realistic structures [5]. The governing equations are linearized by operator-splitting and solved sequentially using a Picard iteration scheme. We chose the system water-NaCl as a realistic proxy for natural fluids occurring in magmatic-hydrothermal systems. An in-depth evaluation of the available experimental and theoretical data led to a consistent and accurate set of formulations for the PVTXH relations that are valid from 0 to 800 C, 0 to 500 MPa, and 0 to 1 XNa

  8. The application of High-resolution CT scanning in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease%高分辨CT扫描技术在肺间质性病变中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏毅; 倪傲; 李源

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨高分辨CT扫描技术,对肺间质性病变的诊断价值.方法 采用Philips MX8000 Dual 螺旋CT机对30例肺间质性病变患者,行高分辨CT技术扫描.结果 高分辨CT可清晰显示肺间质性病变的各种征象,肺间质性病变的高分辨CT主要表现为:(1)磨玻璃样密度影;(2)肺小叶间隔增厚;(3)小叶内间质增生;(4)网格状影;(5)胸膜下弧线影;(6)蜂窝肺;(7)牵拉支气管扩张;(8)胸膜增厚.病变分布以两肺中外带、胸膜下为主,病灶自肺尖向肺底逐渐加重,两肺基底部病变明显.结论 高分辨CT扫描具有良好的空间分辨率,能细致、准确地反映肺间质病变的影像特征,对肺间质性病变具有重要的诊断价值.%Objective To study the value of HRCT scanning technology in improving the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease. Methods 30 cases of interstitial lung disease were scanned throng high-resolution CT with Philips MX8000 Dual CT machine. Results High-resolution CT can clearly show various signs of interstitial lung disease. The Interstitial lung disease of High-resolution CT Perform-ance:( 1 ) ground-glass opacity;( 2 ) pulmonary interlobular septal thickening; ( 3 ) intralobular interstitial thickening;( 4 ) grid-like shadow ;( 5 ) pleural shadow off the assembly line;( 6 ) cell lung;( 7 ) traction bronchiectasis; ( 8 ) pleural thickening. The lesion mainly distributes in lateral and under pleural of two lungs. The infection aggravates gradually from lung' s point to lung' s bottom. Conclusion The application of high-resolution CT scan in the interstitial lung disease has important diagnostic value. As the high-resolution CT scan with a good spatial resolution, can detail, accurately reflect the images of interstitial lung disease characterized.

  9. Lung transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, José Eduardo; Werebe, Eduardo de Campos; Carraro, Rafael Medeiros; Teixeira, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga; Fernandes, Lucas Matos; Abdalla, Luis Gustavo; Samano, Marcos Naoyuki; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lung transplantation is a globally accepted treatment for some advanced lung diseases, giving the recipients longer survival and better quality of life. Since the first transplant successfully performed in 1983, more than 40 thousand transplants have been performed worldwide. Of these, about seven hundred were in Brazil. However, survival of the transplant is less than desired, with a high mortality rate related to primary graft dysfunction, infection, and chronic graft dysfunction, particularly in the form of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. New technologies have been developed to improve the various stages of lung transplant. To increase the supply of lungs, ex vivo lung reconditioning has been used in some countries, including Brazil. For advanced life support in the perioperative period, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and hemodynamic support equipment have been used as a bridge to transplant in critically ill patients on the waiting list, and to keep patients alive until resolution of the primary dysfunction after graft transplant. There are patients requiring lung transplant in Brazil who do not even come to the point of being referred to a transplant center because there are only seven such centers active in the country. It is urgent to create new centers capable of performing lung transplantation to provide patients with some advanced forms of lung disease a chance to live longer and with better quality of life. PMID:26154550

  10. Ex-vivo ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of fine lung structure by use of a high-power Gaussian-like supercontinuum at 0.8-μm wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, N.; Ishida, S.; Ohta, T.; Itoh, K.; Kitatsuji, M.; Ohshima, H.; Hasegawa, Y.; Matsushima, M.; Kawabe, T.

    2011-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging technology for non-invasive cross-sectional imaging of biological tissue and material with um resolution. Recently, non-invasive high resolution cross-sectional imaging is desired for investigation of diseases in lung in the field of pulmonary medicine. So far, a few works have been reported about OCT imaging of lung. Since the lung consists of alveoli separated by thin wall, ultrahigh resolution (UHR) OCT is supposed to be effective for the imaging of fine structure in lung tissue. In this work, ex vivo cross-sectional imaging of isolated rat lungs was demonstrated using UHR-OCT. A 120 nm-wide, high-power, Gaussian-like supercontinuum (SC) was generated at wavelength of 0.8 um region and it was used as the light source in time domain UHR-OCT. An ultrahigh resolution of 2.1 um in tissue was obtained and the achieved sensitivity was 105 dB. For the UHR-OCT imaging of trachea, the detailed structures of the tracheal cartilage and tracheal mucosa overlying the cartilage were observed clearly. The epithelium and lamina propria were also distinguishable. For the imaging of visceral pleura and alveoli, when saline was instilled into the lung, the penetration depth was improved, and clear images of the fine structure of the lung, including alveoli, were observed owing to the index matching effect. The clear images of up to about 4 alveoli were observed below the visceral pleura. The shape of the alveolar septum was clearly observed, and the alveolar sac was clearly visible.

  11. Hyperpolarized {sup 3}helium magnetic resonance ventilation imaging of the lung in cystic fibrosis: comparison with high resolution CT and spirometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, Colm J.; Dodd, Jonathan D.; Skehan, Stephen J.; Masterson, James B. [St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); Hill, Catherine; Woodhouse, Neil; Wild, Jim M.; Fichele, Stan [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, The Unit of Academic Radiology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Gallagher, Charles G. [St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Department of National Referral Centre for Adult Cystic Fibrosis, Dublin (Ireland); Beek, Edwin J.R. van [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, The Unit of Academic Radiology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2006-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare hyperpolarized {sup 3}helium magnetic resonance imaging ({sup 3}He MRI) of the lungs in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and spirometry. Eight patients with stable CF prospectively underwent {sup 3}He MRI, HRCT, and spirometry within 1 week. Three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo sequence was used during an 18-s breath-hold following inhalation of hyperpolarized {sup 3}He. Each lung was divided into six zones; {sup 3}He MRI was scored as percentage ventilation per lung zone. HRCT was scored using a modified Bhalla scoring system. Univariate (Spearman rank) and multivariate correlations were performed between {sup 3}He MRI, HRCT, and spirometry. Results are expressed as mean{+-}SD (range). Spirometry is expressed as percent predicted. There were four men and four women, mean age=31.9{+-}9 (20-46). Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV){sub 1}=52%{+-}29 (27-93). Mean {sup 3}He MRI score=74%{+-}25 (55-100). Mean HRCT score=48.8{+-}24 (13.5-83). The correlation between {sup 3}He MRI and HRCT was strong (R={+-}0.89, p<0.001). Bronchiectasis was the only independent predictor of {sup 3}He MRI; {sup 3}He MRI correlated better with FEV{sub 1} and forced vital capacity (FVC) (R=0.86 and 0.93, p<0.01, respectively) than HRCT (R={+-}0.72 and {+-}0.81, p<0.05, respectively). This study showed that {sup 3}He MRI correlates strongly with structural HRCT abnormalities and is a stronger correlate of spirometry than HRCT in CF. (orig.)

  12. Metabolic pathways of lung inflammation revealed by high-resolution metabolomics (HRM) of H1N1 influenza virus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Joshua D; Hu, Xin; Ko, Eun-Ju; Park, Soojin; Lee, Young-Tae; Orr, Michael; Fernandes, Jolyn; Uppal, Karan; Kang, Sang-Moo; Jones, Dean P; Go, Young-Mi

    2016-11-01

    Influenza is a significant health concern worldwide. Viral infection induces local and systemic activation of the immune system causing attendant changes in metabolism. High-resolution metabolomics (HRM) uses advanced mass spectrometry and computational methods to measure thousands of metabolites inclusive of most metabolic pathways. We used HRM to identify metabolic pathways and clusters of association related to inflammatory cytokines in lungs of mice with H1N1 influenza virus infection. Infected mice showed progressive weight loss, decreased lung function, and severe lung inflammation with elevated cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ] and increased oxidative stress via cysteine oxidation. HRM showed prominent effects of influenza virus infection on tryptophan and other amino acids, and widespread effects on pathways including purines, pyrimidines, fatty acids, and glycerophospholipids. A metabolome-wide association study (MWAS) of the aforementioned inflammatory cytokines was used to determine the relationship of metabolic responses to inflammation during infection. This cytokine-MWAS (cMWAS) showed that metabolic associations consisted of distinct and shared clusters of 396 metabolites highly correlated with inflammatory cytokines. Strong negative associations of selected glycosphingolipid, linoleate, and tryptophan metabolites with IFN-γ contrasted strong positive associations of glycosphingolipid and bile acid metabolites with IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-10. Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 had strong positive associations with vitamin D, purine, and vitamin E metabolism. The detailed metabolic interactions with cytokines indicate that targeted metabolic interventions may be useful during life-threatening crises related to severe acute infection and inflammation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Lung disease assessment in primary ciliary dyskinesia: a comparison between chest high-field magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution computed tomography findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacotucci Paola

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is associated with pulmonary involvement that requires periodical assessment. Chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT has become the method of choice to evaluate chronic lung disease, but entails exposure to ionizing radiation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been proposed as a potential radiation-free technique in several chest disorders. Aim of our study is to evaluate whether high-field MRI is as effective as HRCT in identifying PCD pulmonary abnormalities. We also analyzed the relationships between the severity and extension of lung disease, and functional data. Methods Thirteen PCD patients (8 children/5 adults; median age, 15.2 yrs underwent chest HRCT and high-field 3T MRI, spirometry, and deep throat or sputum culture. Images were scored using a modified version of the Helbich system. Results HRCT and MRI total scores were 12 (range, 6–20 and 12 (range, 5–17, respectively. Agreement between HRCT and MRI scores was good or excellent (r > 0.8. HRCT and MRI total scores were significantly related to forced vital capacity (r = -0.5, p = 0.05; and r = -0.7, p = 0.009, respectively and forced expiratory volume at 1 second (r = -0.6, p = 0.03; and r = -0.7, p = 0.009, respectively. Conclusion Chest high-field 3T MRI appears to be as effective as HRCT in assessing the extent and severity of lung abnormalities in PCD. MRI scores might be used for longitudinal assessment and be an outcome surrogate in future studies.

  14. Prevalence and Characteristics of Lung Involvement on High Resolution Computed Tomography in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah El Maghraoui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of lung involvement and the spectrum of abnormalities revealed on HRCT in patients with AS, a systematic literature review was conducted in the Medline database up to May 2009 and in the abstracts of rheumatology scientific meetings (2006–2008. A hand search of references was also performed. Among the 264 selected articles, 10 articles (303 patients allowed a calculation of the prevalence of lung abnormalities on thoracic HRCT in AS. A total of 185 patients (61% had an abnormal thoracic HRCT: upper lobe fibrosis in 21 (6.9%, emphysema in 55 (18.1%, bronchiectasis in 33 (10.8%, and ground glass attenuation in 34 (11.2%. Non specific interstitial abnormalities were observed in 101 (33% patients. The most common observed abnormalities were pleural thickening (52%, parenchymal bands (45% and interlobular septal thickening (30%. Only the prevalence of upper lobe fibrosis increased significantly with disease duration (3 studies. Mild and non-specific interstitial abnormalities on thoracic HRCT are common in patients with AS, even in patients with early disease and without respiratory symptoms.

  15. Prevalence and characteristics of lung involvement on high resolution computed tomography in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Maghraoui, Abdellah; Dehhaoui, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of lung involvement and the spectrum of abnormalities revealed on HRCT in patients with AS, a systematic literature review was conducted in the Medline database up to May 2009 and in the abstracts of rheumatology scientific meetings (2006-2008). A hand search of references was also performed. Among the 264 selected articles, 10 articles (303 patients) allowed a calculation of the prevalence of lung abnormalities on thoracic HRCT in AS. A total of 185 patients (61%) had an abnormal thoracic HRCT: upper lobe fibrosis in 21 (6.9%), emphysema in 55 (18.1%), bronchiectasis in 33 (10.8%), and ground glass attenuation in 34 (11.2%). Non specific interstitial abnormalities were observed in 101 (33%) patients. The most common observed abnormalities were pleural thickening (52%), parenchymal bands (45%) and interlobular septal thickening (30%). Only the prevalence of upper lobe fibrosis increased significantly with disease duration (3 studies). Mild and non-specific interstitial abnormalities on thoracic HRCT are common in patients with AS, even in patients with early disease and without respiratory symptoms.

  16. Detection of the transforming AKT1 mutation E17K in non-small cell lung cancer by high resolution melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Stephen B

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recurrent somatic mutation, E17K, in the pleckstrin homology domain of the AKT1 gene, has been recently described in breast, colorectal, and ovarian cancers. AKT1 is a pivotal mediator of signalling pathways involved in cell survival, proliferation and growth. The E17K mutation stimulates downstream signalling and exhibits transforming activity in vitro and in vivo. Findings We developed a sensitive high resolution melting (HRM assay to detect the E17K mutation from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumours. We screened 219 non-small cell lung cancer biopsies for the mutation using HRM analysis. Four samples were identified as HRM positive. Subsequent sequencing of those samples confirmed the E17K mutation in one of the cases. A rare single nucleotide polymorphism was detected in each of the remaining three samples. The E17K was found in one of the 14 squamous cell carcinomas. No mutations were found in 141 adenocarcinomas and 39 large cell carcinomas. Conclusion The AKT1 E17K mutation is very rare in lung cancer and might be associated with tumorigenesis in squamous cell carcinoma. HRM represents a rapid cost-effective and robust screening of low frequency mutations such as AKT1 mutations in clinical samples.

  17. Resolution of Chronic Aspiration Pneumonitis Following Endoscopic Endonasal Repair of Spontaneous Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistula of the Skull Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Justin; Babadjouni, Arash; Wrobel, Bozena B; Zada, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea due to a skull base defect requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Multiple surgical options are available for repairing the fistula, including the two-layer "fascial apposition" method and use of a pedicled nasal-septal flap. A 44-year-old obese woman presented with 4 months of progressive cough, exertional dyspnea, hoarseness, and intermittent fluid drainage from the right nostril. Chest computed tomography (CT) imaging and bronchoscopy showed chronic pneumonitis, which was confirmed by pulmonary wedge resection. CT and magnetic resonance imaging of the skull base, as well as laboratory analysis of the nasal fluid for β2-transferrin, confirmed a skull base defect causing CSF rhinorrhea. During surgery, insertion of a lumbar drain with the intrathecal fluorescein administration was performed, followed by endoscopic endonasal repair using an autologous fascial apposition graft and pedicled nasal-septal flap. Both the CSF leak and the pulmonary complications resolved following the operation with no symptoms at 11-month follow-up. This is the first reported case of spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea complicated by chronic aspiration and pneumonitis. Increased diagnostic complexity due to chronic pulmonary complications resulted in unnecessary interventions and treatment delays. Prompt recognition of spontaneous CSF leaks is essential to prevent potentially harmful complications.

  18. Effect of fluid elasticity on the numerical stability of high-resolution schemes for high shearing contraction flows using OpenFOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chourushi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscoelastic fluids due to their non-linear nature play an important role in process and polymer industries. These non-linear characteristics of fluid, influence final outcome of the product. Such processes though look simple are numerically challenging to study, due to the loss of numerical stability. Over the years, various methodologies have been developed to overcome this numerical limitation. In spite of this, numerical solutions are considered distant from accuracy, as first-order upwind-differencing scheme (UDS is often employed for improving the stability of algorithm. To elude this effect, some works been reported in the past, where high-resolution-schemes (HRS were employed and Deborah number was varied. However, these works are limited to creeping flows and do not detail any information on the numerical stability of HRS. Hence, this article presents the numerical study of high shearing contraction flows, where stability of HRS are addressed in reference to fluid elasticity. Results suggest that all HRS show some order of undue oscillations in flow variable profiles, measured along vertical lines placed near contraction region in the upstream section of domain, at varied elasticity number E≈5. Furthermore, by E, a clear relationship between numerical stability of HRS and E was obtained, which states that the order of undue oscillations in flow variable profiles is directly proportional to E.

  19. The number of regulatory T cells in transbronchial lung allograft biopsies is related to FoxP3 mRNA levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and to the degree of acute cellular rejection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Dorrit; Madsen, Caroline B; Iversen, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factor Forkhead Box P3 (FoxP3) is a marker of regulatory T cells (Tregs) - a subset of T cells known to suppress a wide range of immune responses. These cells are considered to be pivotal for the induction of tolerance to donor antigens in human allografts. We aimed to correlate...... the number of lymphocytes expressing FoxP3 in transbronchial biopsies from lung allografts with the FoxP3 expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). In addition, we aimed to correlate the number of FoxP3+ cells in transbronchial biopsies with the degree of acute cellular rejection in lung allografts....

  20. Lung morphology assessment of cystic fibrosis using MRI with ultra-short echo time at submillimeter spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dournes, Gael [University of Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); INSERM, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); CHU de Bordeaux, Service d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Service des Maladies Respiratoires, Service d' Exploration Fonctionnelle Respiratoire, Pessac (France); Centre de Recherche Cardio-thoracique de Bordeaux, INSERM, U1045, Universite de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Menut, Fanny [CHU de Bordeaux, Service d' Imagerie de la Femme et de l' Enfant, Unite de Pneumologie pediatrique, Bordeaux (France); Macey, Julie; Montaudon, Michel; Berger, Patrick; Laurent, Francois [University of Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); INSERM, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); CHU de Bordeaux, Service d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Service des Maladies Respiratoires, Service d' Exploration Fonctionnelle Respiratoire, Pessac (France); Fayon, Michael [University of Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); INSERM, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); CHU de Bordeaux, Service d' Imagerie de la Femme et de l' Enfant, Unite de Pneumologie pediatrique, Bordeaux (France); Chateil, Jean-Francois [CHU de Bordeaux, Service d' Imagerie de la Femme et de l' Enfant, Unite de Pneumologie pediatrique, Bordeaux (France); University of Bordeaux, Centre de Resonance Magnetique des Systemes Biologiques, Bordeaux (France); Salel, Marjorie; Corneloup, Olivier [University of Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); CHU de Bordeaux, Service d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Service des Maladies Respiratoires, Service d' Exploration Fonctionnelle Respiratoire, Pessac (France)

    2016-11-15

    We hypothesized that non-contrast-enhanced PETRA (pointwise encoding time reduction with radial acquisition) MR (magnetic resonance) sequencing could be an alternative to unenhanced computed tomography (CT) in assessing cystic fibrosis (CF) lung structural alterations, as well as compared agreements and concordances with those of conventional T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences. Thirty consecutive CF patients completed both CT and MRI the same day. No contrast injection was used. Agreement in identifying structural alterations was evaluated at the segmental level using a kappa test. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis were used to assess concordances and reproducibility in Helbich-Bhalla disease severity scoring. Agreement between PETRA and CT was higher than that of T1- or T2-weighted sequences, notably in assessing the segmental presence of bronchiectasis (Kappa = 0.83; 0.51; 0.49, respectively). The concordance in Helbich-Bhalla scores was very good using PETRA (ICC = 0.97), independently from its magnitude (mean difference (MD) = -0.3 [-2.8; 2.2]), whereas scoring was underestimated using both conventional T1 and T2 sequences (MD = -3.6 [-7.4; 0.1]) and MD = -4.6 [-8.2; -1.0], respectively. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility were very good for all imaging modalities (ICC = 0.86-0.98). PETRA showed higher agreement in describing CF lung morphological changes than that of conventional sequences, whereas the Helbich-Bhalla scoring matched closely with that of CT. (orig.)

  1. Persistent asthma in adults: comparison of high resolution computed tomography of the lungs after one year of follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cukier, Alberto; Stelmach, Rafael; Kavakama, Jorge Issamu; Terra Filho, Mario; Vargas, Francisco [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Instituto do Coracao (InCor). Div. de Doencas Respiratorias

    2001-06-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the role of high resolution computed tomography of the thorax in detecting abnormalities in chronic asthmatic patients and to determine the behavior of these lesions after at least one year. Fourteen persistent asthmatic patients with a mean forced expiratory volume in 1-second that was 63% of predicted and a mean forced expiratory volume in 1-second /forced vital capacity of 60% had two high resolution computed tomography separated by an interval of at least one year. All 14 patients had abnormalities on both scans. The most common abnormality was bronchial wall thickening, which was present in all patients on both computed tomography. Bronchiectasis was suggested on the first computed tomography in 5 of the 14 (36%) patients, but on follow-up, the bronchial dilatation had disappeared in 2 and diminished in a third. Only one patient had any emphysematous changes; a minimal persistent area of para septal emphysema was present on both scans. In 3 patients, a 'mosaic' appearance was observed on the first scan, and this persisted on the follow-up computed tomography. Two patients had persistent areas of mucoid impaction. In a third patient, mucus plugging was detected only on the second computed tomography. We conclude that there are many abnormalities on the high resolution computed tomography of patients with persistent asthma. Changes suggestive of bronchiectasis, namely bronchial dilatation, frequently resolve spontaneously. Therefore, the diagnosis of bronchiectasis by high resolution computed tomography in asthmatic patients must be made with caution, since bronchial dilatation can be reversible or can represent false dilatation. Non smoking chronic asthmatic subjects in this study had no evidence of centrilobular or panacinar emphysema. (author)

  2. Efficient drug delivery to alveolar macrophages and lung epithelial lining fluid following pulmonary administration of liposomal ciprofloxacin in rats with pneumonia and estimation of its antibacterial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Sumio; Tanino, Tomoharu; Seki, Toshinobu; Morimoto, Kazuhiro

    2008-10-01

    The efficacy of pulmonary administration of liposomal ciprofloxacin (CPFX) in pneumonia was evaluated. In brief, the pharmacokinetics following pulmonary administration of liposomal CPFX (particle size, 1,000 nm; dose, 200 microg/kg) were examined in rats with lipopolysaccharide-induced pneumonia as an experimental pneumonia model. Furthermore, the antibacterial effects of liposomal CPFX against the pneumonic causative organisms were estimated by pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis. The time-courses of the concentration of CPFX in alveolar macrophages (AMs) and lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) following pulmonary administration of liposomal CPFX to rats with pneumonia were markedly higher than that following the administration of free CPFX (200 microg/kg). The time course of the concentrations of CPFX in plasma following pulmonary administration of liposomal CPFX was markedly lower than that in AMs and ELF. These results indicate that pulmonary administration of liposomal CPFX was more effective in delivering CPFX to AMs and ELF compared with free CPFX, and it avoids distribution of CPFX to the blood. According to PK/PD analysis, the liposomal CPFX exhibited potent antibacterial effects against the causative organisms of pneumonia. This study indicates that pulmonary administration of CPFX could be an effective technique for the treatment of pneumonia.

  3. Application of detecting cerebrospinal fluid circulating tumor cells in the diagnosis of meningeal metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong JIANG

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe a new technology for the detection and enumeration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF circulating tumor cells (CTCs in the diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC with meningeal metastasis (MM.  Methods Five cases of NSCLC with MM that were diagnosed by CSF cytology were selected, and 20 ml CSF samples were obtained by lumbar puncture for every patient. The tumor marker immunostaining-fluorescence in situ hybridization (TM-iFISH technology was adapted to detect enrichment and enumeration of circulating tumor cells in 7.50 ml CSF samples; CSF cytology was checked in 10 ml CSF samples; CSF tumor markers were detected in 2.50 ml CSF samples. All of 5 cases were examined by MRI enhancement scan.  Results TM-iFISH detection found circulating tumor cells numbers ranging 18-1823/7.50 ml. Only 2 cases of patients with CSF cytology examination showed the tumor cells. The results of CSF tumor markers in all samples were higher than normal serum tumor markers detection results. The enhanced MRI scan of 5 cases revealed typical signs of MM.  Conclusions The TM-iFISH test showed certain advantages in the detection of malignant tumor cells in CSF. This technology may be a new method of detection and enumeration of tumor cells in CSF, but more studies are needed to prove its sensitivity and specificity. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.08.011

  4. EGFR gene mutant tested by high resolution melting method in lung cancer%HRM法检测肺癌EGFR基因突变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高菲; 师建国; 魏金花; 王弢; 秦勇; 时凯

    2011-01-01

    Objective :To research EGFR - TKI molecular target therapy by detecting lung cancer EGFR gene mutant with high resolution melting method in different areas of China, and analyze the ratio of mutations type. Methods : To detect gene mutation of EGFR with HRM method in 253 surgical resection paraffin specimens of lung cancer and verify with gene sequencing method. Results: Mutation rate of EGFR gene was 42% in 253 cases with lung cance specimen using HRM method, while the mutation rate was 40% using sequencing method. There was no significant difference between two methods. At the same time, 2 cases of T790M mutations, 11 cases of multi - point mutations and 2 cases E18 new sites mutations were found using HRM method, there was no significant difference between the rates of the eastern region and the non - eastern region of patients with lung cancer EGFR mutation. The sensitivity of HRM was higher than gene sequencing method, and the specificity of HRM method was 100%. Conclusion : HRM technology has the characteristics of high sensitivity, high accuracy and high specificity. It is simpler and more cost - effective than gene sequencing method. It' s necessary to specify the mutations types and to use for clinical EGFR - TKI which can provide important basis for molecular target therapy. EGFR gene mutations of the lung specimen which collect by the labs have no regional variations.%目的:HRM法检测中国不同区域肺癌患者的EGFR基因突变,统计突变类型间比率,为临床EGFR-TKI分子靶向治疗提供依据,并验证HRM法的临床适用性.方法:收集2010年手术切除的肺癌石蜡标本253例,HRM法检测EGFR基因突变情况,并用基因测序法进行验证.结果:在253例肺癌标本中,HRM法检测出EGFR基因突变率为42%,与基因测序法检测出的突变率40%无显著性差异,并检测出2例T790M突变,11例多点突变和2例E18新位点突变.将本实验中收集的东部地区和非东部地区肺癌患者的EGFR基

  5. 2D and 3D high resolution seismic imaging of shallow Solfatara crater in Campi Flegrei (Italy): new insights on deep hydrothermal fluid circulation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Landro, Grazia; Gammaldi, Sergio; Serlenga, Vincenzo; Amoroso, Ortensia; Russo, Guido; Festa, Gaetano; D'Auria, Luca; Bruno, Pier Paolo; Gresse, Marceau; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Zollo, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    Seismic tomography can be used to image the spatial variation of rock properties within complex geological media such as volcanoes. Solfatara is a volcano located within the Campi Flegrei still active caldera, characterized by periodic episodes of extended, low-rate ground subsidence and uplift called bradyseism accompanied by intense seismic and geochemical activities. In particular, Solfatara is characterized by an impressive magnitude diffuse degassing, which underlines the relevance of fluid and heat transport at the crater and prompted further research to improve the understanding of the hydrothermal system feeding the surface phenomenon. In this line, an active seismic experiment, Repeated Induced Earthquake and Noise (RICEN) (EU Project MEDSUV), was carried out between September 2013 and November 2014 to provide time-varying high-resolution images of the structure of Solfatara. In this study we used the datasets provided by two different acquisition geometries: a) A 2D array cover an area of 90 x 115 m ^ 2 sampled by a regular grid of 240 vertical sensors deployed at the crater surface; b) two 1D orthogonal seismic arrays deployed along NE-SW and NW-SE directions crossing the 400 m crater surface. The arrays are sampled with a regular line of 240 receiver and 116 shots. We present 2D and 3D tomographic high-resolution P-wave velocity images obtained using two different tomographic methods adopting a multiscale strategy. The 3D image of the shallow (30-35 m) central part of Solfatara crater is performed through the iterative, linearized, tomographic inversion of the P-wave first arrival times. 2D P-wave velocity sections (60-70 m) are obtained using a non-linear travel-time tomography method based on the evaluation of a posteriori probability density with a Bayesian approach. The 3D retrieved images integrated with resistivity section and temperature and CO2 flux measurements , define the following characteristics: 1. A depth dependent P-wave velocity layer

  6. Supercritical fluid chromatography and steady-state recycling: phase appropriate technologies for the resolutions of pharmaceutical intermediates in the early drug development stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tony Q; Orihuela, Carlos; Preston, Jay P; Xia, Fang

    2010-11-01

    The use of phase appropriate technologies is critical for efficiently moving drug candidates forward in the early stages of drug discovery and development. Phase appropriate purification technology develops the analytical method and subsequently scales up the method and turns the sample around quickly (Kennedy et al., J Chromatogr A 2004; 1046:55). In this article, separation results and conditions from supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and steady-state recycling (SSR) for the resolutions of three pharmaceutical intermediates in the early stage of the drug development are discussed. The first study used SFC and SSR to separate an impurity for a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) campaign. The analytical method development and scale-up conditions are discussed. Productivity, solvent usage, and sample solubility under SFC and SSR conditions are also compared. The second study compared SFC to batch HPLC in separating a diastereomer. Due to higher separation efficiency, SFC was able to resolute multiple peaks. The third study involved the addition of dichloromethane as a co-solvent in SFC purification--improving sample selectivity and solubility. From the separation results of these purifications, SFC and SSR are clearly phase appropriate technologies in the early drug development stage.

  7. High-resolution dynamic imaging and quantitative analysis of lung cancer xenografts in nude mice using clinical PET/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying Yi; Wang, Kai; Xu, Zuo Yu; Song, Yan; Wang, Chu Nan; Zhang, Chong Qing; Sun, Xi Lin; Shen, Bao Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Considering the general application of dedicated small-animal positron emission tomography/computed tomography is limited, an acceptable alternative in many situations might be clinical PET/CT. To estimate the feasibility of using clinical PET/CT with [F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose for high-resolution dynamic imaging and quantitative analysis of cancer xenografts in nude mice. Dynamic clinical PET/CT scans were performed on xenografts for 60 min after injection with [F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Scans were reconstructed with or without SharpIR method in two phases. And mice were sacrificed to extracting major organs and tumors, using ex vivo γ-counting as a reference. Strikingly, we observed that the image quality and the correlation between the all quantitive data from clinical PET/CT and the ex vivo counting was better with the SharpIR reconstructions than without. Our data demonstrate that clinical PET/CT scanner with SharpIR reconstruction is a valuable tool for imaging small animals in preclinical cancer research, offering dynamic imaging parameters, good image quality and accurate data quatification. PMID:28881772

  8. High Resolution Seismic Survey off the Pacific Shore of Costa Rica - Detailed Imaging of Deformational Patterns, Fluid Venting and Carbonate Mounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, N.; Spiess, V.; Heidersdorf, F.; v. Lom, H.; Zuehlsdorff, L.; Denil, D.; Huguen, C.; Schnabel, M.

