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Sample records for lung cancer tissue

  1. Protein signature of lung cancer tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Mehan

    Full Text Available Lung cancer remains the most common cause of cancer-related mortality. We applied a highly multiplexed proteomic technology (SOMAscan to compare protein expression signatures of non small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC tissues with healthy adjacent and distant tissues from surgical resections. In this first report of SOMAscan applied to tissues, we highlight 36 proteins that exhibit the largest expression differences between matched tumor and non-tumor tissues. The concentrations of twenty proteins increased and sixteen decreased in tumor tissue, thirteen of which are novel for NSCLC. NSCLC tissue biomarkers identified here overlap with a core set identified in a large serum-based NSCLC study with SOMAscan. We show that large-scale comparative analysis of protein expression can be used to develop novel histochemical probes. As expected, relative differences in protein expression are greater in tissues than in serum. The combined results from tissue and serum present the most extensive view to date of the complex changes in NSCLC protein expression and provide important implications for diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Trace element load in cancer and normal lung tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukus, A.; Braziewicz, J.; Banas, D.; Majewska, U.; Gozdz, S.; Urbaniak, A.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of malignant and benign human lung tissues were analysed by two complementary methods, i.e., particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TRXRF). The concentration of trace elements of P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Hg and Pb was determined in squamous cancer of lung tissue from 65 people and in the benign lung tumour tissue from 5 people. Several elements shows enhancement in cancerous lung tissue of women in comparison to men, i.e., titanium show maximum enhancement by 48% followed by Cr (20%) and Mn (36%). At the same time trace element concentration of Sr and Pb are declaimed by 30% and 20% in women population. Physical basis of used analytical methods, experimental set-up and the procedure of sample preparation are described

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times for human lung cancer and lung tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Yoshifumi; Shioya, Sumie; Kurita, Daisaku; Ohta, Takashi; Haida, Munetaka; Ohta, Yasuyo; Suda, Syuichi; Fukuzaki, Minoru.

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation times, T 1 and T 2 , for lung cancer tissue, and other samples of lung tissue obtained from surgical specimens. The samples were nine squamous cell carcinomas, five necrotic squamous cell carcinomas, 15 adenocarcinomas, two benign mesotheliomas, and 13 fibrotic lungs. The relaxation times were measured with a 90 MHz NMR spectrometer and the results were correlated with histological changes. The values of T 1 and T 2 for squamous cell carcinoma and mesothelioma were significantly longer than those of adenocarcinoma and fibrotic lung tissue. There were no significant differences in values of T 1 and T 2 between adenocarcinoma and lung tissue. The values of T 1 and T 2 for benign mesothelioma were similar to those of squamous cell carcinoma, which suggested that increases in T 1 and T 2 are not specific to malignant tissues. (author)

  4. Measurement of asbestos bodies in lung tissue of autopsy cases diagnosed with primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idei, Yuka; Kamada, Satoe; Matsumoto, Shoji; Ohnishi, Kazuo; Kitazawa, Riko; Kitazawa, Sohei

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relation between asbestos-related lung cancer and the concentration of asbestos bodies in lung tissue, we analyzed the concentration in 24 autopsy cases diagnosed with primary lung cancer, with regard to the gender, age, histological type of lung cancer and occupation of each case. The asbestos bodies were measured according to Kohyama's method. Positive cases (more than 5,000 bodies per 1 g of dry lung tissue) were further analyzed for asbestosis and pleural plaques by chest X-ray and chest CT. Two cases exhibited more than 5,000 bodies, five cases between 1,000 and 5,000, and seventeen cases less than 1,000. The occupation of the two positive cases was not informative: one demonstrated neither asbestosis nor pleural plaques, and the other showed only pleural plaques. Although the number of cases of asbestos-related lung cancer is minimal among all lung cancer cases, the number of the former may exceed that of mesothelioma patients. Not only physicians but also radiologists, surgeons and pathologists need to collaborate in the diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer. (author)

  5. Preferential elevation of Prx I and Trx expression in lung cancer cells following hypoxia and in human lung cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Chae, H Z; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y H; Hwangs, T S; Park, E M; Park, Y M

    2003-10-01

    Transient/chronic microenvironmental hypoxia that exists within a majority of solid tumors has been suggested to have a profound influence on tumor growth and therapeutic outcome. Since the functions of novel antioxidant proteins, peroxiredoxin I (Prx I) and II, have been implicated in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, it was of our special interest to probe a possible role of Prx I and II in the context of hypoxic tumor microenvironment. Since both Prx I and II use thioredoxin (Trx) as an electron donor and Trx is a substrate for thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), we investigated the regulation of Trx and TrxR as well as Prx expression following hypoxia. Here we show a dynamic change of glutathione homeostasis in lung cancer A549 cells and an up-regulation of Prx I and Trx following hypoxia. Western blot analysis of 10 human lung cancer and paired normal lung tissues also revealed an elevated expression of Prx I and Trx proteins in lung cancer tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis of the lung cancer tissues confirmed an augmented Prx I and Trx expression in cancer cells with respect to the parenchymal cells in adjacent normal lung tissue. Based on these results, we suggest that the redox changes in lung tumor microenvironment could have acted as a trigger for the up-regulation of Prx I and Trx in lung cancer cells. Although the clinical significance of our finding awaits more rigorous future study, preferential augmentation of the Prx I and Trx in lung cancer cells may well represent an attempt of cancer cells to manipulate a dynamic redox change in tumor microenvironment in a manner that is beneficial for their proliferation and malignant progression.

  6. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer

  7. Up-regulation of ALG-2 in hepatomas and lung cancer tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Jonas Marstrand; Mollerup, Jens; Winding, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    , a result confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. Staining of four different lung cancer tissue microarrays including specimens of 263 patients showed that ALG-2 is mainly localized to epithelial cells and significantly up-regulated in small-cell lung cancers and in non-small-cell lung cancers. Our...... using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Western blot analysis of 15 different adult mouse tissues demonstrated that ALG-2 is ubiquitously expressed. We found that ALG-2 was more than threefold overexpressed in rat liver hepatoma compared to normal rat liver using Western blot analysis...

  8. Connective tissue-activating peptide III: a novel blood biomarker for early lung cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, John; Sadar, Marianne D; Sin, Don D; Kuzyk, Michael; Xing, Li; Kondra, Jennifer; McWilliams, Annette; Man, S F Paul; Lam, Stephen

    2009-06-10

    There are no reliable blood biomarkers to detect early lung cancer. We used a novel strategy that allows discovery of differentially present proteins against a complex and variable background. Mass spectrometry analyses of paired pulmonary venous-radial arterial blood from 16 lung cancer patients were applied to identify plasma proteins potentially derived from the tumor microenvironment. Two differentially expressed proteins were confirmed in 64 paired venous-arterial blood samples using an immunoassay. Twenty-eight pre- and postsurgical resection peripheral blood samples and two independent, blinded sets of plasma from 149 participants in a lung cancer screening study (49 lung cancers and 100 controls) and 266 participants from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Lung Health Study (45 lung cancer and 221 matched controls) determined the accuracy of the two protein markers to detect subclinical lung cancer. Connective tissue-activating peptide III (CTAP III)/ neutrophil activating protein-2 (NAP-2) and haptoglobin were identified to be significantly higher in venous than in arterial blood. CTAP III/NAP-2 levels decreased after tumor resection (P = .01). In two independent population cohorts, CTAP III/NAP-2 was significantly associated with lung cancer and improved the accuracy of a lung cancer risk prediction model that included age, smoking, lung function (FEV(1)), and an interaction term between FEV(1) and CTAP III/NAP-2 (area under the curve, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.91) compared to CAPIII/NAP-2 alone. We identified CTAP III/NAP-2 as a novel biomarker to detect preclinical lung cancer. The study underscores the importance of applying blood biomarkers as part of a multimodal lung cancer risk prediction model instead of as stand-alone tests.

  9. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Become An Advocate Volunteer Ways To Give Lung Cancer www.lung.org > Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > ... Cancer Learn About Lung Cancer What Is Lung Cancer Lung Cancer Basics Causes & Risk Factors Lung Cancer Staging ...

  10. Elevated levels of CXC chemokine connective tissue activating peptide (CTAP)-III in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gina; Gardner, Brian K; Elashoff, David A; Purcell, Colleen M; Sandha, Harpavan S; Mao, Jenny T; Krysan, Kostyantyn; Lee, Jay M; Dubinett, Steven M

    2011-05-15

    Despite advances in treatments, lung cancer has been the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States for the past several decades. Recent findings from the National Lung Screening Trial reveal that low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) scan screening of high-risk individuals reduces lung cancer mortality. This suggests that early detection is of key importance to improving patient outcome. However, of those screened with CT scans, 25% had positive scans that require further follow-up studies which often involve more radiation exposure and invasive tests to reduce false positive results. The purpose of this study was to identify candidate plasma biomarkers to aid in diagnosis of lung cancer in at-risk individuals. We found increased expression of the CXC chemokine connective tissue-activating peptide (CTAP)-III from plasma specimens of lung cancer patients compared to at-risk control subjects. Identification of the peptide was confirmed by the addition of an anti-NAP-2 antibody that recognizes CTAP-III and NAP-2. We also quantified and verified the increased levels of plasma CTAP-III with ELISA in patients with lung cancer (mean ± SD, 1859 ± 1219 ng/mL) compared to controls (698 ± 434 ng/mL; Pcancer patients. Further studies are required to determine if this chemokine could be utilized in a blood-based biomarker panel for the diagnosis of lung cancer.

  11. Serum biomarkers reflecting specific tumor tissue remodeling processes are valuable diagnostic tools for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willumsen, Nicholas; Bager, Cecilie L; Leeming, Diana J; Smith, Victoria; Christiansen, Claus; Karsdal, Morten A; Dornan, David; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, such as collagen type I and elastin, and intermediate filament (IMF) proteins, such as vimentin are modified and dysregulated as part of the malignant changes leading to disruption of tissue homeostasis. Noninvasive biomarkers that reflect such changes may have a great potential for cancer. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) generated fragments of type I collagen (C1M), of elastin (ELM), and of citrullinated vimentin (VICM) were measured in serum from patients with lung cancer (n = 40), gastrointestinal cancer (n = 25), prostate cancer (n = 14), malignant melanoma (n = 7), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 13), and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 10), as well as in age-matched controls (n = 33). The area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) was calculated and a diagnostic decision tree generated from specific cutoff values. C1M and VICM were significantly elevated in lung cancer patients as compared with healthy controls (AUROC = 0.98, P < 0.0001) and other cancers (AUROC = 0.83 P < 0.0001). A trend was detected when comparing lung cancer with COPD+IPF. No difference could be seen for ELM. Interestingly, C1M and VICM were able to identify patients with lung cancer with a positive predictive value of 0.9 and an odds ratio of 40 (95% CI = 8.7–186, P < 0.0001). Biomarkers specifically reflecting degradation of collagen type I and citrullinated vimentin are applicable for lung cancer patients. Our data indicate that biomarkers reflecting ECM and IMF protein dysregulation are highly applicable in the lung cancer setting. We speculate that these markers may aid in diagnosing and characterizing patients with lung cancer

  12. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Screening Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  13. Progress in Tissue Specimens Alternative for the Driver Genes Testing of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan SUN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Target treatment based on driver genes in advanced non-small cell lung cancer is very important currently. Tumor tissues is the gold standard for driver genes testing. However, most of patients could not get the gene information for lack of enough tissues. To explore the tissue specimens alternatives is a hot spot in clinical work. This report reviews the tissue specimen alternatives of driver gene testing in non-small cell lung cancer.

  14. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  15. N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine receptors in normal and cancerous tissue of the human lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Eiko; Mishima, Michiaki; Kawakami, Kenzo; Sakai, Naoki; Sugiura, Naoharu; Kuno, Kenshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Clinical Physiology; Taniguchi, Takashi [Kyoto Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Neurobiology

    1993-04-01

    N-Isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) receptors in normal human lung tissue were characterized using a radioligand binding assay with iodine-125 IMP as the ligand. Saturation binding studies revealed the presence of two binding sites with dissociation constant (K[sub d]) values of 53[+-]2 and 4687[+-]124 nM and maximum binding capacity (Bmax) values of 7[+-]1 and 133[+-]27 pmol/mg protein (n=5) respectively. The IC[sub 50] values of various amines were as follows: IMP, 9x10[sup -5] M; propranolol, 5x10[sup -4] M; haloperidol, 6x10[sup -4] M; ketamine, 9x10[sup -3] M; dopamine, 1x10[sup -2] M. The IMP receptors of cancerous tissue obtained from human lung also had two binding sites with K[sub d] values of 54[+-]2 and 5277[+-]652 nM and Bmax values of 7[+-]1 and 103[+-]21 pmol/mg protein (n=3) respectively. There was no significant difference in binding parameters between normal and cancerous lung tissue. These results demonstrate the existence of IMP receptors and suggest that cancer does not affect the nature of IMP receptors in human lung tissue. (orig.).

  16. Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghfoor, Irfan; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Since tobacco smoking is the cause in vast majority of cases, the incidence of lung cancer is expected to rise in those countries with high or rising incidence of tobacco smoking. Even though population at a risk of developing lung cancer are easily identified, mass screening for lung cancer is not supported by currently available evidence. In case of non-small cell lung cancer, a cure may be possible with surgical resection followed by post-operative chemotherapy in those diagnosed at an early stage. A small minority of patients who present with locally advanced disease may also benefit from preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to down stage the tumor to render it potentially operable. In a vast majority of patients, however, lung cancer presents at an advanced stage and a cure is not possible with currently available therapeutic strategies. Similarly small cell lung cancer confined to one hemi-thorax may be curable with a combination of chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation, if complete remission is achieved at the primary site. Small cell lung cancer that is spread beyond the confines of one hemi-thorax is however, considered incurable. In this era of molecular targeted therapies, new agents are constantly undergoing pre-clinical and clinical testing with the aim of targeting the molecular pathways thought to involved in etiology and pathogenesis of lung cancer. (author)

  17. Lung Cancer Signature Biomarkers: tissue specific semantic similarity based clustering of Digital Differential Display (DDD data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Mousami

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tissue-specific Unigene Sets derived from more than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the NCBI, GenBank database offers a platform for identifying significantly and differentially expressed tissue-specific genes by in-silico methods. Digital differential display (DDD rapidly creates transcription profiles based on EST comparisons and numerically calculates, as a fraction of the pool of ESTs, the relative sequence abundance of known and novel genes. However, the process of identifying the most likely tissue for a specific disease in which to search for candidate genes from the pool of differentially expressed genes remains difficult. Therefore, we have used ‘Gene Ontology semantic similarity score’ to measure the GO similarity between gene products of lung tissue-specific candidate genes from control (normal and disease (cancer sets. This semantic similarity score matrix based on hierarchical clustering represents in the form of a dendrogram. The dendrogram cluster stability was assessed by multiple bootstrapping. Multiple bootstrapping also computes a p-value for each cluster and corrects the bias of the bootstrap probability. Results Subsequent hierarchical clustering by the multiple bootstrapping method (α = 0.95 identified seven clusters. The comparative, as well as subtractive, approach revealed a set of 38 biomarkers comprising four distinct lung cancer signature biomarker clusters (panel 1–4. Further gene enrichment analysis of the four panels revealed that each panel represents a set of lung cancer linked metastasis diagnostic biomarkers (panel 1, chemotherapy/drug resistance biomarkers (panel 2, hypoxia regulated biomarkers (panel 3 and lung extra cellular matrix biomarkers (panel 4. Conclusions Expression analysis reveals that hypoxia induced lung cancer related biomarkers (panel 3, HIF and its modulating proteins (TGM2, CSNK1A1, CTNNA1, NAMPT/Visfatin, TNFRSF1A, ETS1, SRC-1, FN1, APLP2, DMBT1

  18. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Prevention Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  19. What Is Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shareable Graphics Infographics “African-American Men and Lung Cancer” “Lung Cancer Is the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ...

  20. Small cell lung cancer presenting as dermatomyositis: mistaken for single connective tissue disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Guanqun; Fang, Lizheng; Lu, Chongrong; Chen, Zhouwen

    2012-06-01

    Dermatomyositis (DM) is well-known to be associated with several types of malignancy. This case emphasizes the importance of a thorough examination for an underlying cancer, in patients with the symptoms of dermatomyositis. We report the case of a 62-year-old Chinese man who presented with a two-month history of edema of face and neck, together with erythema of the eyelids diagnosed of small cell lung cancer. Initially, it was thought to be single connective tissue disease such as DM. This study highlights the importance of a thorough physical examination when visiting a patient.

  1. Lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causing chemicals such as uranium, beryllium, vinyl chloride, nickel chromates, coal products, mustard gas, chloromethyl ethers, gasoline, and diesel exhaust Exposure to radon gas Family history of lung cancer ...

  2. Expression and Significance of gp96 and Immune-related Gene CTLA-4, CD8 in Lung Cancer Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan ZHENG

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that gp96 plays an important role in specific cytotoxic immune response which is involved in anti-tumor effect in the body. The aim of this study is to investigate the biological significance of heat shock protein gp96 and immune-related gene CTLA-4, CD8 expressions in lung cancer tissues of different progressive stages. Methods We used Envision immunohistochemistry method to detect the levels of expression of gp96, CTLA-4, CD8 in tissue microarray, which contained 89 primary lung cancer tissues, 12 lymph node metastasis lung cancer tissues, 12 precancerous lesions and 10 normal lung tissues, and analyzed the relationship between their expressions and clinicopathological parameters. Results (1 The positive rate of gp96 in primary lung cancer was remarkably higher than that in precancerous lesion and normal lung tissue (P < 0.05. The positive rate of CTLA-4 in primary lung cancer tissue and precancerous lesion was significantly higher than that in normal lung tissue (P < 0.05. The positive rate of CD8 in primary lung cancer tissue was significantly higher than that in normal lung tissue (P < 0.05. The positive rate of gp96 in CD8-positive lymphocytes in the high expression group was less than that in the low group (P < 0.05. (2 The positive rate of gp96 was closely related to sex, differentiation and clinical stage (P < 0.05, but not to age, gross type, histological type and lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05. The positive rate of CTLA-4 was closely related to age and differentiation (P < 0.05, but not to sex, gross type, histological type, clinical stage and lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05. CD8 expression was related to clinical stage (P < 0.05, but not to sex, age, gross type, histological type, differentiation and lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05. The positive rates of gp96, CTLA-4 were higher than that of CD8 in squamous cell carcinoma and SCLC, respectively. (3 There was positive correlation between gp

  3. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  4. Preanalytics in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Arne; Muley, Thomas; Meister, Michael; Weichert, Wilko

    2015-01-01

    Preanalytic sampling techniques and preparation of tissue specimens strongly influence analytical results in lung tissue diagnostics both on the morphological but also on the molecular level. However, in contrast to analytics where tremendous achievements in the last decade have led to a whole new portfolio of test methods, developments in preanalytics have been minimal. This is specifically unfortunate in lung cancer, where usually only small amounts of tissue are at hand and optimization in all processing steps is mandatory in order to increase the diagnostic yield. In the following, we provide a comprehensive overview on some aspects of preanalytics in lung cancer from the method of sampling over tissue processing to its impact on analytical test results. We specifically discuss the role of preanalytics in novel technologies like next-generation sequencing and in the state-of the-art cytology preparations. In addition, we point out specific problems in preanalytics which hamper further developments in the field of lung tissue diagnostics.

  5. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Final performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samet, J.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1998-08-13

    This project incorporates two related research projects directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first project involved a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second project was a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives including facilitating the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases, developing methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and assessing the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collected multiple biological specimens. A pilot study was conducted to determine whether blood collection, induced sputum, bronchial brushing, washings, and mucosal biopsies from participants at two of the hospitals could be included efficiently. A questionnaire was developed for the extended study and all protocols for specimen collection and tissue handling were completed. Resource utilization is in progress at ITRI and the methods have been developed to study molecular and cellular changes in exfoliated cells contained in sputum as well as susceptibility factors.

  6. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Final performance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1998-01-01

    This project incorporates two related research projects directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first project involved a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second project was a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives including facilitating the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases, developing methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and assessing the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collected multiple biological specimens. A pilot study was conducted to determine whether blood collection, induced sputum, bronchial brushing, washings, and mucosal biopsies from participants at two of the hospitals could be included efficiently. A questionnaire was developed for the extended study and all protocols for specimen collection and tissue handling were completed. Resource utilization is in progress at ITRI and the methods have been developed to study molecular and cellular changes in exfoliated cells contained in sputum as well as susceptibility factors

  7. Tissue hyaluronan expression, as reflected in the sputum of lung cancer patients, is an indicator of malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, M.P.; Sá, V.K. de; Martins, V. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins, J.R.M. [Disciplina de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Bioquímica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Disciplina de Endocrinologia e Metabolismo, Laboratório de Endocrinologia Molecular e Translacional-LEMT, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Parra, E.R. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mendes, A. [Disciplina de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Bioquímica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, P.C. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Reis, R.M. [Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, Braga (Portugal); ICVS/3B' s - PT Government Associate Laboratory, Guimarães (Portugal); Centro de Pesquisa em Oncologia Molecular, Hospital de Câncer de Barretos, Fundação Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil); Longatto-Filho, A. [Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, Braga (Portugal); ICVS/3B' s - PT Government Associate Laboratory, Guimarães (Portugal); Laboratório de Investigação Médica (LIM 14), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Centro de Pesquisa em Oncologia Molecular, Hospital de Câncer de Barretos, Fundação Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, C.Z. [Centro de Pesquisa em Oncologia Molecular, Hospital de Câncer de Barretos, Fundação Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil); Takagaki, T. [Divisão de Pneumologia, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carraro, D.M. [Centro Internacional de Pesquisa/CIPE, AC Camargo Cancer Center, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nader, H.B. [Disciplina de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Bioquímica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Capelozzi, V.L. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-05-08

    Hyaluronan (HA) shows promise for detecting cancerous change in pleural effusion and urine. However, there is uncertainty about the localization of HA in tumor tissue and its relationship with different histological types and other components of the extracellular matrix, such as angiogenesis. We evaluated the association between HA and degree of malignancy through expression in lung tumor tissue and sputum. Tumoral tissue had significantly increased HA compared to normal tissue. Strong HA staining intensity associated with cancer cells was significant in squamous cell carcinoma compared to adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. A significant direct association was found between tumors with a high percentage of HA and MVD (microvessel density) in tumoral stroma. Similarly significant was the direct association between N1 tumors and high levels of HA in cancer cells. Cox multivariate analysis showed significant association between better survival and low HA. HA increased in sputum from lung cancer patients compared to cancer-free and healthy volunteers and a significant correlation was found between HA in sputum and HA in cancer tissue. Localization of HA in tumor tissue was related to malignancy and reflected in sputum, making this an emerging factor for an important diagnostic procedure in patients suspected to have lung cancer. Further study in additional patients in a randomized prospective trial is required to finalize these results and to validate our quantitative assessment of HA, as well as to couple it to gold standard sputum cytology.

  8. Tissue hyaluronan expression, as reflected in the sputum of lung cancer patients, is an indicator of malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, M.P.; Sá, V.K. de; Martins, V.; Martins, J.R.M.; Parra, E.R.; Mendes, A.; Andrade, P.C.; Reis, R.M.; Longatto-Filho, A.; Oliveira, C.Z.; Takagaki, T.; Carraro, D.M.; Nader, H.B.; Capelozzi, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) shows promise for detecting cancerous change in pleural effusion and urine. However, there is uncertainty about the localization of HA in tumor tissue and its relationship with different histological types and other components of the extracellular matrix, such as angiogenesis. We evaluated the association between HA and degree of malignancy through expression in lung tumor tissue and sputum. Tumoral tissue had significantly increased HA compared to normal tissue. Strong HA staining intensity associated with cancer cells was significant in squamous cell carcinoma compared to adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. A significant direct association was found between tumors with a high percentage of HA and MVD (microvessel density) in tumoral stroma. Similarly significant was the direct association between N1 tumors and high levels of HA in cancer cells. Cox multivariate analysis showed significant association between better survival and low HA. HA increased in sputum from lung cancer patients compared to cancer-free and healthy volunteers and a significant correlation was found between HA in sputum and HA in cancer tissue. Localization of HA in tumor tissue was related to malignancy and reflected in sputum, making this an emerging factor for an important diagnostic procedure in patients suspected to have lung cancer. Further study in additional patients in a randomized prospective trial is required to finalize these results and to validate our quantitative assessment of HA, as well as to couple it to gold standard sputum cytology

  9. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  10. Lung Cancer: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional support team today. Learn More . Find more lung cancer resources. Learn More Donate Today! What is Lung ... to Give How Your Support Helps Events Lung Cancer Awareness © Lung Cancer Alliance. The information presented in this website ...

  11. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

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    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next three ...

  12. Lung cancer in connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease: clinical features and impact on outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Saeki, Keigo; Waseda, Yuko; Murata, Akari; Takato, Hazuki; Ichikawa, Yukari; Yasui, Masahide; Kimura, Hideharu; Hamaguchi, Yasuhito; Matsushita, Takashi; Yamada, Kazunori; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Furuichi, Kengo; Wada, Takashi; Kasahara, Kazuo

    2018-02-01

    Lung cancer (LC) adversely impacts survival in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. However, little is known about LC in patients with connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for LC in CTD-ILD, and the clinical characteristics and survival of CTD-ILD patients with LC. We conducted a single-center, retrospective review of patients with CTD-ILD from 2003 to 2016. Patients with pathologically diagnosed LC were identified. The prevalence, risk factors, and clinical features of LC and the impact of LC on CTD-ILD patient outcomes were observed. Of 266 patients with CTD-ILD, 24 (9.0%) had LC. CTD-ILD with LC was more likely in patients who were older, male, and smokers; had rheumatoid arthritis, a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, emphysema on chest computed tomography scan, and lower diffusing capacity of the lung carbon monoxide (DLco)% predicted; and were not receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Multivariate analysis indicated that the presence of emphysema [odds ratio (OR), 8.473; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.241-32.033] and nonuse of immunosuppressive therapy (OR, 8.111; 95% CI, 2.457-26.775) were independent risk factors for LC. CTD-ILD patients with LC had significantly worse survival than patients without LC (10-year survival rate: 28.5% vs. 81.8%, P<0.001). LC is associated with the presence of emphysema and nonuse of immunosuppressive therapy, and contributes to increased mortality in patients with CTD-ILD.

  13. Prognostic significance of tissue polypeptidespecific antigen (TPS) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Gaast (Ate); C.H.H. Schoenmakers (Christian); T.C. Kok (Tjebbe); B.G. Blijenberg (Bert); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); T.A.W. Splinter (Ted)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn this study, we evaluated the prognostic value of the tumour marker, tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS), in 203 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and related this to several other known prognostic factors. TPS was significantly correlated with lactate

  14. Effect of multiple cycles of freeze-thawing on the RNA quality of lung cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Keke; Xing, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Ruiying; Zhang, Ye; Zhao, Lanxiang

    2017-09-01

    RNA degradation is a major problem in tissue banking. We explored the effect of thawing flash-frozen biospecimens on the quality and integrity of RNA for genetic testing as well as for other cancer research studies. The histological quality of the frozen tumor sections was evaluated by using hematoxylin and eosin staining. RNA extraction from 60 lung cancer tissue samples subjected to various freeze/thaw cycles was performed using the RNeasy Plus isolation kit. RNA integrity was assessed by using an Agilent bioanalyzer to obtain RNA integrity numbers (RIN). Furthermore, RNA from different groups was used for fluorescence Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion gene mutation to verify whether it can be used for research or clinical testing. Highly variable RIN values were observed among the samples, which showed no correlation with the number of freeze/thaw cycles conducted. However, after 3 freeze/thaw cycles (each thaw event lasted for 10 min), an increasing number of changes in peak intensity in RINs were observed. After 5 freeze/thaw cycles, RNA integrity decreased to approximately 35%. After 3 freeze/thaw cycles, the RNA could still be used for RT-PCR analysis of EML4-ALK fusion gene mutations; whereas those subjected to 5 freeze/thaw cycles could not. Limited (cycles did not adversely affect the quality of RNA extracted from tumor tissues and subsequent RT-PCR analysis. Our data could be utilized in the establishment of a standardized procedure for tissue biospecimen collection and storage.

  15. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    Based on the own experience and world literatures, contribution of radiation in the treatment of lung cancer was reviewed and discussed. Although the patients with advanced cancer were referred to radiation usually, the results of radiotherapy were superior to those by chemotherapy. Of course the radiotherapy was a local one, radiation combined with chemotherapy was highly recommended, besides systemic administration of chemotherapeutics, special methods such as bronchial arterial infusion (BAI) and chemoembolization would be more favourable in selected patients. Treatment of undifferentiated small cell carcinoma was becoming more dependent on chemotherapy, radiation showed as excellent local control as ever. To treat locally extended cancer patients with involvement of the thoracic wall and Pancoast's syndrome, external radiation alone were not successful, interstitial radiation or a single exposure with a large dose during the thoracotomy would be promising. Finally, data indicated that aged and poor risk patients in early stage of cancer might be treated by radiation instead of unjustifiable operation. (author)

  16. Integrative proteomics and tissue microarray profiling indicate the association between overexpressed serum proteins and non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yansheng Liu

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Clinically, the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC can be improved by the early detection and risk screening among population. To meet this need, here we describe the application of extensive peptide level fractionation coupled with label free quantitative proteomics for the discovery of potential serum biomarkers for lung cancer, and the usage of Tissue microarray analysis (TMA and Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM assays for the following up validations in the verification phase. Using these state-of-art, currently available clinical proteomic approaches, in the discovery phase we confidently identified 647 serum proteins, and 101 proteins showed a statistically significant association with NSCLC in our 18 discovery samples. This serum proteomic dataset allowed us to discern the differential patterns and abnormal biological processes in the lung cancer blood. Of these proteins, Alpha-1B-glycoprotein (A1BG and Leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG1, two plasma glycoproteins with previously unknown function were selected as examples for which TMA and MRM verification were performed in a large sample set consisting about 100 patients. We revealed that A1BG and LRG1 were overexpressed in both the blood level and tumor sections, which can be referred to separate lung cancer patients from healthy cases.

  17. Telomerase in lung cancer diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovkarova, E.; Stefanovski, T.; Dimov, A.; Naumovski, J.

    2003-01-01

    Background. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein that looks after the telomeric cap of the linear chromosomes maintaining its length. It is over expressed in tumour tissues, but not in normal somatic cells. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the telomerase activity in lung cancer patients as novel marker for lung cancer detection evaluating the influence of tissue/cell obtaining technique. Material and methods. Using the TRAP (telomeric repeat amplification protocol), telomerase activity was determined in material obtained from bronchobiopsy (60 lung cancer patients compared with 20 controls) and washings from transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy performed in 10 patients with peripheral lung tumours. Results. Telomerase activity was detected in 75% of the lung cancer bronchobyopsies, and in 100% in transthoracic needle washings. Conclusions. Measurement of telomerase activity can contribute in fulfilling the diagnosis of lung masses and nodules suspected for lung cancer. (author)

  18. On Predicting lung cancer subtypes using ‘omic’ data from tumor and tumor-adjacent histologically-normal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda, Arturo López; Ogoe, Henry Ato; Balasubramanian, Jeya Balaji; Rangel Escareño, Claudia; Visweswaran, Shyam; Herman, James Gordon; Gopalakrishnan, Vanathi

    2016-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most prevalent histological types among lung cancers. Distinguishing between these subtypes is critically important because they have different implications for prognosis and treatment. Normally, histopathological analyses are used to distinguish between the two, where the tissue samples are collected based on small endoscopic samples or needle aspirations. However, the lack of cell architecture in these small tissue samples hampers the process of distinguishing between the two subtypes. Molecular profiling can also be used to discriminate between the two lung cancer subtypes, on condition that the biopsy is composed of at least 50 % of tumor cells. However, for some cases, the tissue composition of a biopsy might be a mix of tumor and tumor-adjacent histologically normal tissue (TAHN). When this happens, a new biopsy is required, with associated cost, risks and discomfort to the patient. To avoid this problem, we hypothesize that a computational method can distinguish between lung cancer subtypes given tumor and TAHN tissue. Using publicly available datasets for gene expression and DNA methylation, we applied four classification tasks, depending on the possible combinations of tumor and TAHN tissue. First, we used a feature selector (ReliefF/Limma) to select relevant variables, which were then used to build a simple naïve Bayes classification model. Then, we evaluated the classification performance of our models by measuring the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Finally, we analyzed the relevance of the selected genes using hierarchical clustering and IPA® software for gene functional analysis. All Bayesian models achieved high classification performance (AUC > 0.94), which were confirmed by hierarchical cluster analysis. From the genes selected, 25 (93 %) were found to be related to cancer (19 were associated with ADC or SCC), confirming the biological relevance of our

  19. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Lung cancer Lung cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... cancer, childhood Additional NIH Resources (3 links) National Cancer Institute: Lung Cancer Overview National Cancer Institute: Lung Cancer Prevention ...

  20. KLC1-ALK: a novel fusion in lung cancer identified using a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue only.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Togashi

    Full Text Available The promising results of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK inhibitors have changed the significance of ALK fusions in several types of cancer. These fusions are no longer mere research targets or diagnostic markers, but they are now directly linked to the therapeutic benefit of patients. However, most available tumor tissues in clinical settings are formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE, and this significantly limits detailed genetic studies in many clinical cases. Although recent technical improvements have allowed the analysis of some known mutations in FFPE tissues, identifying unknown fusion genes by using only FFPE tissues remains difficult. We developed a 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends-based system optimized for FFPE tissues and evaluated this system on a lung cancer tissue with ALK rearrangement and without the 2 known ALK fusions EML4-ALK and KIF5B-ALK. With this system, we successfully identified a novel ALK fusion, KLC1-ALK. The result was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Then, we synthesized the putative full-length cDNA of KLC1-ALK and demonstrated the transforming potential of the fusion kinase with assays using mouse 3T3 cells. To the best of our knowledge, KLC1-ALK is the first novel oncogenic fusion identified using only FFPE tissues. This finding will broaden the potential value of archival FFPE tissues and provide further biological and clinical insights into ALK-positive lung cancer.

  1. An analysis of the clinical features of lung cancer in patients with connective tissue diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Atsuro; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Goto, Hisatsugu; Toyoda, Yuko; Tezuka, Toshifumi; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2017-03-01

    Patients with connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are at increased risk for lung cancer (LC); interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common form of organ dysfunction in cases of CTD. However, the influence of ILD on the treatment and prognosis in LC patients with CTD is unclear. Between January 2010 and December 2014, 27 patients among all patients with CTD at our institution were diagnosed with primary LC. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical features, treatment modalities, and outcomes of these patients, and evaluated the potential prognostic factors. Forty-four LC patients without CTD were also analyzed as a control cohort. LC patients with CTD had a significantly higher incidence of ILD as a complication compared with those without CTD (52% and 14%, respectively). CTD-associated ILD (CTD-ILD) at diagnosis was associated with significantly worse survival in LC patients with CTD. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the complication of CTD-ILD was an independent poor prognostic factor in LC patients with CTD. The incidence of acute exacerbation (AE) of CTD-ILD was 21% among LC patients with CTD, and all of these patients died despite intensive treatment including high-dose corticosteroids. The restrictions in curative therapy for LC due to the presence of ILD and AE of CTD-ILD were thought to be the major reasons for the poor outcome. LC patients with CTD had a high prevalence of ILD, and the presence of CTD-ILD was significantly associated with poor prognosis. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is almost always due to smoking. TREATING LUNG CANCER Lung cancer treatment depends on several factors, including the ... org TARGETING CANCER CARE Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in ...

  3. Lung cancer development in patients with connective tissue disease-related interstitial lung disease: A retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Yasunori; Inui, Naoki; Yoshimura, Katsuhiro; Nishimoto, Koji; Mori, Kazutaka; Kono, Masato; Fujisawa, Tomoyuki; Enomoto, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Yutaro; Iwashita, Toshihide; Suda, Takafumi

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies have reported that patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis occasionally develop lung cancer (LC). However, in connective tissue disease (CTD)-related interstitial lung disease (ILD), there are few data regarding the LC development. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical significance of LC development in patients with CTD-ILD. A retrospective review of our database of 562 patients with ILD between 2000 and 2014 identified 127 patients diagnosed with CTD-ILD. The overall and cumulative incidences of LC were calculated. In addition, the risk factors and prognostic impact of LC development were evaluated. The median age at the ILD diagnosis was 63 years (range 37-84 years), and 73 patients (57.5%) were female. The median follow-up period from the ILD diagnosis was 67.4 months (range 10.4-322.1 months). During the period, 7 out of the 127 patients developed LC (overall incidence 5.5%). The cumulative incidences at 1, 3, and 5 years were 0.0%, 1.8%, and 2.9%, respectively. The risk of LC development was significantly higher in patients with higher smoking pack-year (odds ratio [OR] 1.028; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.008-1.049; P = 0.007) and emphysema on chest high-resolution computed tomography (OR 14.667; 95% CI 2.871-74.926; P = 0.001). The median overall survival time after developing LC was 7.0 months (95% CI 4.9-9.1 months), and the most common cause of death was LC, not ILD. According to the Cox proportional hazard model analysis with time-dependent covariates, patients who developed LC showed significantly poorer prognosis than those who did not (hazard ratio 87.86; 95% CI 19.56-394.67; P < 0.001). In CTD-ILD, clinicians should be careful with the risk of LC development in patients with a heavy smoking history and subsequent emphysema. Although not so frequent, the complication could be a poor prognostic determinant.

  4. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LUNG CANCER MINI-SERIES #2 Staging of Lung Cancer Once your lung cancer is diagnosed, staging tells you and your health care provider about ... at it under a microscope. The stages of lung cancer are listed as I, II, III, and IV ...

  5. Detection of EGFR and COX-2 Expression by Immunohistochemical Method on a Tissue Microarray Section in Lung Cancer and Biological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyun WANG

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, which can regulate growth, invasion and metastasis of tumor through relevant signaling pathway, have been detected in a variety of solid tumors. The aim of this study is to investigate the biological significance of EGFR and COX-2 expression in lung cancer and the relationship between them. Methods The expression of EGFR and COX-2 was detected in 89 primary lung cancer tissues, 12 premaliganant lesions, 12 lymph node metastases, and 10 normal lung tissues as the control by immunohistochemical method on a tissue microarray section. Results EGFR protein was detectable in 59.6%, 41.7%, and 66.7% of primary lung cancer tissues, premalignant lesions and lymph node metastases, respectively; COX-2 protein was detectable in 52.8%, 41.7%, and 66.7% of primary lung cancer tissues, premalignant lesions and lymph node metastases, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of the control (P 0.05. COX-2 expression was related to gross type (P < 0.05. A highly positive correlation was observed between EGFR and COX-2 expression (P < 0.01. Conclusion Overexpression of EGFR and COX-2 may play an important role in the tumorgenesis, progression and malignancy of lung cancer. Detection of EGFR and COX-2 expression might be helpful to diagnosis and prognosis of lung cancer.

  6. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Progress report, September 25, 1992 - May 31, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    This project involves two related activities directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first activity involves a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second activity is a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives are to facilitate the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases and to develop methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and to assess the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collects multiple biologic specimens

  7. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  8. Forcing lateral electron disequilibrium to spare lung tissue: a novel technique for stereotactic body radiation therapy of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disher, Brandon; Hajdok, George; Gaede, Stewart; Mulligan, Matthew; Battista, Jerry J

    2013-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has quickly become a preferred treatment option for early-stage lung cancer patients who are ineligible for surgery. This technique uses tightly conformed megavoltage (MV) x-ray beams to irradiate a tumour with ablative doses in only a few treatment fractions. Small high energy x-ray fields can cause lateral electron disequilibrium (LED) to occur within low density media, which can reduce tumour dose. These dose effects may be challenging to predict using analytic dose calculation algorithms, especially at higher beam energies. As a result, previous authors have suggested using low energy photons ( 5 × 5 cm 2 ) for lung cancer patients to avoid the negative dosimetric effects of LED. In this work, we propose a new form of SBRT, described as LED-optimized SBRT (LED-SBRT), which utilizes radiotherapy (RT) parameters designed to cause LED to advantage. It will be shown that LED-SBRT creates enhanced dose gradients at the tumour/lung interface, which can be used to manipulate tumour dose, and/or normal lung dose. To demonstrate the potential benefits of LED-SBRT, the DOSXYZnrc (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON) Monte Carlo (MC) software was used to calculate dose within a cylindrical phantom and a typical lung patient. 6 MV or 18 MV x-ray fields were focused onto a small tumour volume (diameter ∼1 cm). For the phantom, square fields of 1 × 1 cm 2 , 3 × 3 cm 2 , or 5 × 5 cm 2 were applied. However, in the patient, 3 × 1 cm 2 , 3 × 2 cm 2 , 3 × 2.5 cm 2 , or 3 × 3 cm 2 field sizes were used in simulations to assure target coverage in the superior–inferior direction. To mimic a 180° SBRT arc in the (symmetric) phantom, a single beam profile was calculated, rotated, and beams were summed at 1° segments to accumulate an arc dose distribution. For the patient, a 360° arc was modelled with 36 equally weighted (and spaced) fields focused on the tumour centre. A planning target volume (PTV) was generated

  9. Lung Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Trends for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home Lung Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  10. Analysis of lung tissue using ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.L.; Barrera, R.; Miranda, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this work a comparative study is presented of the contents of metals in lung tissue from healthy patients and with lung cancer, by means of two analytical techniques: Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The samples of cancerous tissue were taken from 26 autopsies made to individuals died in the National Institute of Respiratory Disease (INER), 22 of cancer and 4 of other non-cancer biopsies. When analyzing the entirety of the samples, in the cancerous tissues, there were increments in the concentrations of S (4%), K (635%), Co (85%) and Cu (13%). Likewise, there were deficiencies in the concentrations of Cl (59%), Ca (6%), Fe (26%) and Zn (7%). Only in the cancerous tissues there were appearances of P, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Br and Sr. The tissue samples were classified according to cancer types (adenocarcinomas, epidermoides and of small cell carcinoma), personal habits (smokers and alcoholic), genetic predisposition and residence place. There was a remarkable decrease in the concentration of Ca and a marked increment in the Cu in the epidermoide tissue samples with regard to those of adenocarcinoma or of small cells cancer. Also, decrements were detected in K and increments of Fe, Co and Cu in the sample belonging to people that resided in Mexico City with regard to those that resided in the State of Mexico

  11. Lung cancer in elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagnerova, M.

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Europe and USA. The median age of diagnosis is currently 69 years, however this is gradually increasing with the aging population. Patients over age of 70 represent 40 % of all patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Age alone has not been found to be a significant prognostic factor in many malignancies, including lung cancer with performance status and stage being of greater importance. In lung cancer it is also evident that older patients gain equivalent benefit from cancer therapies as their younger counterparts. Elderly patients are under-treated in all aspects of their disease course from histological diagnosis to active therapy with surgical resection, radiotherapy or chemotherapy, irrespective of performance status or co-morbidities. Elderly patients are also underrepresented in lung cancer clinical trials. In this review is presented knowledge about lung cancer in elderly. (author)

  12. Classification of 27 Tumor-Associated Antigens by Histochemical Analysis of 36 Freshly Resected Lung Cancer Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene Kurosawa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies, we identified 29 tumor-associated antigens (TAAs and isolated 488 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs that specifically bind to one of the 29 TAAs. In the present study, we performed histochemical analysis of 36 freshly resected lung cancer tissues by using 60 mAbs against 27 TAAs. Comparison of the staining patterns of tumor cells, bronchial epithelial cells, and normal pulmonary alveolus cells and interalveolar septum allowed us to determine the type and location of cells that express target molecules, as well as the degree of expression. The patterns were classified into 7 categories. While multiple Abs were used against certain TAAs, the differences observed among them should be derived from differences in the binding activity and/or the epitope. Thus, such data indicate the versatility of respective clones as anti-cancer drugs. Although the information obtained was limited to the lung and bronchial tube, bronchial epithelial cells represent normal growing cells, and therefore, the data are informative. The results indicate that 9 of the 27 TAAs are suitable targets for therapeutic Abs. These 9 Ags include EGFR, HER2, TfR, and integrin α6β4. Based on our findings, a pharmaceutical company has started to develop anti-cancer drugs by using Abs to TfR and integrin α6β4. HGFR, PTP-LAR, CD147, CDCP1, and integrin αvβ3 are also appropriate targets for therapeutic purposes.

  13. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  14. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  15. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ann G; Cote, Michele L

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the most common causes of cancer death despite understanding the major cause of the disease: cigarette smoking. Smoking increases lung cancer risk 5- to 10-fold with a clear dose-response relationship. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among nonsmokers increases lung cancer risk about 20%. Risks for marijuana and hookah use, and the new e-cigarettes, are yet to be consistently defined and will be important areas for continued research as use of these products increases. Other known environmental risk factors include exposures to radon, asbestos, diesel, and ionizing radiation. Host factors have also been associated with lung cancer risk, including family history of lung cancer, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and infections. Studies to identify genes associated with lung cancer susceptibility have consistently identified chromosomal regions on 15q25, 6p21 and 5p15 associated with lung cancer risk. Risk prediction models for lung cancer typically include age, sex, cigarette smoking intensity and/or duration, medical history, and occupational exposures, however there is not yet a risk prediction model currently recommended for general use. As lung cancer screening becomes more widespread, a validated model will be needed to better define risk groups to inform screening guidelines.

  16. Percentages of NKT cells in the tissues of patients with non-small cell lung cancer who underwent surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyszniak, Maria; Rybojad, Paweł; Pogoda, Katarzyna; Jabłonka, Andrzej; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek

    2014-03-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are involved in the antitumor response by direct cytotoxicity and indirectly through activation of effector cells. Recent studies have shown a relationship between the number and function of NKT cells and clinical outcomes. NKT cells seem to represent a promising tool for immunotherapy of cancer. The aim of the study was to evaluate the distribution of NKT cells in peripheral blood, lymph nodes and tumor tissue of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, as well as development of the most efficient set of cytokines stimulating differentiation of NKT cells. We evaluated the percentage of iNKT+CD3+ cells in the tissues collected from patients with NSCLC. For the generation of NKT cells, we cultured cells isolated from the blood of 20 healthy donors and from the tissues of 4 NSCLC patients. Cells were stimulated with α-GalCer in combinations with cytokines. We noted significant differences in the percentages of NKT cells in the patients' tissues. The highest percentage of these cells was observed in the tumor tissue and the lowest in the lymph nodes. In vitro, in healthy donors all α-GalCer-cytokine combinations were effective in stimulation of NKT cells' proliferation. NKT cells' proliferation was the most efficiently stimulated by α-GalCer+IL-2+IL-7 and α-GalCer+IL-2+IFN-γ. Our results suggest that in the course of NSCLC, NKT cells migrate to the primary tumor and accumulate therein. All tested combinations of α-GalCer and cytokines were capable of generation of NKT cells in vitro.

  17. Cannabinoids inhibit angiogenic capacities of endothelial cells via release of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 from lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramer, Robert; Fischer, Sascha; Haustein, Maria; Manda, Katrin; Hinz, Burkhard

    2014-09-15

    Cannabinoids inhibit tumor neovascularization as part of their tumorregressive action. However, the underlying mechanism is still under debate. In the present study the impact of cannabinoids on potential tumor-to-endothelial cell communication conferring anti-angiogenesis was studied. Cellular behavior of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) associated with angiogenesis was evaluated by Boyden chamber, two-dimensional tube formation and fibrin bead assay, with the latter assessing three-dimensional sprout formation. Viability was quantified by the WST-1 test. Conditioned media (CM) from A549 lung cancer cells treated with cannabidiol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, R(+)-methanandamide or the CB2 agonist JWH-133 elicited decreased migration as well as tube and sprout formation of HUVEC as compared to CM of vehicle-treated cancer cells. Inhibition of sprout formation was further confirmed for cannabinoid-treated A549 cells co-cultured with HUVEC. Using antagonists to cannabinoid-activated receptors the antimigratory action was shown to be mediated via cannabinoid receptors or transient receptor potential vanilloid 1. SiRNA approaches revealed a cannabinoid-induced expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) as well as its upstream trigger, the intercellular adhesion molecule-1, to be causally linked to the observed decrease of HUVEC migration. Comparable anti-angiogenic effects were not detected following direct exposure of HUVEC to cannabinoids, but occurred after addition of recombinant TIMP-1 to HUVEC. Finally, antimigratory effects were confirmed for CM of two other cannabinoid-treated lung cancer cell lines (H460 and H358). Collectively, our data suggest a pivotal role of the anti-angiogenic factor TIMP-1 in intercellular tumor-endothelial cell communication resulting in anti-angiogenic features of endothelial cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Proteomic patterns analysis with multivariate calculations as a promising tool for prompt differentiation of early stage lung tissue with cancer and unchanged tissue material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grodzki Tomasz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer diagnosis in tissue material with commonly used histological techniques is sometimes inconvenient and in a number of cases leads to ambiguous conclusions. Frequently advanced immunostaining techniques have to be employed, yet they are both time consuming and limited. In this study a proteomic approach is presented which may help provide unambiguous pathologic diagnosis of tissue material. Methods Lung tissue material found to be pathologically changed was prepared to isolate proteome with fast and non selective procedure. Isolated peptides and proteins in ranging from 3.5 to 20 kDa were analysed directly using high resolution mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF/TOF with sinapic acid as a matrix. Recorded complex spectra of a single run were then analyzed with multivariate statistical analysis algorithms (principle component analysis, classification methods. In the applied protocol we focused on obtaining the spectra richest in protein signals constituting a pattern of change within the sample containing detailed information about its protein composition. Advanced statistical methods were to indicate differences between examined groups. Results Obtained results indicate changes in proteome profiles of changed tissues in comparison to physiologically unchanged material (control group which were reflected in the result of principle component analysis (PCA. Points representing spectra of control group were located in different areas of multidimensional space and were less diffused in comparison to cancer tissues. Three different classification algorithms showed recognition capability of 100% regarding classification of examined material into an appropriate group. Conclusion The application of the presented protocol and method enabled finding pathological changes in tissue material regardless of localization and size of abnormalities in the sample volume. Proteomic profile as a complex, rich in signals spectrum of proteins

  19. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  20. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews and l...... are only ameliorated to a minor degree by a healthy diet.......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...

  1. Lung cancer in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Rodriguez R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Raúl Barrera-Rodriguez,1 Jorge Morales-Fuentes2 1Biochemistry and Environmental Medicine Laboratory, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, 2Lung Cancer Medical Service, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, Tlalpan, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico Both authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Recent biological advances in tumor research provide clear evidence that lung cancer in females is different from that in males. These differences appear to have a direct impact on the clinical presentation, histology, and outcomes of lung cancer. Women are more likely to present with lung adenocarcinoma, tend to receive a diagnosis at an earlier age, and are more likely to be diagnosed with localized disease. Women may also be more predisposed to molecular aberrations resulting from the carcinogenic effects of tobacco, but do not appear to be more susceptible than men to developing lung cancer. The gender differences found in female lung cancer make it mandatory that gender stratification is used in clinical trials in order to improve the survival rates of patients with lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, adenocarcinoma, women, genetic susceptibility, genetic differences, tobacco

  2. P38 pathway as a key downstream signal of connective tissue growth factor to regulate metastatic potential in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shinichiro; Yokoyama, Satoru; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Li, Luhui; Iwakami, Yusuke; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Saiki, Ikuo

    2016-10-01

    Although the secretory matricellular protein connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been reported to be related to lung cancer metastasis, the precise mechanism by which CTGF regulates lung cancer metastasis has not been elucidated. In the present study, we show the molecular link between CTGF secretion and the p38 pathway in the invasive and metastatic potential of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Among three different human NSCLC cell lines (PC-14, A549, and PC-9), their in vitro invasiveness was inversely correlated with the level of CTGF secretion. By supplementing or reducing CTGF secretion in NSCLC culture, dysregulation of the invasive and metastatic potential of NSCLC cell lines was largely compensated. By focusing on the protein kinases that are known to be regulated by CTGF, we found that the p38 pathway is a key downstream signal of CTGF to regulate the metastatic potential of NSCLC. Importantly, a negative correlation between CTGF and phosphorylation status of p38 was identified in The Cancer Genome Atlas lung adenocarcinoma dataset. In the context of the clinical importance of our findings, we showed that p38 inhibitor, SB203580, reduced the metastatic potential of NSCLC secreting low levels of CTGF. Collectively, our present findings indicate that the CTGF/p38 axis is a novel therapeutic target of NSCLC metastasis, particularly NSCLC secreting low levels of CTGF. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  3. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detected on a lung CT scan. If your doctor finds another health problem, you may undergo further testing and, possibly, invasive treatments that wouldn't have been pursued if you hadn't had lung cancer ... need to: Inform your doctor if you have a respiratory tract infection. If ...

  4. Lung cancer imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ravenel, James G

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a guide to the diagnosis, staging and overview of the management of lung cancer relevant to practicing radiologists so that they can better understand the decision making issues and provide more useful communication to treating physicians.

  5. Can Lung Nodules Be Cancerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung nodules be cancerous? Answers from Eric J. Olson, M.D. Yes, lung nodules can be cancerous, ... to determine if it's cancerous. With Eric J. Olson, M.D. AskMayoExpert. Pulmonary nodules. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo ...

  6. Influence of radiation therapy on lung tissue in breast cancer patients. CT-assessed density changes 4 years after completion of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svane, G.; Rotstein, S.; Lax, I.

    1995-01-01

    CT-assessed density changes in lung tissues were measured in 22 disease-free breast cancer patients 4 years after completion of radiation therapy. All patients had previously undergone similar CT-examinations before treatment, 3 months, and 9 months after radiotherapy. In patients with visible areas of increased lung density at earlier CT-examinations a decrease of focal findings was observed at 4 years. In patients without focal findings, an increase in density relative to that before therapy was observed. The difference between the mean lung density values among those with visible radiological findings and those without was statistically significant both at 3 and 9 months after therapy. However, this difference did not persist at 4 years. These results may indicate a 2-phase development of radiation-induced lung damages - an acute phase and a late phase; the late phase emerging slowly, and in this study detectable 4 years after completion of radiation therapy. (orig.)

  7. Correlation between topoisomerase I and tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 activities in non-small cell lung cancer tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ann-Katrine; Lauridsen, Kristina Lystlund; Samuel, Evelyn Benuja

    2015-01-01

    Topoisomerase I (TOP1) regulates DNA topology during replication and transcription whereas tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1) is involved in the repair of several types of DNA damages, including damages from defective TOP1 catalysis. TOP1 is the target of chemotherapeutic drugs of the camptot......Topoisomerase I (TOP1) regulates DNA topology during replication and transcription whereas tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1) is involved in the repair of several types of DNA damages, including damages from defective TOP1 catalysis. TOP1 is the target of chemotherapeutic drugs...... of the camptothecin family (CPT). TDP1 has in cell line based assays been shown to counteract the effect of CPT. We have quantified the enzymatic activities of TOP1 and TDP1 in paired (tumor and adjacent non-tumor) samples from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and show that in NSCLC TOP1 and TDP1...... activities are significantly upregulated in the tumor tissue. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between the TDP1 activity and the tumor percentage (TOP1 activity did not correlate with the tumor percentage) as well as between the activities of TOP1 and TDP1 both within the tumor and the non...

  8. Ensuring the Safety and Security of Frozen Lung Cancer Tissue Collections through the Encapsulation of Dried DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Washetine

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Collected specimens for research purposes may or may not be made available depending on their scarcity and/or on the project needs. Their protection against degradation or in the event of an incident is pivotal. Duplication and storage on a different site is the best way to assure their sustainability. The conservation of samples at room temperature (RT by duplication can facilitate their protection. We describe a security system for the collection of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC stored in the biobank of the Nice Hospital Center, France, by duplication and conservation of lyophilized (dried, encapsulated DNA kept at RT. Therefore, three frozen tissue collections from non-smoking, early stage and sarcomatoid carcinoma NSCLC patients were selected for this study. DNA was extracted, lyophilized and encapsulated at RT under anoxic conditions using the DNAshell technology. In total, 1974 samples from 987 patients were encapsulated. Six and two capsules from each sample were stored in the biobanks of the Nice and Grenoble (France Hospitals, respectively. In conclusion, DNA maintained at RT allows for the conservation, duplication and durability of collections of interest stored in biobanks. This is a low-cost and safe technology that requires a limited amount of space and has a low environmental impact.