    2003-04-01

    R/V METEOR Research Cruise M54/1 in summer 2002 from Balboa (Panama) to Caldera (Costa Rica) aimed at imaging the near sea floor sedimentary structures of both the continental and oceanic plates of the Costa Rican Subduction Zone with the high resolution seismic method. The cruise evolved from a cooperation of the Marine Seismics Group of the University of Bremen with the DFG funded Special Research Project 574 - Fluids and Volatiles in Subduction Zones - and is intended to supplement the marine geophysical, geological and geochemical as well as oceanographic data collected during R/V SONNE cruises in the area, as well as subsequent R/V METEOR cruises M54/2 and /3. The objectives of SFB 574 are the investigation of shallow and deep processes in subduction zones through near surface sampling of fluid vent sites and gas hydrate occurrences, as well as through detailed seismic and acoustic imaging of related structures. The main objectives of the cruise were to study 1) the volatile and material input into the sedimentary system on the oceanic plate, 2) the distribution of gas hydrates within the sediments, and 3) possible pathways and resulting structures of fluid/gas escape. Several working areas were selected, which had been identified as highly fractured sediment packages above subducting seamounts (Jaco Scar, Parrita Scar, Rio Bongo, Hongo area), areas of pronounced decollement reflection, major slump masses (Nicoya slide), regions of major fracturing of the oceanic crust, or carbonate mounds (Hongo area, Mound Culebra) during previous cruises. For calibration of seismic data, survey lines were also shot in the vicinity of ODP Leg 170 drill sites. Several seismic examples from various survey sites will be shown. Closely spaced profiles, allowing the acquisition of 3D and 2.5D seismic data in the Hongo area and near Mound Culebra, respectively, reveal the complex internal structure of fluid pathways, the distribution of gas hydrates, and the tectonic framework of

  9. 高分辨率CT在儿童间质性肺疾病诊断中的应用%High resolution CT in the diagnosis of pediatric interstitial lung disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭芸

    2012-01-01

    儿童间质性肺疾病与成人有不同的特点,正确诊断需要依靠临床、放射和病理相结合,其中高分辨CT(high-resolution CT,HRCT)在诊断中发挥了重要的作用.文章就HRCT在儿童间质性肺疾病临床诊断中的应用作一概述.%Pediatric interstitial lung disease presents different characteristics versus that in adult. Diagnosis needs to be based on comprehensive understanding of clinical presentation, imaging and pathology. High-resolution computed tomography plays an important role in diagnosis. This article summarizes the application of this technology in the diagnosis of pediatric interstitial lung disease.

  10. Effects of Midazolam on Alveolar Fluid Clearance of Isolated Human Lungs%咪达唑仑对人离体肺段肺泡液体清除率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔湧; 聂宏光; 于同; 孙艳红

    2014-01-01

    目的:咪达唑仑是一种常用的静脉麻醉药,该研究旨在探讨咪达唑仑对人离体肺段肺泡液体清除率(Alveolar fluid clearance, AFC)的作用。方法应用临床外科手术肺切除病人的肺段标本,将药物通过插管注入远端肺组织。应用考马斯亮兰法测定肺泡液体内小牛血清白蛋白的浓度的方法测定人离体肺段AFC。结果离体肺段插管注入0.1 mmol/L咪达唑仑后,AFC明显降低。与1 mmol/L阿米洛利(特异性钠通道阻断剂)合用后抑制效应未见进一步增强。结论咪达唑仑能够抑制与上皮钠通道有关的阿米洛利敏感性AFC,从而降低肺泡上皮液体的清除。临床上对伴有肺水肿的病人应用咪达唑仑时应考虑其可能对肺脏液体清除作用的影响。%Objective Midazolam is a broadly used intravenous anesthetic. We aim to investigate the effect of midazolam on alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) of isolated human lungs. Methods Human lungs were obtained from patients who underwent pneumonectomy for lung cancer. A warmed normal saline solution containing 5%bovine serum albumin with or without amiloride (1 mmol/L) or midazolam (0.1 mmol/L) was instilled into the distal air spaces through the catheter. AFC was measured using bovine serum albumin protein assays. Results The rate of AFC was significantly reduced in human lungs with administrated midazolam (0.1 mmol/L). When midazolam was instilled into the lung segments together with amiloride (a specific ENaC inhibitor), no further inhibition effect occurred. Conclusion Our observations demonstrate that midazolam may decrease ENaC-associated fluid clearance across the distal lung epithelium.

  11. Pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography findings in nephropathia epidemica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paakkala, Antti, E-mail: antti.paakkala@pshp.fi [Medical Imaging Centre, Tampere University Hospital, 33521 Tampere (Finland); Jaervenpaeae, Ritva, E-mail: ritva.jarvenpaa@pshp.fi [Medical Imaging Centre, Tampere University Hospital, 33521 Tampere (Finland); Maekelae, Satu, E-mail: satu.marjo.makela@uta.fi [Department of Internal Medicine, Tampere University Hospital, 33521 Tampere (Finland); Medical School, University of Tampere, 33521 Tampere (Finland); Huhtala, Heini, E-mail: heini.huhtala@uta.fi [School of Public Health, University of Tampere, 33521 Tampere (Finland); Mustonen, Jukka, E-mail: jukka.mustonen@uta.fi [Department of Internal Medicine, Tampere University Hospital, 33521 Tampere (Finland); Medical School, University of Tampere, 33521 Tampere (Finland)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate lung high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with Puumala hantavirus-induced nephropathia epidemica (NE), and to determine if these findings correspond to chest radiograph findings. Materials and methods: HRCT findings and clinical course were studied in 13 hospital-treated NE patients. Chest radiograph findings were studied in 12 of them. Results: Twelve patients (92%) showed lung parenchymal abnormalities in HRCT, while only 8 had changes in their chest radiography. Atelectasis, pleural effusion, intralobular and interlobular septal thickening were the most common HRCT findings. Ground-glass opacification (GGO) was seen in 4 and hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy in 3 patients. Atelectasis and pleural effusion were also mostly seen in chest radiographs, other findings only in HRCT. Conclusion: Almost every NE patient showed lung parenchymal abnormalities in HRCT. The most common findings of lung involvement in NE can be defined as accumulation of pleural fluid and atelectasis and intralobular and interlobular septal thickening, most profusely in the lower parts of the lung. As a novel finding, lymphadenopathy was seen in a minority, probably related to capillary leakage and overall fluid overload. Pleural effusion is not the prominent feature in other viral pneumonias, whereas intralobular and interlobular septal thickening are characteristic of other viral pulmonary infections as well. Lung parenchymal findings in HRCT can thus be taken not to be disease-specific in NE and HRCT is useful only for scientific purposes.

  12. Lung metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metastases to the lung; Metastatic cancer to the lung; Lung cancer - metastases ... Metastatic tumors in the lungs are cancers that developed at other places in the body (or other parts of the lungs). They then spread through ...

  13. Bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis: MRI with high-resolution fast spin-echo and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppenheim, C.; Dormont, D.; Lehericy, S.; Marsault, C. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pite-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Hasboun, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pite-Salpetriere, Paris (France)]|[Dept. of Neurology, Paris VI Univ. (France); Bazin, B.; Samson, S.; Baulac, M. [Dept. of Neurology, Paris VI Univ. (France)

    1999-07-01

    We report a retrospective analysis of MRI in 206 patients with intractable seizures and describe the findings in bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) on fast spin-echo (FSE) and fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (fFLAIR) sequences. Criteria for MTS were atrophy, signal change and loss of the digitations of the head of the hippocampus. In patients with bilateral MRI signs of MTS, correlation with clinical electro, volumetric MRI data and neuropsychological tests, when available, was performed. Bilateral MTS was observed in seven patients. Bilateral loss of the digitations and signal change of fFLAIR was seen in all seven. In three, bilateral atrophy was obvious. In two patients, mild bilateral atrophy was observed and in two others, the hippocampi were: asymmetrical, with obvious atrophy on only one side. Volumetric data confirmed bilateral symmetrical atrophy in five patients, and volumes were at the lowest of the normal range in other two. The EEG showed temporal abnormalities in all patients, unilateral in five and bilateral in two. All patients had memory impairment and neuropsychological data confirmed visual and verbal memory deficits; two patients failed the Wada test on both sides. High-resolution T2-weighted FSE and fFLAIR sequences allow diagnosis of bilateral MTS, which has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. (orig.)

  14. Effection of lung fluid clearance disturbance in late preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome%肺液吸收障碍在晚期早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪丽

    2013-01-01

    部分患有呼吸窘迫综合征的晚期早产儿,给予外源性肺表面活性物质疗效不佳,且此类患儿无感染或其他可能导致呼吸窘迫综合征的危险因素,可能存在不同于早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征的发病机制.研究表明,作为肺液经由上皮转运过程中核心部分的α-钠离子通道,可通过抑制肺液吸收和肺表面活性物质活性而在晚期早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征发病机制中起着重要作用.该文就肺液吸收障碍在晚期早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征中的作用作一综述.%In recent studies,it has been demonstrated that the clinical efficacy of surfactant is poor for late protein infants.Besides,this kind of infants have not infection or other risk factors that may lead to respiratory distress syndrome(RDS).Thus,it is speculated that the pathogenesis of RDS of late preterm infants is different from preterm infants.New researches show that,as the key point of Lung fluid transport via Epithelium,α-ENaC plays an important role in the pathogenesis of RDS of late preterm infants through the inhibition of lung fluid clearance and activity of surfactant.This review highlights the most important mechanisms of Lung fluid absorption barrier in RDS of late preterm infants.

  15. Chronic elevation of pulmonary microvascular pressure in chronic heart failure reduces bi-directional pulmonary fluid flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Dani-Louise; Mayne, George C; Griggs, Kim M; De Pasquale, Carmine G; Bersten, Andrew D

    2013-04-01

    Chronic heart failure leads to pulmonary vascular remodelling and thickening of the alveolar-capillary barrier. We examined whether this protective effect may slow resolution of pulmonary oedema consistent with decreased bi-directional fluid flux. Seven weeks following left coronary artery ligation, we measured both fluid flux during an acute rise in left atrial pressure (n = 29) and intrinsic alveolar fluid clearance (n = 45) in the isolated rat lung. Chronic elevation of pulmonary microvascular pressure prevented pulmonary oedema and decreased lung compliance when left atrial pressure was raised to 20 cmH2O, and was associated with reduced expression of endothelial aquaporin 1 (P = 0.03). However, no other changes were found in mediators of fluid flux or cellular fluid channels. In isolated rat lungs, chronic LV dysfunction (LV end-diastolic pressure and infarct circumference) was also inversely related to alveolar fluid clearance (P ≤ 0.001). The rate of pulmonary oedema reabsorption was estimated by plasma volume expansion in eight patients with a previous clinical history of chronic heart failure and eight without, who presented with acute pulmonary oedema. Plasma volume expansion was reduced at 24 h in those with chronic heart failure (P = 0.03). Chronic elevation of pulmonary microvascular pressure in CHF leads to decreased intrinsic bi-directional fluid flux at the alveolar-capillary barrier. This adaptive response defends against alveolar flooding, but may delay resolution of alveolar oedema.

  16. ACUTE OZONE-INDUCED INFLAMMATORY GENE EXPRESSION IN THE RAT LUNG IS NOT RELATED TO LEVELS OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN THE LAVAGE FLUID

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT BODY: Ozone causes oxidative stress and lung inflammation. We hypothesized that rat strains with or without genetic susceptibility to cardiovascular disease will have different antioxidant levels in alveolar lining, and that ozone induced inflammatory gene expression wil...

  17. A comparison of ARMS and direct sequencing for EGFR mutation analysis and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors treatment prediction in body fluid samples of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutation is strongly associated with the therapeutic effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Nevertheless, tumor tissue that needed for mutation analysis is frequently unavailable. Body fluid was considered to be a feasible substitute for the analysis, but arising problems in clinical practice such as relatively lower mutation rate and poor clinical correlation are not yet fully resolved. Method In this study, 50 patients (32 pleural fluids and 18 plasmas with TKIs therapy experience and with direct sequencing results were selected from 220 patients for further analysis. The EGFR mutation status was re-evaluated by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS, and the clinical outcomes of TKIs were analyzed retrospectively. Results As compared with direct sequencing, 16 positive and 23 negative patients were confirmed by ARMS, and the other 11 former negative patients (6 pleural fluids and 5 plasmas were redefined as positive, with a fairly well clinical outcome (7 PR, 3 SD, and 1 PD. The objective response rate (ORR of positive patients was significant, 81.3% (direct sequencing and 72.7% (ARMS for pleural fluids, and 80% (ARMS for plasma. Notably, even reclassified by ARMS, the ORR for negative patients was still relatively high, 60% for pleural fluids and 46.2% for plasma. Conclusions When using body fluids for EGFR mutation analysis, positive result is consistently a good indicator for TKIs therapy, and the predictive effect was no less than that of tumor tissue, no matter what method was employed. However, even reclassified by ARMS, the correlation between negative results and clinical outcome of TKIs was still unsatisfied. The results indicated that false negative mutation still existed, which may be settled by using method with sensitivity to single DNA molecule or by optimizing the extraction procedure with RNA or CTC to

  18. Enantiomer resolution of six triazole with supercritical fluid chromatography%超临界色谱拆分6种唑类手性农药

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯硕立; 徐明仙; 高伟亮; 林春绵

    2011-01-01

    Enantiomeric separation of six triazole fungicides: triadimefon, hexaconazole, tebuconazole, difenoconazole, uniconazole, myclobutanil, was conducted on chiral column Chiralpak IB (a new chiral stationary phase containing cellulose tris(3, 5-dimethylphenylcara bamate) immobilized onto silica gel) using supercritical fluid chroma tography, and the influence of alcohol modifiers methanol, ethanol and isopropanol in mobile phase (super-critical CO2) on the enantio-separation was studied. All fungicides* except difenoconazole, were obtained baseline separation; and in most cases the retention time was shorter than lOmin. The retention and resolution of the samples were obviously influenced by the concentration and type of the modifier. The separation results were satisfactory because the modifier showed good selectivity for the chiral pesticide to be separated.%采用超临界流体色谱(SFC),在Chiralpak IB(一种新型的纤维素衍生物键合型手性固定相)上对三唑酮、己唑醇、戊唑醇、烯效唑、腈菌唑以及恶醚唑等6种三唑类杀菌剂进行了手性拆分,并分析讨论了甲醇、乙醇和异丙醇三种醇类流动相改性剂对手性农药分离的影响.实验结果表明,除恶醚唑外,其他5种农药手性对映体都获得了基线分离,且大部分的手性分离时间在10 min以内.改性剂的浓度和种类对手性分离的保留时间和分离都有一定影响,不同的改性剂适于拆分不同的农药.

  19. Soluble Leukocyte-Associated Ig-Like Receptor-1 in Amniotic Fluid Is of Fetal Origin and Positively Associates with Lung Compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, M.L.; Olde Nordkamp, M.J.M.; Nikkels, P.G.J.; van der Ent, C.K.; Meyaard, L.; Bont, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    The soluble form of the inhibitory immune receptor leukocyte-Associated Ig-like Receptor-1 (sLAIR-1) is present in plasma, urine and synovial fluid and correlates to inflammation. We and others previously showed inflammatory protein expression in normal amniotic fluid at term. We hypothesized that s

  20. Soluble Leukocyte-Associated Ig-Like Receptor-1 in Amniotic Fluid Is of Fetal Origin and Positively Associates with Lung Compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, M.L.; Olde Nordkamp, M.J.M.; Nikkels, P.G.J.; van der Ent, C.K.; Meyaard, L.; Bont, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    The soluble form of the inhibitory immune receptor leukocyte-Associated Ig-like Receptor-1 (sLAIR-1) is present in plasma, urine and synovial fluid and correlates to inflammation. We and others previously showed inflammatory protein expression in normal amniotic fluid at term. We hypothesized that

  1. High-resolution computed tomography interpretation model for differential diagnosis of chronic interstitial lung diseases; Modelo de interpretacao da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao do diagnostico diferencial das doencas intersticiais cronicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C. Isabela S.; Mueller, Nestor L. [Vancouver General Hospital, BC (Canada). Dept. of Radiology]. E-mail: nmuller@vanhosp.bc.ca

    2005-04-01

    The recognition and differential diagnosis of the various patterns of abnormality seen on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) are important in the evaluation of patients with chronic interstitial lung diseases. Various patterns of abnormality have been described in the literature, which sometimes are overlapped. Distinction between the various patterns can be difficult particularly for residents and radiologists who are not familiarized with these images. The authors illustrate the characteristic patterns of abnormality seen in chronic interstitial lung diseases and propose a simple interpretation algorithm based on the pattern and distribution of the findings. The algorithm includes the six main patterns of abnormality seen on HRCT: septal lines, reticular pattern, cystic pattern, nodular pattern, ground-glass opacities and consolidation. (author)

  2. The Protective Effects of the Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract of Chrysanthemum indicum against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice via Modulating Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linné. (CFE has been demonstrated to be effective in suppressing inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the preventive action and underlying mechanisms of CFE on acute lung injury (ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS in mice. ALI was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS into lung, and dexamethasone was used as a positive control. Results revealed that pretreatment with CFE abated LPS-induced lung histopathologic changes, reduced the wet/dry ratio and proinflammatory cytokines productions (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, inhibited inflammatory cells migrations and protein leakages, suppressed the levels of MPO and MDA, and upregulated the abilities of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GPx. Furthermore, the pretreatment with CFE downregulated the activations of NF-κB and the expressions of TLR4/MyD88. These results suggested that CFE exerted potential protective effects against LPS-induced ALI in mice and was a potential therapeutic drug for ALI. Its mechanisms were at least partially associated with the modulations of TLR4 signaling pathways.

  3. Lung Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  4. Identification of Bacterial Pathogens in Ascitic Fluids from Patients with Suspected Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis by Use of Broad-Range PCR (16S PCR) Coupled with High-Resolution Melt Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hardick, Justin; Won, Helen; Jeng, Kevin; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Richard E Rothman; Yang, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) can be a severe complication occurring in patients with cirrhosis and ascites, with associated mortality often as high as 40%. Traditional diagnostics for SBP rely on culture techniques for proper diagnosis, although recent reports suggest that the presence of bacterial DNA in peritoneal fluid in patients with cirrhosis and ascites is an indicator of SBP. A previously published broad-range PCR (16S PCR) coupled with high-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) ...

  5. High-resolution fluid-structure interaction simulations of flow through a bi-leaflet mechanical heart valve in an anatomic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borazjani, Iman; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2010-02-01

    We have performed high-resolution fluid-structure interaction simulations of physiologic pulsatile flow through a bi-leaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV) in an anatomically realistic aorta. The results are compared with numerical simulations of the flow through an identical BMHV implanted in a straight aorta. The comparisons show that although some of the salient features of the flow remain the same, the aorta geometry can have a major effect on both the flow patterns and the motion of the valve leaflets. For the studied configuration, for instance, the BMHV leaflets in the anatomic aorta open much faster and undergo a greater rebound during closing than the same valve in the straight axisymmetric aorta. Even though the characteristic triple-jet structure does emerge downstream of the leaflets for both cases, for the anatomic case the leaflet jets spread laterally and diffuse much faster than in the straight aorta due to the aortic curvature and complex shape of the anatomic sinus. Consequently the leaflet shear layers in the anatomic case remain laminar and organized for a larger portion of the accelerating phase as compared to the shear layers in the straight aorta, which begin to undergo laminar instabilities well before peak systole is reached. For both cases, however, the flow undergoes a very similar explosive transition to the small-scale, turbulent-like state just prior to reaching peak systole. The local maximum shear stress is used as a metric to characterize the mechanical environment experienced by blood cells. Pockets of high local maximum shear are found to be significantly more widespread in the anatomic aorta than in the straight aorta throughout the cardiac cycle. Pockets of high local maximum shear were located near the leaflets and in the aortic arc region. This work clearly demonstrates the importance of the aortic geometry on the flow phenomena in a BMHV and demonstrates the potential of our computational method to carry out image

  6. Relationship between Race and the Effect of Fluids on Long-term Mortality after Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Secondary Analysis of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Sarah E; Hough, Catherine L; Clermont, Gilles; Hayden, Douglas; Hou, Suqin; Schoenfeld, David; Smith, Nicholas L; Thompson, Boyd Taylor; Bernard, Gordon R; Angus, Derek C

    2017-09-01

    Short-term follow-up in the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial (FACTT) suggested differential mortality by race with conservative fluid management, but no significant interaction. In a post hoc analysis of FACTT including 1-year follow-up, we sought to estimate long-term mortality by race and test for an interaction between fluids and race. We performed a post hoc analysis of FACTT and the Economic Analysis of Pulmonary Artery Catheters (EAPAC) study (which included 655 of the 1,000 FACTT patients with near-complete 1-year follow up). We fit a multistate Markov model to estimate 1-year mortality for all non-Hispanic black and white randomized FACTT subjects. The model estimated the distribution of time from randomization to hospital discharge or hospital death (available on all patients) and estimated the distribution of time from hospital discharge to death using data on patients after hospital discharge for patients in EAPAC. The 1-year mortality was found by combining these estimates. Non-Hispanic black (n = 217, 25%) or white identified subjects (n = 641, 75%) were included. There was a significant interaction between race and fluid treatment (P = 0.012). One-year mortality was lower for black subjects assigned to conservative fluids (38 vs. 54%; mean mortality difference, 16%; 95% confidence interval, 2-30%; P = 0.027 between conservative and liberal). Conversely, 1-year mortality for white subjects was 35% versus 30% for conservative versus liberal arms (mean mortality difference, -4.8%; 95% confidence interval, -13% to 3%; P = 0.23). In our cohort, conservative fluid management may have improved 1-year mortality for non-Hispanic black patients with ARDS. However, we found no long-term benefit of conservative fluid management in white subjects.

  7. The high-grade interpolator: a means for enhancing the resolution of helical computed tomography images of the lung; El interpolador de alto orden: un medio para incrementar la resolucion de las iamgenes pulmonares obtenidas mediante tomografia computarizada espiral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Santos, J. M.; Torres del rio, S.; Blanco, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Parlorio, E.; Garcia, A.; Girela, E.; Hernandez, M. D. [Hospital Universitario J. M. Morales Mesequer. Murcia (Spain); Canteras, M. [Universidad de Murcia (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the use of a high-grade interpolator in the reconstruction of images of the chest increases the resolution, independently of the high-resolution filter. Eight independent observers in two groups (experts and non experts) assessed (two readings separated by a time interval) the same section of the chest reconstructed four times (st-st, st-xs, b-st, b-xs), combining standard (st) and high-resolution (b) filters and standard (st) and high-grade (xs) interpolators. The images were classified from greater to lesser in terms of the resolution perceived. The results were used to compare the degree of resolution introduced by the interpolator and the filter and to determine whether or not there existed variability between observers and between the observations of each, and whether experience played a role in the findings. Six of the eight observers assigned the b-xs images the highest degree of resolution in the majority of cases, followed by the b-st image, the st-xs image and, finally, the st-st image. The other tow observers (one expert and one nonexpert) different only with respect to the order of the st-xs and b-st images, which they assigned the second and third places, respectively. The expert group showed no intra observer variability, while two of the nonexpert observers did. The high-grade interpolator enhances the resolution of images of the chest regardless of who evaluates them, while it does not substantially increase image noise. Thus, its use is recommended in helical computed tomography imaging of the lung. (Author) 10 refs.

  8. Beta-adrenoceptor stimulation of alveolar fluid clearance is increased in rats with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Michael B; Luther, Daniel J; Pilati, Charles F; Ohanyan, Vahagn; Li, Tianbo; Koshy, Shyny; Horne, Walter I; Meszaros, J Gary; Walro, Jon M; Folkesson, Hans G

    2009-09-01

    The alveolar epithelium plays a critical role in resolving pulmonary edema. We thus hypothesized that its function might be upregulated in rats with heart failure, a condition that severely challenges the lung's ability to maintain fluid balance. Heart failure was induced by left coronary artery ligation. Echocardiographic and cardiovascular hemodynamics confirmed its development at 16 wk postligation. At that time, alveolar fluid clearance was measured by an increase in protein concentration over 1 h of a 5% albumin solution instilled into the lungs. Baseline alveolar fluid clearance was similar in heart failure and age-matched control rats. Terbutaline was added to the instillate to determine whether heart failure rats responded to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation. Alveolar fluid clearance in heart failure rats was increased by 194% after terbutaline stimulation compared with a 153% increase by terbutaline in control rats. To determine the mechanisms responsible for this accelerated alveolar fluid clearance, we measured ion transporter expression (ENaC, Na-K- ATPase, CFTR). No significant upregulation was observed for these ion transporters in the heart failure rats. Lung morphology showed significant alveolar epithelial type II cell hyperplasia in heart failure rats. Thus, alveolar epithelial type II cell hyperplasia is the likely explanation for the increased terbutaline-stimulated alveolar fluid clearance in heart failure rats. These data provide evidence for previously unrecognized mechanisms that can protect against or hasten resolution of alveolar edema in heart failure.

  9. High-resolution computed tomography versus chest radiography in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis; Avaliacao da tomografia de alta resolucao versus radiografia de torax na doenca intersticial pulmonar na esclerose sistemica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Ana Beatriz Cordeiro de; Calderaro, Debora; Moreira, Caio [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Reumatologia; Guimaraes, Silvana Mangeon Meirelles [Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Secao de Tomografia Computadorizada; Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos; Leao Filho, Hilton Muniz; Andrade, Diego Correa de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: wilsontavaresjrmd@yahho.fr; Ferreira, Cid Sergio; Vieira, Jose Nelson Mendes [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia

    2005-04-01

    Objective: To compare the accuracy of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with chest radiography in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Materials And Methods: HRCT scans and chest radiographs in postero-anterior and lateral views were performed in 34 patients with systemic sclerosis, according to the American College of Rheumatology preliminary criteria for the diagnosis of SSc. The prevalence of radiological findings suggestive of interstitial lung disease in SSc seen on both imaging methods was compared. Results: Interstitial disease was observed on HRCT images of 31 patients (91%) and in the chest radiographs of 16 patients (47%). The most frequent findings observed on HRCT were septal lines (74%), honeycombing (56%) and parenchymal bands (26%). Chest radiographs showed reticular areas of attenuation in 11 patients (32%) and parenchymal distortion in 12% of the patients. In 18 patients (53%) with normal chest radiographs HRCT showed septal lines in 55%, ground glass in 44%, honeycombing in 38.5% and cysts in 33%. Conclusion: HRCT is more sensitive than chest radiography in the evaluation of incipient interstitial lung involvement in patients with SSc and can provide a justification for immunosuppressive therapy in patients with early disease. (author)

  10. Rapid and inexpensive body fluid identification by RNA profiling-based multiplex High Resolution Melt (HRM analysis [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2hj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K. Hanson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Positive identification of the nature of biological material present on evidentiary items can be crucial for understanding the circumstances surrounding a crime. However, traditional protein-based methods do not permit the identification of all body fluids and tissues, and thus molecular based strategies for the conclusive identification of all forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues need to be developed. Messenger RNA (mRNA profiling is an example of such a molecular-based approach. Current mRNA body fluid identification assays involve capillary electrophoresis (CE or quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR platforms, each with its own limitations. Both platforms require the use of expensive fluorescently labeled primers or probes. CE-based assays require separate amplification and detection steps thus increasing the analysis time. For qRT-PCR assays, only 3-4 markers can be included in a single reaction since each requires a different fluorescent dye. To simplify mRNA profiling assays, and reduce the time and cost of analysis, we have developed single- and multiplex body fluid High Resolution Melt (HRM assays for the identification of common forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues. The incorporated biomarkers include IL19 (vaginal secretions, IL1F7 (skin, ALAS2 (blood, MMP10 (menstrual blood, HTN3 (saliva and TGM4 (semen.  The HRM assays require only unlabeled PCR primers and a single saturating intercalating fluorescent dye (Eva Green. Each body-fluid-specific marker can easily be identified by the presence of a distinct melt peak. Usually, HRM assays are used to detect variants or isoforms for a single gene target. However, we have uniquely developed duplex and triplex HRM assays to permit the simultaneous detection of multiple targets per reaction. Here we describe the development and initial performance evaluation of the developed HRM assays. The results demonstrate the potential use of HRM assays for rapid, and relatively

  11. Rapid and inexpensive body fluid identification by RNA profiling-based multiplex High Resolution Melt (HRM analysis [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/314

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K. Hanson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Positive identification of the nature of biological material present on evidentiary items can be crucial for understanding the circumstances surrounding a crime. However, traditional protein-based methods do not permit the identification of all body fluids and tissues, and thus molecular based strategies for the conclusive identification of all forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues need to be developed. Messenger RNA (mRNA profiling is an example of such a molecular-based approach. Current mRNA body fluid identification assays involve capillary electrophoresis (CE or quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR platforms, each with its own limitations. Both platforms require the use of expensive fluorescently labeled primers or probes. CE-based assays require separate amplification and detection steps thus increasing the analysis time. For qRT-PCR assays, only 3-4 markers can be included in a single reaction since each requires a different fluorescent dye. To simplify mRNA profiling assays, and reduce the time and cost of analysis, we have developed single- and multiplex body fluid High Resolution Melt (HRM assays for the identification of common forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues. The incorporated biomarkers include IL19 (vaginal secretions, IL1F7 (skin, ALAS2 (blood, MMP10 (menstrual blood, HTN3 (saliva and TGM4 (semen.  The HRM assays require only unlabeled PCR primers and a single saturating intercalating fluorescent dye (Eva Green. Each body-fluid-specific marker can easily be identified by the presence of a distinct melt peak. Usually, HRM assays are used to detect variants or isoforms for a single gene target. However, we have uniquely developed duplex and triplex HRM assays to permit the simultaneous detection of multiple targets per reaction. Here we describe the development and initial performance evaluation of the developed HRM assays. The results demonstrate the potential use of HRM assays for rapid, and relatively

  12. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in non-small-cell lung cancer: initial response to erlotinib followed by relapse despite continuing radiological resolution of disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Alvin J.X.; Benamore, Rachel; Hofer, Monika; Chitnis, Meenali

    2016-01-01

    A 60-year-old male was diagnosed with T3, N3, M1b epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant lung adenocarcinoma. Five months later he developed significant headaches, weakness and numbness of the left leg, and unsteadiness of gait. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain demonstrated subtle gyral enhancement indicative of early leptomeningeal infiltration. He was commenced on second-line erlotinib which improved his lower limb symptoms. Three months later he developed increased urinary fr...

  13. Lung disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000066.htm Lung disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... fibrosis and sarcoidosis are examples of lung tissue disease. Lung circulation diseases -- These diseases affect the blood vessels ...

  14. Lung transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid organ transplant - lung ... the chance that the body will reject the transplant . Lungs can also be given by living donors. ... the person who is receiving it. During lung transplant surgery, you are asleep and pain-free (under ...

  15. Collapsed Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collapsed lung happens when air enters the pleural space, the area between the lung and the chest wall. If it is a ... is called pneumothorax. If only part of the lung is affected, it is called atelectasis. Causes of ...

  16. Seismic attribute detection of faults and fluid pathways within an active strike-slip shear zone: New insights from high-resolution 3D P-Cable™ seismic data along the Hosgri Fault, offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluesner, Jared; Brothers, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Poststack data conditioning and neural-network seismic attribute workflows are used to detect and visualize faulting and fluid migration pathways within a 13.7 km2 13.7 km2 3D P-Cable™ seismic volume located along the Hosgri Fault Zone offshore central California. The high-resolution 3D volume used in this study was collected in 2012 as part of Pacific Gas and Electric’s Central California Seismic Imaging Project. Three-dimensional seismic reflection data were acquired using a triple-plate boomer source (1.75 kJ) and a short-offset, 14-streamer, P-Cable system. The high-resolution seismic data were processed into a prestack time-migrated 3D volume and publically released in 2014. Postprocessing, we employed dip-steering (dip and azimuth) and structural filtering to enhance laterally continuous events and remove random noise and acquisition artifacts. In addition, the structural filtering was used to enhance laterally continuous edges, such as faults. Following data conditioning, neural-network based meta-attribute workflows were used to detect and visualize faults and probable fluid-migration pathways within the 3D seismic volume. The workflow used in this study clearly illustrates the utility of advanced attribute analysis applied to high-resolution 3D P-Cable data. For example, results from the fault attribute workflow reveal a network of splayed and convergent fault strands within an approximately 1.3 km wide shear zone that is characterized by distinctive sections of transpressional and transtensional dominance. Neural-network chimney attribute calculations indicate that fluids are concentrated along discrete faults in the transtensional zones, but appear to be more broadly distributed amongst fault bounded anticlines and structurally controlled traps in the transpressional zones. These results provide high-resolution, 3D constraints on the relationships between strike-slip fault mechanics, substrate deformation, and fluid migration along an active

  17. 21 CFR 868.2450 - Lung water monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lung water monitor. 868.2450 Section 868.2450 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2450 Lung water monitor. (a) Identification. A lung water monitor is a device used to monitor the trend of fluid volume changes in a patient's lung...

  18. Characterization and stability of transthyretin isoforms in cerebrospinal fluid examined by immunoprecipitation and high-resolution mass spectrometry of intact protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Keld; Bahl, Justyna M C; Tanassi, Julia T;

    2012-01-01

    in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A single free cysteine thiol group in TTR possesses the ability to form mixed disulfides potentially related to diseases such as TTR amyloidosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Additionally, TTR-Cys10 S-thiolations might mirror the oxidative stress and redox balance...

  19. Lung Contusion: A Clinico-Pathological Entity with Unpredictable Clinical Course

    OpenAIRE

    Ganie, Farooq Ahmad; Lone, Hafeezulla; Lone, Ghulam Nabi; Wani, Mohd Lateef; Singh, Shyam; Dar, Abdual Majeed; Wani, Nasir-u-din; Wani, Shadab Nabi; Nazeer, Nadeem-ul

    2013-01-01

    Lung contusion is an entity involving injury to the alveolar capillaries, without any tear or cut in the lung tissue. This results in accumulation of blood and other fluids within the lung tissue. The excess fluid interferes with gas exchange leading to hypoxia. The pathophysiology of lung contusion includes ventilation/perfusion mismatching, increased intrapulmonary shunting, increased lung water, segmental lung damage, and a loss of compliance. Clinically, patient’s presents with hypoxiemia...

  20. 儿童弥漫性间质性肺疾病的高分辨率CT表现%High-resolution CT findings of diffused interstitial lung disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁新宇; 叶滨宾; 陈慧中

    2010-01-01

    @@ 弥漫性间质性肺疾病(diffused interstitial lung disease,DILD)是指可导致瘢痕和纤维化的肺间质炎性病变.在临床上,儿童DILD诊断标准应包括缺氧或呼吸困难,以及特征性影像学表现.DILD疾病谱因儿童成长和发育的阶段不同而有所不同.所以,不能应用成人诊断标准对其进行分类.

  1. Functional high-resolution computed tomography of pulmonary vascular and airway reactions. Experimental results. Funktionelle HR-CT der Lunge. Experimentelle Untersuchungen pulmonaler Gefaess- und Atemwegsreaktionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, C.J. (Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Vienna (Austria) Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Radiology); Brown, R.H. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Radiology Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physiology); Wetzel, R.C.; Herold, S.M. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine); Zeerhouni, E.A. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Radiology)

    1993-03-01

    We describe the use of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for assessment of the function of pulmonary vessels and airways. With its excellent spatial resolution, HRCT is able to demonstrate pulmonary structures as small as 300 [mu]m and can be used to monitor changes following various stimuli. HRCT also provides information about structures smaller than 300 [mu]m through measurement of parenchymal background density. To date, sequential, spiral and ultrafast HRCT techniques have been used in a variety of challenges to gather information about the anatomical correlates of traditional physiological measurements, thus making anatomical-physiological correlation possible. HRCT of bronchial reactivity can demonstrate the location and time course of aerosol-induced broncho-constriction and may show changes not apparent on spirometry. HRCT of the pulmonary vascular system visualized adaptations of vessels during hypoxia and intravascular volume loading and elucidates cardiorespiratory interactions. Experimental studies provide a basis for potential clinical applications of this method. (orig.).

  2. Refrigerating fluids; Fluides frigorigenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-03-01

    Refrigerating fluids are experiencing a real revolution since few years. CFCs with their destructive effect on the ozone layer are now prohibited while HCFCs will be progressively eliminated and replaced by HFCs. However, HFCs can contribute to the increase of the greenhouse effect. The solutions proposed by thermal engineering professionals consist in the confinement of air-conditioning installations (elimination of recurrent leaks) and in the improvement of installations efficiency. HCFC fluids like the R 22 are still widely used in air-conditioning but they are supposed to be replaced by HFC fluids like the R 134a, the R 407C or the R 410A. This short paper gives a brief presentation of these fluids and of their chemical characteristics. (J.S.)

  3. Can faults become barriers for deep fluid circulation? Insights from high-resolution seismic VSP tomography at the Soultz-sous-Forêts geothermal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calò, Marco; Dorbath, Catherine; Lubrano Lavadera, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) surveys are generally used for modelling converted phases of the seismic body waves propagating in the medium allowing the detection of waves interpreted as reflections on steeply dipping reflecting structures such as faults, abrupt lateral changes of lithology, and fractures. At the Enhanced Geothermal System geothermal field of Soultz-sous-Forêts the analysis of data recorded during a VSP experiment allowed describing the presence of at least two structures near the wells. Here we show how seismic tomography method can be applied to the VSP data to reconstruct the 3-D shape of structures in the volume surrounding the geothermal wells. The three-dimensional P wave velocity model obtained shows positive velocity anomalies associated with the main faults observed by the VSP analysis and negative anomalies in the regions affected by massive hydraulic stimulations performed in the past. This pattern can be explained as a different response of the rock volume to the fluid injections where regions marked by relative pre-existing high permeability were less affected by the hydraulic stimulations. This difference in permeability produced regions that could work as barriers for fluid diffusion through the reservoir. Comparisons of our high resolved model with the location of the induced seismicity and with another model obtained using seismic noise correlation give evidence of the presence of these structures and may explain the poor connection between the wells GPK4 and GPK2-GPK3 system.

  4. The use of high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) of the chest in evaluating the effect of tobramycin solution for inhalation in cystic fibrosis lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Samya Z; Sakmar, Ermelinda; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Eckhardt, Boris P; Streetman, Daniel S; Strouse, Peter J

    2010-05-01

    To compare the usefulness of HRCT of the chest versus spirometric measures (PFTs) in evaluating the effect of tobramycin solution for inhalation (TSI) in cystic fibrosis (CF). Thirty-two CF patients with mostly mild lung disease age > or = 6 years, were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Patients were chronically colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa for at least 6 months prior to and at enrollment. If patients were on TSI, they were taken off for at least 3 months prior to enrollment. Duration was 6 months; 31 subjects completed the study. HRCT and PFTs were evaluated at baseline, after 28 days of treatment and at the end of the study. Study medication was administered as 5 ml nebulized treatment twice a day for 28 days followed by 28 days off (one cycle). Study consisted of three cycles. Two radiologists scored all films using a validated system. A total HRCT score consists of the sum of subscores: linear opacities, hyperinflation, nodular opacities, peribronchial thickening, mucous plugging, and bronchiectasis; each subscore could range from 0 to 80, with potential total scores varying from 0 to 480. The percent of the maximum possible HRCT score was then calculated and used for all comparisons. Using two tailed paired t-test, the percent maximum HRCT score decreased by 1.4 +/- 2.6% (mean +/- SD) (P = 0.049) and 0.3 +/- 2.8% (P = 0.63) for the TSI group and decreased by 0.1 +/- 1.5% (P = 0.74) and increased by 0.6 +/- 1.8% (P = 0.23) for the placebo group between visits 1 and 2, and visits 1 and 3, respectively. The data were then analyzed using a mixed model utilizing changes in scores over the durations of the study for each group. The change of HRCT score for the TSI group was -0.24/day (P = 0.02) and -0.03/day (P = 0.22), and for the control group the change was -0.01 (P = 0.93) and 0.02 (P = 0.29) between visits 1 and 2, and visits 1 and 3 respectively. FEF(25-75)% and FEV(1)% changes were not statistically significant using both

  5. Electrophysiological indices of interference resolution covary with individual fluid intelligence: investigating reactive control processes in a 3-back working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Bernardo; Varanese, Sara; Mancino, Elisa; Mercuri, Pasqua; Tesse, Marcello; Franciotti, Raffaella; Bonanni, Laura; Thomas, Astrid; Onofrj, Marco

    2014-06-01

    It has been proposed that the well-established relationship between working memory (WM) and fluid intelligence (gf) is mediated by executive mechanisms underlying interference control. The latter relies upon the integrity of a frontoparietal brain network, whose activity is modulated by general cognition. In regards to the chronology of this activation, only few EEG studies investigated the topic, although none of them examined the regional interaction or the effects of individual differences in gf. The current investigation sought at extending previous research by characterizing the EEG markers (temporal activation and regional coupling) of interference control and the effects of the individual variation in gf. To this end, we recorded the EEG activity of 33 participants while performing verbal and spatial versions of a 3-back WM task. In a separate session, participants were administered with a test of fluid intelligence. Interference-inducing trials were associated with an increased negativity in the frontal scalp region occurring in two separate time windows and probably reflecting two different stages of the underlying cognitive process. In addition, we found that scalp distribution of such activity differed among individuals, being the strongest activation of the left and right frontolateral sites related to high gf level. Finally, high- and low-gf participants showed different patterns in the modulation of regional connectivity (electrodes coherence in the range of 4.5-7.5Hz) according to changes in attention load among types of trials. Our findings suggest that high-gf participants may rely upon effective engagement and modulation of attention resources to face interference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lung surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pneumonectomy; Lobectomy; Lung biopsy; Thoracoscopy; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery; VATS ... You will have general anesthesia before surgery. You will be asleep and unable to feel pain. Two common ways to do surgery on your lungs are thoracotomy and video- ...

  7. Design, Construction, and Initial Test of High Spatial Resolution Thermometry Arrays for Detection of Surface Temperature Profiles on SRF Cavities in Super Fluid Helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ari Palczewski, Rongli Geng, Grigory Eremeev

    2011-07-01

    We designed and built two high resolution (0.6-0.55mm special resolution [1.1-1.2mm separation]) thermometry arrays prototypes out of the Allen Bradley 90-120 ohm 1/8 watt resistor to measure surface temperature profiles on SRF cavities. One array was designed to be physically flexible and conform to any location on a SRF cavity; the other was modeled after the common G-10/stycast 2850 thermometer and designed to fit on the equator of an ILC (Tesla 1.3GHz) SRF cavity. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each array and their construction. In addition we will present a case study of the arrays performance on a real SRF cavity TB9NR001. TB9NR001 presented a unique opportunity to test the performance of each array as it contained a dual (4mm separation) cat eye defect which conventional methods such as OST (Oscillating Superleak second-sound Transducers) and full coverage thermometry mapping were unable to distinguish between. We will discuss the new arrays ability to distinguish between the two defects and their preheating performance.

  8. Implicit upwind schemes for computational fluid dynamics. Solution by domain decomposition; Etude des schemas decentres implicites pour le calcul numerique en mecanique des fluides. Resolution par decomposition de domaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerc, S

    1998-07-01

    In this work, the numerical simulation of fluid dynamics equations is addressed. Implicit upwind schemes of finite volume type are used for this purpose. The first part of the dissertation deals with the improvement of the computational precision in unfavourable situations. A non-conservative treatment of some source terms is studied in order to correct some shortcomings of the usual operator-splitting method. Besides, finite volume schemes based on Godunov's approach are unsuited to compute low Mach number flows. A modification of the up-winding by preconditioning is introduced to correct this defect. The second part deals with the solution of steady-state problems arising from an implicit discretization of the equations. A well-posed linearized boundary value problem is formulated. We prove the convergence of a domain decomposition algorithm of Schwartz type for this problem. This algorithm is implemented either directly, or in a Schur complement framework. Finally, another approach is proposed, which consists in decomposing the non-linear steady state problem. (author)

  9. Assessment of the solubility of thorium and uranium from black sand of Camargue in both simulated lung and gut fluids for dose calculation after internal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frelon, S.; Chazel, V.; Tourlonias, E.; Paquet, F. [IRSN/ DRPH/ SRBE, LRTOX, BP 166, 26702 Pierrelatte Cedex (France); Blanchardon, E. [IRSN/ DRPH/ SDI, LEDI, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay Aux Roses Cedex (France); Bouisset, P. [IRSN/ DEI/ STEME, LMRE, Bois des rames, 91400 Orsay (France); Pourcelot, L. [IRSN/ DEI/ SESURE, LERCM, BP3, 13 115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2006-07-01

    In the south of France, some beaches of Camargue present a high rate of natural radioactivity due to thorium and uranium from zircon and apatite heavy minerals present in the so-called black sand. These radionuclides may lead to internal exposure consecutive to inhalation or ingestion of this sand. The accurate assessment of radiological risk after internal exposure of public frequenting these beaches requires some information on the human bioavailability of U and Th from the sand. Both routes of intake were studied in this work and the consecutive dose delivered was calculated under two different scenarios for each type of exposure. As far as inhalation is concerned, the first important conclusion is that the inhalable fraction, i.e. particles with aerodynamic diameters below 50 {mu}m, was tiny (0.002%) in this sample of sand. Moreover in vitro assays of solubility were performed for this fraction and showed that U and Th as well as their progeny presented moderate solubility. Then effective doses under several scenarios were calculated and seem to demonstrate a very poor risk of exposure after inhalation. Indeed, a dose of 1 mSv would be received by a babies after inhalation of about 40 Kg of sand, that is impossible, whereas a more realistic scenario of chronic exposure only reached 31 {mu} Sv. In case of ingestion, the solubility of Th and U in the gastrointestinal fluids was found to be very low with a maximum solubility of 0.5% of the initial mass of radioelement in the sample of sand. Then the worst hypothesis studied yields an effective dose of 0.018 mSv./(g-swallowed sand) that is roughly 50 times less than the legal annual dose limit for members of the public. as a conclusion, the possible internal dose after exposure by inhalation or ingestion of black sand of Camargue seems to be very low under the conditions of this study. (N.C.)

  10. The effect of sulphurous air pollutant exposures on symptoms, lung function, exhaled nitric oxide, and nasal epithelial lining fluid antioxidant concentrations in normal and asthmatic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, W S; Harrison, R M; Kelly, F J; Dunster, C; Ayres, J G

    2003-11-01

    To explore the effects in normal and asthmatic adults of exposure to 200 ppb sulphur dioxide (SO2) and 200 microg/m3 and 2000 microg/m3 aerosols of ammonium bisulphate (AB) and sulphuric acid (SA) (MMD 0.3 microm). Exposures were placebo controlled, for one hour at rest, double blind in random order. DeltaFEV1 was the primary outcome; secondary outcomes included symptoms, ventilation, exhaled nitric oxide (NO) concentrations, and nasal lavage fluid ascorbic (AA) and uric acid (UA) concentrations. There were no significant changes in spirometry or symptoms with any exposure in either group. SO2 exposure was associated with an increased respiratory rate relative to air exposure in the asthmatic group (SO2: 958.9 breaths/hour; air: 906.8 breaths/hour) but the mean volume breathed did not differ significantly (SO2: 318.8 litres; air: 311.4 litres). AB exposures were associated with a significant rise in [NO] in the asthmatic (+1.51 ppb, and +1.39 ppb), but not in the normal group. Mean pre- and post-exposure [AA] tended to be higher in the normal than in the asthmatic group. Within each group, [AA] did not change significantly with any exposure. Post-exposure [UA] were greater than pre-exposure concentrations for all exposures, significantly so in the normal group for all exposures except SO2. There were no significant differences in the mean change in [UA] for any exposure relative to air. The pollutant exposure concentrations employed in this study were generally much greater than ambient. It is unlikely that short lived exposures at lower concentrations would show significant effects, but effects of longer term lower concentration exposures cannot be ruled out.

  11. Respiratory fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotberg, James B

    2011-02-01

    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from "capillary-elastic instabilities," as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the "oscillating butter knife;" liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg-Borgas-Gaver shock.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin in porcine plasma, lung tissue, and bronchial fluid and effects of test conditions on in vitro activity against reference strains and field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M; Menge, M; Bohland, C; Zschiesche, E; Wilhelm, C; Kilp, S; Metz, W; Allan, M; Röpke, R; Nürnberger, M

    2013-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin (Zuprevo(®) 40 mg/mL solution for injection for pigs), a novel 16-membered-ring macrolide for the treatment for swine respiratory disease (SRD), was investigated in studies collecting blood plasma and postmortem samples of lung tissue and bronchial fluid (BF) from swine. In view of factors influencing the in vitro activity of macrolides, and for the interpretation of tildipirosin pharmacokinetics in relation to minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), additional experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere, buffers, and serum on tildipirosin MICs for various reference strains and Actinobacillus (A.) pleuropneumoniae field isolates. After single intramuscular (i.m.) injection at 4 mg/kg body weight, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was 0.9 μg/mL observed within 23 min (Tmax ). Mean residence time from the time of dosing to the time of last measurable concentration (MRTlast) and terminal half-life (T1/2) both were about 4 days. A dose-response relationship with no significant sex effect is observed for area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to the last sampling time with a quantifiable drug concentration (AUClast) over the range of doses up to 6 mg/kg. However, linear dose proportionality could not be proven with statistical methods. The time-concentration profile of tildipirosin in BF and lung far exceeded that in blood plasma. In lung, tildipirosin concentrations reached 3.1 μg/g at 2 h, peaked at 4.3 μg/g at day 1, and slowly declined to 0.8 μg/g at day 17. In BF, tildipirosin levels were 14.3, 7.0, and 6.5 μg/g at days 5, 10, and 14. T1/2 in lung was ∼7 days. Tildipirosin is rapidly and extensively distributed to the respiratory tract followed by slow elimination. Culture media pH and carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere (CO2 -EA) had a marked impact on in vitro activity of tildipirosin in reference strains of various rapidly growing aerobic and

  13. Multiple cystic lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Angélica Ferreira Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cystic lung disease represents a diverse group of uncommon disorders that can present a diagnostic challenge due to the increasing number of diseases associated with this presentation. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest helps to define the morphological aspects and distribution of lung cysts, as well as associated findings. The combination of appearance upon imaging and clinical features, together with extrapulmonary manifestations, when present, permits confident and accurate diagnosis of the majority of these diseases without recourse to open-lung biopsy. The main diseases in this group that are discussed in this review are lymphangioleiomyomatosis, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis and folliculin gene-associated syndrome (Birt–Hogg–Dubé; other rare causes of cystic lung disease, including cystic metastasis of sarcoma, are also discussed. Disease progression is unpredictable, and understanding of the complications of cystic lung disease and their appearance during evolution of the disease are essential for management. Correlation of disease evolution and clinical context with chest imaging findings provides important clues for defining the underlying nature of cystic lung disease, and guides diagnostic evaluation and management.

  14. 肺部高分辨力CT在儿童哮喘中的应用%Application of high resolution CT of the lung in children with bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓军; 张新荣; 郭斌; 唐文伟; 戴石; 王颖

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨肺部高分辨力CT(HRCT)在儿童支气管哮喘诊断中的应用价值。方法:回顾性分析19例支气管哮喘患儿的 HRCT资料,年龄3~10岁,男12例,女7例。结果:19例支气管哮喘患儿中,HRCT 显示空气潴留15例(79%),支气管壁增厚12例(63%),支气管扩张6例(31%),局限性肺不张3例(16%),粘液嵌塞2例(11%),纵隔旁肺气肿1例(5%),完全未见异常征象3例(16%),肺部总阳性率84%(16/19)。结论:儿童支气管哮喘的肺部 HRCT 有较多特征性改变,对诊断儿童支气管哮喘具有较大应用价值。%Objective:To investigate the application of high resolution CT (HRCT)of the lungs in the diagnosis of bronchial asthma in children.Methods:HRCT images of 19 children with bronchial asthma aged 3 to 10 years,including 12 males and 7 females were analyzed retrospectively.Results:Of the 1 9 children with bronchial asthma,HRCT showed air re-tention in 15 cases (79%),bronchial wall thickening in 12 cases (63%),bronchiectasis in 6 cases (31%),focal atelectasis in 3 cases (1 6%),mucous impaction in 2 cases (1 1%),paramediastinal emphysema in one case (5%).No abnormal changes were seen in 3 cases (16%).Positive rate of the lungs in 19 children was 84% (16/19).Conclusion:HRCT of the lungs in children with bronchial asthma can rveal many characteristic changes,which was useful for the diagnosis of bronchial asth-ma in children.

  15. Identification of bacterial pathogens in ascitic fluids from patients with suspected spontaneous bacterial peritonitis by use of broad-range PCR (16S PCR) coupled with high-resolution melt analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardick, Justin; Won, Helen; Jeng, Kevin; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Rothman, Richard E; Yang, Samuel

    2012-07-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) can be a severe complication occurring in patients with cirrhosis and ascites, with associated mortality often as high as 40%. Traditional diagnostics for SBP rely on culture techniques for proper diagnosis, although recent reports suggest that the presence of bacterial DNA in peritoneal fluid in patients with cirrhosis and ascites is an indicator of SBP. A previously published broad-range PCR (16S PCR) coupled with high-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) was compared with standard culture techniques for diagnosis of SBP in 106 peritoneal fluid samples from patients with suspected SBP. The sensitivity and specificity for 16S PCR for detecting eubacterial DNA compared with those of standard culture techniques were 100% (17/17) and 91.5% (85/89), respectively. Overall, HRMA concordance with species identification was 70.6% (12/17), although the 5 samples that were discordant at the species level were SBP resulting from a polymicrobial infection, and species-level identification for polymicrobial infections is outside the capability of HRMA. Both the broad-range 16S PCR and HRMA analysis provide useful diagnostic adjunctive assays for clinicians in detecting and identifying pathogens responsible for SBP.

  16. Amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carefully. Removing a sample of the fluid through amniocentesis can provide information about the sex, health, and development of the fetus. Images Amniocentesis Amniotic fluid Polyhydramnios Amniotic fluid References Cunningham FG, ...

  17. Coupled modelling of flow and biofilm in a laminar flow regime through a high-resolution fluid-structure interaction (FSI) solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sumit; Hardy, Richard; Smith, Gregory; Kazemifar, Farzan; Christensen, Kenneth; Best, Jim

    2017-04-01

    Biofilms are ubiquitously present in fluvial systems, growing on almost all wetted surface and has a significant impact on both water quantity, in terms of ambient flow condition, as well as water quality, biofilms growing in water distribution system leads to unwanted contamination. The local hydraulic conditions have a significant impact on the biofilm lifecycle as in order to sustain their growth biofilms draw essential nutrients either from the flow or from the surface on which they grow. This implies that in convection dominated flow, nutrient transfer from water, would nurture the growth of biofilms. However, at higher flow rates biofilms are subjected to higher stresses which may lead to their detachment. Furthermore, biofilms in ambient flow conditions oscillate and therefore alter the local flow conditions. There is, therefore, a complex feedback between biofilms and flow which have has implications for flow dynamics and water quality issues in riverine ecosystems. The research presented here describes a fluid-structure interaction solver to examine the coupled nature of biofilm oscillations due to the ambient flow and its feedback on the local flow structures. The fluid flow is modelled by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and structural deformation of the biofilm is modeled by applying a linear elastic model. The governing equations are numerically solved through Finite Volume methodology based on cell-centered scheme. Simulations are conducted in a laminar regime for a biofilm streamer modelled as moving slender plate. The temporal evolution of the pressure, flow structures are examined in the vicinity of the biofilm. Further investigations examine the impact of changing Reynolds number on the oscillation frequency as well as drag and lift forces experienced by the biofilm. The changing frequency of biofilm oscillation with varying Reynolds number is characterized by the Strouhal number (St). Our investigation reveals that as the flow separates

  18. Changing patterns of fetal lung maturity testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGinnis, K T; Brown, J A; Morrison, J C

    2008-01-01

    In our laboratory, a decrease in fetal lung maturity (FLM) testing on amniotic fluid occurred over a 10-year period, and we desired to determine if this was a national phenomenon and, if present, ascertain possible etiologies...

  19. Biomarkers in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokra, Daniela; Kosutova, Petra

    2015-04-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and its milder form acute lung injury (ALI) may result from various diseases and situations including sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, acute pancreatitis, aspiration of gastric contents, near-drowning etc. ALI/ARDS is characterized by diffuse alveolar injury, lung edema formation, neutrophil-derived inflammation, and surfactant dysfunction. Clinically, ALI/ARDS is manifested by decreased lung compliance, severe hypoxemia, and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Severity and further characteristics of ALI/ARDS may be detected by biomarkers in the plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (or tracheal aspirate) of patients. Changed concentrations of individual markers may suggest injury or activation of the specific types of lung cells-epithelial or endothelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages, etc.), and thereby help in diagnostics and in evaluation of the patient's clinical status and the treatment efficacy. This chapter reviews various biomarkers of acute lung injury and evaluates their usefulness in diagnostics and prognostication of ALI/ARDS.

  20. Supercritical fluid chromatographic resolution of water soluble isomeric carboxyl/amine terminated peptides facilitated via mobile phase water and ion pair formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M A; Riley, F; Ashraf-Khorassani, M; Taylor, L T

    2012-04-13

    Both analytical scale and preparative scale packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) have found widespread applicability for chiral separations of multiple polar pharmaceutical candidates. However, SFC is rapidly becoming an achiral technique. More specifically, ion pair SFC is finding greater utility for separation of ionic analytes such as amine salts and organic sulfonates. The key to this success is, in part, the incorporation of additives such as trifluoroacetic acid and ammonium acetate into the mobile phase in association with a wide variety of both bonded silica stationary phases and high purity bare silica. Ion pairing SFC coupled with evaporative light scattering detection and mass spectrometric detection is presented here for the separation of water soluble, uncapped, isomeric peptide pairs that differ in amino acid arrangement. The separation is best achieved on either diol-bonded silica or bare silica with 1-5% (w/w) water as a significant ingredient in the mobile phase. Nitrogenous stationary phases such as 2-ethylpyridine, which had been very successful for the separation of capped peptides failed to yield the desired separation regardless of the mobile phase composition. A HILIC type retention mechanism is postulated for the separation of both isomeric uncapped peptide pairs.

  1. Lung function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005200 The effect of body position changes on lung function, lung CT imaging and pathology in an oleic acid induced acute lung injury model. JI Xin-ping (戢新平), et al. Dept Emergency, 1st Affili Hosp, China Med Univ, Shenyang 110001. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis, 2005;28(1) :33-36. Objective: To study the effect of body position changes on lung mechanics, oxygenation, CT images and pathology in an oleic acid-induced acute lung injury (ALl) model. Methods: The study groups con-

  2. Amniotic fluid water dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, M H; van den Wijngaard, J P H M; van Gemert, M J C; Ross, M G

    2007-01-01

    Water arrives in the mammalian gestation from the maternal circulation across the placenta. It then circulates between the fetal water compartments, including the fetal body compartments, the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is created by the flow of fluid from the fetal lung and bladder. A major pathway for amniotic fluid resorption is fetal swallowing; however in many cases the amounts of fluid produced and absorbed do not balance. A second resorption pathway, the intramembranous pathway (across the amnion to the fetal circulation), has been proposed to explain the maintenance of normal amniotic fluid volume. Amniotic fluid volume is thus a function both of the amount of water transferred to the gestation across the placental membrane, and the flux of water across the amnion. Membrane water flux is a function of the water permeability of the membrane; available data suggests that the amnion is the structure limiting intramembranous water flow. In the placenta, the syncytiotrophoblast is likely to be responsible for limiting water flow across the placenta. In human tissues, placental trophoblast membrane permeability increases with gestational age, suggesting a mechanism for the increased water flow necessary in late gestation. Membrane water flow can be driven by both hydrostatic and osmotic forces. Changes in both osmotic/oncotic and hydrostatic forces in the placenta my alter maternal-fetal water flow. A normal amniotic fluid volume is critical for normal fetal growth and development. The study of amniotic fluid volume regulation may yield important insights into the mechanisms used by the fetus to maintain water homeostasis. Knowledge of these mechanisms may allow novel treatments for amniotic fluid volume abnormalities with resultant improvement in clinical outcome.

  3. Thermodynamic study on resolution of ibuprofen enantiomers by supercritical/subcritical fluid chromatography%超(亚)临界流体色谱拆分布洛芬对映体的热力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亦文; 严全鸿; 任其龙

    2005-01-01

    The resolution of ibuprofen enantiomers was conducted on a chiral stationary phase of Kromasil CHI-TBB column (250 mm×4.6 mm I.D., 5μm, Eka Chemicals AB, Bohus, Sweden). The thermodynamic properties of the enantiomers in supercritical/subcritical fluid chromatography were investigated in the ranges of 293-323 K and 12.0-21.0 MPa, and compared with those in high performance liquid chromatography in the range of 288-328 K. The mobile phases were isopropanol/carbon dioxide (2 : 98, by mass), 690.0 ml·min-1 (at ambient temperature and pressure), and isopropanol/hexane (3 : 97, by volume), 2.0 ml·min-1, respectively. The plots of lnk′ and lnα versus 1/T were straight lines in HPLC. The plots of lnα versus 1/T were still straight lines but the linear relationship of lnk′ versus 1/T could not be observed in SFC. The differences of enthalpy changes and entropy changes for the transfer of enantiomers from the mobile phase to the stationary phase were calculated. In both cases, |ΔR.SΔH0|>|TΔR.SΔS0|, therefore, the enthalpie contribution to the overall enantiomer transfer energy is more important than the entropic contribution in the temperature range examined, and furthermore, lower temperature is better for chiral resolution of ibuprofen.

  4. Lung Organogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, David; El-Hashash, Ahmed; Carraro, Gianni; Tiozzo, Caterina; Sala, Frederic; Rogers, Orquidea; De Langhe, Stijn; Kemp, Paul J.; Riccardi, Daniela; Torday, John; Bellusci, Saverio; Shi, Wei; Lubkin, Sharon R; Jesudason, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Developmental lung biology is a field that has the potential for significant human impact: lung disease at the extremes of age continues to cause major morbidity and mortality worldwide. Understanding how the lung develops holds the promise that investigators can use this knowledge to aid lung repair and regeneration. In the decade since the “molecular embryology” of the lung was first comprehensively reviewed, new challenges have emerged—and it is on these that we focus the current review. Firstly, there is a critical need to understand the progenitor cell biology of the lung in order to exploit the potential of stem cells for the treatment of lung disease. Secondly, the current familiar descriptions of lung morphogenesis governed by growth and transcription factors need to be elaborated upon with the reinclusion and reconsideration of other factors, such as mechanics, in lung growth. Thirdly, efforts to parse the finer detail of lung bud signaling may need to be combined with broader consideration of overarching mechanisms that may be therapeutically easier to target: in this arena, we advance the proposal that looking at the lung in general (and branching in particular) in terms of clocks may yield unexpected benefits. PMID:20691848

  5. Lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G

    1977-01-01

    The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...... breathing in the sitting position ranged from 0.25 to 0.37 g.cm-3. Subnormal values were found in patients with emphsema. In patients with pulmonary congestion and edema, lung density values ranged from 0.33 to 0.93 g.cm-3. The lung density measurement correlated well with the findings in chest radiographs...... but the lung density values were more sensitive indices. This was particularly evident in serial observations of individual patients....