  9. Ensuring the Safety and Security of Frozen Lung Cancer Tissue Collections through the Encapsulation of Dried DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washetine, Kevin; Kara-Borni, Mehdi; Heeke, Simon; Bonnetaud, Christelle; Félix, Jean-Marc; Ribeyre, Lydia; Bence, Coraline; Ilié, Marius; Bordone, Olivier; Pedro, Marine; Maitre, Priscilla; Tanga, Virginie; Gormally, Emmanuelle; Mossuz, Pascal; Lorimier, Philippe; Marquette, Charles Hugo; Mouroux, Jérôme; Cohen, Charlotte; Lassalle, Sandra; Long-Mira, Elodie; Clément, Bruno; Dagher, Georges; Hofman, Véronique; Hofman, Paul

    2018-06-11

    Collected specimens for research purposes may or may not be made available depending on their scarcity and/or on the project needs. Their protection against degradation or in the event of an incident is pivotal. Duplication and storage on a different site is the best way to assure their sustainability. The conservation of samples at room temperature (RT) by duplication can facilitate their protection. We describe a security system for the collection of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) stored in the biobank of the Nice Hospital Center, France, by duplication and conservation of lyophilized (dried), encapsulated DNA kept at RT. Therefore, three frozen tissue collections from non-smoking, early stage and sarcomatoid carcinoma NSCLC patients were selected for this study. DNA was extracted, lyophilized and encapsulated at RT under anoxic conditions using the DNAshell technology. In total, 1974 samples from 987 patients were encapsulated. Six and two capsules from each sample were stored in the biobanks of the Nice and Grenoble (France) Hospitals, respectively. In conclusion, DNA maintained at RT allows for the conservation, duplication and durability of collections of interest stored in biobanks. This is a low-cost and safe technology that requires a limited amount of space and has a low environmental impact.

  10. Rare lung cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzinec, P.

    2013-01-01

    The RARECARE Project (Rare Cancers in the Europe) supported by the European Union defined the rare cancers by the incidence rate of less than 6/100 000. There are several variants of lung cancer which are rare according to this definition. From the clinical point of view the most interesting are the rare adenocarcinomas and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. There are important differences in the diagnostic probability of EGFR and ALK mutations in the mutinous and non-mucin ous adenocarcinomas, in the signet ring cell adenocarcinomas, and large cell carcinomas. The optimal chemotherapy for neuroendocrine large cell carcinomas remains undefined. There is only very limited number of clinical trials aimed on the rare lung cancers and actually none phase III trial. Rare lung cancers continue to be a challenge both for the laboratory and the clinical research. (author)

  11. Lung Cancer Survivorship

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-20

    A lung cancer survivor shares her story about diagnosis, treatment, and community support. She also gives advice for other cancer survivors.  Created: 10/20/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/20/2016.

  12. Staging of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Patricia M; Carter, Brett W; Betancourt Cuellar, Sonia L; Erasmus, Jeremy J

    2015-06-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Thorough clinical staging of patients with lung cancer is important, because therapeutic options and management are to a considerable degree dependent on stage at presentation. Radiologic imaging is an essential component of clinical staging, including chest radiography in some cases, computed tomography, MRI, and PET. Multiplanar imaging modalities allow assessment of features that are important for surgical, oncologic, and radiation therapy planning, including size of the primary tumor, location and relationship to normal anatomic structures in the thorax, and existence of nodal and/or metastatic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Other cancers in lung cancer families are overwhelmingly smoking-related cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyao Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Familial risks of lung cancer are well-established, but whether lung cancer clusters with other discordant cancers is less certain, particularly beyond smoking-related sites, which may provide evidence on genetic contributions to lung cancer aetiology. We used a novel approach to search for familial associations in the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. This involved assessment of familial relative risk for cancer X in families with increasing numbers of lung cancer patients and, conversely, relative risks for lung cancer in families with increasing numbers of patients with cancers X. However, we lacked information on smoking. The total number of lung cancers in the database was 125 563. We applied stringent statistical criteria and found that seven discordant cancers were associated with lung cancer among family members, and six of these were known to be connected with smoking: oesophageal, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, cervical, kidney and urinary bladder cancers. A further novel finding was that cancer of unknown primary also associated with lung cancer. We also factored in histological evidence and found that anal and connective tissue cancers could be associated with lung cancer for reasons other than smoking. For endometrial and prostate cancers, suggestive negative associations with lung cancer were found. Although we lacked information on smoking it is prudent to conclude that practically all observed discordant associations of lung cancer were with cancers for which smoking is a risk factor.

  14. Killing effect of EGFR-TKI combined with 125I seed implantation therapy on ⅢB-Ⅳ stage lung cancer tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Sheng Xiang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the killing effect of EGFR-TKI combined with 125I seed implantation therapy on ⅢB-Ⅳ stage lung cancer tissue. Methods: A total of 78 patients with ⅢB-Ⅳ stage lung cancer were randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=39, control group received EGFR-TKI treatment and observation group received EGFR-TKI combined with 125I seed implantation therapy. Differences in apoptosis gene, invasion gene and autophagy gene expression in lung tissue were compared between two groups after 1 month of treatment. Results: Apoptosis genes PDCD5, bax and bcl-xS mRNA expression levels in lung tissue of observation group after 1 month of treatment were higher than those of control group while Bag-1, survivin and bcl-xL mRNA expression levels were lower than those of control group; invasion genes CD147, EGFR and DDX17 mRNA expression levels were lower than those of control group while Bin1, E-cadherin and Ovol2 mRNA expression levels were higher than those of control group; autophagy genes ARHI, Beclin1, Atg5, LC3B, pULK and PI3KC3 mRNA expression levels were higher than those of control group. Conclusions: EGFR-TKI combined with 125I seed implantation therapy can enhance the tumor killing effect on patients with ⅢB-Ⅳ stage lung cancer, and contribute to the optimization of overall condition and the extension of survival time.

  15. General Information about Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  16. Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  17. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  18. Lung cancer screening: Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyea Young

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers

  19. Estimation of lung tissue doses following exposure to low-LET radiation in the Canadian study of cancer following multiple fluoroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, G.R.; Yaffe, M.

    1992-02-01

    Lung tissue doses from exposure to external low-LET radiation have been estimated for each year between 1930 and 1960 for 92,707 tuberculosis patients first treated in Canadian institutions between 1930 and 1952. Many of these patients received multiple chest fluoroscopies together with treatment by artificial pneumothorax, and thus accumulated doses up to 15.7 grays. The estimated doses have been used in a statistical analysis of lung cancer mortality between 1950 and 1987 occurring among 64,698 patients known to be alive at the start of 1950, and followed by linkage to the Canadian national mortality data base. There were substantial variations in the total cumulative lung tissue dose received by the cohort, with 2,490 individuals having doses in excess of 1.7 grays. A total of 1,156 lung cancer deaths was observed in the cohort, and these have been used to estimate relative risks. The most appropriate risk model appears to be a simple linear relative risk function, with an excess relative risk coefficient of 0.089 for an absorbed dose of 1 gray. This contrasts with estimates of relative risk based on the atomic bomb survivors study, for which the excess relative risk coefficient for males 20 years after the first exposure is estimated to be 0.64. The difference is statistically significant. It is postulated that fractionation and dose rate effectiveness factors may account for some of the discrepancy. (Modified author abstract) (14 refs., 20 tabs.)

  20. Lung Cancer Precision Medicine Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with lung cancer are benefiting from the boom in targeted and immune-based therapies. With a series of precision medicine trials, NCI is keeping pace with the rapidly changing treatment landscape for lung cancer.

  1. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in women. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Anything that increases your chance ... been studied to see if they decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer. The following screening ...

  2. Personalized medicine for non-small-cell lung cancer: implications of recent advances in tissue acquisition for molecular and histologic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Andre L; Thornton, Raymond H

    2012-09-01

    In light of recent advances in individualized therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), molecular and histologic profiling is essential for guiding therapeutic decisions. Results of these analyses may have implications for both response (eg, molecular testing for EGFR [epidermal growth factor receptor] mutations) and safety (eg, contraindications for squamous histology) in NSCLC. Most patients with NSCLC present with unresectable advanced disease; therefore, greater emphasis is being placed on minimally invasive tissue acquisition techniques, such as small biopsy and cytology specimens. Due to the need for increasing histologic and molecular information and increasingly smaller tissue sample sizes, efforts must be focused on optimizing tissue acquisition and the development of more sensitive molecular assays. Recent advances in tissue acquisition techniques and specimen preservation may help to address this challenge and lead to enhanced personalized treatment in NSCLC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Decreased expression of connective tissue growth factor in non-small cell lung cancer is associated with clinicopathological variables and can be restored by epigenetic modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewiecka, Hanna; Gałęcki, Bartłomiej; Jarmołowska-Jurczyszyn, Donata; Kluk, Andrzej; Dyszkiewicz, Wojciech; Jagodziński, Paweł P

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies indicated undisputed contribution of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the development of many cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the functional role and regulation of CTGF expression during tumorigenesis remain elusive. Our goal was to determine CTGF transcript and protein levels in tumoral and matched control tissues from 98 NSCLC patients, to correlate the results with clinicopathological features and to investigate whether the CTGF expression can be epigenetically regulated in NSCLC. We used quantitative PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry to evaluate CTGF expression in lung cancerous and histopathologically unchanged tissues. We tested the impact of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-dAzaC) and trichostatin A (TSA) on CTGF transcript and protein levels in NSCLC cells (A549, Calu-1). DNA methylation status of the CTGF regulatory region was evaluated by bisulfite sequencing. The influence of 5-dAzaC and TSA on NSCLC cells viability and proliferation was monitored by the trypan blue assay. We found significantly decreased levels of CTGF mRNA and protein (both p cancerous tissues of NSCLC patients. Down-regulation of CTGF occurred regardless of gender in all histological subtypes of NSCLC. Moreover, we showed that 5-dAzaC and TSA were able to restore CTGF mRNA and protein contents in NSCLC cells. However, no methylation within CTGF regulatory region was detected. Both compounds significantly reduced NSCLC cells proliferation. Decreased expression of CTGF is a common feature in NSCLC; however, it can be restored by the chromatin-modifying agents such as 5-dAzaC or TSA and consequently restrain cancer development.

  4. Chemoprevention of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Eva; Mao, Jenny T.; Lam, Stephen; Reid, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor. Former smokers are at a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer compared with lifetime never smokers. Chemoprevention refers to the use of specific agents to reverse, suppress, or prevent the process of carcinogenesis. This article reviews the major agents that have been studied for chemoprevention. Methods: Articles of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention trials were reviewed and summarized to obtain recommendations. Results: None of the phase 3 trials with the agents β-carotene, retinol, 13-cis-retinoic acid, α-tocopherol, N-acetylcysteine, acetylsalicylic acid, or selenium has demonstrated beneficial and reproducible results. To facilitate the evaluation of promising agents and to lessen the need for a large sample size, extensive time commitment, and expense, surrogate end point biomarker trials are being conducted to assist in identifying the most promising agents for later-stage chemoprevention trials. With the understanding of important cellular signaling pathways and the expansion of potentially important targets, agents (many of which target inflammation and the arachidonic acid pathway) are being developed and tested which may prevent or reverse lung carcinogenesis. Conclusions: By integrating biologic knowledge, additional early-phase trials can be performed in a reasonable time frame. The future of lung cancer chemoprevention should entail the evaluation of single agents or combinations that target various pathways while working toward identification and validation of intermediate end points. PMID:23649449

  5. [Cannabis smoking and lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; de Chazeron, I; Meurice, J-C

    2014-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in the world. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but it is mainly smoked mixed with tobacco. The combined smoking of cannabis and tobacco is a common-place phenomenon in our society. However, its use is responsible for severe pulmonary consequences. The specific impact of smoking cannabis is difficult to assess precisely and to distinguish from the effect of tobacco. Marijuana smoke contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carcinogens at higher concentration than tobacco smoke. Cellular, tissue, animal and human studies, and also epidemiological studies, show that marijuana smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Cannabis exposure doubles the risk of developing lung cancer. This should encourage clinicians to identify cannabis use and to offer patients support in quitting. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Research shows that smoking marijuana may help cancer cells grow. But there is no direct link between ...

  7. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Carla F

    2017-06-30

    The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  8. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla F. Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials.

  9. The Danish Lung Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Lung Cancer Registry (DLCR) was established by the Danish Lung Cancer Group. The primary and first goal of the DLCR was to improve survival and the overall clinical management of Danish lung cancer patients. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish primary lung cancer patients since...... 2000 are included into the registry and the database today contains information on more than 50,000 cases of lung cancer. MAIN VARIABLES: The database contains information on patient characteristics such as age, sex, diagnostic procedures, histology, tumor stage, lung function, performance...... the results are commented for local, regional, and national audits. Indicator results are supported by descriptive reports with details on diagnostics and treatment. CONCLUSION: DLCR has since its creation been used to improve the quality of treatment of lung cancer in Denmark and it is increasingly used...

  10. Diagnostic Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death in men and women. It is frequently seen among men than in women and male-female ratio is 1.5:1. Common epidemiological factors that increase risk of lung cancer is smoking. Early age to start smoking, high number of smoking cigarettes per a day and depth of inhalation increase risk of lung cancer. 25% of patients with lung cancer are nonsmokers that passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Occupational exposure to substances such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel, beryllium, mustard gas increases the risk of lung cancer. The well defined risk factor is exposure to asbestos. In addition advanced age, diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and genetic predisposition are the risk factors that increases lung cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 749-756

  11. Uncovering growth-suppressive MicroRNAs in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xi; Sempere, Lorenzo F; Galimberti, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles improve classification, diagnosis, and prognostic information of malignancies, including lung cancer. This study uncovered unique growth-suppressive miRNAs in lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: miRNA arrays were done on normal lung tissues...... and adenocarcinomas from wild-type and proteasome degradation-resistant cyclin E transgenic mice to reveal repressed miRNAs in lung cancer. Real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays validated these findings. Lung cancer cell lines were derived from each......-malignant human lung tissue bank. RESULTS: miR-34c, miR-145, and miR-142-5p were repressed in transgenic lung cancers. Findings were confirmed by real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays. Similar miRNA profiles occurred in human normal versus malignant lung...

  12. SU-E-J-24: Image-Guidance Using Cone-Beam CT for Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) of Lung Cancer Patients: Bony Alignment or Soft Tissue Alignment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Turaka, A; Meyer, J; Spoka, D; Jin, L; Fan, J; Ma, C

    2012-06-01

    To assess the reliability of soft tissue alignment by comparing pre- and post-treatment cone-beam CT (CBCT) for image guidance in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of lung cancers. Our lung SBRT procedures require all patients undergo 4D CT scan in order to obtain patient-specific target motion information through reconstructed 4D data using the maximum-intensity projection (MIP) algorithm. The internal target volume (ITV) was outlined directly from the MIP images and a 3-5 mm margin expansion was then applied to the ITV to create the PTV. Conformal treatment planning was performed on the helical images, to which the MIP images were fused. Prior to each treatment, CBCT was used for image guidance by comparing with the simulation CT and for patient relocalization based on the bony anatomy. Any displacement of the patient bony structure would be considered as setup errors and would be corrected by couch shifts. Theoretically, as the PTV definition included target internal motion, no further shifts other than setup corrections should be made. However, it is our practice to have treating physicians further check target localization within the PTV. Whenever the shifts based on the soft-tissue alignment (that is, target alignment) exceeded a certain value (e.g. 5 mm), a post-treatment CBCT was carried out to ensure that the tissue alignment is reliable by comparing between pre- and post-treatment CBCT. Pre- and post-CBCT has been performed for 7 patients so far who had shifts beyond 5 mm despite bony alignment. For all patients, post CBCT confirmed that the visualized target position was kept in the same position as before treatment after adjusting for soft-tissue alignment. For the patient population studied, it is shown that soft-tissue alignment is necessary and reliable in the lung SBRT for individual cases. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. Autofluorescence Imaging and Spectroscopy of Human Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyan Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers, with high mortality rate worldwide. Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy is a non-invasive, label-free, real-time technique for cancer detection. In this study, lung tissue sections excised from patients were detected by laser scan confocal microscopy and spectroscopy. The autofluorescence images demonstrated the cellular morphology and tissue structure, as well as the pathology of stained images. Based on the spectra study, it was found that the majority of the patients showed discriminating fluorescence in tumor tissues from normal tissues. Therefore, autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy may be a potential method for aiding the diagnosis of lung cancer.

  14. Bricklayers and lung cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article ‘Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case–control studies’ in the International Journal of Cancer publishes findings of an epidemiological study (in the frame of a SYNERGY-project) dedicated to the lung cancer risk among bricklayers. The authors conclude that a

  15. Pain management in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Syahruddin, Elisna; Yunus, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Not only burdened by the limited overall survival, lung cancer patient also suffer from various symptoms, such as pain, that implicated in the quality of life. Cancer pain is a complicated and transiently dynamic symptom that results from multiple mechanisms. This review will describe the pathophysiology of cancer pain and general approach in managing a patient with lung cancer pain. The use of opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and adjuvant analgesia, as part of the pharmacology therapy along with interventional strategy, will also be discussed.

  16. Lung cancer: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pass, Harvey I

    2005-01-01

    "A comprehensive review of lung cancer, from screening, early detection, and prevention, to management strategies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and multimodality therapy, as well...

  17. Lung cancer in younger patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasowa, Leda; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related death. The incidence increases with age and the occurrence in young patients is relatively low. The clinicopathological features of lung cancer in younger patients have not been fully explored previously. METHODS: To assess the age...... differences in the clinical characteristics of lung cancer, we conducted a retrospective analysis comparing young patients ≤ 65 years of age with an elderly group > 65 years of age. Among 1,232 patients evaluated due to suspicion of lung cancer in our fast-track setting from January-December 2013, 312 newly...... diagnosed lung cancer patients were included. RESULTS: Patients ≤ 65 years had a significantly higher representation of females (p = 0.0021), more frequent familial cancer aggregation (p = 0.028) and a lower incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.0133). When excluding pure carcinoid tumours...

  18. Utility of bronchial lavage fluids for epithelial growth factor receptor mutation assay in lung cancer patients: Comparison between cell pellets, cell blocks and matching tissue specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaka, Shiho; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Nakata, Rie; Negishi, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Shiina, Takayuki; Shigeto, Shohei; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Honda, Takayuki

    2018-01-01

    The detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations is necessary for the selection of suitable patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Cytology specimens are known to be suitable for EGFR mutation detection, although tissue specimens should be prioritized; however, there are limited studies that examine the utility of bronchial lavage fluid (BLF) in mutation detection. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the utility of BLF specimens for the detection of EGFR mutations using a conventional quantitative EGFR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Initially, quantification cycle (Cq) values of cell pellets, cell-free supernatants and cell blocks obtained from three series of 1% EGFR mutation-positive lung cancer cell line samples were compared for mutation detection. In addition, PCR analysis of BLF specimens obtained from 77 consecutive NSCLC patients, detecting EGFR mutations was validated, and these results were compared with those for the corresponding formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens obtained by surgical resection or biopsy of 49 of these patients. The Cq values for mutation detection were significantly lower in the cell pellet group (average, 29.58) compared with the other groups, followed by those in cell-free supernatants (average, 34.15) and in cell blocks (average, 37.12) for all three series (P<0.05). Mutational status was successfully analyzed in 77 BLF specimens, and the results obtained were concordant with those of the 49 matching FFPE tissue specimens. Notably, EGFR mutations were even detected in 10 cytological specimens that contained insufficient tumor cells. EGFR mutation testing with BLF specimens is therefore a useful and reliable method, particularly when sufficient cancer cells are not obtained. PMID:29399190

  19. Analysis of lung tissue particles among silicosis cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Case

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims:Lung tissue samples of several miners, millers, sandblaster, welders andconstruction workers with historical exposure to mineral particles were analyzed. These subjectshad significant respiratory exposure to silica particles and demanded compensation foroccupational lung diseases.Method: Lung tissue samples were observed under an Electron microscope with 10000Xmagnification. Mineral particles were sized and analyzed by EDS detector based on X-rayspectrophotometry.Results: The results have indicated that the lung particle burden of the subjects was closelyrelated to their occupational history. The highest level of mineral silica particles were found in thelungs of miners and sandblasters. The highest concentration of metallic particles was found in thelungs of welders and miners in ferric mining industry. Severity of lung fibrosis was directlyrelated to the lung free silica concentration. However, no association was found between particlediameter and severity of fibrosis. In addition, lung particle burden of silicotic cases with lungcancer contained a much higher concentration of metallic particles and asbestos fibres that thelung of those subject with silicosis only.Conclusion: Although workers in mining and construction may be predominantly exposed tosilica particles including quartz, the role of other mineral particles including asbestos fibres,metallic fibres and other minerals should be taken into account in the genesis of occupational lungdisease in particular lung cancer. Lung tissue sample analysis can provide valuable informationto assess the legal and compensation cases.

  20. SU-E-T-630: Predictive Modeling of Mortality, Tumor Control, and Normal Tissue Complications After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, WD; Berlind, CG; Gee, JC; Simone, CB

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: While rates of local control have been well characterized after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), less data are available characterizing survival and normal tissue toxicities, and no validated models exist assessing these parameters after SBRT. We evaluate the reliability of various machine learning techniques when applied to radiation oncology datasets to create predictive models of mortality, tumor control, and normal tissue complications. Methods: A dataset of 204 consecutive patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) at the University of Pennsylvania between 2009 and 2013 was used to create predictive models of tumor control, normal tissue complications, and mortality in this IRB-approved study. Nearly 200 data fields of detailed patient- and tumor-specific information, radiotherapy dosimetric measurements, and clinical outcomes data were collected. Predictive models were created for local tumor control, 1- and 3-year overall survival, and nodal failure using 60% of the data (leaving the remainder as a test set). After applying feature selection and dimensionality reduction, nonlinear support vector classification was applied to the resulting features. Models were evaluated for accuracy and area under ROC curve on the 81-patient test set. Results: Models for common events in the dataset (such as mortality at one year) had the highest predictive power (AUC = .67, p < 0.05). For rare occurrences such as radiation pneumonitis and local failure (each occurring in less than 10% of patients), too few events were present to create reliable models. Conclusion: Although this study demonstrates the validity of predictive analytics using information extracted from patient medical records and can most reliably predict for survival after SBRT, larger sample sizes are needed to develop predictive models for normal tissue toxicities and more advanced

  1. SU-E-T-630: Predictive Modeling of Mortality, Tumor Control, and Normal Tissue Complications After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, WD [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Oncora Medical, LLC, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Berlind, CG [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (Georgia); Oncora Medical, LLC, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gee, JC; Simone, CB [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: While rates of local control have been well characterized after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), less data are available characterizing survival and normal tissue toxicities, and no validated models exist assessing these parameters after SBRT. We evaluate the reliability of various machine learning techniques when applied to radiation oncology datasets to create predictive models of mortality, tumor control, and normal tissue complications. Methods: A dataset of 204 consecutive patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) at the University of Pennsylvania between 2009 and 2013 was used to create predictive models of tumor control, normal tissue complications, and mortality in this IRB-approved study. Nearly 200 data fields of detailed patient- and tumor-specific information, radiotherapy dosimetric measurements, and clinical outcomes data were collected. Predictive models were created for local tumor control, 1- and 3-year overall survival, and nodal failure using 60% of the data (leaving the remainder as a test set). After applying feature selection and dimensionality reduction, nonlinear support vector classification was applied to the resulting features. Models were evaluated for accuracy and area under ROC curve on the 81-patient test set. Results: Models for common events in the dataset (such as mortality at one year) had the highest predictive power (AUC = .67, p < 0.05). For rare occurrences such as radiation pneumonitis and local failure (each occurring in less than 10% of patients), too few events were present to create reliable models. Conclusion: Although this study demonstrates the validity of predictive analytics using information extracted from patient medical records and can most reliably predict for survival after SBRT, larger sample sizes are needed to develop predictive models for normal tissue toxicities and more advanced

  2. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Rates by State for Other Kinds of Cancer All Cancers Combined Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) ...

  3. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for lung cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  4. Lung tissue mechanics as an emergent phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suki, Béla; Bates, Jason H T

    2011-04-01

    The mechanical properties of lung parenchymal tissue are both elastic and dissipative, as well as being highly nonlinear. These properties cannot be fully understood, however, in terms of the individual constituents of the tissue. Rather, the mechanical behavior of lung tissue emerges as a macroscopic phenomenon from the interactions of its microscopic components in a way that is neither intuitive nor easily understood. In this review, we first consider the quasi-static mechanical behavior of lung tissue and discuss computational models that show how smooth nonlinear stress-strain behavior can arise through a percolation-like process in which the sequential recruitment of collagen fibers with increasing strain causes them to progressively take over the load-bearing role from elastin. We also show how the concept of percolation can be used to link the pathologic progression of parenchymal disease at the micro scale to physiological symptoms at the macro scale. We then examine the dynamic mechanical behavior of lung tissue, which invokes the notion of tissue resistance. Although usually modeled phenomenologically in terms of collections of springs and dashpots, lung tissue viscoelasticity again can be seen to reflect various types of complex dynamic interactions at the molecular level. Finally, we discuss the inevitability of why lung tissue mechanics need to be complex.

  5. Epigenetic Therapy in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen V Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic dysregulation of gene function has been strongly implicated in carcinogenesis and is one of the mechanisms contributing to the development of lung cancer. The inherent reversibility of epigenetic alterations makes them viable therapeutic targets. Here, we review the therapeutic implications of epigenetic changes in lung cancer, and recent advances in therapeutic strategies targeting DNA methylation and histone acetylation.

  6. What You Need to Know about Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Lung Cancer This booklet is about lung cancer. Learning about ...

  7. Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0161 TITLE: Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Avrum E. Spira...W81XWH-11-2-0161 Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0161 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...biomarkers found in blood, tissues, or other bodily fluids, which may be used for the early detection of lung cancer among military personnel and

  8. Radon exposure and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Vukovic, B.; Faj, Z.; Radolic, V.; Suveljak, B.

    2003-01-01

    Although studies of radon exposure have established that Rn decay products are a cause of lung cancer among miners, the lung cancer risk to the general population from indoor radon remains unclear and controversial. Our epidemiological investigation of indoor radon influence on lung cancer incidence was carried out for 201 patients from the Osijek town. Ecological method was applied by using the town map with square fields of 1 km 2 and the town was divided into 24 fields. Multiple regression study for the lung cancer rate on field, average indoor radon exposure and smoking showed a positive linear double regression for the mentioned variables. Case-control study showed that patients, diseased of lung cancer, dwelt in homes with significantly higher radon concentrations, by comparison to the average indoor radon level of control sample. (author)

  9. [Analysis of tissue-specific differentially methylated genes with differential gene expression in non-small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L G; Zou, Z Q; Zhao, H Y; Zhang, C L; Shen, J G; Qi, L; Qi, M; Xue, Z Q

    2014-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) are two subtypes of non-small cell lung carcinomas which are regarded as the leading cause of cancer-related malignancy worldwide. The aim of this study is to detect the differentially methylated loci (DMLs) and differentially methylated genes (DMGs) of these two tumor sets, and then to illustrate the different expression level of specific methylated genes. Using TCGA database and Illumina HumanMethylation 27 arrays, we first screened the DMGs and DMLs in tumor samples. Then, we explored the BiologicalProcess terms of hypermethylated and hypomethylated genes using Functional Gene Ontology (GO) catalogues. Hypermethylation intensively occurred in CpG-island, whereas hypomethylation was located in non-CpG-island. Most SCC and ADC hypermethylated genes involved GO function of DNA dependenit regulation of transcription, and hypomethylated genes mainly 'enriched in the term of immune responses. Additionally, the expression level of specific differentially methylated genesis distinctbetween ADC and SCC. It is concluded that ADC and SCC have different methylated status that might play an important role in carcinogenesis.

  10. A novel method for sample preparation of fresh lung cancer tissue for proteomics analysis by tumor cell enrichment and removal of blood contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orre Lotta

    2010-02-01

    was an effective removal of contaminants from red blood cells and plasma proteins resulting in larger proteome coverage compared to the direct lysis of frozen samples. This sample preparation method may be successfully implemented for the discovery of lung cancer biomarkers on tissue samples using mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

  11. Lung cancer-A global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Amanda; Ganti, Apar Kishor

    2017-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. While tobacco exposure is responsible for the majority of lung cancers, the incidence of lung cancer in never smokers, especially Asian women, is increasing. There is a global variation in lung cancer biology with EGFR mutations being more common in Asian patients, while Kras mutation is more common in Caucasians. This review will focus on the global variations in lung cancer and its treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Influence of Tissue Ischemia Time on RNA Integrity and Patient-Derived Xenografts (PDX) Engraftment Rate in a Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrera, Francesco; Tabbò, Fabrizio; Bessone, Luca; Maletta, Francesca; Gaudiano, Marcello; Ercole, Elisabetta; Annaratone, Laura; Todaro, Maria; Boita, Monica; Filosso, Pier Luigi; Solidoro, Paolo; Delsedime, Luisa; Oliaro, Alberto; Sapino, Anna; Ruffini, Enrico; Inghirami, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Bio-repositories are invaluable resources to implement translational cancer research and clinical programs. They represent one of the most powerful tools for biomolecular studies of clinically annotated cohorts, but high quality samples are required to generate reliable molecular readouts and functional studies. The objective of our study was to define the impact of cancer tissue ischemia time on RNA and DNA quality, and for the generation of Patient-Derived Xenografts (PDXs). One-hundred thirty-five lung cancer specimens were selected among our Institutional BioBank samples. Associations between different warm (surgical) and cold (ex-vivo) ischemia time ranges and RNA quality or PDXs engraftment rates were assessed. RNA quality was determined by RNA integrity number (RINs) values. Fresh viable tissue fragments were implanted subcutaneously in NSG mice and serially transplanted. RNAs with a RIN>7 were detected in 51% of the sample (70/135), with values of RIN significantly lower (OR 0.08, P = 0.01) in samples preserved for more than 3 hours before cryopreservation. Higher quality DNA samples had a concomitant high RIN. Sixty-three primary tumors (41 adenocarcinoma) were implanted with an overall engraftment rate of 33%. Both prolonged warm (>2 hours) and ex-vivo ischemia time (>10 hours) were associated to a lower engraftment rate (OR 0.09 P = 0.01 and OR 0.04 P = 0.008, respectively). RNA quality and PDXs engraftment rate were adversely affected by prolonged ischemia times. Proper tissue collection and processing reduce failure rate. Overall, NSCLC BioBanking represents an innovative modality, which can be successfully executed in routine clinical settings, when stringent Standard Operating Procedures are adopted.

  13. Targeting tissue factor as a novel therapeutic oncotarget for eradication of cancer stem cells isolated from tumor cell lines, tumor xenografts and patients of breast, lung and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiwei; Xu, Jie; Cheng, Jijun; McMichael, Elizabeth; Yu, Lianbo; Carson, William E

    2017-01-03

    Targeting cancer stem cell (CSC) represents a promising therapeutic approach as it can potentially fight cancer at its root. The challenge is to identify a surface therapeutic oncotarget on CSC. Tissue factor (TF) is known as a common yet specific surface target for cancer cells and tumor neovasculature in several solid cancers. However, it is unknown if TF is expressed by CSCs. Here we demonstrate that TF is constitutively expressed on CD133 positive (CD133+) or CD24-CD44+ CSCs isolated from human cancer cell lines, tumor xenografts from mice and breast tumor tissues from patients. TF-targeted agents, i.e., a factor VII (fVII)-conjugated photosensitizer (fVII-PS for targeted photodynamic therapy) and fVII-IgG1Fc (Immunoconjugate or ICON for immunotherapy), can eradicate CSC via the induction of apoptosis and necrosis and via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity, respectively. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that TF is a novel surface therapeutic oncotarget for CSC, in addition to cancer cell TF and tumor angiogenic vascular endothelial TF. Moreover, this research highlights that TF-targeting therapeutics can effectively eradicate CSCs, without drug resistance, isolated from breast, lung and ovarian cancer with potential to translate into other most commonly diagnosed solid cancer, in which TF is also highly expressed.

  14. Optical and Functional Imaging in Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. van der Leest (Cor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the second most common cancer in men and women, and is the leading cause of cancer related death. In industrialized countries the mortality rate of lung cancer is higher than the mortality rate of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer combined 1. When lung cancer is

  15. Targeting apoptosis pathways in lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pore, Milind M.; Hiltermann, T. Jeroen N.; Kruyt, Frank A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is a devastating disease with a poor prognosis. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) represent different forms of lung cancer that are associated with distinct genetic causes and display different responses to therapy in the clinic. Whereas SCLC is often

  16. Staging Lung Cancer: Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Girish S; Viswanathan, Chitra; Carter, Brett W; Benveniste, Marcelo F; Truong, Mylene T; Sabloff, Bradley S

    2018-05-01

    The updated eighth edition of the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification for lung cancer includes revisions to T and M descriptors. In terms of the M descriptor, the classification of intrathoracic metastatic disease as M1a is unchanged from TNM-7. Extrathoracic metastatic disease, which was classified as M1b in TNM-7, is now subdivided into M1b (single metastasis, single organ) and M1c (multiple metastases in one or multiple organs) descriptors. In this article, the rationale for changes in the M descriptors, the utility of preoperative staging with PET/computed tomography, and the treatment options available for patients with oligometastatic disease are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dilemmas in Lung Cancer Staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Ioannis

    2018-05-01

    The advent of the 8th edition of the lung cancer staging system reflects a further meticulous evidence-based advance in the stratification of the survival of patients with lung cancer. Although addressing many limitations of earlier staging systems, several limitations in staging remain. This article reviews from a radiological perspective the limitations of the current staging system, highlighting the process of TNM restructuring, the residual issues with regards to the assignment of T, N, M descriptors, and their associated stage groupings and how these dilemmas impact guidance of multidisciplinary teams taking care of patients with lung cancer. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The preparation and characterization of peptide's lung cancer imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianfeng; Chu Liping; Wang Yan; Wang Yueying; Liu Jinjian; Wu Hongying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To screen in vivo lung cancer specific binding seven peptides by T7 phage display peptide library, so as to prepare peptide's lung cancer early diagnostic agent. Methods: Use phage display in vivo technology, the 7-peptide phage that binding the lung cancer specifically was obtained, then the DNA sequence was measured and the seven peptide was synthesized. After labeled by 125 I, the seven peptide was injected into mice via vein and the distribution was observed. Results: One peptide was obtained by four rounds screening, and the peptide can bind lung cancer tissue specifically. Two hours after injection get the best imaging of lung cancer, metabolism of peptide in mice is fast, the distribution in vivo is decrease six hours and almost disappear 20 hours after injection. Conclusion: The peptide can image and diagnose lung cancer better. (authors)

  19. Lung Cancer in uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chundi; Fan Jixiong; Wang Liuhu; Huang Yiehan; Nie Guanghua

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyese the clinical data of 39 uranium miners with lung cancer and of 20 patients with lung cancer who have not been exposed to uranium as control. The age of uranium miners with lung cancer was 36∼61 with an average of 48.8, nine years earlier than that of the control group (57.3). In the uranium miner patients the right lung was more susceptible to cancer than the left, the ratio being 2.5:1. However, in the control group the right lung had an equal incidence of cancer as the left lung. The relative frequency of small cell anaplastic carcinoma in uranium miner was higher than that in the control group. In the miner patients the mean occupation history was 11.1 ± 5.2 years; the exposure dose to radon and its daughters in 50% patients was 0.504J(120 WLM). The etiologic factor of lung cancer in uranium miners is strongly attributed, in addition to smoking, to the exposure to radon and its daughters in uranium mines

  20. Bidi smoking and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Singhal, Sanjay; Garg, Rajiv

    2009-04-01

    This article discusses the role of bidi smoking as a risk factor for lung cancer. A review of the documented evidence is presented. The literature from Pubmed has been searched using the key words 'beedi smoking', 'bidi smoking' and 'lung cancer'. The bibliographies of all papers found were further searched for additional relevant articles. After this thorough search, eight studies were found. The evidence suggests that bidi smoking poses a higher risk for lung cancer than cigarette smoking and risk further increases with both the length of time and amount of bidi smoking. The focus of tobacco control programs should be expanded to all types of tobacco use, including bidis, to reduce the increasing problem of lung cancer.

  1. MHC class II expression in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yayi; Rozeboom, Leslie; Rivard, Christopher J; Ellison, Kim; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Caicun; Hirsch, Fred R

    2017-10-01

    Immunotherapy is an exciting development in lung cancer research. In this study we described major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II protein expression in lung cancer cell lines and patient tissues. We studied MHC Class II (DP, DQ, DR) (CR3/43, Abcam) protein expression in 55 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, 42 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and 278 lung cancer patient tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Seven (12.7%) NSCLC cell lines were positive for MHC Class II. No SCLC cell lines were found to be MHC Class II positive. We assessed 139 lung cancer samples available in the Hirsch Lab for MHC Class II. There was no positive MHC Class II staining on SCLC tumor cells. MHC Class II expression on TILs in SCLC was significantly lower than that on TILs in NSCLC (P<0.001). MHC Class II was also assessed in an additional 139 NSCLC tumor tissues from Medical University of Gdansk, Poland. Patients with positive staining of MHC Class II on TILs had longer regression-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than those whose TILs were MHC Class II negative (2.980 years, 95% CI 1.628-4.332 vs. 1.050 years, 95% CI 0.556-1.554, P=0.028) (3.230 years, 95% CI 2.617-3.843 vs. 1.390 years, 95% CI 0.629-2.151, P=0.014). MHC Class II was expressed both in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. However, MHC Class II was not detected in SCLC cell lines or tissue tumor cells. MHC Class II expression was lower on SCLC TILs than on NSCLC TILs. Loss of expression of MHC Class II on SCLC tumor cells and reduced expression on SCLC TILs may be a means of escaping anti-cancer immunity. Higher MHC Class II expression on TILs was correlated with better prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Radioimmunoscintigraphy in lung cancer diagnosing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjikostova, H.

    1999-01-01

    As the lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer at males, the exact staging is essential. Monoclonal antibodies marked with radionuclides like 131 I, 111 In, 99m Tc, etc., allow detecting and staging the small cell lung cancer with sensibility 90%, specificity 45% and accuracy 85%. It is suggested this method to be applied simultaneously with computerized tomography. The diagnostic possibility of radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) in earlier detection, recurrence or metastasis as well as follow up the effect of therapy performed at patients with lung cancer are reviewed. RIS is performed with IODOMAB-R-2 (Sorin Biomedica) 131 I antiCEA Mob F(ab') 2 , dose 92.5-185 MBq. Planar images were performed 72 hours after i.v. injection. Four patients with epidermoid squamous cell cancer were examined. Positive results were obtained at 3 patients and one false negative. In general sensitivity of radioimmunoscintigraphy of lung cancer is 75-90%. However there are difficulties at its application linked with necessity of permanent availability of radiolabelled antibodies with high specific activity at the moment of their injection. Despite all radioimmunoscintigraphy is developing as an useful diagnostic method for evaluation and follow up of lung cancer patients

  3. Spine Metastases in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Yu. Stolyarova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and the objectives of the study were to determine the incidence of metastatic lesions to various parts of the spine, the assessment of the association with other clinical signs of lung cancer (localization, form, histology, degree of differentiation, staging, nature of extraosseous metastasis, to investigate the effect of these parameters on the survi­val of the patients. Material and methods. The study included 1071 patients with lung cancer aged 24 to 86 years. None of the examined patients has been operated previously for lung cancer, and after arriving at a diagnosis, all patients received radiation therapy, 73 % of them — combined radiochemothe­rapy. Results. Metastasis in the vertebral bodies and vertebral joints occurs in 13 % of patients with lung cancer and in 61 % of patients with bone form of the disease, the ratio of the defeat of thoracic, sacral, lumbar and cervical spine was 6 : 4 : 2 : 1. The development of metastases in the spine is mostly associa­ted with the localization of the tumor in the upper lobe of the lung, the peripheral form of the disease, with non-small cell histologic variants (adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The number of metastases in the spinal column directly correlates with the degree of metastatic involvement of the inguinal lymph nodes, abdominal wall and the liver, has an impact on the invasion of lung tumor into the esophagus and the trachea. The life expectancy of the deceased persons with spine metastases is less than that of other patients with the lung cancer, but the overall survival rate in these groups of patients is not very different. Conclusions. Clinical features of lung cancer with metastases in the spine necessitate the development of medical technology of rational radiochemotherapy in such patients.

  4. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  5. Peptide hormones and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, T W

    2006-03-01

    Several peptide hormones have been identified which alter the proliferation of lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), which is a neuroendocrine cancer, produces and secretes gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), neurotensin (NT) and adrenomedullin (AM) as autocrine growth factors. GRP, NT and AM bind to G-protein coupled receptors causing phosphatidylinositol turnover or elevated cAMP in SCLC cells. Addition of GRP, NT or AM to SCLC cells causes altered expression of nuclear oncogenes, such as c-fos, and stimulation of growth. Antagonists have been developed for GRP, NT and AM receptors which function as cytostatic agents and inhibit SCLC growth. Growth factor antagonists, such as the NT1 receptor antagonist SR48692, facilitate the ability of chemotherapeutic drugs to kill lung cancer cells. It remains to be determined if GRP, NT and AM receptors will served as molecular targets, for development of new therapies for the treatment of SCLC patients. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells also have a high density of GRP, NT, AM and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors. Several NSCLC patients with EGF receptor mutations respond to gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Gefitinib relieves NSCLC symptoms, maintaining stable disease in patients who are not eligible for systemic chemotherapy. It is important to develop new therapeutic approaches using translational research techniques for the treatment of lung cancer patients.

  6. European position statement on lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudkerk, Matthijs; Devaraj, Anand; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT can save lives. This European Union (EU) position statement presents the available evidence and the major issues that need to be addressed to ensure the successful implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening in Europe. This statement identified...... specific actions required by the European lung cancer screening community to adopt before the implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening. This position statement recommends the following actions: a risk stratification approach should be used for future lung cancer low-dose CT programmes...... need to set a timeline for implementing lung cancer screening....

  7. Nucleomedical diagnosis of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yasuhiko [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    1982-06-01

    /sup 67/Ga citrate is most often used in the diagnosis of lung cancer. As judged from reported cases, the accuracy rate was 90%, with a false negative rate being about 5%. Lung ventilation and blood flow scintigraphy are valuable in assessing the degree of damage to lung function and the therapeutic effect rather than in finding lung cancer. In aerosol scintigraphy, sup(99m)Tc labelled aerosols with different particle size depending on the purpose of diagnosis are used; the large particles deposit at the center of the trachea and small size aerosols on the periphery. Aerosol-inhaled scintigraphy is highly valuable for the diagnosis of hilus lung cancer. sup(99m)Tc methylene diphosphate is used in bone scintigraphy to detect bone metastasis. But it sometimes gives false positive results such as in the case of senile bone changes. Another valuable method of diagnosis is emission CT by which various substances having affinity for the tumor can be detected by labelling them with a proton emitting nuclear species such as 11 C, /sup 13/N, /sup 15/O and /sup 18/F. Some cases of lung cancer, and the radionuclide methods used in the diagnosis are shown.

  8. [THE ROLE OF ESTROGENS IN THE CARCINOGENESIS OF LUNG CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikova, E; Uchikov, A; Dimitrakova, E; Uchikov, P

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from lung cancer has dramatically increased in women as compared to men over the past few years. Historically, smoking has been considered the major risk factor for lung cancer regardless of gender. Several recent lines of evidence implicate gender differences in the observed differences in prevalence and histologic type which cannot be explained based on the carcinogenic action of nicotine. Several recent studies underscore the importance of reproductive and hormonal factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer Lung cancer morbidity and mortality in Bulgaria was 16.2/100000 women and 14.6/ 100000 women, resp. Lung cancer morbidity in Europe was 39/100000 women. Lung cancer is extremely sensitive to estrogens. The latter act directly or as effect modifiers for the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Further research examining the relationship between serum estrogen levels and the estrogen receptor expression in normal and tumor lung tissue samples can help elucidate the importance of reproductive and hormonal (exogenous and endogenous) factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer.

  9. Lung cancer in HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Deepthi; Haigentz, Missak; Aboulafia, David M

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent non-AIDS-defining malignancy in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Smoking plays a significant role in the development of HIV-associated lung cancer, but the cancer risk is two to four times greater in HIV-infected persons than in the general population, even after adjusting for smoking intensity and duration. Lung cancer is typically diagnosed a decade or more earlier among HIV-infected persons (mean age, 46 years) compared to those without HIV infection. Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological subtype, and the majority of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic carcinoma. Because pulmonary infections are common among HIV-infected individuals, clinicians may not suspect lung cancer in this younger patient population. Surgery with curative intent remains the treatment of choice for early-stage disease. Although there is increasing experience in using radiation and chemotherapy for HIV-infected patients who do not have surgical options, there is a need for prospective studies because this population is frequently excluded from participating in cancer trials. Evidence-based treatments for smoking-cessation with demonstrated efficacy in the general population must be routinely incorporated into the care of HIV-positive smokers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  11. Lung involvement in systemic connective tissue diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavec Goran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Systemic connective tissue diseases (SCTD are chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorders of unknown cause that can involve different organs and systems. Their course and prognosis are different. All of them can, more or less, involve the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to find out the frequency of respiratory symptoms, lung function disorders, radiography and high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT abnormalities, and their correlation with the duration of the disease and the applied treatment. Methods. In 47 non-randomized consecutive patients standard chest radiography, HRCT, and lung function tests were done. Results. Hypoxemia was present in nine of the patients with respiratory symptoms (20%. In all of them chest radiography was normal. In five of these patients lung fibrosis was established using HRCT. Half of all the patients with SCTD had symptoms of lung involvement. Lung function tests disorders of various degrees were found in 40% of the patients. The outcome and the degree of lung function disorders were neither in correlation with the duration of SCTD nor with therapy used (p > 0.05 Spearmans Ro. Conclusion. Pulmonary fibrosis occurs in about 10% of the patients with SCTD, and possibly not due to the applied treatment regimens. Hypoxemia could be a sing of existing pulmonary fibrosis in the absence of disorders on standard chest radiography.

  12. Nationwide quality improvement in lung cancer care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik Winther; Green, Anders; Oesterlind, Kell

    2013-01-01

    To improve prognosis and quality of lung cancer care the Danish Lung Cancer Group has developed a strategy consisting of national clinical guidelines and a clinical quality and research database. The first edition of our guidelines was published in 1998 and our national lung cancer registry...... was opened for registrations in 2000. This article describes methods and results obtained by multidisciplinary collaboration and illustrates how quality of lung cancer care can be improved by establishing and monitoring result and process indicators....

  13. Malignant pleural effusion cell blocks are substitutes for tissue in EML4-ALK rearrangement detection in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, J; Li, X; Bai, H; Zhao, J; Wang, Z; Duan, J; An, T; Wu, M; Wang, Y; Wang, S; Wang, J

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of malignant pleural effusions (MPE) as surrogate samples for the detection of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and to investigate the prognostic and predictive value of EML4-ALK in MPE of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). One hundred and nine NSCLC patients were retrospectively analysed. EML4-ALK was identified using paraffin-embedded tumour cells in MPE samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC, Ventana) and confirmed by fluorescence using in situ hybridisation (FISH) and qRT-PCR. The EGFR mutation was determined by MPE, using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). A total of 5 out of 109 (4.58%) patients were identified as EML4-ALK rearrangement in MPE by IHC.; In addition to two metachronous samples, the consistency of MPE and tissue for EML4-ALK detection was 100% (21/21), and the sensitivity and specificity were 100% (2/2) and 100% (19/19), respectively. EML4-ALK rearrangement cases were confirmed by FISH and qRT-PCR; the sensitivity were both 100% (2/2) when compared with tissue, and it was 60% (3/5) and 100% (5/5), respectively, when compared with MPE by IHC. The overall response rate (ORR) was 100% (2/2) for patients with EML4-ALK in MPE. Moreover, the PFS of these patients appeared to be prolonged in chemotherapy (9.27 versus 6.53 and versus 4.67 months, P = 0.122), compared with the EGFR mutation and the EGFR/ALK double negative group, respectively. EML4-ALK rearrangement detection in malignant pleural effusions is a complementary method for EML4-ALK detection. VETANA and qRT-PCR are more appropriate for MPE detection. EML4-ALK rearrangement in pleural effusions has a predictive value for treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Nuclear survivin and its relationship to DNA damage repair genes in non-small cell lung cancer investigated using tissue array.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songliu Hu

    Full Text Available To investigate the predictive role and association of nuclear survivin and the DNA double-strand breaks repair genes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC: DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs, Ku heterodimeric regulatory complex 70-KD subunit (Ku70 and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM.The protein expression of nuclear survivin, DNA-PKcs, Ku70 and ATM were investigated using immunohistochemistry in tumors from 256 patients with surgically resected NSCLC. Furthermore, we analyzed the correlation between the expression of nuclear survivin, DNA-PKcs, Ku70 and ATM. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the prognostic factors that inuenced the overall survival and disease-free survival of NSCLC.The expression of nuclear survivin, DNA-PKcs, Ku70 and ATM was significantly higher in tumor tissues than in normal tissues. By dichotomizing the specimens as expressing low or high levels of nuclear survivin, nuclear survivin correlated significantly with the pathologic stage (P = 0.009 and lymph node status (P = 0.004. The nuclear survivin levels were an independent prognostic factor for both the overall survival and the disease-free survival in univariate and multivariate analyses. Patients with low Ku70 and DNA-PKcs expression had a greater benefit from radiotherapy than patients with high expression of Ku70 (P = 0.012 and DNA-PKcs (P = 0.02. Nuclear survivin expression positively correlated with DNA-PKcs (P<0.001 and Ku70 expression (P<0.001.Nuclear survivin may be a prognostic factor for overall survival in patients with resected stage I-IIIA NSCLC. DNA-PKcs and Ku70 could predict the effect of radiotherapy in patients with NSCLC. Nuclear survivin may also stimulates DNA double-strand breaks repair by its interaction with DNA-PKcs and Ku70.

  15. Early diagnosis of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherrer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Unanimity does not exist about the utility and organisation of screening procedures for early diagnosis of lung cancer. We describe a low cost structue of screening, requiring only a minimum of compliance from the elderly smoker and ex-smoker. At 4 months interval, radiographs, sputum cytologies and eventual fiberbronchoscopies are realized in all that elderly smokers and ex-smokers which begin to present one of the first early lung cancer signs or symptoms (loss of weight, hemoptoe, thoracic pain and others). (orig.) [de

  16. TU-F-CAMPUS-J-03: Elasticity Functions Based On 4DCT Images to Predict Tumor and Normal Tissue Response to Radiation for Patients with Lung Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, H; Li, H; Gordon, J; Chetty, I

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate radiotherapy outcomes by incorporating 4DCT-based physiological and tumor elasticity functions for lung cancer patients. Methods: 4DCT images were acquired from 28 lung SBRT patients before radiation treatment. Deformable image registration (DIR) was performed from the end-inhale to the end-exhale using a B-Spline-based algorithm (Elastix, an open source software package). The resultant displacement vector fields (DVFs) were used to calculate a relative Jacobian function (RV) for each patient. The computed functions in the lung and tumor regions represent lung ventilation and tumor elasticity properties, respectively. The 28 patients were divided into two groups: 16 with two-year tumor local control (LC) and 12 with local failure (LF). The ventilation and elasticity related RV functions were calculated for each of these patients. Results: The LF patients have larger RV values than the LC patients. The mean RV value in the lung region was 1.15 (±0.67) for the LF patients, higher than 1.06 (±0.59) for the LC patients. In the tumor region, the elasticity-related RV values are 1.2 (±0.97) and 0.86 (±0.64) for the LF and LC patients, respectively. Among the 16 LC patients, 3 have the mean RV values greater than 1.0 in the tumors. These tumors were located near the diaphragm, where the displacements are relatively large.. RV functions calculated in the tumor were better correlated with treatment outcomes than those calculated in the lung. Conclusion: The ventilation and elasticity-related RV functions in the lung and tumor regions were calculated from 4DCT image and the resultant values showed differences between the LC and LF patients. Further investigation of the impact of the displacements on the computed RV is warranted. Results suggest that the RV images might be useful for evaluation of treatment outcome for lung cancer patients

  17. TU-F-CAMPUS-J-03: Elasticity Functions Based On 4DCT Images to Predict Tumor and Normal Tissue Response to Radiation for Patients with Lung Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, H; Li, H; Gordon, J; Chetty, I [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate radiotherapy outcomes by incorporating 4DCT-based physiological and tumor elasticity functions for lung cancer patients. Methods: 4DCT images were acquired from 28 lung SBRT patients before radiation treatment. Deformable image registration (DIR) was performed from the end-inhale to the end-exhale using a B-Spline-based algorithm (Elastix, an open source software package). The resultant displacement vector fields (DVFs) were used to calculate a relative Jacobian function (RV) for each patient. The computed functions in the lung and tumor regions represent lung ventilation and tumor elasticity properties, respectively. The 28 patients were divided into two groups: 16 with two-year tumor local control (LC) and 12 with local failure (LF). The ventilation and elasticity related RV functions were calculated for each of these patients. Results: The LF patients have larger RV values than the LC patients. The mean RV value in the lung region was 1.15 (±0.67) for the LF patients, higher than 1.06 (±0.59) for the LC patients. In the tumor region, the elasticity-related RV values are 1.2 (±0.97) and 0.86 (±0.64) for the LF and LC patients, respectively. Among the 16 LC patients, 3 have the mean RV values greater than 1.0 in the tumors. These tumors were located near the diaphragm, where the displacements are relatively large.. RV functions calculated in the tumor were better correlated with treatment outcomes than those calculated in the lung. Conclusion: The ventilation and elasticity-related RV functions in the lung and tumor regions were calculated from 4DCT image and the resultant values showed differences between the LC and LF patients. Further investigation of the impact of the displacements on the computed RV is warranted. Results suggest that the RV images might be useful for evaluation of treatment outcome for lung cancer patients.

  18. Lung cancer mimicking lung abscess formation on CT images

    OpenAIRE

    Taira, Naohiro; Kawabata, Tsutomu; Gabe, Atsushi; Ichi, Takaharu; Kushi, Kazuaki; Yohena, Tomofumi; Kawasaki, Hidenori; Yamashiro, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 64 Final Diagnosis: Lung pleomorphic carcinoma Symptoms: Cough • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Oncology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: The diagnosis of lung cancer is often made based on computed tomography (CT) image findings if it cannot be confirmed on pathological examinations, such as bronchoscopy. However, the CT image findings of cancerous lesions are similar to those of abscesses.We herein report a case of lung cancer that resemble...

  19. Epidermal growth factor receptor in primary human lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xueyan; Hu Guoqiang; Tian Keli; Wang Mingyun

    1996-01-01

    Cell membranes were prepared from 12 human lung cancers for the study of the expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR). EGFR concentration was estimated by ligand binding studies using 125 I-radiolabeled EGF. The dissociation constants of the high affinity sites were identical, 1.48 nmol and 1.1 nmol in cancer and normal lung tissues, the EGFR contents were higher in lung cancer tissues (range: 2.25 to 19.39 pmol·g -1 membrane protein) than that in normal tissues from the same patients (range: 0.72 to 7.43 pmol·g -1 membrane protein). These results suggest that EGF and its receptor may play a role in the regulatory mechanisms in the control of lung cellular growth and tumor promotion

  20. Lung cancer and angiogenesis imaging using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoxia; Zhao Jun; Xu, Lisa X; Sun Jianqi; Gu Xiang; Liu Ping; Xiao Tiqiao

    2010-01-01

    Early detection of lung cancer is the key to a cure, but a difficult task using conventional x-ray imaging. In the present study, synchrotron radiation in-line phase-contrast imaging was used to study lung cancer. Lewis lung cancer and 4T1 breast tumor metastasis in the lung were imaged, and the differences were clearly shown in comparison to normal lung tissue. The effect of the object-detector distance and the energy level on the phase-contrast difference was investigated and found to be in good agreement with the theory of in-line phase-contrast imaging. Moreover, 3D image reconstruction of lung tumor angiogenesis was obtained for the first time using a contrast agent, demonstrating the feasibility of micro-angiography with synchrotron radiation for imaging tumor angiogenesis deep inside the body.