  6. Correlation of lung abnormalities on high-resolution CT with clinical graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic versus autologous bone marrow transplantation in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlini, Laura; Borzani, Irene Maria Olivia; Anooshiravani, Mehrak; Hanquinet, Sylviane [University of Geneva Children' s Hospital, Paediatric Radiology Unit, Geneva (Switzerland); Rochat, Isabelle [University of Geneva Children' s Hospital, Paediatric Pneumology Unit, Geneva (Switzerland); Ozsahin, Ayse Hulya [University of Geneva Children' s Hospital, Paediatric Oncology Unit, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    Late-onset noninfectious pulmonary complications (LONIPCs) are life-threatening complications of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Several pathological patterns are described in the literature with different prognoses, and with different relationships to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The role of high-resolution CT (HRCT) is not yet well established. To illustrate different patterns of LONIPCs on HRCT in allogeneic versus autologous BMT in order to investigate the correlation with chronic GVHD (cGVHD). A total of 67 HRCT scans were performed in 24 patients with noninfectious pulmonary disease at least 3 months after BMT (16 allogeneic, 8 autologous). Abnormality patterns and extension on HRCT images were correlated with the clinical outcome and with the severity of cGVHD. Of 24 patients, 9 showed LONIPCs (1 autologous, 8 allogeneic). There was a significant association between abnormalities on HRCT and severe cGVHD (P = 0.038), with no specific pattern. Prognosis seemed to be related to the severity of cGVHD and not to the extent of abnormalities on HRCT. The significant association between abnormalities on HRCT and severe GVHD suggests that LONIPCs can be a pulmonary manifestation of the disease. HRCT is a useful tool when combined with clinical data. (orig.)

  7. Discussions of the relationship of lung Qi,lung Yin and lung Yang%肺气肺阴肺阳关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵雨萌; 张伟

    2012-01-01

    Based on the theory of Qi,we discussed the concept and connotation of lung Yin Qi and lung Yang Qi,and clarified the relationship of them. Lung Qi can be divided into lung Yin Qi and lung Yang Qi. Lung Yang is lung Yang Qi.and lung Yang deficiency refers toinsufficiency of lung Yang Qi. Lung Yin contains lung Yin Qi and lung fluid. Lung Yin deficiency contains insufficiency of lung Yin Qi and lung fluid.%从气的理论基础入手,探讨了肺阴气与肺阳气的概念、内涵,明确了肺气、肺阴、肺阳三者间的关系.认为肺气分为肺阴气与肺阳气.肺阳即肺阳气,肺阳虚即肺阳气不足;而肺阴包含肺阴气与肺津液,肺阴虚即肺阴气不足和肺津液亏虚.

  8. Open lung biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CT scan Disseminated tuberculosis Granulomatosis with polyangiitis Lung cancer - small cell Lung disease Lung needle biopsy Malignant mesothelioma Pulmonary tuberculosis Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Simple pulmonary eosinophilia ...

  9. Inhalational Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kowsarian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhalational lung diseases are among the most important occupational diseases. Pneumoconiosis refers to a group of lung diseases result from inhalation of usually inorganic dusts such as silicon dioxide, asbestos, coal, etc., and their deposition in the lungs. The resultant pulmonary disorders depend on the susceptibility of lungs; size, concentration, solubility and fibrogenic properties of the inhaled particles; and duration of exposure. Radiographic manifestations of pneumoconiosis become apparent several years after exposure to the particles. However, for certain types of dusts, e.g., silicone dioxide crystal and beryllium, heavy exposure within a short period can cause an acute disease. Pulmonary involvement in asbestosis is usually in the lower lobes. On the contrary, in silicosis and coal worker pneumoconiosis, the upper lobes are involved predominantly. For imaging evaluation of pneumoconiosis, high-resolution computed tomography (CT is superior to conventional chest x-ray. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and positron emission tomography (PET scan are helpful in those with suspected tumoral lesions. In this essay, we reviewed the imaging aspects of inhalational lung disease.

  10. GPU加速3D流场特征提取与多分辨率绘制%GPU-Accelerated Feature Extraction and Multi-resolution Visualization for Complex 3D Fluid Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐华勋; 曾亮; 蔡勋; 李思昆

    2009-01-01

    Due to the mutual influence of grid points on the view direction, visualization to a 3D fluid field often has problem of occlusion and cluttering. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for solving the occlusion and cluttering problem based on multi-resolution rendering. By the solution, first, a new fluid feature extraction method is presented by taking advantage of the strong non-linear ability of the neural network. Then based on the flow feature detected, a Voronoi graph method is used to organize field data. Finally, the field data is visualized by the "fisheye views" method. The test result of the visualization effects and performance to our method shows that our proposed approach is feasible and efficient in solving the occlusion and cluttering problem.%由于视线方向上的网格单元前后相互影响,导致3D流场可视化面临遮挡和混乱问题,为此提出一种基于流场特征的多分辨率绘制方法.首先利用基于GPU的BP网络流场特征提取方法对流场典型特征或用户关注的新特征进行选取、训练和识别;在此基础上,利用Voronoi图技术对特征数据构造特征树;最后基于鱼眼视图多分辨率技术进行绘制.对绘制和性能进行测试的实验结果表明,该方法能有效地提取流场特征,降低遮挡和混乱对可视化效果影响.

  11. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  12. Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen from the air and deliver it to the bloodstream. The cells in your body need oxygen to ... you breathe nearly 25,000 times. People with lung disease have difficulty breathing. Millions of people in ...

  13. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease ...

  14. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  15. What Is Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Graphics Infographic Stay Informed Cancer Home What Is Lung Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... cancer starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may ...

  16. Lung scintigraphy with nonspecific human immunoglobulin G ({sup 99m}Tc-HIG) in the evaluation of pulmonary involvement in connective tissue diseases: correlation with pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostopoulos, C.; Toubanakis, C.; Mamoulakis, C.; Gialafos, E.; Mavrikakis, M. [Alexandra University Hospital, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Athens (Greece); Koutsikos, J.; Zerva, C.; Leondi, A. [Alexandra University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Athens (Greece); Moulopoulos, L.A. [Areteion University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Sfikakis, P.P. [Laikon University Hospital, Department of Propaedeutic Medicine, Athens (Greece)

    2008-02-15

    In patients with connective tissue diseases (CTD), the early detection and evaluation of the severity of the pulmonary involvement is mandatory. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are considered to be valuable noninvasive diagnostic modalities. Radiopharmaceuticals have also been used for this purpose. Our aim was the evaluation of technetium-labeled human polyclonal immunoglobulin G (HIG) lung scintigraphy in the early detection and assessment of the severity of the pulmonary involvement in CTD patients. Fifty-two nonsmoking CTD patients were studied by PFTs, HRCT, and HIG. According to PFTs, patients were divided in group A (impaired PFTs - abnormal pulmonary function) and group B (normal pulmonary function). Semiquantitative analysis was done on HIG and HRCT and corresponding scores were obtained. Significant difference was found between HIG scores in the two groups (0.6 {+-} 0.07 vs 0.51 {+-} 0.08, P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between HIG scores and PFTs results and a positive correlation between HIG and HRCT scores. HIG demonstrated similar clinical performance to HRCT. At the best cut-off levels of their score (0.56 and 7, respectively), HIG had a superior sensitivity (77.5 vs 57.5%) with lower specificity (75 vs 91.7%). The combination of the two methods increased the sensitivity of abnormal findings at the expense of specificity. HIG scintigraphy can be used in the early detection and evaluation of the severity of the pulmonary involvement in CTD, whereas, when used in combination with HRCT, the detection of affected patients can be further improved. (orig.)

  17. Amniotic fluid embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranpreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%.

  18. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  19. Fluid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2001-01-01

    Fluid interaction, interaction by the user with the system that causes few breakdowns, is essential to many user interfaces. We present two concrete software systems that try to support fluid interaction for different work practices. Furthermore, we present specificity, generality, and minimality...... as design goals for fluid interfaces....

  20. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  1. Evaluation of solubility in simulated lung fluid of metals present in the sludge from a metallurgical industry to produce metallic zinc; Avaliacao da solubilidade em liquido pulmonar simulado dos metais presentes no rejeito gerado por uma industria metalurgica de zinco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Rosilda Maria Gomes de

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the solubility parameters (rapid and slow dissolution rates, rapid and slow dissolution fractions) metal particles present in a pile of sludge accumulated under exposure to weathering from the Cia Mercantil Inga, located at the Ilha da Madeira, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro. Plant samples collected in the neighboring of the pile and bioindicators placed in the region and collected after some months indicated that the inhabitants of Ilha da Madeira have been exposed to trace elements such zinc, cadmium, mercury and lead, produced during the processing of zinc minerals (hemimorphite - Zn{sub 4}(OH){sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}.H{sub 2}O, and willemite - Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}). A static dissolution test in vitro was used to determine the solubility parameters using a simulated lung fluid (SLF), on a time basis ranging from 10 min to 1 year. The metal concentrations in the sludge samples and in the SLF were determined using Particle Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE). In conclusion, this study confirms the harmful effects on the neighboring population of the airborne particles containing these metals that came from the sludge. The solubility parameters obtained for Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni and Mn present in the rapid dissolution fraction in SLF were 0.945; 0.473; 0.226; 0.300 and 0.497, respectively, and the corresponding times for half life of dissolution of the rapid fraction were f{sub r} = 2.082 days; f{sub r} = 0.09 days; f{sub r} = 0.37 days; f{sub r} = 0.332 days ad f{sub r} = 0.99 days; for the slow dissolution fraction times were f{sub r} = 146.95 days; f{sub r} = 63 days; f{sub r} = 86.64 days; f{sub r} = 79.66 days and f{sub r} = 59.84 days. These values indicate that these metals present a moderate absorption level in SLF, and may be classified as M type, according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The use of solubility parameters allowed a better description of the kinetic behaviour of the sludge in

  2. Experimental Approach to Visualize Flow in a Stacked Hollow Fiber Bundle of an Artificial Lung With Particle Image Velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaesler, Andreas; Schlanstein, Peter C; Hesselmann, Felix; Büsen, Martin; Klaas, Michael; Roggenkamp, Dorothee; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Arens, Jutta

    2016-12-07

    Flow distribution is key in artificial lungs, as it directly influences gas exchange performance as well as clot forming and blood damaging potential. The current state of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in artificial lungs can only give insight on a macroscopic level due to model simplification applied to the fiber bundle. Based on our recent work on wound fiber bundles, we applied particle image velocimetry (PIV) to the model of an artificial lung prototype intended for neonatal use to visualize flow distribution in a stacked fiber bundle configuration to (i) evaluate the feasibility of PIV for artificial lungs, (ii) validate CFD in the fiber bundle of artificial lungs, and (iii) give a suggestion how to incorporate microscopic aspects into mainly macroscopic CFD studies. To this end, we built a fully transparent model of an artificial lung prototype. To increase spatial resolution, we scaled up the model by a factor of 5.8 compared with the original size. Similitude theory was applied to ensure comparability of the flow distribution between the device of original size and the scaled-up model. We focused our flow investigation on an area (20 × 70 × 43 mm) in a corner of the model with a Stereo-PIV setup. PIV data was compared to CFD data of the original sized artificial lung. From experimental PIV data, we were able to show local flow acceleration and declaration in the fiber bundle and meandering flow around individual fibers, which is not possible using state-of-the-art macroscopic CFD simulations. Our findings are applicable to clinically used artificial lungs with a similar stacked fiber arrangement (e.g., Novalung iLa and Maquet QUADROX-I). With respect to some limitations, we found PIV to be a feasible experimental flow visualization technique to investigate blood-sided flow in the stacked fiber arrangement of artificial lungs.

  3. Interstitial lung disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930124 The effect of glycosaminoglycans inthe genesis of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis.LIBaoyu(李保玉),et al.Dept Pathol,Jilin MedColl,132001.Chin J Tuberc & Respir Dis 1992;15(4):204-205.The pulmonary interstitial fibrosis was causedby injecting Bleomycin into mouse trachea.Afterthe injection,the volume of glycosaminoglycans(GAG)in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lungtissues was increased.The observation underhistochemical stain and electron microscopeshowed that the distribution of GAG in lung tis-sues was varied at different time after the injec-tion,and related to the volume of collagen pro-teins and the formation of pulmonary interstitialfibrosis.

  4. Extravascular lung water index monitoring and fluid management in patients with pulmonary contusion%肺挫伤患者血管外肺水指数的监测和液体管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭民; 宋世辉; 周文; 张鹏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To guide fluid management and evaluate the clinical index through monitoring extravascular lung water index(EVLWI) of patients with pulmonary contusion.Methods Thirtyone severe chest trauma patients with pulmonary contusion were selected,performed with central venous catheterization or femoral artery catheterization,and connected to pulse index continuous cardiac output (PICCO).EVLWI after pulmonary contusion were measured by using thermal dilution.The intake and output of patients were recorded in detail,fluid intake was controlled,furosemide was prescribed,and the changes and correlations of oxygenation index,EVLWI and liquid balance difference at different time points were evaluated.Results EVLWI after pulmonary contusion at 1st to 7th d after hospitalization was respectively (9.25 ±0.71),(8.98 ±0.61),(8.61 ±0.59),(7.75±0.53),(6.64 ±0.49),(6.22±0.36),(5.59 ±0.39) ml/kg.Comparing with 1st d after hospitalization,EVLWI declined from 3rd d (P < 0.05).Oxygenation index at Ist to 7th d after hospitallzation was respectively( 145.76±23.61 ),( 144.19±20.24),( 146.67±19.25 ),(159.33±15.42),(177.38±14.25),(199.33±19.04),(213.71±18.51) mm Hg(1 mm Hg =0.133 kPa).Comparing with 1st d,oxygenation index from 4th to 7th d had significant difference (P < 0.05 ).The fluid volume at 1st d to 7th d were all negative balance,that of 3rd d to 6th d had significant difference comparing with 1st d [(-431.43±121.17),(-601.43±127.09),(-629.52±140.69),(-320.01 ±93.71) ml vs.(-213.81±63.91 ) ml](P < 0.05 ).Oxygenation index and EVLWI had negative correlation(r =-0.824,P<0.01).Liquid balance difference and the changes of oxygenation index and EVLWI had no correlation.Conclusion EVLWI effectively monitoring after pulmonary contusion can not only evaluate the changes of pulmonary vascular permeability of patients with pulmonary contusion,but also have important significance to guide fluid management.%目的 通过对肺挫伤患者血管外肺水指

  5. Changes in liquid clearance of alveolar epithelium after oleic acid-induced acute lung injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶军; 杨天德; 陈祥瑞; 黄河

    2004-01-01

    Objective:Impaired active fluid transport of alveolar epithelium may involve in the pathogenesis and resolution of alveolar edema. Thc objective of this study was to explore the changes in alveolar epithelial liquid clearance during lung edema following acute lung injury induced by oleic acid. Methods:Forty-eight Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups, I.e. , injured, amiloride, ouabain, amiloride plus ouabain and terbutaline groups. Twenty- four hours after the induction of acute lung injury by intravenous oleic acid (0.25 ml/kg), 5% albumin solution with 1.5 μCi 125Ⅰ-labeled albumin (5 ml/kg) was delivered into both lungs via trachea. Alveolar liquid clearance (ALC), extravascular lung water ( EVLW ) content and arterial blood gases were measured one hour thereafter.Results: At 24 h after the infusion of oleic acid, the rats developed pulmonary edema and severe hypoxemia, with EVLW increased by 47.9% and ALC decreased by 49.2%. Addition of either 2 × 10-3 M amiloride or 5 × 10-4 M ouabain to the instillation further reduced ALC and increased EVLW. ALC increased by approximately 63.7% and EVLW decreased by 46.9% with improved hypoxemia in the Terbutaline (10-4 M) group, compared those in injured rats. A significant negative correlation was found between the increment of EVLW and the reduction of ALC. Onclusions:Active fluid transport of alveolar epithelium might play a role in the pathogenesis of lung edema in acute lung injury.

  6. Lung Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will recover in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) before moving to a hospital room for one to three weeks. Your doctor may recommend pulmonary rehabilitation after your lung transplant surgery to help you ...

  7. MR assessment of fetal lung development using lung volumes and signal intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Thomas M.; Michel, Sven C.A.; Marincek, Borut [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091, Zurich (Switzerland); Rake, Annett; Wisser, Josef [Department of Obstetrics, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091, Zurich (Switzerland); Seifert, Burkhardt [Department of Biostatistics, University of Zurich, Sumatrastrasse 30, 8006, Zurich (Switzerland); Kubik-Huch, Rahel A. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091, Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Radiology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404, Baden (Switzerland)

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the monitoring and diagnostic potential of MRI in fetal lung development and disease using lung volume and signal intensity changes through gestation. Thirty-five healthy fetuses (22-42 weeks) were examined on a 1.5- T MR system using sagittal T2w single-shot fast spin-echo imaging (TR indefinite, TE 90 ms, slice thickness/gap 3-5/0 mm, FOV 26-40 cm, NEX 0.5). Fetal body and lung were segmented manually and volumes calculated. Signal intensities (SI) of fetal lung and three reference values were measured on the section best displaying the lung. Regions of interests were defined by including the maximal organ area possible. The following SI ratios were generated: lung/liver, lung/amniotic fluid, lung/muscle, liver/fluid and liver/muscle. Volumes and ratios were correlated with gestational age. Data from seven fetuses with pulmonary pathology were compared with these normative values. Absolute lung volume varied from 12.3 to 143.5 cm{sup 3} in correlation with gestational age (P<0.001); lung volume relative to total body volume ranged from 1.6 to 5.0%, decreasing with gestational age (P=0.001). (orig.)

  8. Simultaneous Quantification of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-nor-9-carboxy-Tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabidiol and Cannabinol in Oral Fluid by MicroFlow-Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concheiro, Marta; Lee, Dayong; Lendoiro, Elena; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary target in oral fluid (OF) for detecting cannabis intake. However, additional biomarkers are needed to solve interpretation issues, such as the possibility of passive inhalation by identifying 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), and determining recent cannabis smoking by identifying cannabidiol (CBD) and/or cannabinol (CBN). We developed and comprehensively validated a microflow liquid chromatography (LC)–high resolution mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification of THC, THCCOOH, CBD and CBN in OF collected with the Oral-Eze® and Quantisal™ devices. One mL OF-buffer solution (0.25mL OF and 0.5mL of Oral-Eze buffer,1:3 dilution, or 0.75mL Quantisal buffer, 1:4 dilution) had proteins precipitated, and the supernatant subjected to CEREX™ Polycrom™ THC solid-phase extraction (SPE). Microflow LC reverse-phase separation was achieved with a gradient mobile phase of 10mM ammonium acetate pH 6 and acetonitrile over 10 min. We employed a Q Exactive high resolution mass spectrometer, with compounds identified and quantified by targeted-MSMS experiments. The assay was linear 0.5–50 ng/mL for THC, CBD and CBN, and 15–500 pg/mL for THCCOOH. Intra- and inter-day and total imprecision were <10.8%CV and bias 86.5–104.9%. Extraction efficiency was 52.4–109.2%, process efficiency 12.2– 88.9% and matrix effect ranged from −86 to −6.9%. All analytes were stable for 24h at 5°C on the autosampler. The method was applied to authentic OF specimens collected with Quantisal and Oral-Eze devices. This method provides a rapid simultaneous quantification of THCCOOH and THC, CBD, CBN, with good selectivity and sensitivity, providing the opportunity to improve interpretation of cannabinoid OF results by eliminating the possibility of passive inhalation and providing markers of recent cannabis smoking. PMID:23726246

  9. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 reduces pneumococcal lung infection and inflammation in a viral and bacterial coinfection pneumonia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Anthony, Desiree; Yatmaz, Selcuk; Wijburg, Odilia; Satzke, Catherine; Levy, Bruce; Vlahos, Ross; Bozinovski, Steven

    2017-09-15

    Formyl peptide receptor 2/lipoxin A4 (LXA4) receptor (Fpr2/ALX) co-ordinates the transition from inflammation to resolution during acute infection by binding to distinct ligands including serum amyloid A (SAA) and Resolvin D1 (RvD1). Here, we evaluated the proresolving actions of aspirin-triggered RvD1 (AT-RvD1) in an acute coinfection pneumonia model. Coinfection with Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza A virus (IAV) markedly increased pneumococcal lung load and neutrophilic inflammation during the resolution phase. Fpr2/ALX transcript levels were increased in the lungs of coinfected mice, and immunohistochemistry identified prominent Fpr2/ALX immunoreactivity in bronchial epithelial cells and macrophages. Levels of circulating and lung SAA were also highly increased in coinfected mice. Therapeutic treatment with exogenous AT-RvD1 during the acute phase of infection (day 4-6 post-pneumococcal inoculation) significantly reduced the pneumococcal load. AT-RvD1 also significantly reduced neutrophil elastase (NE) activity and restored total antimicrobial activity in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (BALF) of coinfected mice. Pneumonia severity, as measured by quantitating parenchymal inflammation or alveolitis was significantly reduced with AT-RvD1 treatment, which also reduced the number of infiltrating lung neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages as assessed by flow cytometry. The reduction in distal lung inflammation in AT-RvD1-treated mice was not associated with a significant reduction in inflammatory and chemokine mediators. In summary, we demonstrate that in the coinfection setting, SAA levels were persistently increased and exogenous AT-RvD1 facilitated more rapid clearance of pneumococci in the lungs, while concurrently reducing the severity of pneumonia by limiting excessive leukocyte chemotaxis from the infected bronchioles to distal areas of the lungs. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Lung manifestation in rheumatoid arthritis: High-resolution CT in mutual relation to skeletal changes and laboratory parameters; Lungenmanifestation bei rheumatoider Arthritis: Hochaufloesende Computertomographie in Wechselbeziehung zur Skelettmanifestation und zu laborchemischen Veraenderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Leisse, C. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Bussmann, A. [Rheumaklinik der Landesversicherungsanstalt Rheinprovinz, Aachen (Germany); Meyer, O. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Vorbrueggen, W. [Rheumaklinik der Landesversicherungsanstalt Rheinprovinz, Aachen (Germany); Genth, E. [Rheumaklinik der Landesversicherungsanstalt Rheinprovinz, Aachen (Germany); Guenther, R.W. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    1996-11-01

    Purpose: It has been the aim of the following study to evaluate pulmonary changes in rheumatoid arthritis with high-resolution CT and to assess their correlation with joint manifestation and laboratory paramters. Material and methods: The authors prospectively performed computed tomography (CT) in 83 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and graded pulmonary changes for frequency and severity. Included were patients with 6-7/7 ARA, BSR>25/1 min and mean disease duration of 12 years (range, 1-44). Data of medical and drug histories, smoking habits, blood levels of rheumatoid factor (RF), antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and C-reactive protein as well as the degree of joint involvement were taken into account. Results: 58 patients (70%) had pathological CT scans showing the following abnormalities: Interlobular thickening (44.5%), intralobular thickening (34%), nonseptal linear attenuation (35%), nodular or linear pleural thickening (32.5%), ground-glass pattern (19%), centrilobular nodules (13%), honeycombing (13%) and bronchiolectasis (9%). Intralobular thickening, honeycombing and pleural thickening were associated with a higher degree of joint manifestation; pleural thickening, honeycombing and ground-glass pattern were associated with a higher level of rheumatoid factor. There was no relationship between pulmonary changes and either the duration of the disease, antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or C-reactive protein. Conclusion: CT may be a useful noninvasive tool for recognition of RA-associated lung disease. Interstitial lung changes are frequent and they are independent of the duration of the disease. Pulmonary interstitial changes are more frequent and more severe in RF-positive patients and in case of more severe joint involvement. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Es wird das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit, rheumatoide Arthritis RA-assoziierte Lungenveraenderungen in der HRCT festzustellen und ihre Wechselbeziehung zum Schweregrad der Gelenkveraenderungen und zu laborchemischen

  11. Rheumatoid lung disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung disease - rheumatoid arthritis; Rheumatoid nodules; Rheumatoid lung ... They often cause no symptoms. The cause of lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis is unknown. Sometimes, the ...

  12. Fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Pijush K; Dowling, David R

    2011-01-01

    Fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids behave and interact under various forces and in various applied situations-whether in the liquid or gaseous state or both-is introduced and comprehensively covered in this widely adopted text. Revised and updated by Dr. David Dowling, Fluid Mechanics, 5e is suitable for both a first or second course in fluid mechanics at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. Along with more than 100 new figures, the text has been reorganized and consolidated to provide a better flow and more cohesion of topics.Changes made to the

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging in children: common problems and possible solutions for lung and airways imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Ciet (Pierluigi); H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm); P.A. Wielopolski (Piotr); J.M. Wild (Jim); E.Y. Lee (Edward); G. Morana (Giovanni); M. Leguin (Maarten)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPediatric chest MRI is challenging. High-resolution scans of the lungs and airways are compromised by long imaging times, low lung proton density and motion. Low signal is a problem of normal lung. Lung abnormalities commonly cause increased signal intenstities. Among the most important

  14. Lungs in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Apostolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung function abnormalities both at rest and during exercise are frequently observed in patients with chronic heart failure, also in the absence of respiratory disease. Alterations of respiratory mechanics and of gas exchange capacity are strictly related to heart failure. Severe heart failure patients often show a restrictive respiratory pattern, secondary to heart enlargement and increased lung fluids, and impairment of alveolar-capillary gas diffusion, mainly due to an increased resistance to molecular diffusion across the alveolar capillary membrane. Reduced gas diffusion contributes to exercise intolerance and to a worse prognosis. Cardiopulmonary exercise test is considered the “gold standard” when studying the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic adaptations to exercise in cardiac patients. During exercise, hyperventilation and consequent reduction of ventilation efficiency are often observed in heart failure patients, resulting in an increased slope of ventilation/carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2 relationship. Ventilatory efficiency is as strong prognostic and an important stratification marker. This paper describes the pulmonary abnormalities at rest and during exercise in the patients with heart failure, highlighting the principal diagnostic tools for evaluation of lungs function, the possible pharmacological interventions, and the parameters that could be useful in prognostic assessment of heart failure patients.

  15. Effects of the treatment with different fluids on alveolar epithelium barrier in rats with acute lung injury%不同液体治疗对急性肺损伤大鼠肺泡上皮细胞屏障功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏洪霞; 杨毅; 邱海波; 郭涛; 赵明明; 陈秋华

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察不同液体治疗对急性肺损伤(ALI)大鼠肺泡上皮细胞屏障功能的影响.方法 ①与对照组比较,LPS组、NS组肺损伤评分明显升高(P均0.05),且后3组间比较差异也无统计学意义.②与对照组比较,LPS组、NS组肺W/D比值明显升高(P均0.05).⑤各组肺泡上皮细胞凋亡指数(AI)明显高于对照组(P均0.05).结论 胶体液较NS更能改善ALI大鼠肺泡上皮通透性,保护上皮细胞屏障功能.%Objective To observe the effects of different fluids on alveolar epithelium barrier in rats with acute lung injury (ALI). Methods Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into six groups with 6 rats in each group. ALI was induced by intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide(LPS). Rats in all treatment groups were given different fluids and sacrificed after 4 hours. Evans blue dye (EBD) was injected via the femoral vein 30 minutes before death. Tracheobronchial tree was washed with normal saline (NS) after death, and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected. Leakage of EBD from blood into BALF (alveolar epithelial permeability) and wet/dry (W/D) ratio were measured. The mRNA expression of surfactant protein-C (SP-C) was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Alveolar epithelium apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL). Lung injury was evaluated by Smith lung injury score. Results ①Lung injury scores in LPS and NS groups were significantly higher than in control group (both P0.05). No significant difference was found among the latter three groups. ②W/D ratio in LPS and NS groups were significantly higher than that in control group (both P0.05). ⑤Apoptosis index (AI) of alveolar epithelial cell in all the treatment groups were significantly higher than that in control group (all P<0.05). Compared with NS group, AI were noticeably lower in ALB and HES groups (both P<0

  16. Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.......These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  17. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  18. Lung Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Lungs Lung involvement in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) has ... testing. (Krueger et al., 2013) What Are the Lung Features of TSC? Two forms of lung involvement ...

  19. Lung Nodules: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research & Science Education & Training Home Conditions Lung Nodules Lung Nodules Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask ... Kern, MD (June 01, 2016) What is a lung nodule? A lung nodule is also called a ...

  20. Predicting and measuring fluid responsiveness with echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Miller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Echocardiography is ideally suited to guide fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. It can be used to assess fluid responsiveness by looking at the left ventricle, aortic outflow, inferior vena cava and right ventricle. Static measurements and dynamic variables based on heart–lung interactions all combine to predict and measure fluid responsiveness and assess response to intravenous fluid esuscitation. Thorough knowledge of these variables, the physiology behind them and the pitfalls in their use allows the echocardiographer to confidently assess these patients and in combination with clinical judgement manage them appropriately.

  1. Angiogenin and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in lungs of lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Ales; Silar, Mira; Kosnik, Mitja

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND.: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Angiogenesis is crucial process in cancer growth and progression. This prospective study evaluated expression of two central regulatory molecules: angiogenin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS.: Clinical data, blood samples and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) from 23 patients with primary lung carcinoma were collected. BAL fluid was taken from part of the lung with malignancy, and from corresponding healthy side of the lung. VEGF and angiogenin concentrations were analysed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dilution of bronchial secretions in the BAL fluid was calculated from urea concentration ratio between serum and BAL fluid. RESULTS.: We found no statistical correlation between angiogenin concentrations in serum and in bronchial secretions from both parts of the lung. VEGF concentrations were greater in bronchial secretions in the affected side of the lung than on healthy side. Both concentrations were greater than serum VEGF concentration. VEGF concentration in serum was in positive correlation with tumour size (p = 0,003) and with metastatic stage of disease (p = 0,041). There was correlation between VEGF and angiogenin concentrations in bronchial secretions from healthy side of the lung and between VEGF and angiogenin concentrations in bronchial secretions from part of the lung with malignancy. CONCLUSION.: Angiogenin and VEGF concentrations in systemic, background and local samples of patients with lung cancer are affected by different mechanisms. Pro-angiogenic activity of lung cancer has an important influence on the levels of angiogenin and VEGF.

  2. 非小细胞肺癌 BALF 中 RAR-β基因甲基化与p53突变检测及相关性研究∗%Correlation between RAR-βgene methylation and p53 gene mutation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琪; 肖贵华; 程长浩; 常芬

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance and correlation between RAR-βgene methylation and p53 gene mutation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF)in non-small-cell lung cancer.Methods BALF samples from 85 lung cancer pa-tients(lung cancer group)and 70 cases(benign lung diseases group)with benign lung diseases were collected.RAR-βgene methyla-tion in BALF samples was detected by methylation-specific PCR (MSP),and p53 gene mutation was detected by PCR and DNA se-quencing method.Results The rate of RAR-βmethylation and p53 mutation in BALF in lung cancer were 49.4% and 36.5%,re-spectively.Both were higher than in benign lung diseases group(P <0.01).RAR-βmethylation rate(32.5%)of patients with TNM stages(Ⅰ+Ⅱ)(32.5%)was higher than the p53 mutation rate(12.5%)over the same stages (P <0.05).RAR-βmethylation rate and p53 mutation rate of patients with stages(Ⅲ+Ⅳ)were higher than those with stages(Ⅰ+Ⅱ)(P <0.01).p53 mutation rate in lung cancer patients with RAR-βmethylation was higher than those with unmethylated(P <0.01).RAR-βmethylation rate of lung cancer patients with p53 mutation was higher than those without p53 mutation(P <0.01).Conclusion Detection of RAR-βmethyl-ation and p53 mutation in BALF contribute to the diagnosis of lung cancer.%目的:探讨非小细胞肺癌患者支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF)中 RAR-β基因甲基化与 p53基因突变检测的临床意义及二者的相关性。方法收集非小细胞肺癌患者(肺癌组)85例及良性疾病患者(良性疾病组)70例的 BALF 标本,采用甲基化特异性 PCR(MSP)方法检测 BALF 中的 RAR-β基因甲基化,PCR 结合 DNA 测序法检测 p53基因突变。结果肺癌组 BALF 中RAR-β基因甲基化率及 p53基因突变率分别为49.4%、36.5%,均显著高于良性疾病组(P <0.01);(Ⅰ+Ⅱ)期 RAR-β基因甲基化率(32.5%)高于同期 p53基因突变率(12.5%)(P <0.05);(Ⅲ+Ⅳ)期 RAR-β基因甲基化率及 p53基因突变

  3. Interstitial lung disease in scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Sara R; Castelino, Flavia V

    2015-05-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a heterogeneous disease of unknown etiology with limited effective therapies. It is characterized by autoimmunity, vasculopathy, and fibrosis and is clinically manifested by multiorgan involvement. Interstitial lung disease is a common complication of systemic sclerosis and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of interstitial lung disease hinges on careful clinical evaluation and pulmonary function tests and high-resolution computed tomography. Effective therapeutic options are still limited. Several experimental therapies are currently in early-phase clinical trials and show promise.

  4. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    A dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a severe shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation...... of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...... reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits the shear thickening oscillation (i.e., the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states). The results of numerical simulations are presented for one- and two...

  5. Clinical significance of the combined determination of Tumour markes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid to diagnose lung cancer%肺泡灌洗液中肿瘤标志物的联合检测在肺癌诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍武; 宁洁

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF)3种肿瘤标志物癌胚抗原(CEA)、细胞角蛋白片段211(CYFRA211) 、神经元特异性烯醇化酶(NSE)对肺癌的临床诊断价值.方法:采用电化学发光法分别检测90例肺癌患者、60例肺部良性病变患者血清及BALF中CEA、CYFRA 211和NSE的含量.结果:肺癌患者BALF中3种肿瘤标志物的含量明显高于肺部良性病变患者(P<0.05),且随着TNM临床分期升高,肿瘤标志物的含量也明显升高.在不同病理类型的肺癌中,3种肺癌肿瘤标志物升高的程度均有所不同.BALF中肿瘤标志物的含量与同期血清中的含量相比,出现更早且浓度更高.结论:肺癌患者BALF中CEA、CYFRA211、NSE联合检测对肺癌诊断有更高的临床参考价值.%Objective: To investigate the clinical value of 3 tumor markers [ carcinoma embryonic antigen ( CEA ),cytokeratin 19 fragments ( CYFRA211 ) and neuron specific enolase( NSE ) ]in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ( BALF )to diagnose lung cancer. Methods:The levels of CEA、 CYFRA211 and NSE in BALF and serum were measured in 90 patients with lung cancer and 60 patients with benign lung disease by electro chemiluminescence. Results: The levels of 3 tumor markers in BALF were much higher in lung cancer group than that in benign lung disease group ( P <0.05 ) and they were higher in patients in stage Ⅲ and Ⅳ than those in stage Ⅰ and Ⅱ. The tumor markers increased to different degrees among the patients in various pathological classifications. It was also found that the levels of these tumor markers were higher and more sensitive in BALF than those in serum. Conclusion:The measurement of tumor markers in BALF is of more significant value than the measurement in serum, which helps early diagnosis, pathological classification and prognosis evaluation of lung cancer.

  6. [Humidifier lung].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, P; de Haller, R; Pyrozynski, W J; Sturzenegger, E R; Brändli, O

    1981-02-07

    Breathing air from a humidifier or an air conditioning unit contaminated by various microorganisms can cause an acute lung disease involving fever, cough and dyspnea, termed "humidifier fever". This type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis was first described in 1959 by PESTALOZZI in the Swiss literature and subsequently by BANASZAK et al. in the Anglo-American. Here a chronic form of this disease which led to pulmonary fibrosis is described: A 37-year-old woman who works in a cheese shop presented with dyspnea which had been progressive over two years, weight loss, a diffuse reticular pattern radiographically and a severe restrictive defect in lung function tests. Open lung biopsy revealed chronic interstitial and alveolar inflammation with non-caseating granulomas and fibrotic changes. Circulating immune complexes and precipitins against the contaminated humidifier water and cheese mites were found, but no antibodies suggesting legionnaires' disease. Two out of five otherwise healthy employees of this cheese shop, where a new humidifying system had been installed 7 years earlier, also had precipitins against the contaminated water from the humidifier and the cheese mites. Despite ending of exposure and longterm steroid and immunosuppressive therapy, the signs and symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis persisted. Contrary to the acute disease, this chronic form is termed "humidifier lung". The importance is stressed of investigating the possibility of exposure to contaminated humidifiers or air conditioning units in all cases of newly detected pulmonary fibrosis.

  7. Welders’ lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izidor Kern

    2010-02-01

    Conclusions: h is study coni rms that longterm welders may have symptoms with no functional disorders, but with prominent morphological changes. h e key to correct diagnosis is an occupational history of the patient. Diagnostic work-up includes funda-mental procedures in suspected interstitial lung disease. h e best therapy is cessation of exposure.

  8. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  9. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  10. Surfactant gene polymorphisms and interstitial lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelidis Panagiotis

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, which is present in the alveolar lining fluid and is essential for normal lung function. Alterations in surfactant composition have been reported in several interstitial lung diseases (ILDs. Furthermore, a mutation in the surfactant protein C gene that results in complete absence of the protein has been shown to be associated with familial ILD. The role of surfactant in lung disease is therefore drawing increasing attention following the elucidation of the genetic basis underlying its surface expression and the proof of surfactant abnormalities in ILD.

  11. A poroelastic model of the lung

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Lorenz; Burrowes, Kelly; Grau, Vicente; Tavener, Simon; Bordas, Rafel

    2014-01-01

    This work is motivated by the modelling of ventilation and deformation in the lung for understanding the biomechanics of respiratory diseases. The main contribution is the derivation and implementation of a lung model that tightly couples a poroelastic model of lung parenchyma to an airway fluid network. The poroelastic model approximates the porous structure of lung parenchyma using a continuum model that allows us to naturally model changes in physiology by spatially varying material parameters, whilst conserving mass and momentum within the tissue. The proposed model will also take advantage of realistic deformation boundary conditions obtained from image registration, to drive the simulation. A finite element method is presented to discretize the equations in a monolithic way to ensure convergence of the nonlinear problem. To demonstrate the coupling between the poroelastic medium and the network flow model numerical simulations on a realistic lung geometry are presented. These numerical simulations are a...

  12. [Lung ultrasound in acute and critical care medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechner, P M; Seibel, A; Aichinger, G; Steigerwald, M; Dorr, K; Scheiermann, P; Schellhaas, S; Cuca, C; Breitkreutz, R

    2012-07-01

    The development of modern critical care lung ultrasound is based on the classical representation of anatomical structures and the need for the assessment of specific sonography artefacts and phenomena. The air and fluid content of the lungs is interpreted using few typical artefacts and phenomena, with which the most important differential diagnoses can be made. According to a recent international consensus conference these include lung sliding, lung pulse, B-lines, lung point, reverberation artefacts, subpleural consolidations and intrapleural fluid collections. An increased number of B-lines is an unspecific sign for an increased quantity of fluid in the lungs resembling interstitial syndromes, for example in the case of cardiogenic pulmonary edema or lung contusion. In the diagnosis of interstitial syndromes lung ultrasound provides higher diagnostic accuracy (95%) than auscultation (55%) and chest radiography (72%). Diagnosis of pneumonia and pulmonary embolism can be achieved at the bedside by evaluating subpleural lung consolidations. Detection of lung sliding can help to detect asymmetrical ventilation and allows the exclusion of a pneumothorax. Ultrasound-based diagnosis of pneumothorax is superior to supine anterior chest radiography: for ultrasound the sensitivity is 92-100% and the specificity 91-100%. For the diagnosis of pneumothorax a simple algorithm was therefore designed: in the presence of lung sliding, lung pulse or B-lines, pneumothorax can be ruled out, in contrast a positive lung point is a highly specific sign of the presence of pneumothorax. Furthermore, lung ultrasound allows not only diagnosis of pleural effusion with significantly higher sensitivity than chest x-ray but also visual control in ultrasound-guided thoracocentesis.

  13. 不同液体管理策略对急性呼吸窘迫综合征患者血管外肺水指数的影响%Effect of different fluid-management strategies on extravascular lung water index in the patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓义; 王心杰; 张芝晶

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of different fluid - management strategies on extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) , PaO2/FiO2, 24 -hour fluid balance, mechanical ventilation days, ICU days in ARDS patients and to find the optimal fluid management in patients with acute lung injury(ALI). Methods Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients who met the inclusion criteria were selected as research objects. They were randomly assigned to conservative fluid management strategy group and liberal fluid -management strategy group. Central venous pressure (CVP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac index(CI), PaO2/FiO2, urinary output and EVLWI were measured. The volume of 24 - hour fluid balance, mechanical ventilation days and ICU days were recorded. Results Fluid balance volumes of conservative group were negative except the 1st day, but those of liberal group were all positive. The reduce of patients'EVLWI was faster and the improvement of PaO2/FiO2 was better in conservative group than in the liberal group. Mechanical ventilation days and ICU days were shorter in conservative group than in liberal group patients. Conclusion The conservative fluid -management strategy can reduce ARDS patients' EVLW, improve the pulmonary function, reduce ARDS patients' mechanical ventilation days and ICU days. The conservative fluid management strategy is an effective approach to reduce EVLW.%目的 通过观察不同液体管理策略对急性呼吸窘迫综合征(ARDS)患者血管外肺水指数(EVLWI)、氧合指数(PaO2/FiO2)、24 h液体平衡量、机械通气时间、住ICU时间的影响,探寻ARDS患者的最佳液体管理策略.方法 选取符合入选标准的ARDS患者为研究对象,随机分为保守性液体管理策略组(保守组)和开放性液体管理策略组(开放组),动态监测中心静脉压(CVP)、平均动脉压(MAP)、心脏指数(CI)、PaO2/FiO2、尿量及EVLWI等,记录24 h液体平衡量、机械通气时间及住ICU时间.结果

  14. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  15. Regulation of amniotic fluid volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, M H; van den Wijngaard, J P H M; van Gemert, M J C; Ross, M G

    2007-01-01

    Water arrives in the mammalian gestation from the maternal circulation across the placenta. It then circulates between the fetal water compartments, including the fetal body compartments, the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is created by the flow of fluid from the fetal lung and bladder. A major pathway for amniotic fluid resorption is fetal swallowing; however, in many cases the amounts of fluid produced and absorbed do not balance. A second resorption pathway, the intramembranous pathway (across the amnion to the fetal circulation), has been proposed to explain the maintenance of normal amniotic fluid volume. Amniotic fluid volume is thus a function both of the amount of water transferred to the gestation across the placental membrane, and the flux of water across the amnion. Water flux across biologic membranes may be driven by osmotic or hydrostatic forces; existing data suggest that intramembranous flow in humans is driven by the osmotic difference between the amniotic fluid and the fetal serum. The driving force for placental flow is more controversial, and both forces may be in effect. The mechanism(s) responsible for regulating water flow to and from the amniotic fluid is unknown. In other parts of the body, notably the kidney, water flux is regulated by the expression of aquaporin water channels on the cell membrane. We hypothesize that aquaporins have a role in regulating water flux across both the amnion and the placenta, and present evidence in support of this theory. Current knowledge of gestational water flow is sufficient to allow prediction of fetal outcome when water flow is abnormal, as in twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Further insight into these mechanisms may allow novel treatments for amniotic fluid volume abnormalities with resultant improvement in clinical outcome.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Particle Deposition in the Human Lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Gengenbach, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We model, simulate and calculate breathing and particle depositions in the human lungs. We review the theory and discretization of fluid mechanics, the anatomy, physiology and measuring methods of lungs. A new model is introduced and investigated with a sensitivity analysis using the singular value decomposition. Particle depositions are simulated in patient-specific and schematized human lungs and compared to the particle deposition in a multiplicative model of subsequent bifurcations.

  17. Soluble CD59 is a Novel Biomarker for the Prediction of Obstructive Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction after Lung Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budding, Kevin; Van De Graaf, Eduard A.; Kardol-Hoefnagel, Tineke; Kwakkel-van Erp, Johanna M.; Luijk, Bart D.; Oudijk, Erik Jan D; Van Kessel, Diana A.; Grutters, Jan C.; Hack, C. Erik; Otten, Henderikus G.

    2016-01-01

    CD59 is a complement regulatory protein that inhibits membrane attack complex formation. A soluble form of CD59 (sCD59) is present in various body fluids and is associated with cellular damage after acute myocardial infarction. Lung transplantation (LTx) is the final treatment for end-stage lung dis

  18. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease - discharge; Alveolitis - discharge; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis - discharge; IPP - discharge; Chronic interstitial lung - discharge; Chronic respiratory interstitial lung - discharge; Hypoxia - interstitial lung - discharge

  19. [Arterial pressure curve and fluid status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, G; Fukui, K

    2009-04-01

    Fluid optimization is a major contributor to improved outcome in patients. Unfortunately, anesthesiologists are often in doubt whether an additional fluid bolus will improve the hemodynamics of the patient or not as excess fluid may even jeopardize the condition. This article discusses physiological concepts of liberal versus restrictive fluid management followed by a discussion on the respective capabilities of various monitors to predict fluid responsiveness. The parameter difference in pulse pressure (dPP), derived from heart-lung interaction in mechanically ventilated patients is discussed in detail. The dPP cutoff value of 13% to predict fluid responsiveness is presented together with several assessment techniques of dPP. Finally, confounding variables on dPP measurements, such as ventilation parameters, pneumoperitoneum and use of norepinephrine are also mentioned.

  20. R fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A theory of collisionless fluids is developed in a unified picture, where nonrotating (Ωf1 = Ωf2 = Ωf3 = 0 figures with some given random velocity component distributions, and rotating (Ωf1 = Ωf2 = Ωf3 figures with a different random velocity component distributions, make adjoint configurations to the same system. R fluids are defined as ideal, self-gravitating fluids satisfying the virial theorem assumptions, in presence of systematic rotation around each of the principal axes of inertia. To this aim, mean and rms angular velocities and mean and rms tangential velocity components are expressed, by weighting on the moment of inertia and the mass, respectively. The figure rotation is defined as the mean angular velocity, weighted on the moment of inertia, with respect to a selected axis. The generalized tensor virial equations (Caimmi and Marmo 2005 are formulated for R fluids and further attention is devoted to axisymmetric configurations where, for selected coordinate axes, a variation in figure rotation has to be counterbalanced by a variation in anisotropy excess and vice versa. A microscopical analysis of systematic and random motions is performed under a few general hypotheses, by reversing the sign of tangential or axial velocity components of an assigned fraction of particles, leaving the distribution function and other parameters unchanged (Meza 2002. The application of the reversion process to tangential velocity components is found to imply the conversion of random motion rotation kinetic energy into systematic motion rotation kinetic energy. The application of the reversion process to axial velocity components is found to imply the conversion of random motion translation kinetic energy into systematic motion translation kinetic energy, and the loss related to a change of reference frame is expressed in terms of systematic motion (imaginary rotation kinetic energy. A number of special situations are investigated in greater

  1. Opacidades em vidro fosco nas doenças pulmonares difusas: correlação da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução com a anatomopatologia Ground-glass opacity in diffuse lung diseases: high-resolution computed tomography-pathology correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia de Oliveira Santos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Opacidade em vidro fosco é achado freqüentemente visto na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução do tórax e se traduz pelo aumento do coeficiente de atenuação dos pulmões, mas sem apagar as marcas broncovasculares. Por sua inespecificidade, a associação com outros achados radiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos deve ser considerada para uma interpretação diagnóstica mais correta. Neste trabalho foram analisados 62 exames tomográficos de pacientes com doenças pulmonares difusas, de 14 etiologias diferentes, em que opacidades em vidro fosco foram o achado único ou predominante, e feita correlação anatomopatológica por meio de biópsias ou necropsias. Na pneumocistose as opacidades em vidro fosco corresponderam, histologicamente, à ocupação alveolar por material espumoso contendo parasitos; no carcinoma bronquíolo-alveolar, a espessamento dos septos alveolares e ocupação de sua luz por muco e células tumorais; na paracoccidioidomicose, a espessamento dos septos alveolares, áreas de fibrose e alvéolos contendo exsudato broncopneumônico; na sarcoidose, a fibrose ou a acúmulo de granulomas; na fibrose pulmonar idiopática, a espessamento dos septos alveolares por fibrose; na bronquiolite obliterante com pneumonia em organização, a pneumonia intersticial com áreas de organização intra-alveolar. A ocupação alveolar por sangue foi observada nos casos de leptospirose, hemossiderose idiopática, metástases de tumor renal e na aspergilose invasiva; por vacúolos de gordura na pneumonia lipídica; por material protéico e lipoprotéico na silicoproteinose e na proteinose alveolar; e por líquido de edema na insuficiência cardíaca congestiva.Ground-glass opacity is a finding frequently seen in high-resolution computed tomography examinations of the chest and is characterized by hazy increased attenuation of lung, however without blurring of bronchial and vascular margins. Due to its unspecificity

  2. Attenuated Escherichia coli strains expressing the colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (LThK63) enhance clearance of ETEC from the lungs of mice and protect mice from intestinal ETEC colonization and LT-induced fluid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Wyatt; Boedeker, Edgar C

    2013-03-15

    Although enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are important causes of infantile and traveler's diarrhea there is no licensed vaccine available for those at-risk. Our goal is to develop a safe, live attenuated ETEC vaccine. We used an attenuated E. coli strain (O157:H7, Δ-intimin, Stx1-neg, Stx2-neg) as a vector (ZCR533) to prepare two vaccine strains, one strain expressing colonization factor antigen I (ZCR533-CFA/I) and one strain expressing CFA/I and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63) to deliver ETEC antigens to mucosal sites in BALB/c mice. Following intranasal and intragastric immunization with the vaccine strains, serum IgG and IgA antibodies were measured to the CFA/I antigen, however, only serum IgG antibodies were detected to the heat-labile enterotoxin. Intranasal administration of the vaccine strains induced respiratory and intestinal antibody responses to the CFA/I and LT antigens, while intragastric administration induced only intestinal antibody responses with no respiratory antibodies detected to the CFA/I and LT antigens. Mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strains showed enhanced clearance of wild-type (wt) ETEC bacteria from the lungs. Mice immunized intranasally and intragastrically with the vaccine strains were protected from intestinal colonization following oral challenge with ETEC wt bacteria. Mice immunized intragastrically with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain had less fluid accumulate in their intestine following challenge with ETEC wt bacteria or with purified LT as compared to the sham mice indicating that the immunized mice were protected from LT-induced intestinal fluid accumulation. Thus, mice intragastrically immunized with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain were able to effectively neutralize the activity of the LT enterotoxin. However, no difference in intestinal fluid accumulation was detected in the mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strain as compared to the sham

  3. Preclinical lung disease in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Perez, Alejandro; Luburich, Patricio; Rodriguez-Sanchon, Benigno; Dorca, Jordi; Nolla, Joan Miquel; Molina-Molina, Maria; Narvaez-Garcia, Javier

    2016-02-01

    Early detection and treatment of lung disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may ameliorate disease progression. The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of asymptomatic lung abnormalities in early RA patients and the potential association of positive RA blood reactive biomolecules with lung involvement. A prospective observational study was performed in a cohort of patients with early RA (joint symptoms disease with a baseline chest radiograph (CR) and complete pulmonary function tests (PFTs). In those patients with lung abnormalities on the CR or PFTs, a high-resolution chest computed tomography scan (HRCT) was performed. We included 40 patients (30 women). Altered PFTs were detected in 18 (45%) of these patients. These cases had a diffusion lung transfer capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) of disease is present in up to 45% of early RA patients and can be determined by PFTs and ACPA levels.

  4. R Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A theory of collisionless fluids is developed in a unified picture, where nonrotating $(widetilde{Omega_1}=widetilde{Omega_2}= widetilde{Omega_3}=0$ figures with some given random velocity component distributions, and rotating $(widetilde{Omega_1} ewidetilde{Omega_2} e widetilde{Omega_3} $ figures with a different random velocity component distributions, make adjoint configurations to the same system. R fluids are defined as ideal, self-gravitating fluids satisfying the virial theorem assumptions, in presence of systematic rotation around each of the principal axes of inertia. To this aim, mean and rms angular velocities and mean and rms tangential velocity components are expressed, by weighting on the moment of inertia and the mass, respectively. The figure rotation is defined as the mean angular velocity, weighted on the moment of inertia, with respectto a selected axis. The generalized tensor virial equations (Caimmi and Marmo 2005 are formulated for R fluidsand further attention is devoted to axisymmetric configurations where, for selected coordinateaxes, a variation in figure rotation has to be counterbalanced by a variation in anisotropy excess and viceversa. A microscopical analysis of systematic and random motions is performed under a fewgeneral hypotheses, by reversing the sign of tangential or axial velocity components of anassigned fraction of particles, leaving the distribution function and other parametersunchanged (Meza 2002. The application of the reversion process to tangential velocitycomponents is found to imply the conversion of random motion rotation kinetic energy intosystematic motion rotation kinetic energy. The application ofthe reversion process to axial velocity components is found to imply the conversionof random motion translation kinetic energy into systematic motion translation kinetic energy, and theloss related to a change of reference frame is expressed in terms of systematic motion (imaginary rotation kinetic

  5. Neutron computed tomography of rat lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzke, R W; Wall, W A [Institute for Computational Mechanics at Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany); Runck, H; Stahl, C A; Schneider, M; Guttmann, J [Department of Anesthesiology, Section for Experimental Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Schillinger, B; Calzada, E; Muehlbauer, M; Schulz, M [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM-II) and Fakultaet fuer Physik E21 at Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Priebe, H-J, E-mail: metzke@lnm.mw.tum.d [Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-01-07

    Using conventional methods, three-dimensional imaging of the lung is challenging because of the low contrast between air and tissue and the large differences in dimensions between various pulmonary structures. The small distal airway structures and the high air-to-tissue ratio of lung tissue require an imaging technique which reliably discriminates between air and water. The objective of this study was to assess whether neutron computed tomography would satisfy such a requirement. This method utilizes the unique characteristic of neutrons of directly interacting with the atomic nucleus rather than being scattered by the atomic shell. Neutron computed tomography was tested in rats and allowed differentiation of larger lung structures (e.g., lobes) and distal airways. Airways could be identified reliably down to the sixth bronchial generation, in some cases even down to the tenth generation. The lung could be stabilized for sufficiently long exposure times to achieve an image resolution of 50-60 {mu}m, which is the current physical resolution limit of the neutron computed tomography facility. Neutron computed tomography allowed excellent lung imaging without the need for additional tissue preparation or contrast media. The enhanced structural resolution obtained by applying this new research technique may improve understanding of lung physiology and respiratory therapy. (note)

  6. Imaging of macrophage-related lung diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, Katharina; Hansell, David M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    Macrophage-related pulmonary diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by macrophage accumulation, activation or dysfunction. These conditions include smoking-related interstitial lung diseases, metabolic disorders such as Niemann-Pick or Gaucher disease, and rare primary lung tumors. High-resolution computed tomography abnormalities include pulmonary ground-glass opacification secondary to infiltration by macrophages, centrilobular nodules or interlobular septal thickening reflecting peribronchiolar or septal macrophage accumulation, respectively, emphysema caused by macrophage dysfunction, and honeycombing following macrophage-related lung matrix remodeling. (orig.)

  7. Lung tissue classification using wavelet frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depeursinge, Adrien; Sage, Daniel; Hidki, Asmâa; Platon, Alexandra; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Unser, Michael; Müller, Henning

    2007-01-01

    We describe a texture classification system that identifies lung tissue patterns from high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images of patients affected with interstitial lung diseases (ILD). This pattern recognition task is part of an image-based diagnostic aid system for ILDs. Five lung tissue patterns (healthy, emphysema, ground glass, fibrosis and microdules) selected from a multimedia database are classified using the overcomplete discrete wavelet frame decompostion combined with grey-level histogram features. The overall multiclass accuracy reaches 92.5% of correct matches while combining the two types of features, which are found to be complementary.

  8. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Liu, J.; Macias, B.; Martin, D. S.; Minkoff, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Sargsyan, A.; Smith, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  9. Acute lung injury probably associated with infusion of propofol emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chondrogiannis, K D; Siontis, G C M; Koulouras, V P; Lekka, M E; Nakos, G

    2007-08-01

    We present a case of acute lung injury associated with propofol infusion in a mechanically ventilated patient with intracerebral haemorrhage. Diagnosis was based on the exclusion of other risk factors inducing acute lung injury and on the clinical improvement after discontinuation of the propofol emulsion. Laboratory data such as the increase in total phospholipids, neutral lipids and free fatty acids in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, the remarkably high percentage of alveolar macrophages including fat droplets and the similar lipid composition of propofol and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid support the relationship between propofol and acute lung injury.

  10. Reflux and Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Eating Reflux and Lung Disease Reflux and Lung Disease Make an Appointment Ask a Question Find a Doctor Many people with chronic lung disease also suffer from gastroesophageal reflux (GERD). In this ...

  11. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Do I Stay Healthy Share this page: Nutrition for Lung Cancer Key Points There is no ... lung cancer symptoms, making them worse or better. Nutrition Goals Each person's nutritional needs during lung cancer ...

  12. Lung infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950304 The diagnosis and treatment of pulmonaryaspergilloma in the aged—a report of 17 cases.LI Di-anqin(李殿清),et al.Henan Provincial Pulmon DisHosp,Zhengzhou,450003.Chin J Geriatr 1994;13(6):338-339.Seventeen cases of pulmonary aspergilloma in theaged were reported.The primary diseases were pul-monary tuberculosis in 14 cases and pulmonary cyst,cancer of lung and pulmonary abscess in one each.In14 cases,the clinical manifestation was frequenthemoptysis;the occurrence rate was 82.4%.Among

  13. Interstitial lung disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease; Alveolitis; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis (IPP) ... The lungs contain tiny air sacs (alveoli), which is where oxygen is absorbed. These air sacs expand with each ...

  14. Strategies for lung regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Petersen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the limited ability of the adult lung to regenerate and the frequency of lung disease, the lung is a tissue that can especially benefit from regenerative medicine. Prospects for lung regeneration have made great strides in the past year. In this review, we summarize recent progress and key challenges for approaches in lung regenerative medicine. With a focus on the matrix components critical for the development of regenerative lung tissues, we discuss possible cell sources for lung regeneration, key matrix effects on cell repopulation, and physical stimuli that will aid in the growth of lung tissues in vitro.

  15. Modeling Airflow Using Subject-Specific 4DCT-Based Deformable Volumetric Lung Models

    OpenAIRE

    Olusegun J. Ilegbusi; Zhiliang Li; Behnaz Seyfi; Yugang Min; Sanford Meeks; Patrick Kupelian; Santhanam, Anand P.

    2012-01-01

    Lung radiotherapy is greatly benefitted when the tumor motion caused by breathing can be modeled. The aim of this paper is to present the importance of using anisotropic and subject-specific tissue elasticity for simulating the airflow inside the lungs. A computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) based approach is presented to simulate airflow inside a subject-specific deformable lung for modeling lung tumor motion and the motion of the surrounding tissues during radiotherapy. A flow-structure inter...

  16. Needle Biopsy of the Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Needle Biopsy of the Lung Needle biopsy of the lung ... Needle Biopsy of Lung Nodules? What is Needle Biopsy of the Lung? A lung nodule is relatively ...

  17. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  18. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are available to help. HELPFUL WEB SITES ON LUNG CANCER American Lung Association www.lung.org Lungcancer.org www.lungcancer.org Lung Cancer Alliance www.lungcanceralliance.org Lung Cancer Online www. ...

  19. Structural and functional lung disease in primary ciliary dyskinesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Santamaria (Francesca); S. Montella (Silvia); H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm); G. Guidi (Guido); V. Casotti (Valeria); M. Maglione (Marco); P.A. de Jong (Pim)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: High-resolution CT (HRCT) scan data on primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) related lung disease are scarce. Study objectives: We evaluated the lung disease in children and adults with PCD by a modified Brody composite HRCT scan score to assess the prevalence of the structural ab

  20. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  1. Release of beryllium into artificial airway epithelial lining fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A

    2012-01-01

    Inhaled beryllium particles that deposit in the lung airway lining fluid may dissolve and interact with immune-competent cells resulting in sensitization. As such, solubilization of 17 beryllium-containing materials (ore, hydroxide, metal, oxide, alloys, and process intermediates) was investigated using artificial human airway epithelial lining fluid. The maximum beryllium release in 7 days was 11.78% (from a beryl ore melter dust), although release from most materials was beryllium ions may be released in the respiratory tract via dissolution in airway lining fluid. Beryllium-containing particles that deposit in the respiratory tract dissolve in artificial lung epithelial lining fluid, thereby providing ions for absorption in the lung and interaction with immune-competent cells in the respiratory tract.

  2. Diagnostic value of combination detection of CEA,CYFR21-1,NSE in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for early lung cancer%肺泡灌洗液中 CEA 、CYFR21-1、NSE 联合检测对早期肺癌的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈元菁; 顾晔

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨肺泡灌洗液(BALF)中癌胚抗原(CEA)、细胞角蛋白19片段(CYFR)21‐1、神经元特异性烯醇化酶(NSE)联合检测对早期肺癌的诊断价值,以及其与临床疗效的相关性。方法69例肺癌患者纳入肺癌组,50例肺部良性疾病患者纳入肺良性疾病组。所有患者行肺泡灌洗术(BAL),采用化学发光免疫法检测 BALF 中 CEA 、CYFR21‐1、NSE 水平,比较2组患者及不同临床疗效肺癌患者肿瘤标志物水平的变化。结果肺癌组 BALF 中 CEA 、CYFR21‐1、NSE 水平明显高于肺良性疾病组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。Ⅱ期肺癌患者各肿瘤标志物水平均高于Ⅰ期患者,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);随着临床疗效的下降,CEA 、CYFR21‐1、NSE 水平逐渐升高(P <0.05);联合检测的灵敏度和特异度分别为62.3%、82.0%,明显高于 CEA 、CY‐FR21‐1、NSE 任一单项的灵敏度和特异度(P<0.05)。结论早期肺癌患者 BALF 中 CEA 、CYFR21‐1、NSE 水平明显升高,且与肺癌病理分期密切相关,联合检测有助于提高早期肺癌检出率及指导临床疗效评估。%Objective To explore the diagnostic value of combination detection of carcino‐embryonic antigen(CEA ) ,cytokeratin 19 fragment 21‐1(CYFR21‐1) ,neuron‐specific enolase(NSE) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for early lung cancer and its correlation with clinical effects .Methods 69 cases of lung cancer were included into the lung cancer group and 50 cases of benign pulmonary disease were included into the lung benign disease group .All the patients were given bronchoalveolar lavage(BAL) .The chemiluminescence immunoassay was adopted to detect the levels of CEA ,CYFR21‐1 and NSE in BALF .The changes of tumor markers levels were compared between the two groups and among different clinical curative effects in the patients with lung cancer . Results The

  3. 体外循环行肺动脉灌注液对术后肺功能的保护%Protection of Postoperative Lung Function by Cardiopulmonary Bypass Pulmonary Artery Perfusion Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宇; 康忠奎

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the protective effect of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) pulmonary perfusion on postoperative lung function. Methods Thirty patients receiving purely artificial mitral valve replacement surgery with CPB between January 2007 and April 2011 were randomly divided into the lung protection group and the control group with 15 patients in each. For patients in the lung protection group, pulmonary artery perfusion with hypothermic protective solution during the CPB period was performed, while patients in the control group received no protective solution. Then, we monitored respiratory index (RJ), oxygenation index (01), IL-6, and TNF-a after induction of anesthesia, 10 minutes after aortic cross-clamping, and 10 minutes, 2 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours after aortic opening, and preoperative and postoperative pulmonary artery pressure (PAPm), static lung compliance (CLS), and airway resistance (AR). Furthermore, we compared the ICU caring time, postoperative ventilation time, hospital stay and the presence of postoperative complications between the two groups. Results IL-6, TNF-a, RJ, OI, PAPm, AR, and CLS between the two group of patients had significant differences (P 0.05). Conclusion Pulmonary arterial perfusion during CPB has a protective effect on postoperative pulmonary function.%目的 探讨体外循环(CPB)期间行肺动脉灌注液对术后肺功能的保护作用.方法 2007年1月-2011年4月30例在CPB下行单纯二尖瓣人工机械瓣置换术患者,随机分成肺保护组和对照组各15例,肺保护组患者CPB期间经肺动脉灌注低温肺保护液,对照组患者CPB期间未经肺动脉灌注低温肺保护液.监测两组患者在麻醉诱导后、阻断主动脉10 mm及开放主动脉10 min,2、12、24 h各时间点的呼吸指数(RI)、氧合指数(OI)、白介素6 (IL-6)、肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)及术前、术后肺动脉压力(PAPm)、静态肺顺应性(CLS)、气道阻力(AR)变化,并比较术后ICU监护时间、术

  4. Resolution propositions; Proposition de resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    To put a resolution to the meeting in relation with the use of weapons made of depleted uranium is the purpose of this text. The situation of the use of depleted uranium by France during the Gulf war and other recent conflicts will be established. This resolution will give the most strict recommendations face to the eventual sanitary and environmental risks in the use of these kind of weapons. (N.C.)