  1. ELISA for complexes between urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor in lung cancer tissue extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Witte, H; Pappot, H; Brünner, N

    1997-01-01

    A sandwich-type ELISA has been developed for the assessment of complexes between urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) in extracts of squamous cell lung carcinomas. The assay is based on a combination of rabbit polyclonal anti-uPA antibodies and a biotinylated mouse...... anti-uPAR monoclonal antibody (MAb). The detection limit of the assay is approximately 0.5 fmol/ml. A linear dose-response is obtained with up to 40 fmol/ml of uPA:uPAR complexes, while uPA and uPAR separately do not cause any response in the ELISA. A buffer which has been used previously for optimal...... extraction of uPAR yields the highest amounts of uPA:uPAR complexes. Absorption of tumor extracts with anti-uPA or anti-uPAR MAbs results in a complete disappearance of the ELISA signal, demonstrating the specificity of the ELISA. The recovery of chemically cross-linked uPA:uPAR complexes added to tumor...

  2. Increased mean lung density: Another independent predictor of lung cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverzellati, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.sverzellati@unipr.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Randi, Giorgia, E-mail: giorgia.randi@marionegri.it [Department of Epidemiology, Mario Negri Institute, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Spagnolo, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.spagnolo@unimore.it [Respiratory Disease Unit, Center for Rare Lung Disease, Department of Oncology, Hematology and Respiratory Disease, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 71, 44124 Modena (Italy); Marchianò, Alfonso, E-mail: alfonso.marchiano@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Radiology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Silva, Mario, E-mail: mac.mario@hotmail.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin, E-mail: Jan-Martin.Kuhnigk@mevis.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Universitaetsallee 29, 28359 Bremen (Germany); La Vecchia, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.lavecchia@marionegri.it [Department of Occupational Health, University of Milan, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Zompatori, Maurizio, E-mail: maurizio.zompatori@unibo.it [Department of Radiology, Cardio-Thoracic Section, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Via Albertoni 15, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Pastorino, Ugo, E-mail: ugo.pastorino@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Surgery, Section of Thoracic Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between emphysema phenotype, mean lung density (MLD), lung function and lung cancer by using an automated multiple feature analysis tool on thin-section computed tomography (CT) data. Methods: Both emphysema phenotype and MLD evaluated by automated quantitative CT analysis were compared between outpatients and screening participants with lung cancer (n = 119) and controls (n = 989). Emphysema phenotype was defined by assessing features such as extent, distribution on core/peel of the lung and hole size. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate independent associations of CT densitometric measurements and pulmonary function test (PFT) with lung cancer risk. Results: No emphysema feature was associated with lung cancer. Lung cancer risk increased with decreasing values of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) independently of MLD (OR 5.37, 95% CI: 2.63–10.97 for FEV{sub 1} < 60% vs. FEV{sub 1} ≥ 90%), and with increasing MLD independently of FEV{sub 1} (OR 3.00, 95% CI: 1.60–5.63 for MLD > −823 vs. MLD < −857 Hounsfield units). Conclusion: Emphysema per se was not associated with lung cancer whereas decreased FEV{sub 1} was confirmed as being a strong and independent risk factor. The cross-sectional association between increased MLD and lung cancer requires future validations.

  3. Interplay between the lung microbiome and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qixing; Jiang, Feng; Yin, Rong; Wang, Jie; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Gaochao; Ma, Weidong; Yang, Yao; Xu, Lin; Hu, Jianzhong

    2018-02-28

    The human microbiome confers benefits or disease susceptibility to the human body through multiple pathways. Disruption of the symbiotic balance of the human microbiome is commonly found in systematic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and chronic gastric diseases. Emerging evidence has suggested that dysbiosis of the microbiota may also play vital roles in carcinogenesis at multiple levels, e.g., by affecting metabolic, inflammatory, or immune pathways. Although the impact of the gut microbiome on the digestive cancer has been widely explored, few studies have investigated the interplay between the microbiome and lung cancer. Some recent studies have shown that certain microbes and microbiota dysbiosis are correlated with development of lung cancer. In this mini-review, we briefly summarize current research findings describing the relationship between the lung microbiome and lung cancer. We further discuss the potential mechanisms through which the lung microbiome may play a role in lung carcinogenesis and impact lung cancer treatment. A better knowledge of the interplay between the lung microbiome and lung cancer may promote the development of innovative strategies for early prevention and personalized treatment in lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Tuberculosis mimicking lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hammen

    2015-01-01

    Our case report presents two patients, who were referred to the Thorax diagnostic centre at the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Odense University Hospital, with presumptive diagnosis of neoplasm and had proved lung TB with no evidence of malignancy instead. In the first case diagnosis was confirmed after thoracotomy, in the second case after bronchoscopy.

  5. Effect of primarily cultured human lung cancer-associated fibroblasts on radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xiaoqin; Ji Jiang; Chen Yongbing; Shan Fang; Lu Xueguan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of human lung cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) on the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells when CAF is placed in direct contact co-culture with lung cancer cells. Methods: Human lung CAF was obtained from fresh human lung adenocarcinoma tissue specimens by primary culture and subculture and was then identified by immunofluorescence staining. The CAF was placed in direct contact co-culture with lung cancer A 549 and H 1299 cells, and the effects of CAF on the radiosensitivity of A 549 and H 1299 cells were evaluated by colony-forming assay. Results: The human lung CAF obtained by adherent culture could stably grow and proliferate, and it had specific expression of α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and fibroblast activation protein,but without expression of cytokeratin-18. The plating efficiency (PE, %) of A 549 cells at 0 Gy irradiation was (20.0 ± 3.9)% when cultured alone versus (32.3 ± 5.5)% when co-cultured with CAF (t=3.16, P<0.05), and the PE of H 1299 cells at 0 Gy irradiation was (20.6 ± 3.1)% when cultured alone versus (35.2 ± 2.3)% when co-cultured with CAF (t=6.55, P<0.05). The cell survival rate at 2 Gy irradiation (SF 2 ) of A 549 cells was 0.727 ±0.061 when cultured alone versus 0.782 ± 0.089 when co-cultured with CAF (t=0.88, P>0.05), and the SF 2 of H 1299 cells was 0.692 ±0.065 when cultured alone versus 0.782 ± 0.037 when co-cultured with CAF (t=2.08, P>0.05). The protection enhancement ratios of human lung CAF for A 549 cells and H 1299 cells were 1.29 and 1.25, respectively. Conclusions: Human lung CAF reduces the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells when placed in direct contact co-culture with them, and the radioprotective effect may be attributed to CAF promoting the proliferation of lung cancer cells. (authors)

  6. Biomarkers of ambient air pollution and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetriou, Christiana A; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Loft, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    The association between ambient air pollution exposure and lung cancer risk has been investigated in prospective studies and the results are generally consistent, indicating that long-term exposure to air pollution may cause lung cancer. Despite the prospective nature and consistent findings...... and progression from external exposure to tumour formation and some have also been suggested as risk predictors of future cancer, reinforcing causal reasoning. However, methodological issues such as confounding, publication bias and use of surrogate tissues instead of target tissues in studies on these markers...

  7. A Comparative Study of Rat Lung Decellularization by Chemical Detergents for Lung Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tebyanian

    2017-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Decellularized lung tissue can be used in the laboratory to study various aspects of pulmonary biology and physiology and also, these results can be used in the continued improvement of engineered lung tissue.

  8. Lung Cancer and Human Papilloma Viruses (HPVs: Examining the Molecular Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya R. Prabhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papilloma virus (HPV, known to be an etiological agent for genital cancers, has been suggested also to be a possible contributory agent for lung cancer. Alternatively, lung cancer, formerly considered to be solely a smoker's disease, may now be more appropriately categorised into never smoker's and smoker's lung cancer. Through this paper we attempt to bring forth the current knowledge regarding mechanisms of HPV gaining access into the lung tissue, various strategies involved in HPV-associated tumorigenesis in lung tissue.

  9. Lung cancer mimicking lung abscess formation on CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Naohiro; Kawabata, Tsutomu; Gabe, Atsushi; Ichi, Takaharu; Kushi, Kazuaki; Yohena, Tomofumi; Kawasaki, Hidenori; Yamashiro, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Male, 64 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Lung pleomorphic carcinoma Symptoms: Cough • fever - Clinical Procedure: - Specialty: Oncology. Unusual clinical course. The diagnosis of lung cancer is often made based on computed tomography (CT) image findings if it cannot be confirmed on pathological examinations, such as bronchoscopy. However, the CT image findings of cancerous lesions are similar to those of abscesses.We herein report a case of lung cancer that resembled a lung abscess on CT. We herein describe the case of 64-year-old male who was diagnosed with lung cancer using surgery. In this case, it was quite difficult to distinguish between the lung cancer and a lung abscess on CT images, and a lung abscess was initially suspected due to symptoms, such as fever and coughing, contrast-enhanced CT image findings showing a ring-enhancing mass in the right upper lobe and the patient's laboratory test results. However, a pathological diagnosis of lung cancer was confirmed according to the results of a rapid frozen section biopsy of the lesion. This case suggests that physicians should not suspect both a lung abscesses and malignancy in cases involving masses presenting as ring-enhancing lesions on contrast-enhanced CT.

  10. The First Korean Case of Cutaneous Lung Tissue Heterotopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ga Won; Han, Seong Woo; Jung, Ji Mi; Kang, Mi Seon

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous lung tissue heterotopia is a very rare disorder where mature lung tissues develop in the skin. This is only the second known report of cutaneous lung tissue heterotopia, with the first by Singer et al. in 1998. A newborn infant had a hemangioma-like, freely movable mass connected to the anterior aspect of the sternal manubrium. Pathologic findings showed mature lung tissues with bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli through the dermis and subcutis, and it was diagnosed as cutaneous lung tissue heterotopia. Cutaneous lung tissue heterotopia is hypervascular, so grossly it looks like a hemangioma. It can be differentiated from pulmonary sequestration, teratoma, bronchogenic cyst, and branchial cleft cyst by histology and the location of the mass. We describe the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings of a cutaneous lung tissue heterotopia, the first reported in Korea. PMID:20808688

  11. Evidence for tankyrases as antineoplastic targets in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Alexander M; Johnson, Kevin C; Stan, Radu V; Sanglikar, Aarti; Ahmed, Yashi; Dmitrovsky, Ethan; Freemantle, Sarah J

    2013-01-01

    New pharmacologic targets are urgently needed to treat or prevent lung cancer, the most common cause of cancer death for men and women. This study identified one such target. This is the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, which is deregulated in cancers, including those lacking adenomatous polyposis coli or β-catenin mutations. Two poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) enzymes regulate canonical Wnt activity: tankyrase (TNKS) 1 and TNKS2. These enzymes poly-ADP-ribosylate (PARsylate) and destabilize axin, a key component of the β-catenin phosphorylation complex. This study used comprehensive gene profiles to uncover deregulation of the Wnt pathway in murine transgenic and human lung cancers, relative to normal lung. Antineoplastic consequences of genetic and pharmacologic targeting of TNKS in murine and human lung cancer cell lines were explored, and validated in vivo in mice by implantation of murine transgenic lung cancer cells engineered with reduced TNKS expression relative to controls. Microarray analyses comparing Wnt pathway members in malignant versus normal tissues of a murine transgenic cyclin E lung cancer model revealed deregulation of Wnt pathway components, including TNKS1 and TNKS2. Real-time PCR assays independently confirmed these results in paired normal-malignant murine and human lung tissues. Individual treatments of a panel of human and murine lung cancer cell lines with the TNKS inhibitors XAV939 and IWR-1 dose-dependently repressed cell growth and increased cellular axin 1 and tankyrase levels. These inhibitors also repressed expression of a Wnt-responsive luciferase construct, implicating the Wnt pathway in conferring these antineoplastic effects. Individual or combined knockdown of TNKS1 and TNKS2 with siRNAs or shRNAs reduced lung cancer cell growth, stabilized axin, and repressed tumor formation in murine xenograft and syngeneic lung cancer models. Findings reported here uncovered deregulation of specific components of the Wnt pathway in both

  12. Ethnic variations in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeger, A M; Mueller, M R; Odocha, O; Dekan, G; Salat, A; Röthy, W; Esposito, V; Caputi, M; Wolner, E; Kaiser, H E

    1997-01-01

    Cancer of the lung is the most frequent cancer in the world, but with wide geographical variation in risk. It is most spread among males of all races worldwide, the only exception being its incidence among Chinese women aged 70 years and older. When comparing the different ethnic groups we have to consider that besides inhaling cigarette smoke actively or as a passive smoker the exposure to occupational carcinogens varies considerably according to different work places. In our study we compared 10 years of data from African-Americans in Howard University Hospital, Washington D.C. with 20 years of data from the white population in the University Hospital of Vienna, Austria. Ethnic patterns are generally consistent within each group in terms of both incidence and mortality. The difference in susceptibility between the sexes, the three major racial groups and already proven differences in genetic variations indicate the difference between individuals concerning the initiation and progression of lung cancer.

  13. Differences in Normal Tissue Response in the Esophagus Between Proton and Photon Radiation Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Using In Vivo Imaging Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielski, Joshua S; Yang, Jinzhong; Mohan, Radhe; Titt, Uwe; Mirkovic, Dragan; Stingo, Francesco; Liao, Zhongxing; Gomez, Daniel R; Martel, Mary K; Briere, Tina M; Court, Laurence E

    2017-11-15

    To determine whether there exists any significant difference in normal tissue toxicity between intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or proton therapy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. A total of 134 study patients (n=49 treated with proton therapy, n=85 with IMRT) treated in a randomized trial had a previously validated esophageal toxicity imaging biomarker, esophageal expansion, quantified during radiation therapy, as well as esophagitis grade (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0), on a weekly basis during treatment. Differences between the 2 modalities were statically analyzed using the imaging biomarker metric value (Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance), as well as the incidence and severity of esophagitis grade (χ 2 and Fisher exact tests, respectively). The dose-response of the imaging biomarker was also compared between modalities using esophageal equivalent uniform dose, as well as delivered dose to an isotropic esophageal subvolume. No statistically significant difference in the distribution of esophagitis grade, the incidence of grade ≥3 esophagitis (15 and 11 patients treated with IMRT and proton therapy, respectively), or the esophageal expansion imaging biomarker between cohorts (P>.05) was found. The distribution of imaging biomarker metric values had similar distributions between treatment arms, despite a slightly higher dose volume in the proton arm (P>.05). Imaging biomarker dose-response was similar between modalities for dose quantified as esophageal equivalent uniform dose and delivered esophageal subvolume dose. Regardless of treatment modality, there was high variability in imaging biomarker response, as well as esophagitis grade, for similar esophageal doses between patients. There was no significant difference in esophageal toxicity from either proton- or photon-based radiation therapy as quantified by esophagitis grade or the esophageal expansion imaging biomarker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  14. Immune and Inflammatory Cell Composition of Human Lung Cancer Stroma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G-Andre Banat

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that the abnormal microenvironment of tumors may play a critical role in carcinogenesis, including lung cancer. We comprehensively assessed the number of stromal cells, especially immune/inflammatory cells, in lung cancer and evaluated their infiltration in cancers of different stages, types and metastatic characteristics potential. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung cancer tissue arrays containing normal and lung cancer sections was performed. This analysis was combined with cyto-/histomorphological assessment and quantification of cells to classify/subclassify tumors accurately and to perform a high throughput analysis of stromal cell composition in different types of lung cancer. In human lung cancer sections we observed a significant elevation/infiltration of total-T lymphocytes (CD3+, cytotoxic-T cells (CD8+, T-helper cells (CD4+, B cells (CD20+, macrophages (CD68+, mast cells (CD117+, mononuclear cells (CD11c+, plasma cells, activated-T cells (MUM1+, B cells, myeloid cells (PD1+ and neutrophilic granulocytes (myeloperoxidase+ compared with healthy donor specimens. We observed all of these immune cell markers in different types of lung cancers including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinoma, metastatic adenocarcinoma, and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. The numbers of all tumor-associated immune cells (except MUM1+ cells in stage III cancer specimens was significantly greater than those in stage I samples. We observed substantial stage-dependent immune cell infiltration in human lung tumors suggesting that the tumor microenvironment plays a critical role during lung carcinogenesis. Strategies for therapeutic interference with lung cancer microenvironment should consider the complexity of its immune cell composition.

  15. Risk of second primary lung cancer in women after radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantzau, Trine; Thomsen, Mette Skovhus; Væth, Michael; Overgaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several epidemiological studies have reported increased risks of second lung cancers after breast cancer irradiation. In this study we assessed the effects of the delivered radiation dose to the lung and the risk of second primary lung cancer. Methods: We conducted a nested case–control study of second lung cancer in a population based cohort of 23,627 early breast cancer patients treated with post-operative radiotherapy from 1982 to 2007. The cohort included 151 cases diagnosed with second primary lung cancer and 443 controls. Individual dose-reconstructions were performed and the delivered dose to the center of the second lung tumor and the comparable location for the controls were estimated, based on the patient specific radiotherapy charts. Results: The median age at breast cancer diagnosis was 54 years (range 34–74). The median time from breast cancer treatment to second lung cancer diagnosis was 12 years (range 1–26 years). 91% of the cases were categorized as ever smokers vs. 40% among the controls. For patients diagnosed with a second primary lung cancer five or more years after breast cancer treatment the rate of lung cancer increased linearly with 8.5% per Gray (95% confidence interval = 3.1–23.3%; p < 0.001). This rate was enhanced for ever smokers with an excess rate of 17.3% per Gray (95% CI = 4.5–54%; p < 0.005). Conclusions: Second lung cancer after radiotherapy for early breast cancer is associated with the delivered dose to the lung. Although the absolute risk is relative low, the growing number of long-time survivors after breast cancer treatment highlights the need for advances in normal tissue sparing radiation techniques

  16. Estrogen, Estrogen Receptor and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Han Hsu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen has been postulated as a contributor for lung cancer development and progression. We reviewed the current knowledge about the expression and prognostic implications of the estrogen receptors (ER in lung cancer, the effect and signaling pathway of estrogen on lung cancer, the hormone replacement therapy and lung cancer risk and survival, the mechanistic relationship between the ER and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, and the relevant clinical trials combining the ER antagonist and the EGFR antagonist, to investigate the role of estrogen in lung cancer. Estrogen and its receptor have the potential to become a prognosticator and a therapeutic target in lung cancer. On the other hand, tobacco smoking aggravates the effect of estrogen and endocrine disruptive chemicals from the environment targeting ER may well contribute to the lung carcinogenesis. They have gradually become important issues in the course of preventive medicine.

  17. Photodynamic therapy for multiple primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konaka, C.; Okunaka, T.; Sakai, H.; Furukawa, K.; Hayata, Y.; Kato, H.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, multiple primary lung cancers have been reported with greater frequency. As for the treatment of multiple primary lung cancer, operative excision is usually difficult for all lesions due to problems of pulmonary function. PDT is a good therapeutic modality in the treatment of multiple primary lung cancer, especially central type lung cancer, for preservation of lung function. Since 1980, 50 patients of endoscopically-evaluated early stage lung cancers have been treated with PDT at Tokyo Medical College. Within this group, 16 patients were classified as having multiple primary lung cancers. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of PDT in the treatment of these patients with multiple primary bronchogenic carcinoma. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Gene therapy for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloza, Eric M; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim

    2006-09-01

    Lung cancer patients suffer a 15% overall survival despite advances in chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery. This unacceptably low survival rate is due to the usual finding of advanced disease at diagnosis. However, multimodality strategies using conventional therapies only minimally improve survival rates even in early stages of lung cancer. Attempts to improve survival in advanced disease using various combinations of platinum-based chemotherapy have demonstrated that no regimen is superior, suggesting a therapeutic plateau and the need for novel, more specific, and less toxic therapeutic strategies. Over the past three decades, the genetic etiology of cancer has been gradually delineated, albeit not yet completely. Understanding the molecular events that occur during the multistep process of bronchogenic carcinogenesis may make these tasks more surmountable. During these same three decades, techniques have been developed which allow transfer of functional genes into mammalian cells. For example, blockade of activated tumor-promoting oncogenes or replacement of inactivated tumor-suppressing or apoptosis-promoting genes can be achieved by gene therapy. This article will discuss the therapeutic implications of these molecular changes associated with bronchogenic carcinomas and will then review the status of gene therapies for treatment of lung cancer. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Chemoradiotherapy for youngster lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Tingfeng; Jiang Guoliang; Fu Xiaolong; Wang Lijuan; Qian Hao; Zhao Sen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To define the clinico-pathologic characteristics and survival of young-robust patients ( 2 vs 70 mg/m 2 , P<0.001), and more cycles of chemotherapy 6 vs 4, P<0.001) were observed in the youngster group. There was no difference between the two groups in family history of cancer, cigarette smoking, weight loss, and KPS. The median survival intervals of all stages (10 months vs 12 months), and the 2-and 5-year survival rates (11.1% vs 23.1% and 3.1% vs 5.4%) were comparable (P=0.090) between them. For stage IIIb, there was a trend that young patients would give better outcome than the older ones with median survivals of 11 months to 9 months and the 2-year survivals of 3.8% to 0% (P=0.071). Conclusions: The different clinico-pathologic features of the young lung cancer patients are confirmed from that of old patients, but without any survival disparity. In order to enhance our understanding and reduce the mis-diagnosis rate, it is rational to define the lung cancer in relative young people as the youngster lung cancer, which may be beneficial to the clinical practice

  20. Lung cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Kornelia; Kropfmüller, Roland; Schinko, Herwig; Bogner, Stephan; Fellner, Franz; Arzt, Wolfgang; Lamprecht, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    In the 26th week of gestation, a 29-year-old pregnant office employee was referred to the pulmonary department of Linz General Hospital (AKH) under the suspicion of tuberculosis. She complained of a cough with intermittent hemoptysis and pain in the thoracic spine from which she had been suffering the past 9 weeks. A plain chest X-ray showed a dense infiltrate on the right side and multiple smaller shadows in both lungs. Laboratory testing revealed anemia, leukocytosis, and an increase of C-reactive protein. All tests for tuberculosis were negative.A bronchoscopy was performed and biopsies were taken from the right upper and middle lobe. The histopathological examination found cells of an adenocarcinoma. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large tumor and surrounding atelectasis were seen in the right upper and middle lobe, as well as multiple intrapulmonary metastases in both lungs. In addition, not only metastases in the thoracic spine (level Th2/3) but also at other osseous locations and multiple cerebral metastases were detected. The patient received one cycle of chemotherapy consisting of docetaxel and carboplatin (AUC5) in the 27th week of gestation. Additional radiotherapy was applied to the involved thoracic spine. Due to positive epidermal growth factor receptor mutation, therapy with gefitinib 250 mg/day was started 2 days after a Caesarean section (preceded by treatment for fetal lung maturation). A healthy girl was delivered in the 30th week of pregnancy. Staging with computed tomography (CT) after delivery revealed an unstable fracture of Th2 with compression of the spinal cord. Neurosurgery was performed, consisting of a ventral corporectomy of Th1-2 followed by an anterior and posterior osteosynthesis for stabilization. The patient was discharged without neurological deficits within 1 week. Subsequent treatment with gefitinib improved the performance status of the patient, and CT scans of the chest and an MRI of the brain showed the size of

  1. Cryotherapy in Treating Patients With Lung Cancer That Has Spread to the Other Lung or Parts of the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Advanced Malignant Mesothelioma; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Lung Metastases; Recurrent Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  2. Lung Cancer Awareness Week

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, Catherine; Laczko, Lori

    2003-01-01

    Smoking is the most preventable cause of death in our society. Tobacco use is responsible for nearly one in five deaths in the United States and the cause of premature death of approximately 2 million individuals in developed countries. Smoking accounts for at least 30% of all cancer deaths and is a major cause of heart disease, cerebrovascular…

  3. small Cell Lung Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were analyzed for CTC count before and after chemotherapy. Clinical relevance of. CTCs with ... reduction (p < 0.001) in CTC count was also observed after one cycle of chemotherapy. Conclusion: Patients with low CTC ... type of cancer in China with 21.7 % of males and. 14.3 % of females. The incidence of ...

  4. Cancer of lung in miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenic, J.; Jurgova, T.; Volckova, A.; Zimacek, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the period of 1983-1994 was registered at Clinic of occupational diseases 87 cases of professional cancer of lung. Mostly /85/ of cases was related to miners, by whom act as risk factor alpha ionisation from radon. Average age group was 60.2 y, average time of exposition was 21.6 y. Epidermoid carcinoma was the most frequent type of tumor /46.5 %/ of cases/. Smoking plays a supportive role. (authors)

  5. Bronchoplastic operations for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicenas, S.; Naujokaitis, P.; Jackevicius, A. and others

    2002-01-01

    Objective of our work was to evaluate efficacy of bronchoplastic operations for lung cancer and time to progression in combined treatment. From 1997 till 2001, 57pts were operated for early I-IIB stages of lung cancer. Operations were: tracheal resections in 3pts (5.2%), window right pneumonectomies in 5pts (8.7%), window left pneumonectomies in 2pts (3.5%), window right upper lobe in 22pts (38.5%), bifurcation resections 2pts (3.5%), sleeve right upper lobe resections 7pts (12.2%), sleeve left upper lobe resections in 11pts (19.2%). We had complications: in 7pts (12.2%) suture failure, 26pts (45.6%) obstructive pneumonia, 3pts (5.2%) kinking of anastomosis, 2pts (3.7%) bronchial bleeding, 6pts (10.5%) covered bronchial fistulas, 5pts (8.7%) died after operations. 32pts (56%) underwent radiation after surgery, 13pts (22.8%) radiation and chemotherapy. Three-year survival was in 82.4% (47pts), in 10pts (17.4%) disease progressed. Bronchoplastic operations are sufficient for early lung cancer treatment. Three-year was in survival 82.7% of pts. Seventeen percent of patients failed after combined treatment. (author)

  6. RANK rewires energy homeostasis in lung cancer cells and drives primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shuan; Sigl, Verena; Wimmer, Reiner Alois; Novatchkova, Maria; Jais, Alexander; Wagner, Gabriel; Handschuh, Stephan; Uribesalgo, Iris; Hagelkruys, Astrid; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Tortola, Luigi; Nitsch, Roberto; Cronin, Shane J; Orthofer, Michael; Branstetter, Daniel; Canon, Jude; Rossi, John; D'Arcangelo, Manolo; Botling, Johan; Micke, Patrick; Fleur, Linnea La; Edlund, Karolina; Bergqvist, Michael; Ekman, Simon; Lendl, Thomas; Popper, Helmut; Takayanagi, Hiroshi; Kenner, Lukas; Hirsch, Fred R; Dougall, William; Penninger, Josef M

    2017-10-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Besides smoking, epidemiological studies have linked female sex hormones to lung cancer in women; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK), the key regulator of osteoclastogenesis, is frequently expressed in primary lung tumors, an active RANK pathway correlates with decreased survival, and pharmacologic RANK inhibition reduces tumor growth in patient-derived lung cancer xenografts. Clonal genetic inactivation of KRas G12D in mouse lung epithelial cells markedly impairs the progression of KRas G12D -driven lung cancer, resulting in a significant survival advantage. Mechanistically, RANK rewires energy homeostasis in human and murine lung cancer cells and promotes expansion of lung cancer stem-like cells, which is blocked by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. Our data also indicate survival differences in KRas G12D -driven lung cancer between male and female mice, and we show that female sex hormones can promote lung cancer progression via the RANK pathway. These data uncover a direct role for RANK in lung cancer and may explain why female sex hormones accelerate lung cancer development. Inhibition of RANK using the approved drug denosumab may be a therapeutic drug candidate for primary lung cancer. © 2017 Rao et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. acetyltransferases: Influence on Lung Cancer Susceptibility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lung cancer remains a major health challenge in the world. It is the commonest cause of cancer mortality in men, it has been suggested that genetic susceptibility may contribute to the major risk factor, with increasing prevalence of smoking. Lung cancer has reached epidemic proportions in India. Recently indoor air ...

  8. Radiodiagnosis of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Akira

    1981-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the lung occurring in the periphery grows as superficial spreading and/or deeply invading parts in the alveolar area. The superficial spreading part develops on the internal surface of alveoli, and when this part shows a monolayer arrangement of tumor cells and is low in height, not accompanied by mucus production, the shadow is faint, and does not cause deformation or deviation of the pre-existing structures. When tumor cell have amultilayer, substantial or polyoid arrangement and marked mucus production, the shadow is dense with a clear margin and no change or occasional compression of the pre-existing architecture. The deeply invading part develops on the alveolar wall, manifesting itself primarily as interstitial hyperplasia and fibrosis. Roentogenologically, the part shows a slightly high density and convergence in the pre-existing structures. Each adenocarcinoma shows an architecture consisting of these progressing parts combined and is similar roentogenologically. Therefore, X-ray features such as the density of tumor shadow, marginal properties and presence or absence and the intensity of convergence demonstrate the rough architecture and mode and stage of tumors. (Chiba, N.)

  9. Curbing the burden of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urman, Alexandra; Hosgood, H Dean

    2016-06-01

    Lung cancer contributes substantially to the global burden of disease and healthcare costs. New screening modalities using low-dose computerized tomography are promising tools for early detection leading to curative surgery. However, the screening and follow-up diagnostic procedures of these techniques may be costly. Focusing on prevention is an important factor to reduce the burden of screening, treatment, and lung cancer deaths. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has identified several lung carcinogens, which we believe can be considered actionable when developing prevention strategies. To curb the societal burden of lung cancer, healthcare resources need to be focused on early detection and screening and on mitigating exposure(s) of a person to known lung carcinogens, such as active tobacco smoking, household air pollution (HAP), and outdoor air pollution. Evidence has also suggested that these known lung carcinogens may be associated with genetic predispositions, supporting the hypothesis that lung cancers attributed to differing exposures may have developed from unique underlying genetic mechanisms attributed to the exposure of interest. For instance, smokingattributed lung cancer involves novel genetic markers of risk compared with HAP-attributed lung cancer. Therefore, genetic risk markers may be used in risk stratification to identify subpopulations that are at a higher risk for developing lung cancer attributed to a given exposure. Such targeted prevention strategies suggest that precision prevention strategies may be possible in the future; however, much work is needed to determine whether these strategies will be viable.

  10. Preoperative radiological approach for hilar lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Higashino, Takanori; Watanabe, Hirokazu; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in CT, MR, and nuclear medicine have made it possible to evaluate morphological and functional information in hilar lung cancer patients more accurately and quantitatively. In this review, we describe recent advances in the radiological approach to hilar lung cancer, focusing on mediastinal invasion, lymph node metastasis, and pulmonary functional imaging. We believe that further basic studies as well as clinical applications of newer MR techniques will play an important role in the management of patients with lung cancer. (author)

  11. Cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk: Pooled analysis in the International Lung Cancer Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.R.; Morgenstern, H.; Greenland, S.; Chang, S.C.; Lazarus, P.; Teare, M.D.; Woll, P.J.; Orlow, I.; Cox, B.; Brhane, Y.; Liu, G.; Hung, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk, data on 2,159 lung cancer cases and 2,985 controls were pooled from 6 case-control studies in the US, Canada, UK, and New Zealand within the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Study-specific associations between cannabis smoking and lung cancer were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographic factors, tobacco smoking status and pack-years; odds-ratio estimates were pooled usin...

  12. Attitudes and Stereotypes in Lung Cancer versus Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sriram

    Full Text Available Societal perceptions may factor into the high rates of nontreatment in patients with lung cancer. To determine whether bias exists toward lung cancer, a study using the Implicit Association Test method of inferring subconscious attitudes and stereotypes from participant reaction times to visual cues was initiated. Participants were primarily recruited from an online survey panel based on US census data. Explicit attitudes regarding lung and breast cancer were derived from participants' ratings (n = 1778 regarding what they thought patients experienced in terms of guilt, shame, and hope (descriptive statements and from participants' opinions regarding whether patients ought to experience such feelings (normative statements. Participants' responses to descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer were compared with responses to statements about breast cancer. Analyses of responses revealed that the participants were more likely to agree with negative descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer than breast cancer (P<0.001. Furthermore, participants had significantly stronger implicit negative associations with lung cancer compared with breast cancer; mean response times in the lung cancer/negative conditions were significantly shorter than in the lung cancer/positive conditions (P<0.001. Patients, caregivers, healthcare providers, and members of the general public had comparable levels of negative implicit attitudes toward lung cancer. These results show that lung cancer was stigmatized by patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals, and the general public. Further research is needed to investigate whether implicit and explicit attitudes and stereotypes affect patient care.

  13. Fludeoxyglucose F-18-PET in Planning Lung Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-19

    Stage I Lung Cancer; Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage II Lung Cancer; Stage II Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7

  14. Review of radon and lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.; Hornung, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Radon, a long-established cause of lung cancer in uranium and other underground miners, has recently emerged as a potentially important cause of lung cancer in the general population. The evidence for widespread exposure of the population to radon and the well-documented excess of lung cancer among underground miners exposed to radon decay products have raised concern that exposure to radon progeny might also be a cause of lung cancer in the general population. To date, epidemiological data on the lung cancer risk associated with environmental exposure to radon have been limited. Consequently, the lung cancer hazard posed by radon exposure in indoor air has been addressed primarily through risk estimation procedures. The quantitative risks of lung cancer have been estimated using exposure-response relations derived from the epidemiological investigations of uranium and other underground miners. We review five of the more informative studies of miners and recent risk projection models for excess lung cancer associated with radon. The principal models differ substantially in their underlying assumptions and consequently in the resulting risk projections. The resulting diversity illustrates the substantial uncertainty that remains concerning the most appropriate model of the temporal pattern of radon-related lung cancer. Animal experiments, further follow-up of the miner cohorts, and well-designed epidemiological studies of indoor exposure should reduce this uncertainty. 18 references

  15. Bacterial and fungal microflora in surgically removed lung cancer samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toloudi Maria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical and experimental data suggest an association between the presence of bacterial and/or fungal infection and the development of different types of cancer, independently of chemotherapy-induced leukopenia. This has also been postulated for the development of lung cancer, however the prevalence and the exact species of the bacteria and fungi implicated, have not yet been described. Aim To determine the presence of bacterial and fungal microflora in surgically extracted samples of patients with lung cancer. Materials and methods In this single-center prospective, observational study, tissue samples were surgically extracted from 32 consecutive patients with lung cancer, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to identify the presence of bacteria and fungi strains. Results The analysis of the electrophoresis data pointed out diversity between the samples and the strains that were identified. Mycoplasma strains were identified in all samples. Strains that appeared more often were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mitis and Bacillus strains, followed in descending frequency by Chlamydia, Candida, Listeria, and Haemophilus influenza. In individual patients Legionella pneumophila and Candida tropicalis were detected. Conclusions A diversity of pathogens could be identified in surgically extracted tissue samples of patients with lung cancer, with mycoplasma strains being present in all samples. These results point to an etiologic role for chronic infection in lung carcinogenesis. Confirmation of these observations and additional studies are needed to further characterize the etiologic role of inflammation in lung carcinogenesis.

  16. Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Rates by Race and Ethnicity for Other Kinds of Cancer All Cancers Combined Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: ...

  17. [Development of the lung cancer diagnostic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, You-Jiang; Yu, Shou-Yi

    2009-07-01

    To develop a lung cancer diagnosis system. A retrospective analysis was conducted in 1883 patients with primary lung cancer or benign pulmonary diseases (pneumonia, tuberculosis, or pneumonia pseudotumor). SPSS11.5 software was used for data processing. For the relevant factors, a non-factor Logistic regression analysis was used followed by establishment of the regression model. Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 system development platform and VB.Net corresponding language were used to develop the lung cancer diagnosis system. The non-factor multi-factor regression model showed a goodness-of-fit (R2) of the model of 0.806, with a diagnostic accuracy for benign lung diseases of 92.8%, a diagnostic accuracy for lung cancer of 89.0%, and an overall accuracy of 90.8%. The model system for early clinical diagnosis of lung cancer has been established.

  18. Pulmonary emphysema and tumor microenvironment in primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Junichi; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Sano, Fumiho; Hayashi, Masataro; Nishimoto, Arata; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-02-01

    To clarify the relationship between the presence of pulmonary emphysema and tumor microenvironment and their significance for the clinicopathologic aggressiveness of non-small cell lung cancer. The subjects included 48 patients with completely resected and pathologically confirmed stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Quantitative computed tomography was used to diagnose pulmonary emphysema, and immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression status in the intratumoral stromal cells as well as the microvessel density (MVD). Positive MMP-9 staining in the intratumoral stromal cells was confirmed in 17 (35%) of the 48 tumors. These 17 tumors were associated with a high MVD, frequent lymphovascular invasion, a high proliferative activity, and high postoperative recurrence rate (all, P pulmonary emphysema (P = 0.02). Lung cancers arising from pulmonary emphysema were also associated with a high MVD, proliferative activity, and postoperative recurrence rate (all, P < 0.05). The MMP-9 expression in intratumoral stromal cells is associated with the clinicopathologic aggressiveness of lung cancer and is predominantly identified in tumors arising in emphysematous lungs. Further studies regarding the biological links between the intratumoral and extratumoral microenvironment will help to explain why lung cancers originating in emphysematous lung tissues are associated with a poor prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Customizing Therapies for Lung Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in both men and women. Although there have been modest improvements in short-term survival over the last few decades, five-year survival rates for lung cancer remain low at only 16 percent. Treatment for lung cancer depends on the stage of the disease at diagnosis, but generally consists of some combination of surgery,

  20. Radiological characteristics, histological features and clinical outcomes of lung cancer patients with coexistent idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, K A; Kennedy, M P; Moore, E; Crush, L; Prendeville, S; Maher, M M; Burke, L; Henry, M T

    2015-02-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis and management, the outcomes for both lung cancer and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are still unfavourable. The pathophysiology and outcomes for patients with concomitant lung cancer and IPF remains unclear. A retrospective analysis was performed of all patients presenting with concomitant IPF and lung cancer to our centre over a 3-year period. Patients with connective tissue disease, asbestos exposure, sarcoidosis, previous thoracic radiation, radiological evidence of fibrosis but no histological confirmation of lung cancer, or the use of medications known to cause pulmonary fibrosis were excluded. We describe clinical, radiological and pathological characteristics of this group. We also report the response to standardized lung cancer therapy in this cohort. Of 637 lung cancer patients, 34 were identified with concomitant IPF (5.3 %) and all were smokers. 85 % had non-small cell lung cancer, 41 % were squamous cell cancers. The majority of tumours were located in the lower lobes, peripheral and present in an area of honeycombing. Despite the fact that approximately 2/3rds of the patients had localised or locally advanced lung cancer, the outcome of therapy for lung cancer was extremely poor regardless of tumour stage or severity of IPF. At our centre, 1/20 patients with lung cancer have concomitant IPF. The majority of these tumours are small in size, peripheral in location and squamous cell carcinoma; in an area of honey combing. The outcome for concomitant lung cancer and IPF regardless of stage or therapy is poor.

  1. Prognosis of Lung Cancer: Heredity or Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    and white patients in an equal access health system. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2012;21:1841–1847. 19. Hardy D, Xia R, Liu CC, Cormier JN...Nurgalieva Z, Du XL. Racial dis- parities and survival for nonsmall-cell lung cancer in a large cohort of black and white elderly patients. Cancer 2009;115...P. In lung cancer patients, age, race-ethnicity, gender and smoking predict adverse comor- bidity, which in turn predicts treatment and survival. J

  2. Histopathology of lung disease in the connective tissue diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivero, Marina; Padera, Robert F

    2015-05-01

    The pathologic correlates of interstitial lung disease (ILD) secondary to connective tissue disease (CTD) comprise a diverse group of histologic patterns. Lung biopsies in patients with CTD-associated ILD tend to demonstrate simultaneous involvement of multiple anatomic compartments of the lung. Certain histologic patterns tend to predominate in each defined CTD, and it is possible in many cases to confirm connective tissue-associated lung disease and guide patient management using surgical lung biopsy. This article will cover the pulmonary pathologies seen in rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, myositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, and mixed CTD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion and lung cancer with CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakimovska, S.; Jakimovska, M.; Jovanovska, S.; Ilieva, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: A pleural effusion is defined as an abnormal amount of fluid in the space between the layers of tissue (the pleura) that line the lungs. If cancer cells are present in this fluid (pleural cavity) it is called a malignant cancerous pleural effusion. Many benign and malignant disease can cause pleural effusion.The new onset of pleural effusion may herald the presence of a previously undiagnosed malignancy, or more typically, complicate the course of a known lung tumor. Malignant pleural effusions can lead lead to an initial diagnosis of lung cancer in patients.and it was the first symptom of lung cancer. Pleural deposits of tumor cause pleuritic pain. Purpose of this presentation is to show the role of CT in diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion and lung cancer. Material and methods: CT examinations of chest were made to 138 patients for 1 year (1/6/2011- 1/6/2012) with Siemens Somatom Emotion 16 CT Scanner. Patients were at age of 30 -81 years, 93 of them are male and 45 are female. Results: 56 (40.5%) of the patients had pleural effusion. From this group 21 37.5% had malignant pleural effusion and lung cancer. 17 (81%) of them are male, and 4 (19%) are female. 9 (43%) diagnosed lung cancer for first time. Conclusion: Pleural effusion more commonly occur in patient with advanced-stage tumor who frequently have metastases to other organs and long-term survival is uncommon in this group. CT diagnosed malignant pleural effusion and lung cancer and help to choice treatment for these patients

  4. Lung regeneration by fetal lung tissue implantation in a mouse pulmonary emphysema model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyama, Koh; Sakiyama, Shoji; Yoshida, Mitsuteru; Kenzaki, Koichiro; Toba, Hiroaki; Kawakami, Yukikiyo; Okumura, Kazumasa; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Kondo, Kazuya; Tangoku, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The mortality and morbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are high. However, no radical therapy has been developed to date. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether fetal mouse lung tissue can grow and differentiate in the emphysematous lung. Fetal lung tissue from green fluorescent protein C57BL/6 mice at 16 days' gestation was used as donor material. Twelve-month-old pallid mice were used as recipients. Donor lungs were cut into small pieces and implanted into the recipient left lung by performing thoracotomy under anesthesia. The recipient mice were sacrificed at day 7, 14, and 28 after implantation and used for histological examination. Well-developed spontaneous pulmonary emphysema was seen in 12-month-old pallid mice. Smooth and continuous connection between implanted fetal lung tissue and recipient lung was recognized. Air space expansion and donor tissue differentiation were observed over time. We could clearly distinguish the border zones between injected tissue and native tissue by the green fluorescence of grafts. Fetal mouse lung fragments survived and differentiated in the emphysematous lung of pallid mice. Implantation of fetal lung tissue in pallid mice might lead to further lung regeneration research from the perspective of respiratory and exercise function. J. Med. Invest. 63: 182-186, August, 2016.

  5. Lung Cancer Clinical Trials: Advances in Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    New treatments for lung cancer and aspects of joining a clinical trial are discussed in this 30-minute Facebook Live event, hosted by NCI’s Dr. Shakun Malik, head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, and Janet Freeman-Daily, lung cancer patient activist and founding member of #LCSM.

  6. Transesophageal Ultrasonography for Lung Cancer Staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Annema, Jouke; Vilmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Accurate mediastinal nodal staging is essential for patients with resectable non-small-cell lung cancer and is achieved by combined endobronchial ultrasound and transesophageal endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Training requirements for EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) for lung cancer staging...

  7. Predicting death from surgery for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Dowd, Emma L; Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Baldwin, David R

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Current British guidelines advocate the use of risk prediction scores such as Thoracoscore to estimate mortality prior to radical surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A recent publication used the National Lung Cancer Audit (NLCA) to produce a score to predict 90day mortali...

  8. Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Improving Lung Function in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-12

    Cachexia; Fatigue; Pulmonary Complications; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  9. Enhanced expression of G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jala, Venkatakrishna Rao; Radde, Brandie N; Haribabu, Bodduluri; Klinge, Carolyn M

    2012-01-01

    G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) was reported to bind 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), tamoxifen, and ICI 182,780 (fulvestrant) and promotes activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling in breast, endometrial and thyroid cancer cells. Although lung adenocarcinomas express estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ), the expression of GPER in lung cancer has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of GPER in lung cancer. The expression patterns of GPER in various lung cancer lines and lung tumors were investigated using standard quantitative real time PCR (at mRNA levels), Western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods (at protein levels). The expression of GPER was scored and the pairwise comparisons (cancer vs adjacent tissues as well as cancer vs normal lung tissues) were performed. Analysis by real-time PCR and Western blotting revealed a significantly higher expression of GPER at both mRNA and protein levels in human non small cell lung cancer cell (NSCLC) lines relative to immortalized normal lung bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). The virally immortalized human small airway epithelial cell line HPL1D showed higher expression than HBECs and similar expression to NSCLC cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections of murine lung adenomas as well as human lung adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas and non-small cell lung carcinomas showed consistently higher expression of GPER in the tumor relative to the surrounding non-tumor tissue. The results from this study demonstrate increased GPER expression in lung cancer cells and tumors compared to normal lung. Further evaluation of the function and regulation of GPER will be necessary to determine if GPER is a marker of lung cancer progression

  10. Mass Spectrometry–based Proteomic Profiling of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Sebahat; Chaurand, Pierre; Massion, Pierre P.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to further our understanding of lung cancer biology and to identify new candidate biomarkers to be used in the management of lung cancer, we need to probe these tissues and biological fluids with tools that address the biology of lung cancer directly at the protein level. Proteins are responsible of the function and phenotype of cells. Cancer cells express proteins that distinguish them from normal cells. Proteomics is defined as the study of the proteome, the complete set of proteins produced by a species, using the technologies of large-scale protein separation and identification. As a result, new technologies are being developed to allow the rapid and systematic analysis of thousands of proteins. The analytical advantages of mass spectrometry (MS), including sensitivity and high-throughput, promise to make it a mainstay of novel biomarker discovery to differentiate cancer from normal cells and to predict individuals likely to develop or recur with lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the progress made in clinical proteomics as it applies to the management of lung cancer. We will focus our discussion on how MS approaches may advance the areas of early detection, response to therapy, and prognostic evaluation. PMID:19349484

  11. Radionuclide molecular target therapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fuhai; Meng Zhaowei; Tan Jian

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer harms people's health or even lives severely. Currently, the morbidity and mortality of lung cancer are ascending all over the world. Accounting for 38.08% of malignant tumor caused death in male and 16% in female in cities,ranking top in both sex. Especially, the therapy of non-small cell lung cancer has not been obviously improved for many years. Recently, sodium/iodide transporter gene transfection and the therapy of molecular target drugs mediated radionuclide are being taken into account and become the new research directions in treatment of advanced lung cancer patients with the development of technology and theory for medical molecular biology and the new knowledge of lung cancer's pathogenesis. (authors)

  12. Breast Cancer Tissue Repository

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iglehart, J

    1997-01-01

    The Breast Tissue Repository at Duke enters its fourth year of finding. The purpose of the Repository at Duke is to provide substantial quantities of frozen tissue for explorative molecular studies...

  13. Profile of lung cancer in kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Basmy, Amani

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer in males and the fourth most frequent site in females, worldwide. This study is the first to explore the profile of lung cancer in Kuwait. Cases of primary lung cancer (Kuwaiti) in Kuwait cancer Registry (KCR) were grouped in 4 periods (10 years each) from 1970-2009. Epidemiological measures; age standardized incidence rate (ASIR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), Standardized rate ratio (SRR) and Cumulative risk and Forecasting to year 2020-2029 used for analysis. Between years, 2000-2009 lung cancer ranked the 4th and the 9th most frequent cancer in males and females respectively. M:F ratio 1:3. Mean age at diagnosis (95%CI) was 65.2 (63.9-66.4) years. The estimated risk of developing lung cancer before the age of 75 years in males is 1.8% (1/56), and 0.6 (1/167) in females. The ASIR for male cases was 11.7, 17.1, 17.0, 14.0 cases/100,000 population in the seventies, eighties, nineties and in 2000-2009 respectively. Female ASIR was 2.3, 8.4, 5.1, 4.4 cases/100,000 population in the same duration. Lung cancer is the leading cause cancer death in males 168 (14.2%) and the fifth cause of death due to cancer in females accounting for 6.1% of all cancer deaths. The ASMR (95%CI) was 8.1 (6.6-10.0) deaths/100,000 population and 2.8 (1.3-4.3) deaths/100,000 population in males and females respectively. The estimated Mortality to incidence Ratio was 0.6. The incidence of lung cancer between years 2000-2009 is not different from that reported in the seventies. KCR is expecting the number of lung cancer cases to increase.

  14. Screening for lung cancer: Does MRI have a role?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, Juergen; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Hatabu, Hiroto; Schiebler, Mark L.; Beek, Edwin J.R. van; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • From a technical point of view, the feasibility of using MRI for lung cancer screening is evident. • Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing, standardized protocols are available. • If lung cancer screening becomes effective, there will be an opportunity for MRI as primary screening modality or adjunct to CT. • Validation of better patient outcomes (test effectiveness) for the use of MRI is still missing, therefore. • A simultaneous evaluation of MRI should be embedded into any future prospective lung cancer screening trials. - Abstract: While the inauguration of national low dose computed tomographic (LDCT) lung cancer screening programs has started in the USA, other countries remain undecided, awaiting the results of ongoing trials. The continuous technical development achieved by stronger gradients, parallel imaging and shorter echo time has made lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) an interesting alternative to CT. For the detection of solid lesions with lung MRI, experimental and clinical studies have shown a threshold size of 3–4 mm for nodules, with detection rates of 60–90% for lesions of 5–8 mm and close to 100% for lesions of 8 mm or larger. From experimental work, the sensitivity for infiltrative, non-solid lesions would be expected to be similarly high as that for solid lesions, but the published data for the MRI detection of lepidic growth type adenocarcinoma is sparse. Moreover, biological features such as a longer T2 time of lung cancer tissue, tissue compliance and a more rapid uptake of contrast material compared to granulomatous diseases, in principle should allow for the multi-parametric characterization of lung pathology. Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing. There are now standardized protocols which are easy to implement on current scanner hardware configurations. The image quality has become more robust and currently ongoing studies will help to further contribute experience

  15. Screening for lung cancer: Does MRI have a role?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederer, Juergen, E-mail: Juergen.biederer@uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Lung ResearchCenter (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Radiologie Darmstadt, Gross-Gerau County Hospital, 64521 Gross-Gerau (Germany); Ohno, Yoshiharu [Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Centre, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Hatabu, Hiroto [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Schiebler, Mark L. [Department of Radiology, UW-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Beek, Edwin J.R. van [Clinical Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Vogel-Claussen, Jens [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Hannover (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Lung ResearchCenter (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • From a technical point of view, the feasibility of using MRI for lung cancer screening is evident. • Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing, standardized protocols are available. • If lung cancer screening becomes effective, there will be an opportunity for MRI as primary screening modality or adjunct to CT. • Validation of better patient outcomes (test effectiveness) for the use of MRI is still missing, therefore. • A simultaneous evaluation of MRI should be embedded into any future prospective lung cancer screening trials. - Abstract: While the inauguration of national low dose computed tomographic (LDCT) lung cancer screening programs has started in the USA, other countries remain undecided, awaiting the results of ongoing trials. The continuous technical development achieved by stronger gradients, parallel imaging and shorter echo time has made lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) an interesting alternative to CT. For the detection of solid lesions with lung MRI, experimental and clinical studies have shown a threshold size of 3–4 mm for nodules, with detection rates of 60–90% for lesions of 5–8 mm and close to 100% for lesions of 8 mm or larger. From experimental work, the sensitivity for infiltrative, non-solid lesions would be expected to be similarly high as that for solid lesions, but the published data for the MRI detection of lepidic growth type adenocarcinoma is sparse. Moreover, biological features such as a longer T2 time of lung cancer tissue, tissue compliance and a more rapid uptake of contrast material compared to granulomatous diseases, in principle should allow for the multi-parametric characterization of lung pathology. Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing. There are now standardized protocols which are easy to implement on current scanner hardware configurations. The image quality has become more robust and currently ongoing studies will help to further contribute experience

  16. Relationship between radiation dose and lung function in patients with lung cancer receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsaker, V.; Dale, E.; Bruland, O.S.; Olsen, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    In patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), radical radiotherapy is the treatment of choice. The dose is limited by consequential pneumonitis and lung fibrosis. Hence, a better understanding of the relationship between the dose-volume distributions and normal tissue side effects is needed. CT is a non-invasive method to monitor the development of fibrosis and pneumonitis, and spirometry is an established tool to measure lung function. NSCLC patients were included in a multicenter trial and treated with megavoltage conformal radiotherapy. In a subgroup comprising 16 patients, a total dose of 59-63 Gy with 1.8-1.9 Gy per fraction was given. Dose-volume histograms were calculated and corrected according to the linear-quadratic formula using alpha/beta=3 Gy. The patients underwent repetitive CT examinations (mean follow-up, 133 days) following radiotherapy, and pre and post treatment spirometry (mean follow-up, 240 days). A significant correlation was demonstrated between local lung dose and changes in CT numbers >30 days after treatment (p 40 Gy Gy there was a sudden increase in CT numbers at 70-90 days. Somewhat unexpectedly, the highest mean lung doses were found in patients with the least reductions in lung function (peak expiratory flow; p<0.001). The correlation between CT numbers, radiation dose and time after treatment show that CT may be used to monitor development of lung fibrosis/pneumonitis after radiotherapy for lung cancer. Paradoxically, the patients with the highest mean lung doses experienced the minimum deterioration of lung function. This may be explained by reduction in the volume of existing tumour masses obstructing the airways, leading to relief of symptoms. This finding stresses the role of radiotherapy for lung cancer, especially where the treatment aim is palliative

  17. SAMHD1 is down regulated in lung cancer by methylation and inhibits tumor cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jia-lei; Lu, Fan-zhen; Shen, Xiao-Yong; Wu, Yun; Zhao, Li-ting

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SAMHD1 expression level is down regulated in lung adenocarcinoma. • The promoter of SAMHD1 is methylated in lung adenocarcinoma. • Over expression of SAMHD1 inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer cells. - Abstract: The function of dNTP hydrolase SAMHD1 as a viral restriction factor to inhibit the replication of several viruses in human immune cells was well established. However, its regulation and function in lung cancer have been elusive. Here, we report that SAMHD1 is down regulated both on protein and mRNA levels in lung adenocarcinoma compared to adjacent normal tissue. We also found that SAMHD1 promoter is highly methylated in lung adenocarcinoma, which may inhibit its gene expression. Furthermore, over expression of the SAMHD1 reduces dNTP level and inhibits the proliferation of lung tumor cells. These results reveal the regulation and function of SAMHD1 in lung cancer, which is important for the proliferation of lung tumor cells

  18. Metachronous Lung Cancer: Clinical Characteristics and Effects of Surgical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzechonek, Adam; Błasiak, Piotr; Muszczyńska-Bernhard, Beata; Pawełczyk, Konrad; Pniewski, Grzegorz; Ornat, Maciej; Grzegrzółka, Jędrzej; Brzecka, Anna

    2018-01-01

    The occurrence of a second lung tumor after surgical removal of lung cancer usually indicates a lung cancer metastasis, but sometimes a new lesion proves to be a new primary lung cancer, i.e., metachronous lung cancer. The goal of the present study was to conduct a clinical evaluation of patients with metachronous lung cancer and lung cancer metastasis, and to compare the early and distant outcomes of surgical treatment in both cancer types. There were 26 age-matched patients with lung cancer metastases and 23 patients with metachronous lung cancers, who underwent a second lung cancer resection. We evaluated the histological type of a resected cancer, the extent of thoracosurgery, the frequency of early postoperative complications, and the probability of 5-year survival after the second operation. The findings were that metachronous lung cancer was adenocarcinoma in 52% of patients, with a different histopathological pattern from that of the primary lung cancer in 74% of patients. In both cancer groups, mechanical resections were the most common surgery type (76% of all cases), with anatomical resections such as segmentectomy, lobectomy, or pneumectomy being much rarer conducted. The incidence of early postoperative complications in metachronous lung cancer and lung cancer metastasis (30% vs. 31%, respectively) and the probability of 5-year survival after resection of either cancer tumor (60.7% vs. 50.9%, respectively) were comparable. In conclusion, patients undergoing primary lung cancer surgery require a long-term follow-up due to the risk of metastatic or metachronous lung cancer. The likelihood of metachronous lung cancer and pulmonary lung cancer metastases, the incidence of postoperative complications, and the probability of 5-year survival after resection of metachronous lung cancer or lung cancer metastasis are similar.