  5. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and scarring make it hard to ... air is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among ...

  6. Lung gallium scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallium 67 lung scan; Lung scan; Gallium scan - lung; Scan - lung ... Gallium is injected into a vein. The scan will be taken 6 to 24 hours after the gallium is injected. (Test time depends on whether your condition is acute or chronic .) ...

  7. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Pleural Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Pleural Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pericardial Fluid Analysis , Peritoneal Fluid Analysis , ...

  8. Lung hyperinflation: foe or friend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichinger, M; Walterspacher, S; Scholz, T; Tetzlaff, K; Röcker, K; Muth, C-M; Puderbach, M; Kauczor, H-U; Sorichter, S

    2008-10-01

    Breath-hold divers employ glossopharyngeal insufflation (GI) in order to prevent the lungs from compressing at great depth and to increase intrapulmonary oxygen stores, thus increasing breath-hold time. The presented case study shows the physiological data and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) findings of acute hyperinflation, deliberately induced by GI, in a breath-hold diver and discusses the current state of knowledge regarding the associated hazards of this unique competitive sport. Static and dynamic lung volumes and expiratory flows were within the normal range, with vital capacity and peak expiratory flow being higher than the predicted values. Airway resistance and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide were normal. Static compliance was normal and increased five-fold with hyperinflation. dMRI revealed a preserved shape of the thorax and diaphragm with hyperinflation. A herniation of the lung beneath the sternum and enlargement of the costodiaphragmatic angle were additional findings during the GI manoeuvre. After expiration, complete resolution to baseline was demonstrated. Hyperinflation can be physiological and even protective under abnormal physical conditions in the sense of acute adaptation to deep breath-hold diving. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging is adequate for visualisation of the sequence of the glossopharyngeal insufflation manoeuvre and the complete reversibility of deliberate hyperinflation.

  9. Toxoplasmosis complicating lung cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu NH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nianhong Lu, Caihong Liu, Jiangyuan Wang, Ying Ding, Qing Ai Department of Clinical Laboratory, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Toxoplasmosis complicating lung cancer has been described only rarely. Here, we report a case of acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in a patient with squamous lung cancer. A 64-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a history of cough of 6 months' duration and chest pain of 1 week’s duration. Further examination revealed multiple swollen lymph nodes, palpable on the top of the right collarbone and without tenderness. The chest X-ray, bronchoscopy, and computed tomography scan confirmed squamous carcinoma of the right lung. The Wright-stained bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid cytology diagnosis was positive for T. gondii and tachyzoites were detected. All of them were of free type (ectocytic, without intracellular parasites. Serological examination revealed that the anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin (Ig M and IgG antibodies were positive. Unfortunately the patient did not continue treatment and was lost to follow-up. Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening opportunistic infection in patients with lung cancer. Prompt recognition of T. gondii infection among cancer patients with subsequent targeted treatment of toxoplasmosis could help alleviate symptoms and improve survival. Keywords: lung cancer, Toxoplasma gondii, bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid, tachyzoite

  10. Percutaneous catheter drainage of intrapulmonary fluid collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, E. D.; Kim, H. J.; Choi, P. Y.; Jung, S. H. [Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-01-15

    With the success of percutaneous abdominal abscess drainage, attention is now being focused on the use of similar techniques in the thorax. We studied to evaluate the effect of percutaneous drainage in parenchymal fluid collections in the lungs. We performed percutaneous drainage of abscesses and other parenchymal fluid collections of the lungs in 15 patients. All of the procedures were performed under the fluoroscopic guidance with an 18-gauge Seldinger needle and coaxial technique with a 8-10F drainage catheter. Among 10 patients with lung abscess, 8 patients improved by percutaneous catheter drainage. In one patient, drainage was failed by the accidental withdrawal of the catheter before complete drainage. One patient died of sepsis 5 hours after the procedure. Among three patients with complicated bulla, successful drainage was done in two patients, but in the remaining patient, the procedure was failed. In one patient with intrapulmonary bronchogenic cyst, the drainage was not successful due to the thick internal contents. In one patient with traumatic hematoma, after the drainage of old blood clots, the signs of infection disappeared. Overally, of 14 patients excluding one who died, 11 patients improved with percutaneous catheter drainage and three patients did not. There were no major complications during and after the procedure. We conclude that percutaneous catheter drainage is effective and safe procedure for the treatment of parenchymal fluid collections of the lung in patients unresponsive to the medical treatment.

  11. The method and efficacy of support vector machine classifiers based on texture features and multi-resolution histogram from {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT images for the evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xuan [Center of PET/CT, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, The Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China); Chu, Chunyu [HIT–INSA Sino French Research Centre for Biomedical Imaging, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Li, Yingci; Lu, Peiou; Wang, Wenzhi [Center of PET/CT, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, The Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China); Liu, Wanyu [HIT–INSA Sino French Research Centre for Biomedical Imaging, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Yu, Lijuan, E-mail: yulijuan2003@126.com [Center of PET/CT, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, The Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Three support vector machine classifiers were constructed from PET-CT images. • The areas under the ROC curve for SVM1, SVM2, and SVM3 were 0.689, 0.579, and 0.685, respectively. • The areas under curves for maximum short diameter and SUV{sub max} were 0.684 and 0.652, respectively. • The algorithm based on SVM was potential in the diagnosis of mediastinal lymph nodes. - Abstract: Objectives: In clinical practice, image analysis is dependent on simply visual perception and the diagnostic efficacy of this analysis pattern is limited for mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with lung cancer. In order to improve diagnostic efficacy, we developed a new computer-based algorithm and tested its diagnostic efficacy. Methods: 132 consecutive patients with lung cancer underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT examination before treatment. After all data were imported into the database of an on-line medical image analysis platform, the diagnostic efficacy of visual analysis was first evaluated without knowing pathological results, and the maximum short diameter and maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) were measured. Then lymph nodes were segmented manually. Three classifiers based on support vector machine (SVM) were constructed from CT, PET, and combined PET-CT images, respectively. The diagnostic efficacy of SVM classifiers was obtained and evaluated. Results: According to ROC curves, the areas under curves for maximum short diameter and SUV{sub max} were 0.684 and 0.652, respectively. The areas under the ROC curve for SVM1, SVM2, and SVM3 were 0.689, 0.579, and 0.685, respectively. Conclusion: The algorithm based on SVM was potential in the diagnosis of mediastinal lymph nodes.

  12. Viscous fingering with partial miscible fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaojing; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; Juanes, Ruben

    2015-11-01

    When a less viscous fluid displaces a more viscous fluid, the contrast in viscosity destabilizes the interface between the two fluids, leading to the formation of fingers. Studies of viscous fingering have focused on fluids that are either fully miscible or perfectly immiscible. In practice, however, the miscibility of two fluids can change appreciably with temperature and pressure, and often falls into the case of partial miscibility, where two fluids have limited solubility in each other. Following our recent work for miscible (Jha et al., PRL 2011, 2013) and immiscible systems (Cueto-Felgueroso and Juanes, PRL 2012, JFM 2014), here we propose a phase-field model for fluid-fluid displacements in a Hele-Shaw cell, when the two fluids have limited (but nonzero) solubility in one another. Partial miscibility is characterized through the design of thermodynamic free energy of the two-fluid system. We elucidate the key dimensionless groups that control the behavior of the system. We present high-resolution numerical simulations of the model applied to the viscous fingering problem. On one hand, we demonstrate the effect of partial miscibility on the hydrodynamic instability. On the other, we elucidate the role of the degree of fingering on the rate of mutual fluid dissolution.

  13. Conflict Resolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and shift the focus more to the social impact of growth ana away from growth .... Perspectives on, and approaches towards, conflict and conflict resolution .... transformation, and changes in values and ethical approaches (such as nepotism ... education, life expectancy, employment, childbirth survival and similar indica-.

  14. Acute lung injury after instillation of human breast milk or infant formula into rabbits' lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, B; Lerman, J; Endo, J; Cutz, E

    1996-06-01

    Recent interest in shortening the fasting interval after ingestion of milk products demonstrated large volumes of breast milk in the stomach 2 h after breastfeeding. Although aspiration is a rare event, if it were to occur with human breast milk, it is important to understand the extent of the lung injury that might occur. Therefore, the response to instillation of acidified breast milk and infant formula in the lungs of adult rabbits was studied. In 18 anesthetized adult rabbits, 1 of 3 fluids (in a volume of 0.8 ml.kg-1 and pH level of 1.8, acidified with hydrochloric acid); saline, breast milk, or infant formula (SMA, Wyeth, Windsor, Ontario), was instilled into the lungs via a tracheotomy. The lungs were ventilated for 4 h after instillation. Alveolar-to-arterial oxygen gradient and dynamic compliance were measured before and at hourly intervals after instillation. After 4 h, the rabbits were killed and the lungs were excised. Neutrophil infiltration was quantitated by a pathologist blinded to the instilled fluid. A histologic control group of four rabbits was ventilated under study conditions without any intratracheal fluid instillation. Alveolar-to-arterial oxygen gradient increased and dynamic compliance decreased significantly during the 4 h after instillation of both breast milk and infant formula compared with baseline measurements and with saline controls (P formula rabbits were significantly greater than those in the control group. Instillation of acidified breast milk or infant formula (in a volume of 0.8 ml.kg-1 and pH level of 1.8) into rabbits' lungs induces acute lung injury of similar intensity that lasts at least 4 h.

  15. Effects of resolvin D1 on inflammatory responses and oxidative stress of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei; Yuan Ruixia; Yao Chengyue; Wu Qingping; Marie Christelle; Xie Wanli; Zhang Xingcai

    2014-01-01

    Background A variety of inflammatory mediators and effector cells participate together in acute lung injury,and lead to secondary injury that is due to an inflammatory cascade and secondary diffuse lung parenchyma injury.Inflammation is associated with an oxidative stress reaction,which is produced in the development of airway inflammation,and which has positive feedback on inflammation itself.Resolvin D1 can reduce the infiltration of neutrophils,regulate cytokine levels and reduce the inflammation reaction,and thereby promote the resolution of inflammation.The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of resolvin D1 on an inflammatory response and oxidative stress during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury.Methods LPS (3 mg/kg) was used to induce the acute lung injury model.Pretreatment resolvin D1 (100 ng/mouse) was given to mice 30 minutes before inducing acute lung injury.Mice were observed at 6 hours,12 hours,1 day,2 days,3 days,4 days and 7 days after LPS was administrated,then they were humanely sacrificed.We collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the lung tissues for further analysis.Paraffin section and HE staining of the lung tissues were made for histopathology observations.Parts of the lung tissues were evaluated for wet-to-dry (W/D) weight ratio.tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α,inter leukin (IL)-1β,IL-10 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).A lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA) assay kit was used to detect MDA.A total superoxide dismutase assay kit with WST-1 was used to analyze superoxide dismutase (SOD).We determined the apoptosis of neutrophils by Flow Cytometry.A real-time quantitative PCR Detecting System detected the expression of mRNA for heme oxygenase (HO)-1.Results Pretreatment with resolvin D1 reduced the pathological damage in the lung,decreased the recruitment of neutrophils and stimulated their apoptosis.It markedly decreased the expressions of TNF

  16. Procoagulant, tissue factor-bearing microparticles in bronchoalveolar lavage of interstitial lung disease patients: an observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Novelli

    Full Text Available Coagulation factor Xa appears involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Through its interaction with protease activated receptor-1, this protease signals myofibroblast differentiation in lung fibroblasts. Although fibrogenic stimuli induce factor X synthesis by alveolar cells, the mechanisms of local posttranslational factor X activation are not fully understood. Cell-derived microparticles are submicron vesicles involved in different physiological processes, including blood coagulation; they potentially activate factor X due to the exposure on their outer membrane of both phosphatidylserine and tissue factor. We postulated a role for procoagulant microparticles in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung diseases. Nineteen patients with interstitial lung diseases and 11 controls were studied. All subjects underwent bronchoalveolar lavage; interstitial lung disease patients also underwent pulmonary function tests and high resolution CT scan. Microparticles were enumerated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid with a solid-phase assay based on thrombin generation. Microparticles were also tested for tissue factor activity. In vitro shedding of microparticles upon incubation with H₂O₂ was assessed in the human alveolar cell line, A549 and in normal bronchial epithelial cells. Tissue factor synthesis was quantitated by real-time PCR. Total microparticle number and microparticle-associated tissue factor activity were increased in interstitial lung disease patients compared to controls (84±8 vs. 39±3 nM phosphatidylserine; 293±37 vs. 105±21 arbitrary units of tissue factor activity; mean±SEM; p<.05 for both comparisons. Microparticle-bound tissue factor activity was inversely correlated with lung function as assessed by both diffusion capacity and forced vital capacity (r² = .27 and .31, respectively; p<.05 for both correlations. Exposure of lung epithelial cells to H₂O₂ caused an increase in microparticle-bound tissue factor

  17. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia prevents absorption of distal air space fluid in late-gestation rat fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Hans G; Chapin, Cheryl J; Beard, Lamonta L; Ertsey, Robert; Matthay, Michael A; Kitterman, Joseph A

    2006-03-01

    We hypothesized that congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) may decrease distal air space fluid absorption due to immaturity of alveolar epithelial cells from a loss of the normal epithelial Na+ transport, as assessed by amiloride and epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) and Na-K-ATPase expression, as well as failure to respond to endogenous epinephrine as assessed by propranolol. Timed-pregnant dams were gavage fed 100 mg of nitrofen at 9.5-day gestation to induce CDH in the fetuses, and distal air space fluid absorption experiments were carried out on 22-day gestation (term) fetuses. Controls were nitrofen-exposed fetuses without CDH. Absorption of distal air space fluid was measured from the increase in 131I-albumin concentration in an isosmolar, physiological solution instilled into the developing lungs. In controls, distal air space fluid absorption was rapid and mediated by beta-adrenoceptors as demonstrated by reversal to fluid secretion after propranolol. Normal lung fluid absorption was also partially inhibited by amiloride. In contrast, CDH fetuses continued to show lung fluid secretion, and this secretion was not affected by either propranolol or amiloride. CDH lungs showed a 67% reduction in alpha-ENaC and beta-ENaC expression, but no change in alpha1-Na-K-ATPase expression. These studies demonstrate: 1) CDH delays lung maturation with impaired distal air space fluid absorption secondary to inadequate Na+ uptake by the distal lung epithelium that results in fluid-filled lungs at birth with reduced capacity to establish postnatal breathing, and 2) the main stimulus to lung fluid absorption in near-term control fetuses, elevated endogenous epinephrine levels, is not functional in CDH fetuses.

  18. Constraints of gas venting activity for the interstitial water geochemistry at the shallow gas hydrate site, eastern margin of the Japan Sea; results from high resolution time-series fluid sampling by OsmoSampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owari, S.; Tomaru, H.; Matsumoto, R.

    2016-12-01

    We have conducted ROV researches in the eastern margin of the Japan Sea where active gas venting and outcropping of gas hydrates were observed near the seafloor and have found the strength and location of venting had changed within a few days. These observations indicate the seafloor environments with the shallow gas hydrate system could have changed for short period compared to a geological time scale. We have applied a long-term osmotic fluid sampling system "OsmoSampler" on the active gas hydrate system for one year in order to document how the gas venting and gas hydrate activity have changed the geochemical environments near the seafloor. All the major ion concentrations in the interstitial water show synchronous increase and decrease repeatedly in three to five days, reflecting the incorporation and release of fresh water in gas hydrates in response to the gas concentration change near the sampling site. Dissolved methane concentration increases rapidly and excessively (over several mM) in the first 40 days corresponding to the active gas venting. The increases of methane concentration are often associated with high ion concentration during high water pressure period, indicating excess gas release from shallow gas pockets. Contrarily, enhanced gas hydrate growth may plug the fluid-gas paths in shallow sediment, reducing gas hydrate formation due to the decrease of methane flux. This study was conducted under the commission from AIST as a part of the methane hydrate research project funded by METI (the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Japan).

  19. Functional vascularized lung grafts for lung bioengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrello, N. Valerio; Guenthart, Brandon A.; O’Neill, John D.; Kim, Jinho; Cunningham, Katherine; Chen, Ya-Wen; Biscotti, Mauer; Swayne, Theresa; Wobma, Holly M.; Huang, Sarah X. L.; Snoeck, Hans-Willem; Bacchetta, Matthew; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2017-01-01

    End-stage lung disease is the third leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 400,000 deaths per year in the United States alone. To reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with lung disease, new therapeutic strategies aimed at promoting lung repair and increasing the number of donor lungs available for transplantation are being explored. Because of the extreme complexity of this organ, previous attempts at bioengineering functional lungs from fully decellularized or synthetic scaffolds lacking functional vasculature have been largely unsuccessful. An intact vascular network is critical not only for maintaining the blood-gas barrier and allowing for proper graft function but also for supporting the regenerative cells. We therefore developed an airway-specific approach to removing the pulmonary epithelium, while maintaining the viability and function of the vascular endothelium, using a rat model. The resulting vascularized lung grafts supported the attachment and growth of human adult pulmonary cells and stem cell–derived lung-specified epithelial cells. We propose that de-epithelialization of the lung with preservation of intact vasculature could facilitate cell therapy of pulmonary epithelium and enable bioengineering of functional lungs for transplantation. PMID:28875163

  20. Automatic system for quantification and visualization of lung aeration on chest computed tomography images: the Lung Image System Analysis - LISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, John Hebert da Silva; Cortez, Paulo Cesar, E-mail: jhsfelix@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Teleinformatica; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Walter Cantidio. Dept. de Medicina Clinica

    2010-12-15

    High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is the exam of choice for the diagnostic evaluation of lung parenchyma diseases. There is an increasing interest for computational systems able to automatically analyze the radiological densities of the lungs in CT images. The main objective of this study is to present a system for the automatic quantification and visualization of the lung aeration in HRCT images of different degrees of aeration, called Lung Image System Analysis (LISA). The secondary objective is to compare LISA to the Osiris system and also to specific algorithm lung segmentation (ALS), on the accuracy of the lungs segmentation. The LISA system automatically extracts the following image attributes: lungs perimeter, cross sectional area, volume, the radiological densities histograms, the mean lung density (MLD) in Hounsfield units (HU), the relative area of the lungs with voxels with density values lower than -950 HU (RA950) and the 15th percentile of the least density voxels (PERC15). Furthermore, LISA has a colored mask algorithm that applies pseudo-colors to the lung parenchyma according to the pre-defined radiological density chosen by the system user. The lungs segmentations of 102 images of 8 healthy volunteers and 141 images of 11 patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were compared on the accuracy and concordance among the three methods. The LISA was more effective on lungs segmentation than the other two methods. LISA's color mask tool improves the spatial visualization of the degrees of lung aeration and the various attributes of the image that can be extracted may help physicians and researchers to better assess lung aeration both quantitatively and qualitatively. LISA may have important clinical and research applications on the assessment of global and regional lung aeration and therefore deserves further developments and validation studies. (author)

  1. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neoplasm of lung malignant tumor of lung pulmonary cancer pulmonary carcinoma pulmonary neoplasms respiratory carcinoma Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes named? Additional Information & Resources ... Encyclopedia: Lung Cancer--Non-Small Cell Encyclopedia: Lung Cancer--Small Cell ...

  3. Lung problems and volcanic smog

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... releases gases into the atmosphere. Volcanic smog can irritate the lungs and make existing lung problems worse. ... deep into the lungs. Breathing in volcanic smog irritates the lungs and mucus membranes. It can affect ...

  4. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... even smaller tubes called bronchioles. Bronchioles end in tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide actually takes place. Each lung houses about 300-400 million alveoli. The lungs also ...

  5. American Lung Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Washington DC West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Impacted by Hurricane Harvey? We're here to help. Call our Lung ... more events Latest News Protecting Your Health After Hurricane Harvey August 31, 2017 For Download: Keeping Your Lungs ...

  6. Heart-lung transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, Bartley P.; Magliato, Kathy E.

    2014-01-01

    Heart-lung transplantation itself is not a particularly difficult operation technically. It is the setting in which this procedure is performed which is difficult. The three issues of importance in a successful outcome are appropriate harvest of the heart-lung bloc from the donor, careful explant of the heart and lungs of the recipient, and finally the implant of the heart-lung bloc into the recipient. None of this requires extraordinary technical skill, but does require careful coordination ...

  7. Association between fluid intake during the first ten days of life and risk of chronic lung disease in very low birth weight infants%极低出生体重儿生后10天液体入量与慢性肺疾病的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张谦慎; 朱小瑜; 连朝辉

    2008-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the association between fluid intake and sodium intake during the first 10 days of life and the risk of chronic lung disease (CLD) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.Methods A retrospective analysis of data from VLBW infants enrolled in the Neonatal Department of our hospital; 130 infants with birth weight between 790 and 1 470 g were randomized, among which 12 infants was diagnosised CLD. The daily fluid intake and sodium intake during the first 10 days of life were compared between the infants without CLD and those who developed CLD. Demographic and clinical neonatal variables were also compared. Results 118 infants survived without CLD and 12 infants developed CLD. Analysis showed that the daily fluid intakes were higher (day 2~10) and weight loss less (day 6~9) in the group of infants who developed CLD. In addition, the daily sodium intakes were also higher (day 2~6) in infants who developed CLD. Conclusion In the VLBW infants treated during the post surfactant era, higher fluid or sodi-um intake during the first 10 days of life were associated with an increased risk of CLD. The finding suggests that careful attention to fluid balance might be an important means to reduce the incidence of CLD.%目的 评估极低出生体重儿(VLBW)生后前10 d液体和钠摄入量与发生慢性肺疾病(CLD)的风险性.方法 回顾性分析我院新生儿科住院的130例VLBW的资料,比较无CLD的存活早产儿和患有CLD的新生儿在生后前10 d每天液体和钠摄入量和体重下降的情况.同时比较临床表现方面的变量.结果 无CLD的存活新生儿118例,患有CLD的新生儿12例.单变量分析显示发生CLD的新生儿组每日液体摄入量更高(第2~10d),体重下降更少(第6~9d).CLD组钠的摄入量更高(第2~6 d).除此之外,出生体重较低、胎龄较小、男孩、较长时间的辅助通气等都与CLD的发生率较高相关.结论 VLBW新生儿生后前10 d较高的液体、钠

  8. Unary resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubert, Clément; Bagnol, Marc; Seiller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    of the cut-elimination procedure of linear logic known as the geometry of interaction . This framework is restricted to terms (logic programs, rewriting rules) using only unary symbols, and this restriction is shown to be complete for polynomial time computation by encoding pushdown automata. Soundness w......We give a characterization of deterministic polynomial time computation based on an algebraic structure called the resolution semiring, whose elements can be understood as logic programs or sets of rewriting rules over first-order terms. This construction stems from an interactive interpretation...

  9. Amniotic Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the presence of adequate protective liquid substances called surfactants in the lungs, which are necessary for proper lung function. If there are insufficient surfactants, a newborn may develop life-threatening neonatal respiratory ...

  10. Lung involvement in systemic connective tissue diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavec Goran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Systemic connective tissue diseases (SCTD are chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorders of unknown cause that can involve different organs and systems. Their course and prognosis are different. All of them can, more or less, involve the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to find out the frequency of respiratory symptoms, lung function disorders, radiography and high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT abnormalities, and their correlation with the duration of the disease and the applied treatment. Methods. In 47 non-randomized consecutive patients standard chest radiography, HRCT, and lung function tests were done. Results. Hypoxemia was present in nine of the patients with respiratory symptoms (20%. In all of them chest radiography was normal. In five of these patients lung fibrosis was established using HRCT. Half of all the patients with SCTD had symptoms of lung involvement. Lung function tests disorders of various degrees were found in 40% of the patients. The outcome and the degree of lung function disorders were neither in correlation with the duration of SCTD nor with therapy used (p > 0.05 Spearmans Ro. Conclusion. Pulmonary fibrosis occurs in about 10% of the patients with SCTD, and possibly not due to the applied treatment regimens. Hypoxemia could be a sing of existing pulmonary fibrosis in the absence of disorders on standard chest radiography.

  11. Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0161 TITLE: Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Avrum E. Spira...W81XWH-11-2-0161 Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0161 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...bodily fluids, which may be used for the early detection of lung cancer among military personnel and veterans. Over the course of the fifth year of

  12. Avaliação da maturidade pulmonar fetal pela contagem dos corpos lamelares no líquido amniótico Evaluation of fetal lung maturity by lamellar bodies counting in amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Maykot Kuerten Gil

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar o teste de contagem de corpos lamelares (CCL no líquido amniótico com o teste da polarização fluorescente (PF como parâmetro diagnóstico para avaliação da maturidade pulmonar fetal. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, analítico e controlado realizado com 60 gestantes atendidas no período de março de 2002 a dezembro de 2007. Foram colhidas amostras de líquido amniótico e realizados os testes de CCL e PF (TDxFLM II, considerados de referência, e comparados à presença ou ausência da Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório (SDR. Foram estabelecidos valores de corte para maturidade de 30 mil corpos lamelares/µL para o teste da CCL e 55 mg/g de albumina para o PF. Foram avaliadas as características maternas e perinatais, a evolução neonatal e o desempenho dos testes diagnósticos para predição da maturidade pulmonar fetal. Na análise estatística, foram utilizadas medidas descritivas e calculados os valores referentes à sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e negativo dos testes, considerando-se significativos valores de pPURPOSE: to compare the lamellar body number density (LBND count in amniotic fluid using the fluorescent polarization (FP test as a diagnostic parameter for the assessment of fetal pulmonary maturity. METHOD: this was an analytical, controlled cross-sectional study conducted on 60 pregnant women from March 2002 to December 2007. Amniotic fluid specimens were obtained by amniocentesis or at the time of caesarean section, and submitted to the LBND and FP tests (TDxFLM®, Abbott Laboratories, the latter considered to be a reference test, and compared in terms of the presence or absence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. Cut-off values for maturity were established at 30,000 lamellar bodies/µL for the LBND test and 55 mg/g albumin for the FP test. Maternal and perinatal characteristics and neonatal evolution were evaluated, and the performance of the diagnostic tests regarding

  13. Lung Contusion: A Clinico-Pathological Entity with Unpredictable Clinical Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganie, Farooq Ahmad; Lone, Hafeezulla; Lone, Ghulam Nabi; Wani, Mohd Lateef; Singh, Shyam; Dar, Abdual Majeed; Wani, Nasir-U-Din; Wani, Shadab Nabi; Nazeer, Nadeem-Ul

    2013-01-01

    Lung contusion is an entity involving injury to the alveolar capillaries, without any tear or cut in the lung tissue. This results in accumulation of blood and other fluids within the lung tissue. The excess fluid interferes with gas exchange leading to hypoxia. The pathophysiology of lung contusion includes ventilation/perfusion mismatching, increased intrapulmonary shunting, increased lung water, segmental lung damage, and a loss of compliance. Clinically, patient's presents with hypoxiemia, hypercarbia and increase in laboured breathing. Patients are treated with supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation whenever indicated. Treatment is primarily supportive. Computed tomography (CT) is very sensitive for diagnosing pulmonary contusion. Pulmonary contusion occurs in 25-35% of all blunt chest traumas.

  14. Rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown KK

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Joshua J Solomon, Kevin K BrownAutoimmune Lung Center and Interstitial Lung Disease Program, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, USAAbstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a systemic inflammatory disorder affecting 1% of the US population. Patients can have extra-articular manifestations of their disease and the lungs are commonly involved. RA can affect any compartment of the respiratory system and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT of the lung is abnormal in over half of these patients. Interstitial lung disease is a dreaded complication of RA. It is more prevalent in smokers, males, and those with high antibody titers. The pathogenesis is unknown but data suggest an environmental insult in the setting of a genetic predisposition. Smoking may play a role in the pathogenesis of disease through citrullination of protein in the lung leading to the development of autoimmunity. Patients usually present in middle age with cough and dyspnea. Pulmonary function testing most commonly shows reduced diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide and HRCT reveals a combination of reticulation and ground glass abnormalities. The most common pattern on HRCT and histopathology is usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP, with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia seen less frequently. There are no large-scale well-controlled treatment trials. In severe or progressive cases, treatment usually consists of corticosteroids with or without a cytotoxic agent for 6 months or longer. RA interstitial lung disease is progressive; over half of patients show radiographic progression within 2 years. Patients with a UIP pattern on biopsy have a survival similar to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, interstitial lung disease, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, usual interstitial pneumonia, anti-CCP

  15. Gap Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-25

    Gap Resolution is a software package that was developed to improve Newbler genome assemblies by automating the closure of sequence gaps caused by repetitive regions in the DNA. This is done by performing the follow steps:1) Identify and distribute the data for each gap in sub-projects. 2) Assemble the data associated with each sub-project using a secondary assembler, such as Newbler or PGA. 3) Determine if any gaps are closed after reassembly, and either design fakes (consensus of closed gap) for those that closed or lab experiments for those that require additional data. The software requires as input a genome assembly produce by the Newbler assembler provided by Roche and 454 data containing paired-end reads.

  16. Alveolar fluid reabsorbtion in acute and chronic hypertension in left sided heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Gembardt, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    The results of this work provide novel insights into the pathophysiology of hydrostatic pulmonary edema and thus, open new avenues for its treatment by innovative therapeutic strategies. Traditionally, the formation of hydrostatic lung edema has been exclusively attributed to an increase in capillary fluid filtration. Yet, recent investigations suggested an additional impact of impaired alveolar fluid reabsorption on the pathogenesis of pressure-induced hydrostatic lung edema. Alveolar ...

  17. Mass preserving image registration for lung CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a mass preserving image registration algorithm for lung CT images. To account for the local change in lung tissue intensity during the breathing cycle, a tissue appearance model based on the principle of preservation of total lung mass is proposed. This model is incorporated...... into a standard image registration framework with a composition of a global affine and several free-form B-Spline transformations with increasing grid resolution. The proposed mass preserving registration method is compared to registration using the sum of squared intensity differences as a similarity function...... inhale phases of 4D-CT images. Registration errors, measured as the average distance between vessel tree centerlines in the matched images, are significantly lower for the proposed mass preserving image registration method in the second, third and fourth group, while there is no statistically significant...