  19. Shelter and indoor air in the twenty-first century: Radon, smoking and lung cancer risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-04-01

    This document describes the relationship between indoor radon exposure, cigarette smoking, and lung cancer. The author explains the sources of radon, the tissues at risk, the human populations most likely to be affected, and the estimates of lung cancer in the population. 6 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral CT scans has been shown to decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer in heavy smokers. Screening with chest x-ray or sputum cytology does not reduce lung cancer mortality. Get detailed information about lung cancer screening in this clinician summary.

  1. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Beelen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.......Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations....

  2. Lung cancer during pregnancy: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Mitrou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths in males for decades, has recently become one of commonest causes for women too. As women delay the start of their family, the co-existence of cancer and pregnancy is increasingly observed. Nevertheless, lung cancer during pregnancy remains a rather uncommon condition with less than 70 cases published in recent years. Non-small cell lung carcinoma is the commonest type accounting for about 85% of all cases. Overall survival rates are low. Chemotherapy and/or targeted treatment have been used with poor outcomes. The disease has been also found to affect the products of conception with no short- or long-term consequences for the neonate. This article is referring to a narrative review of lung cancers diagnosed in pregnant women around the world.

  3. Advances in combination therapy of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Lan; Leng, Donglei; Cun, Dongmei

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is a complex disease caused by a multitude of genetic and environmental factors. The progression of lung cancer involves dynamic changes in the genome and a complex network of interactions between cancer cells with multiple, distinct cell types that form tumors. Combination therapy......, including small molecule drugs and biopharmaceuticals, which make the optimization of dosing and administration schedule challenging. This article reviews the recent advances in the design and development of combinations of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of lung cancer. Focus is primarily on rationales...... for the selection of specific combination therapies for lung cancer treatment, and state of the art of delivery technologies and dosage regimens for the combinations, tested in preclinical and clinical trials....

  4. Two cases with giant lung abscess originating in the irradiated lung field following the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Takeshi; Inui, Hiroyuki; Yukawa, Susumu; Nomoto, Hiroshi (Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan)); Minakata, Yoshiaki; Yamagata, Toshiyuki

    1992-05-01

    Two patients with giant lung abscess originating in the irradiated lung field are reported. Lung abscesses occurred during the term of leukopenia following the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy of lung cancer. Both patients were diagnosed as small cell lung cancer, and were treated concurrently with chemotherapy (Cisplatin + Etoposide) and radiotherapy (total 40-50 Gy). Case 1 was a 59 years old male. Seven weeks after the first irradiation, a giant lung abscess was caused by methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) originated in the lung field with radiation pneumonitis, and giant bronchial fistula was formed, that showed the specific bronchofiberscopic findings. Case 2 was a 67 years old male. Twelve weeks after the first irradiation, a giant lung abscess was caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa originated in the irradiated lung field following the formation of a pneumatocele. MRSA and pseudomonas aeruginosa are important as cause of hospital infection, and both can cause lung abscess. However, in our cases, lung abscess were formed just in the irradiated lung field and rapidly enlarged. These clinical findings suggested that myelosuppression and radiation injury of lung tissue might cause such giant lung abscess. (author).

  5. Two cases with giant lung abscess originating in the irradiated lung field following the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Takeshi; Inui, Hiroyuki; Yukawa, Susumu; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Minakata, Yoshiaki; Yamagata, Toshiyuki.

    1992-01-01

    Two patients with giant lung abscess originating in the irradiated lung field are reported. Lung abscesses occurred during the term of leukopenia following the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy of lung cancer. Both patients were diagnosed as small cell lung cancer, and were treated concurrently with chemotherapy (Cisplatin + Etoposide) and radiotherapy (total 40-50 Gy). Case 1 was a 59 years old male. Seven weeks after the first irradiation, a giant lung abscess was caused by methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) originated in the lung field with radiation pneumonitis, and giant bronchial fistula was formed, that showed the specific bronchofiberscopic findings. Case 2 was a 67 years old male. Twelve weeks after the first irradiation, a giant lung abscess was caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa originated in the irradiated lung field following the formation of a pneumatocele. MRSA and pseudomonas aeruginosa are important as cause of hospital infection, and both can cause lung abscess. However, in our cases, lung abscess were formed just in the irradiated lung field and rapidly enlarged. These clinical findings suggested that myelosuppression and radiation injury of lung tissue might cause such giant lung abscess. (author)

  6. Suppression subtractive hybridization identified differentially expressed genes in lung adenocarcinoma: ERGIC3 as a novel lung cancer-related gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Mingsong; Tu, Tao; Huang, Yunchao; Cao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    To understand the carcinogenesis caused by accumulated genetic and epigenetic alterations and seek novel biomarkers for various cancers, studying differentially expressed genes between cancerous and normal tissues is crucial. In the study, two cDNA libraries of lung cancer were constructed and screened for identification of differentially expressed genes. Two cDNA libraries of differentially expressed genes were constructed using lung adenocarcinoma tissue and adjacent nonmalignant lung tissue by suppression subtractive hybridization. The data of the cDNA libraries were then analyzed and compared using bioinformatics analysis. Levels of mRNA and protein were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR) and western blot respectively, as well as expression and localization of proteins were determined by immunostaining. Gene functions were investigated using proliferation and migration assays after gene silencing and gene over-expression. Two libraries of differentially expressed genes were obtained. The forward-subtracted library (FSL) and the reverse-subtracted library (RSL) contained 177 and 59 genes, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that these genes were involved in a wide range of cellular functions. The vast majority of these genes were newly identified to be abnormally expressed in lung cancer. In the first stage of the screening for 16 genes, we compared lung cancer tissues with their adjacent non-malignant tissues at the mRNA level, and found six genes (ERGIC3, DDR1, HSP90B1, SDC1, RPSA, and LPCAT1) from the FSL were significantly up-regulated while two genes (GPX3 and TIMP3) from the RSL were significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05). The ERGIC3 protein was also over-expressed in lung cancer tissues and cultured cells, and expression of ERGIC3 was correlated with the differentiated degree and histological type of lung cancer. The up-regulation of ERGIC3 could promote cellular migration and proliferation in vitro. The

  7. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect...... and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated...... part of future lung cancer screening trials....

  8. Molecular biology of the lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, S.Z.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Lung cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases and leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The advances in molecular biology and genetics, including the modern microarray technology and rapid sequencing techniques, have enabled a remarkable progress into elucidating the lung cancer ethiopathogenesis. Numerous studies suggest that more than 20 different genetic and epigenetic alterations are accumulating during the pathogenesis of clinically evident pulmonary cancers as a clonal, multistep process. Thus far, the most investigated alterations are the inactivational mutations and losses of tumour suppressor genes and the overexpression of growth-promoting oncogenes. More recently, the acquired epigenetic inactivation of tumour suppressor genes by promoter hypermethylation has been recognized. The early clonal genetic abnormalities that occur in preneoplastic bronchial epithelium damaged by smoking or other carcinogenes are being identified. The molecular distinctions between small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as well as between tumors with different clinical outcomes have been described. These investigations lead to the h allmarks of lung cancer . Conclusions. It is realistic to expect that the molecular and cell culture-based investigations will lead to discoveries of new clinical applications with the potential to provide new avenues for early diagnosis, risk assessment, prevention, and most important, new more effective treatment approaches for the lung cancer patients. (author)

  9. The preparation and identification of peptide imaging agent of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Liping; Wang Yan; Wang Yueying; Liu Jinjian; Wu Hongying; Liu Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To screen in vivo lung cancer specific binding 7-peptide from T7 phage display random peptide library and prepare peptide imaging agent in early in early diagnosis of lung cancer. Methods: Used phage display in vivo technology to get the 7-peptide phage that can bind the lung cancer specifically, then sequenced and synthesized 7-peptide. After being labeled by 125 I, this 7-peptide was injected into mice via vein and the distribution in the mice tumor mold was observed. Results: One 7-peptide was obtained after four rounds of screening, and the peptide could bind lung cancer tissue specifically. Metabolism of this peptide in mice was fast and imaging of lung cancer was best two hours later after injection. The distribution in vivo decreased and almost disappeared after six hours. Conclusion: This 7-peptide could be used to image and diagnose of lung cancer effectively. (authors)

  10. Missed lung cancer: when, where, and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Ciello, Annemilia; Franchi, Paola; Contegiacomo, Andrea; Cicchetti, Giuseppe; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Larici, Anna Rita

    2017-01-01

    Missed lung cancer is a source of concern among radiologists and an important medicolegal challenge. In 90% of the cases, errors in diagnosis of lung cancer occur on chest radiographs. It may be challenging for radiologists to distinguish a lung lesion from bones, pulmonary vessels, mediastinal structures, and other complex anatomical structures on chest radiographs. Nevertheless, lung cancer can also be overlooked on computed tomography (CT) scans, regardless of the context, either if a clinical or radiologic suspect exists or for other reasons. Awareness of the possible causes of overlooking a pulmonary lesion can give radiologists a chance to reduce the occurrence of this eventuality. Various factors contribute to a misdiagnosis of lung cancer on chest radiographs and on CT, often very similar in nature to each other. Observer error is the most significant one and comprises scanning error, recognition error, decision-making error, and satisfaction of search. Tumor characteristics such as lesion size, conspicuity, and location are also crucial in this context. Even technical aspects can contribute to the probability of skipping lung cancer, including image quality and patient positioning and movement. Albeit it is hard to remove missed lung cancer completely, strategies to reduce observer error and methods to improve technique and automated detection may be valuable in reducing its likelihood. PMID:28206951

  11. Maternal lung cancer and testicular cancer risk in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaijser, Magnus; Akre, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven; Ekbom, Anders

    2003-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that smoking during pregnancy could increase the offspring's risk for testicular cancer. This hypothesis is indirectly supported by both ecological studies and studies of cancer aggregations within families. However, results from analytical epidemiological studies are not consistent, possibly due to methodological difficulties. To further study the association between smoking during pregnancy and testicular cancer, we did a population-based cohort study on cancer risk among offspring of women diagnosed with lung cancer. Through the use of the Swedish Cancer Register and the Swedish Second-Generation Register, we identified 8,430 women who developed lung cancer between 1958 and 1997 and delivered sons between 1941 and 1979. Cancer cases among the male offspring were then identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Standardized incidence ratios were computed, using 95% confidence intervals. We identified 12,592 male offspring of mothers with a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer, and there were 40 cases of testicular cancer (standardized incidence ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.58). The association was independent of maternal lung cancer subtype, and the risk of testicular cancer increased stepwise with decreasing time interval between birth and maternal lung cancer diagnosis. Our results support the hypothesis that exposure to cigarette smoking in utero increases the risk of testicular cancer.

  12. Histological evaluation of lung cancer with T2-weighted magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Takashi; Matsuura, Yoshifumi; Shioya, Sumie; Ohta, Yasuyo

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the differences in signal intensity of lung cancer tissue and non-cancerous lung tissues on T 2 -weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. MR images were obtained from patients with squamous cell carcinoma (n=6), adenocarcinoma (n=5), small cell carcinoma (n=5), and large cell carcinoma (n=1). To compare the MR signal intensity between tissues, we calculated the signal intensity ratios for tumor/skeletal muscle and lung/skeletal muscle. The MR signal intensity for each tissue was measured with a densitometer and T 2 -weighted MR images with a similar window and a center. The value of the signal intensity ratio for squamous cell carcinoma (3.26±0.76) was greater than those for adenocarcinoma (1.99±0.50, p<0.05), small cell carcinoma (2.35±0.60), large cell carcinoma (2.46), and non-cancerous lung tissues (1.70±0.68, p<0.02). The values of the MR signal intensity ratio for non-cancerous lung tissues were 2.00 for a collapsed lung, 0.93 for a fibrotic lung, and 2.18 for a fibrotic lung with obstructive pneumonia. The results suggest that the MR signal intensity ratio for pathologic tissues/normal skeletal muscle can be a useful indicator for qualitative and quantitative MR imaging diagnosis. (author)

  13. The theoretical benefit of beam fringe compensation and field size reduction for iso-normal tissue complication probability dose escalation in radiotherapy of lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsman, Martijn; Remeijer, Peter; van Herk, Marcel; Mijnheer, Ben; Damen, Eugène

    2003-01-01

    To assess the benefit of beam fringe (50%-90% dose level) sharpening for lung tumors, we performed a numerical simulation in which all geometrical errors (breathing motion, random and systematic errors) are included. A 50 mm diameter lung tumor, located centrally in a lung-equivalent phantom was

  14. Lung Cancer in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozicic Mirela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although the incidence of malignancy has increased after solid organ transplantation, data on lung cancer in this group of patients is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine clinical characteristics and outcome of patients who developed lung cancer after renal transplantation. Methods. Among a cohort of 1658 patients who received a transplant at our institution and were followedup between 1973 and 2014, five patients developed lung cancer. We analyzed risk factors, transplantation characteristics, treatment options and survival. Results. Lung cancer was diagnosed in 5 patients (0.3%. Time to diagnosis after the transplant procedure ranged from 26 to 156 months (mean 115 months. All of them had a smoking history. Tumors were classified as IIB (20%, IIIA (40%, and IV (40%. Histological types included adenocarcinoma (80% and there was one case of sarcomatoid carcinoma (20%. One patient had concomitant thyroid papillary carcinoma. Radiotherapy was applied in 2 patients, 2 underwent chemotherapy (erlotinib and combination of carboplatinum and etopozide in one patient each, and 2 died within one month after the diagnosis from disseminated malignant disease. Patients with stage IIIA survived 14 and 24 months after the diagnosis. The patient with sarcomatoid cancer underwent thoracotomy with a complete resection, lost his graft function and died 7 months after the diagnosis. Conclusion. Lung cancer is relatively rare malignancy in renal transplant recipients, but associated with high mortality. Smoking is a significant risk factor, thus smoking cessation should be promoted among renal transplant recipients, as well as regular screening for lung cancer.

  15. Basic and technical research on lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Tadaaki

    2004-01-01

    In association with clinical study of carbon beam therapy for lung cancer, the basic research for lung cancer and the patients with this disease has been carried out for the past 10 years. With regard to lung damage by the carbon beams, firstly pulmonary function was measured and analyzed for the patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Force expiratory volume in 1 second (FVE 1.0) and TLC (total lung capacity) was found to be reduced significantly at 6 and 12 months after therapy but the reduction rate was a little, which can support the safety of this treatment modality. Secondly, the regional lung damage by the beams was investigated by using correct fusion of CT images with carbon beam dose distribution, diagnostic follow-up CT images and blood flow and ventilation spect images. It demonstrated the graded decrease blood flow by dose and the compensatory increase of blood flow in the adjacent lobe of lung unexposed to irradiation. On the other hand, the biological study of carbon beam effects on lung cancer cells and tumors line was conducted. Firstly, by using 7 or 4 human lung cancer cell line, the radiosensitivity of carbon beams was compared with that of photons by different histological patterns. It was found that there was no essential difference in the sensitivity pattern for lung cancer histology between the carbon beams and photons though the former doubled the later in power. Secondly, by using IA cell lines among them, the dynamic of clonogenic cells (clonogen) in a nude tumor and the changes in its morphology following irradiation was investigated, clarifying that the clonogen proliferating under anoxic or hypoxic conditions played a pivotal role for tumor regrowth and stemmed from the different clone which had been genetically selected and developed under these conditions. The finding of clonogen becomes one of the evidence supporting the superiority of a single-dose radiotherapy to fractionated radiotherapy. (author)

  16. Invasive Aspergillosis Mimicking Metastatic Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel J. E. G. W. Vanfleteren

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In a patient with a medical history of cancer, the most probable diagnosis of an 18FDG-avid pulmonary mass combined with intracranial abnormalities on brain imaging is metastasized cancer. However, sometimes a differential diagnosis with an infectious cause such as aspergillosis can be very challenging as both cancer and infection are sometimes difficult to distinguish. Pulmonary aspergillosis can present as an infectious pseudotumour with clinical and imaging characteristics mimicking lung cancer. Even in the presence of cerebral lesions, radiological appearance of abscesses can look like brain metastasis. These similarities can cause significant diagnostic difficulties with a subsequent therapeutic delay and a potential adverse outcome. Awareness of this infectious disease that can mimic lung cancer, even in an immunocompetent patient, is important. We report a case of a 65-year-old woman with pulmonary aspergillosis disseminated to the brain mimicking metastatic lung cancer.

  17. Endobronchial Tuberculosis Simulating Lung Cancer and Healing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endobroncheal tuberculosis is defined as tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree with microbial and histopathological evidence. The disease is usually mistaken for other lung diseases including lung cancer. Bronchial stenosis is a common complication of this type of tuberculosis despite the use of effective ...

  18. Socioeconomic position and survival after lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalton, Susanne O; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Jakobsen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To address social inequality in survival after lung cancer, it is important to consider how socioeconomic position (SEP) influences prognosis. We investigated whether SEP influenced receipt of first-line treatment and whether socioeconomic differences in survival could be explained...... by differences in stage, treatment and comorbidity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the Danish Lung Cancer Register, we identified 13 045 patients with lung cancer diagnosed in 2004-2010, with information on stage, histology, performance status and first-line treatment. We obtained age, gender, vital status, comorbid...... with stepwise inclusion of possible mediators. RESULTS: For both low- and high-stage lung cancer, adjusted ORs for first-line treatment were reduced in patients with short education and low income, although the OR for education did not reach statistical significance in men with high-stage disease. Patients...

  19. Classification of normal and abnormal images of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Divyesh; Tiwari, Amit Kumar; Vijayarajan, V.; Krishnamoorthy, A.

    2017-11-01

    To find the exact symptoms of lung cancer is difficult, because of the formation of the most cancers tissues, wherein large structure of tissues is intersect in a different way. This problem can be evaluated with the help of digital images. In this strategy images will be examined with basic operation of PCA Algorithm. In this paper, GLCM method is used for pre-processing of the snap shots and function extraction system and to test the level of diseases of a patient in its premature stage get to know it is regular or unusual. With the help of result stage of cancer will be evaluated. With the help of dataset and result survival rate of cancer patient can be estimated. Result is based totally on the precise and wrong arrangement of the patterns of tissues.

  20. Roentgenological diagnoss of central segmental lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, L.A.; Fedchenko, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    Basing on an analysis of the results of clinicoroentgenological examination of 268 patments roentgenological semiotics of segmental lung cancer is presented. Some peculiarities of the X-ray picture of cancer of different segments of the lungs were revealed depending on tumor site and growth type. For the syndrome of segmental darkening the comprehensive X-ray methods where the chief method is tomography of the segmental bronchi are proposed

  1. Significant reduction of normal tissue dose by proton radiotherapy compared with three-dimensional conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy in Stage I or Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Joe Y.; Zhang Xiaodong; Wang Xiaochun; Kang Yixiu; Riley, Beverly C.; Bilton, Stephen C.; Mohan, Radhe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compare dose-volume histograms (DVH) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated by photon or proton radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Dose-volume histograms were compared between photon, including three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and proton plans at doses of 66 Gy, 87.5 Gy in Stage I (n = 10) and 60-63 Gy, and 74 Gy in Stage III (n 15). Results: For Stage I, the mean total lung V5, V10, and V20 were 31.8%, 24.6%, and 15.8%, respectively, for photon 3D-CRT with 66 Gy, whereas they were 13.4%, 12.3%, and 10.9%, respectively, with proton with dose escalation to 87.5 cobalt Gray equivalents (CGE) (p = 0.002). For Stage III, the mean total lung V5, V10, and V20 were 54.1%, 46.9%, and 34.8%, respectively, for photon 3D-CRT with 63 Gy, whereas they were 39.7%, 36.6%, and 31.6%, respectively, for proton with dose escalation to 74 CGE (p = 0.002). In all cases, the doses to lung, spinal cord, heart, esophagus, and integral dose were lower with proton therapy even compared with IMRT. Conclusions: Proton treatment appears to reduce dose to normal tissues significantly, even with dose escalation, compared with standard-dose photon therapy, either 3D-CRT or IMRT

  2. [Polymyalgia rheumatica revealing a lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocquempot, K; Defuentes, G; Duron-Martineau, S; Berets, O; Vaylet, F; Margery, J

    2013-01-01

    Polymyalgia rheumatica is an inflammatory condition belonging to the connective tissue diseases, which occurs quite frequently in the elderly. Previously, cases have been reported in association with malignant tumours, in a synchronous fashion or prior to the appearance of the cancer. In these cases, the polymyalgia rheumatica is considered to be a paraneoplastic syndrome. We report the cases of a 63-year-old woman and a 58-year-old man with severe proximal girdle pain associated to a high-level of systemic inflammatory markers and a diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica was made. In the face of a lack of ineffectiveness of analgesic and anti-inflammatory treatments, an intensive investigation was undertaken which in both cases revealed an adenocarcinoma of the lung. The rheumatic manifestations responded well to chemotherapy targeting the lung tumour. We present here a review of the literature to give prominence to the diagnostic pitfalls that can occur around paraneoplastic polymyalgia rheumatica. The presence of therapeutic resistance at the onset of treatment and other atypical features may suggest the presence of an occult malignancy. Copyright © 2012 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Histomorphological features of combined forms of tuberculosis and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savenkov Y.F.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The were studied pathological features of combined forms of tuberculosis and non-small cell lung cancer in 72 patients who underwent radical surgical resection interventions from transsternal access with mediastinal lymph node dissection, with predominance of pneumonectomy - 63.9%. There were identified three main categories of pathological changes: cancer on the background of post-tuberculosis changes, cancer in tuberculoma, cancer in the wall of the active cavity. Post-tuberculosis changes were presented by dense centers, fibrosis, cirrhosis areas, sanitized cavities with histological predominance of coarse fiber connective tissue with giant cell granulomas, with areas characterized by the appearance of the lung tissue with atypical proliferation and metaplasia of bronchopulmonary epithelium, which is a precancerous condition. This malignant tumor process was presented mainly by adenocarcinomas and squamous cell cancer and differred by polymorphic macro- and microscopic picture. Cancer in tuberculoma and fibrous wall cavity differed by pronounced activity of tuberculosis process in the form of lymphohistiocytic infiltration, foci of caseous necrosis and presence of expressed granulation layer of Pirogov-Langhans’ cells. The basic morphological causes of carcinogenesis due to secondary changes of lung tissue in patients with tuberculosis were determined. The features of metastasis of malignant tumors on the background of specific tuberculous and post-tuberculosis changes in regional lymph nodes and the interrelation between the frequency of metastatic lesions with severity of tuberculosis and post-tuberculosis changes in them were studied; this has clinical significance in the surgical treatment of patients with concomitant forms of tuberculosis and lung cancer.

  4. Epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and screening of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzinec, P.

    2006-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally. Smoking causes about 90 % of all lung cancer cases. Passive, i.e. involuntary smoking has been confirmed to enhance the risk of lung cancer in exposed people. Individual susceptibility is one of important factors in lung cancer formation. New knowledge in epidemiology and aetiology of lung cancer gives new possibilities in diagnostic and screening of this disease. Results of large randomised trials aimed at new technologies in lung cancer screening will be available in a few years. (author)

  5. Plutonium deposits in lung tissues of Filipinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.; Palad, L.J.H.; Ignacio, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    This initial report on the plutonium concentration in lungs of Filipino adults is based on four samples. The data obtained suggest that the average of concentration in lungs of Filipinos is similar to that observed in other countries. This could be attributed to fallout resulting from nuclear test explosions conducted by neighboring countries. The result of this study will be useful in initiating the establishment of plutonium burden of Filipinos. (ELC). 2 tabs

  6. Lung cancer in the Kashmir valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koul Parvaiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung cancer has been found to be the second commonest cancer according to a hospital-based data from Kashmir, India. However, no incidence studies are available. Objective: To ascertain the incidence of lung cancer in Kashmir. Materials and Methods: All newly histologically diagnosed cases of lung cancer seen in various hospital and private laboratories of the Kashmir valley were registered over a period of two years (January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2005. Also included were patients attending the various oncological service areas of the institute and those diagnosed from any other laboratory outside the state. The incidence rate was calculated using the January 2005 population as the reference population estimated using the census-based projected populations. Results: Four hundred and sixty-two incident cases of lung cancer were seen during the study period. The crude incidence rate, age standardized (world and truncated age adjusted (40-69 years, world incidence rates for lung cancer per 100 000 population were 4.01, 6.48 and 15.28 respectively (males 6.55, 10.09 and 23.94 respectively and females 1.19, 2.14 and 4.65. The age adjusted rates for males in district Srinagar was 19.34 per 100 000. One hundred and fifty nine (69.8% of the 221 had a history of Hukkah smoking. Conclusions: Even though Kashmir as a whole is a low incidence area for lung cancer (ASR of < 15, Srinagar district has the highest incidence of lung cancer among the males in Kashmir. The data presented is assumed to be the closest approximation to a population-based data registry and the geographical incidence maps of ICMR need appropriate updating

  7. Cyclophosphamide for connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Hayley; Holland, Anne E; Westall, Glen P; Goh, Nicole Sl; Glaspole, Ian N

    2018-01-03

    Approximately one-third of individuals with interstitial lung disease (ILD) have associated connective tissue disease (CTD). The connective tissue disorders most commonly associated with ILD include scleroderma/systemic sclerosis (SSc), rheumatoid arthritis, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, and Sjögren's syndrome. Although many people with CTD-ILD do not develop progressive lung disease, a significant proportion do progress, leading to reduced physical function, decreased quality of life, and death. ILD is now the major cause of death amongst individuals with systemic sclerosis.Cyclophosphamide is a highly potent immunosuppressant that has demonstrated efficacy in inducing and maintaining remission in autoimmune and inflammatory illnesses. However this comes with potential toxicities, including nausea, haemorrhagic cystitis, bladder cancer, bone marrow suppression, increased risk of opportunistic infections, and haematological and solid organ malignancies.Decision-making in the treatment of individuals with CTD-ILD is difficult; the clinician needs to identify those who will develop progressive disease, and to weigh up the balance between a high level of need for therapy in a severely unwell patient population against the potential for adverse effects from highly toxic therapy, for which only relatively limited data on efficacy can be found. Similarly, it is not clear whether histological subtype, disease duration, or disease extent can be used to predict treatment responsiveness. To assess the efficacy and adverse effects of cyclophosphamide in the treatment of individuals with CTD-ILD. We performed searches on CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science up to May 2017. We handsearched review articles, clinical trial registries, and reference lists of retrieved articles. We included randomised controlled parallel-group trials that compared cyclophosphamide in any form, used individually or concomitantly with other immunomodulating therapies, versus non

  8. HIV-Associated Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiderlen, Til R; Siehl, Jan; Hentrich, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer (LC) is one of the most common non-AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)-defining malignancies. It occurs more frequently in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWHIV) than in the HIV-negative population. Compared to their HIV-negative counterparts, patients are usually younger and diagnosed at more advanced stages. The pathogenesis of LC in PLWHIV is not fully understood, but immunosuppression in combination with chronic infection and the oncogenic effects of smoking and HIV itself all seem to play a role. Currently, no established preventive screening is available, making smoking cessation the most promising preventive measure. Treatment protocols and standards are the same as for the general population. Notably, immuno-oncology will also become standard of care in a significant subset of HIV-infected patients with LC. As drug interactions and hematological toxicity must be taken into account, a multidisciplinary approach should include a physician experienced in the treatment of HIV. Only limited data is available on novel targeted therapies and checkpoint inhibitors in the setting of HIV. © 2017 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  9. Lung cancer, genetic predisposition and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob; Korhonen, Tellervo; Holst, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to disentangle genetic and environmental causes in lung cancer while considering smoking status. Methods: Four Nordic twin cohorts (43 512 monozygotic (MZ) and 71 895 same sex dizygotic (DZ) twin individuals) had smoking data before cancer diagnosis. We used time...

  10. Del-1 overexpression potentiates lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Young; Jing, Feifeng; Kim, Hyesoon [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Chae-Ok [Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Deok-Jong [Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Young, E-mail: choieun@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-04

    Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule that is highly expressed in the lung and the brain and limits leukocyte migration to these tissues. We previously reported that the expression of Del-1 is positively regulated by p53 in lung endothelial cells. Although several reports have implicated the altered expression of Del-1 gene in cancer patients, little is known about its role in tumor cells. We here investigated the effect of Del-1 on the features of human lung carcinoma cells. Del-1 mRNA was found to be significantly decreased in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 (containing wild type of p53), H1299 (null for p53) and EKVX (mutant p53), compared to in human normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells and MRC-5 fibroblasts. The decrease of Del-1 expression was dependent on the p53 activity in the cell lines, but not on the expression of p53. Neither treatment with recombinant human Del-1 protein nor the introduction of adenovirus expressing Del-1 altered the expression of the apoptosis regulators BAX, PUMA and Bcl-2. Unexpectedly, the adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Del-1 gene into the lung carcinoma cell lines promoted proliferation and invasion of the lung carcinoma cells, as revealed by BrdU incorporation and transwell invasion assays, respectively. In addition, overexpression of the Del-1 gene enhanced features of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as increasing vimentin while decreasing E-cadherin in A549 cells, and increases in the level of Slug, an EMT-associated transcription regulator. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that there are deleterious effects of high levels of Del-1 in lung carcinoma cells, and suggest that Del-1 may be used as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for cancer progression, and as a novel therapeutic target for lung carcinoma. - Highlights: • Developmental Endothelial Locus-1 (Del-1) expression is downregulated in human lung cancer cells.

  11. Del-1 overexpression potentiates lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Young; Jing, Feifeng; Kim, Hyesoon; Yun, Chae-Ok; Han, Deok-Jong; Choi, Eun Young

    2015-01-01

    Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule that is highly expressed in the lung and the brain and limits leukocyte migration to these tissues. We previously reported that the expression of Del-1 is positively regulated by p53 in lung endothelial cells. Although several reports have implicated the altered expression of Del-1 gene in cancer patients, little is known about its role in tumor cells. We here investigated the effect of Del-1 on the features of human lung carcinoma cells. Del-1 mRNA was found to be significantly decreased in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 (containing wild type of p53), H1299 (null for p53) and EKVX (mutant p53), compared to in human normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells and MRC-5 fibroblasts. The decrease of Del-1 expression was dependent on the p53 activity in the cell lines, but not on the expression of p53. Neither treatment with recombinant human Del-1 protein nor the introduction of adenovirus expressing Del-1 altered the expression of the apoptosis regulators BAX, PUMA and Bcl-2. Unexpectedly, the adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Del-1 gene into the lung carcinoma cell lines promoted proliferation and invasion of the lung carcinoma cells, as revealed by BrdU incorporation and transwell invasion assays, respectively. In addition, overexpression of the Del-1 gene enhanced features of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as increasing vimentin while decreasing E-cadherin in A549 cells, and increases in the level of Slug, an EMT-associated transcription regulator. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that there are deleterious effects of high levels of Del-1 in lung carcinoma cells, and suggest that Del-1 may be used as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for cancer progression, and as a novel therapeutic target for lung carcinoma. - Highlights: • Developmental Endothelial Locus-1 (Del-1) expression is downregulated in human lung cancer cells.

  12. Concerns About Lung Cancer Among Prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Luc; Perrot, Emmanuel; Pradat, Eric; Bartoli, Christophe; Greillier, Laurent; Remacle-Bonnet, Anne; Telmon, Norbert; Mazières, Julien; Molinier, Laurent; Couraud, Sébastien

    2018-02-01

    Few studies have looked at lung cancer in prisoners, despite this population is possibly at increased risk of malignancy. In a previous study, we found an early onset of lung cancer in prisoners. Thus, the present CARCAN study was aimed at assessing the epidemiological characteristics, management, prognosis, and incidence of lung cancer in prisoners compared to a sample of non-prisoner patients. We performed a multi-center observational case-control study. Cases were prisoners diagnosed with lung cancer from 2005 to 2013. Controls were non-prisoner lung cancer patients selected from hospital databases and randomly matched to cases (targeted case-control ratio: 1:3). Incidence rates in both groups were calculated using national statistics. Seventy-two cases and 170 controls met inclusion criteria. Cases were mainly men (99%). Mean age at diagnosis was 52.9 (± 11.0) in cases and 64.3 (± 10.1) in controls (p < 0.0001). More case patients were current smokers compared to control patients (83% vs 53%; p < 0.0001). We found no significant differences between the two groups as concerns histologic types, TNM stages at diagnosis, initially-employed treatments, times to management or survival. Incidence rates (2008-2012) in male prisoners were higher than those in the general population in all concerned age groups. There is a shift of lung cancer toward young people in prisons. However, the presentation, management, and prognosis of lung cancer are similar between prisoners and non-prisoners. These finding could justify a specific screening policy for the incarcerated populations.

  13. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To prove...

  14. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical...

  15. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To prove...

  16. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  17. Estrogen Signaling in Lung Cancer: An Opportunity for Novel Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Christina S.; Eaton, Keith D.

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in U.S. and represents a major public health burden. Epidemiologic data have suggested that lung cancer in women may possess different biological characteristics compared to men, as evidenced by a higher proportion of never-smokers among women with lung cancer. Emerging data indicate that female hormones such as estrogen and progesterone play a significant role in lung carcinogenesis. It has been reported that estrogen and progesterone receptors are expressed in lung cancer cell lines as well as in patient-derived tumors. Hormone related risk factors such as hormone replacement therapy have been implicated in lung carcinogenesis and several preclinical studies show activity of anti-estrogen therapy in lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the emerging evidence for the role of reproductive hormones in lung cancer and implications for lung cancer therapy

  18. The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chansky, Kari; Detterbeck, Frank C; Nicholson, Andrew G

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Revisions to the TNM stage classifications for lung cancer, informed by the international database (N = 94,708) of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Staging and Prognostic Factors Committee, need external validation. The objective was to externally...... demonstrated consistent ability to discriminate TNM categories and stage groups for clinical and pathologic stage. CONCLUSIONS: The IASLC revisions made for the eighth edition of lung cancer staging are validated by this analysis of the NCDB database by the ordering, statistical differences, and homogeneity...... validate the revisions by using the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) of the American College of Surgeons. METHODS: Cases presenting from 2000 through 2012 were drawn from the NCDB and reclassified according to the eighth edition stage classification. Clinically and pathologically staged subsets of NSCLC...

  19. Spontaneous pneumothorax associated with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Dong Wook; Jung, Seung Hyae; Yoon, Yup; Lim, Jae Hoon; Cho, Kyu Soek; Yang, Moon Ho

    1991-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is a rare manifestation of lung cancer. Eight cases of pneumothorax found in 1648 patients with lung cancer from 1979-1990 are reported. Histopathologic types of cancer were adenocarcinoma in three cases, squamous cell carcinoma in two cases, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in two cases, and metastatic renal cell carcinoma in one case. The primary tumor mass was not found even after thoracotomy in two cases. Spontaneous pneumothorax occurred on the ipsilateral side of the cancer. All the patients were more than 40 years old with a history of smoking 1-2 packs a day for 20 to 50 years, and had chronic lung diseases. The authors emphasize that bronchogenic carcinoma may be one of the causes of spontaneous pneumothorax in appropriate clinical settings

  20. EGFR T790M mutation testing of non-small cell lung cancer tissue and blood samples artificially spiked with circulating cell-free tumor DNA: results of a round robin trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassunke, Jana; Ihle, Michaela Angelika; Lenze, Dido; Lehmann, Annika; Hummel, Michael; Vollbrecht, Claudia; Penzel, Roland; Volckmar, Anna-Lena; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Endris, Volker; Jung, Andreas; Lehmann, Ulrich; Zeugner, Silke; Baretton, Gustavo; Kreipe, Hans; Schirmacher, Peter; Kirchner, Thomas; Dietel, Manfred; Büttner, Reinhard; Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine

    2017-10-01

    The European Commision (EC) recently approved osimertinib for the treatment of adult patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring EGFR T790M mutations. Besides tissue-based testing, blood samples containing cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) can be used to interrogate T790M status. Herein, we describe the conditions and results of a round robin trial (RRT) for T790M mutation testing in NSCLC tissue specimens and peripheral blood samples spiked with cell line DNA mimicking tumor-derived ctDNA. The underlying objectives of this two-staged external quality assessment (EQA) approach were (a) to evaluate the accuracy of T790M mutations testing across multiple centers and (b) to investigate if a liquid biopsy-based testing for T790M mutations in spiked blood samples is feasible in routine diagnostic. Based on a successfully completed internal phase I RRT, an open RRT for EGFR T790M mutation testing in tumor tissue and blood samples was initiated. In total, 48 pathology centers participated in the EQA. Of these, 47 (97.9%) centers submitted their analyses within the pre-defined time frame and 44 (tissue), respectively, 40 (plasma) successfully passed the test. The overall success rates in the RRT phase II were 91.7% (tissue) and 83.3% (blood), respectively. Thirty-eight out of 48 participants (79.2%) successfully passed both parts of the RRT. The RRT for blood-based EGFR testing initiated in Germany is, to the best of our knowledge, the first of his kind in Europe. In summary, our results demonstrate that blood-based genotyping for EGFR resistance mutations can be successfully integrated in routine molecular diagnostics complementing the array of molecular methods already available at pathology centers in Germany.

  1. Ground-Glass Opacity Lung Nodules in the Era of Lung Cancer CT Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Saghir, Zaigham; Wille, Mathilde Marie Winkler

    2016-01-01

    The advent of computed tomography screening for lung cancer will increase the incidence of ground-glass opacity (GGO) nodules detected and referred for diagnostic evaluation and management. GGO nodules remain a diagnostic challenge; therefore, a more systematic approach is necessary to ensure...... that will yield improvements in both diagnosis and treatment. The standard-of-care surgical treatment of early lung cancer is still minimally invasive lobectomy with systematic lymph node dissection. However, recent research has shown that some GGO lesions may be treated with sublobar resections; these findings......, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and the British Thoracic Society. In addition, we discuss the management and follow-up of GGO nodules in the light of experience from screening trials. Minimally invasive tissue biopsies and the marking of GGO nodules for surgery are new and rapidly developing fields...

  2. Integrin αβ3-Targeted Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Chen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of radiolabeled cyclic arginine-glycineaspartic acid (RGD peptide ligands for cell adhesion molecule integrin αβ3-targeted tumor angiogenesis targeting are being developed in our laboratory. In this study, this effort continues by applying a positron emitter 64Cu-labeled PEGylated dimeric RGD peptide radiotracer 64Cu-DOTA-PEG-E[c(RGDyK]2 for lung cancer imaging. The PEGylated RGD peptide indicated integrin αβ3 avidity, but the PEGylation reduced the receptor binding affinity of this ligand compared to the unmodified RGD dimer. The radiotracer revealed rapid blood clearance and predominant renal clearance route. The minimum nonspecific activity accumulation in normal lung tissue and heart rendered high-quality orthotopic lung cancer tumor images, enabling clear demarcation of both the primary tumor at the upper lobe of the left lung, as well as metastases in the mediastinum, contralateral lung, diaphragm. As a comparison, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG scans on the same mice were only able to identify the primary tumor, with the metastatic lesions masked by intense cardiac uptake and high lung background. 64Cu-DOTA-PEGE[c(RGDyK]2 is an excellent positron emission tomography (PET tracer for integrin-positive tumor imaging. Further studies to improve the receptor binding affinity of the tracer and subsequently to increase the magnitude of tumor uptake without comprising the favorable in vivo kinetics are currently in progress.

  3. Pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer risks in relation to occupational history and asbestos lung burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilham, Clare; Rake, Christine; Burdett, Garry; Nicholson, Andrew G; Davison, Leslie; Franchini, Angelo; Carpenter, James; Hodgson, John; Darnton, Andrew; Peto, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Background We have conducted a population-based study of pleural mesothelioma patients with occupational histories and measured asbestos lung burdens in occupationally exposed workers and in the general population. The relationship between lung burden and risk, particularly at environmental exposure levels, will enable future mesothelioma rates in people born after 1965 who never installed asbestos to be predicted from their asbestos lung burdens. Methods Following personal interview asbestos fibres longer than 5 µm were counted by transmission electron microscopy in lung samples obtained from 133 patients with mesothelioma and 262 patients with lung cancer. ORs for mesothelioma were converted to lifetime risks. Results Lifetime mesothelioma risk is approximately 0.02% per 1000 amphibole fibres per gram of dry lung tissue over a more than 100-fold range, from 1 to 4 in the most heavily exposed building workers to less than 1 in 500 in most of the population. The asbestos fibres counted were amosite (75%), crocidolite (18%), other amphiboles (5%) and chrysotile (2%). Conclusions The approximate linearity of the dose–response together with lung burden measurements in younger people will provide reasonably reliable predictions of future mesothelioma rates in those born since 1965 whose risks cannot yet be seen in national rates. Burdens in those born more recently will indicate the continuing occupational and environmental hazards under current asbestos control regulations. Our results confirm the major contribution of amosite to UK mesothelioma incidence and the substantial contribution of non-occupational exposure, particularly in women. PMID:26715106

  4. Personalizing Therapy in Advanced Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaruz, Liza C.; Burns, Timothy F.; Ramfidis, Vasilis S.; Socinski, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The recognition that non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is not a single disease entity, but rather a collection of distinct molecularly driven neoplasms, has permanently shifted the therapeutic landscape of NSCLC to a personalized approach. This personalization of NSCLC therapy is typified by the dramatic response rates seen in EGFR mutant NSCLC when treated with targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy and in ALK translocation–driven NSCLC when treated with ALK inhibitors. Targeted therapeutic approaches in NSCLC necessitate consideration of more invasive biopsy techniques aimed at providing sufficient tissue for both histological determination and molecular profiling in all patients with stage IV disease both at the time of diagnosis and at the time of disease progression. Comprehensive genotyping efforts have identified oncogenic drivers in 62% lung adenocarcinomas and an increasing proportion of squamous cell carcinomas of the lung. The identification of these oncogenic drivers and the triage of patients to clinical trials evaluating novel targeted therapeutic approaches will increasingly mold a landscape of personalized lung cancer therapy where each genotype has an associated targeted therapy. This review outlines the state of personalized lung cancer therapy as it pertains to individual NSCLC genotypes. PMID:24258572

  5. A Medical Center Network for Optimized Lung Cancer Biospecimen Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    of a centralized biobank of high quality tissue, blood, urine , bronchoscopic washing and saliva samples from lung cancer subjects that are...specimen collection kits, informatics infrastructure, quality control procedures and specimen storage as well as being the contact site for...insufficient sample collection. Follow-up Accrual The LCBRN attempts to collect clinical follow-up data on all LCBRN patients at 6 months intervals

  6. Validation of SCT Methylation as a Hallmark Biomarker for Lung Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-An; Ma, Xiaotu; Sathe, Adwait; Fujimoto, Junya; Wistuba, Ignacio; Lam, Stephen; Yatabe, Yasushi; Wang, Yi-Wei; Stastny, Victor; Gao, Boning; Larsen, Jill E; Girard, Luc; Liu, Xiaoyun; Song, Kai; Behrens, Carmen; Kalhor, Neda; Xie, Yang; Zhang, Michael Q; Minna, John D; Gazdar, Adi F

    2016-03-01

    The human secretin gene (SCT) encodes secretin, a hormone with limited tissue distribution. Analysis of the 450k methylation array data in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) indicated that the SCT promoter region is differentially hypermethylated in lung cancer. Our purpose was to validate SCT methylation as a potential biomarker for lung cancer. We analyzed data from TCGA and developed and applied SCT-specific bisulfite DNA sequencing and quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assays. The analyses of TCGA 450K data for 801 samples showed that SCT hypermethylation has an area under the curve (AUC) value greater than 0.98 that can be used to distinguish lung adenocarcinomas or squamous cell carcinomas from nonmalignant lung tissue. Bisulfite sequencing of lung cancer cell lines and normal blood cells allowed us to confirm that SCT methylation is highly discriminative. By applying a quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assay, we found that SCT hypermethylation is frequently detected in all major subtypes of malignant non-small cell lung cancer (AUC = 0.92, n = 108) and small cell lung cancer (AUC = 0.93, n = 40) but is less frequent in lung carcinoids (AUC = 0.54, n = 20). SCT hypermethylation appeared in samples of lung carcinoma in situ during multistage pathogenesis and increased in invasive samples. Further analyses of TCGA 450k data showed that SCT hypermethylation is highly discriminative in most other types of malignant tumors but less frequent in low-grade malignant tumors. The only normal tissue with a high level of methylation was the placenta. Our findings demonstrated that SCT methylation is a highly discriminative biomarker for lung and other malignant tumors, is less frequent in low-grade malignant tumors (including lung carcinoids), and appears at the carcinoma in situ stage. Copyright © 2015 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inflammatory Gene Polymorphisms in Lung Cancer Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Keith D; Romine, Perrin E; Goodman, Gary E; Thornquist, Mark D; Barnett, Matt J; Petersdorf, Effie W

    2018-05-01

    Chronic inflammation has been implicated in carcinogenesis, with increasing evidence of its role in lung cancer. We aimed to evaluate the role of genetic polymorphisms in inflammation-related genes in the risk for development of lung cancer. A nested case-control study design was used, and 625 cases and 625 well-matched controls were selected from participants in the β-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial, which is a large, prospective lung cancer chemoprevention trial. The association between lung cancer incidence and survival and 23 polymorphisms descriptive of 11 inflammation-related genes (interferon gamma gene [IFNG], interleukin 10 gene [IL10], interleukin 1 alpha gene [IL1A], interleukin 1 beta gene [IL1B], interleukin 2 gene [IL2], interleukin 4 receptor gene [IL4R], interleukin 4 gene [IL4], interleukin 6 gene [IL6], prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 gene [PTGS2] (also known as COX2), transforming growth factor beta 1 gene [TGFB1], and tumor necrosis factor alpha gene [TNFA]) was evaluated. Of the 23 polymorphisms, two were associated with risk for lung cancer. Compared with individuals with the wild-type (CC) variant, individuals carrying the minor allele variants of the IL-1β-511C>T promoter polymorphism (rs16944) (CT and TT) had decreased odds of lung cancer (OR = 0.74, [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-0.94] and OR = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50-1.01], respectively, p = 0.03). Similar results were observed for the IL-1β-1464 C>G promoter polymorphism (rs1143623), with presence of the minor variants CG and CC having decreased odds of lung cancer (OR = 0.75 [95% CI: 0.59-0.95] and OR = 0.69 [95% CI: 0.46-1.03], respectively, p = 0.03). Survival was not influenced by genotype. This study provides further evidence that IL1B promoter polymorphisms may modulate the risk for development of lung cancer. Copyright © 2018 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression of the somatostatin receptor family mRNAs in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Wang Liangang; Deng Jinglan; Wu Shengxi

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of expression and distribution of 5 subtypes of somatostatin receptors (SSTR1-5) in lung cancer, in situ hybridization was used to examine the expression patterns of SSTR mRNAs in 21 cases of different pathologic types of lung cancer tissues with [α- 35 S]dATP labelled oligonucleotides of the 5 SSTR subtypes as probes. Additionally, Leica Q-500 image analysis processing system was employed for the semi-quantitatively analysis of the hybridization signals. Patterns of SSTR1-5 expression in lung cancer tissues were found as follows. SSTR2 was prominent in small cell lung cancer (SCLC), whereas in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) including the adenous cancer (Ad) and the squamous cancer (Sq), the expression of SSTR1 mRNA was stronger than that of the other 4 types. the expression density of SSTR1-5 in the NSCLC was higher that the SCLC (p < 0.01). The expression patterns and densities of the SSTR subtypes showed heterogeneity in different pathologic types of lung cancer. The expressions of the SSTR mRNAs in both SCLC and NSCLC indicated the positive prospects for somatostatin analog (SSA)-oriented agents in the treatment of both types of the lung cancer

  9. Radiotherapy for Oligometastatic Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek P. Bergsma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC typically presents at an advanced stage, which is often felt to be incurable, and such patients are usually treated with a palliative approach. Accumulating retrospective and prospective clinical evidence, including a recently completed randomized trial, support the existence of an oligometastatic disease state wherein select individuals with advanced NSCLC may experience historically unprecedented prolonged survival with aggressive local treatments, consisting of radiotherapy and/or surgery, to limited sites of metastatic disease. This is reflected in the most recent AJCC staging subcategorizing metastatic disease into intra-thoracic (M1a, a single extra thoracic site (M1b, and more diffuse metastases (M1c. In the field of radiation oncology, recent technological advances have allowed for the delivery of very high, potentially ablative, doses of radiotherapy to both intra- and extra-cranial disease sites, referred to as stereotactic radiosurgery and stereotactic body radiotherapy (or SABR, in much shorter time periods compared to conventional radiation and with minimal associated toxicity. At the same time, significant improvements in systemic therapy, including platinum-based doublet chemotherapy, molecular agents targeting oncogene-addicted NSCLC, and immunotherapy in the form of checkpoint inhibitors, have led to improved control of micro-metastatic disease and extended survival sparking newfound interest in combining these agents with ablative local therapies to provide additive, and in the case of radiation and immunotherapy, potentially synergistic, effects in order to further improve progression-free and overall survival. Currently, despite the tantalizing potential associated with aggressive local therapy in the setting of oligometastatic NSCLC, well-designed prospective randomized controlled trials sufficiently powered to detect and measure the possible added benefit afforded by this approach are

  10. Targeted Therapies for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E

    Targeted therapies have become standard therapies for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A phase III trial of carboplatin and paclitaxel with and without bevacizumab in patients with advanced NSCLC with non-squamous histology demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in efficacy. In patients with NSCLC with an activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (defined as exon 19 deletion and exon 21 L858R point mutation), phase III trials of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) compared to platinum-based chemotherapy have demonstrated superior efficacy in the first-line setting. In patients with NSCLC with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements, phase III trials of crizotinib have demonstrated superior efficacy compared to platinum-pemetrexed in the first-line setting and standard chemotherapy in the second-line setting. A second-generation ALK inhibitor, ceritinib, is available for patients who have progressed after or were intolerant of crizotinib. Crizotinib has also demonstrated activity on patients with ROS1 rearrangements, and BRAF inhibitors (dabrafenib, vemurafenib) have demonstrated activity in patients with NSCLC with BRAF V600E mutation. The oncogenic mutations that are susceptible to targeted therapy are mainly found in non-squamous NSCLC. The development of targeted therapy in patients with squamous NSCLC has been more challenging due to the genomic complexity observed in the squamous histology and the low prevalence of EGFR, ALK, and ROS1 molecular alterations. A phase III trial of cisplatin and gemcitabine with and without necitumumab in patients with advanced NSCLC with squamous histology demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in progression-free and overall survival.

  11. [Landscape of Lung Cancer with Oligometastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yasushi; Sato, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer with a few to several metastases is so-called oligometastatic disease. Patient with recurrence only to limited site is also known as oligo-recurrence, and may be included as oligometastatic disease. From biological aspect, any existence of metastases is a sign of systemic disease. Due to the reports of long survival with only local treatment and without systemic disease in oligometastatic lung cancer, word of oligometastasis is used with fascinating expectation of cure to advanced lung cancer. Most of the previous reports are retrospective and no comprehensive data exists for selecting patient for local treatment to oligometastasis. Recent positive result of randomize phase II study is followed up with phase III study. Progress in treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer with targeted therapy to oncogenic-driver(EGFR, ALK, ROS1 and others) and immune-checkpoint inhibitor(PD-1 pathway inhibitors)makes it difficult to define the appropriate indication of local treatment to oligometastatic lung cancer.

  12. Inhibition of thromboxane synthase induces lung cancer cell death via increasing the nuclear p27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Kin Chung; Hsin, Michael K.Y.; Chan, Joey S.Y.; Yip, Johnson H.Y.; Li, Mingyue; Leung, Billy C.S.; Mok, Tony S.K.; Warner, Timothy D.; Underwood, Malcolm J.; Chen, George G.

    2009-01-01

    The role of thromboxane in lung carcinogenesis is not clearly known, though thromboxane B2 (TXB 2 ) level is increased and antagonists of thromboxane receptors or TXA2 can induce apoptosis of lung cancer cells. p27, an atypical tumor suppressor, is normally sequestered in the nucleus. The increased nuclear p27 may result in apoptosis of tumor cells. We hypothesize that the inhibition of thromboxane synthase (TXS) induces the death of lung cancer cells and that such inhibition is associated with the nuclear p27 level. Our experiment showed that the inhibition of TXS significantly induced the death or apoptosis in lung cancer cells. The activity of TXS was increased in lung cancer. The nuclear p27 was remarkably reduced in lung cancer tissues. The inhibition of TXS caused the cell death and apoptosis of lung cancer cells, likely via the elevation of the nuclear p27 since the TXS inhibition promoted the nuclear p27 level and the inhibition of p27 by its siRNA recovered the cell death induced by TXS inhibition. Collectively, lung cancer cells produce high levels of TXB 2 but their nuclear p27 is markedly reduced. The inhibition of TXS results in the p27-related induction of cell death in lung cancer cells.

  13. Inhibition of thromboxane synthase induces lung cancer cell death via increasing the nuclear p27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Kin Chung; Hsin, Michael K.Y.; Chan, Joey S.Y.; Yip, Johnson H.Y.; Li, Mingyue; Leung, Billy C.S. [Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories (Hong Kong); Mok, Tony S.K. [Department of Clinical Oncology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories (Hong Kong); Warner, Timothy D. [The William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London (United Kingdom); Underwood, Malcolm J. [Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories (Hong Kong); Chen, George G., E-mail: gchen@cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories (Hong Kong)

    2009-10-15

    The role of thromboxane in lung carcinogenesis is not clearly known, though thromboxane B2 (TXB{sub 2}) level is increased and antagonists of thromboxane receptors or TXA2 can induce apoptosis of lung cancer cells. p27, an atypical tumor suppressor, is normally sequestered in the nucleus. The increased nuclear p27 may result in apoptosis of tumor cells. We hypothesize that the inhibition of thromboxane synthase (TXS) induces the death of lung cancer cells and that such inhibition is associated with the nuclear p27 level. Our experiment showed that the inhibition of TXS significantly induced the death or apoptosis in lung cancer cells. The activity of TXS was increased in lung cancer. The nuclear p27 was remarkably reduced in lung cancer tissues. The inhibition of TXS caused the cell death and apoptosis of lung cancer cells, likely via the elevation of the nuclear p27 since the TXS inhibition promoted the nuclear p27 level and the inhibition of p27 by its siRNA recovered the cell death induced by TXS inhibition. Collectively, lung cancer cells produce high levels of TXB{sub 2} but their nuclear p27 is markedly reduced. The inhibition of TXS results in the p27-related induction of cell death in lung cancer cells.

  14. Increased hydrostatic pressure enhances motility of lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Chiu; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Kuo, Po-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial fluid pressures within most solid tumors are significantly higher than that in the surrounding normal tissues. Therefore, cancer cells must proliferate and migrate under the influence of elevated hydrostatic pressure while a tumor grows. In this study, we developed a pressurized cell culture device and investigated the influence of hydrostatic pressure on the migration speeds of lung cancer cells (CL1-5 and A549). The migration speeds of lung cancer cells were increased by 50-60% under a 20 mmHg hydrostatic pressure. We also observed that the expressions of aquaporin in CL1-5 and A549 cells were increased under the hydrostatic pressure. Our preliminary results indicate that increased hydrostatic pressure plays an important role in tumor metastasis.

  15. Automating the expert consensus paradigm for robust lung tissue classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Raghunath, Sushravya; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2012-03-01

    Clinicians confirm the efficacy of dynamic multidisciplinary interactions in diagnosing Lung disease/wellness from CT scans. However, routine clinical practice cannot readily accomodate such interactions. Current schemes for automating lung tissue classification are based on a single elusive disease differentiating metric; this undermines their reliability in routine diagnosis. We propose a computational workflow that uses a collection (#: 15) of probability density functions (pdf)-based similarity metrics to automatically cluster pattern-specific (#patterns: 5) volumes of interest (#VOI: 976) extracted from the lung CT scans of 14 patients. The resultant clusters are refined for intra-partition compactness and subsequently aggregated into a super cluster using a cluster ensemble technique. The super clusters were validated against the consensus agreement of four clinical experts. The aggregations correlated strongly with expert consensus. By effectively mimicking the expertise of physicians, the proposed workflow could make automation of lung tissue classification a clinical reality.

  16. Tissue spray ionization mass spectrometry for rapid recognition of human lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yiping; Chen, Liru; Zhou, Wei; Chingin, Konstantin; Ouyang, Yongzhong; Zhu, Tenggao; Wen, Hua; Ding, Jianhua; Xu, Jianjun; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-05-01

    Tissue spray ionization mass spectrometry (TSI-MS) directly on small tissue samples has been shown to provide highly specific molecular information. In this study, we apply this method to the analysis of 38 pairs of human lung squamous cell carcinoma tissue (cancer) and adjacent normal lung tissue (normal). The main components of pulmonary surfactants, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC, m/z 757.47), phosphatidylcholine (POPC, m/z 782.52), oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC, m/z 808.49), and arachidonic acid stearoyl phosphatidylcholine (SAPC, m/z 832.43), were identified using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Monte Carlo sampling partial least squares linear discriminant analysis (PLS-LDA) was used to distinguish full-mass-range mass spectra of cancer samples from the mass spectra of normal tissues. With 5 principal components and 30 - 40 Monte Carlo samplings, the accuracy of cancer identification in matched tissue samples reached 94.42%. Classification of a tissue sample required less than 1 min, which is much faster than the analysis of frozen sections. The rapid, in situ diagnosis with minimal sample consumption provided by TSI-MS is advantageous for surgeons. TSI-MS allows them to make more informed decisions during surgery.

  17. Estimation of gas and tissue lung volumes by MRI: functional approach of lung imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qanadli, S D; Orvoen-Frija, E; Lacombe, P; Di Paola, R; Bittoun, J; Frija, G

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the accuracy of MRI for the determination of lung gas and tissue volumes. Fifteen healthy subjects underwent MRI of the thorax and pulmonary function tests [vital capacity (VC) and total lung capacity (TLC)] in the supine position. MR examinations were performed at inspiration and expiration. Lung volumes were measured by a previously validated technique on phantoms. Both individual and total lung volumes and capacities were calculated. MRI total vital capacity (VC(MRI)) was compared with spirometric vital capacity (VC(SP)). Capacities were correlated to lung volumes. Tissue volume (V(T)) was estimated as the difference between the total lung volume at full inspiration and the TLC. No significant difference was seen between VC(MRI) and VC(SP). Individual capacities were well correlated (r = 0.9) to static volume at full inspiration. The V(T) was estimated to be 836+/-393 ml. This preliminary study demonstrates that MRI can accurately estimate lung gas and tissue volumes. The proposed approach appears well suited for functional imaging of the lung.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue for skin tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sweta K. [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India); Dinda, Amit K. [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Potdar, Pravin D. [Department of Molecular Medicine, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Mishra, Narayan C., E-mail: mishrawise@gmail.com [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2013-10-15

    The present study aims to fabricate scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue and evaluate it for skin tissue engineering applications. Decellularized goat-lung scaffold was fabricated by removing cells from cadaver goat-lung tissue enzymatically, to have cell-free 3D-architecture of natural extracellular matrix. DNA quantification assay and Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed the absence of cellular material in the decellularized lung-tissue. SEM analysis of decellularized scaffold shows the intrinsic porous structure of lung tissue with well-preserved pore-to-pore interconnectivity. FTIR analysis confirmed non-denaturation and well maintainance of collagenous protein structure of decellularized scaffold. MTT assay, SEM analysis and H and E staining of human skin-derived Mesenchymal Stem cell, seeded over the decellularized scaffold, confirms stem cell attachment, viability, biocompatibility and proliferation over the decellularized scaffold. Expression of Keratin18 gene, along with CD105, CD73 and CD44, by human skin-derived Mesenchymal Stem cells over decellularized scaffold signifies that the cells are viable, proliferating and migrating, and have maintained their critical cellular functions in the presence of scaffold. Thus, overall study proves the applicability of the goat-lung tissue derived decellularized scaffold for skin tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • We successfully fabricated decellularized scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue. • Decellularized goat-lung scaffolds were found to be highly porous. • Skin derived MSC shows high cell viability and proliferation over the scaffold. • Phenotype of MSCs was well maintained over the scaffold. • The scaffold shows potential for applications in skin tissue engineering.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue for skin tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sweta K.; Dinda, Amit K.; Potdar, Pravin D.; Mishra, Narayan C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to fabricate scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue and evaluate it for skin tissue engineering applications. Decellularized goat-lung scaffold was fabricated by removing cells from cadaver goat-lung tissue enzymatically, to have cell-free 3D-architecture of natural extracellular matrix. DNA quantification assay and Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed the absence of cellular material in the decellularized lung-tissue. SEM analysis of decellularized scaffold shows the intrinsic porous structure of lung tissue with well-preserved pore-to-pore interconnectivity. FTIR analysis confirmed non-denaturation and well maintainance of collagenous protein structure of decellularized scaffold. MTT assay, SEM analysis and H and E staining of human skin-derived Mesenchymal Stem cell, seeded over the decellularized scaffold, confirms stem cell attachment, viability, biocompatibility and proliferation over the decellularized scaffold. Expression of Keratin18 gene, along with CD105, CD73 and CD44, by human skin-derived Mesenchymal Stem cells over decellularized scaffold signifies that the cells are viable, proliferating and migrating, and have maintained their critical cellular functions in the presence of scaffold. Thus, overall study proves the applicability of the goat-lung tissue derived decellularized scaffold for skin tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • We successfully fabricated decellularized scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue. • Decellularized goat-lung scaffolds were found to be highly porous. • Skin derived MSC shows high cell viability and proliferation over the scaffold. • Phenotype of MSCs was well maintained over the scaffold. • The scaffold shows potential for applications in skin tissue engineering

  20. Fabrication and characterization of scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue for skin tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sweta K; Dinda, Amit K; Potdar, Pravin D; Mishra, Narayan C

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to fabricate scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue and evaluate it for skin tissue engineering applications. Decellularized goat-lung scaffold was fabricated by removing cells from cadaver goat-lung tissue enzymatically, to have cell-free 3D-architecture of natural extracellular matrix. DNA quantification assay and Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed the absence of cellular material in the decellularized lung-tissue. SEM analysis of decellularized scaffold shows the intrinsic porous structure of lung tissue with well-preserved pore-to-pore interconnectivity. FTIR analysis confirmed non-denaturation and well maintainance of collagenous protein structure of decellularized scaffold. MTT assay, SEM analysis and H&E staining of human skin-derived Mesenchymal Stem cell, seeded over the decellularized scaffold, confirms stem cell attachment, viability, biocompatibility and proliferation over the decellularized scaffold. Expression of Keratin18 gene, along with CD105, CD73 and CD44, by human skin-derived Mesenchymal Stem cells over decellularized scaffold signifies that the cells are viable, proliferating and migrating, and have maintained their critical cellular functions in the presence of scaffold. Thus, overall study proves the applicability of the goat-lung tissue derived decellularized scaffold for skin tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer prevention strategies include quitting or avoiding exposure to smoking, occupational carcinogens, and radon. Get detailed information about risk factors and lung cancer prevention in this summary for clinicians.

  2. Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer prevention approaches include avoiding exposure to risk factors like tobacco smoke, radon, radiation, asbestos, and other substances. Learn more about preventing lung cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  3. New genes linked to lung cancer susceptibility in Asian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    An international group of scientists has identified three genes that predispose Asian women who have never smoked to lung cancer. The discovery of specific genetic variations, which have not previously been associated with lung cancer risk in other popul

  4. Lung cancer among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao; Akamizu, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    Patho-statistical study of the relationship between lung cancer and the atomic-bomb (A-bomb) was made on 259 lung cancer cases autopsied in Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital between 1956 and 1983. These autopsy cases were divided into 3 groups; those exposed at 2000 m from the hypocenter or those entering the city after the bombing (group B), and non-exposed group. The incidence of lung cancer was high irrespective of sex in the group A, being 1.8 times higher than in the non-exposed group. It tended to increase rapidly since 1975 in women of the group A, and the ratio of women to men was high, as compared with the other groups. In the group B and the non-exposed group, the incidence of lung cancer tended to increase year by year, particularly in men. Grip-sized adenocarcinoma was seen more frequently in the group A than in the other groups. Squamous cell carcinoma and undifferentiated cancer occurred more frequently than adenocarcinoma in older women of the exposed groups. This seemed to be due to the fact that older patients tended to have squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated cancer more frequently than adenocarcinoma. The incidence of lung cancer, particularly adenocarcinoma, tended to increase in the exposed groups. There was no great difference in the incidence of organ metastasis between the exposed groups and non-exposed group. Twenty-one of 24 cases of multiple cancer were A-bomb victims, although the incidence of complications was independent of exposure status. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Toward in vivo lung's tissue incompressibility characterization for tumor motion modeling in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirzadi, Zahra; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Samani, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A novel technique is proposed to characterize lung tissue incompressibility variation during respiration. Estimating lung tissue incompressibility parameter variations resulting from air content variation throughout respiration is critical for computer assisted tumor motion tracking. Continuous tumor motion is a major challenge in lung cancer radiotherapy, especially with external beam radiotherapy. If not accounted for, this motion may lead to areas of radiation overdosage for normal tissue. Given the unavailability of imaging modality that can be used effectively for real-time lung tumor tracking, computer assisted approach based on tissue deformation estimation can be a good alternative. This approach involves lung biomechanical model where its fidelity depends on input tissue properties. This investigation shows that considering variable tissue incompressibility parameter is very important for predicting tumor motion accurately, hence improving the lung radiotherapy outcome. Methods: First, an in silico lung phantom study was conducted to demonstrate the importance of employing variable Poisson's ratio for tumor motion predication. After it was established that modeling this variability is critical for accurate tumor motion prediction, an optimization based technique was developed to estimate lung tissue Poisson's ratio as a function of respiration cycle time. In this technique, the Poisson's ratio and lung pressure value were varied systematically until optimal values were obtained, leading to maximum similarity between acquired and simulated 4D CT lung images. This technique was applied in an ex vivo porcine lung study where simulated images were constructed using the end exhale CT image and deformation fields obtained from the lung's FE modeling of each respiration time increment. To model the tissue, linear elastic and Marlow hyperelastic material models in conjunction with variable Poisson's ratio were used. Results: The phantom study showed that

  6. Overexpression and small molecule-triggered downregulation of CIP2A in lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ma

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, with a five-year overall survival rate of only 15%. Cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A is a human oncoprotein inhibiting PP2A in many human malignancies. However, whether CIP2A can be a new drug target for lung cancer is largely unclear.Normal and malignant lung tissues were derived from 60 lung cancer patients from southern China. RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression of CIP2A. We found that among the 60 patients, CIP2A was undetectable or very low in paratumor normal tissues, but was dramatically elevated in tumor samples in 38 (63.3% patients. CIP2A overexpression was associated with cigarette smoking. Silencing CIP2A by siRNA inhibited the proliferation and clonogenic activity of lung cancer cells. Intriguingly, we found a natural compound, rabdocoetsin B which is extracted from a Traditional Chinese Medicinal herb Rabdosia coetsa, could induce down-regulation of CIP2A and inactivation of Akt pathway, and inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in a variety of lung cancer cells.Our findings strongly indicate that CIP2A could be an effective target for lung cancer drug development, and the therapeutic potentials of CIP2A-targeting agents warrant further investigation.

  7. Distribution of lung cancer and bronchitis in England and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, D J.B.

    1967-01-01

    Standardized mortality ratios for lung cancer and bronchitis decreased with population gradient from urban to rural areas. When this was controlled, SO/sub 2/ and smoke concentration were highly correlated with each other and with bronchitis but not with lung cancer. Conversely, lung cancer was correlated with population density whereas bronchitis was not. This study postulates that bronchitis offers some form of immunological protection against lung cancer.

  8. 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in lung cancer; Lugano 2010: small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahel, R; Thatcher, N; Früh, M

    2011-01-01

    , the expert panel prepared clinically relevant questions concerning five areas as follows: early and locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), first-line metastatic NSCLC, second-/third-line NSCLC, NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) to be addressed through......The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21st and 22nd May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics and medical, surgical and radiation oncology. Before the conference...

  9. 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in lung cancer; Lugano 2010: small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahel, R; Thatcher, N; Früh, M

    2011-01-01

    The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21st and 22nd May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics and medical, surgical and radiation oncology. Before the conference......, the expert panel prepared clinically relevant questions concerning five areas as follows: early and locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), first-line metastatic NSCLC, second-/third-line NSCLC, NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) to be addressed through...

  10. Experience with perioperative pirfenidone for lung cancer surgery in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Takekazu; Yoshida, Shigetoshi; Nagato, Kaoru; Nakajima, Takahiro; Suzuki, Hidemi; Tagawa, Tetsuzo; Mizobuchi, Teruaki; Ota, Satoshi; Nakatani, Yukio; Yoshino, Ichiro

    2015-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive diffuse lung disease associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Patients with IPF sometimes develop a life-threatening acute exacerbation of IPF (AE-IPF) after lung cancer surgery. In this retrospective study, pirfenidone, an antifibrotic agent, was perioperatively administered to IPF patients with lung cancer with the aim of preventing postoperative AE-IPF, and the feasibility and clinical outcomes were investigated. Twelve IPF patients with concomitant lung cancer who received perioperative pirfenidone treatment (PPT) for lung cancer surgery were retrospectively investigated. Sixteen IPF patients undergoing lung cancer surgery without PPT were analyzed as historical controls. Compared to the controls, the PPT patients had a more severely impaired preoperative pulmonary function and a larger number of limited pulmonary resections. There was a significant preoperative decrease in the serum KL-6 levels of the PPT patients. No severe pirfenidone-related complications or IPF-related events occurred in the PPT patients, while six control patients developed AE-IPF (P = 0.0167). A quantitative histopathological evaluation of resected lung specimens found that tissue changes associated with IPF were significantly fewer in the PPT patients (P = 0.021). PPT is a feasible perioperative treatment for IPF patients with lung cancer. Its effectiveness in preventing postoperative AE-IPF thus warrants prospective verification.

  11. Distribution and mRNA Expression of BAMBI in Non-small-cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen MIAO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective BAMBI structure is similar with that of the receptor Ⅰof TGF-β, it broadly participates in the control of TGF-β signaling. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression and its significance of BAMBI in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and explore the relation between BAMBI and clinical and pathological factors of NSCLC. Methods Sixty-three cases with NSCLC and adjacent normal tissue specimens were used for immunohistochemical assay. Thirty-one fresh lung cancer tissue specimens and surrounding normal lung tissue specimens was preserved for RT-PCR in -70 ℃ after quick-frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately. Results The level of BAMBI mRNA in cancer tissues was higher than that in the corresponding adjacent tissues (0.358±0.135 vs 0.249±0.129, with the difference being statistically significant (P =0.003. BAMBI protein expressed mainly in the membrane and the cytoplasm close to the membrane, its expression in the cancer tissue was higher than that in the adjacent tissues, the difference was significant (P <0.01. Expression of BAMBI in the cancer tissue was higher than that in the adjacent tissues, and the expression of BAMBI in adenocarcinoma of lung is higher than that in squamous carcinoma. Conclusion The expressions of BAMBI significantly increase in NSCLC. It might be a common affair in carcinogenesis of NSCLC.

  12. Lipidomic Profiling of Lung Pleural Effusion Identifies Unique Metabotype for EGFR Mutants in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Swan Ho; Lian Yee Yip; Nurhidayah Basri; Vivian Su Hui Chong; Chin Chye Teo; Eddy Tan; Kah Ling Lim; Gek San Tan; Xulei Yang; Si Yong Yeo; Mariko Si Yue Koh; Anantham Devanand; Angela Takano; Eng Huat Tan; Daniel Shao Weng Tan

    2016-01-01

    Cytology and histology forms the cornerstone for the diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but obtaining sufficient tumour cells or tissue biopsies for these tests remains a challenge. We investigate the lipidome of lung pleural effusion (PE) for unique metabolic signatures to discriminate benign versus malignant PE and EGFR versus non-EGFR malignant subgroups to identify novel diagnostic markers that is independent of tumour cell availability. Using liquid chromatography mass spect...

  13. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral CT scans has been shown to decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer in heavy smokers. Learn more about tests to detect lung cancer and their potential benefits and harms in this expert-reviewed summary.

  14. Treatment planning of radiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbi, B.J.; Levitt, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    Carcinomas of the lung is the most common form of cancer in men in the United States and many other countries. In the American Cancer Society Survey 1986, cancer of the lung made up 22% of all cancer in men and 11% of all cancer in women. The age-adjusted incidence rate was 70.6 and 14.4 for white men and women, respectively, and 89.6 and 14.4 for black men and women/100,000 population. The disease is more common in older individuals, particularly in the 5th and 6th decade, but rises to its highest incidence in the 7th decade. The proportion of women with carcinoma of the lung has been increasing steadily, while that of the males has been decreasing somewhat. Pathologic classification of carcinoma of the lung includes squamous cell, small-cell, adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma. Most of the patients, practically 48%, have squamous cell carcinoma, 16% adenocarcinoma and 15% large-cell and 19.9% small-cell carcinoma. Recent studies have shown an increase in incidence of adenocarcinoma so that it may be the most common histologic type

  15. Long Noncoding RNAs in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Anna; Diederichs, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Despite great progress in research and treatment options, lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Oncogenic driver mutations in protein-encoding genes were defined and allow for personalized therapies based on genetic diagnoses. Nonetheless, diagnosis of lung cancer mostly occurs at late stages, and chronic treatment is followed by a fast onset of chemoresistance. Hence, there is an urgent need for reliable biomarkers and alternative treatment options. With the era of whole genome and transcriptome sequencing technologies, long noncoding RNAs emerged as a novel class of versatile, functional RNA molecules. Although for most of them the mechanism of action remains to be defined, accumulating evidence confirms their involvement in various aspects of lung tumorigenesis. They are functional on the epigenetic, transcriptional, and posttranscriptional level and are regulators of pathophysiological key pathways including cell growth, apoptosis, and metastasis. Long noncoding RNAs are gaining increasing attention as potential biomarkers and a novel class of druggable molecules. It has become clear that we are only beginning to understand the complexity of tumorigenic processes. The clinical integration of long noncoding RNAs in terms of prognostic and predictive biomarker signatures and additional cancer targets could provide a chance to increase the therapeutic benefit. Here, we review the current knowledge about the expression, regulation, biological function, and clinical relevance of long noncoding RNAs in lung cancer.

  16. Circulating tumor cells in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel; Pailler, Emma; Billiot, Fanny; Drusch, Françoise; Barthelemy, Amélie; Oulhen, Marianne; Besse, Benjamin; Soria, Jean-Charles; Farace, Françoise; Vielh, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have emerged as potential biomarkers in several cancers such as colon, prostate, and breast carcinomas, with a correlation between CTC number and patient prognosis being established by independent research groups. The detection and enumeration of CTCs, however, is still a developing field, with no universal method of detection suitable for all types of cancer. CTC detection in lung cancer in particular has proven difficult to perform, as CTCs in this type of cancer often present with nonepithelial characteristics. Moreover, as many detection methods rely on the use of epithelial markers to identify CTCs, the loss of these markers during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in certain metastatic cancers can render these methods ineffective. The development of personalized medicine has led to an increase in the advancement of molecular characterization of CTCs. The application of techniques such as FISH and RT-PCR to detect EGFR, HER2, and KRAS abnormalities in lung, breast, and colon cancer, for example, could be used to characterize CTCs in real time. The use of CTCs as a 'liquid biopsy' is therefore an exciting possibility providing information on patient prognosis and treatment efficacy. This review summarizes the state of CTC detection today, with particular emphasis on lung cancer, and discusses the future applications of CTCs in helping the clinician to develop new strategies in patient treatment. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Detection of p53 gene mutations in bronchial biopsy samples of patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irshad, S.; Nawaz, T.

    2008-01-01

    Lung cancer is the malignant transformation and expansion of lung tissue. It is the most lethal of all cancers worldwide, responsible for 1.2 million deaths annually. The goal of this study was to detect the p53 gene mutations in lung cancer, in local population of Lahore, Pakistan. These mutations were screened in the bronchial biopsy lung cancer tissue samples. For this purpose microtomed tissue sections were collected. Following DNA extraction from tissue sections, the p53 mutations were detected by amplifying Exon 7 (145 bp) and Exon 8 (152 bp) of the p53 gene. PCR then followed by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis for screening the p53 gene mutations. This results of SSCP were visualized of silver staining. The results showed different banding pattern indicating the presence of mutation. Majority of the mutations were found in Exon 7. Exon 7 of p53 gene may be the mutation hotspot in lung cancer. In lung cancer, the most prevalent mutations of p53 gene are G -> T transversions; other types of insertions and deletions are also expected, however, the exact nature of mutations in presented work could be confirmed by direct sequencing. (author)

  18. Multimodal imaging of lung cancer and its microenvironment (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Niederst, Matthew J.; Mulvey, Hillary; Adams, David C.; Hu, Haichuan; Chico Calero, Isabel; Szabari, Margit V.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Bouma, Brett E.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Despite significant advances in targeted therapies for lung cancer, nearly all patients develop drug resistance within 6-12 months and prognosis remains poor. Developing drug resistance is a progressive process that involves tumor cells and their microenvironment. We hypothesize that microenvironment factors alter tumor growth and response to targeted therapy. We conducted in vitro studies in human EGFR-mutant lung carcinoma cells, and demonstrated that factors secreted from lung fibroblasts results in increased tumor cell survival during targeted therapy with EGFR inhibitor, gefitinib. We also demonstrated that increased environment stiffness results in increased tumor survival during gefitinib therapy. In order to test our hypothesis in vivo, we developed a multimodal optical imaging protocol for preclinical intravital imaging in mouse models to assess tumor and its microenvironment over time. We have successfully conducted multimodal imaging of dorsal skinfold chamber (DSC) window mice implanted with GFP-labeled human EGFR mutant lung carcinoma cells and visualized changes in tumor development and microenvironment facets over time. Multimodal imaging included structural OCT to assess tumor viability and necrosis, polarization-sensitive OCT to measure tissue birefringence for collagen/fibroblast detection, and Doppler OCT to assess tumor vasculature. Confocal imaging was also performed for high-resolution visualization of EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells labeled with GFP, and was coregistered with OCT. Our results demonstrated that stromal support and vascular growth are essential to tumor progression. Multimodal imaging is a useful tool to assess tumor and its microenvironment over time.

  19. Connective tissue diseases, multimorbidity and the ageing lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, Paolo; Cordier, Jean-François; Cottin, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    Connective tissue diseases encompass a wide range of heterogeneous disorders characterised by immune-mediated chronic inflammation often leading to tissue damage, collagen deposition and possible loss of function of the target organ. Lung involvement is a common complication of connective tissue diseases. Depending on the underlying disease, various thoracic compartments can be involved but interstitial lung disease is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. Interstitial lung disease, pulmonary hypertension or both are found most commonly in systemic sclerosis. In the elderly, the prevalence of connective tissue diseases continues to rise due to both longer life expectancy and more effective and better-tolerated treatments. In the geriatric population, connective tissue diseases are almost invariably accompanied by age-related comorbidities, and disease- and treatment-related complications, which contribute to the significant morbidity and mortality associated with these conditions, and complicate treatment decision-making. Connective tissue diseases in the elderly represent a growing concern for healthcare providers and an increasing burden of global health resources worldwide. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the immune functions in the elderly and evidence-based guidelines specifically designed for this patient population are instrumental to improving the management of connective tissue diseases in elderly patients. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  20. Studies on mRNA expression of the somatostatin receptor family in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Deng Jinglan; Wu Shengxi; Qiao Hongqing

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characteristics of expression and distribution of 5 subtypes of somatostatin receptors (SSTR1∼5) in lung cancer. Methods: With [α- 35 S]dATP labelled oligonucleotides of the 5 SSTR subtypes as probes, using in situ hybridization, patterns of mRNA expression were detected in lung cancer tissue sections of 21 cases which fell in varied pathologic types. Additionally, Leica Q-500 image analyzing device was employed to semi-quantitatively analyze density of the expression. Results: Patterns of SSTR1∼5 expression in lung cancer were as follows: SSTR2 expression was dominant in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) while in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) such as adenous and squamous, SSTR1 expression was stronger than that of the other 4 subtypes, In density of SSTR1∼5 expression in lung cancer, NSCLC was higher than SCLC (P<0.01). Conclusions: even though patterns and density of expression of SSTR subtypes in the lung cancer showed heterogeneity in different histopathologic types, as in SCLC and in NSCLC. Therefore, it has positive prospects for somatostatin analog-oriented agents to be used in treatment of both types of the lung cancers

  1. Usefulness of gallium imaging in the evaluation of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazraki, N.

    1980-01-01

    The current enthusiasm for gallium (Ga) citrate as a tumor imaging agent reflects the need of clinical medicine for a good tumor imaging agent. Ga-67 was most consistently and reliably taken up in lung tumors, with sensitivities of Ga imaging positivity in lung cancer ranging from 85 to 95%. Subsequent studies on Ga-67 led to the recognition of its preferential concentration in inflammatory lesions and abscess. These reports resulted in the clinical application of Ga-67 imaging as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with suspected abscesses. Mechanisms of Ga localization in tumor and inflammatory lesions are not currently well understood. Data regarding the thresholds of various factors which determine visibility of a lung tumor by Ga-67 imaging have been described in some detail. The factors include lesion size, depth in tissue, gallium concentration in tumor relative to background, type of film and instrumentation used, and count rates obtained

  2. Adjustment to Life with Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerw, Aleksandra I; Religioni, Urszula; Deptała, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    In Poland, lung cancer is the most common type of cancer in males (20% of all cases) and third most common type of cancer in females (9% of all cases), right behind breast and colorectal cancers. Recently, 28,000 new cases of lung cancer per year were reported in both genders. The objective of the study was to asses coping strategies, pain management, acceptance of illness and adjustment to cancer in patients diagnosed with pulmonary carcinoma and the effect of socioeconomic variables on the abovementioned issues. The study included 243 patients diagnosed with lung cancer during outpatient chemotherapy (classical chemotherapy and molecularly targeted therapies) at the Center of Oncology, Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute in Warszawa. We applied the Paper and Pencil Interview (PAPI) technique. The questionnaire interview was composed of demographic questions and the following four psychometric tests: BPCQ measuring the influence of factors affecting pain management in patients, CSQ designed to evaluate pain coping strategies, AIS questionnaire, measuring disease acceptance, and the mini-Mac scale, assessing psychological adjustment to disease. The highest mean score recorded in the BPCQ was recorded in the powerful doctors subscale (16.79) and the lowest in the internal factors section (15.64). Education, professional status and income were the variables which differentiated the scores. We recorded the top average score in CSQ in the coping self statements subscale (mean = 19.64), and the lowest score in the reinterpreting pain sensations subscale (mean score = 10.32). The results of the test were differentiated by education and income. Patients had the highest Mini-MAC scale scores in the fighting spirit section (21.91). In the case of patients affected with lung cancer, education and professional status affect the way patients treat doctors in the disease process. These variables are also critical in patients' approach to disease and methods of coping with it.

  3. Use of radioimmunodetection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and ferritin in diagnosis of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamyatin, S.S.; Zakharychev, V.D.

    1989-01-01

    To study the diagnostic value of radioimmunoassay (RIA) of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and ferritin the level of this markers under lung cancer depending on the tumor localization and the process stage is determined. It is shown that determination of CEA and ferritin level in a number of patients with the peripheral lung cancer allows on the confirm the diagnosis. In case of the central cancer an increase of CEA level testifies to the tumor germination into the adjacent organs and lung tissue and allows one to determine the stage and operability of the disease. 10 refs.; 3 tabs

  4. Subtyping of nonsmall cell lung cancer on cytology specimens: Reproducibility of cytopathologic diagnoses on sparse material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haukali, O. S.; Henrik, H.; Olsen, Karen Ege

    2014-01-01

    Cytologic examination of fine-needle aspiration (material is increasingly used in diagnosing lung cancer. High interobserver agreement in distinguishing small-cell lung cancer from nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) on cytologic material has been demonstrated. Because of new treatment......, cytoscrape (CS) can convert cytologic material into tissue fragments useful for IHC. The purpose of this study was to test the reproducibility of pulmonary malignant diagnoses, in particular distinction between subgroups of NSCLC, based on smeared material and IHC on CS. A consecutive series of May...

  5. CT imaging of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Yan; Xie Ruming; Zhou Xinhua; Zhou Zhen; Xu Jinping; He Wei; Guo Lifang; Ning Fenggang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT characteristics of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer. Methods: One hundred and four patients of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer proved by histology, cytology or clinical underwent CT examination. All patients were divided into two groups, group Ⅰ were the patients with the lung cancer after tuberculosis or both found simultaneously (group Ⅰ a with peripheral lung cancer and group Ⅰ b with central lung cancer), group Ⅱ with tuberculosis during lung cancer chemotherapy (group Ⅱ a with peripheral lung cancer and group Ⅱ b with central lung cancer). Imaging characteristics of tuberculosis and lung cancer were compared. χ"2 test and t test were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Of 104 patients, there were 92 patients (88.5%) in group Ⅰ and 12 patients (11.5%) in group Ⅱ. Seventy patients (76.1%) of lung cancer and tuberculosis were located in the same lobe and 22 patients (23.9%) in the different lobes in group Ⅰ. There was no significant difference in distribution of tuberculosis between group Ⅰ and group Ⅱ (χ"2 = 4.302, P = 0.507). The fibrous stripes, nodules of calcification and pleural adhesion of tuberculosis were statistically significant between the two groups (χ"2 = 22.737, 15.193, 27.792, P < 0.05). There were 33 central lung cancers and 71 peripheral lung cancers. In group Ⅰ a (64 patients of peripheral lung cancers), 39 patients (60.9%) had typical manifestations and most of the lesions were ≥ 3 cm (n = 49, 76.6%), solid lesions showed variable enhancement. Conclusions: Secondary tuberculosis during lung cancer chemotherapy has the same CT characteristics with the common active tuberculosis. The morphology, enhancement pattern of lesion and follow-up are helpful for the diagnosis of lung cancer after tuberculosis. (authors)

  6. Unilateral facial pain and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakespeare, T.P.; Stevens, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Facial pain in lung cancer patients may be secondary to metastatic disease to the brain or skull base. Since 1983 there have been 19 published reports of hemi-facial pain as a non-metastatic complication of lung carcinoma. This report describes an additional case in whom unilateral face pain preceded the diagnosis of lung cancer by 9 months. A clinical diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia was made after a normal brain CT scan. Later on the patient complained of global lethargy, weight loss and haemoptysis. A chest X-ray disclosed a 6 cm right hilar mass that was further defined with a whole body CT scan. The neural mechanism of the unilateral facial pain is discussed and the literature reviewed. 14 refs., 1 tab

  7. Unilateral facial pain and lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakespeare, T.P.; Stevens, M.J. [Royal North Shore Hospital, Crows Nest, NSW (Australia)

    1996-02-01

    Facial pain in lung cancer patients may be secondary to metastatic disease to the brain or skull base. Since 1983 there have been 19 published reports of hemi-facial pain as a non-metastatic complication of lung carcinoma. This report describes an additional case in whom unilateral face pain preceded the diagnosis of lung cancer by 9 months. A clinical diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia was made after a normal brain CT scan. Later on the patient complained of global lethargy, weight loss and haemoptysis. A chest X-ray disclosed a 6 cm right hilar mass that was further defined with a whole body CT scan. The neural mechanism of the unilateral facial pain is discussed and the literature reviewed. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Interventional Analgesic Management of Lung Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Uri; Elgueta, Maria Francisca; Perez, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the four most prevalent cancers worldwide. Comprehensive patient care includes not only adherence to clinical guidelines to control and when possible cure the disease but also appropriate symptom control. Pain is one of the most prevalent symptoms in patients diagnosed with lung cancer; it can arise from local invasion of chest structures or metastatic disease invading bones, nerves, or other anatomical structures potentially painful. Pain can also be a consequence of therapeutic approaches like surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy. Conventional medical management of cancer pain includes prescription of opioids and coadjuvants at doses sufficient to control the symptoms without causing severe drug effects. When an adequate pharmacological medical management fails to provide satisfactory analgesia or when it causes limiting side effects, interventional cancer pain techniques may be considered. Interventional pain management is devoted to the use of invasive techniques such as joint injections, nerve blocks and/or neurolysis, neuromodulation, and cement augmentation techniques to provide diagnosis and treatment of pain syndromes resistant to conventional medical management. Advantages of interventional approaches include better analgesic outcomes without experiencing drug-related side effects and potential for opioid reduction thus avoiding central side effects. This review will describe various pain syndromes frequently described in lung cancer patients and those interventional techniques potentially indicated for those cases.

  9. Association Between RT-Induced Changes in Lung Tissue Density and Global Lung Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jinli; Zhang Junan; Zhou Sumin; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Foltz, Rodney J.; Hollis, Donna R.; Light, Kim L.; Wong, Terence Z.; Kelsey, Christopher R.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the association between radiotherapy (RT)-induced changes in computed tomography (CT)-defined lung tissue density and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods and Materials: Patients undergoing incidental partial lung RT were prospectively assessed for global (PFTs) and regional (CT and single photon emission CT [SPECT]) lung function before and, serially, after RT. The percent reductions in the PFT and the average changes in lung density were compared (Pearson correlations) in the overall group and subgroups stratified according to various clinical factors. Comparisons were also made between the CT- and SPECT-based computations using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Between 1991 and 2004, 343 patients were enrolled in this study. Of these, 111 patients had a total of 203 concurrent post-RT evaluations of changes in lung density and PFTs available for the analyses, and 81 patients had a total of 141 concurrent post-RT SPECT images. The average increases in lung density were related to the percent reductions in the PFTs, albeit with modest correlation coefficients (range, 0.20-0.43). The analyses also indicated that the association between lung density and PFT changes is essentially equivalent to the corresponding association with SPECT-defined lung perfusion. Conclusion: We found a weak quantitative association between the degree of increase in lung density as defined by CT and the percent reduction in the PFTs.

  10. Radiothermometry indifferential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, L.I.; Kogan, E.A.; Yashunskaya, N.I.

    1991-01-01

    Methods of radiothermometry for differential diagnosis of peripheral lung formations using a radiometer operating within 10 cm-wave band were worked out. Altogether 59 patients (of them 45 men) were investigated. Temperature was measured on the chest surface in the area of a lung pathological formation projected on it. Placing its image on the heart and major vessel shadows was avoided. Mean temperature was calculated from 6-8 measurements. Temperature above a peripheral lung tumor was shown to be by 0.5 deg C higher than that of unchanged pulmonary tissue. Benign spheroidal formations (tuberculoma, hamartoma) were characterized by a decrease of 0.6-0.9 deg C as compared to unchanged pulmonary tissue. Comparison of operation of 2 radiometers (the second one operating in the 8 mm-wave band) has shown diagnostic advantages of the first one

  11. The wind god promotes lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Steven M; Schaller, Michael D

    2014-05-12

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Li and colleagues demonstrate that the hematopoietic transcription factor Aiolos (named after the Wind God of Greek mythology) confers anoikis resistance in lung tumor cells through repression of cell adhesion-related genes including the mechanosensor p66Shc. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Current therapy of small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M; Lassen, U; Hansen, H H

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the most important recent clinical trials on the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Two randomized studies addressing the timing of thoracic radiotherapy in limited stage SCLC are discussed. In the smaller of the two studies (n = 103), a survival benefit was associated...

  13. Lung cancer following exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blot, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    A case-control study of lung cancer was conducted in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, to evaluate risk factors for this common neoplasm, with special attention given to assessing the potentially interactive roles of cigarette smoking and atomic radiation. The investigation involved interviews with 428 patients with primary lung cancer and 957 matched controls, or with their next of kin in the event of death or disability. The interview information was supplemented by data on atomic bomb radiation exposure for each individual and on smoking and other factors from prior surveys of subsets of the population studied. Separate effects of smoking and high dose (greater than 100 rad) radiation were found, with the two exposures combining to affect lung cancer risk in an approximate additive fashion. The additive rather than multiplicative model was favored whether the smoking variable was dichotomized (ever vs. never smoked), categorized into one of several groups based on amount smoked, or treated as a discrete variable. The findings are contrasted with those for Colorado uranium miners and other cohorts occupationally exposed to radon and its daughter products, where smoking and radiation have been reported to combine multiplicatively to enhance lung cancer risk

  14. History of Depression in Lung Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iachina, M; Brønserud, M M; Jakobsen, E

    2017-01-01

    . To estimate the effect of depression on the diagnostic process and the choice of treatment in lung cancer we fitted a logistic regression model and a Cox regression model adjusting for age, gender, resection and stage. RESULTS: Depression in a patient's anamnesis had no significant effect on the delay...

  15. Reciprocal modulation of mesenchymal stem cells and tumor cells promotes lung cancer metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Fregni

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is a multi-step process in which direct crosstalk between cancer cells and their microenvironment plays a key role. Here, we assessed the effect of paired tumor-associated and normal lung tissue mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs on the growth and dissemination of primary human lung carcinoma cells isolated from the same patients. We show that the tumor microenvironment modulates MSC gene expression and identify a four-gene MSC signature that is functionally implicated in promoting metastasis. We also demonstrate that tumor-associated MSCs induce the expression of genes associated with an aggressive phenotype in primary lung cancer cells and selectively promote their dissemination rather than local growth. Our observations provide insight into mechanisms by which the stroma promotes lung cancer metastasis. Keywords: Tumor-associated MSCs, lung cancer, metastasis, GREM1, LOXL2, ADAMTS12, ITGA11

  16. The Danish randomized lung cancer CT screening trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper H; Ashraf, Haseem; Dirksen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer screening with low dose computed tomography (CT) has not yet been evaluated in randomized clinical trials, although several are underway. METHODS: In The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 4104 smokers and previous smokers from 2004 to 2006 were randomized to either...... lung cancer. Ten of these had stage I disease. Eleven of 17 lung cancers at baseline were treated surgically, eight of these by video assisted thoracic surgery resection. CONCLUSIONS: Screening may facilitate minimal invasive treatment and can be performed with a relatively low rate of false......-positive screen results compared with previous studies on lung cancer screening....

  17. Proton beam therapy in non-small cell lung cancer: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hideyuki Harada, Shigeyuki Murayama Radiation and Proton Therapy Center, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Nagaizumi, Shizuoka, Japan Abstract: This review summarizes the past and present status of proton beam therapy (PBT for lung cancer. PBT has a unique characteristic called the Bragg peak that enables a reduction in the dose of normal tissue around the tumor, but is sensitive to the uncertainties of density changes. The heterogeneity in electron density for thoracic lesions, such as those in the lung and mediastinum, and tumor movement according to respiration necessitates respiratory management for PBT to be applied in lung cancer patients. There are two types of PBT – a passively scattered approach and a scanning approach. Typically, a passively scattered approach is more robust for respiratory movement and a scanning approach could result in a more conformal dose distribution even when the tumor shape is complex. Large tumors of centrally located lung cancer may be more suitably irradiated than with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT or stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT. For a locally advanced lung cancer, PBT can spare the lung and heart more than photon IMRT. However, no randomized controlled trial has reported differences between PBT and IMRT or SBRT for early-stage and locally advanced lung cancers. Therefore, a well-designed controlled trial is warranted. Keywords: proton beam therapy, non-small cell lung cancer, survival, SBRT, IMRT

  18. Establishment and bronchial arteriography of the models of canine lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xicai; Wang Xiaodong; Li Bin; Shi Jianguang; Liu Yong; Xu Nanxun; Ma Weijun; Yang Haixian; Bai Jingwen; Li Weidong; Liu Shuping; Liu Anpu

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the establishment and bronchial arteriography of the models of canine lung cancer, and to facilitate further diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Methods: Twenty-two dogs were respectively administrated with 3 ml suspension of lipiodol-ultrafluid mixed with 3- methylcholanthrene (MCA) and diethylnitrosamine (DEN). The suspension was injected into the diaphragmic lobe of right lung with the co-axial catheter through endotracheal intubation. The dogs were randomly divided into 5 groups, group A (4 dogs), B (4), C (4), D (5), and E (5), which were sacrificed after observation for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. Then the image analysis and histopathologic examinations were carried out at different period. 5 dogs in group E were examined by bronchial arteriography. Results: Peribronchiolitis and atelectasis appeared at early stage (one month). Chronic granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis of lung tissue were gradually formed after 3 months. Proliferation of stem cells in bronchioles and atypical hyperplasia were found from 6 to 12 months. At last, the squamous carcinoma and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma were induced after 18 months. The lung cancer and precancerous lesion were found in 4 of 5 dogs at the 18 th month. The bronchial arteriography in the 5 dogs showed that 3 bronchial arteries were found as the supplying blood artery to the tumor. Conclusion: The suspension of lipiodol-ultrafluid mixed with MCA and DEN was exactly injected with the co-axial catheter through endotracheal intubation to establish the models of canine lung cancer. The inducible rate of the method was high and the location of lung cancer was accurate. It was affirmed that the blood supply artery of canine lung cancer was bronchial artery. Bronchial arteriography was of momentous significance to the diagnosis of early lung cancer. The establishment of the models of canine lung cancer was significant in the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. The models

  19. Metabolomic profiling of lung and prostate tumor tissues by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Kenjiro; Fujimori, Tamaki; Sato, Hajime; Sato, Mutsuko; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Yoshiaki; Sugiyama, Naoyuki; Ishihama, Yasushi; Onozuka, Hiroko; Ochiai, Atsushi; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru

    2013-04-01

    Metabolic microenvironment of tumor cells is influenced by oncogenic signaling and tissue-specific metabolic demands, blood supply, and enzyme expression. To elucidate tumor-specific metabolism, we compared the metabolomics of normal and tumor tissues surgically resected pairwise from nine lung and seven prostate cancer patients, using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). Phosphorylation levels of enzymes involved in central carbon metabolism were also quantified. Metabolomic profiles of lung and prostate tissues comprised 114 and 86 metabolites, respectively, and the profiles not only well distinguished tumor from normal tissues, but also squamous cell carcinoma from the other tumor types in lung cancer and poorly differentiated tumors from moderately differentiated tumors in prostate cancer. Concentrations of most amino acids, especially branched-chain amino acids, were significantly higher in tumor tissues, independent of organ type, but of essential amino acids were particularly higher in poorly differentiated than moderately differentiated prostate cancers. Organ-dependent differences were prominent at the levels of glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and associated energy status. Significantly high lactate concentrations and elevated activating phosphorylation levels of phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase in lung tumors confirmed hyperactive glycolysis. We highlighted the potential of CE-TOFMS-based metabolomics combined with phosphorylated enzyme analysis for understanding tissue-specific tumor microenvironments, which may lead to the development of more effective and specific anticancer therapeutics.

  20. Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Colon, Pancreatic, or Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-27

    Recurrent Colon Cancer; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IVB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Pancreatic Cancer

  1. SU-E-J-87: Ventilation Weighting Effect On Mean Doses of Both Side Lungs for Patients with Advanced Stage Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, H; Xia, P; Yu, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study ventilation weighting effect on radiation doses to both side lungs for patients with advanced stage lung cancer. Methods: Fourteen patients with advanced stage lung cancer were included in this retrospective study. Proprietary software was developed to calculate the lung ventilation map based on 4DCT images acquired for radiation therapy. Two phases of inhale (0%) and exhale (50%) were used for the lung ventilation calculations. For each patient, the CT images were resampled to the same dose calculation resolution of 3mmx3mmx3mm. The ventilation distribution was then normalized by the mean value of the ventilation. The ventilation weighted dose was calculated by applying linearly weighted ventilation to the dose of each pixel. The lung contours were automatically delineated from patient CT image with lung window, excluding the tumor and high density tissues. For contralateral and ipsilateral lungs, the mean lung doses from the original plan and ventilation weighted mean lung doses were compared using two tail t-Test. Results: The average of mean dose was 6.1 ±3.8Gy for the contralateral lungs, and 26.2 ± 14.0Gy for the ipsilateral lungs. The average of ventilation weighted dose was 6.3± 3.8Gy for the contralateral lungs and 24.6 ± 13.1Gy for the ipsilateral lungs. The statistics analysis shows the significance of the mean dose increase (p<0.015) for the contralateral lungs and decrease (p<0.005) for the ipsilateral lungs. Conclusion: Ventilation weighted doses were greater than the un-weighted doses for contralateral lungs and smaller for ipsilateral lungs. This Result may be helpful to understand the radiation dosimetric effect on the lung function and provide planning guidance for patients with advance stage lung cancer

  2. The European initiative for quality management in lung cancer care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Torsten G; Rich, Anna; Baldwin, David

    2014-01-01

    . The Task Force undertook four projects: 1) a narrative literature search on quality management of lung cancer; 2) a survey of national and local infrastructure for lung cancer care in Europe; 3) a benchmarking project on the quality of (inter)national lung cancer guidelines in Europe; and 4) a feasibility...... study of prospective data collection in a pan-European setting. There is little peer-reviewed literature on quality management in lung cancer care. The survey revealed important differences in the infrastructure of lung cancer care in Europe. The European guidelines that were assessed displayed wide...... countries. The European Initiative for Quality Management in Lung Cancer Care has provided the first comprehensive snapshot of lung cancer care in Europe....

  3. Radiation therapy in aged lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Eiji; Tobari, Chitose; Matsui, Kengo; Iio, Masahiro.

    1982-01-01

    The results and problems of radiotherapy were analyzed in 57 lung cancer patients more than 65 years of age (average age: 74.8 years). Of these, 45 (79%) were irradiated with a total dose exceeding 40 Gy. In these patients, the median survival was 13 months for Stages I and II, 6.5 months for Stage III, and 5 months for Stage IV. The results of combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy were better than those of radiotherapy alone. Also, slightly better results were obtained in patients treated with split-course than continuous-course irradiation. In aged lung cancer patients the prognosis was highly influenced by their respiratory function. Double cancers were present in 9 (16%) of the 57 patients. (author)

  4. Small Molecular TRAIL Inducer ONC201 Induces Death in Lung Cancer Cells: A Preclinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuan; Zhou, Jihong; Li, Zhanhua; Jiang, Ying; Zhou, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively targets cancer cells. The present preclinical study investigated the anti-cancer efficiency of ONC201, a first-in-class small molecule TRAIL inducer, in lung cancer cells. We showed that ONC201 was cytotoxic and anti-proliferative in both established (A549 and H460 lines) and primary human lung cancer cells. It was yet non-cytotoxic to normal lung epithelial cells. Further, ONC201 induced exogenous apoptosis activation in lung cancer cells, which was evidenced by TRAIL/death receptor-5 (DR5) induction and caspase-8 activation. The caspase-8 inhibitor or TRAIL/DR5 siRNA knockdown alleviated ONC201's cytotoxicity against lung cancer cells. Molecularly, ONC201 in-activated Akt-S6K1 and Erk signalings in lung cancer cells, causing Foxo3a nuclear translocation. For the in vivo studies, intraperitoneal injection of ONC201 at well-tolerated doses significantly inhibited xenografted A549 tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Further, ONC201 administration induced TRAIL/DR5 expression, yet inactivated Akt-S6K1 and Erk in tumor tissues. These results of the study demonstrates the potent anti-lung cancer activity by ONC201.

  5. Small Molecular TRAIL Inducer ONC201 Induces Death in Lung Cancer Cells: A Preclinical Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Feng

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL selectively targets cancer cells. The present preclinical study investigated the anti-cancer efficiency of ONC201, a first-in-class small molecule TRAIL inducer, in lung cancer cells. We showed that ONC201 was cytotoxic and anti-proliferative in both established (A549 and H460 lines and primary human lung cancer cells. It was yet non-cytotoxic to normal lung epithelial cells. Further, ONC201 induced exogenous apoptosis activation in lung cancer cells, which was evidenced by TRAIL/death receptor-5 (DR5 induction and caspase-8 activation. The caspase-8 inhibitor or TRAIL/DR5 siRNA knockdown alleviated ONC201's cytotoxicity against lung cancer cells. Molecularly, ONC201 in-activated Akt-S6K1 and Erk signalings in lung cancer cells, causing Foxo3a nuclear translocation. For the in vivo studies, intraperitoneal injection of ONC201 at well-tolerated doses significantly inhibited xenografted A549 tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mice. Further, ONC201 administration induced TRAIL/DR5 expression, yet inactivated Akt-S6K1 and Erk in tumor tissues. These results of the study demonstrates the potent anti-lung cancer activity by ONC201.

  6. Outcomes in Lung Cancer: 9-Year Experience From a Tertiary Cancer Center in India

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Navile Murali; Venkatraman Radhakrishnan; Trivadi S. Ganesan; Rejiv Rajendranath; Prasanth Ganesan; Ganesarajah Selvaluxmy; Rajaraman Swaminathan; Shirley Sundersingh; Arvind Krishnamurthy; Tenali Gnana Sagar

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality in the world. There are limited studies on survival outcomes of lung cancer in developing countries such as India. This study analyzed the outcomes of patients with lung cancer who underwent treatment at Cancer Institute (WIA), Chennai, India, between 2006 and 2015 to determine survival outcomes and identify prognostic factors. Patients and Methods: In all, 678 patients with lung cancer underwent treatment. Median age was 58 ye...

  7. The Azygous Lobe of the Lung: in the Case of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlong, L M; Ram, Dharma; Sharma, Ashwani; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Iqbal, Sayed Assif; Nagar, Anand; Hazarika, Dibyamohan

    2017-06-01

    The azygous lobe of the lung is an uncommon developmental anomaly. Its surgical importance is hardly being described in literature. Here, we are presenting a case of lung cancer with incidental azygous lobe, with its surgical relevance during lung cancer surgery.

  8. Factors influencing the decline in lung density in a Danish lung cancer screening cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.B. Shaker (Saher); A. Dirksen (Asger); P. Lo (Pechin); L.T. Skovgaard (Lene); M. de Bruijne (Marleen); J.H. Pedersen (Jerry)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer screening trials provide an opportunity to study the natural history of emphysema by using computed tomography (CT) lung density as a surrogate parameter. In the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 2,052 participants were included. At screening rounds, smoking habits were

  9. Bone scanning in the evaluation of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kun Sik; Zeon, Seok Kil; Lee, Hee Jung; Song, Hong Suk

    1994-01-01

    We studied the diagnostic significance of bone scan in evaluation of bone metastasis by lung cancer, prevalence rate, and the causes of false positive bone scan and soft tissue accumulation of bone seeking agent. This subject include 73 lung cancer patients with bone scan, We analyzed the frequency of the metastasis, its distribution and configuration, and any relationship between bone pain and corresponding region on bone scan. The positive findings of bone scans were compared with simple X-ray film, CT, MRI and other diagnostic modalities. The false positive bone scan and the soft tissue accumulation of bone seeking agent were analyzed. The positive findings on bone scan were noted in 26 cases(36%) and they were coexistent with bone pain in 30%. The correspondence between bone scan and bone X-ray was 38%. False positive bone scans were seen in 12 cases(16%), which include fracture due to thoracotomy and trauma, degenerative bone disease, and bifid rib. Accumulation of bone seeking agent in soft tissue were seen in 13 cases(18%), which included primary tumor, enlarged cervical lymph node, pleural effusion, ascites and pleural thickening. Bone scans should be carefully interpreted in detecting bone metastasis in primary malignancy, because of the 16% false positivity and 18% soft tissue accumulation rate. It is very important to note that the correlation between bone pain and positive findings of bone scans was only 38%

  10. Bone scanning in the evaluation of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kun Sik; Zeon, Seok Kil; Lee, Hee Jung; Song, Hong Suk [School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    We studied the diagnostic significance of bone scan in evaluation of bone metastasis by lung cancer, prevalence rate, and the causes of false positive bone scan and soft tissue accumulation of bone seeking agent. This subject include 73 lung cancer patients with bone scan, We analyzed the frequency of the metastasis, its distribution and configuration, and any relationship between bone pain and corresponding region on bone scan. The positive findings of bone scans were compared with simple X-ray film, CT, MRI and other diagnostic modalities. The false positive bone scan and the soft tissue accumulation of bone seeking agent were analyzed. The positive findings on bone scan were noted in 26 cases(36%) and they were coexistent with bone pain in 30%. The correspondence between bone scan and bone X-ray was 38%. False positive bone scans were seen in 12 cases(16%), which include fracture due to thoracotomy and trauma, degenerative bone disease, and bifid rib. Accumulation of bone seeking agent in soft tissue were seen in 13 cases(18%), which included primary tumor, enlarged cervical lymph node, pleural effusion, ascites and pleural thickening. Bone scans should be carefully interpreted in detecting bone metastasis in primary malignancy, because of the 16% false positivity and 18% soft tissue accumulation rate. It is very important to note that the correlation between bone pain and positive findings of bone scans was only 38%.

  11. Acute exacerbation of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia complicated by lung cancer, caused by treatment for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Kiyoshi; Okano, Tetsuya; Yoshimura, Akinobu

    1999-01-01

    In 64 patients with lung cancer complicated by idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), we retrospectively studied the outcome of the treatment for lung cancer and clinical features of acute exacerbation of IIP after treatment for lung cancer. The incidence of acute exacerbation of IIP was 8.7% (2 of 23 patients) after anticancer chemotherapy, 14.3% (2 of 14 patients) after operation, and 25% (2 of 8 patients) after radiation therapy. Serum C-reactive protein level was significantly higher in the patients who developed acute exacerbation of IIP than in those who did not (CRP=5.12±2.27, 2.26±2.29, respectively). On the contrary, there were no differences in the levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase, white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, PaO 2 , and %VC between the two groups. Pathologic presentations of surgically resected lungs did not show significant differences in the activity of IIP between the two groups. Five of 6 patients who developed acute exacerbation of IIP died within 3 months after the treatment for lung cancer. We conclude that we should evaluate the activity of IIP more precisely using new markers for activity of IIP and on that basis select patients to be treated for lung cancer. (author)

  12. Disseminated lung cancer presenting as a rectal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noergaard, Mia M; Stamp, Inger M H; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally, and approximately 50% had metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. A rectal mass and unintended weight loss are common manifestations of rectal cancer. Our case presented with a rectal mass, but workup revealed...... a metastatic lesion from lung cancer. Lung cancer metastases to the lower gastrointestinal tract imply reduced survival compared with the already poor mean survival of stage IV lung cancer. Despite relevant therapy, the patient died 5 months after referral....

  13. PPARGC1A is upregulated and facilitates lung cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Dong; Feng, Qing-Chuan; Qi, Yu; Cui, Guanghui; Zhao, Song

    2017-10-15

    Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality, with metastatic progression remaining the single largest cause of lung cancer mortality. Hence it is imperative to determine reliable biomarkers for lung cancer prognosis. We performed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis to explore epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducers that regulate EMT process in three patients with advanced lung cancer disease. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARGC1A) was uniformly the topmost overexpressed gene in all three human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient samples. Further evaluation in human normal lung and metastatic lung cancer cell lines revealed that the expression of PPARGC1A was upregulated in metastatic lung cancer cell lines. Metagenomic analysis revealed direct correlation among PPARGC1A, zinc-finger transcription factor snail homolog 1 (SNAI1), and metastatic lung disease. Upregulation of PPARGC1A transcript expression was independent of a differential upregulation of the upstream AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) activation or steady state expression of the silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1). Xenograft tail vein colonization assays proved that the high expression of PPARGC1A was a prerequisite for metastatic progression of lung cancer to brain. Our results indicate that PPARGC1A might be a potential biomarker for lung cancer prognosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Implementation and organization of lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    CT screening for lung cancer is now being implemented in the US and China on a widespread national scale but not in Europe so far. The review gives a status for the implementation process and the hurdles to overcome in the future. It also describes the guidelines and requirements for the structure...... and components of high quality CT screening programs. These are essential in order to achieve a successful program with the fewest possible harms and a possible mortality benefit like that documented in the American National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). In addition the importance of continued research in CT...