  18. Assessing resolution in super-resolution imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmerle, Justin; Wegel, Eva; Schermelleh, Lothar; Dobbie, Ian M

    2015-10-15

    Resolution is a central concept in all imaging fields, and particularly in optical microscopy, but it can be easily misinterpreted. The mathematical definition of optical resolution was codified by Abbe, and practically defined by the Rayleigh Criterion in the late 19th century. The limit of conventional resolution was also achieved in this period, and it was thought that fundamental constraints of physics prevented further increases in resolution. With the recent development of a range of super-resolution techniques, it is necessary to revisit the concept of optical resolution. Fundamental differences in super-resolution modalities mean that resolution is not a directly transferrable metric between techniques. This article considers the issues in resolution raised by these new technologies, and presents approaches for comparing resolution between different super-resolution methods.

  19. Effect of Shengmai injection on extravascular lung water and related factors at early fluid resuscitation stage of septic shock%生脉注射液对脓毒性休克早期液体复苏血管外肺水及相关因素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵滋苗; 陆军; 丁月平; 马丹女

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Shengmai injection on extravacular lung water and related factors at the early fluid resuscitation stage of septic shock. Methods Thirty-eight patients with septic shock were randomly assigned to the treatment group(n=20) and the control group(n=18). Patients received basic treatment combined with fluid resuscitation until the central venous pressure (CVP) reached ≥8mmHg. Patients in treatment group additional y received Shengmai injection. The hemodynamic indices, including extra-vascular lung water index(EVLWI), CVP, cardiac index(CI), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI), intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBVI) and oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) were monitored at baseline(T0), 6(T6), 12(T12) and 24h(T24) after ending fluid resuscitation, and the 28d mortality was also observed. Results Compared with the control group, CI, GEDVI and PaO2/FiO2 increased significantly at T6,T12 and T24, while EVLWI and 28d mortality was decreased in the treatment group ( P0.05). Conclusion On the basis of the fluid resuscitation and basic treatment Shengmai injection can further improve CI, GEDVI, ITBVI and PaO2/FiO2, decrease EVLWI and 28-d mortality, but showed no effect on CVP or SVRI at the early fluid resuscitation stage of septic shock.%  目的探讨生脉注射液对脓毒性休克早期液体复苏患者血管外肺水及相关因素的影响。方法选取38例感染性休克患者(生脉组20例,对照组18例),两组患者均以液体复苏至患者中心静脉压(CVP)≥8mmHg作为复苏终点,并施以内科基础治疗。生脉组同时加用生脉注射液80ml,用5%葡萄糖注射液250ml稀释,1次/d。通过脉搏轮廓曲线连续心排血量监测技术监测两组患者液体复苏结束后即刻(T0)、6h(T6)、12h(T12)、24h(T24)的血管外肺水指数(EVLWI)、CVP、心排血指数(CI)、外周血管阻力指数(SVRI)、

  20. Parallel plasma fluid turbulence calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leboeuf, J.N.; Carreras, B.A.; Charlton, L.A.; Drake, J.B.; Lynch, V.E.; Newman, D.E.; Sidikman, K.L.; Spong, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    The study of plasma turbulence and transport is a complex problem of critical importance for fusion-relevant plasmas. To this day, the fluid treatment of plasma dynamics is the best approach to realistic physics at the high resolution required for certain experimentally relevant calculations. Core and edge turbulence in a magnetic fusion device have been modeled using state-of-the-art, nonlinear, three-dimensional, initial-value fluid and gyrofluid codes. Parallel implementation of these models on diverse platforms--vector parallel (National Energy Research Supercomputer Center`s CRAY Y-MP C90), massively parallel (Intel Paragon XP/S 35), and serial parallel (clusters of high-performance workstations using the Parallel Virtual Machine protocol)--offers a variety of paths to high resolution and significant improvements in real-time efficiency, each with its own advantages. The largest and most efficient calculations have been performed at the 200 Mword memory limit on the C90 in dedicated mode, where an overlap of 12 to 13 out of a maximum of 16 processors has been achieved with a gyrofluid model of core fluctuations. The richness of the physics captured by these calculations is commensurate with the increased resolution and efficiency and is limited only by the ingenuity brought to the analysis of the massive amounts of data generated.

  1. Suppression of lung inflammation in an LPS-induced acute lung injury model by the fruit hull of Gleditsia sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyun Ha; Kwun, Min Jung; Han, Chang Woo; Ha, Ki-Tae; Choi, Jun-Yong; Joo, Myungsoo

    2014-10-15

    The fruit hull of Gleditsia sinensis (FGS) used in traditional Asian medicine was reported to have a preventive effect on lung inflammation in an acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. Here, we explored FGS as a possible therapeutics against inflammatory lung diseases including ALI, and examined an underlying mechanism for the effect of FGS. The decoction of FGS in water was prepared and fingerprinted. Mice received an intra-tracheal (i.t.) FGS 2 h after an intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The effect of FGS on lung inflammation was determined by chest imaging of NF-κB reporter mice, counting inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, analyzing lung histology, and performing semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of lung tissue. Impact of Nrf2 on FGS effect was assessed by comparing Nrf2 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice that were treated similarly. Bioluminescence from the chest of the reporter mice was progressively increased to a peak at 16 h after an i.p. LPS treatment. FGS treatment 2 h after LPS reduced the bioluminescence and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes in the lung. While suppressing the infiltration of inflammatory cells to the lungs of WT mice, FGS post-treatment failed to reduce lung inflammation in Nrf2 KO mice. FGS activated Nrf2 and induced Nrf2-dependent gene expression in mouse lung. FGS post-treatment suppressed lung inflammation in an LPS-induced ALI mouse model, which was mediated at least in part by Nrf2. Our results suggest a therapeutic potential of FGS on inflammatory lung diseases.

  2. Auxillary Fluid Flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Ebrahimi Darkhaneh, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    and with measuring its travel time between two different positions, its velocity could be calculated. Given the velocity of the auxiliary fluid, the velocity of the main fluid could be calculated. Using this technique, it is possible to measure the velocity of any kind of fluids, if an appropriate auxiliary fluid...

  3. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  4. Videotapes and Movies on Fluid Dynamics and Fluid Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Bobbie; Young, Virginia E.

    1996-01-01

    Chapter 17 of Handbook of Fluid Dynamics and Fluid Machinery: Experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics, Volume 11. A list of videorecordings and 16mm motion pictures about Fluid Dynamics and Fluid Machines.

  5. Clinico-Pathological Study of Lung Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SB Pradhan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung cancer is currently the most frequently diagnosed cancer in the world and the number one cause of cancer mortality worldwide.Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in 55 diagnosed lung carcinoma cases being treated in a Kathmandu based hospital over a period of 18 months from 22nd Oct. 2012 to 21st April 2014.Results: Out of total 55 lung carcinoma cases, 33 patients were male and 22 were female with Male: Female ratio of 1.5:1. The most frequent age group was 71-80 years. Lung cancer was more common among smokers (52.73 % of cases. Out of 47.27% non smokers, 76.92% were female. Squamous cell carcinoma was found to be the most common cancer type, comprising 63.64% of cases followed by adenocarcinoma (29.09% of cases and small cell carcinoma (7.27% of cases. Among various diagnostic methods, CT guided Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and Pleural fluid cytology was found to be the best methods.Conclusion: Smoking showed a positive correlation among carcinoma of lung patients. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma were the most common tumors encountered among the smokers and non-smokers respectively. CT guided Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and Pleural fluid cytology yields the most diagnostic materials.DOI:  http://dx.doi.org/3126/jpn.v4i8.11496   Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol4, No.8 (2014 623-625Background: Lung cancer is currently the most frequently diagnosed cancer in the world and the number one cause of cancer mortality worldwide.Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in 55 diagnosed lung carcinoma cases being treated in a Kathmandu based hospital over a period of 18 months from 22nd Oct. 2012 to 21st April 2014.Results: Out of total 55 lung carcinoma cases, 33 patients were male and 22 were female with Male: Female ratio of 1.5:1. The most frequent age group was 71-80 years. Lung cancer was more common among smokers (52.73 % of cases. Out of 47.27% non smokers, 76

  6. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases; Interstitielle Lungenerkrankungen bei Rauchern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Klinikum rechts der Isar, Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    2007-03-15

    The most important smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Although traditionally considered to be discrete entities, smoking-related ILDs often coexist, thus accounting for the sometimes complex patterns encountered on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative role of smoking in the development of pulmonary fibrosis.

  7. Generalized Resolution and NC—Resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘叙华; 孙吉贵

    1994-01-01

    The relation between generalized resolution and NC-resolution is discussed.The proof of the completeness of NC linear resolution is then given.The incompleteness of NC lock resolution is also presented,thus the conclusion in [3] of “a simple completeness-preserving restriction” is shown to be wrong.

  8. Lipoxin A4 promotes lung epithelial repair whilst inhibiting fibroblast proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengxing Zheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Therapy that promotes epithelial repair whilst protecting against fibroproliferation is critical for restoring lung function in acute and chronic respiratory diseases. Primary human alveolar type II cells were used to model the effects of lipoxin A4 in vitro upon wound repair, proliferation, apoptosis and transdifferention. Effects of lipoxin A4 upon primary human lung fibroblast proliferation, collagen production, and myofibroblast differentiation were also assessed. Lipoxin A4 promoted type II cell wound repair and proliferation, blocked the negative effects of soluble Fas ligand/tumour necrosis factor α upon cell proliferation, viability and apoptosis, and augmented the epithelial cell proliferative response to bronchoaveolar lavage fluid (BALF from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. In contrast, Lipoxin A4 reduced fibroblast proliferation, collagen production and myofibroblast differentiation induced by transforming growth factor β and BALF from ARDS. The effects of Lipoxin A4 were phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase dependent and mediated via the lipoxin A4 receptor. Lipoxin A4 appears to promote alveolar epithelial repair by stimulating epitheial cell wound repair, proliferation, reducing apoptosis and promoting trans-differentiation of alveolar type II cells into type I cells. Lipoxin A4 reduces fibroblast proliferation, collagen production and myofibroblast differentiation. These data suggest that targeting lipoxin actions may be a therapeutic strategy for treating the resolution phase of ARDS.

  9. Chest trauma: A case for single lung ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandharikar, Nagaraj; Sachdev, Anil; Gupta, Neeraj; Gupta, Suresh; Gupta, Dhiren

    2016-04-01

    Chest trauma is one of the important causes of mortality and morbidity in pediatric trauma patients. The complexity, magnitude, and type of lung injury make it extremely challenging to provide optimal oxygenation and ventilation while protecting the lung from further injury due to mechanical ventilation. Independent lung ventilation is used sporadically in these patients who do not respond to these conventional ventilatory strategies using double-lumen endotracheal tubes, bronchial blocker balloons, etc. However, this equipment may not be easily available in developing countries, especially for pediatric patients. Here, we present a case of severe chest trauma with pulmonary contusion, flail chest, and bronchopleural fistula, who did not respond to conventional lung protective strategies. She was successfully managed with bronchoscopy-guided unilateral placement of conventional endotracheal tube followed by single lung ventilation leading to resolution of a chest injury.

  10. Chest trauma: A case for single lung ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj Pandharikar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chest trauma is one of the important causes of mortality and morbidity in pediatric trauma patients. The complexity, magnitude, and type of lung injury make it extremely challenging to provide optimal oxygenation and ventilation while protecting the lung from further injury due to mechanical ventilation. Independent lung ventilation is used sporadically in these patients who do not respond to these conventional ventilatory strategies using double-lumen endotracheal tubes, bronchial blocker balloons, etc. However, this equipment may not be easily available in developing countries, especially for pediatric patients. Here, we present a case of severe chest trauma with pulmonary contusion, flail chest, and bronchopleural fistula, who did not respond to conventional lung protective strategies. She was successfully managed with bronchoscopy-guided unilateral placement of conventional endotracheal tube followed by single lung ventilation leading to resolution of a chest injury.

  11. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  12. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  13. Interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Athol U

    2014-10-01

    Based on international collaborative data, interstitial lung disease is now the most frequent cause of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc), having supplanted renal crisis in that regard. Despite detailed explorations of candidate mediators, no primary pathway in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung disease associated with SSc (SSc-ILD) has been definitively identified and, therefore, treatment with current agents is only partially successful. However, as immunomodulatory agents do, on average, retard progression of lung disease, early identification of SSc-ILD, using thoracic high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), is highly desirable. The decision whether to introduce therapy immediately is often difficult as the balance of risk and benefit favours a strategy of careful observation when lung disease is very limited, especially in long-standing SSc. The threshold for initiating treatment is substantially reduced when lung disease is severe, systemic disease is short in duration or ongoing progression is evident, based on pulmonary function tests and symptoms. This review summarises epidemiology, pathogenesis, difficult clinical problems and management issues in SSc-ILD.

  14. [Interstitial lung diseases. The pattern is important].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, L

    2014-11-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) comprise a number of rare entities with an estimated incidence of 10-25 per 100,000 inhabitants but the incidence greatly increases beyond the age of 65 years. The prognosis depends on the underlying cause. The fibrotic disorders show a set of radiological and histopathological patterns that are distinct but not entirely specific. In the absence of a clear clinical picture and consistent high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings, patients are advised to undergo surgical lung biopsies from two or three lung lobes (or transbronchial biopsies) to determine the histopathological pattern. The ILDs are differentiated into disorders of known causes (e.g. collagen vascular disease, drug-related), idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), granulomatous ILDs (e.g. sarcoidosis) and other forms of ILD (e.g. Langerhans' cell histiocytosis). The IIPs encompass idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), non-specific interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease, cryptogen organizing pneumonia, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia and acute interstitial pneumonia. Additionally, a category of unclassified interstitial pneumonia exists. The pathologist has to recognize and address the histopathological pattern. In a multidisciplinary discussion the disorder is allocated to a clinicopathological entity and the histopathological pattern plays a major role in the classification of the entity. Recognition of the underlying pattern and the respective histopathological differential diagnoses is important as the therapy varies depending on the cause and ranges from elimination of the stimulus (if possible) to antifibrotic drug therapy up to preparation for lung transplantation.

  15. Interstitial Lung disease in Systemic Sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooi, G.C.; Mok, M.Y.; Tsang, K.W.T.; Khong, P.L.; Fung, P.C.W.; Chan, S.; Tse, H.F.; Wong, R.W.S.; Lam, W.K.; Lau, C.S. [Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Medicine; Wong, Y. [Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Radiology

    2003-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate high-resolution CT (HRCT) parameters of inflammation and fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc), for correlation with lung function, skin scores and exercise tolerance. Material and Methods: : 45 SSc patients (40 women, 48.5{+-}13.4 years), underwent thoracic HRCT, lung function assessment, and modified Rodnan skin scores. Exercise tolerance was also graded. HRCT were scored for extent of 4 HRCT patterns of interstitial lung disease (ILD): ground glass opacification (GGO), reticular, mixed and honeycomb pattern in each lobe. Total HRCT score, inflammation index (GGO and mixed score) and fibrosis index (reticular and honeycomb scores) were correlated with lung function and clinical parameters. Results: ILD was present in 39/45 (86.7%) patients. Abnormal (<80% predicted) forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC) and carbon monoxide diffusion factor (DLco) were detected in 30%, 22% and 46% of patients. Total HRCT score correlated with FVC (r=0.43, p=0.008), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume) (r=-0.37, p=0.03), TLC (r=-0.47, p=0.003), and DLCO (r=-0.43, p=0.008); inflammatory index with DLCO (r=-0.43, p=0.008) and exercise tolerance (r=-0.39, p < 0.05); and fibrosis index with FVC (r=-0.31, p=0.05) and TLC (r=-0.38, p=0.02). Higher total HRCT score, and inflammation and fibrosis indices were found in patients with abnormal lung function. Conclusion: Qualitative HRCT is able to evaluate inflammation and fibrosis, showing important relationships with diffusion capacity and lung volume, respectively.

  16. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... are only ameliorated to a minor degree by a healthy diet....

  17. Extravascular lung water in critical care: recent advances and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwiak, Mathieu; Teboul, Jean-Louis; Monnet, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    Extravascular lung water (EVLW) is the amount of fluid that is accumulated in the interstitial and alveolar spaces. In lung oedema, EVLW increases either because of increased lung permeability or because of increased hydrostatic pressure in the pulmonary capillaries, or both. Increased EVLW is always potentially life-threatening, mainly because it impairs gas exchange and reduces lung compliance. The only technique that provides an easy measurement of EVLW at the bedside is transpulmonary thermodilution. The validation of EVLW measurements by thermodilution was based on studies showing reasonable correlations with gravimetry or thermo-dye dilution in experimental and clinical studies. EVLW should be indexed to predicted body weight. This indexation reduces the proportion of ARDS patients for whom EVLW is in the normal range. Compared to non-indexed EVLW, indexed EVLW (EVLWI) is better correlated with the lung injury score and the oxygenation and it is a better predictor of mortality of patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Transpulmonary thermodilution also provides the pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI), which is an indirect reflection of the integrity of the alveolocapillary barrier. As clinical applications, EVLWI and PVPI may be useful to guide fluid management of patients at risk of fluid overload, as during septic shock and ARDS. High EVLWI and PVPI values predict mortality in several categories of critically ill patients, especially during ARDS. Thus, fluid administration should be limited when EVLWI is already high. Whatever the value of EVLWI, PVPI may indicate that fluid administration is particularly at risk of aggravating lung oedema. In the acute phase of haemodynamic resuscitation during septic shock and ARDS, high EVLWI and PVPI values may warn of the risk of fluid overload and prevent excessive volume expansion. At the post-resuscitation phase, they may prompt initiation of fluid removal thereby

  18. Follistatin is a novel biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Chen

    Full Text Available Follistatin (FST, a single chain glycoprotein, is originally isolated from follicular fluid of ovary. Previous studies have revealed that serum FST served as a biomarker for pregnancy and ovarian mucinous tumor. However, whether FST can serve as a biomarker for diagnosis in lung adenocarcinoma of humans remains unclear.The study population consisted of 80 patients with lung adenocarcinoma, 40 patients with ovarian adenocarcinoma and 80 healthy subjects. Serum FST levels in patients and healthy subjects were measured using ELISA. The results showed that the positive ratio of serum FST levels was 51.3% (41/80, which was comparable to the sensitivity of FST in 40 patients with ovarian adenocarcinoma (60%, 24/40 using the 95th confidence interval for the healthy subject group as the cut-off value. FST expressions in lung adenocarcinoma were examined by immunohistochemical staining, we found that lung adenocarcinoma could produce FST and there was positive correlation between the level of FST expression and the differential degree of lung adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, the results showed that primary cultured lung adenocarcinoma cells could secrete FST, while cells derived from non-tumor lung tissues almost did not produce FST. In addition, the results of CCK8 assay and flow cytometry showed that using anti-FST monoclonal antibody to neutralize endogenous FST significantly augmented activin A-induced lung adenocarcinoma cells apoptosis.These data indicate that lung adenocarcinoma cells can secret FST into serum, which may be beneficial to the survival of adenocarcinoma cells by neutralizing activin A action. Thus, FST can serve as a promising biomarker for diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma and a useful biotherapy target for lung adenocarcinoma.

  19. A Mathematical Model for the Prediction of Fluid Responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansdorp, B.; Putten, van M.J.A.M.; Keijzer, de A.; Pickkers, P.; Oostrom, van J.

    2013-01-01

    Fluid therapy is commonly used to improve cardiac output in hemodynamically instable patients in the intensive care unit. However, to predict whether patients will benefit from this intervention (i. e. are volume responsive), is difficult. Dynamic indices, that rely on heart-lung interactions, have

  20. Prediction of fetal lung immaturity using gestational age, patient characteristics and fetal lung maturity tests: a probabilistic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnberger, L.D.E.; de Kleine, M.; Voorbij, H.A.M.; Arabin, B.; Bruinse, H.W.; Visser, G.H.A.; Bossuyt, P.M.M.; Mol, B.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio and the lamellar body count (LBC) can be used to predict respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). DESIGN: We performed a retrospective cohort study among consecutive women who underwent amniotic fluid sampling for the assessment of fetal lung maturity.

  1. Hamiltonian adaptive resolution simulation for molecular liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potestio, Raffaello; Fritsch, Sebastian; Español, Pep; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Kremer, Kurt; Everaers, Ralf; Donadio, Davide

    2013-03-08

    Adaptive resolution schemes allow the simulation of a molecular fluid treating simultaneously different subregions of the system at different levels of resolution. In this work we present a new scheme formulated in terms of a global Hamiltonian. Within this approach equilibrium states corresponding to well-defined statistical ensembles can be generated making use of all standard molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo methods. Models at different resolutions can thus be coupled, and thermodynamic equilibrium can be modulated keeping each region at desired pressure or density without disrupting the Hamiltonian framework.

  2. EXPRESSION OF INTERCELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULE IN LUNG TISSUES OF EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE LUNG INJURY AND THE AFFECT OF RHUBARB ON IT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春盛; 桂培春; 何新华

    2000-01-01

    Objeaive. To approach the relation and the possible mechanism between the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) mRNA and acute lung injury (ALI) and the mechanisms of rhubarb in the prevention and treatment of the lung injury. Methods. Lipopolysaeeharide (LPS) was injected into the sublingual vein of male Wistar rats to perform ALI animal model. The rats were divided into 4 groups: LPS group, control group, rhubarb group and dexamethasoue group.Macroscopic and histopathological e~aminatiom were performed and biological markers were measured for the lung specimem. The markers included lung wet/dry weight, the rate of neutrophils and protein content in the pulmonary alveolar lavage fluid, pulmonary vascular permeability and pulmonary alveolar permeability index. Molecular hybridization method was used to determine the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA. Results. In the lung tissues, the ICAM-1 mRNA expression was increased in the endothelial cells of pulmonary veins and capillaries, rhubarb and dexamethasone had the action of decreasing the expression. The light reflex value in the gray scale scanning showed that in the comparison between the LPS and the control group, the gray scale value of the lung tissues in ALI was significantly increased, thus the light reflex value was markedly decreased (P < 0.01),demonstrating the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA was increased. In comparison with the LPS group, dexamethasoue and rhubarb emfld decrease the gray scale value of the lung tissue significantly, thus the light reflex value was elevated (P< 0.01, P < 0.05) ; the correslxmding pathologic changes of lung tissues and the biological markers of the lung injury were simifieantlv decreased or ameliorated. Conclusions. The increase of the expression d ICAM-1 mRNA in the lung tissues of ALI plays the roles in ALI.The application of rhubarb and dexamethasone can decrease the expression and ameliorate the lung damage; its mechanism is possibly via the inhibition of ICAM-1 m

  3. EXPRESSION OF INTERCELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULE IN LUNG TISSUES OF EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE LUNG INJURY AND THE AFFECT OF RHUBARB ON IT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To approach the relation and the possible mechanism between the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) mRNA and acute lung injury (ALI) and the mechanisms of rhubarb in the prevention and treatment of the lung injury.Methods. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected into the sublingual vein of male Wistar rats to perform ALI animal model. The rats were divided into 4 groups: LPS group, control group, rhubarb group and dexamethasone group. Macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed and biological markers were measured for the lung specimens. The markers included lung wet/dry weight, the rate of neutrophils and protein content in the pulmonary alveolar lavage fluid, pulmonary vascular permeability and pulmonary alveolar permeability index. Molecular hybridization method was used to determine the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA.Results. In the lung tissues, the ICAM-1 mRNA expression was increased in the endothelial cells of pulmonary veins and capillaries, rhubarb and dexamethasone had the action of decreasing the expression. The light reflex value in the gray scale scanning showed that in the comparison between the LPS and the control group, the gray scale value of the lung tissues in ALI was significantly increased, thus the light reflex value was markedly decreased (P<0.01), demonstrating the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA was increased. In comparison with the LPS group, dexamethasone and rhubarb could decrease the gray scale value of the lung tissue significantly, thus the light reflex value was elevated (P<0.01, P<0.05); the corresponding pathologic changes of lung tissues and the biological markers of the lung injury were significantly decreased or ameliorated.Conclusions. The increase of the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA in the lung tissues of ALI plays the roles in ALI. The application of rhubarb and dexamethasone can decrease the expression and ameliorate the lung damage; its mechanism is possibly via the inhibition of ICAM

  4. Mortality studies of machining-fluid exposure in the automobile industry: II. Risks associated with specific fluid types

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paige E Tolbert; Ellen A Eisen; Lucille J Pothier; Richard R Monson; Marilyn F Hallock; Thomas J Smith

    1992-01-01

    ... types, and Poisson regression analyses were used to assess trends in risk with duration of exposure. The data suggest modest positive associations between exposure to straight oils and rectal, laryngeal, and prostatic cancer and a negative association between soluble and synthetic fluid exposure and lung cancer.

  5. Complications in Transbronchial Lung Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Hue, Sung Ho

    1987-01-01

    Transbronchial lung biopsy was performed in 68 patients with various lung diseases. As an inital diagnostic procedure in diffuse and localized lung diseases, trasbronchial lung biopsy offers an attractive alternative to open lung biopsy. Recently imporvement in the development of medical technology has greatly facilitated this technique, but it must be kept in mind that a transbronchial lung biopsy is not without complication and sometimes potentially serious complications may occur. This stu...

  6. Lung alveolar epithelium and interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvol, Harriet; Flamein, Florence; Epaud, Ralph; Clement, Annick; Guillot, Loic

    2009-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) comprise a group of lung disorders characterized by various levels of inflammation and fibrosis. The current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of ILD strongly suggests a central role of the alveolar epithelium. Following injury, alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) may actively participate in the restoration of a normal alveolar architecture through a coordinated process of re-epithelialization, or in the development of fibrosis through a process known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Complex networks orchestrate EMT leading to changes in cell architecture and behaviour, loss of epithelial characteristics and gain of mesenchymal properties. In the lung, AECs themselves may serve as a source of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts by acquiring a mesenchymal phenotype. This review covers recent knowledge on the role of alveolar epithelium in the pathogenesis of ILD. The mechanisms underlying disease progression are discussed, with a main focus on the apoptotic pathway, the endoplasmic reticulum stress response and the developmental pathway.

  7. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  8. Lung needle biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biopsy Lung tissue biopsy References Ettinger DS. Lung cancer and other pulmonary neoplasms. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ... 2010:chap 47. Read More Aspiration ... by: Denis Hadjiliadis, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, ...

  9. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  10. Lung Diseases and Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Lung Diseases and Conditions Breathing is a complex process. If ... to a disease called COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). COPD prevents proper airflow in and out of your lungs and can hinder gas exchange in the air ...

  11. MRI of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich (ed.) [University Clinic Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2009-07-01

    For a long time, only chest X-ray and CT were used to image lung structure, while nuclear medicine was employed to assess lung function. During the past decade significant developments have been achieved in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), enabling MRI to enter the clinical arena of chest imaging. Standard protocols can now be implemented on up-to-date scanners, allowing MRI to be used as a first-line imaging modality for various lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension and even lung cancer. The diagnostic benefits stem from the ability of MRI to visualize changes in lung structure while simultaneously imaging different aspects of lung function, such as perfusion, respiratory motion, ventilation and gas exchange. On this basis, novel quantitative surrogates for lung function can be obtained. This book provides a comprehensive overview of how to use MRI for imaging of lung disease. Special emphasis is placed on benign diseases requiring regular monitoring, given that it is patients with these diseases who derive the greatest benefit from the avoidance of ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  12. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  13. Lung transplant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100120.htm Lung transplant - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 5 Go to slide 2 out of ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The lungs, which reside in the thorax, or chest cavity, ...

  14. Lycopene and Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although epidemiological studies have shown dietary intake of lycopene is associated with decreased risk of lung cancer, the effect of lycopene on lung carcinogenesis has not been well studied. A better understanding of lycopene metabolism and the mechanistic basis of lycopene chemoprevention must ...

  15. Lung cancer in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Rodriguez R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Raúl Barrera-Rodriguez,1 Jorge Morales-Fuentes2 1Biochemistry and Environmental Medicine Laboratory, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, 2Lung Cancer Medical Service, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, Tlalpan, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico Both authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Recent biological advances in tumor research provide clear evidence that lung cancer in females is different from that in males. These differences appear to have a direct impact on the clinical presentation, histology, and outcomes of lung cancer. Women are more likely to present with lung adenocarcinoma, tend to receive a diagnosis at an earlier age, and are more likely to be diagnosed with localized disease. Women may also be more predisposed to molecular aberrations resulting from the carcinogenic effects of tobacco, but do not appear to be more susceptible than men to developing lung cancer. The gender differences found in female lung cancer make it mandatory that gender stratification is used in clinical trials in order to improve the survival rates of patients with lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, adenocarcinoma, women, genetic susceptibility, genetic differences, tobacco

  16. Macrophage phenotype is associated with disease severity in preterm infants with chronic lung disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne R Prince

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The etiology of persistent lung inflammation in preterm infants with chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD is poorly characterized, hampering efforts to stratify prognosis and treatment. Airway macrophages are important innate immune cells with roles in both the induction and resolution of tissue inflammation. OBJECTIVES: To investigate airway innate immune cellular phenotypes in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS or CLD. METHODS: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid was obtained from term and preterm infants requiring mechanical ventilation. BAL cells were phenotyped by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Preterm birth was associated with an increase in the proportion of non-classical CD14(+/CD16(+ monocytes on the day of delivery (58.9 ± 5.8% of total mononuclear cells in preterm vs 33.0 ± 6.1% in term infants, p = 0.02. Infants with RDS were born with significantly more CD36(+ macrophages compared with the CLD group (70.3 ± 5.3% in RDS vs 37.6 ± 8.9% in control, p = 0.02. At day 3, infants born at a low gestational age are more likely to have greater numbers of CD14(+ mononuclear phagocytes in the airway (p = 0.03, but fewer of these cells are functionally polarized as assessed by HLA-DR (p = 0.05 or CD36 (p = 0.05 positivity, suggesting increased recruitment of monocytes or a failure to mature these cells in the lung. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that macrophage polarization may be affected by gestational maturity, that more immature macrophage phenotypes may be associated with the progression of RDS to CLD and that phenotyping mononuclear cells in BAL could predict disease outcome.

  17. Smoking is associated with increased levels of extracellular peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) in the lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Dres; Friberg Bruun Nielsen, Michael; Quisgaard Gaunsbaek, Maria

    2015-01-01

    lavage (BAL) fluid from smokers, but intracellularly located PAD cannot be responsible for citrullination of extracellular self-antigens. We aimed to establish a link between smoking and extracellular PAD2 in the lungs. METHODS: BAL fluid samples were obtained from 13 smokers and 11 nonsmoking controls...... fluids from smokers as compared to non-smokers (p=0.018). The PAD2 content correlated with the overall CRP levels (p=0.009) and cell count (p=0.016). CONCLUSIONS: This first demonstration of increased levels of extracellular PAD2 in the lungs of smokers supports the hypothesis that smoking promotes...

  18. Synovial fluid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bursae (fluid-filled sacs in the joints), and tendon sheaths. After the joint area is cleaned, the ... HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes ...

  19. Amniotic fluid (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amniotic fluid surrounds the growing fetus in the womb and protects the fetus from injury and temperature changes. ... of fetal movement and permits musculoskeletal development. The amniotic fluid can be withdrawn in a procedure called amniocentsis ...

  20. Pericardial Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help diagnose the cause of inflammation of the pericardium (pericarditis) and/or fluid accumulation around the heart ( ... pressure within blood vessels or inflammation of the pericardium. An initial set of tests, including fluid protein ...

  1. Pericardial fluid Gram stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... staining a sample of fluid taken from the pericardium. This is the sac surrounding the heart to ... sample of fluid will be taken from the pericardium. This is done through a procedure called pericardiocentesis . ...

  2. Lectures on fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Shinbrot, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Readable and user-friendly, this high-level introduction explores the derivation of the equations of fluid motion from statistical mechanics, classical theory, and a portion of the modern mathematical theory of viscous, incompressible fluids. 1973 edition.

  3. Electric fluid pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  4. Rapid natural resolution of intracranial hematoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明灿; 刘建雄; 罗国才; 张志文; 闵杰; 余辉; 姚远

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical characteristics of intracranial hematoma and the mechanism involved in its rapid natural resolution. Methods:Seventeen cases of intracranial hematoma with typical clinical and CT manifestations were retrospectively studied. Results: Intracranial hematoma was found obviously decreased in size within 72 h after its occurrence in 8 cases. The rest 9 cases presented complete resolution. Conclusions: Rapid natural resolution of acute epidural hematoma is mostly found in teenagers and the resolution is correlated with cranial fracture at the hematoma site. As for acute subdural hematoma, its rapid resolution is associated with the transfer of cerebrospinal fluid toward subdural space, the lavage effect, and the compression caused by the increased intracranial pressure or the space left resulting from redistribution of the hematoma in brain atrophy.

  5. Immunotherapy in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Emily H; Horn, Leora

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has not traditionally been viewed as an immune-responsive tumor. However, it is becoming evident that tumor-induced immune suppression is vital to malignant progression. Immunotherapies act by enhancing the patient's innate immune response and hold promise for inducing long-term responses in select patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Immune checkpoint inhibitors, in particular, inhibitors to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) have shown promise in early studies and are currently in clinical trials in both small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer patients. Two large randomized phase III trials recently demonstrated superior overall survival (OS) in patients treated with anti-PD-1 therapy compared to chemotherapy in the second-line setting.

  6. A rare occurrence of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albores, Jeffrey; Seki, Atsuko; Fishbein, Michael C; Abtin, Fereidoun; Lynch, Joseph P; Wang, Tisha; Weigt, S Samuel

    2013-06-01

    We present a case of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) initially diagnosed 28 months after left single-lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The diagnosis was based upon the presence of periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive and surfactant immunostain-positive acellular lipoproteinaceous material within alveoli seen on transbronchial biopsy as well as in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The patient eventually also displayed a characteristic "crazy paving" pattern on radiographic imaging. Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor antibodies were negative, consistent with secondary PAP. PAP is a rare interstitial lung disease with only a few reported cases occurring after lung transplantation. The etiology is thought to be related to a defect in macrophage function caused by immunosuppression. Reduced immunosuppression has been associated with stabilization, but not reversal, of the condition in the case reported here. PAP is an exceptionally rare cause of dyspnea and radiographic infiltrates after lung transplantation and may be related to toxicity of immune-suppressive medications.

  7. Safety of needle electromyography of the diaphragm: Anterior lung margins in quietly breathing healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podnar, S.; Doorduin, J.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Controversy persists as to whether the lung interposes on the needle electrode insertion path during diaphragm electromyography (EMG). METHODS: Using high-resolution ultrasonography, we measured the distances between the medial recess of the intercostal spaces (ICSs) around the

  8. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Your Lung Operation Your Lung Operation DVD After Your Operation Back to Your Lung Operation Your Lung Operation DVD Welcome Your Lung ...

  9. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Smoking causes most cases (around 90%) of lung cancer. The risk depends on the number of cigarettes ...

  10. Fluid force transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendrzejczyk, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    An electrical fluid force transducer for measuring the magnitude and direction of fluid forces caused by lateral fluid flow, includes a movable sleeve which is deflectable in response to the movement of fluid, and a rod fixed to the sleeve to translate forces applied to the sleeve to strain gauges attached to the rod, the strain gauges being connected in a bridge circuit arrangement enabling generation of a signal output indicative of the magnitude and direction of the force applied to the sleeve.

  11. Estimation of Lung Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kai; Cao, Kunlin; Du, Kaifang; Amelon, Ryan; Christensen, Gary E.; Raghavan, Madhavan; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    Since the primary function of the lung is gas exchange, ventilation can be interpreted as an index of lung function in addition to perfusion. Injury and disease processes can alter lung function on a global and/or a local level. MDCT can be used to acquire multiple static breath-hold CT images of the lung taken at different lung volumes, or with proper respiratory control, 4DCT images of the lung reconstructed at different respiratory phases. Image registration can be applied to this data to estimate a deformation field that transforms the lung from one volume configuration to the other. This deformation field can be analyzed to estimate local lung tissue expansion, calculate voxel-by-voxel intensity change, and make biomechanical measurements. The physiologic significance of the registration-based measures of respiratory function can be established by comparing to more conventional measurements, such as nuclear medicine or contrast wash-in/wash-out studies with CT or MR. An important emerging application of these methods is the detection of pulmonary function change in subjects undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer. During RT, treatment is commonly limited to sub-therapeutic doses due to unintended toxicity to normal lung tissue. Measurement of pulmonary function may be useful as a planning tool during RT planning, may be useful for tracking the progression of toxicity to nearby normal tissue during RT, and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment post-therapy. This chapter reviews the basic measures to estimate regional ventilation from image registration of CT images, the comparison of them to the existing golden standard and the application in radiation therapy.

  12. Cystic Lung Diseases: Algorithmic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoof, Suhail; Bondalapati, Praveen; Vydyula, Ravikanth; Ryu, Jay H; Gupta, Nishant; Raoof, Sabiha; Galvin, Jeff; Rosen, Mark J; Lynch, David; Travis, William; Mehta, Sanjeev; Lazzaro, Richard; Naidich, David

    2016-10-01

    Cysts are commonly seen on CT scans of the lungs, and diagnosis can be challenging. Clinical and radiographic features combined with a multidisciplinary approach may help differentiate among various disease entities, allowing correct diagnosis. It is important to distinguish cysts from cavities because they each have distinct etiologies and associated clinical disorders. Conditions such as emphysema, and cystic bronchiectasis may also mimic cystic disease. A simplified classification of cysts is proposed. Cysts can occur in greater profusion in the subpleural areas, when they typically represent paraseptal emphysema, bullae, or honeycombing. Cysts that are present in the lung parenchyma but away from subpleural areas may be present without any other abnormalities on high-resolution CT scans. These are further categorized into solitary or multifocal/diffuse cysts. Solitary cysts may be incidentally discovered and may be an age related phenomenon or may be a remnant of prior trauma or infection. Multifocal/diffuse cysts can occur with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, tracheobronchial papillomatosis, or primary and metastatic cancers. Multifocal/diffuse cysts may be associated with nodules (lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, light-chain deposition disease, amyloidosis, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis) or with ground-glass opacities (Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and desquamative interstitial pneumonia). Using the results of the high-resolution CT scans as a starting point, and incorporating the patient's clinical history, physical examination, and laboratory findings, is likely to narrow the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions considerably. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiological and functional assessment of radiation-induced lung injury in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujaskovic, Z; Down, JD; van t'Veld, AA; Mooyaart, EL; Meertens, H; Piers, DA; Szabo, BG; Konings, AWT

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an experimental model to measure localized radiation-induced lung injury using multiple end-points including breathing frequency, high-resolution computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide perfusion. The rats were anaesthetized and the right lung irradiated wi

  14. Radiological and functional assessment of radiation-induced lung injury in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujaskovic, Z; Down, JD; van t'Veld, AA; Mooyaart, EL; Meertens, H; Piers, DA; Szabo, BG; Konings, AWT

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an experimental model to measure localized radiation-induced lung injury using multiple end-points including breathing frequency, high-resolution computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide perfusion. The rats were anaesthetized and the right lung irradiated

  15. The effects of Dahuang-tongfu therapy on inflammatory indexes and lung fluid metabolism in patients with severe pulmonary contusion%大黄通腑法对严重肺挫伤患者炎症指标及肺水代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘永; 张斌; 马明远; 徐杰; 区嘉玲; 卫女仲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of Dahuang-tongfu therapy on inflammatory factors and lung fluid metabolism in patients with severe pulmonary contusion. Methods A prospective,randomized,non-blinded clinical trial was conducted. Sixty patients with severe pulmonary contusion were randomly divided into two groups:conventional therapy control group and traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)therapy group(30 cases in each group). In this study,the conventional therapy control group received the routine treatment and placebo(starch capsules)and TCM therapy group received the routine treatment and additionally took 4 rhubarb capsules(each capsule contained crude drug 0.4 g)once orally or intra-gastric administration via a gastric tube,3 times a day,the therapeutic course in the two groups being 5 days. Before therapy and on the 5th day after therapy in both groups,the patients' venous blood samples in both groups were collected to test tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)and interleukin-6 (IL-6),and the extra-vascular lung water index(EVLWI),white blood cell(WBC)count and blood lactic acid(Lac), etc. In the mean time,the pulmonary contusion scores were compared between the two groups before and after the therapy. Results There were 28 patients actually enrolled in each group. Before the treatment in both groups,no statistical significant differences were found in the levels of TNF-α(ng/L),IL-6(ng/L),WBC(×109/L),EVLWI (ml/kg),Lac(mmol/L)and pulmonary contusion scores(all P>0.05). And after the treatment,the above indexes were obviously decreased in both groups(all P0.05),治疗后上述各指标均较治疗前明显下降(均P<0.05),且以中药治疗组下降更显著(TNF-α:1.04±0.33比1.39±0.35,IL-6:81.05±22.35比96.99±28.77,WBC:9.30±1.23比10.66±1.56,EVLWI:6.44±1.23比8.05±2.13,Lac:0.93±0.45比1.68±0.67,肺挫伤评分:5.25±0.84比5.29±0.81,均P<0.05).结论大黄通腑法治疗可明显降低严重肺挫伤患者TNF-α、IL-6、EVLWI的水平,抑制

  16. Regulation of Lung Epithelial Sodium Channels by Cytokines and Chemokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandi M. Wynne

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury leading to acute respiratory distress (ARDS is a global health concern. ARDS patients have significant pulmonary inflammation leading to flooding of the pulmonary alveoli. This prevents normal gas exchange with consequent hypoxemia and causes mortality. A thin fluid layer in the alveoli is normal. The maintenance of this thin layer results from fluid movement out of the pulmonary capillaries into the alveolar interstitium driven by vascular hydrostatic pressure and then through alveolar tight junctions. This is then balanced by fluid reabsorption from the alveolar space mediated by transepithelial salt and water transport through alveolar cells. Reabsorption is a two-step process: first, sodium enters via sodium-permeable channels in the apical membranes of alveolar type 1 and 2 cells followed by active extrusion of sodium into the interstitium by the basolateral Na+, K+-ATPase. Anions follow the cationic charge gradient and water follows the salt-induced osmotic gradient. The proximate cause of alveolar flooding is the result of a failure to reabsorb sufficient salt and water or a failure of the tight junctions to prevent excessive movement of fluid from the interstitium to alveolar lumen. Cytokine- and chemokine-induced inflammation can have a particularly profound effect on lung sodium transport since they can alter both ion channel and barrier function. Cytokines and chemokines affect alveolar amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs, which play a crucial role in sodium transport and fluid reabsorption in the lung. This review discusses the regulation of ENaC via local and systemic cytokines during inflammatory disease and the effect on lung fluid balance.

  17. Lung ultrasound has limited diagnostic value in rare cystic lung diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Bendstrup, Elisabeth; Henriksen, Daniel P

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lung ultrasound (LUS) used to identify interstitial syndrome (IS) and pleural thickening related to diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD) has shown significant correlations with ground glass opacity (GGO) on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). However, the applicability of LUS...... in patients with DPLD subtypes as rare cystic lung diseases has not previously been investigated. This study aimed to observe if distinctive LUS findings could be found in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH), and Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS). Methods......: This single centre case-based cross-sectional study of patients diagnosed with LAM, PCLH and BHDS was conducted at a Danish DPLD specialist centre. Patients underwent clinical examination including LUS. LUS findings were compared to findings scored according to a modified Belmaati score on HRCT and reviewed...

  18. Early activation of the alveolar macrophage is critical to the development of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naidu, BV; Krishnadasan, B; Farivar, AS; Woolley, SM; Thomas, R; Rooijen, van N.; Verrier, ED; Mulligan, MS

    2003-01-01

    .006) and marked reductions in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid leukocyte accumulation. Alveolar macrophage-depleted animals also demonstrated marked reductions of the elaboration of multiple proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines in the lavage effluent and nuclear transcription factors in lung homoge

  19. Lung No dules Detection in CT Images Using Gestalt-Based Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Shi; WEN Desheng; CUI Ying; FENG Jun

    2016-01-01

    To overcome low accuracy and high false positive of existing computer-aided lung nodules detec-tion. We propose a novel lung nodule detection scheme based on the Gestalt visual cognition theory. The pro-posed scheme involves two parts which simulate human eyes cognition features such as simplicity, integrity and classification. Firstly, lung region was segmented from lung Computed tomography (CT) sequences. Then local three-dimensional information was integrated into the Maximum intensity projection (MIP) images from axial, coronal and sagittal profiles. In this way, lung nodules and vascular are strengthened and discriminated based on pathologic image characteristics of lung nodules. The experimental database includes fifty-three high resolution CT images contained lung nodules, which had been confirmed by biopsy. The experimental results show that, the accuracy rate of the proposed algorithm achieves 91.29%. The proposed frame-work improves performance and computation speed for computer aided nodules detection.

  20. Inflammation-induced preterm lung maturation: lessons from animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Timothy J M; Westover, Alana J

    2016-10-20

    Intrauterine inflammation, or chorioamnionitis, is a major contributor to preterm birth. Prematurity per se is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality resulting from lung immaturity but exposure to chorioamnionitis reduces the risk of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants. Animal experiments have identified that an increase in pulmonary surfactant production by the preterm lungs likely underlies this decreased risk of RDS in infants exposed to chorioamnionitis. Further animal experimentation has shown that infectious or inflammatory agents in amniotic fluid exert their effects on lung development by direct effects within the developing respiratory tract, and probably not by systemic pathways. Differences in the effects of intrauterine inflammation and glucocorticoids demonstrate that canonical glucocorticoid-mediated lung maturation is not responsible for inflammation-induced changes in lung development. Animal experimentation is identifying alternative lung maturational pathways, and transgenic animals and cell culture techniques will allow identification of novel mechanisms of lung maturation that may lead to new treatments for the prevention of RDS.

  1. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Proteomics in Patients with Suspected Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Cuco, Célia Marina; Lavareda, Carla; Miguel, Francisco; Ventura, Mafalda; Almeida, Sónia; Pinto, Paula; de Abreu, Tiago Tavares; Rodrigues, Luís Vaz; Seixas, Susana; Bárbara, Cristina; Azkargorta, Mikel; Elortza, Felix; Semedo, Júlio; Field, John K.; Mota, Leonor; Matthiesen, Rune

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer configures as one of the deadliest types of cancer. The future implementation of early screening methods such as exhaled breath condensate analysis and low dose computed tomography (CT) as an alternative to current chest imaging based screening will lead to an increased burden on bronchoscopy units. New approaches for improvement of diagnosis in bronchoscopy units, regarding patient management, are likely to have clinical impact in the future. Diagnostic approaches to address mortality of lung cancer include improved early detection and stratification of the cancers according to its prognosis and further response to drug treatment. In this study, we performed a detailed mass spectrometry based proteome analysis of acellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples on an observational prospective cohort consisting of 90 suspected lung cancer cases which were followed during two years. The thirteen new lung cancer cases diagnosed during the follow up time period clustered, based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data, with lung cancer cases at the time of BAL collection. Hundred and thirty-tree potential biomarkers were identified showing significantly differential expression when comparing lung cancer versus non-lung cancer. The regulated biomarkers showed a large overlap with biomarkers detected in tissue samples. PMID:28169345

  2. A lung segmental model of chronic Pseudomonas infection in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, David; Govan, John; Wright, Steven; Thornton, Elisabeth; Tennant, Peter; Smith, Sionagh; Doherty, Catherine; McLachlan, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major contributor to morbidity, mortality and premature death in cystic fibrosis. A new paradigm for managing such infections is needed, as are relevant and translatable animal models to identify and test concepts. We sought to improve on limitations associated with existing models of infection in small animals through developing a lung segmental model of chronic Pseudomonas infection in sheep. Using local lung instillation of P. aeruginosa suspended in agar beads we were able to demonstrate that such infection led to the development of a suppurative, necrotising and pyogranulomatous pneumonia centred on the instilled beads. No overt evidence of organ or systemic compromise was apparent in any animal during the course of infection. Infection persisted in the lungs of individual animals for as long as 66 days after initial instillation. Quantitative microbiology applied to bronchoalveolar lavage fluid derived from infected segments proved an insensitive index of the presence of significant infection in lung tissue (>10(4) cfu/g). The agar bead model of chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection in sheep is a relevant platform to investigate both the pathobiology of such infections as well as novel approaches to their diagnosis and therapy. Particular ethical benefits relate to the model in terms of refining existing approaches by compromising a smaller proportion of the lung with infection and facilitating longitudinal assessment by bronchoscopy, and also potentially reducing animal numbers through facilitating within-animal comparisons of differential therapeutic approaches.

  3. [Lung hyperinflation after single lung transplantation to treat emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samano, Marcos Naoyuki; Junqueira, Jader Joel Machado; Teixeira, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga; Caramori, Marlova Luzzi; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2010-01-01

    Despite preventive measures, lung hyperinflation is a relatively common complication following single lung transplantation to treat pulmonary emphysema. The progressive compression of the graft can cause mediastinal shift and respiratory failure. In addition to therapeutic strategies such as independent ventilation, the treatment consists of the reduction of native lung volume by means of lobectomy or lung volume reduction surgery. We report two cases of native lung hyperinflation after single lung transplantation. Both cases were treated by means of lobectomy or lung volume reduction surgery.

  4. Fluid and particle mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Michell, S J

    2013-01-01

    Fluid and Particle Mechanics provides information pertinent to hydraulics or fluid mechanics. This book discusses the properties and behavior of liquids and gases in motion and at rest. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the science of fluid mechanics that is subdivided accordingly into two main branches, namely, fluid statics and fluid dynamics. This text then examines the flowmeter devices used for the measurement of flow of liquids and gases. Other chapters consider the principle of resistance in open channel flow, which is based on improper application of th

  5. MRI investigation of normal fetal lung maturation using signal intensities on different imaging sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Brugger, Peter C; Weber, Michael; Csapo, Bence; Mittermayer, Christoph; Hörmann, Marcus; Prayer, Daniela

    2007-03-01

    To purpose of this paper is to study the relation between normal lung maturation signal and changes in intensity ratios (SIR) and to determine which magnetic resonance imaging sequence provides the strongest correlation of normal lung SIs with gestational age. 126 normal singleton pregnancies (20-37 weeks) were examined with a 1.5 Tesla unit. Mean SIs for lungs, liver, and gastric fluid were assessed on six different sequences, and SIRs of lung/liver (LLSIR) and lung/gastric fluid (LGSIR) were correlated with gestational age for each sequence. To evaluate the feasibility of SIRs in the prediction of the state of the lung maturity, accuracy of the predicted SIRs (D*) was measured by calculating relative residuals (D*-D)/D for each sequence. LLSIRs showed significant changes in every sequence (p<0.05), while LGSIRs only on two sequences. Significant differences were shown for the mean of absolute residuals for both LLSIRs (p<0.001) and for LGSIRs (p=0.003). Relative residuals of LLSIRs were significantly smaller on T1-weighted sequence, whereas they were significantly higher for LGSIRs on FLAIR sequence. Fetal liver seems to be adequate reference for the investigation of lung maturation. T1-weighted sequence was the most accurate for the measurement of the lung SIs; thus, we propose to determine LLSIR on T1-weighted sequence when evaluating lung development.

  6. MRI investigation of normal fetal lung maturation using signal intensities on different imaging sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria); Csapo, Bence [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Gyneocology, Vienna (Austria); Mittermayer, Christoph [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Pediatrics, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-03-15

    To purpose of this paper is to study the relation between normal lung maturation signal and changes in intensity ratios (SIR) and to determine which magnetic resonance imaging sequence provides the strongest correlation of normal lung SIs with gestational age. 126 normal singleton pregnancies (20-37 weeks) were examined with a 1.5 Tesla unit. Mean SIs for lungs, liver, and gastric fluid were assessed on six different sequences, and SIRs of lung/liver (LLSIR) and lung/gastric fluid (LGSIR) were correlated with gestational age for each sequence. To evaluate the feasibility of SIRs in the prediction of the state of the lung maturity, accuracy of the predicted SIRs (D*) was measured by calculating relative residuals (D*-D)/D for each sequence. LLSIRs showed significant changes in every sequence (p<0.05), while LGSIRs only on two sequences. Significant differences were shown for the mean of absolute residuals for both LLSIRs (p<0.001) and for LGSIRs (p=0.003). Relative residuals of LLSIRs were significantly smaller on T1-weighted sequence, whereas they were significantly higher for LGSIRs on FLAIR sequence. Fetal liver seems to be adequate reference for the investigation of lung maturation. T1-weighted sequence was the most accurate for the measurement of the lung SIs; thus, we propose to determine LLSIR on T1-weighted sequence when evaluating lung development. (orig.)

  7. Lung cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazerooni, E.A. [Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2005-11-15

    Lung cancer screening with CT remains controversial. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. To date, no screening test has been demonstrated to reduce mortality. Given the large population of adult cigarette smokers and former smokers worldwide, there is a large population at risk for lung cancer. While a lot has been learned from prospective single-arm cohort studies about the feasibility of performing annual CT to screen for lung cancer, many questions have also been raised. While we know that screening for lung cancer with CT detects many small nodules, with up to half the subjects having a positive baseline screen, and up to 75% of subjects having a positive screen at least once if screened annually for 5 years, the great majority of these nodules exhibit benign biologic behavior. The innumerable small nodules detected with screening CT, and diagnostic chest CT in general, present a daily clinical challenge, and result in extensive medical resource utilization and additional radiation exposure. Algorithms for how and when to follow small nodules detected on CT are in evolution. Ongoing studies are designed to determine if lung cancer screening with CT reduces lung cancer mortality. (orig.)

  8. STUDY OF 200 CASES OF PLEURAL FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna R

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND We have studied 200 patients of pleural fluid presenting to our tertiary care centre. Presence of cases of pleural fluid is a common presentation both in pulmonary and extrapulmonary diseases. We analysed the patients having both exudates and transudates and studied the results. MATERIALS AND METHODS We selected patients above 20 years of age and classified the patients with pleural fluid as having transudates and exudates. We studied the causes of transudates and exudates. A total of 200 patients are studied in this prospective study. Diagnosis of pleural exudates is made on the basis of Light’s criteria, chest x-ray, pleural fluid analysis, CT scan in selected patients, sputum examination, bronchoscopy and bronchial washings. Moribund and non-cooperative patients and HIV positives were excluded from the study. RESULTS Among the 200 patients, 91% have exudates. 9% have transudates by Light’s criteria. Tuberculosis is the commonest cause of effusions (64.83% followed by malignancy (13.73% and sympneumonic or parapneumonic effusions (9.89%. Pleural effusions occurred predominantly in males. Prevalence of diabetes Mellitus among cases of tuberculous pleural effusions is 13.56%. Tuberculous effusions are predominantly right-sided. CONCLUSION Predominant cases of pleural fluid are exudates. Commonest cause of pleural effusion is Tuberculosis followed by malignancy both pulmonary and extrapulmonary and sym. and parapneumonic effusions. Prevalence of Diabetes among Tuberculous pleural effusion cases is more or less same as in general population. Cough, expectoration fever, chest pain and breathlessness are the common symptoms occurring in three fourths of the patients of tuberculous pleural effusion. Most of the cases of Tuberculous effusion are above 30 years of age. In the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion, Pleural fluid ADA is very important. Pleural fluid cytology, pleural biopsy, bronchoscopy, bronchial washings and sputum

  9. A Conjugate Fluid-Porous Approach for Simulating Airflow in Realistic Geometric Representations of the Human Respiratory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroot, Christopher T; Straatman, Anthony G

    2016-03-01

    Simulation of flow in the human lung is of great practical interest as a means to study the detailed flow patterns within the airways for many physiological applications. While computational simulation techniques are quite mature, lung simulations are particularly complicated due to the vast separation of length scales between upper airways and alveoli. Many past studies have presented numerical results for truncated airway trees, however, there are significant difficulties in connecting such results with respiratory airway models. This article presents a new modeling paradigm for flow in the full lung, based on a conjugate fluid-porous formulation where the upper airway is considered as a fluid region with the remainder of the lung being considered as a coupled porous region. Results are presented for a realistic lung geometry obtained from computed tomography (CT) images, which show the method's potential as being more efficient and practical than attempting to directly simulate flow in the full lung.

  10. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  11. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  12. CXCR4 Blockade Attenuates Hyperoxia Induced Lung Injury in Neonatal Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Shelley; Ramachandran, Shalini; Torres, Eneida; Huang, Jian; Hehre, Dorothy; Suguihara, Cleide; Young, Karen C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) modulate the inflammatory response. Whether antagonism of CXCR4 will alleviate lung inflammation in neonatal hyperoxia-induced lung injury is unknown. Objective To determine whether CXCR4 antagonism would attenuate lung injury in rodents with experimental BPD by decreasing pulmonary inflammation. Methods Newborn rats exposed to normoxia (RA) or hyperoxia (FiO2=0.9) from postnatal day 2 (P2)-P16 were randomized to receive the CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100 or placebo (PL) from P5 to P15. Lung alveolarization, angiogenesis, and inflammation were evaluated at P16. Results As compared to RA, hyperoxic-PL pups had a decrease in alveolarization, reduced lung vascular density and increased lung inflammation. In contrast, AMD3100-treated hyperoxic pups had improved alveolarization and increased angiogenesis. This improvement in lung structure was accompanied by a decrease in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid macrophage and neutrophil count and reduced lung myeloperoxidase activity. Conclusion CXCR4 antagonism decreases lung inflammation and improves alveolar as well as vascular structure in neonatal rats with experimental BPD. These findings suggest a novel therapeutic strategy to alleviate lung injury in preterm infants with BPD. PMID:25825119

  13. Glucocorticoids decrease Treg cell numbers in lungs of allergic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, P C; Kitoko, J Z; Ferreira, T P; de-Azevedo, C T; Arantes, A C; Martins, Μ A

    2015-01-15

    Glucocorticoids have been the hallmark anti-inflammatory drug used to treat asthma. It has been shown that glucocorticoids ameliorate asthma by increasing numbers and activity of Tregs, in contrast recent data show that glucocorticoid might have an opposite effect on Treg cells from normal mice. Since Tregs are target cells that act on the resolution of asthma, the aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of glucocorticoid treatment on lung Tregs in mouse models of asthma. Allergen challenged mice were treated with either oral dexamethasone or nebulized budesonide. Broncoalveolar lavage and airway hyperresponsiveness were evaluated after allergenic challenge. Lung, thymic and lymph node cells were phenotyped on Treg through flow cytometry. Lung cytokine secretion was detected by ELISA. Although dexamethasone inhibited airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness, improving resolution, we have found that both dexamethasone and budesonide induce a reduction of Treg numbers on lungs and lymphoid organs of allergen challenged mice. The reduction of lung Treg levels was independent of mice strain or type of allergen challenge. Our study also indicates that both glucocorticoids do not increase Treg activity through production of IL-10. Glucocorticoid systemic or localized treatment induced thymic atrophy. Taken together, our results demonstrate that glucocorticoids decrease Treg numbers and activity in different asthma mouse models, probably by reducing thymic production of T cells. Therefore, it is possible that glucocorticoids do not have beneficial effects on lung populations of Treg cells from asthmatic patients.

  14. Bioengineering Lungs for Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Sarah E; Charest, Jonathan M; Ren, Xi; Ott, Harald C

    2016-05-01

    Whole lung extracellular matrix scaffolds can be created by perfusion of cadaveric organs with decellularizing detergents, providing a platform for organ regeneration. Lung epithelial engineering must address both the proximal airway cells that function to metabolize toxins and aid mucociliary clearance and the distal pneumocytes that facilitate gas exchange. Engineered pulmonary vasculature must support in vivo blood perfusion with low resistance and intact barrier function and be antithrombotic. Repopulating the native lung matrix with sufficient cell numbers in appropriate anatomic locations is required to enable organ function.

  15. Microgravity and the lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from studies of the effect of microgravity on the lungs of rats flown on the Cosmos 2044 mission, and from relevant laboratory experiments. The effects of microgravity fall into five categories: topographical structure and function, the lung volumes and mechanics, the intrathoracic blood pressures and volumes, the pulmonary deposition of aerosol, and denitrogenaton during EVA. The ultrastructure of the left lungs of rats flown for 14 days on the Cosmos 2044 spacecraft and that of some tail-suspended rats disclosed presence of red blood cells in the alveolar spaces, indicating that pulmonary hemorrhage and pulmonary edema occurred in these rats. Possible causes for this phenomenon are discussed.

  16. Insulin and the Lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Suchita; Prakash, Y S; Linneberg, Allan

    2013-01-01

    , molecular understanding is necessary. Insulin resistance is a strong, independent risk factor for asthma development, but it is unknown whether a direct effect of insulin on the lung is involved. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the effect of insulin on cellular components of the lung...... and highlights the molecular consequences of insulin-related metabolic signaling cascades that could adversely affect lung structure and function. Examples include airway smooth muscle proliferation and contractility and regulatory signaling networks that are associated with asthma. These aspects of insulin...

  17. Cyclophosphamide in diffuse lung damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiatowicz, B; Sulkowska, M; Sulik, M; Famulski, W; Dziecioł, J; Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Baltaziak, M; Arciuch, L; Rółkowski, R; Jabłońska, E

    1997-01-01

    Some cyclophosphamide toxic effects on lung tissue are presented. Cyclophosphamide metabolism, pathogenesis of lung damage and morphological lung tissue changes caused by that agent were characterized. Attention was focused on BAL evaluation as a useful method in the monitoring of lung tissue damage degree.

  18. Herniation of malignant lung cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saurabh Kumar Singh; Rakesh Bhargava; Zuber Ahmad; Deepak K.Pandey; Shirin Naaz; Vibhanshu Gupta

    2008-01-01

    @@ Hernia of the lung is defined as a protrusion of lung tissue,covered by parietal and visceral pleurae,through an abnormal opening in the chest wall,diaphragm or mediastinum.1 It is a relatively uncommon condition.We report a case of lung hernia following cavitation in malignant lung mass.

  19. 进一步液体复苏时胸腔内血容量与血管外肺水的相关性研究%Association of intrathoracic blood volume index(ITBVI) and extravascular lung water index(EVLWI) in elderly septic shock patients with further fluid resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾圣伟; 龚仕金; 周娟娣; 刘秉宇; 李莉; 戴海文; 虞意华; 王敏佳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of intrathoracic blood volume index(ITBVI) and extravascular lung water index(EVLWI) in elderly septic shock patients with further fluid resuscitation therapy. Methods Twenty five elderly septic shock patients with hemodynamic instability after 6h fluid resuscitation were monitored by pulse indicators continuous cardiac output (PiCCO) in intensive care unit. The cardiac output volume index (CI), ITBVI and EVLWI were recorded at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48h by PiCCO monitoring, 125 groups of data were col ected in total. The association between ITBVI and EVLWI was analyzed. The patients were further divided into CI>2.5L/(min·m2) and CI2.5L/(min·m2) group was higher than that in CI0.05);however, ITBVI was positively correlated with EVLWI in CI>2.5L/(min·m2) group(n=75, r=0.597;P<0.05). Conclusion For the elderly septic shock patients with instable hemodynamics after fluid resuscitation,the monitoring of cardiac function, ITBVI and EVLWI values by PiCCO is necessary for guidance of further fluid resuscitation.%目的:探讨老年感染性休克患者进一步液体复苏时胸腔内血容量指数(ITBVI)与血管外肺水指数(EVLWI)的相关性。方法对已行液