  15. Lack of ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 Cancer/Testis Antigen Expression in Lung and Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheswaran, Emeaga; Pedersen, Christina B; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    and antigenic properties, but the expression patterns of most of the more than 200 identified cancer/testis antigens in various cancers remain largely uncharacterized. In this study, we investigated the expression of the cancer/testis antigens ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 in lung and breast cancer, the two most...... frequent human cancers, with the purpose of providing novel therapeutic targets for these diseases. We used a set of previously uncharacterized antibodies against the cancer/testis antigens ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 to investigate their expression in a large panel of normal tissues as well as breast and lung...... cancers. Staining for the well-characterized MAGE-A proteins was included for comparison. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed previous mRNA analysis demonstrating that ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 proteins are confined to testis in normal individuals. Negative tissues included plancenta, which express many...

  16. Epithermal neutron beam adoption for lung and pancreatic cancer treatment by boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tetsuo; Fukushima, Yuji

    2001-01-01

    The depth-dose distributions were evaluated for possible treatment of both lung and pancreatic cancers using an epithermal neutron beam. The Monte Carlo Neutron Photon (MCNP) calculations showed that physical dose in tumors were 6 and 7 Gy/h, respectively, for lung and pancreas, attaining an epithermal neutron flux of 5 x 10 8 ncm -2 s -1 . The boron concentrations were assumed at 100 ppm and 30 ppm, respectively, for lung and pancreas tumors and normal tissues contains 1/10 tumor concentrations. The dose ratios of tumor to normal tissue were 2.5 and 2.4, respectively, for lung and pancreas. The dose evaluation suggests that BNCT using an epithermal neutron beam could be applied for both lung and pancreatic cancer treatment. (author)

  17. Clinical value of 99Tcm-octreotide SPECT/CT in diagnostics of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaofang; Li Mei; Liu Yong; Li Ran; Xu Jie; Sun yongchang; Dai Haojie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of 99 Tc m -Octreotide SPECT-CT in the diagnosis of lung cancer. Methods: Sixty-five consecutive patients with suspected lung cancer received intravenous injection of 740 MBq 99 Tc m -Octreotide and additional SPECT images of the chest were performed at 4h post injection. The SPECT/CT images were interpreted separately. The tumor uptake of 99 Tc m -Octreotide was visually determined and then measured and expressed as the activity ratio of tumor to normal tissues (T/N). The differences between lung cancer and benign lung lesion and between SCLC and NSCLC, and between adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma were studied by statistical analysis. Moreover, the receiver operating characteristic ROC curves were plotted and the predicted probabilities and areas under the curve were calculated. Results: Fifty-one patients and fourteen patients in 65 cases were diagnosed as lung cancer and benign lung lesion by histopathological analysis, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 99 Tc m -Octreotide SPECT/CT in diagnosis of lung cancer were 92.2%, 85.7%, 95.9% and 75%, respectively. The area under ROC curve was 0.889 (P 99 Tc m -Octreotide SPECT/CT could play an important role in the diagnosis of lung cancer, and it may be useful for identifying SCLC and NSCLC. (authors)

  18. Lung cancer screening beyond low-dose computed tomography: the role of novel biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Naveed; Kumar, Rohit; Kavuru, Mani S

    2014-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common and lethal malignancy in the world. The landmark National lung screening trial (NLST) showed a 20% relative reduction in mortality in high-risk individuals with screening low-dose computed tomography. However, the poor specificity and low prevalence of lung cancer in the NLST provide major limitations to its widespread use. Furthermore, a lung nodule on CT scan requires a nuanced and individualized approach towards management. In this regard, advances in high through-put technology (molecular diagnostics, multi-gene chips, proteomics, and bronchoscopic techniques) have led to discovery of lung cancer biomarkers that have shown potential to complement the current screening standards. Early detection of lung cancer can be achieved by analysis of biomarkers from tissue samples within the respiratory tract such as sputum, saliva, nasal/bronchial airway epithelial cells and exhaled breath condensate or through peripheral biofluids such as blood, serum and urine. Autofluorescence bronchoscopy has been employed in research setting to identify pre-invasive lesions not identified on CT scan. Although these modalities are not yet commercially available in clinic setting, they will be available in the near future and clinicians who care for patients with lung cancer should be aware. In this review, we present up-to-date state of biomarker development, discuss their clinical relevance and predict their future role in lung cancer management.

  19. Lung cancer symptoms and pulse oximetry in the prognostic assessment of patients with lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada Cecilia M

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical oncologists continue to use performance status as a proxy for quality of life (QOL measures, as completion of QOL instruments is perceived as time consuming, may measure aspects of QOL not affected by cancer therapy, and interpretation may be unclear. The pulse oximeter is widely used in clinical practice to predict cardiopulmonary morbidity after lung resection in cancer patients, but little is known on its role outside the surgical setting. We evaluated whether the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale and pulse oximetry may contribute to the evaluation of lung cancer patients who received standard anticancer therapy. Methods We enrolled forty-one consecutive, newly diagnosed, patients with locally advanced or metastatic lung cancer in this study. We developed a survival model with the variables gender, age, histology, clinical stage, Karnofsky performance status, wasting, LCSS symptom scores, average symptom burden index, and pulse oximetry (SpO2. Results Patient and observer-rated scores were correlated, except for the fatigue subscale. The median SpO2 was 95% (range: 86 to 98, was unrelated to symptom scores, and was weakly correlated with observer cough scores. In a multivariate survival model, SpO2 > 90% and patient scores on the LCSS appetite and fatigue subscales were independent predictors of survival. Conclusion LCSS fatigue and appetite rating, and pulse oximetry should be studied further as prognostic factors in lung cancer patients.

  20. Testing lung cancer drugs and therapies in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cancer Institute (NCI) investigators have designed a genetically engineered mouse for use in the study of human lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SCC is a type of non-small cell lung carcinoma, one of the most common types of lung cancer, with

  1. Lung cancer: Current status and prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountain, C.F.; Carr, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 32 papers. Some of the titles are: Activation of cellular ras genes in human neoplasms; The valve of definitive radiation therapy of unresectable squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma of the lung; Current concepts of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for small cell lung cancer, and Current status of immunotherapy for lung cancer

  2. Choroidal Metastases as the Initial Presentation of Lung Cancer: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the case of a 49-year-old female patient who presented with ... nonsmall cell carcinoma of the right lung, which had multiple distant metastases. KEYWORDS: ... metastasis in lung cancer is very low, reported to be ... Kolkata, West Bengal, India. E-mail: .... awareness regarding this rare presentation of lung cancer.

  3. iASPP is over-expressed in human non-small cell lung cancer and regulates the proliferation of lung cancer cells through a p53 associated pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jinfeng; Xie, Fei; Zhang, Lijian; Jiang, Wen G

    2010-01-01

    iASPP is a key inhibitor of tumour suppressor p53 and is found to be up-regulated in certain malignant conditions. The present study investigated the expression of iASPP in clinical lung cancer, a leading cancer type in the world, and the biological impact of this molecule on lung cancer cells. iASPP protein levels in lung cancer tissues were evaluated using an immunohistochemical method. In vitro, iASPP gene expression was suppressed with a lentvirus-mediated shRNA method and the biological impact after knocking down iASSP on lung cancer cell lines was investigated in connection with the p53 expression status. We showed here that the expression of iASPP was significantly higher in lung cancer tissues compared with the adjacent normal tissues. iASPP shRNA treatment resulted in a down-regulation of iASPP in lung cancer cells. There was a subsequent reduction of cell proliferation of the two lung tumour cell lines A459 and 95D both of which had wild-type p53 expression. In contrast, reduction of iASPP in H1229 cells, a cell with little p53 expression, had no impact on its growth rate. iASPP regulates the proliferation and motility of lung cancer cells. This effect is intimately associated with the p53 pathway. Together with the pattern of the over-expression in clinical lung cancers, it is concluded that iASPP plays an pivotal role in the progression of lung cancer and is a potential target for lung cancer therapy

  4. The detection, diagnosis and therapy of human lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Cancergram covers clinical aspects of cancers of the lung and tracheo-bronchial tree, i.e., the lower respiratory tract. This includes primary lung cancer in both early and advanced disease status. The topic includes clinically relevant aspects of the prevention, detection, diagnosis, evaluation, and therapy of lung cancer. Certain aspects of metastatic lung disease treatment or therapy which involve aspects of interest to primary lung cancer are included. With certain exceptions, general pre-clinical or animal studies not directly related to the primary human disease are excluded

  5. High affective risk perception is associated with more lung cancer-specific distress in CT screening for lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunge, Eveline M.; van den Bergh, Karien A. M.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; van Klaveren, Rob J.; de Koning, Harry J.

    2008-01-01

    Screening for cancer can cause distress. People who perceive their risk of cancer as high may be more vulnerable to distress. This study evaluated whether participants of a lung cancer Computed Tomography (CT) screening trial with a high affective risk perception of developing lung cancer had a

  6. Lung cancer risks in the vicinity of uranium tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.; Sandquist, G.M.

    1982-04-01

    Lung cancer mortality data have been assembled for many counties of interest to the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP). The counties generally either contain UMTRAP tailings sites or are adjacent to them. The lung cancer rates of nearly all counties are less than the US average rate. In addition, some of the many factors associated with lung cancer are identified as are cancer risk estimators for radon daughters. 17 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  7. Identification of Gene Biomarkers for Distinguishing Small-Cell Lung Cancer from Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Using a Network-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Long

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer consists of two main subtypes: small-cell lung cancer (SCLC and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC that are classified according to their physiological phenotypes. In this study, we have developed a network-based approach to identify molecular biomarkers that can distinguish SCLC from NSCLC. By identifying positive and negative coexpression gene pairs in normal lung tissues, SCLC, or NSCLC samples and using functional association information from the STRING network, we first construct a lung cancer-specific gene association network. From the network, we obtain gene modules in which genes are highly functionally associated with each other and are either positively or negatively coexpressed in the three conditions. Then, we identify gene modules that not only are differentially expressed between cancer and normal samples, but also show distinctive expression patterns between SCLC and NSCLC. Finally, we select genes inside those modules with discriminating coexpression patterns between the two lung cancer subtypes and predict them as candidate biomarkers that are of diagnostic use.

  8. Esophagus and contralateral lung-sparing IMRT for locally advanced lung cancer in the community hospital setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny eKao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The optimal technique for performing lung IMRT remains poorly defined. We hypothesize that improved dose distributions associated with normal tissue sparing IMRT can allow for safe dose escalation resulting in decreased acute and late toxicity. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 82 consecutive lung cancer patients treated with curative intent from 1/10 to 9/14. From 1/10 to 4/12, 44 patients were treated with the community standard of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy or IMRT without specific esophagus or contralateral lung constraints (standard RT. From 5/12 to 9/14, 38 patients were treated with normal tissue-sparing IMRT with selective sparing of contralateral lung and esophagus. The study endpoints were dosimetry, toxicity and overall survival.Results: Despite higher mean prescribed radiation doses in the normal tissue-sparing IMRT cohort (64.5 Gy vs. 60.8 Gy, p=0.04, patients treated with normal tissue-sparing IMRT had significantly lower lung V20, V10, V5, mean lung, maximum esophagus and mean esophagus doses compared to patients treated with standard RT (p≤0.001. Patients in the normal tissue-sparing IMRT group had reduced acute grade ≥3 esophagitis (0% vs. 11%, p<0.001, acute grade ≥2 weight loss (2% vs. 16%, p=0.04, late grade ≥2 pneumonitis (7% vs. 21%, p=0.02. The 2-year overall survival was 52% with normal tissue-sparing IMRT arm compared to 28% for standard RT (p=0.015.Conclusion: These data provide proof of principle that suboptimal radiation dose distributions are associated with significant acute and late lung and esophageal toxicity that may result in hospitalization or even premature mortality. Strict attention to contralateral lung and esophageal dose volume constraints are feasible in the community hospital setting without sacrificing disease control.

  9. Fluorescence photodiagnosis of early stage lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.; Sakai, H.; Konaka, C.; Okunaka, T.; Furukawa, K.; Saito, Y.; Aizawa, K.; Hayata, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Sputum cytology examination is the most effective method to detect early stage central type squamous cell carcinoma. As sputum-positive early stage lung cancer usually does not show any abnormal findings on chest X-ray film, fiberoptic bronchoscopy is subsequently performed for localization. However, sometimes cases do not show any abnormal findings of cancer endoscopically because they are very early stage cases. For the purpose of localization of invisible lesions the photodynamic reaction was employed in this study. Photodynamic reaction is achieved by transfer of energy of an excited photo-sensitizer induced by photoradiation of light. This phenomenon was already recognized in the beginning of this century. Study of tumor localization of the bronchial tree using hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) and a mercury arc lamp was first performed in the Mayo Clinic in 1960s. In 1978, krypton laser was used first as a light source by Profio and Doiron. Authors have been doing research on early localization of such endoscopically occult early lung cancer since 1978. They recently developed an image processing system using an excimer dye laser for early localization of lung cancer. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. Uranium miner lung cancer study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccomanno, G.

    1986-06-01

    This study on uranium miners was started in 1957 and extended through June 30, 1986. It consisted of the routine screening of sputum from uranium miners of the Colorado Plateau, and collection of surgical and autopsy material from uranium miners who developed lung cancer. The projects resulted in: (1) Proof, for the first time, that cancer takes from 10 to 15 years to develop from the maximum accumulated carcinogenic insult and can be demonstrated through progressive cellular changes of the bronchial tree; (2) Development of a method for preserving, concentrating, and processing sputum samples. This is known as the Saccomanno Technique, and is used worldwide in diagnosing lung cancer; (3) Publication of the 1st and 2nd editions of a full-color textbook entitled ''Diagnostic Pulmonary Cytology;'' (4) Presentation of conclusive data on the effects of cigarette smoking and alpha progeny radiation on uranium miners, and information on safe radiation exposure levels; (5) Development of a brush-wash tube for collecting, concentrating, and preparing bronchial brushings and washings; (6) Development of cytological criteria which has improved sensitivity from 30% to about 60%; (7) Development of criteria for cytologic identification of carcinoma in situ, making it possible to diagnose lung cancer before it can be detected on chest x-ray

  11. Anti-Podocalyxin Monoclonal Antibody 47-mG2a Detects Lung Cancers by Immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinji; Itai, Shunsuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Kato, Yukinari

    2018-04-01

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the world. Regardless of the advances in lung cancer treatments, the prognosis is still poor. Podocalyxin (PODXL) is a highly glycosylated type I transmembrane protein that is expressed in normal tissues, including the heart, pancreas, and breast. It is also found and used as a diagnostic marker in many cancers, such as renal, brain, breast, oral, and lung cancers. We previously developed specific and sensitive anti-PODXL monoclonal antibodies, PcMab-47 (mouse IgG 1 , kappa) and its mouse IgG 2a -type (47-mG 2a ), both of which were suitable for immunohistochemical analyses of oral cancers. In this study, we investigated the utility of PcMab-47 and 47-mG 2a for the immunohistochemical analyses of lung cancers. PcMab-47 stained 51/70 (72.9%) cases of lung cancer, whereas 47-mG 2a stained 59/70 (84.3%) cases, indicating that the latter antibody is more sensitive and is useful for detecting PODXL in lung cancers.

  12. Interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Yimy F; Restrepo, Jose Felix; Iglesias, Antonio; Ojeda, Paulina; Matiz, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    An interstitial lung disease (ILD) belongs to a group of diffuse parenchyma lung diseases it should be differentiated from other pathologies among those are idiopathic and ILD associated to connective tissue diseases (CTD) New concepts have been developed in the last years and they have been classified in seven defined subgroups. It has been described the association of each one of these subgroups with CTD. Natural history and other aspects of its treatment is not known completely .For complete diagnose it is required clinical, image and histopathologic approaches. The biopsy lung plays an essential role. It is important to promote and to stimulate the subclasification of each subgroup with the purpose of knowing their natural history directing the treatment and to improve their outcome

  13. Long-term exposure to hypoxia inhibits tumor progression of lung cancer in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lunyin; Hales, Charles A

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia has been identified as a major negative factor for tumor progression in clinical observations and in animal studies. However, the precise role of hypoxia in tumor progression has not been fully explained. In this study, we extensively investigated the effect of long-term exposure to hypoxia on tumor progression in vivo. Rats bearing transplanted tumors consisting of A549 human lung cancer cells (lung cancer tumor) were exposed to hypoxia for different durations and different levels of oxygen. The tumor growth and metastasis were evaluated. We also treated A549 lung cancer cells (A549 cells) with chronic hypoxia and then implanted the hypoxia-pretreated cancer cells into mice. The effect of exposure to hypoxia on metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice was also investigated. We found that long-term exposure to hypoxia a) significantly inhibited lung cancer tumor growth in xenograft and orthotopic models in rats, b) significantly reduced lymphatic metastasis of the lung cancer in rats and decreased lung metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice, c) reduced lung cancer cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in vitro, d) decreased growth of the tumors from hypoxia-pretreated A549 cells, e) decreased Na + -K + ATPase α1 expression in hypoxic lung cancer tumors, and f) increased expression of hypoxia inducible factors (HIF1α and HIF2α) but decreased microvessel density in the lung cancer tumors. In contrast to lung cancer, the growth of tumor from HCT116 human colon cancer cells (colon cancer tumor) was a) significantly enhanced in the same hypoxia conditions, accompanied by b) no significant change in expression of Na + -K + ATPase α1, c) increased HIF1α expression (no HIF2α was detected) and d) increased microvessel density in the tumor tissues. This study demonstrated that long-term exposure to hypoxia repressed tumor progression of the lung cancer from A549 cells and that decreased expression of Na + -K + ATPase was involved in hypoxic

  14. Lung cancer in Hodgkin's disease: association with previous radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    List, A.F.; Doll, D.C.; Greco, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    Seven cases of lung cancer were observed in patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) since 1970. The risk ratio for the development of lung cancer among HD patients was 5.6 times that expected in the general population. The pertinent clinical data from these patients are described and compared to 28 additional patients reported from other institutions. Small-cell lung cancer represented the predominant histologic type of lung cancer encountered in both smoking and nonsmoking patients with HD, accounting for 42% of cases overall and greater than 55% of cases reported in reviews of second malignancies. Tobacco use was noted in only 53% of patients. Twenty-eight (94%) of 30 patients developing metachronous lung cancer received supradiaphragmatic irradiation as primary therapy for HD. Nineteen (68%) of these patients received subsequent chemotherapy salvage. The median age at diagnosis of HD and lung cancer was 39 and 45 years, respectively. The interval between diagnosis of HD and metachronous lung cancer averaged seven years but appeared to vary inversely with age. HD patients treated with supradiaphragmatic irradiation or combined modality therapy may be at increased risk for developing lung cancer. The high frequency of in-field malignancies that the authors observed and the prevalence of small-cell lung cancer in both smoking and nonsmoking patients suggests that chest irradiation may influence the development of metachronous lung cancer in these patients. The finding of a mean latent interval in excess of seven years emphasizes the need for close long-term observation

  15. Factors influencing the decline in lung density in a Danish lung cancer screening cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher B.; Dirksen, Asger; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer screening trials provide an opportunity to study the natural history of emphysema by using CT lung density as a surrogate parameter.In the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 2,052 participants were included. At screening rounds, smoking habits were recorded and spirometry was performed....... CT lung density was measured as the volume-adjusted 15th percentile density (PD15). A mixed effects model was used with former smoking males with...

  16. Epidemiological study on lung cancer of uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Liyun; Gu Juanjuan

    1994-01-01

    Lung cancer among 13360 male workers of 5 uranium mines were investigated. During the period of observation (Jan, 1971-Dec. 1985) 35 lung cancers were registered; among them 24 were in exposed group and 11 in control group. Standard mortality of lung cancer for these two groups were 21.42·10 -5 and 15.94·10 -5 , respectively. SMR were 1.83 (exposed group) and 1.44 (control group) (P<0.01). The average latent period of lung cancer in exposed group was 17.5 years, and the average cumulative exposure dose to radon daughters was 168 WLM. The average age of workers dead of lung cancer was 47.83 years. The excess RR coefficient of lung cancer was 1.07%/WLM. SMR increased with increasing cumulative exposure dose to radon daughters. The adjusted mortality of long cancer of smokers in exposed group was obviously higher than that of nonsmokers

  17. Overexpression of K-p21Ras play a prominent role in lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng-bo; Zhou, Xin-liang; Yang, Ju-lun

    2018-06-01

    The proto-oncogene ras product, p21Ras, has been found overexpression in many human tumors. However, the subtypes of overexpressed p21Ras still remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate overexpressed isoforms of p21Ras and their roles in the progress of lung cancer. Method: The expression of total p21Ras in normal lung tissues and lung cancers was determined by immunohistochemically staining with monoclonal antibody (Mab) KGHR-1 which could recognize and broad spectrum reaction with the (K/H/N) ras protein. Then, the isoforms of p21Ras was examined by specific Mab for each p21Ras subtypes. Results: Low expression of total p21Ras was found in 26.67% (8/30) of normal lung tissues, and 81.31% (87/107) of adenocarcinoma harbored overexpressed total p21Ras. Besides, 70.00% (35/50) of squamous cell carcinoma were detected overexpressed total p21Ras. In addition, 122 lung cancer tissues from overexpression of total p21Ras protein were selected to detect the expression of each subtype. And all the 122 lung cancer tissues were K-p21Ras overexpression. Moreover, there was a statistical significance difference between the expression level of total p21Ras and differentiation, and the same results were observed between the expression level of total p21Ras and lymph node metastasis (P0.05). Conclusions: Overexpression of K-p21Ras plays a prominent role in the progress of lung cancer and it is suggested that the p21Ras could serve as a promising treatment target in lung cancer.

  18. Combining deep learning and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging for automated differential diagnosis of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Sheng; Xu, Xiaoyun; Li, Jiasong; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is capable of providing cellular-level images and resolving pathologically related features on human lung tissues. However, conventional means of analyzing CARS images requires extensive image processing, feature engineering, and human intervention. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a deep learning algorithm to automatically differentiate normal and cancerous lung tissue images acquired by CARS. We leverage the features learned by pretrained deep neural networks and retrain the model using CARS images as the input. We achieve 89.2% accuracy in classifying normal, small-cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma lung images. This computational method is a step toward on-the-spot diagnosis of lung cancer and can be further strengthened by the efforts aimed at miniaturizing the CARS technique for fiber-based microendoscopic imaging.

  19. Chapter 7: Description of miscan-lung, the erasmus mc lung cancer microsimulation model for evaluating cancer control interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.W. Schultz (Frank); R. Boer (Rob); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe MISCAN-lung model was designed to simulate population trends in lung cancer (LC) for comprehensive surveillance of the disease, to relate past exposure to risk factors to (observed) LC incidence and mortality, and to estimate the impact of cancer-control interventions. MISCAN-lung

  20. Characterizing the cancer genome in lung adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Barbara A.; Woo, Michele S.; Getz, Gad; Perner, Sven; Ding, Li; Beroukhim, Rameen; Lin, William M.; Province, Michael A.; Kraja, Aldi; Johnson, Laura A.; Shah, Kinjal; Sato, Mitsuo; Thomas, Roman K.; Barletta, Justine A.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Broderick, Stephen; Chang, Andrew C.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Chirieac, Lucian R.; Cho, Jeonghee; Fujii, Yoshitaka; Gazdar, Adi F.; Giordano, Thomas; Greulich, Heidi; Hanna, Megan; Johnson, Bruce E.; Kris, Mark G.; Lash, Alex; Lin, Ling; Lindeman, Neal; Mardis, Elaine R.; McPherson, John D.; Minna, John D.; Morgan, Margaret B.; Nadel, Mark; Orringer, Mark B.; Osborne, John R.; Ozenberger, Brad; Ramos, Alex H.; Robinson, James; Roth, Jack A.; Rusch, Valerie; Sasaki, Hidefumi; Shepherd, Frances; Sougnez, Carrie; Spitz, Margaret R.; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Twomey, David; Verhaak, Roel G. W.; Weinstock, George M.; Wheeler, David A.; Winckler, Wendy; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Yu, Soyoung; Zakowski, Maureen F.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Beer, David G.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Watson, Mark A.; Garraway, Levi A.; Ladanyi, Marc; Travis, William D.; Pao, William; Rubin, Mark A.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Varmus, Harold E.; Wilson, Richard K.; Lander, Eric S.; Meyerson, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Somatic alterations in cellular DNA underlie almost all human cancers1. The prospect of targeted therapies2 and the development of high-resolution, genome-wide approaches3–8 are now spurring systematic efforts to characterize cancer genomes. Here we report a large-scale project to characterize copy-number alterations in primary lung adenocarcinomas. By analysis of a large collection of tumors (n = 371) using dense single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, we identify a total of 57 significantly recurrent events. We find that 26 of 39 autosomal chromosome arms show consistent large-scale copy-number gain or loss, of which only a handful have been linked to a specific gene. We also identify 31 recurrent focal events, including 24 amplifications and 7 homozygous deletions. Only six of these focal events are currently associated with known mutations in lung carcinomas. The most common event, amplification of chromosome 14q13.3, is found in ~12% of samples. On the basis of genomic and functional analyses, we identify NKX2-1 (NK2 homeobox 1, also called TITF1), which lies in the minimal 14q13.3 amplification interval and encodes a lineage-specific transcription factor, as a novel candidate proto-oncogene involved in a significant fraction of lung adenocarcinomas. More generally, our results indicate that many of the genes that are involved in lung adenocarcinoma remain to be discovered. PMID:17982442

  1. Hypo fractionated radiotherapy in advanced lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Carvalho, Heloisa de; Saito, Newton Heitetsu; Gomes, Herbeni Cardoso; Aguilar, Patricia Bailao; Nadalin, Wladimir

    1996-01-01

    Patients with advanced lung cancers have bad prognosis and, many times, are submitted to prolonged and not always efficient treatments. We present a study where 51 patients were treated with hypo fractionated radiotherapy, based on two distinct schemes, according to the performance status and social conditions of each patient: continuous treatment: 30 Gy, 10 fractions of 3 Gy, 5 days/week (37 cases); weekly treatment: 30 Gy, 6 fractions of 5 Gy, once a week (14 cases). Symptoms relief and impact in survival were evaluated. In both groups, we observed improvement of symptoms in about 70% of the occurrences with a medium survival of three months. We conclude that hypo fractionation is an effective palliative treatment for lung cancers, in patients with short life-expectancy and must be considered as a option in advanced cases, in patients with short life-expectancy that deserve some kind of treatment. (author). 37 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Small cell lung cancer: chemo- and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drings, P.

    1992-01-01

    Small-Cell Lung Cancer - Chemo- and Radiotherapy: Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) should be regarded as a systematic disease for which systematic therapy, i.e. chemotherapy, is considered as the cornerstone of treatment. Combination chemotherapy consisting of 2 or mostly 3 active drugs, given at an adequate dose, should be used. Thoracic radiation therapy promises both survival and local-regional control benefits to patients though its optimal role remains to be definitively established. The results of treatment have reached a plateau with a remission rate of up to 90% in stage 'limited disease' and 60% in stage 'extensive disease'. But considering long-term results diseasefree survival and cure only seem possible in 5-10% of patients with limited disease. (orig.) [de

  3. The mitochondrial activation of silicate and its role in silicosis, black lung disease and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadler, H I; Cook, G L

    1979-01-01

    Silicate substitutes for phosphate in the transitory uncoupling of rat liver mitochondria induced by hydrazine when beta-hydroxy-butyrate is the substrate. Uncoupling is blocked by rutamycin. Just as in the case when phosphate is combined with hydrazine, ATP, ADP, PPi, and Mg++ protect against hydrazine when silicate is combined with hydrazine. A high level of ADP in the absence of added phosphate, but in the presence of silicate, induces a pseudo state three of the mitochondria. Silicate, like sulfate and arsenate which have been reported previously, is activated by the enzymes which mediate oxidative phosphorylation. These results serve to explain a role for silicate in silicosis, black lung disease, and cancer. In addition, since there is suggestive evidence in the literature that lung tissue solubilizes asbestos fibers, these results not only expand the confluence between oxidative phosphorylation and chemical carcinogenesis but are correlated with the synergistic carcinogenicity of asbestos and smoking observed by epidemiologists.

  4. Lung Adenocarcinomas and Lung Cancer Cell Lines Show Association of MMP-1 Expression With STAT3 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Schütz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 is constitutively activated in the majority of lung cancer. This study aims at defining connections between STAT3 function and the malignant properties of non–small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC cells. To address possible mechanisms by which STAT3 influences invasiveness, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 was analyzed and correlated with the STAT3 activity status. Studies on both surgical biopsies and on lung cancer cell lines revealed a coincidence of STAT3 activation and strong expression of MMP-1. MMP-1 and tyrosine-phosphorylated activated STAT3 were found co-localized in cancer tissues, most pronounced in tumor fronts, and in particular in adenocarcinomas. STAT3 activity was constitutive, although to different degrees, in the lung cancer cell lines investigated. Three cell lines (BEN, KNS62, and A549 were identified in which STAT3 activitation was inducible by Interleukin-6 (IL-6. In A549 cells, STAT3 activity enhanced the level of MMP-1 mRNA and stimulated transcription from the MMP-1 promoter in IL-6–stimulated A549 cells. STAT3 specificity of this effect was confirmed by STAT3 knockdown through RNA interference. Our results link aberrant activity of STAT3 in lung cancer cells to malignant tumor progression through up-regulation of expression of invasiveness-associated MMPs.

  5. Current questions in HIV-associated lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherba, Marina; Shuter, Jonathan; Haigentz, Missak

    2013-09-01

    In this review, we explore current questions regarding risk factors contributing to frequent and early onset of lung cancer among populations with HIV infection, treatment, and outcomes of lung cancer in HIV-infected patients as well as challenges in a newly evolving era of lung cancer screening. Lung cancer, seen in three-fold excess in HIV-infected populations, has become the most common non-AIDS defining malignancy in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. HIV-associated lung cancer appears to be associated with young age at diagnosis, cigarette smoking, advanced stage at presentation, and a more aggressive clinical course. There is no unified explanation for these observations, and aside from traditional risk factors, HIV-related immunosuppression and biological differences might play a role. In addition to smoking cessation interventions, screening and early cancer detection in HIV-infected populations are of high clinical importance, although evidence supporting lung cancer screening in this particularly high-risk subset is currently lacking, as are prospective studies of lung cancer therapy. There is an urgent need for prospective clinical trials in HIV-associated lung cancer to improve understanding of lung cancer pathogenesis and to optimize patient care. Several clinical trials are in progress to address questions in cancer biology, screening, and treatment for this significant cause of mortality in persons with HIV infection.

  6. Metabolic Signaling and Therapy of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by...which makes them attractive therapeutic targets. However, the development of targeted agents in lung cancer is still in its infancy, despite the...notion that metabolites can act as signaling molecules in distant metabolic pathways is gaining significant attentionand support (Figure 1A). Some of the

  7. Imaging and screening in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giaj Levra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the main cause of death for neoplasia in the world. Hence it’s growing the necessity to investigate screening tests to detect tumoral lesions at the early stages: several trials have been performed to establish the best method, target and frequence of the screening to offer. CT, X-ray, PET, sputum citology and CAD software are here analyzed, together with the associated statistics and bias.

  8. A case of squamous cell lung cancer after treating with radiation for small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toshinari; Ide, Hiroshi; Siomi, Katsuhiko; Nakamura, Yukinobu; Tada, Shinya; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Kido, Masamitsu

    1999-01-01

    A 77-year-old man was admitted due to an abnormal shadow on a chest X-ray film in September 1993. Small cell lung cancer was diagnosed by transbronchial lung biopsy of left S 3 . Because of his pulmonary and renal dysfunction, he received only 40 Gy irradiation alone, and the tumor shadow disappeared. After 38 months' observation, a new nodular shadow was detected in the left upper lung field in March 1997. A tumor was found in left B 3 by bronchoscopy, and biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma. Because of his advanced age and hypoxia, he has had no active treatment. This was a rare case of small cell lung cancer with long term survival, treated only by radiation, in which a different histologic type of carcinoma appeared in the same radiation field. (author)

  9. Czech studies of lung cancer and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    2002-01-01

    According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, there is a significant evidence to classify radon as a carcinogen. Using extrapolations from occupational studies, it can be shown that for some countries environmental exposure to radon is the second most important cause of lung cancer in the general population after cigarette smoking. Czech studies among uranium miners, established in 1970 by Josef Sevc, and in the general population aim to contribute to knowledge on the risk from radon, particularly by evaluating temporal factors and interaction of radon exposure and smoking

  10. [Lung Cancer as an Occupational Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Woitowitz, H-J

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequently encountered cancer types. According to the latest WHO data, about 10 % of this disease are due to occupational exposure to cancerogens. Asbestos is still the number one carcinogen. Further frequent causes include quarz and ionizing radiation (uranium mining). Probable causes of the disease can be identified only with the help of detailed occupational history taken by a medical specialist and qualified exposure assessment. Without clarifying the cause of the disease, there is neither a correct insurance procedure nor compensation for the victim, and furthermore, required preventive measures cannot be initiated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Expression and promoter DNA methylation of MLH1 in colorectal cancer and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunxia; Chen, Yuan; Petersen, Iver

    2017-04-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation is a common molecular feature in human cancer. The aims of this study were to analyze the methylation status of MLH1, one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes, in human colorectal and lung cancer and to evaluate its clinical relevance. The expression of MLH1 was analyzed in 8 colorectal cancer (CRC) and 8 lung cancer cell lines by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting. The MLH1 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays including 121 primary CRC and 90 lung cancer patient samples. In cancer cell lines, the methylation status of MLH1 promoter and exon 2 was investigated by bisulfite sequencing (BS). Methylation-specific-PCR (MSP) was used to evaluate methylation status of MLH1. The expression of MLH1 mRNA was detected in 8 CRC cell lines as well as normal colonic fibroblast cells CCD-33Co. At protein levels, MLH1 was lost in one CRC cell line HCT-116 and normal cells CCD-33Co. No methylation was found in the promoter and exon 2 of MLH1 in CRC cell lines. MLH1 was expressed in 8 lung cancer cell lines at both mRNA and protein levels. Compared to cancer cells, normal bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) had lower expression of MLH1 protein. In primary CRC, 54.5% of cases exhibited positive staining, while 47.8% of lung tumors were positive for MLH1 protein. MSP analysis showed that 58 out of 92 (63.0%) CRC and 41 out of 73 (56.2%) lung cancer exhibited MLH1 methylation. In CRC, the MLH1 methylation was significantly associated with tumor invasion in veins (P=0.012). However, no significant links were found between MLH1 expression and promoter methylation in both tumor entities. MLH1 methylation is a frequent molecular event in CRC and lung cancer patients. In CRC, methylation of MLH1 could be linked to vascular invasiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Silica and lung cancer: a controversial issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairon, J C; Brochard, P; Jaurand, M C; Bignon, J

    1991-06-01

    The role of crystalline silica in lung cancer has long been the subject of controversy. In this article, we review the main experimental and epidemiological studies dealing with this problem. Some evidence for a genotoxic potential of crystalline silica has been obtained in the rare in vitro studies published to date. In vivo studies have shown that crystalline silica is carcinogenic in the rat; the tumour types appear to vary according to the route of administration. In addition, an association between carcinogenic and fibrogenic potency has been observed in various animal species exposed to crystalline silica. An excess of lung cancer related to occupational exposure to crystalline silica is reported in many epidemiological studies, regardless of the presence of silicosis. However, most of these studies are difficult to interpret because they do not correctly take into account associated carcinogens such as tobacco smoke and other occupational carcinogens. An excess of lung cancer is generally reported in studies based on silicosis registers. Overall, experimental and human studies suggest an association between exposure to crystalline silica and an excess of pulmonary malignancies. Although the data available are not sufficient to establish a clear-cut causal relationship in humans, an association between the onset of pneumoconiosis and pulmonary malignancies is probable. In contrast, experimental observations have given rise to a pathophysiological mechanism that might account for a putative carcinogenic potency of crystalline silica.

  13. [Right lung cancer with right aortic arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Noriyuki, T; Kuroda, Y; Kuranishi, F; Nakahara, M; Fukuda, T; Ishizaki, Y; Hotta, R; Akimoto, E; Mori, H

    2008-02-01

    An abnormal shadow was detected on chest X-ray mass screening in an asymptomatic 63-year-old man. The further examinations revealed the shadow to be primary lung cancer (Rt. S6. adenocarcinoma, cT2N0M0, c-stage IB) with right aortic arch. We used 3 dimentional-computed tomography (3D-CT) to assess an anatomical feature of vessels in detail. The right lower lobectomy and the dissection of medi astinal lymph nodes was performed. We confirmed no abnormal anatomy of pulmonary artery and vein at surgery, and it was possible to perform right lower lobectomy with the common procedure. Since lymph node was found by intraopetrative pathological examination, since no metastasis from interlobar to subcarinal lymph node was found, we did not perform dissection of upper mediastinal dissection, which was equivalent to ND2a lymph nodes dissection of the left lung cancer in General Rule for Clinical and Pathological Record of Lung Cancer. The patient with right aortic arch is known to have variant anatomy of other intrathoracic vessels occasionally. 3D-CT was quite useful in assessing anatomical feature, and enabled us to perform safe operation.

  14. CT screening for lung cancer. Update 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschke, C.I.; Yip, R.; Yankelevitz, D.F.

    2009-01-01

    Screening for a cancer should be considered when the cancer is significant in terms of incidence and mortality, treatment of early stage disease is better than treatment of late stage disease, and there is a screening regimen that provides for earlier diagnosis rather than later, symptom-prompted diagnosis. Lung cancer qualifies as it kills more people than any other cancer worldwide. In the United States it kills more people than colon, breast, and prostate cancer combined and more women than breast cancer. The fundamental concepts of screening are presented. Screening for a cancer is a repetitive process, starting with the baseline round followed by repeat rounds of screening at set intervals. The regimen of screening defines the initial diagnostic test and the sequence of tests to be performed leading to a rule-in diagnosis of the cancer. The regimen should provide lead time of the diagnosis of the cancer. The regimen for the first, baseline round may be different from the regimen for the repeat rounds as the former is inherently different from the subsequent repeat rounds. Baseline screening identifies a greater proportion of cancers with a longer latent (asymptomatic) phase than repeat screening, called length bias. Length bias exists for any screening program, regardless of the design of the study or the cancer. Repeat rounds of screening identify the same proportion of cancer diagnoses found in absence of screening for people having the same risk of the cancer and these repeat rounds of screening can be pooled. It is also a consequence of length bias that cancers found in repeat rounds are earlier in their latent phase than those of the baseline round, a less frequently mentioned consequence. Overdiagnosis bias, another bias of screening, can occur in two ways: a cancer' detected by the screening, pathologically proven, that is not life-threatening even when not resected and a genuine life-threatening cancer that is diagnosed and treated but the person dies

  15. Mechanical phenotyping of cells and extracellular matrix as grade and stage markers of lung tumor tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzetta, Valeria; Musella, Ida; Rapa, Ida; Volante, Marco; Netti, Paolo A; Fusco, Sabato

    2017-07-15

    The mechanical cross-talk between cells and the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) regulates the properties, functions and healthiness of the tissues. When this is disturbed it changes the mechanical state of the tissue components, singularly or together, and cancer, along with other diseases, may start and progress. However, the bi-univocal mechanical interplay between cells and the ECM is still not properly understood. In this study we show how a microrheology technique gives us the opportunity to evaluate the mechanics of cells and the ECM at the same time. The mechanical phenotyping was performed on the surgically removed tissues of 10 patients affected by adenocarcinoma of the lung. A correlation between the mechanics and the grade and stage of the tumor was reported and compared to the mechanical characteristics of the healthy tissue. Our findings suggest a sort of asymmetric modification of the mechanical properties of the cells and the extra-cellular matrix in the tumor, being the more compliant cell even though it resides in a stiffer matrix. Overall, the simultaneous mechanical characterization of the tissues constituents (cells and ECM) provided new support for diagnosis and offered alternative points of analysis for cancer mechanobiology. When the integrity of the mechanical cross-talk between cells and the extra-cellular matrix is disturbed cancer, along with other diseases, may initiate and progress. Here, we show how a new technique gives the opportunity to evaluate the mechanics of cells and the ECM at the same time. It was applied on surgically removed tissues of 10 patients affected by adenocarcinoma of the lung and a correlation between the mechanics and the grade and stage of the tumor was reported and compared to the mechanical characteristics of the healthy tissue. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lung Cancer Screening May Benefit Those at Highest Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    People at the highest risk for lung cancer, based on a risk model, may be more likely to benefit from screening with low-dose CT, a new analysis suggests. The study authors believe the findings may better define who should undergo lung cancer screening, as this Cancer Currents blog post explains.

  17. Death Concerns among Individuals Newly Diagnosed with Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Rebecca; Therrien, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Confronting the reality of death is an important challenge for individuals facing life-threatening illness such as lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death. Few studies, however, document the nature of death-related concerns in individuals newly diagnosed with lung cancer. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine unsolicited…

  18. Anthropometry and the risk of lung cancer in EPIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewi, Nikmah Utami; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Kampman, Ellen; Steffen, Annika; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Klinaki, Eleni; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Peeters, Petra H.; Vermeulen, Roel; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger Torhild; Huerta, José María; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María José; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, José Ramón; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mikael; Grankvist, Kjell; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Cross, Amanda J.; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Fanidi, Anouar; Muller, David; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.

    2016-01-01

    The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer,

  19. Anthropometry and the Risk of Lung Cancer in EPIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewi, Nikmah Utami; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Kampman, Ellen; Steffen, Annika; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Klinaki, Eleni; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Peeters, Petra H; Vermeulen, Roel; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Torhild Gram, Inger; Huerta, José María; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, José Ramón; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mikael; Grankvist, Kjell; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Cross, Amanda J; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Fanidi, Anouar; Muller, David; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2016-01-01

    The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer,

  20. Anthropometry and the risk of lung cancer in EPIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewi, Nikmah Utami; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Kampman, Ellen; Steffen, Annika; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Klinaki, Eleni; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Peeters, Petra H.; Vermeulen, Roel; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger Torhild; Huerta, José María; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María José; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, José Ramón; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mikael; Grankvist, Kjell; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Cross, Amanda J.; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Fanidi, Anouar; Muller, David; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. Bas

    2016-01-01

    The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer,

  1. Parity and risk of lung cancer in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Jessica K; Asomaning, Kofi; Kraft, Peter; Johnson, Bruce E; Lin, Xihong; Christiani, David C

    2010-03-01

    Patterns of lung cancer incidence suggest that gender-associated factors may influence lung cancer risk. Given the association of parity with risk of some women's cancers, the authors hypothesized that childbearing history may also be associated with lung cancer. Women enrolled in the Lung Cancer Susceptibility Study at Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, Massachusetts) between 1992 and 2004 (1,004 cases, 848 controls) were available for analysis of the association between parity and lung cancer risk. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After results were controlled for age and smoking history, women with at least 1 child had 0.71 times the odds of lung cancer as women without children (odds ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.52, 0.97). A significant linear trend was found: Lung cancer risk decreased with increasing numbers of children (P < 0.001). This inverse association was stronger in never smokers (P = 0.12) and was limited to women over age 50 years at diagnosis (P = 0.17). Age at first birth was not associated with risk. The authors observed a protective association between childbearing and lung cancer, adding to existing evidence that reproductive factors may moderate lung cancer risk in women.

  2. Nutrition habits, physical activity, and lung cancer: an authoritative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsokera, Alexandra; Kiagia, Maria; Saif, Muhammad W; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Syrigos, Kostas N

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Because of high incidence rates and low survival rates, it is important to study the risk factors that may help prevent the disease from developing. It has been well established that cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for lung cancer. Nonetheless it is likely that there are other modifiable risk factors that would assist in the prevention of lung cancer. Research on factors such as nutrition and physical activity and their influence on lung cancer has been carried out for nearly 3 decades. A systematic review in the MEDLINE database of published studies was conducted, focusing on systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and large prospective studies. The association between physical activity and lung cancer has been conflicting. Among the researched studies, 10 showed an inverse association, whereas 11 reported no association. A meta-analysis that was conducted from 1996 to October 2003 showed that leisure physical activity (LPA) prevents lung cancer. Data from 11 cohort and case-control studies showed an inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer. Evidence from case-control studies suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer, although several more recent studies have presented doubts about these findings. The possible association of physical activity, nutrition, and the risk of lung cancer development remains controversial. Further prospective studies should be conducted to determine the potential influence of these 2 risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Surgical management of non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamousa Ahmed

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgery plays a major role in the management of patients with lung cancer. Surgery is not only the main curative treatment modality in patients with early-stage lung cancer but it also has a significant role in the initial workup for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. This article describes the surgical management of patients with lung cancer. Surgical resection for lung cancer is still regarded as the most effective method for controlling the primary tumor, provided it is resectable for cure and the risks of the procedure are low. The 5-year survival rare following complete resection (R0 of a lung cancer is stage dependent [Table 1]. [1-3] Incomplete resection (R1, R2 rarely, if ever, cures the patient.

  4. Application of tissue mesodissection to molecular cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizman, David; Adey, Nils; Parry, Robert

    2015-02-01

    To demonstrate clinical application of a mesodissection platform that was developed to combine advantages of laser-based instrumentation with the speed/ease of manual dissection for automated dissection of tissue off standard glass slides. Genomic analysis for KRAS gene mutation was performed on formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) cancer patient tissue that was dissected using the mesodissection platform. Selected reaction monitoring proteomic analysis for quantitative Her2 protein expression was performed on FFPE patient tumour tissue dissected by a laser-based instrument and the MilliSect instrument. Genomic analysis demonstrates highly confident detection of KRAS mutation specifically in lung cancer cells and not the surrounding benign, non-tumour tissue. Proteomic analysis demonstrates Her2 quantitative protein expression in breast cancer cells dissected manually, by laser-based instrumentation and by MilliSect instrumentation (mesodissection). Slide-mounted tissue dissection is commonly performed using laser-based instruments or manually scraping tissue by scalpel. Here we demonstrate that the mesodissection platform as performed by the MilliSect instrument for tissue dissection is cost-effective; it functions comparably to laser-based dissection and which can be adopted into a clinical diagnostic workflow. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Lung dose and lung cancer risk by inhalation of radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1983-01-01

    The inhalation of short-lived radon daughters constitutes the most important occupational radiation exposure in mines, particularly in uranium mines. Among some groups of miners exposed in the past to relatively high radon levels, an excess lung cancer incidence has been observed. In addition to this occupational hazard, the observed radon levels in domestic houses indicate that the inhalation of short-lived radon daughters seems to be the most important component of the radiation exposure of the population from natural sources. For the quantification and judgment of the radiological impact by inhalation of radon daughters in mines as well as in houses, it is necessary to estimate the relationships between the inhaled activity or potential alpha (α) energy of these radionuclides, the dose to target tissues in the lung, and the possible associated lung cancer (LC) risk. It is the purpose of this paper to give a condensed review of our present knowledge in this field and to indicate the main gaps and uncertainties where future research seems necessary

  6. Late regional density changes of the lung after radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagane, Randi; Danielsen, Turi; Fossa, Sophie Dorothea; Lokkevik, Erik; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: To investigate density changes in lung tissue, 3-4 years after postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer, based on dose dependence and regional differences. Material and methods: Sixty-one breast cancer patients, who had received computed tomography (CT) based postoperative radiotherapy, were included. CT scans were performed 35-51 months after start of radiotherapy. Dose information and CT scans from before and after radiotherapy were geometrically aligned in order to analyse changes in air-filled fraction (derived from CT density) as a function of dose for different regions of the lung. Results: Dose-dependent reduction of the air-filled fraction was shown to vary between the different regions of the lung. For lung tissue receiving about 50 Gy, the largest reduction in air-filled fraction was found in the cranial part of the lung. An increased air-filled fraction was observed for lung tissue irradiated to doses below 20 Gy, indicating compensatory response. Conclusions: The treatment-induced change in whole-lung density is a weighted response, involving the different regions, the irradiated volumes, and dose levels to these volumes. Simplistic models may therefore not be appropriate for describing the whole-lung dose-volume-response relationship following inhomogeneous irradiation

  7. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G.; Efimova, Nataliya Y.; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B.

    2016-08-01

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  8. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G., E-mail: kng@cardio-tomsk.ru [Research Institute of Cardiology, Kievskaya Street 111a, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation); Efimova, Nataliya Y., E-mail: efimova@cardio-tomsk.ru; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B. [Research Institute of Cardiology, Kievskaya Street 111a, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  9. [Cancer cachexia and white adipose tissue browning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S T; Yang, H M

    2016-08-01

    Cancer cachexia occurs in a majority of advanced cancer patients. These patients with impaired physical function are unable to tolerance cancer treatment well and have a significantly reduced survival rate. Currently, there is no effective clinical treatment available for cancer cachexia, therefore, it is necessary to clarify the molecular mechanisms of cancer cachexia, moreover, new therapeutic targets for cancer cachexia treatment are urgently needed. Very recent studies suggest that, during cancer cachexia, white adipose tissue undergo a 'browning' process, resulting in increased lipid mobilization and energy expenditure, which may be necessary for the occurrence of cancer cachexia. In this article, we summarize the definition and characteristics of cancer cachexia and adipose tissue 'browning', then, we discuss the new study directions presented in latest research.

  10. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, H M; Zhang, Q F

    1994-01-01

    Recent progress in risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and its correlation with occupational lung cancer in nickel-exposed workers is reviewed. Epidemiological investigations provide reliable data indicating the close relation between nickel exposure and high lung cancer risk, especially in nickel refineries. The nickel species-specific effects and the dose-response relationship between nickel exposure and lung cancer are among the main questions that are explored extensively. It is als...

  11. Noninvasive detection of lung cancer by analysis of exhaled breath

    OpenAIRE

    Bajtarevic, Amel; Ager, Clemens; Pienz, Martin; Klieber, Martin; Schwarz, Konrad; Ligor, Magdalena; Ligor, Tomasz; Filipiak, Wojciech; Denz, Hubert; Fiegl, Michael; Hilbe, Wolfgang; Weiss, Wolfgang; Lukas, Peter; Jamnig, Herbert; Hackl, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death in Europe and the western world. At present, diagnosis of lung cancer very often happens late in the course of the disease since inexpensive, non-invasive and sufficiently sensitive and specific screening methods are not available. Even though the CT diagnostic methods are good, it must be assured that "screening benefit outweighs risk, across all individuals screened, not only those with lung cancer". An early non-invasive...

  12. Genetic evidence linking lung cancer and COPD: a new perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crapo JD

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Robert P Young1,4, Raewyn J Hopkins1, Gregory D Gamble1, Carol Etzel2, Randa El-Zein2, James D Crapo31Department of Medicine and School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Department of Epidemiology, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 3National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, USA; 4Synergenz Biosciences Ltd, Auckland, New ZealandAbstract: Epidemiological studies indicate that tobacco smoke exposure accounts for nearly 90% of cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer. However, genetic factors may explain why 10%–30% of smokers develop these complications. This perspective reviews the evidence suggesting that COPD is closely linked to susceptibility to lung cancer and outlines the potential relevance of this observation. Epidemiological studies show that COPD is the single most important risk factor for lung cancer among smokers and predates lung cancer in up to 80% of cases. Genome-wide association studies of lung cancer, lung function, and COPD have identified a number of overlapping “susceptibility” loci. With stringent phenotyping, it has recently been shown that several of these overlapping loci are independently associated with both COPD and lung cancer. These loci implicate genes underlying pulmonary inflammation and apoptotic processes mediated by the bronchial epithelium, and link COPD with lung cancer at a molecular genetic level. It is currently possible to derive risk models for lung cancer that incorporate lung cancer-specific genetic variants, recently identified “COPD-related” genetic variants, and clinical variables. Early studies suggest that single nucleotide polymorphism-based risk stratification of smokers might help better target novel prevention and early diagnostic strategies in lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, association study, single nucleotide polymorphism, risk model

  13. GTV and CTV in radiation therapy: lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornex, F.; Chapet, O.; Sentenac, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Giraud, P.; Van Houtte, P.; Bonnette, P.

    2001-01-01

    Radiotherapy plays a major role as a curative treatment of various stages non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC): as an exclusive treatment in curative attempt for patients with unresectable stages I and II; as a preoperative treatment, which is often associated with chemotherapy, for patients with surgically stage IIIA NSCLC in clinical trials; in association with chemotherapy for unresectable stages IIIA and IIIB patients. Currently, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy allows for some dose escalation, increasing radiation quality. However, the high inherent conformality of this radiotherapy technique requires a rigorous approach and an optimal quality of the preparation throughout the treatment procedure and specifically of the accurate definition of the safety margins (GTV, CTV...). Different questions remain specific to lung cancers: 1) Despite the absence of randomized trials, the irradiated lymph nodes volume should be only, for the majority of the authors, the visible macroscopically involved lymph nodal regions. However, local control remains low and solid arguments suggest the poor local control is due to an insufficient delivered dose. Therefore the goal of radiotherapy, in this particular location, is to improve local control by increasing the dose until the maximum normal tissue tolerance is achieved, which essentially depends on the dose to the organs at risk (OAR) and specifically for the lung, the esophagus and the spinal cord. For this reason, the irradiated volume should be as tiny as possible, leading to not including the macroscopically uninvolved lymph nodes regions in prophylactic view in the target volume; 2) The lung is one of the rare organs with extensive motion within the body, making lung tumors difficult to treat. This particular point is not specifically considered in the GTV and CTV definitions but it is important enough to be noted; 3) When radiation therapy starts after a good response to chemotherapy, the residual tumoral volume

  14. Raw Garlic Consumption and Lung Cancer in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ajay A; Chang, Shen-Chih; Niu, Rungui; Liu, Li; Swanson, Mya K; Li, Jiawei; Su, Jia; Giovino, Gary A; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Mu, Lina

    2016-04-01

    Evidence of anticancer properties of garlic for different cancer sites has been reported previously in in vitro and in vivo experimental studies but there is limited epidemiologic evidence on the association between garlic and lung cancer. We examined the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Taiyuan, China. Epidemiologic data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 399 incident lung cancer cases and 466 healthy controls. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate crude and adjusted ORs (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Adjusted models controlled for age, sex, average annual household income 10 years ago, smoking, and indoor air pollution. Compared with no intake, raw garlic intake was associated with lower risk of development of lung cancer with a dose-response pattern (aOR for garlic consumption with indoor air pollution and with any supplement use in association with lung cancer. The results of the current study suggest that raw garlic consumption is associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. This study contributes to the limited research in human population on the association between garlic and lung cancer and advocates further investigation into the use of garlic in chemoprevention of lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 624-33. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Diagnosis of breast cancer by tissue analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test,when require.We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps.Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper.In fact,features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue.We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.

  16. Clinical analysis of lung cancer complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, Keishi; Homma, Sakae; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Takaya, Hisashi; Sakamoto, Susumu; Kawabata, Masateru; Kishi, Kazuma; Tsuboi, Eiyasu; Yoshimura, Kunihiko

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the characteristic clinical features of lung cancer associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Among 1,028 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis admitted in our hospital between 1985 and 2005, 17 (15 men, 2 women; mean age 73±8) were diagnosed as having lung cancer. Patient characteristics, clinical features, radiographic images, treatment and prognosis were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were classified into 2 groups: group A (n=5), lung cancer complicated by active tuberculosis, and group B (n=12), lung cancer with tuberculosis sequelae. All patients in group A and 8 patients (33%) in group B had either stage III or IV lung cancer, whereas 4 patients in group B had stage I lung cancer. Coexistence of lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis in the same segment or lobe was seen in 80% (n=4) or 60% (n=3) of group A cases, respectively, and in 67% (n=8) or 8% (n=1) respectively, in group B. Mean survival in group A and group B was 9.2 months and 26.8 months, respectively. More attention should be paid to the possibility of development of lung cancer in individuals with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis or who have had tuberculosis sequelae revealed by chest radiography. Also, the possible coexistence of lung cancer must be carefully examined in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. (author)

  17. Validations of SCT Methylation as a Hallmark Biomarker for Lung Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Junya; Wistuba, Ignacio; Lam, Stephen; Yatabe, Yasushi; Wang, Yi-Wei; Stastny, Victor; Gao, Boning; Larsen, Jill E; Girard, Luc; Liu, Xiaoyun; Song, Kai; Behrens, Carmen; Kalhor, Neda; Xie, Yang; Zhang, Michael Q; Minna, John D; Gazdar, Adi F

    2016-01-01

    Background The human secretin (SCT) gene encodes secretin, a hormone with limited tissue distribution. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) 450K methylation array data indicated that the SCT promoter region is differentially hypermethylated in lung cancer. Our purpose was to validate SCT methylation as a potential cancer biomarker for lung cancer. Methods We analyzed TCGA data, and developed and applied SCT-specific bisulfite DNA sequencing and quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP) assays. Results The analyses of TCGA 450K data of 801 samples showed that SCT hypermethylation has an area under curve (AUC) value >0.98 to distinguish lung adenocarcinomas or squamous cell carcinomas from non-malignant lung. We confirmed the highly discriminative SCT methylation by bisulfite sequencing of lung cancer cell lines and normal blood cells. By applying qMSP, we found that SCT hypermethylation was frequently detected in all major subtypes of malignant NSCLC (AUC=0.92, n=108) and SCLC cancers (AUC=0.93, n=40) but less frequently present in lung carcinoids (AUC=0.54, n=20). SCT hypermethylation appeared in lung carcinoma in situ samples during multistage pathogenesis and increased in invasive samples. Further analyses of TCGA 450K data showed that SCT hypermethylation is highly discriminative in most types of other malignant tumors but less frequently present in low-grade malignant tumors. The only normal tissue with high methylation was the placenta. Conclusions Our findings demonstrated that SCT methylation is a highly discriminative biomarker for lung and other malignant tumors, and less frequently present in low-grade malignant tumors including lung carcinoids, and appears at the carcinoma in situ stage. PMID:26725182

  18. Molecular pathways and therapeutic targets in lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtivelman, Emma; Hensing, Thomas; Simon, George R.; Dennis, Phillip A.; Otterson, Gregory A.; Bueno, Raphael; Salgia, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Both histologically and molecularly lung cancer is heterogeneous. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the pathways involved in the various types of lung cancer with an emphasis on the clinical implications of the increasing number of actionable molecular targets. It describes the major pathways and molecular alterations implicated in the development and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (adenocarcinoma and squamous cancer), and of small cell carcinoma, emphasizing the molecular alterations comprising the specific blueprints in each group. The approved and investigational targeted therapies as well as the immune therapies, and clinical trials exploring the variety of targeted approaches to treatment of lung cancer are the main focus of this review. PMID:24722523

  19. Molecular diagnostics of lung cancer in the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholl, Lynette

    2017-10-01

    According to current practice guidelines, all patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) should undergo predictive biomarker testing. For squamous cell carcinoma patients, PD-L1 immunohistochemistry is indicated to select patients for immunotherapy in the first line. For lung adenocarcinoma, all patients with advanced disease should undergo testing for epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) mutations, ALK and ROS1 rearrangements, and PD-L1 expression to predict response to EGFR, ALK, or ROS1 targeted inhibitors or immunotherapy, respectively. Besides these, a number of other biomarkers are under clinical investigation as predictors of response to targeted therapies, including BRAF , ERBB2 , MET splice mutations and amplification, and RET rearrangements. Successful testing for this complex array of molecular targets demands careful coordination between proceduralists, pathologists and molecular laboratories to ensure proper tumor tissue handling following biopsy as well as judicious use of diagnostic immunohistochemistry. Even so, sample failure rates due to inadequate tumor tissue are high in practice, particularly when using sequential testing methods. Use of next generation sequencing (NGS) in clinical practice can enable detection of multiple targets and multiple alteration types (mutation, gene copy change, and rearrangement) simultaneously even with small amounts of input nucleic acids, thus increasing molecular testing success rates. In patients with an established lung cancer diagnosis but with prohibitively limited amounts of tumor tissue or who are experiencing relapse, analyses of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) from the plasma can serve as an alternate testing substrate, however the more limited clinical sensitivity of this approach must be taken into account. This review will explore the indications for and pitfalls of routine NGS and plasma genotyping in the clinic, including the intersection of these technologies.

  20. Phase I metabolic genes and risk of lung cancer: multiple polymorphisms and mRNA expression.

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    Melissa Rotunno

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes that activate tobacco lung carcinogens may generate inter-individual differences in lung cancer risk. Previous studies had limited sample sizes, poor exposure characterization, and a few single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs tested in candidate genes. We analyzed 25 SNPs (some previously untested in 2101 primary lung cancer cases and 2120 population controls from the Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE study from six phase I metabolic genes, including cytochrome P450s, microsomal epoxide hydrolase, and myeloperoxidase. We evaluated the main genotype effects and genotype-smoking interactions in lung cancer risk overall and in the major histology subtypes. We tested the combined effect of multiple SNPs on lung cancer risk and on gene expression. Findings were prioritized based on significance thresholds and consistency across different analyses, and accounted for multiple testing and prior knowledge. Two haplotypes in EPHX1 were significantly associated with lung cancer risk in the overall population. In addition, CYP1B1 and CYP2A6 polymorphisms were inversely associated with adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma risk, respectively. Moreover, the association between CYP1A1 rs2606345 genotype and lung cancer was significantly modified by intensity of cigarette smoking, suggesting an underlying dose-response mechanism. Finally, increasing number of variants at CYP1A1/A2 genes revealed significant protection in never smokers and risk in ever smokers. Results were supported by differential gene expression in non-tumor lung tissue samples with down-regulation of CYP1A1 in never smokers and up-regulation in smokers from CYP1A1/A2 SNPs. The significant haplotype associations emphasize that the effect of multiple SNPs may be important despite null single SNP-associations, and warrants consideration in genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Our findings emphasize the necessity of post

  1. UGT1A6 polymorphisms modulated lung cancer risk in a Chinese population.

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    Ley-Fang Kua

    Full Text Available Uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferases (UGTs 1A6 is the only UGT1A isoform expressed in lung tissue. It is responsible for the detoxification of carcinogens such as benezo[a]pyrene from cigarette smoke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of UGT1A6 polymorphisms and haplotypes with lung cancer risk and to evaluate the functional significance of UGT1A6 polymorphisms. Genomic DNA was isolated from leukocytes. Eight UGT1A6 polymorphisms were sequenced in a test set of 72 Chinese lung cancer patients and 62 healthy controls. Potential risk modifying alleles were validated in a separate set of 95 Chinese lung cancer patients and 100 healthy controls. UGT1A6 19T>G, 541A>G and 552A>C showed significant association with increased lung cancer risk, while UGT1A6 105C>T and IVS1+130G>T were significantly associated with reduced lung cancer risk. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated a significant association of lung cancer with UGT1A6 541A>G (OR: 3.582, 95% CI: 1.27-10.04, p = 0.015, 552A>C (OR: 5.364, 95% CI: 1.92-14.96, p = 0.001 and IVS1+130G>T (OR: 0.191, 95% CI: 0.09-0.36, pT increased mRNA stability, providing a plausible explanation of its association with reduced lung cancer risk. Thus UGT1A6 polymorphisms may be used to identify people with increased risk of developing lung cancer.

  2. The possibility of heavy ion radiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Takehiko

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death among malignant tumors in Japan and statisticians predict that the death rate by lung cancer will increase twice or 2.5 times within 10 years. Early detection and early resection are the first task to decrease the death rate, and radiotherapy and chemotherapy should be improved. In this paper, the present status of surgical treatment for lung cancer was summarized and the possibility of heavy ion therapy for lung cancer was discussed in comparison with surgical result. Overall 5-year survival rates in stages I, II, III and IV were 78%, 42% 29% and 16% respectively. The survival rate in stage I was correlated with tumor size and that in lung cancer of tumor size 2 cm or less was about 90%. If lung cancer is found at early stage, lung cancer can be cured. Limitation of detection of lung cancer is 2.3 mm in hilar squamous cell carcinoma by autofluorescence bronchoscopy and 5-10 mm in peripheral adenocarcinoma by high resolution CT. Less invasive surgery by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was applied to stage I lung cancer and the result was satisfactory. However, most lung cancer patients are heavy smokers with underlying lung diseases including chronic obstructive plumonary disease (COPD) and there are many patients not indicative for less invasive surgery. Preliminary results of heavy ion therapy showed remarkable improvement compared with that with conventional radiation therapy. Three-year survival rate of stage I in Protocol 9802 is 80%, almost the same with that in surgical result, indicating the possibility becoming the established therapeutic modality in stage I lung cancers, in patients with marginal biological function for surgical treatment, in particular. (authors)

  3. Antineoplastic and immunomodulatory effect of polyphenolic components of Achyranthes aspera (PCA) extract on urethane induced lung cancer in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Chandradeo; Kumar, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds of Achyranthes aspera (PCA) extract is evaluated for anti-cancerous and cytokine based immunomodulatory effects. The PCA extract contains known components of phenolic acid and flavonoids such as mixture of quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, kaempferol, quercetin and chrysin along with many unknown components. PCA has been orally feed to urethane (ethyl carbamate) primed lung cancerous mice at a dosage of 100 mg/kg body weight for 30 consecutive days. 100 mg powder of A. aspera contains 2.4 mg phenolic acid and 1.1 mg flavonoid (2:1 ratio). Enhanced activities and expression of antioxidant enzymes GST, GR, CAT, SOD, while down regulated expression and activation of LDH enzymes in PCA feed urethane primed lung cancerous tissues as compared to PCA non-feed urethane primed lung cancerous tissues were observed. PCA feed urethane primed lung tissues showed down regulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α along with TFs, NF-κB and Stat3 while the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and p53 were enhanced in PCA feed urethane primed lung tissues. FTIR and CD spectroscopy data revealed that PCA resisted the urethane mediated conformational changes of DNA which is evident by the shift in guanine and thymine bands in FTIR from 1,708 to 1,711 cm(-1) and 1,675 to 1,671 cm(-1), respectively in PCA feed urethane primed lung cancerous tissues DNA in comparison to urethane primed lung cancerous tissues DNA. The present study suggests that PCA components have synergistic anti-cancerous and cytokine based immunomodulatory role and DNA conformation restoring effects. However, more research is required to show the effects of each component separately and in combination for effective therapeutic use to cure and prevent lung cancer including other cancers.

  4. Factors affecting 30-month survival in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, P A; Archana, S; Jayaraj, B S; Patil, Shekar; Chaya, S K; Shashidhar, H P; Sunitha, B S; Prabhakar, A K

    2012-10-01

    Age adjusted incidence rate of lung cancer in India ranges from 7.4 to 13.1 per 100,000 among males and 3.9 to 5.8 per 100,000 among females. The factors affecting survival in lung cancer patients in India are not fully understood. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the factors affecting survival in patients diagnosed with lung cancer attending a tertiary care cancer institute in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Consecutive patients with primary lung cancer attending Bangalore Institute of Oncology, a tertiary care centre at Bangalore, between 2006 and 2009 were included. Demographic, clinical, radiological data were collected retrospectively from the medical records. A total of 170 consecutive subjects (128 males, 42 females) diagnosed to have lung cancer; 151 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 19 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were included. A higher proportion of never-smokers (54.1%) were observed, mostly presenting below the age of 60 yr. Most subjects were in stage IV and III at the time of diagnosis. More than 50 per cent of patients presented with late stage lung cancer even though the duration of symptoms is less than 2 months. The 30-month overall survival rates for smokers and never-smokers were 32 and 49 per cent, respectively. No significant differences were observed in 30 month survival based on age at presentation, gender and type of lung cancer. Cox proportional hazards model identified never-smokers and duration of symptoms less than 1 month as factors adversely affecting survival. Our results showed that lung cancer in Indians involved younger subjects and associated with poorer survival as compared to other ethnic population. Studies on large sample need to be done to evaluate risk factors in lung cancer patients.

  5. Calculation of microplanar beam dose profiles in a tissue/lung/tissue phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Company, F.Z.; Allen, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in synchrotron generated x-ray beams with a high fluence rate permit investigation of the application of an array of closely spaced, parallel or converging microplanar beams in radiotherapy. The proposed technique takes advantage of the hypothesized repair mechanism of capillary cells between alternate microbeam zones, which regenerates the lethally irradiated endothelial cells. The lateral and depth doses of 100 keV microplanar beams are investigated for different beam dimensions and spacings in a tissue, lung and tissue/lung/tissue phantom. The EGS4 Monte Carlo code is used to calculate dose profiles at different depths and bundles of beams (up to 20x20cm square cross section). The maximum dose on the beam axis (peak) and the minimum interbeam dose (valley) are compared at different depths, bundles, heights, widths and beam spacings. (author)

  6. MET and Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gelsomino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC is one of the most aggressive lung tumors. The majority of patients with SCLC are diagnosed at an advanced stage. This tumor type is highly sensitive to chemo-radiation treatment, with very high response rates, but invariably relapses. At this time, treatment options are still limited and the prognosis of these patients is poor. A better knowledge of the molecular biology of SCLC allowed us to identify potential druggable targets. Among these, the MET/HGF axis seems to be one of the most aberrant signaling pathways involved in SCLC invasiveness and progression. In this review, we describe briefly all recent literature on the different molecular profiling in SCLC; in particular, we discuss the specific alterations involving c-MET gene and their implications as a potential target in SCLC.

  7. Assays for predicting and monitoring responses to lung cancer immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixidó, Cristina; Karachaliou, Niki; González-Cao, Maria; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Rosell, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy has become a key strategy for cancer treatment, and two immune checkpoints, namely, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1), have recently emerged as important targets. The interaction blockade of PD-1 and PD-L1 demonstrated promising activity and antitumor efficacy in early phase clinical trials for advanced solid tumors such as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Many cell types in multiple tissues express PD-L1 as well as several tumor types, thereby suggesting that the ligand may play important roles in inhibiting immune responses throughout the body. Therefore, PD-L1 is a critical immunomodulating component within the lung microenvironment, but the correlation between PD-L1 expression and prognosis is controversial. More evidence is required to support the use of PD-L1 as a potential predictive biomarker. Clinical trials have measured PD-L1 in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with different antibodies, but the assessment of PD-L1 is not yet standardized. Some commercial antibodies lack specificity and their reproducibility has not been fully evaluated. Further studies are required to clarify the optimal IHC assay as well as to predict and monitor the immune responses of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway

  8. Spirometry: a predictor of lung cancer among asbestos workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila

    2017-01-01

    The significance of lung function as an independent risk factor for lung cancer remains unclear. The objective of the study is to answer the question if spirometry can identify patients at risk for lung cancer among people occupationally exposed to asbestos dust in the past. In order to identify a group of individuals with the highest risk of lung cancer incidence based on lung function levels of FEV 1 % predicted value, we examined 6882 subjects enrolled in the health surveillance program for asbestos related diseases over the years 2000-2014. We found a total of 110 cases confirmed as primary lung cancer. Using Cox's proportional hazards model after adjustment for age, gender, number of cigarettes, duration of smoking and cumulative asbestos exposure, we estimated that compared with the subjects with FEV 1 ≥90% pred, the HR of lung cancer was 1.40 (95%CI: 0.94-2.08) for the subjects with FEV 1 less than 90% and 1.95 (HR = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.12-3.08) for those with FEV 1 less than 70%. In addition, probability of the occurrence of lung cancer for FEV 1 spirometry and cancer diagnosis was three years or less. The results strongly support the hypothesis that spirometry can identify patients at a risk of lung cancer development. Regular spirometry should be offered to all patients with a history of asbestos exposure, at least once every three years.

  9. Alpinetin inhibits lung cancer progression and elevates sensitization drug-resistant lung cancer cells to cis-diammined dichloridoplatium

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    Wu L

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lin Wu, Wei Yang, Su-ning Zhang, Ji-bin Lu Department of Thoracic Surgery, Sheng Jing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Objective: Alpinetin is a novel flavonoid that has demonstrated potent antitumor activity in previous studies. However, the efficacy and mechanism of alpinetin in treating lung cancer have not been determined. Methods: We evaluated the impact of different doses and durations of alpinetin treatment on the cell proliferation, the apoptosis of lung cancer cells, as well as the drug-resistant lung cancer cells. Results: This study showed that the alpinetin inhibited the cell proliferation, enhanced the apoptosis, and inhibited the PI3K/Akt signaling in lung cancer cells. Moreover, alpinetin significantly increased the sensitivity of drug-resistant lung cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic effect of cis-diammined dichloridoplatium. Taken together, this study demonstrated that alpinetin significantly suppressed the development of human lung cancer possibly by influencing mitochondria and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and sensitized drug-resistant lung cancer cells. Conclusion: Alpinetin may be used as a potential compound for combinatorial therapy or as a complement to other chemotherapeutic agents when multiple lines of treatments have failed to reduce lung cancer. Keywords: alpinetin, cell proliferation and apoptosis, drug resistance reversal, PI3K/Akt, lung cancer

  10. Prevention of chinese green tea on 3,4-benzopyrene-induced lung cancer and its mechanism in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihua GU

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Chinese green tea is one of the daily consumption beverages in the world and is considered a promising cancer chemopreventive agent. In the present study, we investigate the role of lung cancer prevention by green tea and its mechanism. Methods Three groups of female SD rats were kept with the same feed. Rats in group A were administrated with 1% green tea drinking, while in group B and group C with water only. Animals in group A and group B were given 3,4-benzopyrene-corn oil mixture pulmonary injection fortnightly for 4 times, while in group C corn oil only. Rats were sacrificed 1 year after the first injection under narcotism. Lung tumors and lung tissues were performed H&E staining for cancer identification. Each case of lung cancer was examined for expression of p53 and Bcl-2 with in situ hybridization analysis and immunohistochemistry staining. Results No cancer was found in rats in group C. However, in group B, 15 out of 20 rats were found generating lung cancer, and in group A, 6 out of 20 rats inducing lung cancer were recorded. The rate of lung carcinogenesis in rats was decreased from 75% to 30% by 1% chinese green tea oral administration (χ2=8.12, P0.05. However, significantly lower level of Bcl-2 expression was found in lung cancer tissues of group A than that of group B (P<0.05. Conclusion The results indicate that chinese green tea inhibits lung carcinogenesis. Chinese green tea can slightly upregulate expression of p53, but significantly downregulate expression of Bcl-2 in lung cancer, and this may be related to the mechanism of lung cancer prevention.

  11. CT features of lung cancer associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Hyoung; Song, Koun Sik; Lee, Deok Hee; Kim, Jin Suh; Lim, Tae Hwan

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that the incidence of lung cancer is high in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF). We analyzed the CT features of lung cancer associated with IPF. Retrospective analyzed the CT features of lung cancer associated with IPF. Retrospective analysis was performed in 23 patients with lung cancer(24 lung cancers) associated with IPF. The diagnosis of IPF was made by clinical and CT findings, and lung cancer was confirmed pathologically. We divided the location of lung cancer by lobar distribution and central or peripheral lung zone, and measured the size of mass. We classified the mediastinal lymph node enlargement by American Thoracic Society (ATS) mapping scheme. We evaluated the CT pattern of IPF. The subjects consisted of 6 cases of small cell carcinoma and 18 cases of non-small cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancers were located in the right upper lobe in 5 cases, left upper lobe in 6 cases, right middle lobe in 1 case, right lower lobe in 9 cases, and left lower lobe in 3 cases. Twenty cancers(85%) were located in the peripheral lung zone. Eighteen cancers(73%) were surrounded by fibrotic lung. The size of the mass ranged from 1 to 12 cm, and in 12 cases it was below 3cm in diameter. Mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 22 cases(92%) and classified as N2 or N3 in 15 cases out of 18 non-small cell lung. The size of the mass ranged from 1 to 12 cm, and in 12 cases it was below 3 cm in diameter. Mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 22 cases(92%) and classified as N2 or N3 in 15 cases out of 18 non-small cell lung cancers. CT patterns of underlying IPF were honey-combing in 18 patients(78%) and mixed honey-combing and ground-glass opacity in 5 patients(22%). The lung cancer associated with IPF shows variable cell types. Most of the lung cancers were located peripherally, surrounded by end-stage fibrosis, and were associated with mediastinal lymph node enlargement

  12. CT features of lung cancer associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Hyoung; Song, Koun Sik; Lee, Deok Hee; Kim, Jin Suh; Lim, Tae Hwan [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that the incidence of lung cancer is high in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF). We analyzed the CT features of lung cancer associated with IPF. Retrospective analyzed the CT features of lung cancer associated with IPF. Retrospective analysis was performed in 23 patients with lung cancer(24 lung cancers) associated with IPF. The diagnosis of IPF was made by clinical and CT findings, and lung cancer was confirmed pathologically. We divided the location of lung cancer by lobar distribution and central or peripheral lung zone, and measured the size of mass. We classified the mediastinal lymph node enlargement by American Thoracic Society (ATS) mapping scheme. We evaluated the CT pattern of IPF. The subjects consisted of 6 cases of small cell carcinoma and 18 cases of non-small cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancers were located in the right upper lobe in 5 cases, left upper lobe in 6 cases, right middle lobe in 1 case, right lower lobe in 9 cases, and left lower lobe in 3 cases. Twenty cancers(85%) were located in the peripheral lung zone. Eighteen cancers(73%) were surrounded by fibrotic lung. The size of the mass ranged from 1 to 12 cm, and in 12 cases it was below 3cm in diameter. Mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 22 cases(92%) and classified as N2 or N3 in 15 cases out of 18 non-small cell lung. The size of the mass ranged from 1 to 12 cm, and in 12 cases it was below 3 cm in diameter. Mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 22 cases(92%) and classified as N2 or N3 in 15 cases out of 18 non-small cell lung cancers. CT patterns of underlying IPF were honey-combing in 18 patients(78%) and mixed honey-combing and ground-glass opacity in 5 patients(22%). The lung cancer associated with IPF shows variable cell types. Most of the lung cancers were located peripherally, surrounded by end-stage fibrosis, and were associated with mediastinal lymph node enlargement.

  13. Critical transition in tissue homeostasis accompanies murine lung senescence.

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    Carla L Calvi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Respiratory dysfunction is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in aged populations. The susceptibility to pulmonary insults is attributed to "low pulmonary reserve", ostensibly reflecting a combination of age-related musculoskeletal, immunologic and intrinsic pulmonary dysfunction. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a murine model of the aging lung, senescent DBA/2 mice, we correlated a longitudinal survey of airspace size and injury measures with a transcriptome from the aging lung at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months of age. Morphometric analysis demonstrated a nonlinear pattern of airspace caliber enlargement with a critical transition occurring between 8 and 12 months of age marked by an initial increase in oxidative stress, cell death and elastase activation which is soon followed by inflammatory cell infiltration, immune complex deposition and the onset of airspace enlargement. The temporally correlative transcriptome showed exuberant induction of immunoglobulin genes coincident with airspace enlargement. Immunohistochemistry, ELISA analysis and flow cytometry demonstrated increased immunoglobulin deposition in the lung associated with a contemporaneous increase in activated B-cells expressing high levels of TLR4 (toll receptor 4 and CD86 and macrophages during midlife. These midlife changes culminate in progressive airspace enlargement during late life stages. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings establish that a tissue-specific aging program is evident during a presenescent interval which involves early oxidative stress, cell death and elastase activation, followed by B lymphocyte and macrophage expansion/activation. This sequence heralds the progression to overt airspace enlargement in the aged lung. These signature events, during middle age, indicate that early stages of the aging immune system may have important correlates in the maintenance of tissue morphology. We further show that time-course analyses of aging

  14. Differential epigenetic regulation of TOX subfamily high mobility group box genes in lung and breast cancers.

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    Mathewos Tessema

    Full Text Available Aberrant cytosine methylation affects regulation of hundreds of genes during cancer development. In this study, a novel aberrantly hypermethylated CpG island in cancer was discovered within the TOX2 promoter. TOX2 was unmethylated in normal cells but 28% lung (n = 190 and 23% breast (n = 80 tumors were methylated. Expression of two novel TOX2 transcripts identified was significantly reduced in primary lung tumors than distant normal lung (p<0.05. These transcripts were silenced in methylated lung and breast cancer cells and 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment re-expressed both. Extension of these assays to TOX, TOX3, and TOX4 genes that share similar genomic structure and protein homology with TOX2 revealed distinct methylation profiles by smoking status, histology, and cancer type. TOX was almost exclusively methylated in breast (43% than lung (5% cancer, whereas TOX3 was frequently methylated in lung (58% than breast (30% tumors. TOX4 was unmethylated in all samples and showed the highest expression in normal lung. Compared to TOX4, expression of TOX, TOX2 and TOX3 in normal lung was 25, 44, and 88% lower, respectively, supporting the premise that reduced promoter activity confers increased susceptibility to methylation during lung carcinogenesis. Genome-wide assays revealed that siRNA-mediated TOX2 knockdown modulated multiple pathways while TOX3 inactivation targeted neuronal development and function. Although these knockdowns did not result in further phenotypic changes of lung cancer cells in vitro, the impact on tissue remodeling, inflammatory response, and cell differentiation pathways suggest a potential role for TOX2 in modulating tumor microenvironment.

  15. Isolated lung events following radiation for early stage breast cancer: incidence and predictors for primary lung vs metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buren, Teresa A; Harris, Jay R; Sugarbaker, David J; Schneider, Lindsey; Healey, Elizabeth A

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: 1) To define the incidence of isolated lung events in a cohort of women treated with conservative surgery (CS) and radiation therapy (RT) for early stage breast cancer. 2) Among such patients, to define the relative distribution of primary lung cancer, metastatic breast cancer, and indeterminate lesions; and to identify any predictors for a diagnosis of lung vs metastatic breast cancer. 3) To examine the cohort with respect to whether a higher than expected incidence of lung cancer is seen following breast irradiation. Materials and Methods: Between 1968 and 1986, 1865 patients with clinical stage I-II breast cancer were treated with CS and RT; the median follow-up for surviving patients is 129 months. The study population was limited to patients who developed a subsequent isolated lung event as the first site of distant disease. Isolated lung event was defined as disease limited to the thoracic cavity, without evidence of either uncontrolled local breast disease or metastatic disease elsewhere. Diagnosis of the lung event as a primary lung cancer, a metastatic breast lesion, or an indeterminate lesion was documented from the viewpoint of 1) the pathologic analysis and 2) the clinical impression at the time of the lung event. Results: Sixty six of the 1865 patients (3.5%) developed an isolated lung event. The relative distribution of the pathologic and clinical diagnoses is shown below: The 66 lung events were characterized either as a solitary pulmonary nodule (27), multiple nodules (23), pleural effusion alone (10), unknown (2), or miscellaneous other findings (4). Among the 47 patients for whom pathology was available, the diagnosis remained indeterminate for 24 (51%). For patients with a definitive pathologic diagnosis, 69% ((9(13))) of smokers had a new lung cancer compared to 20% ((2(10))) of non-smokers (p=0.036), and 67% ((10(15))) of patients with a solitary pulmonary nodule had lung cancer compared to 14% ((1(7))) for other lung presentations (p

  16. Expression of livin protein in lung cancer and its relation with the expression of pro-caspase3 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongru LI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Livin is a novel inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP, recent studies showed it overexpresses in a variety of carcinomas including lung cancer and contributes much to the cancerous development. The objective of this study is to explore the expression of livin in tissues of lung cancer and its relationshipwith histological types, chemotherapy, Lymph node metastasis and to study its correlation with the expression of pro-caspase3 as well. Methods Expressions of Livin and caspase3 were detected by Western blot assay in lung cancer tissues as well as in controls. Results Livin was expressed in 15 of 27 lung cancer, significantly more than those in lung para-cancerous (1/5 or benign disease lung tissues (2/12 (P 0.05. Conclusion Livin are differently expressed in different histological types of lung cancer; High levels of livin expression do not relate to chemotherapy, lymph node metastasis (P >0.05. The levels of livin tends to be positively associated with those of accordingly pro-caspase3, it is presumed that livin could bind pro-caspase3 and suppress its activation.

  17. HOXA9 inhibits migration of lung cancer cells and its hypermethylation is associated with recurrence in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jung-Ah; Lee, Bo Bin; Kim, Yujin; Hong, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Young-Ho; Han, Joungho; Shim, Young Mog; Yoon, Chae-Yeong; Lee, Yeon-Su; Kim, Duk-Hwan

    2015-06-01

    This study was aimed at understanding the clinicopathological significance of HOXA9 hypermethylation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). HOXA9 hypermethylation was characterized in six lung cancer cell lines, and its clinicopathological significance was analyzed using methylation-specific PCR in 271 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and 27 fresh-frozen tumor and matched normal tissues from 298 NSCLC patients, and Ki-67 expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The promoter region of HOXA9 was highly methylated in six lung cancer cell lines, but not in normal bronchial epithelial cells. The loss of expression was restored by treatment of the cells with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC). Transient transfection of HOXA9 into H23 lung cancer cells resulted in the inhibition of cell migration but not proliferation. Conversely, sequence-specific siRNA-mediated knockdown of HOXA9 enhanced cell migration. The mRNA levels of HOXA9 in 27 fresh-frozen tumor tissues were significantly lower than in matched normal tissues (Precurrence-free survival (hazard ratio=3.98, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-17.09, P=0.01) in never-smokers, after adjusting for age, sex, tumor size, adjuvant therapy, pathologic stage, and histology. In conclusion, the present study suggests that HOXA9 inhibits migration of lung cancer cells and its hypermethylation is an independent prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival in never-smokers with NSCLC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Immunotherapy for cervical cancer: Can it do another lung cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Priya; Dhandapani, Hemavathi; Jayakumar, Hascitha; Seetharaman, Abirami; Thangarajan, Rajkumar

    Cervical cancer, although preventable, is still the second most common cancer among women worldwide. In developing countries like India, where screening for cervical cancer is virtually absent, most women seek treatment only at advanced stages of the disease. Although standard treatment is curative in more than 90% of women during the early stages, for stage IIIb and above this rate drops to 50% or less. Hence, novel therapeutic adjuvants are required to improve survival at advanced stages. Lung cancer has shown the way forward with the use of Immunotherapeutic interventions as standard line of treatment in advanced stages. In this review, we provide an overview of mechanisms of immune evasion, strategies that can be employed to boost the immune system in order to improve the overall survival of the patients and summarize briefly the clinical trials that have been completed or that are underway to bring therapeutic vaccines for cervical cancer to the clinics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tangeretin sensitises human lung cancer cells to TRAIL- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Apoptosis, Death receptors, Lung cancer, Tangeretin, Reactive oxygen ... strategies that specifically target molecules .... concentrations were determined using a Bio-Rad ..... suppresses invasion of colon and pancreatic cancer.

  20. Incidence of lung cancer among subway drivers in Stockholm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Per; Bigert, Carolina; Pollán, Marina

    2008-07-01

    Very high levels of airborne particles have been detected in the subway system in Stockholm. Subway particles are more toxic to DNA in cultured human lung cells than particles from ambient air. This cohort comprised all men in Stockholm County who were gainfully employed in 1970. They were followed for cancer incidence until 1989. Lung cancer cases were identified from the national cancer register. Subway drivers were identified from the census in 1970. The reference cohort comprised all transport and communication workers in Stockholm. There were nine cases of lung cancer among the subway drivers, giving a SIR of 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.38-1.56). The lung cancer incidence was not increased among the subway drivers. The study gives some evidence against the hypothesis that subway particles would be more potent in inducing lung cancer than particles in ambient air. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Advances of Immunotherapy in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing LIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Small cell lung cancer (SCLC is complex heterogeneous due to unclear biological characteristics in terms of cell origin, pathogenesis and driver genes etc. Diagnosis and treatment of SCLC has been slowly improved and few breakthroughs have been discovered up to now. Therefore new strategies are urgently needed to improve the efficacy of SCLC treatment. Tumor immunotherapy has potential to restore and trigger the immune system to recognize and eliminate tumor cells, notably it has only minimal adverse impact on normal tissue. Cancer vaccine, adoptive immunotherapy, cytokines and checkpoint inhibitors have now been launched for clinical treatment of SCLC. Ipilimumab is the most promising medicine of immunotherapy. Immunotherapy is expected to bring new vision to the treatment of SCLC. And further researches are needed on such problems affecting efficacy of immunotherapy as the heterogeneity of SCLC, the uncertainty of target for immunotherapy, the immune tolerance, etc.

  2. Assessment of the mode of action for hexavalent chromium-induced lung cancer following inhalation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, Deborah M.; Suh, Mina; Campleman, Sharan L.; Thompson, Chad M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • No published or well recognized MOA for Cr(VI)-induced lung tumors exists. • MOA analysis for Cr(VI)-induced lung cancer was conducted to inform risk assessment. • Cr(VI) epidemiologic, toxicokinetic, toxicological, mechanistic data were evaluated. • Weight of evidence does not support a mutagenic MOA for Cr(VI)-induced lung cancer. • Non-linear approaches should be considered for evaluating Cr(VI) lung cancer risk. - Abstract: Inhalation of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is associated with increased lung cancer risk among workers in several industries, most notably chromate production workers exposed to high concentrations of Cr(VI) (≥100 μg/m 3 ), for which clear exposure–response relationships and respiratory irritation and tissue damage have been reported. Data from this industry are used to assess lung cancer risk associated with environmental and current occupational exposures, occurring at concentrations that are significantly lower. There is considerable uncertainty in the low dose extrapolation of historical occupational epidemiology data to assess risk at current exposures because no published or well recognized mode of action (MOA) for Cr(VI)-induced lung tumors exists. We conducted a MOA analysis for Cr(VI)-induced lung cancer evaluating toxicokinetic and toxicological data in humans and rodents and mechanistic data to assess plausibility, dose–response, and temporal concordance for potential MOAs. Toxicokinetic data support that extracellular reduction of Cr(VI), which limits intracellular absorption of Cr(VI) and Cr(VI)-induced toxicity, can be overwhelmed at high exposure levels. In vivo genotoxicity and mutagenicity data are mostly negative and do not support a mutagenic MOA. Further, both chronic bioassays and the epidemiologic literature support that lung cancer occurs at exposures that cause tissue damage. Based on this MOA analysis, the overall weight of evidence supports a MOA involving deposition and accumulation

  3. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC to Determine Cut-Off Points of Biomarkers in Lung Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L. Weiss

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of biomarkers in disease prognosis continues to be an important investigation in many cancer studies. In order for these biomarkers to have practical application in clinical decision making regarding patient treatment and follow-up, it is common to dichotomize patients into those with low vs. high expression levels. In this study, receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, area under the curve (AUC of the ROC, sensitivity, specificity, as well as likelihood ratios were calculated to determine levels of growth factor biomarkers that best differentiate lung cancer cases versus control subjects. Selected cut-off points for p185erbB-2 and EGFR membrane appear to have good discriminating power to differentiate control tissues versus uninvolved tissues from patients with lung cancer (AUC = 89% and 90%, respectively; while AUC increased to at least 90% for selected cut-off points for p185erbB-2 membrane, EGFR membrane, and FASE when comparing between control versus carcinoma tissues from lung cancer cases. Using data from control subjects compared to patients with lung cancer, we presented a simple and intuitive approach to determine dichotomized levels of biomarkers and validated the value of these biomarkers as surrogate endpoints for cancer outcome.

  4. Lymphopenia after mediastinal irradiation in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Park, Hee Chul; Lee, Seung Il; Ryu, So Yeon; Kee, Keun Hong; Jeon, Ho Jong; Ha, Chul Soo

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to retrospectively evaluate white blood cell kinetics, especially lymphocyte depression after different treatment, and to find the correlation between immunosuppression and large blood volume and dynamic blood flow within the mediastinal radiotherapy (RT) field in lung cancer. Thirty-four patients with lung cancer were retrospectively evaluated: 10 patients had only radiotherapy (RT group), 8 had chemotherapy (CT group) and 16 had chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT/CT group). The mean follow-up periods of the RT-including groups (RT group and RT/CT group) and the RT-excluding group (CT group) were 6 and 8 months, respectively. Complete blood cell count including lymphocyte percentage (%) were checked weekly during RT but less frequently during CT and after RT. Changes in total white blood cell counts were not significantly different among the three groups. The lymphocyte count and lymphocyte % were much lower in the RT-including groups than in the RT-excluding group. The difference between pre-treatment and final lymphocyte count and the difference between pre-treatment and final lymphocyte % were significant (ρ = 0.044 and ρ = 0.037) between the RT-including groups and the RT-excluding group. Lymphopenia was more marked after treatment containing RT than CT only. Lymphopenia may be one cause of a compromised immune system after mediastinal irradiation in lung cancer. We suggest cautiously that previous studies showing evidence of lymphocyte apoptosis after low-dose irradiation and large blood volume and dynamic blood flow within the RT fields could be somewhat related to lymphopenia after mediastinal irradiation

  5. Intermediate Megavoltage Photon Beams for Improved Lung Cancer Treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of intermediate megavoltage (3-MV photon beams on SBRT lung cancer treatments. To start with, a 3-MV virtual beam was commissioned on a commercial treatment planning system based on Monte Carlo simulations. Three optimized plans (6-MV, 3-MV and dual energy of 3- and 6-MV were generated for 31 lung cancer patients with identical beam configuration and optimization constraints for each patient. Dosimetric metrics were evaluated and compared among the three plans. Overall, planned dose conformity was comparable among three plans for all 31 patients. For 21 thin patients with average short effective path length (< 10 cm, the 3-MV plans showed better target coverage and homogeneity with dose spillage index R50% = 4.68±0.83 and homogeneity index = 1.26±0.06, as compared to 4.95±1.01 and 1.31±0.08 in the 6-MV plans (p < 0.001. Correspondingly, the average/maximum reductions of lung volumes receiving 20 Gy (V20Gy, 5 Gy (V5Gy, and mean lung dose (MLD were 7%/20%, 9%/30% and 5%/10%, respectively in the 3-MV plans (p < 0.05. The doses to 5% volumes of the cord, esophagus, trachea and heart were reduced by 9.0%, 10.6%, 11.4% and 7.4%, respectively (p < 0.05. For 10 thick patients, dual energy plans can bring dosimetric benefits with comparable target coverage, integral dose and reduced dose to the critical structures, as compared to the 6-MV plans. In conclusion, our study indicated that 3-MV photon beams have potential dosimetric benefits in treating lung tumors in terms of improved tumor coverage and reduced doses to the adjacent critical structures, in comparison to 6-MV photon beams. Intermediate megavoltage photon beams (< 6-MV may be considered and added into current treatment approaches to reduce the adjacent normal tissue doses while maintaining sufficient tumor dose coverage in lung cancer radiotherapy.

  6. Lung cancers already produced by plutonium inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter presents the basis for the author's estimate that plutonium particulates have already committed approximately 950,000 persons worldwide to a lung-cancer death, and that more will be so committed in the future, even if no more plutonium is dispersed in the environment. The author's calculations are based on fallout data from atmospheric bomb testing, and on two sets of workers exposed to plutonium: one group at the Rocky Flats Plant in Colorado, and the other at the Los Alamos Laboratory who were involved in the Manhattan Project

  7. Esophageal Metastasis From Occult Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Kuei Hsu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A 66-year-old man with dysphagia was found to have a poorly differentiated esophageal carcinoma by incision biopsy. Following esophagectomy, reconstruction with a gastric tube was performed. Pathological examination and immunohisto-chemistry showed infiltration of adenocarcinoma cells with positive thyroid transcription factor 1-staining in the submucosal layer, which indicated metastatic esophageal carcinoma. Although no pulmonary lesion could be visualized by imaging or bronchoscopy, pulmonary origin was highly suspected as a result of positive thyroid transcription factor 1-staining. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of metastatic esophageal carcinoma from occult lung cancer (AJCC TNM stage TX.

  8. Linking the generation of DNA adducts to lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppi, Marcello; Munnia, Armelle; Cellai, Filippo; Bruzzone, Marco; Peluso, Marco E M

    2017-09-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. DNA adducts are considered a reliable biomarker that reflects carcinogen exposure to tobacco smoke, but the central question is what is the relationship of DNA adducts and cancer? Therefore, we investigated this relationship by a meta-analysis of twenty-two studies with bronchial adducts for a total of 1091 subjects, 887 lung cancer cases and 204 apparently healthy individuals with no evidence of lung cancer. Our study shows that these adducts are significantly associated to increase lung cancer risk. The value of Mean Ratio lung-cancer (MR) of bronchial adducts resulting from the random effects model was 2.64, 95% C.I. 2.00-3.50, in overall lung cancer cases as compared to controls. The significant difference, with lung cancer patients having significant higher levels of bronchial adducts than controls, persisted after stratification for smoking habits. The MR lung-cancer value between lung cancer patients and controls for smokers was 2.03, 95% C.I. 1.42-2.91, for ex-smokers 3.27, 95% C.I. 1.49-7.18, and for non-smokers was 3.81, 95% C.I. 1.85-7.85. Next, we found that the generation of bronchial adducts is significantly related to inhalation exposure to tobacco smoke carcinogens confirming its association with volatile carcinogens. The MR smoking estimate of bronchial adducts resulting from meta-regression was 2.28, 95% Confidence Interval (C.I.) 1.10-4.73, in overall smokers in respect to non-smokers. The present work provides strengthening of the hypothesis that bronchial adducts are not simply relate to exposure, but are a cause of chemical-induced lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lung cancer risk of airborne particles for Italian population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonanno, G., E-mail: buonanno@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy); International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street 2, 4001 Brisbane, Qld. (Australia); Giovinco, G., E-mail: giovinco@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy); Morawska, L., E-mail: morawska@qut.edu.au [International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street 2, 4001 Brisbane, Qld. (Australia); Stabile, L., E-mail: stabile@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Airborne particles, including both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles, contain various carcinogens. Exposure and risk-assessment studies regularly use particle mass concentration as dosimetry parameter, therefore neglecting the potential impact of ultrafine particles due to their negligible mass compared to supermicrometric particles. The main purpose of this study was the characterization of lung cancer risk due to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals associated with particle inhalation by Italian non-smoking people. A risk-assessment scheme, modified from an existing risk model, was applied to estimate the cancer risk contribution from both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles. Exposure assessment was carried out on the basis of particle number distributions measured in 25 smoke-free microenvironments in Italy. The predicted lung cancer risk was then compared to the cancer incidence rate in Italy to assess the number of lung cancer cases attributed to airborne particle inhalation, which represents one of the main causes of lung cancer, apart from smoking. Ultrafine particles are associated with a much higher risk than supermicrometric particles, and the modified risk-assessment scheme provided a more accurate estimate than the conventional scheme. Great attention has to be paid to indoor microenvironments and, in particular, to cooking and eating times, which represent the major contributors to lung cancer incidence in the Italian population. The modified risk assessment scheme can serve as a tool for assessing environmental quality, as well as setting up exposure standards for particulate matter. - Highlights: • Lung cancer risk for non-smoking Italian population due to particle inhalation. • The average lung cancer risk for Italian population is equal to 1.90×10{sup −2}. • Ultrafine particle is the aerosol metric mostly contributing to lung cancer risk. • B(a)P is the main (particle-bounded) compound

  10. Lung cancer risk of airborne particles for Italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, G.; Giovinco, G.; Morawska, L.; Stabile, L.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne particles, including both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles, contain various carcinogens. Exposure and risk-assessment studies regularly use particle mass concentration as dosimetry parameter, therefore neglecting the potential impact of ultrafine particles due to their negligible mass compared to supermicrometric particles. The main purpose of this study was the characterization of lung cancer risk due to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals associated with particle inhalation by Italian non-smoking people. A risk-assessment scheme, modified from an existing risk model, was applied to estimate the cancer risk contribution from both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles. Exposure assessment was carried out on the basis of particle number distributions measured in 25 smoke-free microenvironments in Italy. The predicted lung cancer risk was then compared to the cancer incidence rate in Italy to assess the number of lung cancer cases attributed to airborne particle inhalation, which represents one of the main causes of lung cancer, apart from smoking. Ultrafine particles are associated with a much higher risk than supermicrometric particles, and the modified risk-assessment scheme provided a more accurate estimate than the conventional scheme. Great attention has to be paid to indoor microenvironments and, in particular, to cooking and eating times, which represent the major contributors to lung cancer incidence in the Italian population. The modified risk assessment scheme can serve as a tool for assessing environmental quality, as well as setting up exposure standards for particulate matter. - Highlights: • Lung cancer risk for non-smoking Italian population due to particle inhalation. • The average lung cancer risk for Italian population is equal to 1.90×10 −2 . • Ultrafine particle is the aerosol metric mostly contributing to lung cancer risk. • B(a)P is the main (particle-bounded) compound contributing

  11. [Occupational factors influencing lung cancer in women in epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatkowska, Beata

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in men, although the alarming statistics of recent years indicate that this pathology affects also more likely a group of women and in recent years has become the leading cause of cancer deaths among Polish women. This article presents the main issues relating to occupational determinants of lung cancer in women. The results of the analysis show that the number of neoplastic diseases, including the lung cancer, recognized as an occupational disease in Poland is low, particularly among women. A major factor hampering the certification of occupational etiology of lung cancer is a long latency period, no differences in terms of the clinical and morphological characteristics from lung cancer occurring in the general population, and relatively small number of identified occupational carcinogens. Analysis of the available literature on the adverse workplace conditions shows that only a few epidemiological studies focus on the problem of job-related risk among women, and only some of them provide detailed results for lung cancer. Moreover, the abundant literature on the subject concerning the male workers might not be fully relevant because of possible differences in hormonal, genetic and other gender-related biological differences that may significantly modify the risk of cancer in women. These aspects cause that the true contribution of occupational factors to the risk of lung cancer, particularly in women, is underestimated.

  12. Lung cancer risk and exposure from incorporated plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshurnikova, N.A.; Bolotnikova, M.G.; Il'in, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Coefficients of risk of death from lung cancer caused by incorporated plutonium for the personnel of the Mayak plant, working there since its foundation are obtained. Values of mortality from lung cancer are analysed as well as individual incorporated dose per lung assessed from regular measurement of plutonium in the urine and radiometry of autopsy material and from the results of individual photocontrol of external exposure. It was shown that the risk of death from lung cancer caused by external gamma-irradiation is statistically unreliable, whereas that from disease caused by incorporated plutonium is dose-dependent. The risk of death from lung cancer is two times higher for the personnel with increased level of plutonium carriership as against the level stated in ICRP Publication 60. The conclusion is made that hygienic standards for lung exposure should be specified. 11 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  13. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as tumor marker in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunnet, M; Sorensen, J B

    2012-05-01

    The use of CEA as a prognostic and predictive marker in patients with lung cancer is widely debated. The aim of this review was to evaluate the results from studies made on this subject. Using the search words "CEA", "tumor markers in lung cancer", "prognostic significance", "diagnostic significance" and "predictive significance", a search was carried out on PubMed. Exclusion criteria was articles never published in English, articles before 1981 and articles evaluating tumor markers in lung cancer not involving CEA. Initially 217 articles were found, and 34 were left after selecting those relevant for the present study. Four of these included both Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) patients, and 31 dealt solely with NSCLC patients. Regarding SCLC no studies showed that serum level of CEA was a prognostic marker for overall survival (OS). The use of CEA serum level as a prognostic marker in NSCLC was investigated in 23 studies and the use of CEA plasma level in two. In 18 (17 serum, 1 plasma) of these studies CEA was found to be a useful prognostic marker for either OS, recurrence after surgery or/and progression free survival (PFS) in NSCLC patients. Interestingly, an overweight of low stage (stage I-II) disease and adenocarcinoma (AC) patients were observed in this group. The remaining 7 studies (6 serum, 1 plasma) contained an overweight of patients with squamous carcinoma (SQ). One study found evidence for that a tumor marker index (TMI), based on preoperative CEA and CYFRA21-1 serum levels, is useful as a prognostic marker for OS in NSCLC. Six studies evaluated the use of CEA as a predictive marker for risk of recurrence and risk of death in NSCLC patients. Four of these studies found, that CEA was useful as a predictive marker for risk of recurrence and risk of death measured over time. No studies found CEA levels useful as a diagnostic marker for lung cancer. With regard to NSCLC the level of CEA measured in tumor tissue in

  14. Coincidence of lung cancer and silicosis in Czechoslovak uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, S.; Urbanova, S.

    1988-01-01

    27 patients with established coincidence of lung cancer and silicosis from a group of 1607 cases of lung cancer from radioactive compounds, and 166 cases of pneumoconiosis were reported by the Occupational Diseases Ward of the works Institute of National Health in Uranium Industry in the 1962 to 1986 years. Lung cancer was found in 16% of reported silicosis patients, in 81% it was simple silicosis, in 50% of cases in was an epidermoid type of cancer. In two cases the malignant process originated in the silicotic node, in one case from a tuberculoma. Lung cancer occurred most frequently in the right lower lung region. The mean age of the silicosis group was 48.6 years and 56.0 years for the lung cancer group. No difference was thus seen from the mean age of patients with lung cancer from radioactive compounds diagnosed in the years 1976 to 1980 but it was significantly lower that the reported average age of patients with coincidence of lung cancer and pneumoconiosis in the population not exposed to ionizing radiation. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs

  15. Total or partial vertebrectomy for lung cancer invading the spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichi Oka

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: In our experience, Lung cancer surgery combined with vertebrectomy is highly aggressive surgery associated with high morbidity. But, this procedure is a promising treatment option for selected patients, for example N0M0 disease with lung cancer invading the spine.

  16. Occupational lung cancer risk among men in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preller, L.; Balder, H.F.; Tielemans, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To assess male lung cancer risks for industrial sectors in the Netherlands and to estimate the proportion of lung cancer attributed to working in specific industrial sectors. Methods: Associations were studied among men aged 55-69 years (n = 58 279) from the prospective Netherlands

  17. Do patients with lung cancer benefit from physical exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas Holst; Vinther, Anders; Poulsen, Lise-Lotte

    2011-01-01

    Patients with lung cancer are often burdened by dyspnoea, fatigue, decreased physical ability and loss of weight. Earlier studies of physical exercise of patients with COPD have shown promising results. The aim of this study was to investigate, if a well-documented COPD rehabilitation protocol can...... improve physical fitness and quality of life (QoL) in patients with lung cancer....

  18. Socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in 16 European populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heyden, J. H. A.; Schaap, M. M.; Kunst, A. E.; Esnaola, S.; Borrell, C.; Cox, B.; Leinsalu, M.; Stirbu, I.; Kalediene, R.; Deboosere, P.; Mackenbach, J. P.; van Oyen, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to describe socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in Europe and to get further insight into socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in different European populations by relating these to socioeconomic inequalities in overall mortality and smoking

  19. Smoking habits in lung cancer patients: a hospital based case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This retrospective, hospital based case-control study was designed to investigate the cigarette smoking history, the relationship between cigarette smoking and the risk of lung cancer in KHMC-Jordan. Six hundred cases with lung cancer (576 males, 24 females) and 600 controls were included in the study. The majority of ...

  20. Wolf in Sheep's Clothing: Primary Lung Cancer Mimicking Benign Entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeckx, Annemie; Dendooven, Amélie; Carp, Laurens; Desbuquoit, Damien; Spinhoven, Maarten J; Lauwers, Patrick; Van Schil, Paul E; van Meerbeeck, Jan P; Parizel, Paul M

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide. On imaging, it typically presents as mass or nodule. Recognition of these typical cases is often straightforward, whereas diagnosis of uncommon manifestations of primary lung cancer is far more challenging. Lung cancer can mimic a variety of benign entities, including pneumonia, lung abscess, postinfectious scarring, atelectasis, a mediastinal mass, emphysema and granulomatous diseases. Correlation with previous history, clinical and biochemical parameters is necessary in the assessment of these cases, but often aspecific and inconclusive. Whereas 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) Positron Emission Tomography is the cornerstone in staging of lung cancer, its role in diagnosis of these uncommon manifestations is less straightforward since benign entities can present with increased 18 F-FDG-uptake and, on the other hand, a number of these uncommon lung cancer manifestations do not exhibit increased uptake. Chest Computed Tomography (CT) is the imaging modality of choice for both lesion detection and characterization. In this pictorial review we present the wide imaging spectrum of CT-findings as well as radiologic-pathologic correlation of these uncommon lung cancer manifestations. Knowledge of the many faces of lung cancer is crucial for early diagnosis and subsequent treatment. A multidisciplinary approach in these cases is mandatory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colella, Sara; Vilmann, Peter; Konge, Lars

    2014-01-01

    a good diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. In the future, these techniques in combination with positron emission tomography/computed tomographic may replace surgical staging in patients with suspected and proven lung cancer, but until then surgical staging remains the gold...... standard for adequate preoperative evaluation....

  2. Quantitative assessment of irradiated lung volume and lung mass in breast cancer patients treated with tangential fields in combination with deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, Karin Sigrid; Zurl, Brigitte; Stranzl, Heidi; Winkler, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Comparison of the amount of irradiated lung tissue volume and mass in patients with breast cancer treated with an optimized tangential-field technique with and without a deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique and its impact on the normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP). Material and Methods: Computed tomography datasets of 60 patients in normal breathing (NB) and subsequently in DIBH were compared. With a Real-Time Position Management Respiratory Gating System (RPM), anteroposterior movement of the chest wall was monitored and a lower and upper threshold were defined. Ipsilateral lung and a restricted tangential region of the lung were delineated and the mean and maximum doses calculated. Irradiated lung tissue mass was computed based on density values. NTCP for lung was calculated using a modified Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. Results: Mean dose to the ipsilateral lung in DIBH versus NB was significantly reduced by 15%. Mean lung mass calculation in the restricted area receiving ≤ 20 Gy (M 20 ) was reduced by 17% in DIBH but associated with an increase in volume. NTCP showed an improvement in DIBH of 20%. The correlation of individual breathing amplitude with NTCP proved to be independent. Conclusion: The delineation of a restricted area provides the lung mass calculation in patients treated with tangential fields. DIBH reduces ipsilateral lung dose by inflation so that less tissue remains in the irradiated region and its efficiency is supported by a decrease of NTCP. (orig.)

  3. On Academician Behounek's paper ''Lung cancer induced by ionizing radiation''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.

    1979-01-01

    The significance and scientific contribution are discussed of the paper ''Lung Cancer Induced by Ionizing Radiation'' submitted by Academician Frantisek Behounek to the nation-wide workshop of the Czechoslovak Society of Pneumology and Oncology in Prague, October 3 and 4, 1952 and published in the Proceedings in 1953. The paper discussed the problem which still remains topical, ie., lung exposure to radon daughters, which Academician Behounek considered to be the true cause of lung cancer in Jachymov miners. (B.S.)

  4. USP1 regulates AKT phosphorylation by modulating the stability of PHLPP1 in lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiqiang, Zhang; Qinghui, Yang; Yongqiang, Zhang; Jian, Zhang; Xin, Zhao; Haiying, Ma; Yuepeng, Guo

    2012-07-01

    Hyperactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling is commonly associated with human tumors including lung cancers. PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 1 (PHLPP1), which terminates Akt signaling by directly dephosphorylating and inactivating Akt, has been identified as a tumor suppressor. The protein level of PHLPP1 is regulated by E3 ligase beta-TRCP, however, the deubiquitinase for PHLPP1 is still not known. The mRNA levels of USP1 and PHLPP1 in lung cancer cells and tissues were determined by real-time PCR. The half-life of PHLPP1 was detected by CHX assay. The interaction between USP1 and PHLPP1 was examined by immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assay. Both USP1 and PHLPP1 are low expressed in lung cancer cells and tissues and silencing of USP1 by RNA interference significantly decreased the half-life of PHLPP1, which in turn amplified Akt1 phosphorylation. Our data identified a novel USP1-PHLPP1-Akt signaling axis, and decreased USP1 level in lung cancer cells may play an important role in lung cancer progress.

  5. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denzel Woode

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD.

  6. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woode, Denzel; Shiomi, Takayuki; D’Armiento, Jeanine, E-mail: jmd12@cumc.columbia.edu [Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10033 (United States)

    2015-02-05

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD.

  7. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woode, Denzel; Shiomi, Takayuki; D’Armiento, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD

  8. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as tumor marker in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mie Grunnet; Sorensen, J B

    2012-01-01

    The use of CEA as a prognostic and predictive marker in patients with lung cancer is widely debated. The aim of this review was to evaluate the results from studies made on this subject. Using the search words "CEA", "tumor markers in lung cancer", "prognostic significance", "diagnostic...... significance" and "predictive significance", a search was carried out on PubMed. Exclusion criteria was articles never published in English, articles before 1981 and articles evaluating tumor markers in lung cancer not involving CEA. Initially 217 articles were found, and 34 were left after selecting those...... relevant for the present study. Four of these included both Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) patients, and 31 dealt solely with NSCLC patients. Regarding SCLC no studies showed that serum level of CEA was a prognostic marker for overall survival (OS). The use of CEA...

  9. Etiology of lung cancer at the Gejiu tin mine, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, S.Q.

    1987-01-01

    There were 1,724 lung cancer cases registered at the Yunnan Tin Corporation in the period 1954-1986, of which 90% had a history of working underground. Previous exposure to radon, and radon daughters and arsenic is considered to be responsible for the high incidence of lung cancer in these miners. Arsenic may come from inhalation of arsenic-containing ore dust or other environmental arsenic pollution. It appears that radon exposure accounts to a greater extent than arsenic for the increase of lung cancer in these miners. Pathological study was made of 100 surgically resected lung cancer specimens. In this way the distribution and composition of dust retention was determined in relation to peripheral lung cancer

  10. Lung cancer in never smokers: disease characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallis, Athanasios G; Syrigos, Konstantinos N

    2013-12-01

    It is estimated that approximately 25% of all lung cancer cases are observed in never-smokers and its incidence is expected to increase due to smoking prevention programs. Risk factors for the development of lung cancer described include second-hand smoking, radon exposure, occupational exposure to carcinogens and to cooking oil fumes and indoor coal burning. Other factors reported are infections (HPV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis), hormonal and diatery factors and diabetes mellitus. Having an affected relative also increases the risk for lung cancer while recent studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with increased risk for lung cancer development in never smokers. Distinct clinical, pathology and molecular characteristics are observed in lung cancer in never smokers; more frequently is observed in females and adenocarcinoma is the predominant histology while it has a different pattern of molecular alterations. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of this disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation of metabolic information on FDG-PET with tissue expression of immune markers in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who are candidates for upfront surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta; Olivari, Laura [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Toschi, Luca; Marchetti, Silvia; Pistillo, Daniela [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Oncology, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Grizzi, Fabio; Castino, Giovanni Francesco; Cortese, Nina; Qehajaj, Dorina [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Department of Immunology and Inflammation, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Rahal, Daoud [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Department of Pathology, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Alloisio, Marco [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Thoracic Surgery, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Roncalli, Massimo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Department of Pathology, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Humanitas University, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Allavena, Paola [Humanitas University, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Santoro, Armando [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Oncology, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Humanitas University, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Marchesi, Federica [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Department of Immunology and Inflammation, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Department of Medical Biotechnologies and Translational Medicine, Milan (Italy); Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Humanitas University, Rozzano, Milan (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    Eliciting antitumor T-cell response by targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis with checkpoint inhibitors has emerged as a novel therapeutic strategy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The identification of predictors for sensitivity or resistance to these agents is, therefore, needed. Herein, we investigate the correlation of metabolic information on FDG-PET with tissue expression of immune-checkpoints and other markers of tumor-related immunity in resected NSCLC patients. All patients referred to our institution for upfront surgical resection of NSCLC, who were investigated with FDG-PET prior to surgery, were consecutively included in the study. From January 2010 to May 2014, 55 patients (stage IA-IIIB; M:F = 42:13; mean age 68.9 years) were investigated. Sampled surgical tumor specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CD68-TAMs (tumor-associated macrophages), CD8-TILs (tumor infiltrating lymphocytes), PD-1-TILs, and PD-L1 tumor expression. Immunoreactivity was evaluated, and scores were compared with imaging findings. FDG-PET images were analyzed to define semi-quantitative parameters: SUVmax and SUVmean. Metabolic information on FDG-PET was correlated with tissue markers expression and disease-free survival (DFS) considering a median follow-up of 16.2 months. Thirty-six adenocarcinomas (ADC), 18 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), and one sarcomatoid carcinoma were analyzed. All tumors resulted positive at FDG-PET: median SUVmax 11.3 (range: 2.3-32.5) and SUVmean 6.4 (range: 1.5-13) both resulted significantly higher in SCC compared to other NSCLC histotypes (p = 0.007 and 0.048, respectively). IHC demonstrated a median immunoreactive surface covered by CD68-TAMs of 5.41 % (range: 0.84-14.01 %), CD8-TILs of 2.9 % (range: 0.11-11.92 %), PD-1 of 0.65 % (range: 0.02-5.87 %), and PD-L1 of 0.7 % (range: 0.03-10.29 %). We found a statistically significant correlation between SUVmax and SUVmean with the expression of CD8 TILs (rho = 0.31; p = 0.027) and PD-1

  12. Correlation of metabolic information on FDG-PET with tissue expression of immune markers in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who are candidates for upfront surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopci, Egesta; Olivari, Laura; Toschi, Luca; Marchetti, Silvia; Pistillo, Daniela; Grizzi, Fabio; Castino, Giovanni Francesco; Cortese, Nina; Qehajaj, Dorina; Rahal, Daoud; Alloisio, Marco; Roncalli, Massimo; Allavena, Paola; Santoro, Armando; Marchesi, Federica; Chiti, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Eliciting antitumor T-cell response by targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis with checkpoint inhibitors has emerged as a novel therapeutic strategy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The identification of predictors for sensitivity or resistance to these agents is, therefore, needed. Herein, we investigate the correlation of metabolic information on FDG-PET with tissue expression of immune-checkpoints and other markers of tumor-related immunity in resected NSCLC patients. All patients referred to our institution for upfront surgical resection of NSCLC, who were investigated with FDG-PET prior to surgery, were consecutively included in the study. From January 2010 to May 2014, 55 patients (stage IA-IIIB; M:F = 42:13; mean age 68.9 years) were investigated. Sampled surgical tumor specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CD68-TAMs (tumor-associated macrophages), CD8-TILs (tumor infiltrating lymphocytes), PD-1-TILs, and PD-L1 tumor expression. Immunoreactivity was evaluated, and scores were compared with imaging findings. FDG-PET images were analyzed to define semi-quantitative parameters: SUVmax and SUVmean. Metabolic information on FDG-PET was correlated with tissue markers expression and disease-free survival (DFS) considering a median follow-up of 16.2 months. Thirty-six adenocarcinomas (ADC), 18 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), and one sarcomatoid carcinoma were analyzed. All tumors resulted positive at FDG-PET: median SUVmax 11.3 (range: 2.3-32.5) and SUVmean 6.4 (range: 1.5-13) both resulted significantly higher in SCC compared to other NSCLC histotypes (p = 0.007 and 0.048, respectively). IHC demonstrated a median immunoreactive surface covered by CD68-TAMs of 5.41 % (range: 0.84-14.01 %), CD8-TILs of 2.9 % (range: 0.11-11.92 %), PD-1 of 0.65 % (range: 0.02-5.87 %), and PD-L1 of 0.7 % (range: 0.03-10.29 %). We found a statistically significant correlation between SUVmax and SUVmean with the expression of CD8 TILs (rho = 0.31; p = 0.027) and PD-1

  13. Analytic performance studies and clinical reproducibility of a real-time PCR assay for the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutations in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Donnell, Patrick; Shieh, Felice; Wei, Wen; Lawrence, H Jeffrey; Wu, Lin; Schilling, Robert; Bloom, Kenneth; Maltzman, Warren; Anderson, Steven; Soviero, Stephen; Ferguson, Jane; Shyu, Johnny; Current, Robert; Rehage, Taraneh; Tsai, Julie; Christensen, Mari; Tran, Ha Bich; Chien, Sean Shih-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations identify patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have a high likelihood of benefiting from treatment with anti-EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Sanger sequencing is widely used for mutation detection but can be technically challenging, resulting in longer turn-around-time, with limited sensitivity for low levels of mutations. This manuscript details the technical performance verification studies and external clinical reproducibility studies of the cobas EGFR Mutation Test, a rapid multiplex real-time PCR assay designed to detect 41 mutations in exons 18, 19, 20 and 21. The assay’s limit of detection was determined using 25 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET)-derived and plasmid DNA blends. Assay performance for a panel of 201 specimens was compared against Sanger sequencing with resolution of discordant specimens by quantitative massively parallel pyrosequencing (MPP). Internal and external reproducibility was assessed using specimens tested in duplicate by different operators, using different reagent lots, instruments and at different sites. The effects on the performance of the cobas EGFR test of endogenous substances and nine therapeutic drugs were evaluated in ten FFPET specimens. Other tests included an evaluation of the effects of necrosis, micro-organisms and homologous DNA sequences on assay performance, and the inclusivity of the assay for less frequent mutations. A >95% hit rate was obtained in blends with >5% mutant alleles, as determined by MPP analysis, at a total DNA input of 150 ng. The overall percent agreement between Sanger sequencing and the cobas test was 96.7% (negative percent agreement 97.5%; positive percent agreement 95.8%). Assay repeatability was 98% when tested with two operators, instruments, and reagent lots. In the external reproducibility study, the agreement was > 99% across all sites, all operators and all reagent lots for 11/12 tumors tested. Test

  14. Emerging roles of RAC1 in treating lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, T; Mao, X; Yin, J; Li, X; Chen, J; Zhu, T; Li, Q; Zhou, H; Liu, Z

    2017-04-01

    The Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1), a member of the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases, is critical for many cellular activities, such as phagocytosis, adhesion, migration, motility, cell proliferation, and axonal growth. In addition, RAC1 plays an important role in cancer angiogenesis, invasion, and migration, and it has been reported to be related to most cancers, such as breast cancer, gastric cancer, testicular germ cell cancer, and lung cancer. Recently, the therapeutic target of RAC1 in cancer has been investigated. In addition, some investigations have shown that inhibition of RAC1 can reverse drug-resistance in non-small cell lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in understanding the role of RAC1 in lung cancer and the underlying mechanisms and discuss its value in clinical therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Expression of high mobility group box-1 in the lung tissue and serum of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-min; Yang, Hua

    2013-07-01

    To explore the expression of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in the lung tissue and serum of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and to explore its relationship with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin(IL)-1β. Sixty samples of lung tissues were obtained from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who had underwent pneumonectomy in Department of Chest Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College from June 2010 to December 2011. At the same period, 40 normal lung samples were also obtained from patients with pulmonary contusion and lung cancer by surgical resections as the control group. The mRNA expressions of HMGB1 was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the protein level of HMGB1 was measured by immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays in lung tissue. Blood samples were taken from 89 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (pulmonary tuberculosis group), including hematogenous disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis (type II) in 35 cases and secondary pulmonary tuberculosis (type III) in 54 cases, and 50 healthy volunteers (control group). Furthermore, the 54 patients with secondary pulmonary tuberculosis were divided into different subgroups according to cavity formation and the lung fields involved: patients without lung cavity (35 cases) vs those with lung cavity (19 cases), patients with involvement of pulmonary tuberculosis (69 ± 29) was significantly higher than that in normal lung tissue (22 ± 12) (t = 2.389, P pulmonary tuberculosis (786 ± 86) was significantly higher than that in normal lung tissue (202 ± 60) (t = 3.872, P pulmonary tuberculosis group were (5.0 ± 3.2) µg/L, (118 ± 77) ng/L and (33 ± 20) ng/L, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the control group [(1.7 ± 1.0) µg/L, (40 ± 11) ng/L and (18 ± 12) ng/L, respectively], the respective t values being -0.928, 4.268 and 11.064, all P pulmonary tuberculosis, the serum concentration of HMGB

  16. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  17. Chemoradiotherapy for lung cancer. Current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Yuichiro

    2004-01-01

    For many years, thoracic radiotherapy had been regarded as the standard treatment for patients with unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. However, meta-analyses show that cisplatin-containing chemoradiotherapy is significantly superior to radiotherapy alone in terms of survival. Moreover, concurrent chemoradiotherapy yields a significantly increased response rate and enhanced survival duration when compared with the sequential approach. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy with concurrent thoracic radiotherapy yields a 5-year survival rate of approximately 15% for patients with unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The state-of-the-art treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer is considered to be four cycles of combination chemotherapy with cisplatin plus etoposide combined with early concurrent twice-daily thoracic irradiation (45 Gy). If patients achieve complete remission, prophylactic cranial irradiation should be administered. A 5-year survival rate of approximately 25% is expected with the state-of-the-art treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer. Chemoradiotherapy is considered to be a standard treatment for both unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer and limited-stage small cell lung cancer. Several new strategies are currently being investigated to improve the survival of these patients. The incorporation of target-based drugs such as gefitinib is considered to be the most promising strategy for unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The incorporation of irinotecan is also a promising strategy to improve the survival of patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group is conducting clinical trials to develop new treatment strategies for both unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer and limited-stage small cell lung cancer. (author)

  18. Treatment of stage III non-small cell lung cancer and limited-disease small-cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Sharouni, S.Y.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis concerns the treatment of stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and limited disease small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). We described a systematic review on the clinical results of radiotherapy, combined or not with chemotherapy, for inoperable NSCLC stage III with the aim to define the

  19. Lung cancer radiosensitization by CMNa in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xia; Ouyang Xienong; Ji Hongbing; Chen Zhonghua; Yang Rujun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To probe into the radiosensitization effect of CMNa on lung tumor cell lines after γ-irradiation combined with γ-knife to treat patients suffering from lung cancer. Methods: 1. Cells of small cell lung cancer cell line NCI-H446 and non-small cell lung cancer cell line NCI-H596 irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays combined with or without CMNa were counted using trypan blue exclusion methods, and cell survival rate curves were depicted. 2. Patients suffering from lung cancer at different clinical stages were treated using γ-knife combined with or without CMNa, and the curative effect was evaluated 6 weeks after one cycle of treatment. Results: CMNa could significantly increase the sensitivity of lung cancer cell lines to γ-irradiation. Curative effect increased significantly by γ-knife treatment combined with CMNa i. e., the CR+PR rates for these two groups were 47.22% and 37.67% separately (P 0.05). Conclusion: CMNa could significantly increase the radiation sensitivity of lung cancer cell line cells in vitro and tumors in vivo, therefore, it could be used as a radiosensitization agent in clinical treatment of lung cancer. (authors)

  20. [CT-Screening for Lung Cancer - what is the Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermann, Iris; Reck, Martin

    2018-04-01

    In patients with lung cancer treatment opportunities and prognosis are correlated to the stage of disease with a chance for curative treatment in patients with early stage disease. Therefore, early detection of lung cancer is of paramount importance for improving the prognosis of lung cancer patients.The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) has already shown that low-dose CT increases the number of identified early stage lung cancer patients and reduces lung cancer related mortality. Critically considered in terms of CT-screening are false-positive results, overdiagnosis and unessential invasive clarification. Preliminary results of relatively small European trials haven´t yet confirmed the results of the NLST-study.Until now Lung Cancer Screening by low dose CT-scan or other methods is neither approved nor available in Germany.To improve the efficacy of CT-Screening and to introduce early detection of lung cancer in standard practice, additional, complementing methods should be further evaluated. One option might be the supplementary analysis of biomarkers in liquid biopsies or exhaled breath condensates. In addition, defining the high-risk population is of great relevance to identify candidates who might benefit of early detection programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampitsakos, Theodoros; Tzilas, Vasilios; Tringidou, Rodoula; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Aidinis, Vasilis; Papiris, Spyros A; Bouros, Demosthenes; Tzouvelekis, Argyris

    2017-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown etiology. With a gradually increasing worldwide prevalence and a mortality rate exceeding that of many cancers, IPF diagnosis and management are critically important and require a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach. This approach also involves assessment of comorbid conditions, such as lung cancer, that exerts a dramatic impact on disease survival. Emerging evidence suggests that progressive lung scarring in the context of IPF represents a risk factor for lung carcinogenesis. Both disease entities present with major similarities in terms of pathogenetic pathways, as well as potential causative factors, such as smoking and viral infections. Besides disease pathogenesis, anti-cancer agents, including nintedanib, have been successfully applied in the treatment of patients with IPF while an oncologic approach with a cocktail of several pleiotropic anti-fibrotic agents is currently in the therapeutic pipeline of IPF. Nevertheless, epidemiologic association between IPF and lung cancer does not prove causality. Currently there is significant lack of knowledge supporting a direct association between lung fibrosis and cancer reflecting to disappointing therapeutic algorithms. An optimal therapeutic strategy for patients with both IPF and lung cancer represents an amenable need. This review article synthesizes the current state of knowledge regarding pathogenetic commonalities between IPF and lung cancer and focuses on clinical and therapeutic data that involve both disease entities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Squamous cell lung cancer in a male with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowroński, Marcin; Iwanik, Katarzyna; Halicka, Anna; Barinow-Wojewódzki, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are highly prevalent and representing major public health issues. They share common risk factors and clinical manifestations. It is also suggested that TB predicts raised lung cancer risk likely related to chronic inflammation in the lungs. However, it does not seem to influence the clinical course of lung cancer provided that it is properly treated. We present a case report of a 57-year old male with concurrent TB and lung cancer. He was diagnosed with positive sputum smear for acid fast bacilli (AFB) and subsequent culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Besides, his comorbid conditions were chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and peripheral artery disease (PAD). Later while on anti-tuberculous treatment (ATT) squamous cell lung cancer (SCC) was confirmed with computed tomography (CT) guided biopsy. Due to poor general condition the patient was not fit for either surgery or radical chemo- and radiotherapy. He was transferred to hospice for palliative therapy. We want to emphasize that both TB and lung cancer should be actively sought for in patients with either disorder. In addition, there is no doubt that these patients with lung cancer and with good response to TB treatment should be promptly considered for appropriate anticancer therapy.

  3. TP53 Mutations in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Mogi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tumor suppressor gene TP53 is frequently mutated in human cancers. Abnormality of the TP53 gene is one of the most significant events in lung cancers and plays an important role in the tumorigenesis of lung epithelial cells. Human lung cancers are classified into two major types, small cell lung cancer (SCLC and nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The latter accounts for approximately 80% of all primary lung cancers, and the incidence of NSCLC is increasing yearly. Most clinical studies suggest that NSCLC with TP53 alterations carries a worse prognosis and may be relatively more resistant to chemotherapy and radiation. A deep understanding of the role of TP53 in lung carcinogenesis may lead to a more reasonably targeted clinical approach, which should be exploited to enhance the survival rates of patients with lung cancer. This paper will focus on the role of TP53 in the molecular pathogenesis, epidemiology, and therapeutic strategies of TP53 mutation in NSCLC.

  4. Computer aided detection system for lung cancer using computer tomography scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Shanthi; Rakesh, Spoorthi; Patil, Vidya C.

    2018-04-01

    Lung Cancer is a disease can be defined as uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. If we detect the Lung Cancer in its early stage, then that could be the key of its cure. In this work the non-invasive methods are studied for assisting in nodule detection. It supplies a Computer Aided Diagnosis System (CAD) for early detection of lung cancer nodules from the Computer Tomography (CT) images. CAD system is the one which helps to improve the diagnostic performance of radiologists in their image interpretations. The main aim of this technique is to develop a CAD system for finding the lung cancer using the lung CT images and classify the nodule as Benign or Malignant. For classifying cancer cells, SVM classifier is used. Here, image processing techniques have been used to de-noise, to enhance, for segmentation and edge detection of an image is used to extract the area, perimeter and shape of nodule. The core factors of this research are Image quality and accuracy.

  5. Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE study: An integrative population-based case-control study of lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombi Antonio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Tobacco smoking is its primary cause, and yet the precise molecular alterations induced by smoking in lung tissue that lead to lung cancer and impact survival have remained obscure. A new framework of research is needed to address the challenges offered by this complex disease. Methods/Design We designed a large population-based case-control study that combines a traditional molecular epidemiology design with a more integrative approach to investigate the dynamic process that begins with smoking initiation, proceeds through dependency/smoking persistence, continues with lung cancer development and ends with progression to disseminated disease or response to therapy and survival. The study allows the integration of data from multiple sources in the same subjects (risk factors, germline variation, genomic alterations in tumors, and clinical endpoints to tackle the disease etiology from different angles. Before beginning the study, we conducted a phone survey and pilot investigations to identify the best approach to ensure an acceptable participation in the study from cases and controls. Between 2002 and 2005, we enrolled 2101 incident primary lung cancer cases and 2120 population controls, with 86.6% and 72.4% participation rate, respectively, from a catchment area including 216 municipalities in the Lombardy region of Italy. Lung cancer cases were enrolled in 13 hospitals and population controls were randomly sampled from the area to match the cases by age, gender and residence. Detailed epidemiological information and biospecimens were collected from each participant, and clinical data and tissue specimens from the cases. Collection of follow-up data on treatment and survival is ongoing. Discussion EAGLE is a new population-based case-control study that explores the full spectrum of lung cancer etiology, from smoking addiction to lung cancer outcome, through

  6. Research Progress of Exosomes in Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo ZOU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the leading cause of morbidity and cancer related-death worldwide, lung cancer has a serious threat to human health. Exosomes are nanoscale lipid membrane vesicles derived from multivesicles, which containing active biomolecules including proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and etc. Exosomes play important roles in lung cancer initiation and progression by promoting the formation of tumor microenvironment, enhancing tumor invasive and metastasis capability, leading to immunosuppression and resistance to chemoradiotherapy, and also have the application value in early diagnosis and treatment. This review summarizes the research progress of exosomes in tumor initiation and progression, and its roles in diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.

  7. Outcomes in Lung Cancer: 9-Year Experience From a Tertiary Cancer Center in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Navile Murali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality in the world. There are limited studies on survival outcomes of lung cancer in developing countries such as India. This study analyzed the outcomes of patients with lung cancer who underwent treatment at Cancer Institute (WIA, Chennai, India, between 2006 and 2015 to determine survival outcomes and identify prognostic factors. Patients and Methods: In all, 678 patients with lung cancer underwent treatment. Median age was 58 years, and 91% of patients had non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Testing for epidermal growth factor receptor mutation was performed in 132 of 347 patients and 61 (46% were positive. Results: Median progression-free survival was 6.9 months and overall survival (OS was 7.6 months for patients with NSCLC. Median progression-free survival was 6 months and OS was 7.2 months for patients with small-cell lung cancer. On multivariable analysis, the factors found to be significantly associated with inferior OS in NSCLC included nonadenocarcinoma histology, performance status more than 2, and stage. In small-cell lung cancer, younger age and earlier stage at presentation showed significantly better survival. Conclusion: Our study highlights the challenges faced in treating lung cancer in India. Although median survival in advanced-stage lung cancer is still poor, strategies such as personalized medicine and use of second-line and maintenance chemotherapy may significantly improve the survival in patients with advanced-stage lung cancer in developing countries.

  8. Outcomes in Lung Cancer: 9-Year Experience From a Tertiary Cancer Center in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Aditya Navile; Ganesan, Trivadi S.; Rajendranath, Rejiv; Ganesan, Prasanth; Selvaluxmy, Ganesarajah; Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Sundersingh, Shirley; Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Sagar, Tenali Gnana

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality in the world. There are limited studies on survival outcomes of lung cancer in developing countries such as India. This study analyzed the outcomes of patients with lung cancer who underwent treatment at Cancer Institute (WIA), Chennai, India, between 2006 and 2015 to determine survival outcomes and identify prognostic factors. Patients and Methods In all, 678 patients with lung cancer underwent treatment. Median age was 58 years, and 91% of patients had non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Testing for epidermal growth factor receptor mutation was performed in 132 of 347 patients and 61 (46%) were positive. Results Median progression-free survival was 6.9 months and overall survival (OS) was 7.6 months for patients with NSCLC. Median progression-free survival was 6 months and OS was 7.2 months for patients with small-cell lung cancer. On multivariable analysis, the factors found to be significantly associated with inferior OS in NSCLC included nonadenocarcinoma histology, performance status more than 2, and stage. In small-cell lung cancer, younger age and earlier stage at presentation showed significantly better survival. Conclusion Our study highlights the challenges faced in treating lung cancer in India. Although median survival in advanced-stage lung cancer is still poor, strategies such as personalized medicine and use of second-line and maintenance chemotherapy may significantly improve the survival in patients with advanced-stage lung cancer in developing countries. PMID:29094084

  9. Lung Cancer, Questions to Ask Your Health Professional | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Questions to Ask Your Health Professional Past Issues / ... answer questions about cancer at 1-800-4-CANCER. The NCI Lung Cancer Home Page provides up-to-date information ...

  10. Expression of hPNAS-4 Radiosensitizes Lewis Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Hui; Yuan Zhu; Zhu Hong; Li Lei; Shi Huashan; Wang Zi; Fan Yu; Deng Qian; Zeng Jianshuang; He Yinbo; Xiao Jianghong; Li Zhiping

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to transfer the hPNAS-4 gene, a novel apoptosis-related human gene, into Lewis lung cancer (LL2) and observe its radiosensitive effect on radiation therapy in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: The hPNAS-4 gene was transfected into LL2 cells, and its expression was detected via western blot. Colony formation assay and flow cytometry were used to detect the growth and apoptosis of cells treated with irradiation/PNAS-4 in vitro. The hPNAS-4 gene was transferred into LL2-bearing mice through tail vein injection of the liposome/gene complex. The tumor volumes were recorded after radiation therapy. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay were performed to detect the tumor cell growth and apoptosis in vivo. Results: The hPNAS-4 gene was successfully transferred into LL2 cells and tumor tissue, and its overexpressions were confirmed via western blot analysis. Compared with the control, empty plasmid, hPNAS-4, radiation, and empty plasmid plus radiation groups, the hPNAS-4 plus radiation group more significantly inhibited growth and enhanced apoptosis of LL2 cells in vitro and in vivo (P<.05). Conclusions: The hPNAS-4 gene was successfully transferred into LL2 cells and tumor tissue and was expressed in both LL2 cell and tumor tissue. The hPNAS-4 gene therapy significantly enhanced growth inhibition and apoptosis of LL2 tumor cells by radiation therapy in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, it may be a potential radiosensitive treatment of radiation therapy for lung cancer.

  11. Mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark: Results from the Danish Lung Cancer Group 2000-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis; Green, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background In the 1990s outcomes in Danish lung cancer patients were poor compared with the other Nordic countries. The five-year survival was only about 5%, only 10% of patients were operated on and less than 60% received active surgical or oncologic treatment. This paper describes trends...... in mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark from 2000 to 2012. Methods The study population comprised 52 435 patients with a diagnosis of cancer of the trachea and the lung, primarily ascertained from the Danish Lung Cancer Register and grouped into three cohorts by year of diagnosis. The outcome...... for all strata by gender, comorbidity, stage and surgery status and was accompanied by corresponding improvements in both absolute and relative survival. Conclusions The mortality has been significantly declining and the prognosis correspondingly improving in lung cancer in Denmark since the turn...

  12. Plain radiographic findings of lung cancer with delayed diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kyu Ok; Chung, Jin Ill

    1994-01-01

    In Korea, Lung cancer is the Second most common prevailing malignancy among male population next to stomach cancer. Although CT scan and MRI is widely used in the staging of lung cancer, plain chest x-ray still plays an important role in screening and diagnosis. Our intention was to review the confusing radiographic features which result in delayed diagnosis of lung cancer. Of the 160 patients with lung cancer evaluated by us, 62 patients(39%) with delayed diagnosis and average diagnostic duration of 5.1 months compared with 2.1 months for those without delay. We reviewed the plain chest x-ray findings of those 62 patients. The diagnosis of lung cancer was delayed more than half of the cases under the impression of intrathoracic tuberculosis. Upon reviewing the roentgenologic findings in patients with diagnostic delay, central type appeared as a small hilar or mediastinal mass with or without obstructive pneumonia. Peripheral type appeared as an ill-defined pulmonary module, a nodule hidden by overlapping structures, or as a lung cancer associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Some cases were misinterpreted as extranodal spread of malignancy. To solve above mentioned problems, we recommend proper understanding of natural history of lung cancer, incorporation of high kVp technique in chest radiographs, routine acquisition of lateral chest radiograph to increase diagnostic accuracy, and appropriate use of CT scan in cases of difficult diagnosis

  13. Lung cancer epidemiology and risk factors in Asia and Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, W.K.; White, N.W.; Chan-Yeung, M.M. [University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2004-07-01

    In Industrialized Countries, lung cancer is the most common form of cancer among males and it is growing among females. For both sexes, rates reflect smoking behaviours. The pattern appears to be different in Asia, particularly in China, where lung cancer rates in men reflect high smoking rates but high rates among non-smoking women appear to be related to other factors. The incidence of lung cancer is low in most African countries, but it is increasing. In addition to tobacco smoking, a number of aetiological factors have been identified for lung cancer: indoor exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, cooking oil vapour, coal burning or radon, outdoor air pollution and occupational exposure to asbestos and other carcinogens. Recent studies have shown that dietary factors may be important, with high consumption of vegetables and fruits being protective, while preserved foods and fatty foods are harmful, and certain infections such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, human papillomavirus and Microsporum canis are associated with a high risk of lung cancer. Among non-smokers, the probable role of genetic predisposition in lung cancer by increasing the individual's susceptibility to environmental carcinogens is currently being studied actively. As the single most important cause for lung cancer is tobacco smoke and, with increased sales, a major epidemic is predicted for both Asia and Africa, all health care professionals, government health authorities and national and international health organizations must join in a concerted effort against tobacco. 135 refs.

  14. Cadmium and lung cancer mortality accounting for simultaneous arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Robert M; Stayner, Leslie T; Petersen, Martin R; Finley-Couch, Melissa; Hornung, Richard; Rice, Carol

    2012-05-01

    Prior investigations identified an association between airborne cadmium and lung cancer but questions remain regarding confounding by arsenic, a well-established lung carcinogen. A cadmium smelter population exhibiting excess lung cancer was re-analysed using a retrospective exposure assessment for arsenic (As), updated mortality (1940-2002), a revised cadmium (Cd) exposure matrix and improved work history information. Cumulative exposure metrics for both cadmium and arsenic were strongly associated making estimation of their independent effects difficult. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were modelled with Poisson regression with the contribution of arsenic to lung cancer risk constrained by exposure-response estimates previously reported. The results demonstrate (1) a statistically significant effect of Cd independent of As (SMR=3.2 for 10 mg-year/m(3) Cd, p=0.012), (2) a substantial healthy worker effect for lung cancer (for unexposed workers, SMR=0.69) and (3) a large deficit in lung cancer mortality among Hispanic workers (SMR=0.27, p=0.009), known to have low lung cancer rates. A supralinear dose-rate effect was observed (contribution to risk with increasing exposure intensity has declining positive slope). Lung cancer mortality was somewhat better predicted using a cadmium burden metric with a half-life of about 20-25 years. These findings support an independent effect for cadmium in risk of lung cancer mortality. 1/1000 excess lifetime risk of lung cancer death is predicted from an airborne exposure of about 2.4 μg/m(3) Cd.

  15. Lung Cancers Associated with Cystic Airspaces: Underrecognized Features of Early Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, Sarah; Moser, Joanna; Sayer, Charlie; Stefanidis, Konstantinos; Devaraj, Anand; Vlahos, Ioannis

    2018-01-01

    Early lung cancers associated with cystic airspaces are increasingly being recognized as a cause of delayed diagnoses-owing to data gathered from screening trials and encounters in routine clinical practice as more patients undergo serial imaging. Several morphologic subtypes of cancers associated with cystic airspaces exist and can exhibit variable patterns of progression as the solid elements of the tumor grow. Current understanding of the pathogenesis of these malignancies is limited, and the numbers of cases reported in the literature are small. However, several tumor cell types are represented in these lesions, with adenocarcinoma predominating. The features of cystic airspaces differ among cases and include emphysematous bullae, congenital or fibrotic cysts, subpleural blebs, bronchiectatic airways, and distended distal airspaces. Once identified, these cystic lesions pose management challenges to radiologists in terms of distinguishing them from benign mimics of cancer that are commonly seen in patients who also are at increased risk of lung cancer. Rendering a definitive tissue-based diagnosis can be difficult when the lesions are small, and affected patients tend to be in groups that are at higher risk of requiring biopsy or resection. In addition, the decision to monitor these cases can add to patient anxiety and cause the additional burden of strained departmental resources. The authors have drawn from their experience, emerging evidence from international lung cancer screening trials, and large databases of lung cancer cases from other groups to analyze the prevalence and evolution of lung cancers associated with cystic airspaces and provide guidance for managing these lesions. Although there are insufficient data to support specific management guidelines similar to those for managing small solid and ground-glass lung nodules, these data and guidelines should be the direction for ongoing research on early detection of lung cancer. © RSNA, 2018.

  16. CLINICAL PROFILE OF PRIMARY LUNG CANCER AND ROLE OF BRONCHOSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharate

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cancer is a Latin word meaning "A CRAB". The Greek word for a crab is "KARKINES" and Sanskrit word is "KARKARA ” . (1 Lung cancer is one of the commonest fatal neoplastic disease s in the world . It is at the first place at central and North India and at second place at south India. It is estimated that, every year in India, about 30,000 new lung cancer cases are registered .

  17. Quality of life of lung cancer patients receiving outpatient chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    MATSUDA, AYAKO; KOBAYASHI, MIKA; SAKAKIBARA, YUMI; TAMAOKA, MEIYO; FURUIYE, MASASHI; INASE, NAOHIKO; MATSUSHIMA, EISUKE

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients receive outpatient chemotherapy as an alternative to inpatient chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether quality of life (QOL) during outpatient chemotherapy was better than QOL prior to hospital discharge, and to explore possible related factors prior to hospital discharge that affected the QOL of lung cancer patients who received outpatient chemotherapy. Lung cancer inpatients who were scheduled for outpatient chemotherapy were as...

  18. Monoclonal Antibody L1Mab-13 Detected Human PD-L1 in Lung Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinji; Itai, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Takuro; Yanaka, Miyuki; Chang, Yao-Wen; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Kaneko, Mika K; Kato, Yukinari

    2018-04-01

    Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on antigen-presenting cells. It is also expressed in several tumor cells such as melanoma and lung cancer cells. A strong correlation has been reported between human PD-L1 (hPD-L1) expression in tumor cells and negative prognosis in cancer patients. Here, a novel anti-hPD-L1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) L 1 Mab-13 (IgG 1 , kappa) was produced using a cell-based immunization and screening (CBIS) method. We investigated hPD-L1 expression in lung cancer using flow cytometry, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analyses. L 1 Mab-13 specifically reacted hPD-L1 of hPD-L1-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells and endogenous hPD-L1 of KMST-6 (human fibroblast) in flow cytometry and Western blot. Furthermore, L 1 Mab-13 reacted with lung cancer cell lines (EBC-1, Lu65, and Lu99) in flow cytometry and stained lung cancer tissues in a membrane-staining pattern in immunohistochemical analysis. These results indicate that a novel anti-hPD-L1 mAb, L 1 Mab-13, is very useful for detecting hPD-L1 of lung cancers in flow cytometry, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analyses.

  19. Lung cancer in never smokers Epidemiology and risk prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, William J.; Meza, Rafael; Jeon, Jihyoun; Moolgavkar, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we review the epidemiology of lung cancer incidence and mortality among never smokers/ nonsmokers and describe the never smoker lung cancer risk models used by CISNET modelers. Our review focuses on those influences likely to have measurable population impact on never smoker risk, such as secondhand smoke, even though the individual-level impact may be small. Occupational exposures may also contribute importantly to the population attributable risk of lung cancer. We examine the following risk factors in this chapter: age, environmental tobacco smoke, cooking fumes, ionizing radiation including radon gas, inherited genetic susceptibility, selected occupational exposures, preexisting lung disease, and oncogenic viruses. We also compare the prevalence of never smokers between the three CISNET smoking scenarios and present the corresponding lung cancer mortality estimates among never smokers as predicted by a typical CISNET model. PMID:22882894

  20. Tumourigenic non-small-cell lung cancer mesenchymal circulating tumour cells: a clinical case study

    OpenAIRE

    Morrow, C. J.; Trapani, F.; Metcalf, R. L.; Bertolini, G.; Hodgkinson, C. L.; Khandelwal, G.; Kelly, P.; Galvin, M.; Carter, L.; Simpson, K. L.; Williamson, S.; Wirth, C.; Simms, N.; Frankliln, L.; Frese, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, numerous reports describe the generation and increasing utility of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient-derived xenografts (PDX) from tissue biopsies. While PDX have proven useful for genetic profiling and preclinical drug testing, the requirement of a tissue biopsy limits the available patient population, particularly those with advanced oligometastatic disease. Conversely, ?liquid biopsies? such as circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are minimally invasive...

  1. Bmi-1 expression modulates non-small cell lung cancer progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dan; Ye, Yunlin; Fu, Yujie; Wang, Jinglong; Kuang, Bohua; Wang, Hongbo; Wang, Xiumin; Zu, Lidong; Xiao, Gang; Hao, Mingang; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that the role of B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi-1) is responsible for multiple cancer progression. However, Bmi-1 in controlling gene expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development is not well explored. Here we report that the Bmi-1 level is highly increased in primary NSCLC tissues compared to matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues and required for lung tumor growth in xenograft model. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that Bmi-1 level is lower in matched involved lymph node cancerous tissues than the respective primary NSCLC tissues. We find that Bmi-1 does not affect cell cycle and apoptosis in lung cancer cell lines as it does not affect the expression of p16/p19, Pten, AKT and P-AKT. Mechanistic analyses note that reduction of Bmi-1 expression inversely regulates invasion and metastasis of NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo, followed by induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Using genome microarray assays, we find that RNAi-mediated silence of Bmi-1 modulates some important molecular genetics or signaling pathways, potentially associated with NSCLC development. Taken together, our findings disclose for the first time that Bmi-1 level accumulates strongly in early stage and then declines in late stage, which is potentially important for NSCLC cell invasion and metastasis during progression. PMID:25880371

  2. Angiogenin and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in lungs of lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Ales; Silar, Mira; Kosnik, Mitja

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND.: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Angiogenesis is crucial process in cancer growth and progression. This prospective study evaluated expression of two central regulatory molecules: angiogenin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS.: Clinical data, blood samples and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) from 23 patients with primary lung carcinoma were collected. BAL fluid was taken from part of the lung with malignancy, and from corresponding healthy side of the lung. VEGF and angiogenin concentrations were analysed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dilution of bronchial secretions in the BAL fluid was calculated from urea concentration ratio between serum and BAL fluid. RESULTS.: We found no statistical correlation between angiogenin concentrations in serum and in bronchial secretions from both parts of the lung. VEGF concentrations were greater in bronchial secretions in the affected side of the lung than on healthy side. Both concentrations were greater than serum VEGF concentration. VEGF concentration in serum was in positive correlation with tumour size (p = 0,003) and with metastatic stage of disease (p = 0,041). There was correlation between VEGF and angiogenin concentrations in bronchial secretions from healthy side of the lung and between VEGF and angiogenin concentrations in bronchial secretions from part of the lung with malignancy. CONCLUSION.: Angiogenin and VEGF concentrations in systemic, background and local samples of patients with lung cancer are affected by different mechanisms. Pro-angiogenic activity of lung cancer has an important influence on the levels of angiogenin and VEGF.

  3. [DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF TUMOROID-LIKE ABSCESS AND LUNG CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churylin, R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of work is development and clarification of roentgenology displays of tumoroidea variant of abscess of lungs for differential diagnostics him with the cancer of lungs. Practically in most cases abscess of lungs there is a necessity of leadthrough of differential diagnostics with in a number of nosology forms, including with the cavernous form of peripheral cancer of lungs. The features of flow of roentgenologic picture of tumoroidea variant are resulted, alike symptoms, differ ences and signs which allow to set a correct diagnosis, are resulted, the value of follow-up of roent genologic research and use of computed tomography is underlined.

  4. Nonmuscle Tissues Contribution to Cancer Cachexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Argilés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cachexia is a syndrome associated with cancer, characterized by body weight loss, muscle and adipose tissue wasting, and inflammation, being often associated with anorexia. In spite of the fact that muscle tissue represents more than 40% of body weight and seems to be the main tissue involved in the wasting that occurs during cachexia, recent developments suggest that tissues/organs such as adipose (both brown and white, brain, liver, gut, and heart are directly involved in the cachectic process and may be responsible for muscle wasting. This suggests that cachexia is indeed a multiorgan syndrome. Bearing all this in mind, the aim of the present review is to examine the impact of nonmuscle tissues in cancer cachexia.

  5. [Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqun; Wan, Xia; Chen, Gongbo; Ma, Xiangyun; Ning, Bofu; Yang, Gonghuan

    2017-08-20

    Since 1970s, Xuanwei in Yunnan province has been one of the towns with highest lung cancer mortality in China. Moreover, the characters of high female lung cancer mortality and sub-regional clustering high lung cancer mortality have not changed. In this study, we further described the exposure situation of risk factors of lung cancer in Xuanwei nowadays, in order to explore the trend of the distribution of lung cancer there. Firstly we divided the 26 towns of Xuanwei city to high-, median- and low- lung cancer areas by the lung cancer mortality in 2010-2012. We chose 2 towns within each area according to topography and orientation, and randomly picked 4 villages in each town to be our study area. We did a questionnaire about lung cancer related risk factors upon the sample population in the study area. We calculated the exposure percentages of each risk factor, in whole sample population and subgroups, for nowadays and for 10 years ago (only living environmental risk factors), and compared them between areas or time points using standardized rates and the statistical test of standardized rate comparison, or chi-square test. 65%-80% male in the study area has a history of smoking; 60%-90% non-smoker has been exposed to second hand smoke. These situations are worse in high and median lung cancer areas. 50% male in median lung cancer area have coal mining work experience, which is 2 times of the percentages in the other two areas; while 15%-25% people in high lung cancer area have other occupational exposure history to particulate air pollution, which is 3-5 times of the percentages in the other two areas. From ten years ago until nowadays, 80% families in median lung cancer area use 2 tons or more smoky coal per year; more than 90% families burn coal for household heating; more than 60% families suffer from smog in the kitchen during cook; 60% families most frequently use stove in the ground with chimney. Only 20% families in high lung cancer area now use 2 tons or

  6. Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun LIU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Since 1970s, Xuanwei in Yunnan province has been one of the towns with highest lung cancer mortality in China. Moreover, the characters of high female lung cancer mortality and sub-regional clustering high lung cancer mortality have not changed. In this study, we further described the exposure situation of risk factors of lung cancer in Xuanwei nowadays, in order to explore the trend of the distribution of lung cancer there. Methods Firstly we divided the 26 towns of Xuanwei city to high-, median- and low- lung cancer areas by the lung cancer mortality in 2010-2012. We chose 2 towns within each area according to topography and orientation, and randomly picked 4 villages in each town to be our study area. We did a questionnaire about lung cancer related risk factors upon the sample population in the study area. We calculated the exposure percentages of each risk factor, in whole sample population and subgroups, for nowadays and for 10 years ago (only living environmental risk factors, and compared them between areas or time points using standardized rates and the statistical test of standardized rate comparison, or chi-square test. Results 65%-80% male in the study area has a history of smoking; 60%-90% non-smoker has been exposed to second hand smoke. These situations are worse in high and median lung cancer areas. 50% male in median lung cancer area have coal mining work experience, which is 2 times of the percentages in the other two areas; while 15%-25% people in high lung cancer area have other occupational exposure history to particulate air pollution, which is 3-5 times of the percentages in the other two areas. From ten years ago until nowadays, 80% families in median lung cancer area use 2 tons or more smoky coal per year; more than 90% families burn coal for household heating; more than 60% families suffer from smog in the kitchen during cook; 60% families most frequently use stove in the ground with chimney

  7. Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Bone Marrow, Adipose Tissue, and Lung Tissue Differentially Mitigate Lung and Distal Organ Damage in Experimental Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Johnatas D; Lopes-Pacheco, Miquéias; Paz, Ana H R; Cruz, Fernanda F; Melo, Elga B; de Oliveira, Milena V; Xisto, Débora G; Capelozzi, Vera L; Morales, Marcelo M; Pelosi, Paolo; Cirne-Lima, Elizabeth; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2018-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells-based therapies have shown promising effects in experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome. Different mesenchymal stem cells sources may result in diverse effects in respiratory diseases; however, there is no information regarding the best source of mesenchymal stem cells to treat pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow, adipose tissue, and lung tissue would lead to different beneficial effects on lung and distal organ damage in experimental pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome. Animal study and primary cell culture. Laboratory investigation. Seventy-five Wistar rats. Wistar rats received saline (control) or Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (acute respiratory distress syndrome) intratracheally. On day 2, acute respiratory distress syndrome animals were further randomized to receive saline or bone marrow, adipose tissue, or lung tissue mesenchymal stem cells (1 × 10 cells) IV. Lung mechanics, histology, and protein levels of inflammatory mediators and growth factors were analyzed 5 days after mesenchymal stem cells administration. RAW 264.7 cells (a macrophage cell line) were incubated with lipopolysaccharide followed by coculture or not with bone marrow, adipose tissue, and lung tissue mesenchymal stem cells (10 cells/mL medium). Regardless of mesenchymal stem cells source, cells administration improved lung function and reduced alveolar collapse, tissue cellularity, collagen, and elastic fiber content in lung tissue, as well as decreased apoptotic cell counts in liver. Bone marrow and adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells administration also reduced levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, transforming growth factor-β, and vascular endothelial growth factor, as well as apoptotic cell counts in lung and kidney, while increasing expression of keratinocyte growth factor in lung tissue

  8. Body mass index and lung cancer risk in never smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagohashi, K.; Satoh, H.; Kurishima, K.; Ishikawa, H.; Ohtsuka, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background. A relationship between body mass index (BMI) and lung cancer risk in never smokers has not been reported precisely. To evaluate the risk of lung cancer associated with BMI in never smokers, we conducted a case-control study. Methods. The relationship between BMI and the risk of lung cancer in never smokers was investigated in a study of 204 lung cancer cases and 398 controls admitted between 1987 and 2005. Controls were selected from hospitalized age-matched never-smoking patients with non-malignant respiratory disease. Results. When compared with BMI of the leanest group (BMI<20.8) in men, no inverse association between BMI and lung cancer was observed after the adjustment for age (the second BMI group: BMI≥ 20.8 to < 22.9; p=0.683, the third BMI group: BMI≥ 22.9 to < 24.9; p=0.745, and the highest BMI group: BMI≥ 25.0; p=0.327). Similarly, no association in women was found between BMI and lung cancer in these three BMI groups (the second group, p=0.639; the third group, p=0.667; the highest group, p=0.978) when compared with that of the leanest BMI group. Conclusions. Our present study indicated that the association between leanness and the risk of lung cancer might be influenced by other factors such as smoking. (author)

  9. Lung cancer brain metastases – the role of neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Aleshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is mostly common occurring oncological disease in the developed countries. Currently lung cancers are subdivided into nonsmall-cell (adenocarcinoma, large-cell, squamous cell and small-cell. The difference in the clinical and morphological picture leads to the necessity of choosing therapeutic approaches to patients of various groups.Lung cancer should be referred to encephalotropic diseases since metastatic lesion of the central nervous system is sufficiently common complication. Successes of complex treatment of primary tumor result in increase of total longlivety currently ther is ageing of patients suffering lung cancer. These factors increase the risk of metastatic lesions of the brain.Interest to the problem of neurosurgical treatment of patients suffering lung cancer is determined by frequency of lesion, varicosity of morphological variants of the disease, requiring various algorithms of treatment and diagnosis.The main role of neurosurgical intervention in cerebral metastases of lung cancer consist in creation of the paled of carrying out combined therapy. Ideally, a neurosurgical operation should be carried out with clearcut observance of oncological principles of ablasty.Adequate comprehensive approach to treatment or patients with cerebral metastases of various forms of lung cancer with the developed of optimal tactics of and stages of treatment would make it possible to increase duration and quality of life of patients.

  10. The Treg/Th17 Paradigm in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chao Duan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of lung cancer are very complex and not yet entirely clarified. T lymphocytes and their immune-regulatory cytokines play a pivotal role in controlling tumor growth and metastasis. Following activation by unique cytokines, CD4+ T helper cells differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells (Tregs. Traditionally, research in lung cancer immunity has focused almost exclusively on Th1/Th2 cell balance. Recently, Th17 cells and Tregs represent an intriguing issue to be addressed in lung cancer pathogenesis. Tregs play an important role in the preservation of self-tolerance and modulation of overall immune responses against tumor cells. Th17 cells directly or via other proinflammatory cytokines modulate antitumor immune responses. Notably, there is a close relation between Tregs and Th17 cells. However, the possible interaction between these subsets in lung cancer remains to be elucidated. In this setting, targeting Treg/Th17 balance for therapeutic purposes may represent a useful tool for lung cancer treatment in the future. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings of the role of these novel populations in lung cancer immunity and to highlight the pleiotropic effects of these subsets on the development and regulation of lung cancer.

  11. Primary lung cancer coexisting with active pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Y; Varol, U; Unlu, M; Kayaalp, I; Ayranci, A; Dereli, M S; Guclu, S Z

    2014-09-01

    Lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) comorbidity is a clinical problem that presents a challenge for the diagnosis and treatment of both diseases. To clarify the clinical and survival characteristics of cases with both lung cancer and active pulmonary TB. From 2008 to 2013, 3350 TB patients admitted to the TB Department of the Chest Diseases Hospital of Izmir, Turkey, were evaluated. In 38 (1.1%) male patients, lung cancer and TB were found to coexist. Almost all of the patients were diagnosed at Stage III (n = 14, 36.8%) or IV (n = 17, 44.7%) lung cancer, whereas four (10.6%) had Stage II and three (7.9%) had Stage I disease. Squamous cell lung cancer was the predominant histology (n = 23, 60.7%). The median overall survival among patients was 13.4 months (95%CI 8.09-18.8). One-year survival rates for patients with Stages I, II, III and IV were respectively 100%, 75%, 57% and 40%. The present study demonstrates that lung cancer combined with active pulmonary TB most frequently presents as squamous cell carcinoma, with a male predominance. The overall survival of lung cancer patients did not change even with concomitant active TB.

  12. Radiotherapeutic results for primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitomo, Osamu; Shinozaki, Jun; Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Niibe, Hideo; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Nakajima, Nobuaki.

    1988-01-01

    From June 1978 to March 1984, 311 patients with lung cancer were registered at the radiological department of National Takasaki Hospital. One hundred fifty-one of them, who had been verified histologically and irradiated with total doses of more than 60 Gy for the primary lung tumor, were analized. Many patients were more than 60 years old (82 %) and had squamous cell carcinoma (64 %). These percentages may be associated with distributions of patients treated by radiotherapy because of inoperability. The five-year-relative survival rate was 13 % in all patients (54 % for Stage I, 32 % for Stage II, 0 % for Stage III, 10 % for Stage IV). Comparing squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, the latter had a better prognosis for two years, but over three years, squamous cell carcinoma did. The five-year survival rate was 10 % for squamous cell carcinoma and 6 % for adenocarcinoma, showing no statistically significant difference. No predominant differences of prognosis between the older group (more than 70 years old) and the younger group (less than 70 years old) was demonstrated. Thus, old age is not always a factor in bad prognosis. (author)

  13. Pneumonia, lung cancer or Medlar's core?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Luciani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a case of 57-year-old previously healthy man with six-months medical history of significant chronic cough and recurring episodes of fever. Cytology, bacteria, fungi and acid fast bacilli in the sputum were negative. CT scan, initially interpreted as suspected lung cancer, detected by chest x-ray, revealed pneumonia. Bronchoscopy is frequently necessary for the diagnosis as well as the treatment as a routine practice and in this case was applied. Our patient underwent to fiberoptic rigid bronchoscopy in the right upper lobe in general anaesthesia. Unexpectedly, a vegetal FB, Medlar's core instead a tumor, was removed. After two-months follow-up the patient was found healthy without any old or other symptoms.

  14. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH LUNG CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Grigoryevskaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer (LC annually afflicts 63–65 thousand people in Russia and 1.04 million worldwide, which amounts to 12.8% of all notified cases of neoplasms. In LC patients, infectious complications are characterized by a severe course; destruction foci, decay cavities, and abscess may form.All give rise to difficulties in making a diagnosis and in choosing a treatment policy. Infections caused by P. aeruginosa, A. baumanii, bacteria of the family Enterobacteriacae, S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp present the greatest problem in inpatients with LC. The early diagnosis of infectiouscomplications and the use of adequate schemes of antibiotic prevention and therapy promote a reduction in mortality from infection in this categoryof patients and expand the possibilities of their specific antitumor treatment.

  15. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH LUNG CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Grigoryevskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer (LC annually afflicts 63–65 thousand people in Russia and 1.04 million worldwide, which amounts to 12.8% of all notified cases of neoplasms. In LC patients, infectious complications are characterized by a severe course; destruction foci, decay cavities, and abscess may form.All give rise to difficulties in making a diagnosis and in choosing a treatment policy. Infections caused by P. aeruginosa, A. baumanii, bacteria of the family Enterobacteriacae, S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp present the greatest problem in inpatients with LC. The early diagnosis of infectiouscomplications and the use of adequate schemes of antibiotic prevention and therapy promote a reduction in mortality from infection in this categoryof patients and expand the possibilities of their specific antitumor treatment.

  16. Main clinical epidemiological features of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Montane, Daniel Marino; Prado Lage, Yulien; Lozano Salazar; Jorge Luis

    2011-01-01

    A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 95 patients with lung cancer, discharged from Neumology Service at 'Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso' General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, was carried out from January, 2008 to December, 2008 in order to identify the main clinical epidemiological features of the aforementioned disease. A malignancy predominance among men aged between 56 and 65 years old, belonging to urban areas and being heavy smoker (out of 30 cigarettes per day over 30 years ), was found. Those affected without a confirmed histological type and IV clinical stage epidermoid carcinoma were predominant. Most of them had the opportunity to be treated. Increasing and intensifying health promotion and disease prevention campaigns were recommended so as to achieve the population to avoid or quit the smoking habit. (author)

  17. Establishment of an orthotopic lung cancer model in nude mice and its evaluation by spiral CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Liu, Jun; Guan, Yubao; Li, Huiling; Huang, Liyan; Tang, Hailing; He, Jianxing

    2012-04-01

    To establish a simple and highly efficient orthotopic animal model of lung cancer cell line A549 and evaluate the growth pattern of intrathoracic tumors by spiral CT. A549 cells (5×10(6) mL(-1)) were suspended and inoculated into the right lung of BALB/c nude mice via intrathoracic injection. Nude mice were scanned three times each week by spiral CT after inoculation of lung cancer cell line A549. The survival time and body weight of nude mice as well as tumor invasion and metastasis were examined. Tissue was collected for subsequent histological assay after autopsia of mice. The tumor-forming rate of the orthotopic lung cancer model was 90%. The median survival time was 30.7 (range, 20-41) days. The incidence of tumor metastasis was 100%. The mean tumor diameter and the average CT value gradually increased in a time-dependent manner. The method of establishing the orthotopic lung cancer model through transplanting A549 cells into the lung of nude mice is simple and highly successful. Spiral CT can be used to evaluate intrathoracic tumor growth in nude mice vividly and dynamically.

  18. SSX2-4 expression in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, K B V; Pøhl, M; Olsen, K E

    2014-01-01

    The expression of cancer/testis antigens SSX2, SSX3, and SSX4 in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) was examined, since they are considered promising targets for cancer immunotherapy due to their immunogenicity and testis-restricted normal tissue expression. We characterized three SSX antibodies...... was only detected in 5 of 143 early-stage NSCLCs, which is rare compared to other cancer/testis antigens (e.g. MAGE-A and GAGE). However, further studies are needed to determine whether SSX can be used as a prognostic or predictive biomarker in NSCLC....

  19. Functions and mechanisms of long noncoding RNAs in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng ZZ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhenzi Peng, Chunfang Zhang, Chaojun Duan Institute of Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Cancer Proteomics of Chinese Ministry of Health, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and there is a lack of adequate biomarkers for diagnosis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs