WorldWideScience

Sample records for lung association school

  1. American Lung Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... see if you should get screened. Learn more EDUCATION ADVOCACY RESEARCH Our vision is a world free of lung disease The American Lung Association is ... by lung disease. Help us continue to deliver education, advocacy and research to those who need it. $250 $100 $50 Your best gift Donate now Learn More ... nonprofit software

  2. American Lung Association's radon public information program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurdy, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    The American Lung Association (ALA), the nation's oldest voluntary health organization, is dedicated to the conquest of lung disease and the promotion of lung health. The objective of the ALA Radon Public Information Program is to reduce public exposure to elevated indoor radon levels through implementing grassroots-based radon public awareness campaigns by 22 local ALA groups. The program, which is funded by a grant from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was initiated in December 1989; the first phase will continue until May, 1991. Activities of local Lung Associations include distribution of free or reduced-cost radon kits; presenting programs in elementary and secondary schools; presenting information on TV news series and talk shows, and on radio Public Service Announcements and talk shows; presenting articles and feature stories in the print media; holding conferences, workshops, and displays at fairs and other exhibitions; distributing radon fact sheets through libraries and utility company mailings; and distributing videos through video chains and libraries. The local Lung Associations also serve as promoters for the EPA/Advertising Council Radon Public Service Announcement Campaign. We will highlight the activities of the groups in communicating radon health risks to the public; we will describe the results obtained and will attempt to evaluate the merits of the various approaches on the basis of the initial results

  3. Fatal interstitial lung disease associated with icotinib

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiexia; Zhan, Yangqing; Ouyang, Ming; Qin, Yinyin; Zhou, Chengzhi; Chen, Rongchang

    2014-01-01

    The most serious, and maybe fatal, yet rare, adverse reaction of gefitinib and erlotinib is drug-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), which has been often described. However, it has been less well described for icotinib, a similar orally small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The case of a 25-year-old female patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who developed fatal ILD is reported here. She denied chemotherapy, and received palliative treatment with icotinib (125 mg po, th...

  4. Genetic variants associated with lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyagarajan, Bharat; Wojczynski, Mary; Minster, Ryan L

    2014-01-01

    with exceptional longevity have not been identified. METHOD: We conducted a genome wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel genetic variants associated with lung function in the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) (n = 3,899). Replication was performed using data from the CHARGE/SpiroMeta consortia...

  5. HIV-Associated Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiderlen, Til R; Siehl, Jan; Hentrich, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer (LC) is one of the most common non-AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)-defining malignancies. It occurs more frequently in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWHIV) than in the HIV-negative population. Compared to their HIV-negative counterparts, patients are usually younger and diagnosed at more advanced stages. The pathogenesis of LC in PLWHIV is not fully understood, but immunosuppression in combination with chronic infection and the oncogenic effects of smoking and HIV itself all seem to play a role. Currently, no established preventive screening is available, making smoking cessation the most promising preventive measure. Treatment protocols and standards are the same as for the general population. Notably, immuno-oncology will also become standard of care in a significant subset of HIV-infected patients with LC. As drug interactions and hematological toxicity must be taken into account, a multidisciplinary approach should include a physician experienced in the treatment of HIV. Only limited data is available on novel targeted therapies and checkpoint inhibitors in the setting of HIV. © 2017 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  6. Fatal interstitial lung disease associated with icotinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiexia; Zhan, Yangqing; Ouyang, Ming; Qin, Yinyin; Zhou, Chengzhi; Chen, Rongchang

    2014-12-01

    The most serious, and maybe fatal, yet rare, adverse reaction of gefitinib and erlotinib is drug-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), which has been often described. However, it has been less well described for icotinib, a similar orally small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The case of a 25-year-old female patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who developed fatal ILD is reported here. She denied chemotherapy, and received palliative treatment with icotinib (125 mg po, three times daily) on March 1, 2013. One month after treatment initiation, the patient complained of continuous dry cough and rapid progressive dyspnea. Forty one days after icotinib treatment, icotinib associated ILD was suspected when the patient became increasingly dyspnoeic despite of treatment of pericardial effusion, left pleural effusion and lower respiratory tract infection, and X-ray computed tomography (CT) of chest revealed multiple effusion shadows and ground-glass opacities in bilateral lungs. Then, icotinib was discontinued and intravenous corticosteroid was started (methylprednisolone 40 mg once daily, about 1 mg per kilogram) respectively. Forty three days after icotinib treatment, the patient died of hypoxic respiratory failure. ILD should be considered as a rare, but often fatal side effect associated with icotinib treatment.

  7. Association Between RT-Induced Changes in Lung Tissue Density and Global Lung Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jinli; Zhang Junan; Zhou Sumin; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Foltz, Rodney J.; Hollis, Donna R.; Light, Kim L.; Wong, Terence Z.; Kelsey, Christopher R.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the association between radiotherapy (RT)-induced changes in computed tomography (CT)-defined lung tissue density and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods and Materials: Patients undergoing incidental partial lung RT were prospectively assessed for global (PFTs) and regional (CT and single photon emission CT [SPECT]) lung function before and, serially, after RT. The percent reductions in the PFT and the average changes in lung density were compared (Pearson correlations) in the overall group and subgroups stratified according to various clinical factors. Comparisons were also made between the CT- and SPECT-based computations using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Between 1991 and 2004, 343 patients were enrolled in this study. Of these, 111 patients had a total of 203 concurrent post-RT evaluations of changes in lung density and PFTs available for the analyses, and 81 patients had a total of 141 concurrent post-RT SPECT images. The average increases in lung density were related to the percent reductions in the PFTs, albeit with modest correlation coefficients (range, 0.20-0.43). The analyses also indicated that the association between lung density and PFT changes is essentially equivalent to the corresponding association with SPECT-defined lung perfusion. Conclusion: We found a weak quantitative association between the degree of increase in lung density as defined by CT and the percent reduction in the PFTs.

  8. Interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with increased mortality in smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoyer, Nils; Wille, Mathilde M W; Thomsen, Laura H

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether smokers with incidental findings of interstitial lung abnormalities have an increased mortality during long-term follow-up, and review the contributing causes of death. METHODS: Baseline CT scans of 1990 participants from the Danish Lung...... in this lung cancer screening population of relatively healthy smokers and were associated with mortality regardless of the interstitial morphological phenotype. The increased mortality was partly due to an association with lung cancer and non-pulmonary malignancies....

  9. Current questions in HIV-associated lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherba, Marina; Shuter, Jonathan; Haigentz, Missak

    2013-09-01

    In this review, we explore current questions regarding risk factors contributing to frequent and early onset of lung cancer among populations with HIV infection, treatment, and outcomes of lung cancer in HIV-infected patients as well as challenges in a newly evolving era of lung cancer screening. Lung cancer, seen in three-fold excess in HIV-infected populations, has become the most common non-AIDS defining malignancy in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. HIV-associated lung cancer appears to be associated with young age at diagnosis, cigarette smoking, advanced stage at presentation, and a more aggressive clinical course. There is no unified explanation for these observations, and aside from traditional risk factors, HIV-related immunosuppression and biological differences might play a role. In addition to smoking cessation interventions, screening and early cancer detection in HIV-infected populations are of high clinical importance, although evidence supporting lung cancer screening in this particularly high-risk subset is currently lacking, as are prospective studies of lung cancer therapy. There is an urgent need for prospective clinical trials in HIV-associated lung cancer to improve understanding of lung cancer pathogenesis and to optimize patient care. Several clinical trials are in progress to address questions in cancer biology, screening, and treatment for this significant cause of mortality in persons with HIV infection.

  10. CT features of lung cancer associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Hyoung; Song, Koun Sik; Lee, Deok Hee; Kim, Jin Suh; Lim, Tae Hwan

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that the incidence of lung cancer is high in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF). We analyzed the CT features of lung cancer associated with IPF. Retrospective analyzed the CT features of lung cancer associated with IPF. Retrospective analysis was performed in 23 patients with lung cancer(24 lung cancers) associated with IPF. The diagnosis of IPF was made by clinical and CT findings, and lung cancer was confirmed pathologically. We divided the location of lung cancer by lobar distribution and central or peripheral lung zone, and measured the size of mass. We classified the mediastinal lymph node enlargement by American Thoracic Society (ATS) mapping scheme. We evaluated the CT pattern of IPF. The subjects consisted of 6 cases of small cell carcinoma and 18 cases of non-small cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancers were located in the right upper lobe in 5 cases, left upper lobe in 6 cases, right middle lobe in 1 case, right lower lobe in 9 cases, and left lower lobe in 3 cases. Twenty cancers(85%) were located in the peripheral lung zone. Eighteen cancers(73%) were surrounded by fibrotic lung. The size of the mass ranged from 1 to 12 cm, and in 12 cases it was below 3cm in diameter. Mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 22 cases(92%) and classified as N2 or N3 in 15 cases out of 18 non-small cell lung. The size of the mass ranged from 1 to 12 cm, and in 12 cases it was below 3 cm in diameter. Mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 22 cases(92%) and classified as N2 or N3 in 15 cases out of 18 non-small cell lung cancers. CT patterns of underlying IPF were honey-combing in 18 patients(78%) and mixed honey-combing and ground-glass opacity in 5 patients(22%). The lung cancer associated with IPF shows variable cell types. Most of the lung cancers were located peripherally, surrounded by end-stage fibrosis, and were associated with mediastinal lymph node enlargement

  11. CT features of lung cancer associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Hyoung; Song, Koun Sik; Lee, Deok Hee; Kim, Jin Suh; Lim, Tae Hwan [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that the incidence of lung cancer is high in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF). We analyzed the CT features of lung cancer associated with IPF. Retrospective analyzed the CT features of lung cancer associated with IPF. Retrospective analysis was performed in 23 patients with lung cancer(24 lung cancers) associated with IPF. The diagnosis of IPF was made by clinical and CT findings, and lung cancer was confirmed pathologically. We divided the location of lung cancer by lobar distribution and central or peripheral lung zone, and measured the size of mass. We classified the mediastinal lymph node enlargement by American Thoracic Society (ATS) mapping scheme. We evaluated the CT pattern of IPF. The subjects consisted of 6 cases of small cell carcinoma and 18 cases of non-small cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancers were located in the right upper lobe in 5 cases, left upper lobe in 6 cases, right middle lobe in 1 case, right lower lobe in 9 cases, and left lower lobe in 3 cases. Twenty cancers(85%) were located in the peripheral lung zone. Eighteen cancers(73%) were surrounded by fibrotic lung. The size of the mass ranged from 1 to 12 cm, and in 12 cases it was below 3cm in diameter. Mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 22 cases(92%) and classified as N2 or N3 in 15 cases out of 18 non-small cell lung. The size of the mass ranged from 1 to 12 cm, and in 12 cases it was below 3 cm in diameter. Mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 22 cases(92%) and classified as N2 or N3 in 15 cases out of 18 non-small cell lung cancers. CT patterns of underlying IPF were honey-combing in 18 patients(78%) and mixed honey-combing and ground-glass opacity in 5 patients(22%). The lung cancer associated with IPF shows variable cell types. Most of the lung cancers were located peripherally, surrounded by end-stage fibrosis, and were associated with mediastinal lymph node enlargement.

  12. Association between periodontitis and lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Rito Macedo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the association between periodontal disease and lung disease from an epidemiological, case and control survey, in patients who attended the first aid service of the Adriano Jorge Foundation Hospital, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, from June 2006 to February 2007. Methods: The sample consisted of 140 patients, among whom community-acquired pneumonia was present in 60% (n = 70, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 40% (case-group; and 70 patients without respiratory disease (control group, ranging between 19 and 69 years of ages, with a mean age of 41.3, and standard deviation of 13.6 years. The clinical parameters for evaluating periodontal changes were obtained by means of pocket depth, bleeding on probing, plaque index and clinical attachment loss. Results: Both groups showed no significant difference in any of the control variables (p>0.05. The groups showed significant difference only in the plaque index (p 0.05. Due to the increase in the bacterial plaque index in the oral cavity of patients with respiratory diseases, further studies should be conducted to verify what the relationship between the two diseases is.

  13. Spontaneous pneumothorax associated with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Dong Wook; Jung, Seung Hyae; Yoon, Yup; Lim, Jae Hoon; Cho, Kyu Soek; Yang, Moon Ho

    1991-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is a rare manifestation of lung cancer. Eight cases of pneumothorax found in 1648 patients with lung cancer from 1979-1990 are reported. Histopathologic types of cancer were adenocarcinoma in three cases, squamous cell carcinoma in two cases, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in two cases, and metastatic renal cell carcinoma in one case. The primary tumor mass was not found even after thoracotomy in two cases. Spontaneous pneumothorax occurred on the ipsilateral side of the cancer. All the patients were more than 40 years old with a history of smoking 1-2 packs a day for 20 to 50 years, and had chronic lung diseases. The authors emphasize that bronchogenic carcinoma may be one of the causes of spontaneous pneumothorax in appropriate clinical settings

  14. Pulmonary hypertension associated with lung diseases and hypoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttica, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary hypertension that develops in the setting of underlying lung diseases such as COPD or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is associated with decreased functional status, worsening hypoxemia and quality of life, and increased mortality. This complication of lung disease is complex in its origin and carries a unique set of diagnostic and therapeutic issues. This review attempts to provide an overview of mechanisms associated with the onset of pulmonary hypertension in COPD and IPF, touches on appropriate evaluation, and reviews the state of knowledge on treating pulmonary hypertension related to underlying lung disease.

  15. Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Assayag

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is a common inflammatory disease affecting about 1% of the population. Interstitial lung disease is a serious and frequent complication of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD is characterized by several histopathologic subtypes. This article reviews the proposed pathogenesis and risk factors for RA-ILD. We also outline the important steps involved in the work-up of RA-ILD and review the evidence for treatment and prognosis.

  16. Effect of primarily cultured human lung cancer-associated fibroblasts on radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xiaoqin; Ji Jiang; Chen Yongbing; Shan Fang; Lu Xueguan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of human lung cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) on the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells when CAF is placed in direct contact co-culture with lung cancer cells. Methods: Human lung CAF was obtained from fresh human lung adenocarcinoma tissue specimens by primary culture and subculture and was then identified by immunofluorescence staining. The CAF was placed in direct contact co-culture with lung cancer A 549 and H 1299 cells, and the effects of CAF on the radiosensitivity of A 549 and H 1299 cells were evaluated by colony-forming assay. Results: The human lung CAF obtained by adherent culture could stably grow and proliferate, and it had specific expression of α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and fibroblast activation protein,but without expression of cytokeratin-18. The plating efficiency (PE, %) of A 549 cells at 0 Gy irradiation was (20.0 ± 3.9)% when cultured alone versus (32.3 ± 5.5)% when co-cultured with CAF (t=3.16, P<0.05), and the PE of H 1299 cells at 0 Gy irradiation was (20.6 ± 3.1)% when cultured alone versus (35.2 ± 2.3)% when co-cultured with CAF (t=6.55, P<0.05). The cell survival rate at 2 Gy irradiation (SF 2 ) of A 549 cells was 0.727 ±0.061 when cultured alone versus 0.782 ± 0.089 when co-cultured with CAF (t=0.88, P>0.05), and the SF 2 of H 1299 cells was 0.692 ±0.065 when cultured alone versus 0.782 ± 0.037 when co-cultured with CAF (t=2.08, P>0.05). The protection enhancement ratios of human lung CAF for A 549 cells and H 1299 cells were 1.29 and 1.25, respectively. Conclusions: Human lung CAF reduces the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells when placed in direct contact co-culture with them, and the radioprotective effect may be attributed to CAF promoting the proliferation of lung cancer cells. (authors)

  17. Lung Disease Associated With Marijuana Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatkin, José Miguel; Zabert, Gustavo; Zabert, Ignacio; Chatkin, Gustavo; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos Andrés; de Granda-Orive, Jose Ignacio; Buljubasich, Daniel; Solano Reina, Segismundo; Figueiredo, Ana; Ravara, Sofia; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Gratziou, Christina

    2017-09-01

    Marijuana is the most widely usedillegal drug in the world, with a prevalence of 2.5%-5%, and the second most commonly smoked substance after tobacco. The components of smoke from combustion of marijuana are similar to those produced by the combustion of tobacco, but they differ in terms of psychoactive components and use. Inhalation of cannabis smoke affects the respiratory tract, so the available evidence must be updated in order to provide pulmonologists with the latest scientific information. In this article, we review the impact of cannabis consumption on the lungs, taking into account that the respiratory route is the most popular route of cannabis consumption. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. HIV-associated lung cancer: survival in an unselected cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christian; Kohrs, Fabienne; Sabranski, Michael; Wolf, Eva; Jaeger, Hans; Wyen, Christoph; Siehl, Jan; Baumgarten, Axel; Hensel, Manfred; Jessen, Arne; Schaaf, Bernhard; Vogel, Martin; Bogner, Johannes; Horst, Heinz-August; Stephan, Christoph

    2013-10-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common non-AIDS-defining malignancies in HIV-infected patients. However, data on clinical outcome and prognostic factors are scarce. This was a national German multicentre, retrospective cohort analysis of all cases of lung cancer seen in HIV-infected individuals from 2000 through 2010. Survival was analyzed with respect to the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), specific lung cancer therapies, and other potential prognostic factors. A total of 72 patients (mean age 55.5 y, CD4 T-cells 383/μl) were evaluated in this analysis. At time of lung cancer diagnosis, 86% were on ART. Of these, 79% had undetectable HIV-1 RNA (cancer stage of I-IIIA was associated with better overall survival when compared with the advanced stages IIIb/IV (p = 0.0003). Other factors predictive of improved overall survival were better performance status, CD4 T-cells > 200/μl, and a non-intravenous drug use transmission risk for HIV. Currently, most cases of lung cancer occur in the setting of limited immune deficiency and a long-lasting viral suppression. As in HIV-negative cases, the clinical stage of lung cancer is highly predictive of survival, and long-term overall survival can only be achieved at the limited stages. The still high mortality underscores the importance of smoking cessation strategies in HIV-infected patients.

  19. SIRT1 expression is associated with poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li C

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chong Li,1,2,* Lingling Wang,3,* Liang Zheng,4 Xianghong Zhan,4 Bin Xu,1,2 Jingting Jiang,1,2 Changping Wu1,2 1Department of Tumor Biological Treatment, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Changzhou, 2Cancer Immunotherapy Engineering Research Center of Jiangsu Province, Changzhou, 3Department of Medical Education, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, 4Department of Thoracic Surgery, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Changzhou, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Several studies have reported that the overexpression of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 was associated with poor prognosis in various human cancers. However, little is known regarding the prognostic value of SIRT1 in lung adenocarcinoma. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the role of SIRT1 in the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma patients. Using a tissue microarray, we detected SIRT1 expression by immunohistochemistry in lung adenocarcinoma tissue, as well as in corresponding noncancerous tissues (NCTs. A high expression level of SIRT1 was observed in 74.7% (56/75 of patients with lung adenocarcinoma and 6.7% (5/75 of NCTs (P<0.001. SIRT1 expression was significantly associated with high pathological stage. Importantly, we found that SIRT1 expression was associated with worse overall survival in these lung adenocarcinoma patients (67.0 months vs 104.5 months; P=0.005. In addition, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and Survivin expression were evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry, respectively. We found that VEGF and Survivin were both highly expressed in the lung adenocarcinoma tissues, as compared to NCTs. Moreover, the SIRT1 and VEGF expression statuses were significantly positively correlated (r=0.238, P=0.039, while SIRT1 and Survivin expression status were not

  20. Interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Yimy F; Restrepo, Jose Felix; Iglesias, Antonio; Ojeda, Paulina; Matiz, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    An interstitial lung disease (ILD) belongs to a group of diffuse parenchyma lung diseases it should be differentiated from other pathologies among those are idiopathic and ILD associated to connective tissue diseases (CTD) New concepts have been developed in the last years and they have been classified in seven defined subgroups. It has been described the association of each one of these subgroups with CTD. Natural history and other aspects of its treatment is not known completely .For complete diagnose it is required clinical, image and histopathologic approaches. The biopsy lung plays an essential role. It is important to promote and to stimulate the subclasification of each subgroup with the purpose of knowing their natural history directing the treatment and to improve their outcome

  1. Statistical Measure Of Association Between Smoking And Lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical Measure Of Association Between Smoking And Lung Cancer In Abakaliki, Ebonyi State Nigeria. ... East African Journal of Public Health ... To investigate the havoc caused by all these on people, questionnaire was distributed among smokers and non smokers in various areas of specialization and habitations.

  2. Genetic association between human chitinases and lung function in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminuddin, F; Akhabir, L; Stefanowicz, D; Paré, P D; Connett, J E; Anthonisen, N R; Fahy, J V; Seibold, M A; Burchard, E G; Eng, C; Gulsvik, A; Bakke, P; Cho, M H; Litonjua, A; Lomas, D A; Anderson, W H; Beaty, T H; Crapo, J D; Silverman, E K; Sandford, A J

    2012-07-01

    Two primary chitinases have been identified in humans--acid mammalian chitinase (AMCase) and chitotriosidase (CHIT1). Mammalian chitinases have been observed to affect the host's immune response. The aim of this study was to test for association between genetic variation in the chitinases and phenotypes related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Polymorphisms in the chitinase genes were selected based on previous associations with respiratory diseases. Polymorphisms that were associated with lung function level or rate of decline in the Lung Health Study (LHS) cohort were analyzed for association with COPD affection status in four other COPD case-control populations. Chitinase activity and protein levels were also related to genotypes. In the caucasian LHS population, the baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) was significantly different between the AA and GG genotypic groups of the AMCase rs3818822 polymorphism. Subjects with the GG genotype had higher AMCase protein and chitinase activity compared with AA homozygotes. For CHIT1 rs2494303, a significant association was observed between rate of decline in FEV(1) and the different genotypes. In the African American LHS population, CHIT1 rs2494303 and AMCase G339T genotypes were associated with rate of decline in FEV(1). Although a significant effect of chitinase gene alleles was found on lung function level and decline in the LHS, we were unable to replicate the associations with COPD affection status in the other COPD study groups.

  3. [The association of lung cancer and atheromatous arterial disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamour, A; Azorin, J; Tchandjou Ngoko, L E; Valeyre, D; Morère, F; Destable, M D; de Saint-Florent, G

    1989-01-01

    This work is based on the retrospective study of the case history of 26 patients who were treated between September 1979 and January 1987 in the department of thoracic and vascular surgery at the Avicenne Hospital--and who were all suffering from both lung cancer and atheromatous arterial disease. It is now well established by all the epidemiologic research that the link between lung cancer and atheromatous arterial disease is smoking tobacco. The risks involved in the misunderstanding of such an association are not without danger for the patient, particularly the risk of severe complication of possible coronary or carotid lesions, threatening survival; from this derives the necessity to decide automatically for a minimum of pre-surgery vascular investigations in the case of patients suffering from lung cancer. The therapeutic strategy in this association must be thorough, considering that there are three priorities in the vascular field which must absolutely be treated before the lung itself: --the coronary and carotid lesions which are likely to be complicated cancer after surgery and any state of emergency in the other vascular territories. The fight against tobacco smoking must also be considered as a priority aim.

  4. Association between Congenital Lung Malformations and Lung Tumors in Children and Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Arianna; Pederiva, Federica

    2016-11-01

    The appropriate management of asymptomatic congenital pulmonary malformations (CPMs) remains controversial. Prophylactic surgery is recommended to avoid the risk for development of pulmonary infections and to prevent the highly debated development of malignancy. However, the true risk for development of malignancy remains unknown. A systematic review analyzed all cases in which lung tumors associated with CPMs in both the pediatric and adult populations were described. A comprehensive literature search was carried out; it included all the cases in which an association between CPMs and malignant pulmonary lesions was reported. In all, 134 publications were eligible for inclusion. In 168 patients CPM was found associated with lung tumor. The diagnosis was made in 76 children at a mean age of 3.68 ± 3.4, whereas in the adult population (n = 92) it was made at a mean age of 44.62 ± 16.09. Cough was the most frequent presenting symptom both in children and in adults. Most of the patients underwent lobectomy. The tumor most often associated with CPM was pleuropulmonary bastoma in children (n = 31) and adenocarcinoma (n = 20) or bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (n = 20) in adults. The CPM most frequenty associated with tumors in children was congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (n = 37), especially type 1 (n = 21), whereas in adults it was bronchogenic cyst (n = 25), followed by congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (n = 21). CPMs should be followed up and never underestimated because they may conceal a tumor. Apparently, there is no age limit for malignant progression of CPMs and no limit of the interval between first detection of the CPM and appearance of the associated tumor. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of industry-related air pollution on lung function and respiratory symptoms in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstra, Arnold D; Brunekreef, Bert; Burdorf, Alex

    2018-03-27

    Heavy industry emits many potentially hazardous pollutants into the air which can affect health. However, the effects of air pollution from heavy industry on lung function and respiratory symptoms have been investigated scarcely. Our aim was to investigate the associations of long-term air pollution from heavy industry with lung function and respiratory symptoms in school children. A cross-sectional lung function study was conducted among school children (7-13 years) in the vicinity of an area with heavy industry. Lung function measurements were conducted during school hours. Parents of the children were asked to complete a questionnaire about the health of their children. A dispersion model was used to characterize the additional individual-level exposures to air pollutants from the industry in the area. Associations between PM 2.5 and NO X exposure with lung function and presence of respiratory symptoms were investigated by linear and/or logistic regression analysis. Participation in the lung function measurements and questionnaires was 84% (665/787) and 77% (603/787), respectively. The range of the elevated PM 2.5 and NO X five years average concentrations (2008-2012) due to heavy industry were 0.04-1.59 μg/m 3 and 0.74-11.33 μg/m 3 respectively. After adjustment for confounders higher exposure to PM 2.5 and NO X (per interquartile range of 0.56 and 7.43 μg/m 3 respectively) was associated with lower percent predicted peak expiratory flow (PEF) (B -2.80%, 95%CI -5.05% to - 0.55% and B -3.67%, 95%CI -6.93% to - 0.42% respectively). Higher exposure to NO X (per interquartile range of 7.43 μg/m 3 ) was also associated with lower percent forced vital capacity (FVC) and percent predicted forced expiration volume in 1 s (FEV1) (B -2.30, 95% CI -4.55 to - 0.05 and B -2.73, 95%CI -5.21 to - 0.25 respectively). No significant associations were found between the additional exposure to PM 2.5 or NO X and respiratory symptoms except for PM 2.5 and dry

  6. Circulating histones are mediators of trauma-associated lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Simon T; Zhang, Nan; Manson, Joanna; Liu, Tingting; Dart, Caroline; Baluwa, Florence; Wang, Susan Siyu; Brohi, Karim; Kipar, Anja; Yu, Weiping; Wang, Guozheng; Toh, Cheng-Hock

    2013-01-15

    Acute lung injury is a common complication after severe trauma, which predisposes patients to multiple organ failure. This syndrome largely accounts for the late mortality that arises and despite many theories, the pathological mechanism is not fully understood. Discovery of histone-induced toxicity in mice presents a new dimension for elucidating the underlying pathophysiology. To investigate the pathological roles of circulating histones in trauma-induced lung injury. Circulating histone levels in patients with severe trauma were determined and correlated with respiratory failure and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores. Their cause-effect relationship was studied using cells and mouse models. In a cohort of 52 patients with severe nonthoracic blunt trauma, circulating histones surged immediately after trauma to levels that were toxic to cultured endothelial cells. The high levels were significantly associated with the incidence of acute lung injury and SOFA scores, as well as markers of endothelial damage and coagulation activation. In in vitro systems, histones damaged endothelial cells, stimulated cytokine release, and induced neutrophil extracellular trap formation and myeloperoxidase release. Cellular toxicity resulted from their direct membrane interaction and resultant calcium influx. In mouse models, cytokines and markers for endothelial damage and coagulation activation significantly increased immediately after trauma or histone infusion. Pathological examinations showed that lungs were the predominantly affected organ with edema, hemorrhage, microvascular thrombosis, and neutrophil congestion. An anti-histone antibody could reduce these changes and protect mice from histone-induced lethality. This study elucidates a new mechanism for acute lung injury after severe trauma and proposes that circulating histones are viable therapeutic targets for improving survival outcomes in patients.

  7. Circulating Histones Are Mediators of Trauma-associated Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Simon T.; Zhang, Nan; Manson, Joanna; Liu, Tingting; Dart, Caroline; Baluwa, Florence; Wang, Susan Siyu; Brohi, Karim; Kipar, Anja; Yu, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Acute lung injury is a common complication after severe trauma, which predisposes patients to multiple organ failure. This syndrome largely accounts for the late mortality that arises and despite many theories, the pathological mechanism is not fully understood. Discovery of histone-induced toxicity in mice presents a new dimension for elucidating the underlying pathophysiology. Objectives: To investigate the pathological roles of circulating histones in trauma-induced lung injury. Methods: Circulating histone levels in patients with severe trauma were determined and correlated with respiratory failure and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores. Their cause–effect relationship was studied using cells and mouse models. Measurements and Main Results: In a cohort of 52 patients with severe nonthoracic blunt trauma, circulating histones surged immediately after trauma to levels that were toxic to cultured endothelial cells. The high levels were significantly associated with the incidence of acute lung injury and SOFA scores, as well as markers of endothelial damage and coagulation activation. In in vitro systems, histones damaged endothelial cells, stimulated cytokine release, and induced neutrophil extracellular trap formation and myeloperoxidase release. Cellular toxicity resulted from their direct membrane interaction and resultant calcium influx. In mouse models, cytokines and markers for endothelial damage and coagulation activation significantly increased immediately after trauma or histone infusion. Pathological examinations showed that lungs were the predominantly affected organ with edema, hemorrhage, microvascular thrombosis, and neutrophil congestion. An anti-histone antibody could reduce these changes and protect mice from histone-induced lethality. Conclusions: This study elucidates a new mechanism for acute lung injury after severe trauma and proposes that circulating histones are viable therapeutic targets for improving survival

  8. Types of household humidifier disinfectant and associated risk of lung injury (HDLI) in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-Uk; Ryu, Seung-Hun; Lim, Heung-Kyu; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Choi, Ye-Yong; Ahn, Jong-Ju; Lee, Eun; Hong, Sang-Bum; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Cho, Jae-Lim; Bae, Mun-Joo; Shin, Dong-Chun; Paek, Do-Myung; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2017-10-15

    From 2002 through 2015, hundreds of people died of fatal lung injuries associated with the use of humidifier disinfectants (HDs) in Korea. Several chemical disinfectants used for household humidifiers were later clinically confirmed to cause HD-associated lung injury (HDLI). The aim of this study is to evaluate the registered lung disease cases and to compare the distribution of HDLI patients, including deaths, by HD use characteristics including types of HD and HD brands categorized by age group. A total of 530 registered were clinically examined through two rounds of investigations conducted from July 2013 until April 2015. Information on HD use was obtained from a structured questionnaire and home investigations. Approximately one-half of the patients (n=221) were clinically confirmed to be associated with the use of HDs. Pregnant women (n=35, 16%) and pre-school children≤6years old (n=128, 58%) accounted for most of the HD-associated lung injury patients (n=163, 74%). Sixty-seven percent of HDLI patients developed HDLI after less than one year of HD use. HD products containing polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG) were the most frequently used among confirmed HDLI patients (n=123, 55.7%), followed by oligo (2-(2-ethoxy) ethoxyethyl guanidinium (PGH) (n=24, 10.9%) and a mixture of chloromethylisothiazolinone (CMIT) and methylisothiazolinone (MIT) (n=3, 1.4%). Other HDs did not appear to be linked to HDLI. The majority of the HDLI patients (n=85, 38.5%) was found to use only Oxy Saksak® products containing PHMG. The development of HDLI was clinically found to be associated with the use of several HD products containing PHMG and PGH, and to lesser extent, CMIT/MIT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Low cognitive ability in early adulthood is associated with reduced lung function in middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Douglas; Batty, G David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2011-01-01

    Reduced lung function has been linked to poorer cognitive ability later in life. In the present study, the authors examined the converse: whether there was a prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and lung function in middle age.......Reduced lung function has been linked to poorer cognitive ability later in life. In the present study, the authors examined the converse: whether there was a prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and lung function in middle age....

  10. VEGF Promotes Malaria-Associated Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapau, Daniel; Pena, Ana C.; Ataíde, Ricardo; Monteiro, Carla A. A.; Félix, Nuno; Costa-Silva, Artur; Marinho, Claudio R. F.; Dias, Sérgio; Mota, Maria M.

    2010-01-01

    The spectrum of the clinical presentation and severity of malaria infections is broad, ranging from uncomplicated febrile illness to severe forms of disease such as cerebral malaria (CM), acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) or severe anemia (SA). Rodent models that mimic human CM, PAM and SA syndromes have been established. Here, we show that DBA/2 mice infected with P. berghei ANKA constitute a new model for malaria-associated ALI. Up to 60% of the mice showed dyspnea, airway obstruction and hypoxemia and died between days 7 and 12 post-infection. The most common pathological findings were pleural effusion, pulmonary hemorrhage and edema, consistent with increased lung vessel permeability, while the blood-brain barrier was intact. Malaria-associated ALI correlated with high levels of circulating VEGF, produced de novo in the spleen, and its blockage led to protection of mice from this syndrome. In addition, either splenectomization or administration of the anti-inflammatory molecule carbon monoxide led to a significant reduction in the levels of sera VEGF and to protection from ALI. The similarities between the physiopathological lesions described here and the ones occurring in humans, as well as the demonstration that VEGF is a critical host factor in the onset of malaria-associated ALI in mice, not only offers important mechanistic insights into the processes underlying the pathology related with malaria but may also pave the way for interventional studies. PMID:20502682

  11. National Association of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PPIs Advocacy Tools & Resources Communications Strategies & Resources School Psychology Awareness Week 2017 Advocacy Roadmaps General Advocacy Resources Membership & Community Join NASP Rates & Categories Member Benefits Get Involved ...

  12. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Computed Tomography Screening Workshop 2011 Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, John K.; Smith, Robert A.; Aberle, Denise R.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Baldwin, David R.; Yankelevitz, David; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Swanson, Scott James; Travis, William D.; Wisbuba, Ignacio I.; Noguchi, Masayuki; Mulshine, Jim L.

    The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Board of Directors convened a computed tomography (CT) Screening Task Force to develop an IASLC position statement, after the National Cancer Institute press statement from the National Lung Screening Trial showed that lung cancer

  13. An association of particulate air pollution and traffic exposure with mortality after lung transplantation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttens, David; Verleden, Stijn E.; Bijnens, Esmee M.; Winckelmans, Ellen; Gottlieb, Jens; Warnecke, Gregor; Meloni, Federica; Morosini, Monica; van der Bij, Wim; Verschuuren, Erik A.; Sommerwerck, Urte; Weinreich, Gerhard; Kamler, Markus; Roman, Antonio; Gomez-Olles, Susana; Berastegui, Cristina; Benden, Christian; Holm, AreMartin; Iversen, Martin; Schultz, Hans Henrik; Luijk, Bart; Oudijk, Erik-Jan; Erp, Johanna M. Kwakkel-van; Jaksch, Peter; Klepetko, Walter; Kneidinger, Nikolaus; Neurohr, Claus; Corris, Paul. A.; Fisher, Andrew J.; Lordan, James; Meachery, Gerard; Piloni, Davide; Vandermeulen, Elly; Bellon, Hannelore; Hoffmann, Barbara; Vienneau, Danielle; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; Nemery, Benoit; Verleden, Geert M.; Vos, Robin; Nawrot, Tims.; Vanaudenaerde, Bart M.

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution from road traffic is a serious health risk, especially for susceptible individuals. Single-centre studies showed an association with chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) and survival after lung transplantation, but there are no large studies. 13 lung transplant centres in 10

  14. Interstitial lung disease associated with human papillomavirus vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Yamamoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinations against the human papillomavirus (HPV have been recommended for the prevention of cervical cancer. HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccines (Cervarix are said to have favourable safety profiles. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs can occur following exposure to a drug or a biological agent. We report a case of ILD associated with a Cervarix vaccination. A woman in her 40's, with a history of conisation, received three inoculations of Cervarix. Three months later, she presented with a cough and shortness of breath. Findings from a computed tomography of the chest and a transbronchial lung biopsy were consistent with non-specific interstitial pneumonia. Workup eliminated all other causes of the ILD, except for the vaccination. Over the 11 months of the follow-up period, her symptoms resolved without steroid therapy. The onset and spontaneous resolution of the ILD showed a chronological association with the HPV vaccination. The semi-quantitative algorithm revealed that the likelihood of an adverse drug reaction to Cervarix was “Probable”. The outcome was relatively good, but more attention should be paid to a potential risk for HPV vaccinations to cause ILDs. Wherever possible, chest radiographic examinations should be performed in order not to overlook any ILDs.

  15. Cyclophosphamide for connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Hayley; Holland, Anne E; Westall, Glen P; Goh, Nicole Sl; Glaspole, Ian N

    2018-01-03

    Approximately one-third of individuals with interstitial lung disease (ILD) have associated connective tissue disease (CTD). The connective tissue disorders most commonly associated with ILD include scleroderma/systemic sclerosis (SSc), rheumatoid arthritis, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, and Sjögren's syndrome. Although many people with CTD-ILD do not develop progressive lung disease, a significant proportion do progress, leading to reduced physical function, decreased quality of life, and death. ILD is now the major cause of death amongst individuals with systemic sclerosis.Cyclophosphamide is a highly potent immunosuppressant that has demonstrated efficacy in inducing and maintaining remission in autoimmune and inflammatory illnesses. However this comes with potential toxicities, including nausea, haemorrhagic cystitis, bladder cancer, bone marrow suppression, increased risk of opportunistic infections, and haematological and solid organ malignancies.Decision-making in the treatment of individuals with CTD-ILD is difficult; the clinician needs to identify those who will develop progressive disease, and to weigh up the balance between a high level of need for therapy in a severely unwell patient population against the potential for adverse effects from highly toxic therapy, for which only relatively limited data on efficacy can be found. Similarly, it is not clear whether histological subtype, disease duration, or disease extent can be used to predict treatment responsiveness. To assess the efficacy and adverse effects of cyclophosphamide in the treatment of individuals with CTD-ILD. We performed searches on CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science up to May 2017. We handsearched review articles, clinical trial registries, and reference lists of retrieved articles. We included randomised controlled parallel-group trials that compared cyclophosphamide in any form, used individually or concomitantly with other immunomodulating therapies, versus non

  16. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-induced gene expression in the mouse lung: Association with lung pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacurari, M.; Qian, Y.; Porter, D.W.; Wolfarth, M.; Wan, Y.; Luo, D.; Ding, M.; Castranova, V.; Guo, N.L.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the fibrous shape and durability of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), concerns regarding their potential for producing environmental and human health risks, including carcinogenesis, have been raised. This study sought to investigate how previously identified lung cancer prognostic biomarkers and the related cancer signaling pathways are affected in the mouse lung following pharyngeal aspiration of well-dispersed MWCNT. A total of 63 identified lung cancer prognostic biomarker genes and major signaling biomarker genes were analyzed in mouse lungs (n = 80) exposed to 0, 10, 20, 40, or 80 μg of MWCNT by pharyngeal aspiration at 7 and 56 days post-exposure using quantitative PCR assays. At 7 and 56 days post-exposure, a set of 7 genes and a set of 11 genes, respectively, showed differential expression in the lungs of mice exposed to MWCNT vs. the control group. Additionally, these significant genes could separate the control group from the treated group over the time series in a hierarchical gene clustering analysis. Furthermore, 4 genes from these two sets of significant genes, coiled-coil domain containing-99 (Ccdc99), muscle segment homeobox gene-2 (Msx2), nitric oxide synthase-2 (Nos2), and wingless-type inhibitory factor-1 (Wif1), showed significant mRNA expression perturbations at both time points. It was also found that the expression changes of these 4 overlapping genes at 7 days post-exposure were attenuated at 56 days post-exposure. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) found that several carcinogenic-related signaling pathways and carcinogenesis itself were associated with both the 7 and 11 gene signatures. Taken together, this study identifies that MWCNT exposure affects a subset of lung cancer biomarkers in mouse lungs. - Research highlights: → Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes affect lung cancer biomarkers in mouse lungs. → The results suggest potentially harmful effects of MWCNT exposure on human lungs. → The results could potentially be used

  17. The association of systemic microvascular changes with lung function and lung density: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Harris

    Full Text Available Smoking causes endothelial dysfunction and systemic microvascular disease with resultant end-organ damage in the kidneys, eyes and heart. Little is known about microvascular changes in smoking-related lung disease. We tested if microvascular changes in the retina, kidneys and heart were associated with obstructive spirometry and low lung density on computed tomography. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis recruited participants age 45-84 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. Measures of microvascular function included retinal arteriolar and venular caliber, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and, in a subset, myocardial blood flow on magnetic resonance imaging. Spirometry was measured following ATS/ERS guidelines. Low attenuation areas (LAA were measured on lung fields of cardiac computed tomograms. Regression models adjusted for pulmonary and cardiac risk factors, medications and body size. Among 3,397 participants, retinal venular caliber was inversely associated with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1 (P<0.001 and FEV(1/forced vital capacity (FVC ratio (P = 0.04. Albumin-to-creatinine ratio was inversely associated with FEV(1 (P = 0.002 but not FEV(1/FVC. Myocardial blood flow (n = 126 was associated with lower FEV(1 (P = 0.02, lower FEV(1/FVC (P = 0.001 and greater percentage LAA (P = 0.04. Associations were of greater magnitude among smokers. Low lung function was associated with microvascular changes in the retina, kidneys and heart, and low lung density was associated with impaired myocardial microvascular perfusion. These cross-sectional results suggest that microvascular damage with end-organ dysfunction in all circulations may pertain to the lung, that lung dysfunction may contribute to systemic microvascular disease, or that there may be a shared predisposition.

  18. Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Lung Health from Young Adulthood to Middle Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benck, Lillian R; Cuttica, Michael J; Colangelo, Laura A; Sidney, Stephen; Dransfield, Mark T; Mannino, David M; Jacobs, David R; Lewis, Cora E; Zhu, Na; Washko, George R; Liu, Kiang; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Kalhan, Ravi

    2017-05-01

    Beyond the risks of smoking, there are limited data on factors associated with change in lung function over time. To determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness was longitudinally associated with preservation of lung health. Prospective data were collected from 3,332 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study aged 18-30 in 1985 who underwent treadmill exercise testing at baseline visit, and 2,735 participants with a second treadmill test 20 years later. The association between cardiorespiratory fitness and covariate adjusted decline in lung function was evaluated. Higher baseline fitness was associated with less decline in lung function. When adjusted for age, height, race-sex group, peak lung function, and years from peak lung function, each additional minute of treadmill duration was associated with 1.00 ml/yr less decline in FEV 1 (P fitness was associated with greater annual decline in lung function. Each 1-minute decline in treadmill duration between baseline and Year 20 was associated with 2.54 ml/yr greater decline in FEV 1 (P fitness over 20 years were associated with preservation of lung health. Greater cardiopulmonary fitness in young adulthood, less decline in fitness from young adulthood to middle age, and achieving increased fitness from young adulthood to middle age are associated with less decline in lung health over time. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00005130).

  19. Lung functions at school age and chronic exposure to outdoor and indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuberger, M; Kundi, M; Wiesenberger, W [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1996-12-31

    Early signs of lung function impairment have been found correlated with annual concentrations of outdoor air pollutants and with passive smoking. To investigate the combined effects of both indicators of chronic exposure to air pollution pulmonary functions in all elementary and high school children of an Austrian town was examined for 5 years. (author)

  20. Lung functions at school age and chronic exposure to outdoor and indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuberger, M.; Kundi, M.; Wiesenberger, W. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    Early signs of lung function impairment have been found correlated with annual concentrations of outdoor air pollutants and with passive smoking. To investigate the combined effects of both indicators of chronic exposure to air pollution pulmonary functions in all elementary and high school children of an Austrian town was examined for 5 years. (author)

  1. The association between combined non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis and lung cancer in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YW

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Yeon Wook Kim,1 Kwang-Nam Jin,2 Eun Young Heo,3 Sung Soo Park,3 Hee Soon Chung,3 Deog Kyeom Kim31Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of KoreaBackground: Whereas the epidemiological association between lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, a chronic inflammatory respiratory disease, is well known, limited studies have examined the association between lung cancer and non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, a representative chronic airway inflammatory disease. This study evaluated the association between bronchiectasis and lung cancer in patients with COPD.Methods: A matched case–control study was conducted in a referral hospital in South Korea. Among COPD patients with moderate to very severe airflow limitation (forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity <0.7 and forced expiratory volume in one second ≤70% [% predicted] who underwent chest computed tomography (CT between January 1, 2010 and May 30, 2013, patients with lung cancer and controls matched for age, sex, and smoking history were selected. The risk of lung cancer was assessed according to the presence of underlying bronchiectasis confirmed by chest CT.Results: The study enrolled 99 cases and 198 controls. Combined bronchiectasis on chest CT was inversely associated with the risk of lung cancer compared with controls (odds ratio [OR] 0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12–0.52, P<0.001. Significant associations were found in

  2. Lung cancer in Hodgkin's disease: association with previous radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    List, A.F.; Doll, D.C.; Greco, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    Seven cases of lung cancer were observed in patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) since 1970. The risk ratio for the development of lung cancer among HD patients was 5.6 times that expected in the general population. The pertinent clinical data from these patients are described and compared to 28 additional patients reported from other institutions. Small-cell lung cancer represented the predominant histologic type of lung cancer encountered in both smoking and nonsmoking patients with HD, accounting for 42% of cases overall and greater than 55% of cases reported in reviews of second malignancies. Tobacco use was noted in only 53% of patients. Twenty-eight (94%) of 30 patients developing metachronous lung cancer received supradiaphragmatic irradiation as primary therapy for HD. Nineteen (68%) of these patients received subsequent chemotherapy salvage. The median age at diagnosis of HD and lung cancer was 39 and 45 years, respectively. The interval between diagnosis of HD and metachronous lung cancer averaged seven years but appeared to vary inversely with age. HD patients treated with supradiaphragmatic irradiation or combined modality therapy may be at increased risk for developing lung cancer. The high frequency of in-field malignancies that the authors observed and the prevalence of small-cell lung cancer in both smoking and nonsmoking patients suggests that chest irradiation may influence the development of metachronous lung cancer in these patients. The finding of a mean latent interval in excess of seven years emphasizes the need for close long-term observation

  3. Clinical characteristics and survival of lung cancer patients associated with multiple primary malignancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Shan

    Full Text Available To investigate the characteristics and survival of lung cancer patients with additional malignant primary cancers.Records of lung cancer patients newly diagnosed in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital between January 2000 and January 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with second primary lung cancer and those with lung cancer only were included for detailed analysis.Of 27642 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients, 283 patients (1.02% suffered previous additional primary cancers. Compared with single primary lung cancer, patients with secondary lung cancer associated other primary cancers were more often women (female to male ratio 1:1.72 vs 1:2.58, P = 0.018, older (64.2 vs 60.5 years old, P<0.001, more squamous cell type (30.7% vs 20.5%, P = 0.004, less small cell (3.9% vs 15.5%, P<0.001 type, at earlier stages (17.7% vs 11.0% for stage I, P = 0.014, and more frequently with family history of cancers (7.8% vs 3.9%, P = 0.038. The most common previous primary cancers observed were colorectal (22.0%, breast (18.4%, gastric (14.4% and larynx cancers (11.9%. Approximately 42.9% of patients were diagnosed with lung cancer 2 to 6 years after diagnosis of initial primary cancers. The survival of patients with secondary lung cancer associated other malignancies was not significantly different from those with single lung cancer (P = 0.491, while synchronous multiple primary malignancies showed worse prognosis compared with those with metachronous ones or single lung cancer (p = 0.012.The possibility of second primary lung cancer should always be considered during the follow-up of related cancer types, especially those with family history of cancers. Patients with secondary lung cancer associated other primary malignancies have non-inferior survival than those with single lung cancer.

  4. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) associated interstitial lung disease (ILD).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, David N

    2013-10-01

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is the most common Connective Tissue Disease (CTD) and represents an increasing burden on global health resources. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been recognised as a complication of RA but its potential for mortality and morbidity has arguably been under appreciated for decades. New studies have underscored a significant lifetime risk of ILD development in RA. Contemporary work has identified an increased risk of mortality associated with the Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) pattern which shares similarity with the most devastating of the interstitial pulmonary diseases, namely Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). In this paper, we discuss recent studies highlighting the associated increase in mortality in RA-UIP. We explore associations between radiological and histopathological features of RA-ILD and the prognostic implications of same. We emphasise the need for translational research in this area given the growing burden of RA-ILD. We highlight the importance of the respiratory physician as a key stakeholder in the multidisciplinary management of this disorder. RA-ILD focused research offers the opportunity to identify early asymptomatic disease and define the natural history of this extra articular manifestation. This may provide a unique opportunity to define key regulatory fibrotic events driving progressive disease. We also discuss some of the more challenging and novel aspects of therapy for RA-ILD.

  5. CT-quantified emphysema distribution is associated with lung function decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoesein, F.A.A.M.; Rikxoort, E.M. van; Ginneken, B. van; de Jong, P. A.; Prokop, M.; Lammers, J.W.; Zanen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Emphysema distribution is associated with COPD. It is however unknown whether CT-quantified emphysema distribution (upper/lower lobe) is associated with lung function decline in heavy (former) smokers.587 male participants underwent lung CT-scanning and pulmonary function testing at baseline and

  6. Advanced sickle cell associated interstitial lung disease presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies have reported abnormal pulmonary function and pulmonary hypertension among Nigerians with sickle cell disease, but there is no report of interstitial lung disease among them. We report a Nigerian sickle cell patient who presented with computed tomography proven interstitial lung disease complicated by ...

  7. Lung cancer-associated tumor antigens and the present status of immunotherapy against non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumoto, Kosei; Hanagiri, Takeshi; Takenoyama, Mitsuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Despite recent advances in surgery, irradiation, and chemotherapy, the prognosis of patients with lung cancer is still poor. Therefore, the development and application of new therapeutic strategies are essential for improving the prognosis of this disease. Significant progress in our understanding of tumor immunology and molecular biology has allowed us to identify the tumor-associated antigens recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Immune responses and tumor-associated antigens against not only malignant melanoma but also lung cancer have been elucidated at the molecular level. In a theoretical sense, tumor eradication is considered possible through antigen-based immunotherapy against such diseases. However, many clinical trials of cancer vaccination with defined tumor antigens have resulted in objective clinical responses in only a small number of patients. Tumor escape mechanisms from host immune surveillance remain a major obstacle for cancer immunotherapy. A better understanding of the immune escape mechanisms employed by tumor cells is necessary before we can develop a more effective immunotherapeutic approach to lung cancer. We review recent studies regarding the identification of tumor antigens in lung cancer, tumor immune escape mechanisms, and clinical vaccine trials in lung cancer. (author)

  8. Lung cancer knowledge among secondary school male teachers in Kudat, Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed; Kadir, Samiah Yasmin Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine knowledge about lung cancer among secondary school male teachers in Kudat, Sabah, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among three secondary schools located in Kudat district, Sabah, Malaysia during the period from June until September 2012. The protocol of this study was approved by ethics committee of Management and Science University, Malaysia. The aims were explained and a consent form was signed by each participant. Respondents were chosen randomly from each school with the help of the headmasters. Self-administrated questionnaires, covering socio-demographic characteristics and general knowledge of lung cancer, were distributed. Once all 150 respondents completed the questionnaire, they passed it to their head master for collecting and recording. All the data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13. ANOVA and t-test were applied for univariate analysis; and multiple linear regression for multivariate analysis. A total of 150 male secondary school teachers participated in this study. Their mean age was 35.6 ∓ 6.5 (SD); maximum 50 and minimum 23 years old. More than half of the participants were Malay and married (52%, 79%; respectively). Regarding the knowledge about lung cancer, 57.3% of the participants mentioned that only males are affected by lung cancer. Some 70.7% mentioned that lung cancer can be transmitted from one person to another. More than half (56.7%) reported that lung cancer is not the leading cause of death in Malaysian males. As for risk factors, the majority reported that family history of lung cancer is not involved. However, 91.3% were aware that cigarettes are the main risk factor of lung cancer and more than half (52%) believed that second-hand smoking is one of the risk factor of lung cancer. More than half (51.3%) were not aware that asbestos, ionizing radiation and other cancer causing substances are risk factors for lung cancer

  9. Wnt5a Is Associated with Cigarette Smoke-Related Lung Carcinogenesis via Protein Kinase C

    OpenAIRE

    Whang, Young Mi; Jo, Ukhyun; Sung, Jae Sook; Ju, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Park, Kyong Hwa; Lee, Jong Won; Koh, In Song; Kim, Yeul Hong

    2013-01-01

    Wnt5a is overexpressed during the progression of human non-small cell lung cancer. However, the roles of Wnt5a during smoking-related lung carcinogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. We investigated the associations between Wnt5a and the early development of cigarette smoke related lung cancer using human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells (NHBE, BEAS-2B, 1799, 1198 and 1170I) at different malignant stages established by exposure to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Abnormal up-regulation ...

  10. HIV infection is associated with an increased risk for lung cancer, independent of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Gregory D; Merlo, Christian; O' Driscoll, Peter; Mehta, Shruti H; Galai, Noya; Vlahov, David; Samet, Jonathan; Engels, Eric A

    2007-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons have an elevated risk for lung cancer, but whether the increase reflects solely their heavy tobacco use remains an open question. The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Link to the Intravenous Experience Study has prospectively observed a cohort of injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland, since 1988, using biannual collection of clinical, laboratory, and behavioral data. Lung cancer deaths were identified through linkage with the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the effect of HIV infection on lung cancer risk, controlling for smoking status, drug use, and clinical variables. Among 2086 AIDS Link to the Intravenous Experience Study participants observed for 19,835 person-years, 27 lung cancer deaths were identified; 14 of the deaths were among HIV-infected persons. All but 1 (96%) of the patients with lung cancer were smokers, smoking a mean of 1.2 packs per day. Lung cancer mortality increased during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, compared with the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy period (mortality rate ratio, 4.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-16). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and calendar period, HIV infection was associated with increased lung cancer risk (hazard ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-7.9). Preexisting lung disease, particularly noninfectious diseases and asthma, displayed trends for increased lung cancer risk. Illicit drug use was not associated with increased lung cancer risk. Among HIV-infected persons, smoking remained the major risk factor; CD4 cell count and HIV load were not strongly associated with increased lung cancer risk, and trends for increased risk with use of highly active antiretroviral therapy were not significant. HIV infection is associated with significantly increased risk for developing lung cancer, independent of smoking status.

  11. Lung cancer risk associated with Thr495Pro polymorphism of GHR in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guochun; Lu, Hongna; Feng, Jifeng; Shu, Jian; Zheng, Datong; Hou, Yayi

    2008-04-01

    The incidence of lung cancer has been increasing over recent decades. Previous studies showed that polymorphisms of the genes involved in carcinogen-detoxication, DNA repair and cell cycle control comprise risk factors for lung cancer. Recent observations revealed that the growth hormone receptor (GHR) might play important roles in carcinogenesis and Rudd et al. found that the Thr495Pro polymorphism of GHR was strongly associated with lung cancer risk in Caucasians living in the UK (OR = 12.98, P = 0.0019, 95% CI: 1.77-infinity). To test whether this variant of GHR would modify the risk of lung cancer in Chinese population, we compared the polymorphism between 778 lung cancer patients and 781 healthy control subjects. Our results indicate that the frequency of 495Thr (2.8%) allele in cases was significantly higher than in controls (OR = 2.04, P = 0.006, 95% CI: 1.21-3.42) which indicated this allele might be a risk factor for lung cancer. Further analyses revealed Thr495Pro variant was associated with lung cancer in the subpopulation with higher risk for lung cancer: male subpopulation, still-smokers subpopulation and the subpopulation with familial history of cancer. In different histological types of lung cancer, Thr495Pro SNP was significantly associated with small cell and squamous cell lung cancer, but not with adenocarcinoma, which suggested a potential interaction between this polymorphism and metabolic pathways related to smoking. The potential gene-environment interaction on lung cancer risk was evaluated using MDR software. A significant redundant interaction between Thr495Pro polymorphism and smoking dose and familial history of cancer was identified and the combination of genetic factors and smoking status or familial history of cancer barely increased the cancer risk prediction accuracy. In conclusion, our results suggested that the Thr495Pro polymorphism of GHR was associated with the risk of lung cancer in a redundant interaction with smoking and

  12. High procedure volume is strongly associated with improved survival after lung cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Riaz, Sharma P; Coupland, Victoria H

    2013-01-01

    Studies have reported an association between hospital volume and survival for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We explored this association in England, accounting for case mix and propensity to resect....

  13. Bleomycin-associated Lung Toxicity in Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Alexandra P; Yang, Connie L; Dell, Sharon; Nathan, Paul C

    2015-11-01

    Pulmonary disease is a significant morbidity among childhood cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to characterize the pulmonary dysfunction experienced by childhood cancer survivors treated with bleomycin. A cross-sectional analysis of pulmonary function testing (PFT) in survivors treated with bleomycin was preformed. The most recent posttherapy PFT was assessed. Spirometry and lung volumes were categorized as normal, restrictive, obstructive, or mixed. Diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) was categorized as normal or abnormal. PFT data of 143 survivors was analyzed. PFTs were performed a median of 2.3 years (interquartile range, 1.4 to 4.9) from completion of therapy. Spirometry was abnormal in 58 (41%), only 5 (9%) had respiratory symptoms. Forty-two (70%) had obstructive, 11 (18%) restrictive, and 5 (9%) mixed ventilatory defects. The majority of abnormalities were mild (91%). DLCO was abnormal in 27. Reductions were mild in 96%. Patients with a history of relapse were more likely to develop abnormalities in spirometry and/or DLCO (odds ratio=5.02, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-19.4, P=0.01; odds ratio=3.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-11.9, P=0.03). Asymptomatic abnormalities of PFT are common among childhood cancer survivors treated with bleomycin and associated with a history of relapse. Research studying the risk for clinical progression of this dysfunction is warranted.

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa vesicles associate with and are internalized by human lung epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuehn Meta J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major pathogen associated with chronic and ultimately fatal lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. To investigate how P. aeruginosa-derived vesicles may contribute to lung disease, we explored their ability to associate with human lung cells. Results Purified vesicles associated with lung cells and were internalized in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Vesicles from a CF isolate exhibited a 3- to 4-fold greater association with lung cells than vesicles from the lab strain PAO1. Vesicle internalization was temperature-dependent and was inhibited by hypertonic sucrose and cyclodextrins. Surface-bound vesicles rarely colocalized with clathrin. Internalized vesicles colocalized with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER marker, TRAPα, as well as with ER-localized pools of cholera toxin and transferrin. CF isolates of P. aeruginosa abundantly secrete PaAP (PA2939, an aminopeptidase that associates with the surface of vesicles. Vesicles from a PaAP knockout strain exhibited a 40% decrease in cell association. Likewise, vesicles from PAO1 overexpressing PaAP displayed a significant increase in cell association. Conclusion These data reveal that PaAP promotes the association of vesicles with lung cells. Taken together, these results suggest that P. aeruginosa vesicles can interact with and be internalized by lung epithelial cells and contribute to the inflammatory response during infection.

  15. Lung Adenocarcinomas and Lung Cancer Cell Lines Show Association of MMP-1 Expression With STAT3 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Schütz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 is constitutively activated in the majority of lung cancer. This study aims at defining connections between STAT3 function and the malignant properties of non–small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC cells. To address possible mechanisms by which STAT3 influences invasiveness, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 was analyzed and correlated with the STAT3 activity status. Studies on both surgical biopsies and on lung cancer cell lines revealed a coincidence of STAT3 activation and strong expression of MMP-1. MMP-1 and tyrosine-phosphorylated activated STAT3 were found co-localized in cancer tissues, most pronounced in tumor fronts, and in particular in adenocarcinomas. STAT3 activity was constitutive, although to different degrees, in the lung cancer cell lines investigated. Three cell lines (BEN, KNS62, and A549 were identified in which STAT3 activitation was inducible by Interleukin-6 (IL-6. In A549 cells, STAT3 activity enhanced the level of MMP-1 mRNA and stimulated transcription from the MMP-1 promoter in IL-6–stimulated A549 cells. STAT3 specificity of this effect was confirmed by STAT3 knockdown through RNA interference. Our results link aberrant activity of STAT3 in lung cancer cells to malignant tumor progression through up-regulation of expression of invasiveness-associated MMPs.

  16. Genomic profiles of lung cancer associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji An; Kim, Deokhoon; Chun, Sung-Min; Bae, SooHyun; Song, Joon Seon; Kim, Mi Young; Koo, Hyun Jung; Song, Jin Woo; Kim, Woo Sung; Lee, Jae Cheol; Kim, Hyeong Ryul; Choi, Chang-Min; Jang, Se Jin

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the pathogenesis or molecular profiles of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis-associated lung cancer (IPF-LC). This study was performed to investigate the genomic profiles of IPF-LC and to explore the possibility of defining potential therapeutic targets in IPF-LC. We assessed genomic profiles of IPF-LC by using targeted exome sequencing (OncoPanel version 2) in 35 matched tumour/normal pairs surgically resected between 2004 and 2014. Germline and somatic variant calling was performed with GATK HaplotypeCaller and MuTect with GATK SomaticIndelocator, respectively. Copy number analysis was conducted with CNVkit, with focal events determined by Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer 2.0, and pathway analysis (KEGG) with DAVID. Germline mutations in TERT (rs2736100, n = 33) and CDKN1A (rs2395655, n = 27) associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis risk were detected in most samples. A total of 410 somatic mutations were identified, with an average of 11.7 per tumour, including 69 synonymous, 177 missense, 17 nonsense, 1 nonstop and 11 splice-site mutations, and 135 small coding indels. Spectra of the somatic mutations revealed predominant C > T transitions despite an extensive smoking history in most patients, suggesting a potential association between APOBEC-related mutagenesis and the development of IPF-LC. TP53 (22/35, 62.9%) and BRAF (6/35, 17.1%) were found to be significantly mutated in IPF-LC. Recurrent focal amplifications in three chromosomal loci (3q26.33, 7q31.2, and 12q14.3) and 9p21.3 deletion were identified, and genes associated with the JAK-STAT signalling pathway were significantly amplified in IPF-LC (P = 0.012). This study demonstrates that IPF-LC is genetically characterized by the presence of somatic mutations reflecting a variety of environmental exposures on the background of specific germline mutations, and is associated with potentially targetable alterations such as BRAF mutations. Copyright © 2017

  17. Statin Use Is Associated with Reduced Mortality in Patients with Interstitial Lung Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We hypothesized that statin use begun before the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease is associated with reduced mortality. METHODS: We studied all patients diagnosed with interstitial lung disease in the entire Danish population from 1995 through 2009, comparing statin use versus...... no statin use in a nested 1:2 matched study. RESULTS: The cumulative survival as a function of follow-up time from the date of diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (n = 1,786 + 3,572) and idiopathic lung fibrosis (n = 261 + 522) was higher for statin users versus never users (log-rank: P = 7 · 10......(-9) and P = 0.05). The median survival time in patients with interstitial lung disease was 3.3 years in statin users and 2.1 years in never users. Corresponding values in patients with idiopathic lung fibrosis were 3.4 versus 2.4 years. After multivariable adjustment, the hazard ratio for all...

  18. Lung function discordance in monozygotic twins and associated differences in blood DNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolund, Anneli C S; Starnawska, Anna; Miller, Martin R

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lung function is an important predictor of morbidity and mortality, with accelerated lung function decline reported to have immense consequences for the world's healthcare systems. The lung function decline across individual's lifetime is a consequence of age-related changes in lung...... as TGF-β-receptor-related genes, may be involved in the cross-sectional level and longitudinal change in lung function in middle-aged monozygotic twins....... and genetic factors. DNA methylation plays a crucial role in regulation of gene expression, with increasing evidence linking aberrant DNA methylation levels with a number of common human diseases. In this study, we investigated possible associations between genome-wide DNA methylation levels and lung function...

  19. Lower lung function associates with cessation of menstruation: UK Biobank data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, André F S; Strachan, David P; Gómez Real, Francisco; Burney, Peter G J; Jarvis, Deborah L

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the effect of cessation of menstruation on lung function. The aims of the study were to examine the association of lung function with natural and surgical cessation of menstruation, and assess whether lower lung function is associated with earlier age at cessation of menstruation.The study was performed in 141 076 women from the UK Biobank, who had provided acceptable and reproducible spirometry measurements and information on menstrual status. The associations of lung function (forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ), spirometric restriction (FVC menstruation and age at cessation of menstruation were assessed using regression analysis.Women who had natural cessation of menstruation showed a lower FVC (-42 mL; 95% CI -53- -30) and FEV 1 (-34 mL; 95% CI -43- -24) and higher risk of spirometric restriction (adjusted odds ratio 1.27; 95% CI 1.18-1.37) than women still menstruating. These associations were stronger in women who had had a hysterectomy and/or oophorectomy. The earlier the natural cessation of menstruation, the lower the lung function. There was no clear association of lung function with age at hysterectomy and/or oophorectomy. Airflow obstruction was not associated with cessation of menstruation.Lower lung function associates with cessation of menstruation, especially if it occurs early in life. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  20. CT-quantified emphysema in male heavy smokers : association with lung function decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A A; de Hoop, Bartjan; Zanen, Pieter; Gietema, Hester; Kruitwagen, Cas L J J; van Ginneken, Bram; Isgum, Ivana; Mol, Christian; van Klaveren, Rob J; Dijkstra, Akkelies E; Groen, Hendricus; Boezen, Hendrika; Postma, Dirkje S; Prokop, Mathias; Lammers, Jan-Willem J

    BACKGROUND: Emphysema and small airway disease both contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease characterised by accelerated decline in lung function. The association between the extent of emphysema in male current and former smokers and lung function decline was

  1. Serpine2 deficiency results in lung lymphocyte accumulation and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solleti, Siva Kumar; Srisuma, Sorachai; Bhattacharya, Soumyaroop; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Bijli, Kaiser M; Randall, Troy D; Rahman, Arshad; Mariani, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    Serine proteinase inhibitor, clade E, member 2 (SERPINE2), is a cell- and extracellular matrix-associated inhibitor of thrombin. Although SERPINE2 is a candidate susceptibility gene for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the physiologic role of this protease inhibitor in lung development and homeostasis is unknown. We observed spontaneous monocytic-cell infiltration in the lungs of Serpine2-deficient (SE2(-/-)) mice, beginning at or before the time of lung maturity, which resulted in lesions that resembled bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). The initiation of lymphocyte accumulation in the lungs of SE2(-/-) mice involved the excessive expression of chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion molecules that are essential for BALT induction, organization, and maintenance. BALT-like lesion formation in the lungs of SE2(-/-) mice was also associated with a significant increase in the activation of thrombin, a recognized target of SE2, and excess stimulation of NF-κB, a major regulator of chemokine expression and inflammation. Finally, systemic delivery of thrombin rapidly stimulated lung chemokine expression in vivo These data uncover a novel mechanism whereby loss of serine protease inhibition leads to lung lymphocyte accumulation.-Solleti, S. K., Srisuma, S., Bhattacharya, S., Rangel-Moreno, J., Bijli, K. M., Randall, T. D., Rahman, A., Mariani, T. J. Serpine2 deficiency results in lung lymphocyte accumulation and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue formation. © FASEB.

  2. Risk of lung cancer associated with domestic use of coal in Xuanwei, China: retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barone-Adesi, F.; Chapman, R.S.; Silverman, D.T.; He, X.; Hu, W.; Vermeulen, R.; Ning, B.; Fraumeni, J.F.; Rothman, N.; Lan, Q.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of lung cancer associated with the use of different types of coal for household cooking and heating. SETTING: Xuanwei County, Yunnan Province, China. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study (follow-up 1976-96) comparing mortality from lung cancer between lifelong users of

  3. Lung function and functional capacity in school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana S da Silva Dias de Andrade

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Six-minute walk test (TC6’ and peak expiratory flow (PEF can be influenced by variables like gender, age and body mass index (BMI. In the school context, these tests can identify losses caused by sedentary habits and/or manifestation of overweight/obesity. Nevertheless, although widely studied in the adult context, they have not been properly clarified in the child public. Objective: To assess the PEF and TC6’ between students in the public and private network and to correlate them with factors like age, gender and BMI. Methods: 39 male and female children between eight and ten years of age were selected for the study. The TC6’ was held at a sports court. The child was instructed to walk at maximum speed for six minutes and the PEF test took place in accordance to the recommendations by Pereira et al (1. Results: No significant correlation was found between the BMI and the PEF and TC6’ scores. No significant correlation was found between sex and PEF, with measures within normal parameters for the entire sample. The EPF measures did not influence the distance walked in the TC6’. A significant correlation was found between sex and distance walked in the TC6’ only among male children attending public schools. Conclusion: Both sex and BMI did not influence the PEF measures which, in turn, does not seem to have influenced the distance the sample walked in the TC6’. Also concerning the TC6’, only the children from public school reached the normal scores proposed in the literature.

  4. Evaluation report on the causal association between humidifier disinfectants and lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Ha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES As of November 2011, the Korean government recalled and banned humidifier disinfectants (HDs from the market, because four case-control studies and one retrospective epidemiological study proved the association between HDs and lung injury of unknown cause. The report reviewed the causal role of HDs in lung injury based on scientific evidences. METHODS A careful examination on the association between the HDs and lung injury was based on the criteria of causality inference by Hill and the US Surgeon General Expert Committee. RESULTS We found that all the evidences on the causality fulfilled the criteria (strength of association, consistency, specificity, temporality, biologic gradient, plausibility, coherence, experiment, analogy, consideration of alternative explanations, and cessation of exposure, which proved the unknown cause lung injury reported in 2011 was caused by the HDs. In particular, there was no single reported case of lung injury since the ban in selling HDs in November 2011 as well as before the HDs were sold in markets. CONCLUSIONS Although only a few epidemiological studies in Korea have evaluated the association between lung injury and the use of HDs, those studies contributed to proving the strong association between the use of the HDs and lung injury, based on scientific evidence.

  5. Association of high-level humidifier disinfectant exposure with lung injury in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-Uk; Ryu, Seung-Hun; Roh, Hyun-Suk; Lee, Eun; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Yoon, Jisun; Lee, So-Yeon; Cho, Young Ah; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2018-03-01

    Children aged ≤6years reportedly account for 52% of victims of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injuries. To evaluate the association of humidifier disinfectants with lung injury risk among children aged ≤6years. Patients with humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injuries (n=214) who were clinically evaluated to have a definite (n=108), probable (n=49), or possible (n=57) association with humidifier disinfectants as well as control patients (n=123) with lung injury deemed unlikely to be associated with humidifier disinfectant use were evaluated to determine factors associated with increased risk of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury using unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis. For estimated airborne humidifier disinfectant concentrations, risk of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury increased ≥two-fold in a dose-dependent manner in the highest quartile (Q4, 135-1443μg/m 3 ) compared with that in the lowest quartile (Q1, ≤33μg/m 3 ). Registered patients using more than two humidifier disinfectant brands were at an increased risk of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury (adjusted OR, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.8) compared with those using only one brand. With respect to the duration of humidifier disinfectant use, risk of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury increased ≥two-fold in the lowest quartile (≤5months) compared with that in the highest quartile (≥14months; adjusted OR 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.6). Younger children are more vulnerable to HDLI when exposed to HD chemicals within short period in early life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Paraseptal emphysema: Prevalence and distribution on CT and association with interstitial lung abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Mizuki; Zazueta, Oscar E.; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Josée; Okajima, Yuka; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Rosas, Ivan O.; Murakami, Takamichi; O’Connor, George T.; Washko, George R.; Hunninghake, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The prevalence of pure paraseptal emphysema was 3% (85/2633) in the Framingham Heart Study population, predominantly affects the upper lung zone, and contributes to slightly decreased pulmonary function. • There was significant association between paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities, which is a novel finding. • Prevalence of paraseptal emphysema and its impact on pulmonary function could have been underestimated in the previous reports. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate the prevalence and distribution of paraseptal emphysema on chest CT images in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) population, and assess its impact on pulmonary function. Also pursued was the association with interstitial lung abnormalities. Materials and methods: We assessed 2633 participants in the FHS for paraseptal emphysema on chest CT. Characteristics of the participants, including age, sex, smoking status, clinical symptoms, and results of pulmonary function tests, were compared between those with and without paraseptal emphysema. The association between paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities was investigated. Results: Of the 2633 participants, 86 (3%) had pure paraseptal emphysema (defined as paraseptal emphysema with no other subtypes of emphysema other than paraseptal emphysema or a very few centrilobular emphysema involved) in at least one lung zone. The upper zone of the lungs was almost always involved. Compared to the participants without paraseptal emphysema, those with pure paraseptal emphysema were significantly older, and were more frequently male and smokers (mean 64 years, 71% male, mean 36 pack-years, P < 0.001) and had significantly decreased FEV 1 /FVC% (P = 0.002), and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) (P = 0.002). There was a significant association between pure paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of pure paraseptal emphysema was 3% in the FHS

  7. School lunch and snacking patterns among high school students: Associations with school food environment and policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Story Mary

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study examined associations between high school students' lunch patterns and vending machine purchases and the school food environment and policies. Methods A randomly selected sample of 1088 high school students from 20 schools completed surveys about their lunch practices and vending machine purchases. School food policies were assessed by principal and food director surveys. The number of vending machines and their hours of operation were assessed by trained research staff. Results Students at schools with open campus policies during lunchtime were significantly more likely to eat lunch at a fast food restaurant than students at schools with closed campus policies (0.7 days/week vs. 0.2 days/week, p Conclusion School food policies that decrease access to foods high in fats and sugars are associated with less frequent purchase of these items in school among high school students. Schools should examine their food-related policies and decrease access to foods that are low in nutrients and high in fats and sugars.

  8. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the risk of lung cancer: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W. Brown (David); R.F. Anda (Robert); V.J. Felitti (Vincent); V.J. Edwards (Valerie); A.M. Malarcher (Ann Marie); J.B. Croft (Janet); W.H. Giles (Wayne)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Strong relationships between exposure to childhood traumatic stressors and smoking behaviours inspire the question whether these adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer during adulthood. Methods. Baseline survey data on health

  9. Decreased CXCL12 is associated with impaired alveolar epithelial cell migration and poor lung healing after lung resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Jacob A; Sun, Haiying; Chiu, Stephen; DeCamp, Malcolm M; Sporn, Peter H S; Sznajder, Jacob I; Bharat, Ankit

    2015-10-01

    Prolonged air leak (PAL) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality after lung resection, but its pathogenesis has not been elucidated. Migration of alveolar type II epithelial cells is essential for lung wound repair. Here we determined the role of C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12) on alveolar epithelial cell migration and lung wound healing. CXCL12 in the pleural fluid of patients was analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Human A549 and murine MLE12 alveolar epithelial cell lines were used for wound closure, cell migration, and proliferation assays. Western blot was used to analyze Rac1 and cofilin. Pleural CXCL12 was decreased in patients with PAL (1,389 ± 192 vs 3,270 ± 247 pg/mL; P alveolar epithelial cell migration by binding to its receptor CXCR4 and may have a role in lung healing. CXCL12-mediated alveolar epithelial cell migration is associated with Rac1 and cofilin activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Paraseptal Emphysema: Prevalence and Distribution on CT and Association with Interstitial Lung Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Mizuki; Zazueta, Oscar E.; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Josée; Okajima, Yuka; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Rosas, Ivan O.; Murakami, Takamichi; O’Connor, George T.; Washko, George R.; Hunninghake, Gary M.; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and distribution of paraseptal emphysema on chest CT images in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) population, and assess its impact on pulmonary function. Also pursued was the association with interstitial lung abnormalities. Materials and Methods We assessed 2633 participants in the FHS for paraseptal emphysema on chest CT. Characteristics of participants, including age, sex, smoking status, clinical symptoms, and results of pulmonary function tests, were compared between those with and without paraseptal emphysema. The association between paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities was investigated. Results Of the 2633 participants, 86 (3%) had pure paraseptal emphysema (defined as paraseptal emphysema with no other subtypes of emphysema other than paraseptal emphysema or a very few centrilobular emphysema involved) in at least one lung zone. The upper zone of the lungs was almost always involved. Compared to the participants without paraseptal emphysema, those with pure paraseptal emphysema were significantly older, and were more frequently male and smokers (mean 64 years, 71% male, mean 36 pack-years, pemphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities (pemphysema was 3% in the FHS population, predominantly affects the upper lung zone, and contributes to decreased pulmonary function. Cigarette smoking, aging, and male gender were the factors associated with the presence of paraseptal emphysema. Significant association between paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities was observed. PMID:25868675

  11. High-sensitive C-reactive protein is associated with reduced lung function in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Finn; Mikkelsen, Dennis; Hancox, Robert

    2009-01-01

    levels of CRP at age 20 yrs were associated with a greater reduction in both FEV(1) and forced vital capacity between ages 20 and 29 yrs. The findings show that higher levels of C-reactive protein in young adults are associated with subsequent decline in lung function, suggesting that low-grade systemic...... inflammation in young adulthood may lead to impaired lung function independently of the effects of smoking, obesity, cardiorespiratory fitness, asthma and eosinophilic inflammation....

  12. Risk factors associated with treatment refusal in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Won Na; Kong, Kyoung Ae; Han, Yeji; Kim, Soo Jung; Lee, Su Hwan; Ryu, Yon Ju; Lee, Jin Hwa; Shim, Sung Shine; Kim, Yookyung; Chang, Jung Hyun

    2017-09-01

    The incidence of lung cancer is increasing with longer life expectancy. Refusal of active treatment for cancer is prone to cause patients to experience more severe symptoms and shorten survival. The purpose of this study was to define the factors related to refusal or abandonment of active therapy in lung cancer. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 617 patients from medical records from 2010 to 2014. Two groups were formed: 149 patients who refused anti-cancer treatment and allowed only palliative care were classified into the non-treatment group, while the remaining 468 who received anti-cancer treatment were classified into the treatment group. The groups differed significantly in age, employment, relationship status, number of offspring, educational status, body mass index, presence of chest and systemic symptoms, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score, and tumor node metastasis stage ( P refusal of cancer treatment. Individual factors, such as old age, low educational status, low weight, and poor performance status can influence refusal of cancer treatment in patients with lung cancer, and should be considered prior to consultation with patients. © 2017 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Combined effects of sivelestat and resveratrol on severe acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Houhong; Wang, Shuai; Tang, Amao; Gong, Huihui; Ma, Panpan; Chen, Li

    2014-08-01

    Despite extensive research and clinical efforts made in the management of acute pancre-atitis during the past few decades, to date no effective cure is available and the mortality from severe acute pancre-atitis remains high. Given that lung is the primary cause of early death in acute pancreatitis patients, novel therapeutic approaches aiming to prevent lung injury have become a subject of intensive investigation. In a previous study, we demonstrated that sivelestat, a specific inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, is effective in protecting against lung failure in rats with taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis. As part of the analyses extended from that study, the present study aimed to evaluate the role of sivelestat and/or resveratrol in the protection against acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury. The extended analyses demonstrated the following: (1) sodium taurocholate induced apparent lung injury and dysfunction manifested by histological anomalies, including vacuolization and apoptosis of the cells in the lung, as well as biochemical aberrations in the blood (an increase in amylase concentration and a decrease in partial arterial oxygen pressure) and increases in activities of reactive oxygen species, interleukin 6, myeloperoxidase, neutrophil elastase, lung edema, bronchotracho alveolar lavage protein concentration, and bronchotracho alveolar lavage cell infiltration in the lung; and (2) in lung tissues, either sivelestat or resveratrol treatment effectively attenuated the taurocholate-induced abnormalities in all parameters analyzed except for serum amylase concentration. In addition, combined treatment with both sivelestat and resveratrol demonstrated additive protective effects on pancreatitis-associated lung injury compared with single treatment.

  14. Association of XPC polymorphisms and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C gene (XPC is a key member of nucleotide excision repair pathway and plays an important role in human DNA repair system. It is reported that several common polymorphisms of XPC are associated with susceptibility to lung cancer. However, the conclusion is still elusive. METHOD: This meta-analysis was performed to determine the relationship between XPC polymorphisms (Lys939Gln, Ala499Val, and PAT and lung cancer risk. Published literatures were identified by searching online databases and reference lists of relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to estimate the association strength. Publication bias were detected by Egger's and Begg's test. RESULT: After strict screening, we identified 14 eligible studies in this meta-analysis, including 5647 lung cancer cases and 6908 controls. By pooling all eligible studies, we found that the homozygote Gln939Gln genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer in Asian population (GlnGln vs LysLys, OR=1.229, 95% CI: 1.000-1.510; GlnGln vs LysLys/LysGln, OR=1.257, 95% CI: 1.038-1.522. As for the PAT polymorphism, in Caucasian population, we found carriers of the -/- genotype were associated significantly reduced risk of lung cancer in homozygote comparison model (-/- vs +/+, OR=0.735, 95% CI: 0.567-0.952. CONCLUSION: In this meta-analysis we found that Gln939Gln genotype was associated with significantly increased risk of lung cancer in Asian population; the PAT -/- genotype significantly reduced susceptibility to lung cancer in Caucasian population; while the XPC Ala499Val polymorphism was not associated with lung cancer risk.

  15. LIFETIME PHYSICAL INACTIVITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH LUNG CANCER RISK AND MORTALITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannioto, Rikki; Etter, John Lewis; LaMonte, Michael J; Ray, Andrew D; Joseph, Janine M; Al Qassim, Emad; Eng, Kevin H; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2018-01-01

    Investigations of the independent associations of physical inactivity with cancer endpoints have been mounting in the epidemiological literature, in part due to the high prevalence of physical inactivity among cancer patients and to evidence that inactivity associates with carcinogenesis via pathways independent of obesity. Yet, physical inactivity is not currently recognized as a well-established risk or prognostic factor for lung cancer. As such, we examined the associations of lifetime physical inactivity with lung cancer risk and mortality in a hospital-based, case-control study. Materials and Methods: The analyses included data from 660 lung cancer patients and 1335 matched cancer-free controls. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the association between lifetime physical inactivity and lung cancer risk, and Cox proportional hazards models were utilized to estimate the association between lifetime physical inactivity and mortality among lung cancer cases. Results: We observed a significant positive association between lifetime physical inactivity and lung cancer risk: [Odds ratio (OR)=2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.77-2.81]; the association remained significant among never smokers (OR=3.00, 95% CI:1.33-6.78) and non-smokers (OR=2.33, 95% CI: 1.79-3.02). We also observed a significant positive association between lifetime physical inactivity and lung cancer mortality [Hazard ratio (HR)=1.40, 95% CI: 1.14-1.71]; the association remained significant in non-smokers (HR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.16-1.95). These data add to the body of evidence suggesting that physical inactivity is an independent risk and prognostic factor for cancer. Additional research utilizing prospectively collected data is needed to substantiate the current findings.

  16. Mechanisms Underlying HIV-Associated Noninfectious Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, Rachel M; Flores, Sonia C; Palmer, Brent E; Atkinson, Jeffrey J; Lesko, Catherine R; Lau, Bryan; Fontenot, Andrew P; Roman, Jesse; McDyer, John F; Twigg, Homer L

    2017-11-01

    Pulmonary disease remains a primary source of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV (PLWH), although the advent of potent combination antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a shift from predominantly infectious to noninfectious pulmonary complications. PLWH are at high risk for COPD, pulmonary hypertension, and lung cancer even in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. The underlying mechanisms of this are incompletely understood, but recent research in both human and animal models suggests that oxidative stress, expression of matrix metalloproteinases, and genetic instability may result in lung damage, which predisposes PLWH to these conditions. Some of the factors that drive these processes include tobacco and other substance use, direct HIV infection and expression of specific HIV proteins, inflammation, and shifts in the microbiome toward pathogenic and opportunistic organisms. Further studies are needed to understand the relative importance of these factors to the development of lung disease in PLWH. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of arsenic exposure with lung cancer incidence rates in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Putila

    Full Text Available Although strong exposure to arsenic has been shown to be carcinogenic, its contribution to lung cancer incidence in the United States is not well characterized. We sought to determine if the low-level exposures to arsenic seen in the U.S. are associated with lung cancer incidence after controlling for possible confounders, and to assess the interaction with smoking behavior.Measurements of arsenic stream sediment and soil concentration obtained from the USGS National Geochemical Survey were combined, respectively, with 2008 BRFSS estimates on smoking prevalence and 2000 U.S. Census county level income to determine the effects of these factors on lung cancer incidence, as estimated from respective state-wide cancer registries and the SEER database. Poisson regression was used to determine the association between each variable and age-adjusted county-level lung cancer incidence. ANOVA was used to assess interaction effects between covariates.Sediment levels of arsenic were significantly associated with an increase in incident cases of lung cancer (P<0.0001. These effects persisted after controlling for smoking and income (P<0.0001. Across the U.S., exposure to arsenic may contribute to up to 5,297 lung cancer cases per year. There was also a significant interaction between arsenic exposure levels and smoking prevalence (P<0.05.Arsenic was significantly associated with lung cancer incidence rates in the U.S. after controlling for smoking and income, indicating that low-level exposure to arsenic is responsible for excess cancer cases in many parts of the U.S. Elevated county smoking prevalence strengthened the association between arsenic exposure and lung cancer incidence rate, an effect previously unseen on a population level.

  18. Humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury in adults: Prognostic factors in predicting short-term outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Hyun Jung; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Chae, Eun Jin; Kim, Hwa Jung; Song, Joon Seon; Jang, Se Jin; Hong, Sang-Bum; Huh, Jin Won; Lee, En; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2017-01-01

    To identify clinical and radiologic findings that affect disease severity and short-term prognosis of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury in adults and to compare computed tomography (CT) findings between the patients with and without death or lung transplantation. Fifty-nine adults (mean age, 34 years; M/F = 12:47) were enrolled in this retrospective study. Medical records and prospective surveillance data were used to assess clinical and radiological factors associated with a poor clinical outcome. Multivariate generalized estimating equation models were used to analyse serial CT findings. Overall cumulative major events including lung transplantation and mortality were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Almost half needed ICU admission (47.5 %) and 17 died (28.8 %). Young age, peripartum and low O_2 saturation were factors associated with ICU admission. On initial chest radiographs, consolidation (P < 0.001) and ground-glass opacity (P = 0.01) were significantly noted in patients who required ICU admission. CT findings including consolidation (odds ratio (OR), 1.02), pneumomediastinum (OR, 1.66) and pulmonary interstitial emphysema (OR, 1.61) were the risk factors for lung transplantation and mortality. Clinical and radiologic findings are related to the risks of lung transplantation and mortality of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury. Consolidation, pneumomediastinum and pulmonary interstitial emphysema were short-term prognostic CT findings. (orig.)

  19. Humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury in adults: Prognostic factors in predicting short-term outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Hyun Jung; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Chae, Eun Jin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwa Jung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Cancer Center, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Joon Seon; Jang, Se Jin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sang-Bum; Huh, Jin Won [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, En [Inje University Haundae Paik Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soo-Jong [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Childhood Asthma and Atopy Center, Environmental Health Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    To identify clinical and radiologic findings that affect disease severity and short-term prognosis of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury in adults and to compare computed tomography (CT) findings between the patients with and without death or lung transplantation. Fifty-nine adults (mean age, 34 years; M/F = 12:47) were enrolled in this retrospective study. Medical records and prospective surveillance data were used to assess clinical and radiological factors associated with a poor clinical outcome. Multivariate generalized estimating equation models were used to analyse serial CT findings. Overall cumulative major events including lung transplantation and mortality were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Almost half needed ICU admission (47.5 %) and 17 died (28.8 %). Young age, peripartum and low O{sub 2} saturation were factors associated with ICU admission. On initial chest radiographs, consolidation (P < 0.001) and ground-glass opacity (P = 0.01) were significantly noted in patients who required ICU admission. CT findings including consolidation (odds ratio (OR), 1.02), pneumomediastinum (OR, 1.66) and pulmonary interstitial emphysema (OR, 1.61) were the risk factors for lung transplantation and mortality. Clinical and radiologic findings are related to the risks of lung transplantation and mortality of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury. Consolidation, pneumomediastinum and pulmonary interstitial emphysema were short-term prognostic CT findings. (orig.)

  20. Association of Heme Oxygenase 1 with Lung Protection in Malaria-Associated ALI/ARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marcelo L M; Ortolan, Luana S; Sercundes, Michelle K; Debone, Daniela; Murillo, Oscar; Lima, Flávia A; Marinho, Claudio R F; Epiphanio, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a serious disease, caused by the parasite of the genus Plasmodium , which was responsible for 440,000 deaths in 2015. Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is one of the main clinical complications in severe malaria. The murine model DBA/2 reproduces the clinical signs of ALI/ARDS in humans, when infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. High levels of HO-1 were reported in cases of severe malaria. Our data indicated that the HO-1 mRNA and protein expression are increased in mice that develop malaria-associated ALI/ARDS (MA-ALI/ARDS). Additionally, the hemin, a HO-1 inducing drug, prevented mice from developing MA-ALI/ARDS when administered prior to the development of MA-ALI/ARDS in this model. Also, hemin treatment showed an amelioration of respiratory parameters in mice, high VEGF levels in the sera, and a decrease in vascular permeability in the lung, which are signs of ALI/ARDS. Therefore, the induction of HO-1 before the development of MA-ALI/ARDS could be protective. However, the increased expression of HO-1 on the onset of MA-ALI/ARDS development may represent an effort to revert the phenotype of this syndrome by the host. We therefore confirm that HO-1 inducing drugs could be used for prevention of MA-ALI/ARDS in humans.

  1. Factors associated with worse lung function in cystic fibrosis patients with persistent staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Junge, S. (Sibylle); Görlich, D. (Dennis); Reijer, M.D. (Martijn Den); Wiedemann, Baerbel; Tümmler, Burkhard; Ellemunter, H.; Dübbers, A. (Angelika); Küster, P. (Peter); Ballmann, M.; Koerner-Rettberg, C. (Cordula); Große-Onnebrink, J. (Jörg); Heuer, E. (Eberhardt); Sextro, W. (Wolfgang); Mainz, J.G. (Jochen G.); Hammermann, J. (Jutta)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, it is not clear which factors are associated with worse lung function in patients with persistent S. aureus airway cultures. Our main hypothesis was that patients with high S. aureus density in their respiratory specimens would more likely experience worsening of their lung disease than patients with low bacterial loads. Methods Therefore, we conducted an observational prospective longitudi...

  2. Factors Associated with Worse Lung Function in Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Persistent Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Junge, Sibylle; G?rlich, Dennis; den Reijer, Martijn; Wiedemann, B?rbel; T?mmler, Burkhard; Ellemunter, Helmut; D?bbers, Angelika; K?ster, Peter; Ballmann, Manfred; Koerner-Rettberg, Cordula; Gro?e-Onnebrink, J?rg; Heuer, Eberhardt; Sextro, Wolfgang; Mainz, Jochen G.; Hammermann, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, it is not clear which factors are associated with worse lung function in patients with persistent S. aureus airway cultures. Our main hypothesis was that patients with high S. aureus density in their respiratory specimens would more likely experience worsening of their lung disease than patients with low bacterial loads. Methods Therefore, we conducted an observational prospective longitudinal multi-ce...

  3. Lung retention and metabolic fate of inhaled benzo(a)pyrene associated with diesel exhaust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.D.; Wolff, R.K.; Kanapilly, G.M.; McClellan, R.O.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of ultrafine, insoluble, carrier particles on the lung retention and metabolic fate of inhaled PAHs was investigated with a radiolabeled model PAH, [ 3 H]benzo(a)pyrene ( 3 H-BaP). Fischer-344 rats were exposed (30 min) by nose-only inhalation to 3 H-BaP adsorbed (approximately 0.1% by mass) onto diesel engine exhaust particles. The total mass concentration of these aerosols was 4-6 micrograms/liter of air with a mass median diameter of 0.14 micron. Lung clearance of the inhaled particle-associated 3 H radioactivity occurred in two phases. The initially rapid clearance of this inhaled radiolabel had a half-time of less than 1 hr. The second, long-term component of lung clearance had a half-time of 18 +/- 2 days and represented 50 +/- 2% of the 3 H radioactivity that had initially deposited in lungs. In contrast, previous inhalation studies with a pure 3 H-BaP aerosol showed that greater than 99% of the 3 H radioactivity deposited in lungs was cleared within 2 hr after exposure. By HPLC analysis, the majority of diesel soot-associated 3 H radioactivity retained in lungs was BaP (65-76%) with smaller amounts of BaP-phenol (13-17%) and BaP-quinone (5-18%) metabolites also being detected. No other metabolites of BaP were detected in lungs of exposed rats. Tissue distribution and excretion patterns of 3 H radioactivity were qualitatively similar to previous inhalation studies with 3 H-BaP coated Ga2O3 aerosols. These findings suggest that inhaled PAHs may be retained in lungs for a greater period of time when these compounds are associated with diesel engine exhaust particles. These results may have significant implications for the health risks that may be involved with human exposure to particle-associated organic pollutants

  4. Lung-Protective Ventilation Strategies for Relief from Ventilator-Associated Lung Injury in Patients Undergoing Craniotomy: A Bicenter Randomized, Parallel, and Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoliang Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current evidence indicates that conventional mechanical ventilation often leads to lung inflammatory response and oxidative stress, while lung-protective ventilation (LPV minimizes the risk of ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI. This study evaluated the effects of LPV on relief of pulmonary injury, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress among patients undergoing craniotomy. Sixty patients undergoing craniotomy received either conventional mechanical (12 mL/kg tidal volume [VT] and 0 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP]; CV group or protective lung (6 mL/kg VT and 10 cm H2O PEEP; PV group ventilation. Hemodynamic variables, lung function indexes, and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers were assessed. The PV group exhibited greater dynamic lung compliance and lower respiratory index than the CV group during surgery (P0.05. Patients receiving LPV during craniotomy exhibited low perioperative inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and VALI.

  5. Lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, G.L.; Blankenship, W.J.; Burdine, J.A. Jr.; DeNardo, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    At present no simple statement can be made relative to the role of radionuclidic lung studies in the pediatric population. It is safe to assume that they will be used with increasing frequency for research and clinical applications because of their sensitivity and ready applicability to the pediatric patient. Methods comparable to those used in adults can be used in children older than 4 years. In younger children, however, a single injection of 133 Xe in solution provides an index of both regional perfusion and ventilation which is easier to accomplish. This method is particularly valuable in infants and neonates because it is rapid, requires no patient cooperation, results in a very low radiation dose, and can be repeated in serial studies. Radionuclidic studies of ventilation and perfusion can be performed in almost all children if the pediatrician and the nuclear medicine specialist have motivation and ingenuity. S []ontaneous pulmonary vascular occlusive disease which occurs in infants and pulmonary emboli in children are easily detected using radionuclides. The pathophysiologic defects of pulmonary agenesis, bronchopulmonary sequestration, and foreign body aspiration may be demonstrated by these techniques. These techniques also appear to be useful in following patients with bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, congenital emphysema, and postinfection pulmonary abnormalities. (auth)

  6. CMV driven CD8(+) T-cell activation is associated with acute rejection in lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Antoine; Mourin, Gisèle; Fastenackels, Solène; Almeida, Jorge R; Iglesias, Maria Candela; Boyd, Anders; Gostick, Emma; Larsen, Martin; Price, David A; Sacre, Karim; Douek, Daniel C; Autran, Brigitte; Picard, Clément; Miranda, Sandra de; Sauce, Delphine; Stern, Marc; Appay, Victor

    2013-07-01

    Lung transplantation is the definitive treatment for terminal respiratory disease, but the associated mortality rate is high. Acute rejection of the transplanted lung is a key determinant of adverse prognosis. Furthermore, an epidemiological relationship has been established between the occurrence of acute lung rejection and cytomegalovirus infection. However, the reasons for this association remain unclear. Here, we performed a longitudinal characterization of CMV-specific T-cell responses and immune activation status in the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of forty-four lung transplant patients. Acute rejection was associated with high levels of cellular activation in the periphery, reflecting strong CMV-specific CD8(+) T-cell activity post-transplant. Peripheral and lung CMV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses were very similar, and related to the presence of CMV in the transplanted organ. These findings support that activated CMV-specific CD8(+) T-cells in the lung may play a role in promoting acute rejection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genome-wide association analysis identifies new lung cancer susceptibility loci in never-smoking women in Asia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, Q.; Hsiung, C.A.; Matsuo, K.; Hong, Y.C.; Seow, A.; Wang, Z.; Hosgood, H.D.; Chen, K.; Wang, J.C.; Chatterjee, N.; Hu, W.; Wong, M.P.; Zheng, W.; Caporaso, N.; Park, J.Y.; Chen, C.J.; Kim, Y.H.; Kim, Y.T.; Landi, M.T.; Shen, H.; Lawrence, C.; Burdett, L.; Yeager, M.; Yuenger, J.; Jacobs, K.B.; Chang, I.S.; Mitsudomi, T.; Kim, H.N.; Chang, G.C.; Bassig, B.A.; Tucker, M.; Wei, F.; Yin, Y.; Wu, C.; An, S.J.; Qian, B.; Lee, V.H.; Lu, D.; Liu, J.; Jeon, H.S.; Hsiao, C.F.; Sung, J.S.; Kim, J.H.; Gao, Y.T.; Tsai, Y.H.; Jung, Y.J.; Guo, H.; Hu, Z.; Hutchinson, A.; Wang, W.C.; Klein, R.; Chung, C.C.; Oh, I.J.; Chen, K.Y.; Berndt, S.I.; He, X.; Wu, W.; Chang, J.; Zhang, X.C.; Huang, M.S.; Zheng, H.; Wang, J.; Zhao, X.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413577805; Li, Y.; Choi, J.E.; Su, W.C.; Park, K.H.; Sung, S.W.; Shu, X.O.; Chen, Y.M.; Liu, L.; Kang, C.H.; Hu, L.; Chen, C.H.; Pao, W.; Kim, Y.C.; Yang, T.Y.; Xu, J.; Guan, P.; Tan, W.; Su, J.; Wang, C.L.; Li, H.; Sihoe, A.D.; Zhao, Z.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304120995; Chen, Y.; Choi, Y.Y.; Hung, J.Y.; Kim, J.S.; Yoon, H.I.; Cai, Q.; Lin, C.C.; Park, I.K.; Xu, P.; Dong, J.; Kim, C.; He, Q; Perng, R.P.; Kohno, T.; Kweon, S.S.; Chen, C.Y.; Vermeulen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Wu, J.; Lim, W.Y.; Chen, K.C.; Chow, W.H.; Ji, B.T.; Chan, J.K.; Chu, M.; Li, Y.J.; Yokota, J.; Li, J.; Chen, H.; Xiang, Y.B.; Yu, C.J.; Kunitoh, H.; Wu, G.; Jin, L.; Lo, Y.L.; Shiraishi, K.; Chen, Y.H.; Lin, H.C.; Wu, T.; WU, Y.; Yang, P.C.; Zhou, B.; Shin, M.H.; Fraumeni, J.F.; Lin, D.; Chanock, S.J.; Rothman, N.

    2012-01-01

    To identify common genetic variants that contribute to lung cancer susceptibility, we conducted a multistage genome-wide association study of lung cancer in Asian women who never smoked. We scanned 5,510 never-smoking female lung cancer cases and 4,544 controls drawn from 14 studies from mainland

  8. School site walkability and active school transport - association, mediation and moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Lars; Toftager, M.; Schipperijn, J.

    2014-01-01

    significantly moderated the association between the school walkability index and AST. This research confirms the association between the urban form surrounding schools and AST. Medium and highly walkable school sites in combination with a distance to school below 2. km, no speeding traffic and many paths...

  9. Elementary Student Perceptions of School Climate and Associations with Individual and School Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Salle, Tamika P.; Zabek, Faith; Meyers, Joel

    2016-01-01

    School climate has increasingly been recognized as an essential component of school improvement owing to the established associations between a positive school climate and academic outcomes for students. Our study examines associations among a brief measure of school climate assessing elementary student perceptions and the College and Career Ready…

  10. Fetal lung volume in congenital diaphragmatic hernia: association of prenatal MR imaging findings with postnatal chronic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, Angelika; Hagelstein, Claudia; Kilian, A Kristina; Weiss, Christel; Schönberg, Stefan O; Schaible, Thomas; Neff, K Wolfgang; Büsing, Karen A

    2013-03-01

    To assess whether chronic lung disease (CLD) in surviving infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is associated with lung hypoplasia on the basis of the results of antenatal observed-to-expected fetal lung volume (FLV) ratio measurement at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The study received approval from the institutional review board, with waiver of informed consent for this retrospective review from patients who had previously given informed consent for prospective studies. The ratio of observed to expected FLV at MR imaging was calculated in 172 fetuses with CDH. At postpartum day 28, the need for supplemental oxygen implicated the diagnosis of CLD. At day 56, patients with CLD were assigned to one of three groups-those with mild, moderate, or severe CLD-according to their demand for oxygen. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the prognostic value of the individual observed-to-expected FLV ratio for association with postnatal development of CLD. Children with CLD were found to have significantly smaller observed-to-expected FLV ratios at MR imaging than infants without CLD (P CLD revealed significant differences in observed-to-expected FLV ratio between patients with mild CLD and those with moderate (P = .012) or severe (P = .007) CLD. For an observed-to-expected FLV ratio of 5%, 99% of patients with CDH developed CLD, compared with less than 5% of fetuses with an observed-to-expected FLV ratio of 50%. Perinatally, development and grade of CLD were further influenced by the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (P CLD in surviving infants with CDH is associated with the prenatally determined observed-to-expected FLV ratio. Early neonatal therapeutic decisions can additionally be based on this ratio. Perinatally, ECMO requirement and gestational age at delivery are useful in further improving the estimated probability of CLD.

  11. Individual and cumulative effects of GWAS susceptibility loci in lung cancer: associations after sub-phenotyping for COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Young

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies show that approximately 20-30% of chronic smokers develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD while 10-15% develop lung cancer. COPD pre-exists lung cancer in 50-90% of cases and has a heritability of 40-77%, much greater than for lung cancer with heritability of 15-25%. These data suggest that smokers susceptible to COPD may also be susceptible to lung cancer. This study examines the association of several overlapping chromosomal loci, recently implicated by GWA studies in COPD, lung function and lung cancer, in (n = 1400 subjects sub-phenotyped for the presence of COPD and matched for smoking exposure. Using this approach we show; the 15q25 locus confers susceptibility to lung cancer and COPD, the 4q31 and 4q22 loci both confer a reduced risk to both COPD and lung cancer, the 6p21 locus confers susceptibility to lung cancer in smokers with pre-existing COPD, the 5p15 and 1q23 loci both confer susceptibility to lung cancer in those with no pre-existing COPD. We also show the 5q33 locus, previously associated with reduced FEV(1, appears to confer susceptibility to both COPD and lung cancer. The 6p21 locus previously linked to reduced FEV(1 is associated with COPD only. Larger studies will be needed to distinguish whether these COPD-related effects may reflect, in part, associations specific to different lung cancer histology. We demonstrate that when the "risk genotypes" derived from the univariate analysis are incorporated into an algorithm with clinical variables, independently associated with lung cancer in multivariate analysis, modest discrimination is possible on receiver operator curve analysis (AUC = 0.70. We suggest that genetic susceptibility to lung cancer includes genes conferring susceptibility to COPD and that sub-phenotyping with spirometry is critical to identifying genes underlying the development of lung cancer.

  12. Variables associated with lung congestion as assessed by chest ultrasound in diabetics undergoing hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Ultrasound is an emerging method for assessing lung congestion but is still seldom used. Lung congestion is an important risk of cardiac events and death in end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients on hemodialysis (HD. Objective: We investigated possible variables associated with lung congestion among diabetics with ESRD on HD, using chest ultrasound to detect extracellular lung water. Methods: We studied 73 patients with diabetes as the primary cause of ESRD, undergoing regular HD. Lung congestion was assessed by counting the number of B lines detected by chest ultrasound. Hydration status was assessed by bioimpedance analysis and cardiac function by echocardiography. The collapse index of the inferior vena cava (IVC was measured by ultrasonography. All patients were classified according to NYHA score. Correlations of the number of B lines with continuous variables and comparisons regarding the number of B lines according to categorical variables were performed. Multivariate linear regression was used to test the variables as independent predictors of the number of B lines. Results: None of the variables related to hydration status and cardiac function were associated with the number of B lines. In the multivariate analysis, only the IVC collapse index (b = 45.038; p < 0.001 and NYHA classes (b = 13.995; p = 0.006 were independent predictors of the number of B lines. Conclusion: Clinical evaluation based on NYHA score and measurement of the collapsed IVC index were found to be more reliable than bioimpedance analysis to predict lung congestion.

  13. National Association of School Psychologists Principles for Professional Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Psychology Review, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The mission of the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) is to represent school psychology and support school psychologists to enhance the learning and mental health of all children and youth. "School psychologists" provide effective services to help children and youth succeed academically, socially, behaviorally, and emotionally.…

  14. Association of Donor and Recipient Telomere Length with Clinical Outcomes following Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtwright, Andrew M; Fried, Sabrina; Villalba, Julian A; Moniodis, Anna; Guleria, Indira; Wood, Isabelle; Milford, Edgar; Mallidi, Hari H; Hunninghake, Gary M; Raby, Benjamin A; Agarwal, Suneet; Camp, Philip C; Rosas, Ivan O; Goldberg, Hilary J; El-Chemaly, Souheil

    2016-01-01

    Patients with short telomere syndromes and pulmonary fibrosis have increased complications after lung transplant. However, the more general impact of donor and recipient telomere length in lung transplant has not been well characterized. This was an observational cohort study of patients who received lung transplant at a single center between January 1st 2012 and January 31st 2015. Relative donor lymphocyte telomere length was measured and classified into long (third tertile) and short (other tertiles). Relative recipient lung telomere length was measured and classified into short (first tertile) and long (other tertiles). Outcome data included survival, need for modification of immunosuppression, liver or kidney injury, cytomegalovirus reactivation, and acute rejection. Recipient lung tissue telomere lengths were measured for 54 of the 79 patients (68.3%) who underwent transplant during the study period. Donor lymphocyte telomeres were measured for 45 (83.3%) of these recipients. Neither long donor telomere length (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12-2.85, p = 0.50) nor short recipient telomere length (HR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.50-2.05, p = 0.96) were associated with adjusted survival following lung transplant. Recipients with short telomeres were less likely to have acute cellular rejection (23.5% vs. 58.8%, p = 0.02) but were not more likely to have other organ dysfunction. In this small cohort, neither long donor lymphocyte telomeres nor short recipient lung tissue telomeres were associated with adjusted survival after lung transplantation. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  15. Morphologic and molecular study of lung cancers associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other pulmonary fibroses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyard, Alice; Danel, Claire; Théou-Anton, Nathalie; Debray, Marie-Pierre; Gibault, Laure; Mordant, Pierre; Castier, Yves; Crestani, Bruno; Zalcman, Gérard; Blons, Hélène; Cazes, Aurélie

    2017-06-15

    Primitive lung cancers developed on lung fibroses are both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Their incidence may increase with new more efficient lung fibrosis treatments. Our aim was to describe a cohort of lung cancers associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and other lung fibrotic disorders (non-IPF), and to characterize their molecular alterations using immunohistochemistry and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Thirty-one cancer samples were collected from 2001 to 2016 in two French reference centers for pulmonary fibrosis - 18 for IPF group and 13 for non-IPF group. NGS was performed using an ampliseq panel to analyze hotspots and targeted regions in 22 cancer-associated genes. ALK, ROS1 and PD-L1 expressions were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most frequent histologic subtype in the IPF group (44%), adenocarcinoma was the most frequent subtype in the non-IPF group (62%). Forty-one mutations in 13 genes and one EGFR amplification were identified in 25 samples. Two samples had no mutation in the selected panel. Mutations were identified in TP53 (n = 20), MET (n = 4), BRAF (n = 3), FGFR3, PIK3CA, PTEN, STK11 (n = 2), SMAD4, CTNNB1, DDR2, ERBB4, FBXW7 and KRAS (n = 1) genes. No ALK and ROS1 expressions were identified. PD-L1 was expressed in 10 cases (62%) with only one (6%) case >50%. This extensive characterization of lung fibrosis-associated cancers evidenced molecular alterations which could represent either potential therapeutic targets either clues to the pathophysiology of these particular tumors. These findings support the relevance of large molecular characterization of every lung fibrosis-associated cancer.

  16. Mycobacterium avium genotype is associated with the therapeutic response to lung infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, T; Kobashi, Y; Hirano, T; Tode, N; Santoso, A; Tamada, T; Fujimura, S; Mitsuhashi, Y; Honda, Y; Nukiwa, T; Kaku, M; Watanabe, A; Ichinose, M; Drancourt, M

    2014-01-01

    Factors that can interfere with the successful treatment of Mycobacterium avium lung infection have been inadequately studied. To identify a potent predictor of therapeutic responses of M. avium lung infection, we analyzed variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) at 16 minisatellite loci of M. avium clinical isolates. Associations between the VNTR profiling data and a therapeutic response were evaluated in 59 subjects with M. avium lung infection. M. avium lung infection of 30 subjects in whom clarithromycin-containing regimens produced microbiological and radiographic improvement was defined as responsive disease, while that of the remaining 29 subjects was defined as refractory disease. In phylogenetic analysis using the genotypic distance aggregated from 16-dimensional VNTR data, 59 M. avium isolates were divided into three clusters, which showed a nearly significant association with therapeutic responses (p 0.06). We then subjected the raw 16-dimensional VNTR data directly to principal component analysis, and identified the genetic features that were significantly associated with the therapeutic response (p VNTR data from only four minisatellite loci. In conclusion, we identified four mycobacterial minisatellite loci that together were associated with the therapeutic response of M. avium lung infections. PMID:23829301

  17. Lung cancer in connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease: clinical features and impact on outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Saeki, Keigo; Waseda, Yuko; Murata, Akari; Takato, Hazuki; Ichikawa, Yukari; Yasui, Masahide; Kimura, Hideharu; Hamaguchi, Yasuhito; Matsushita, Takashi; Yamada, Kazunori; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Furuichi, Kengo; Wada, Takashi; Kasahara, Kazuo

    2018-02-01

    Lung cancer (LC) adversely impacts survival in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. However, little is known about LC in patients with connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for LC in CTD-ILD, and the clinical characteristics and survival of CTD-ILD patients with LC. We conducted a single-center, retrospective review of patients with CTD-ILD from 2003 to 2016. Patients with pathologically diagnosed LC were identified. The prevalence, risk factors, and clinical features of LC and the impact of LC on CTD-ILD patient outcomes were observed. Of 266 patients with CTD-ILD, 24 (9.0%) had LC. CTD-ILD with LC was more likely in patients who were older, male, and smokers; had rheumatoid arthritis, a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, emphysema on chest computed tomography scan, and lower diffusing capacity of the lung carbon monoxide (DLco)% predicted; and were not receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Multivariate analysis indicated that the presence of emphysema [odds ratio (OR), 8.473; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.241-32.033] and nonuse of immunosuppressive therapy (OR, 8.111; 95% CI, 2.457-26.775) were independent risk factors for LC. CTD-ILD patients with LC had significantly worse survival than patients without LC (10-year survival rate: 28.5% vs. 81.8%, P<0.001). LC is associated with the presence of emphysema and nonuse of immunosuppressive therapy, and contributes to increased mortality in patients with CTD-ILD.

  18. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the risk of lung cancer: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Valerie J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strong relationships between exposure to childhood traumatic stressors and smoking behaviours inspire the question whether these adverse childhood experiences (ACEs are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer during adulthood. Methods Baseline survey data on health behaviours, health status and exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs were collected from 17,337 adults during 1995-1997. ACEs included abuse (emotional, physical, sexual, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation or divorce, or growing up in a household where members with mentally ill, substance abusers, or sent to prison. We used the ACE score (an integer count of the 8 categories of ACEs as a measure of cumulative exposure to traumatic stress during childhood. Two methods of case ascertainment were used to identify incident lung cancer through 2005 follow-up: 1 hospital discharge records and 2 mortality records obtained from the National Death Index. Results The ACE score showed a graded relationship to smoking behaviors. We identified 64 cases of lung cancer through hospital discharge records (age-standardized risk = 201 × 100,000-1 population and 111 cases of lung cancer through mortality records (age-standardized mortality rate = 31.1 × 100,000-1 person-years. The ACE score also showed a graded relationship to the incidence of lung cancer for cases identified through hospital discharge (P = 0.0004, mortality (P = 0.025, and both methods combined (P = 0.001. Compared to persons without ACEs, the risk of lung cancer for those with ≥ 6 ACEs was increased approximately 3-fold (hospital records: RR = 3.18, 95%CI = 0.71-14.15; mortality records: RR = 3.55, 95%CI = 1.25-10.09; hospital or mortality records: RR = 2.70, 95%CI = 0.94-7.72. After a priori consideration of a causal pathway (i.e., ACEs → smoking → lung cancer, risk ratios were attenuated toward the null, although not completely. For lung cancer identified through hospital

  19. Paraseptal emphysema: Prevalence and distribution on CT and association with interstitial lung abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Tetsuro, E-mail: taraki@partners.org [Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Department of Radiology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); Nishino, Mizuki [Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Zazueta, Oscar E. [The Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Gao, Wei [Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Dupuis, Josée [Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Okajima, Yuka [Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Latourelle, Jeanne C. [Department of Medicine and Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Rosas, Ivan O. [The Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Murakami, Takamichi [Department of Radiology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); O’Connor, George T. [The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Pulmonary Center and Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Washko, George R.; Hunninghake, Gary M. [The Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); and others

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The prevalence of pure paraseptal emphysema was 3% (85/2633) in the Framingham Heart Study population, predominantly affects the upper lung zone, and contributes to slightly decreased pulmonary function. • There was significant association between paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities, which is a novel finding. • Prevalence of paraseptal emphysema and its impact on pulmonary function could have been underestimated in the previous reports. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate the prevalence and distribution of paraseptal emphysema on chest CT images in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) population, and assess its impact on pulmonary function. Also pursued was the association with interstitial lung abnormalities. Materials and methods: We assessed 2633 participants in the FHS for paraseptal emphysema on chest CT. Characteristics of the participants, including age, sex, smoking status, clinical symptoms, and results of pulmonary function tests, were compared between those with and without paraseptal emphysema. The association between paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities was investigated. Results: Of the 2633 participants, 86 (3%) had pure paraseptal emphysema (defined as paraseptal emphysema with no other subtypes of emphysema other than paraseptal emphysema or a very few centrilobular emphysema involved) in at least one lung zone. The upper zone of the lungs was almost always involved. Compared to the participants without paraseptal emphysema, those with pure paraseptal emphysema were significantly older, and were more frequently male and smokers (mean 64 years, 71% male, mean 36 pack-years, P < 0.001) and had significantly decreased FEV{sub 1}/FVC% (P = 0.002), and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) (P = 0.002). There was a significant association between pure paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of pure paraseptal emphysema was 3% in the

  20. Lung Cancers Associated with Cystic Airspaces: Underrecognized Features of Early Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, Sarah; Moser, Joanna; Sayer, Charlie; Stefanidis, Konstantinos; Devaraj, Anand; Vlahos, Ioannis

    2018-01-01

    Early lung cancers associated with cystic airspaces are increasingly being recognized as a cause of delayed diagnoses-owing to data gathered from screening trials and encounters in routine clinical practice as more patients undergo serial imaging. Several morphologic subtypes of cancers associated with cystic airspaces exist and can exhibit variable patterns of progression as the solid elements of the tumor grow. Current understanding of the pathogenesis of these malignancies is limited, and the numbers of cases reported in the literature are small. However, several tumor cell types are represented in these lesions, with adenocarcinoma predominating. The features of cystic airspaces differ among cases and include emphysematous bullae, congenital or fibrotic cysts, subpleural blebs, bronchiectatic airways, and distended distal airspaces. Once identified, these cystic lesions pose management challenges to radiologists in terms of distinguishing them from benign mimics of cancer that are commonly seen in patients who also are at increased risk of lung cancer. Rendering a definitive tissue-based diagnosis can be difficult when the lesions are small, and affected patients tend to be in groups that are at higher risk of requiring biopsy or resection. In addition, the decision to monitor these cases can add to patient anxiety and cause the additional burden of strained departmental resources. The authors have drawn from their experience, emerging evidence from international lung cancer screening trials, and large databases of lung cancer cases from other groups to analyze the prevalence and evolution of lung cancers associated with cystic airspaces and provide guidance for managing these lesions. Although there are insufficient data to support specific management guidelines similar to those for managing small solid and ground-glass lung nodules, these data and guidelines should be the direction for ongoing research on early detection of lung cancer. © RSNA, 2018.

  1. A meta-analytic review of the association between two common SNPs in miRNAs and lung cancer susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao S

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sha Xiao,1 Songzan Sun,1 Wenfang Long,1 Shicheng Kuang,2 Yunru Liu,1 Hairong Huang,1 Jing Zhou,1 Yongjiang Zhou,1 Xiaobo Lu3 1Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, Hainan General Hospital, Haikou, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are involved in many biological processes, including tumor suppression. Multiple studies have shown an association between the miRNA-196a2 rs11614913 and miRNA-146a rs2910164 polymorphisms and cancer risk. However, the implications of the reported data are debatable and inconclusive.Materials and methods: Relevant articles were retrieved from the PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and WanFang databases from January 1, 2007, to April 30, 2017. Studies were assessed based on designated inclusion and exclusion criteria, and data were manually extracted from relevant studies by two investigators. Pooled odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to explore the association between two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in miRNAs and lung cancer susceptibility.Results: Nine eligible articles were included, consisting of 3,101 cancer cases and 3,234 controls for miRNA-196a2 rs11614913, and 3,483 cases and 3,578 controls for miRNA-146a rs2910164. For studies evaluating miRNA-196a2 rs11614913, significant associations with lung cancer risk were discovered. Overall, the pooled analysis showed that miRNA-196a2 rs11614913 was associated with a decreased cancer risk (CC vs TT: OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09–1.44; CT vs TT: OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03–1.53. For miRNA-146a rs2910164, only the CC genotype was found to be associated with high lung cancer risk (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.13–1.49. Subgroup analyses based on

  2. Association of emphysema-like lung on cardiac computed tomography and mortality in persons without airflow obstruction: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Lung Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelsner, Elizabeth C.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Enright, Paul L.; Kawut, Steven M.; Kronmal, Richard; Lederer, David; Lima, Joao A. C.; Lovasi, Gina S.; Shea, Steven; Barr, R. Graham

    2015-01-01

    Background Whereas low lung function is known to predict mortality in the general population, the prognostic significance of emphysema on computed tomography (CT) in persons without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains uncertain. Objective To determine whether greater emphysema-like lung on CT is associated with all-cause mortality among persons without airflow obstruction or COPD in the general population. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Population-based, multiethnic sample from 6 US communities. Participants 2965 participants ages 45-84 years without airflow obstruction on spirometry. Measurements Emphysema-like lung was defined on cardiac CT as the number of lung voxels less than -950 Hounsfield Units, and was adjusted for the number of total imaged lung voxels. Results Among 2965 participants, 50.9% of whom never smoked, there were 186 deaths over a median of 6.2 years. Greater emphysema-like lung was independently associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]1.14 per one-half of the interquartile range, 95% CI 1.04-1.24, P=0.004), adjusting for potential confounders including cardiovascular risk factors and the forced expiratory volume in one second. Generalized additive models supported a linear association between emphysema-like lung and mortality without evidence for a threshold. The association was of greatest magnitude among smokers, although multiplicative interaction terms did not support effect modification by smoking status. Limitations Cardiac CT scans did not include lung apices. The number of deaths was limited among subgroup analyses. Conclusions Emphysema-like lung on CT was associated with all-cause mortality among persons without airflow obstruction or COPD in a general population sample, particularly among smokers. Recognition of the independent prognostic significance of emphysema on CT among patients without COPD on spirometry is warranted. Primary Funding Source NIH/NHLBI. PMID:25506855

  3. The National Association of School Psychologists' Self-Assessment Tool for School Psychologists: Factor Structure and Relationship to the National Association of School Psychologists' Practice Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Katie; Rossen, Eric; Charvat, Jeff; Meyer, Lauren; Tanner, Nick

    2016-01-01

    The National Association of School Psychologists' Model for Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services (2010a), often referred to as the National Association of School Psychologists' Practice Model, describes the comprehensive range of professional skills and competencies available from school psychologists across 10 domains. The…

  4. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: Comprehensive School Nutrition Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marilyn; Mueller, Constance G.; Fleischhacker, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health,…

  5. Factors Associated with Worse Lung Function in Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Persistent Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Junge

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF. However, it is not clear which factors are associated with worse lung function in patients with persistent S. aureus airway cultures. Our main hypothesis was that patients with high S. aureus density in their respiratory specimens would more likely experience worsening of their lung disease than patients with low bacterial loads.Therefore, we conducted an observational prospective longitudinal multi-center study and assessed the association between lung function and S. aureus bacterial density in respiratory samples, co-infection with other CF-pathogens, nasal S. aureus carriage, clinical status, antibiotic therapy, IL-6- and IgG-levels against S. aureus virulence factors.195 patients from 17 centers were followed; each patient had an average of 7 visits. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and generalized linear mixed models. Our main hypothesis was only supported for patients providing throat specimens indicating that patients with higher density experienced a steeper lung function decline (p<0.001. Patients with exacerbations (n = 60, S. aureus small-colony variants (SCVs, n = 84 and co-infection with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 44 had worse lung function (p = 0.0068; p = 0.0011; p = 0.0103. Patients with SCVs were older (p = 0.0066 and more often treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (p = 0.0078. IL-6 levels positively correlated with decreased lung function (p<0.001, S. aureus density in sputa (p = 0.0016, SCVs (p = 0.0209, exacerbations (p = 0.0041 and co-infections with S. maltophilia (p = 0.0195 or A. fumigatus (p = 0.0496.In CF-patients with chronic S. aureus cultures, independent risk factors for worse lung function are high bacterial density in throat cultures, exacerbations, elevated IL-6 levels, presence of S. aureus SCVs and co-infection with S. maltophilia.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00669760.

  6. National Association of School Psychologists Model for Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Psychology Review, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The mission of the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) is to represent school psychology and support school psychologists to enhance the learning and mental health of all children and youth. "School psychologists" provide effective services to help children and youth succeed academically, socially, behaviorally, and emotionally.…

  7. Delirium after lung transplantation: Association with recipient characteristics, hospital resource utilization, and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Yelizaveta; Mooney, Joshua; Dhillon, Gundeep; Lee, Roy; Maldonado, José R

    2017-05-01

    Delirium is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The factors associated with post-lung transplant delirium and its impact on outcomes are under characterized. The medical records of 163 consecutive adult lung transplant recipients were reviewed for delirium within 5 days (early-onset) and 30 hospital days (ever-onset) post-transplantation. A multivariable logistic regression model assessed factors associated with delirium. Multivariable negative binomial regression and Cox proportional hazards models assessed the association of delirium with ventilator duration, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, and one-year mortality. Thirty-six percent of patients developed early-onset, and 44% developed ever-onset delirium. Obesity (OR 6.35, 95% CI 1.61-24.98) and bolused benzodiazepines within the first postoperative day (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.07-4.89) were associated with early-onset delirium. Early-onset delirium was associated with longer adjusted mechanical ventilation duration (P=.001), ICU LOS (Pdelirium was associated with longer ICU (Pdelirium was not significantly associated with one-year mortality (early-onset HR 1.65, 95% CI 0.67-4.03; ever-onset HR 1.70, 95% CI 0.63-4.55). Delirium is common after lung transplant surgery and associated with increased hospital resources. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [Estimation of the excess of lung cancer mortality risk associated to environmental tobacco smoke exposure of hospitality workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M José; Nebot, Manel; Juárez, Olga; Ariza, Carles; Salles, Joan; Serrahima, Eulàlia

    2006-01-14

    To estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with environmental tobacco (ETS) smoke exposure among hospitality workers. The estimation was done using objective measures in several hospitality settings in Barcelona. Vapour phase nicotine was measured in several hospitality settings. These measurements were used to estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with ETS exposure for a 40 year working life, using the formula developed by Repace and Lowrey. Excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with ETS exposure was higher than 145 deaths per 100,000 workers in all places studied, except for cafeterias in hospitals, where excess lung cancer mortality risk was 22 per 100,000. In discoteques, for comparison, excess lung cancer mortality risk is 1,733 deaths per 100,000 workers. Hospitality workers are exposed to ETS levels related to a very high excess lung cancer mortality risk. These data confirm that ETS control measures are needed to protect hospital workers.

  9. Are characteristics of the school district associated with active transportation to school in Danish adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Christiane; Bloomfield, Kim; Ejstrud, Bo; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde; Meijer, Mathias; Grønbæk, Morten; Grittner, Ulrike

    2012-06-01

    This study sought to determine the influence of individual factors on active transportation to school among Danish seventh graders and whether school district factors are associated with such behaviour independently of individual factors. Mixed effects logistic regression models determined the effects of individual (gender, family affluence, enjoyment of school and academic performance) and school district factors (educational level, household savings, land use and size) on active transportation to school (by foot, bicycle or other active means) among 10 380 pupils aged 13-15 years nested in 407 school districts. Of all students, 64.4% used active transportation to school daily. Boys, those with perceived higher school performance and those with lower family affluence were more likely to use active transportation to school. After adjustment for all individual factors listed above, high household savings at the school district level was associated with higher odds of active transportation to school. As factors of land use, low level of farming land use and high proportion of single houses were associated with active transportation to school. Policies aiming at reducing social inequalities at the school district level may enhance active transportation to school. School districts with farming land use face barriers for active transportation to school, requiring special policy attention.

  10. Thoracoscopic resection of a lung keratocyst associated with pulmonary sequestration in a neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Mario Lima

    2017-08-01

    Discussion and conclusion: Up to our knowledge and review of the literature, this is the first case and occurrence of Lung Keratocyst. Long-term follow up is needed to assess the outcome of the thoracoscopic management of such lesion, and its hypothetic relation with odontogenic keratocysts or any associated syndromes.

  11. Factors associated with worse lung function in cystic fibrosis patients with persistent staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, S. (Sibylle); Görlich, D. (Dennis); Reijer, M.D. (Martijn Den); B. Wiedemann (Baerbel); B. Tümmler (Burkhard); H. Ellemunter; Dübbers, A. (Angelika); Küster, P. (Peter); M. Ballmann; Koerner-Rettberg, C. (Cordula); Große-Onnebrink, J. (Jörg); Heuer, E. (Eberhardt); Sextro, W. (Wolfgang); Mainz, J.G. (Jochen G.); Hammermann, J. (Jutta); Riethmüller, J. (Joachim); Graepler-Mainka, U.M. (Ute M.); Staab, D. (Doris); Wollschläger, B. (Bettina); Szczepanski, R. (Rüdiger); A. Schuster (Antje); Tegtmeyer, F.-K. (Friedrich-Karl); Sutharsan, S. (Sivagurunathan); Wald, A. (Alexandra); Nofer, J.-R. (Jerzy-Roch); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem); Becker, K. (Karsten); Peters, G. (Georg); Kahl, B.C. (Barbara C.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, it is not clear which factors are associated with worse lung function in patients with persistent S. aureus airway cultures. Our main hypothesis was that patients with high S. aureus density in

  12. Association of alpha-1 antitrypsin level and lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serapinas Danielius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a well established inherited risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; however, alpha-1 antitrypsin level may result in different lung function reduction. The aim of our study was to evaluate possible associations of alpha-1 antitrypsin level and lung function in COPD patients with different alpha-1 antitrypsin phenotypes. Methods. Serum alpha-1 antitrypsin concentration from patients (n = 1,167 with COPD, defined according to the GOLD criteria, were analyzed by nephelometry, and alpha-1 antitrypsin phenotype was determined by means of isoelectric-focusing. Results. In COPD patients without alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (MM, a significant negative association of lung function (FEV1 with serum alpha-1 antitrypsin (r = -0.511; p < 0.05 and C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations (r = -0.583; p < 0.05 was detected; moreover, the level of alpha-1 antitrypsin positively correlated with CRP concentration (r = 0.667; p < 0.05. Conclusions. In patients without alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, detected negative association of alpha-1 antitrypsin level with FEV1 and positive association with the CRP level defined the importance of alpha-1 antitrypsin for lung function in COPD patients.

  13. Reduced lung function is independently associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Korean men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Chang-Hee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced lung function is associated with incident insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between lung function and incident type 2 diabetes in Korean men. Methods This study included 9,220 men (mean age: 41.4 years without type 2 diabetes at baseline who were followed for five years. Subjects were divided into four groups according to baseline forced vital capacity (FVC (% predicted and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 (% predicted quartiles. The incidence of type 2 diabetes at follow-up was compared according to FVC and FEV1 quartiles. Results The overall incidence of type 2 diabetes was 2.2%. Reduced lung function was significantly associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes after adjusting for age, BMI, education, smoking, exercise, alcohol, and HOMA-IR. Both FVC and FEV1 were negatively associated with type 2 diabetes (P 1 had a significantly higher odds ratio for type 2 diabetes compared with the highest quartile after adjusting for age and BMI (2.15 [95% CI 1.02-4.57] and 2.19 [95% CI 1.09-4.42]. Conclusions Reduced lung function is independently associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Korean men.

  14. The Association of School Climate, Depression Literacy, and Mental Health Stigma among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Lisa; Musci, Rashelle; Stuart, Elizabeth; Ruble, Anne; Beaudry, Mary B.; Schweizer, Barbara; Owen, Megan; Goode, Carly; Johnson, Sarah L.; Bradshaw, Catherine; Wilcox, Holly; Swartz, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although school climate is linked with youth educational, socioemotional, behavioral, and health outcomes, there has been limited research on the association between school climate and mental health education efforts. We explored whether school climate was associated with students' depression literacy and mental health stigma beliefs.…

  15. The Association between Elementary School Start Time and Students' Academic Achievement in Wayzata Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Danielle N.

    2015-01-01

    The Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement (CAREI) conducted two analyses with the purpose of examining the association between elementary school start time and students' academic achievement in mathematics and reading in Wayzata Public Schools. The first analysis examined the association between elementary school start time and…

  16. Association of well-characterized lung cancer lncRNA polymorphisms with lung cancer susceptibility and platinum-based chemotherapy response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wei-Jing; Yin, Ji-Ye; Li, Xiang-Ping; Fang, Chao; Xiao, Di; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Li, Xi; Liu, Zhao-Qian

    2016-06-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in carcinogenesis and drug efficacy. Platinum-based chemotherapy is first-line treatment for lung cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of well-characterized lung cancer lncRNA genetic polymorphisms with the lung cancer susceptibility and platinum-based chemotherapy response. A total of 498 lung cancer patients and 213 healthy controls were recruited in the study. Among them, 467 patients received at least two cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy. Thirteen polymorphisms in HOXA distal transcript antisense RNA (HOTTIP), HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR), H19, CDKN2B antisense RNA 1 (ANRIL), colon cancer-associated transcript 2 (CCAT2), metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), and maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) genes were genotyped by allele-specific MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We found that patients with HOTTIP rs5883064 C allele or rs1859168 A allele had increased lung cancer risk (P = 0.01, P = 0.01, respectively). CCAT2 rs6983267 (P = 0.02, adenocarcinoma) and H19 rs2107425 (P = 0.02, age under 50 years) showed strong relationship with lung cancer susceptibility. CCAT2 rs6983267, H19 rs2839698, MALAT1 rs619586, and HOTAIR rs7958904 were associated with platinum-based chemotherapy response in dominant model ((P = 0.02, P = 0.04, P = 0.04, P = 0.01, respectively). ANRIL rs10120688 (P = 0.02, adenocarcinoma) and rs1333049 (P = 0.04, small-cell lung cancer), H19 rs2107425 (P = 0.02, small-cell lung cancer) and HOTAIR rs1899663 (P = 0.03, male; P = 0.03, smoker) were associated with response to platinum-based chemotherapy. HOTTIP, CCAT2, H19, HOTAIR, MALATI, ANRIL genetic polymorphisms were significantly associated with lung cancer susceptibility or platinum-based chemotherapy response. They may be potential clinical biomarkers to predict lung cancer risk and platinum

  17. Dietary intake, lung function and airway inflammation in Mexico City school children exposed to air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-Sánchez David

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Air pollutant exposure has been associated with an increase in inflammatory markers and a decline in lung function in asthmatic children. Several studies suggest that dietary intake of fruits and vegetables might modify the adverse effect of air pollutants. Methods A total of 158 asthmatic children recruited at the Children's Hospital of Mexico and 50 non-asthmatic children were followed for 22 weeks. Pulmonary function was measured and nasal lavage collected and analyzed every 2 weeks. Dietary intake was evaluated using a 108-item food frequency questionnaire and a fruit and vegetable index (FVI and a Mediterranean diet index (MDI were constructed. The impact of these indices on lung function and interleukin-8 (IL-8 and their interaction with air pollutants were determined using mixed regression models with random intercept and random slope. Results FVI was inversely related to IL-8 levels in nasal lavage (p 1 (test for trend p 1 and FVC as was with MDI and ozone for FVC. No effect of diet was observed among healthy children. Conclusion Our results suggest that fruit and vegetable intake and close adherence to the Mediterranean diet have a beneficial effect on inflammatory response and lung function in asthmatic children living in Mexico City.

  18. The Threshold Distance Associated with Walking from Home to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Carlos; Salas-Fariña, Zeus M.; Villa-González, Emilio; Borges-Cosic, Milkana; Herrador-Colmenero, Manuel; Medina-Casaubón, Jesús; Ortega, Francisco B.; Chillón, Palma

    2017-01-01

    Active commuting to school has health implications among young people. We aimed to (a) examine the patterns of commuting to school in children and adolescents regarding gender and area of residence, (b) study the association between distance from home to school and mode of commuting, and (c) identify the threshold distance below which young people…

  19. Associations between Peer Harassment and School Risk and Protection Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloppen, Kari M.; Gower, Amy L.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Peer harassment can have serious implications for students' success and well-being, and prevention programs need to consider the school context. This study aimed to: (1) identify groups of similar schools based on their risk and protective factors and demographic characteristics and (2) examine associations between school profiles and…

  20. Chymase: a multifunctional player in pulmonary hypertension associated with lung fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanovic, Djuro; Luitel, Himal; Dahal, Bhola Kumar; Cornitescu, Teodora; Janssen, Wiebke; Danser, A H Jan; Garrelds, Ingrid M; De Mey, Jo G R; Fazzi, Gregorio; Schiffers, Paul; Iglarz, Marc; Fischli, Walter; Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir; Weissmann, Norbert; Grimminger, Friedrich; Seeger, Werner; Reiss, Irwin; Schermuly, Ralph Theo

    2015-10-01

    Limited literature sources implicate mast-cell mediator chymase in the pathologies of pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary fibrosis. However, there is no evidence on the contribution of chymase to the development of pulmonary hypertension associated with lung fibrosis, which is an important medical condition linked with increased mortality of patients who already suffer from a life-threatening interstitial lung disease.The aim of this study was to investigate the role of chymase in this particular pulmonary hypertension form, by using a bleomycin-induced pulmonary hypertension model.Chymase inhibition resulted in attenuation of pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary fibrosis, as evident from improved haemodynamics, decreased right ventricular remodelling/hypertrophy, pulmonary vascular remodelling and lung fibrosis. These beneficial effects were associated with a strong tendency of reduction in mast cell number and activity, and significantly diminished chymase expression levels. Mechanistically, chymase inhibition led to attenuation of transforming growth factor β1 and matrix-metalloproteinase-2 contents in the lungs. Furthermore, chymase inhibition prevented big endothelin-1-induced vasoconstriction of the pulmonary arteries.Therefore, chymase plays a role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension associated with pulmonary fibrosis and may represent a promising therapeutic target. In addition, this study may provide valuable insights on the contribution of chymase in the pulmonary hypertension context, in general, regardless of the pulmonary hypertension form. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  1. Two Cases of Chloromethylisothiazolinone and Methylisothiazolinone-associated Toxic Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun; Son, Seung Kook; Yoon, Jisun; Cho, Hyun Ju; Yang, Song I; Jung, Sungsu; Do, Kyung Hyun; Cho, Young Ah; Lee, So Yeon; Park, Dong Uk; Hong, Soo Jong

    2018-04-16

    Previous animal studies have not conclusively determined the association between exposure to humidifier disinfectants (HDs) containing 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (CMIT) and/or 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (MIT) and development of HD-associated lung injuries. Nonetheless, patients exposed to HDs containing only CMIT and/or MIT showed clinically similar lung injuries to those exposed to HDs containing polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) or oligo (2-[2-ethoxy]ethoxyethyl) guanidinium chloride (PGH). Here, we report twin sisters with lung injuries associated with exposure to CMIT/MIT-containing HDs. At 6 months of age, a younger twin sister presented with the 3-day history of cough, sputum, and respiratory difficulty. Chest radiography revealed multiple patchy consolidation and ground-glass opacities with pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. Thoracostomy was performed due to pneumothorax at admission and she was discharged at 11 days of hospitalization. At 5 years of age, multiple tiny nodules and faint centrilobular ground-glass opacities were observed with the small pneumatocele. The elder sister visited a tertiary hospital due to dyspnea at 12 months of age. Chest radiography showed consolidation, pneumomediastinum, and pulmonary interstitial emphysema. There was no response to the administration of immunosuppressant drugs and antifibrotic agents. At 5 years of age, chest CT revealed ground-glass opacity and multiple tiny centrilobular ground-glass opacities nodules in both lungs with exercise intolerance. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  2. CLPTM1L is overexpressed in lung cancer and associated with apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Ni

    Full Text Available CLPTM1L is believed to be associated with lung cancer. However, there is little information regarding its expression and function. Here using immunohistochemistry, we found that CLPTM1L expression was markedly increased in lung cancer tissues relative to normal tissues, especially in lung adenocarcinoma. CLPTM1L expression was not found to be associated with stages, smoking status, lymph node metastasis, or T lymphocyte infiltration but with differentiation stage. We found CLPTM1L to be enriched in the mitochondrial compared with plasma membrane protein extracts. CLPTM1L-EGFP transfection showed that the molecule product was expressed in cytoplasm and indicated the mitochondrial localization stained with mitochondrial marker MitoTracker. CLPTM1L transferred lung cancer cell line 95-D showed no growth inhibition or cell apoptosis, but it did show inhibited sensitivity to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II (cisplatin, CDDP. Knockdown of CLPTM1L by RNAi did not interfere with cell proliferation but it did increase cell sensitivity to CDDP and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3/7. These data indicate CLPTM1L is a mitochondria protein and that it may be associated with anti-apoptotic mechanism which affects drug-resistance in turn.

  3. Factors Associated with Life Expectancy in Patients with Metastatic Spine Disease from Adenocarcinoma of the Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, C. Rory; Khattab, Mohamed H.; Sankey, Eric W.; Elder, Benjamin D.; Kosztowski, Thomas A.; Sarabia-Estrada, Rachel; Bydon, Ali; Witham, Timothy F.; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Sciubba, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Objective Our objective was to identify preoperative prognostic factors associated with survival in patients with spinal metastasis from lung carcinoma. Methods A retrospective analysis of 26 patients diagnosed with lung carcinoma metastatic to the spinal column was performed to determine factors associated with survival. We used 3 months survival as the clinical cutoff for whether surgical intervention should be performed. We analyzed patients who survived less than 3 months compared with those who survived more than 3 months. Demographic, preoperative, operative, and postoperative factors including functional scores were collected for analysis. Results The median survival for all patients in our study was 3.5 months. We found a statistically significant difference between the group that survived less than 3 months and the group that survived greater than 3 months in terms of extrathoracic metastasis, visceral metastasis, and average postoperative modified Rankin score. Conclusion Determining which patients with lung cancer spinal metastases will benefit from surgical intervention is often dictated by the patient's predicted life expectancy. Factors associated with poorer prognosis include age, functional status, visceral metastases, and extrathoracic metastases. Although the prognosis for patients with lung cancer spinal metastases is poor, some patients may experience long-term benefit from surgical intervention. PMID:26430597

  4. Wnt5a is associated with cigarette smoke-related lung carcinogenesis via protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Young Mi; Jo, Ukhyun; Sung, Jae Sook; Ju, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Park, Kyong Hwa; Lee, Jong Won; Koh, In Song; Kim, Yeul Hong

    2013-01-01

    Wnt5a is overexpressed during the progression of human non-small cell lung cancer. However, the roles of Wnt5a during smoking-related lung carcinogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. We investigated the associations between Wnt5a and the early development of cigarette smoke related lung cancer using human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells (NHBE, BEAS-2B, 1799, 1198 and 1170I) at different malignant stages established by exposure to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Abnormal up-regulation of Wnt5a mRNA and proteins was detected in CSC-exposed transformed 1198 and tumorigenic 1170I cells as compared with other non-CSC exposed HBE cells. Tumor tissues obtained from smokers showed higher Wnt5a expressions than matched normal tissues. In non-CSC exposed 1799 cells, treatment of recombinant Wnt5a caused the activations of PKC and Akt, and the blockage of Wnt5a and PKC significantly decreased the viabilities of CSC-transformed 1198 cells expressing high levels of Wnt5a. This reduced cell survival rate was associated with increased apoptosis via the down-regulation of Bcl2 and the induction of cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase. Moreover, CSC-treated 1799 cells showed induction of Wnt5a expression and enhanced colony-forming capacity. The CSC-induced colony forming efficiency was suppressed by the co-incubation with a PKC inhibitor. In conclusion, these results suggest that cigarette smoke induces Wnt5a-coupled PKC activity during lung carcinogenesis, which causes Akt activity and anti-apoptosis in lung cancer. Therefore, current study provides novel clues for the crucial role of Wnt5a in the smoking-related lung carcinogenesis.

  5. Wnt5a is associated with cigarette smoke-related lung carcinogenesis via protein kinase C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Mi Whang

    Full Text Available Wnt5a is overexpressed during the progression of human non-small cell lung cancer. However, the roles of Wnt5a during smoking-related lung carcinogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. We investigated the associations between Wnt5a and the early development of cigarette smoke related lung cancer using human bronchial epithelial (HBE cells (NHBE, BEAS-2B, 1799, 1198 and 1170I at different malignant stages established by exposure to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC. Abnormal up-regulation of Wnt5a mRNA and proteins was detected in CSC-exposed transformed 1198 and tumorigenic 1170I cells as compared with other non-CSC exposed HBE cells. Tumor tissues obtained from smokers showed higher Wnt5a expressions than matched normal tissues. In non-CSC exposed 1799 cells, treatment of recombinant Wnt5a caused the activations of PKC and Akt, and the blockage of Wnt5a and PKC significantly decreased the viabilities of CSC-transformed 1198 cells expressing high levels of Wnt5a. This reduced cell survival rate was associated with increased apoptosis via the down-regulation of Bcl2 and the induction of cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase. Moreover, CSC-treated 1799 cells showed induction of Wnt5a expression and enhanced colony-forming capacity. The CSC-induced colony forming efficiency was suppressed by the co-incubation with a PKC inhibitor. In conclusion, these results suggest that cigarette smoke induces Wnt5a-coupled PKC activity during lung carcinogenesis, which causes Akt activity and anti-apoptosis in lung cancer. Therefore, current study provides novel clues for the crucial role of Wnt5a in the smoking-related lung carcinogenesis.

  6. Are school-level factors associated with primary school students' experience of physical violence from school staff in Uganda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Louise; Nakuti, Janet; Allen, Elizabeth; Gannett, Katherine R; Naker, Dipak; Devries, Karen M

    2016-01-01

    The nature and structure of the school environment has the potential to shape children's health and well being. Few studies have explored the importance of school-level factors in explaining a child's likelihood of experiencing violence from school staff, particularly in low-resource settings such as Uganda. To quantify to what extent a student's risk of violence is determined by school-level factors we fitted multilevel logistic regression models to investigate associations and present between-school variance partition coefficients. School structural factors, academic and supportive environment are explored. 53% of students reported physical violence from staff. Only 6% of variation in students' experience of violence was due to differences between schools and half the variation was explained by the school-level factors modelled. Schools with a higher proportion of girls are associated with increased odds of physical violence from staff. Students in schools with a high level of student perceptions of school connectedness have a 36% reduced odds of experiencing physical violence from staff, but no other school-level factor was significantly associated. Our findings suggest that physical violence by school staff is widespread across different types of schools in this setting, but interventions that improve students' school connectedness should be considered. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. association between finger clubbing and chronic lung disease in hiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-11

    Nov 11, 2013 ... Background: Finger clubbing in HIV infected children is associated with pulmonary diseases. ... is easy and quick to detect without sophisticated equipment and very ... interstitial pneumonia, bronchiectasis, interstitial pneumonitis and .... P value. Chest x-ray report. Abnormal. 90 (75.0). 54 (90.0). 36 (60.0).

  8. Visceral adiposity is associated with cytokines and decrease in lung function in women with persistent asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Capelo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal obesity is associated with a risk of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and decreased lung function. However, it is not known whether asthma control is influenced by the accumulation of adipose tissue in the various abdominal compartments. Objective: To determine associations among abdominal adiposity distribution, asthma control, lung function and cytokines in women. Methods and design: In this cross-sectional study of asthmatic women, data on demographic variables, comorbid conditions, disease history, anthropometric and spirometric measurements were collected. Subcutaneous (SAT and visceral (VAT adipose tissues were measured by ultrasound, and the steatosis level was obtained. Asthma control was assessed according to Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA criteria. Atopy was defined on the basis of allergen-specific Immunoglobulin E and/or skin prick testing. Cytokine levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISAs. Results: Eighty-three asthmatic women were included, 37% of whom had uncontrolled asthma. After controlling for variables, a negative association between asthma control and VAT and the VAT/SAT ratio was observed. VAT was negatively associated with respiratory parameters after controlling for explanatory variables. In an adjusted model, body mass index (BMI and SAT were inversely associated with the adiponectin serum level and VAT was associated with the interleukin 6 level. In conclusion, visceral obesity was negatively associated with asthma control and lung function; and positively associated with increased levels of interleukin 6 in women. We hypothesize that women should be studied as a separate group, and we suggest further studies with a control group to know if the uncontrolled asthmatic group is directly affected by visceral adipose inflammatory markers. Keywords: Asthma, Woman, Abdominal obesity, Lung function, Cytokines, Asthma control

  9. A retrospective analysis of delays in the diagnosis of lung cancer and associated costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildea TR

    2017-05-01

    IV disease and lowest among patients diagnosed at Stage I disease ($7,239 Stage I, $9,484 Stage II, $11,193 Stage IIIa, $17,415 Stage IIIb, and $21,441 Stage IV. Conclusion: This study showed that most patients experienced long periods of delay between their first diagnostic test for lung cancer and a definitive diagnosis, and the majority were diagnosed at advanced stages of disease. Costs associated with the management of lung cancer increased substantially with higher stages at diagnosis. Procedures that diagnose lung cancer at earlier stages may allow for less resource use and costs among patients with lung cancer. Keywords: biopsy (lung, cost, health care utilization, pulmonary nodule, staging

  10. School food environments associated with adiposity in Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, C; Datta, G D; Henderson, M; Gray-Donald, K; Kestens, Y; Barnett, T A

    2017-07-01

    Targeting obesogenic features of children's environment that are amenable to change represents a promising strategy for health promotion. The school food environment, defined as the services and policies regarding nutrition and the availability of food in the school and surrounding neighborhood, is particularly important given that students travel through the school neighborhood almost daily and that they consume a substantial proportion of their calories at school. As part of the Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth (QUALITY) cohort study, we assessed features of school indoor dietary environment and the surrounding school neighborhoods, when children were aged 8-10 years (2005-2008). School principals reported on food practices and policies within the schools. The density of convenience stores and fast-food outlets surrounding the school was computed using a Geographical Information System. Indicators of school neighborhood deprivation were derived from census data. Adiposity outcomes were measured in a clinical setting 2 years later, when participants were aged 10-12 years (2008-2011). We conducted cluster analyses to identify school food environment types. Associations between school types and adiposity were estimated in linear regression models. Cluster analysis identified three school types with distinct food environments. Schools were characterized as: overall healthful (45%); a healthful food environment in the surrounding neighborhood, but an unhealthful indoor food environment (22%); or overall unhealthful (33%). Less healthful schools were located in more deprived neighborhoods and were associated with greater child adiposity. Despite regulatory efforts to improve school food environments, there is substantial inequity in dietary environments across schools. Ensuring healthful indoor and outdoor food environments across schools should be included in comprehensive efforts to reduce obesity-related health disparities.

  11. Large-scale association analysis identifies new lung cancer susceptibility loci and heterogeneity in genetic susceptibility across histological subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKay, James D; Hung, Rayjean J; Han, Younghun

    2017-01-01

    Although several lung cancer susceptibility loci have been identified, much of the heritability for lung cancer remains unexplained. Here 14,803 cases and 12,262 controls of European descent were genotyped on the OncoArray and combined with existing data for an aggregated genome-wide association ...... receptor, CHRNA2, and the telomere-related genes OFBC1 and RTEL1. Further exploration of the target genes will continue to provide new insights into the etiology of lung cancer....

  12. Rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease: lung inflammation evaluated with high resolution computed tomography scan is correlated to rheumatoid arthritis disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Dórame, Renzo; Mejía, Mayra; Mateos-Toledo, Heidegger; Rojas-Serrano, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    To describe the association between rheumatoid arthritis disease activity (RA) and interstitial lung damage (inflammation and fibrosis), in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). A retrospective study of RA patients with interstitial lung disease (restrictive pattern in lung function tests and evidence of interstitial lung disease in high resolution computed tomography (HRCT)). Patients were evaluated to exclude other causes of pulmonary disease. RA disease activity was measured with the CDAI index. Interstitial lung inflammation and fibrosis were determined by Kazerooni scale. We compared Kazerooni ground-glass score with the nearest CDAI score to HRCT date scan of the first medical evaluation at our institution. In nine patients, we compared the first ground-glass score with a second one after treatment with DMARDs and corticosteroids. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to evaluate association between RA disease activity and the Kazerooni ground-glass and fibrosis scores. Thirty-four patients were included. A positive correlation between CDAI and ground-glass scores was found (rs=0.3767, P<0.028). Fibrosis and CDAI scores were not associated (rs=-0.0747, P<0.6745). After treatment, a downward tendency in the ground-glass score was observed (median [IQR]): (2.33 [2,3] vs. 2 [1.33-2.16]), P<0.056, along with a lesser CDAI score (27 [8-43] vs. 9 [5-12]), P<0.063. There is a correlation between RA disease activity and ground-glass appearance in the HRCT of RA-ILD patients. These results suggest a positive association between RA disease activity and lung inflammation in RA-ILD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. A case-control study of lifestyle and lung cancer associations by histological types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, A; Zatloukal, P; Tomasek, L; Dolezal, J; Syllabova, L; Kara, J; Kopecky, P; Plesko, I

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the contribution of dietary factors and physical exercise to the variation in the risk of lung cancer and its major histological types among men and women in the Czech Republic, and reveal interactions between smoking and diet/physical exercise, if any. In a hospital based case-control study, data collected by in-person interviews from 1096 microscopically confirmed lung cancer cases (587 women, 509 men) and 2966 controls were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression stratified by appropriate factors. Among all nonsmoking women protective effects were observed for black tea (OR=0.69), among all smoking women for wine (OR=0.71), physical exercise (OR=0.64) and vitamin supplements (OR=0.71). Among all men, inverse associations were found in smokers between lung cancer risk and frequent intake of fruits (OR=0.69) or moderate intake of spirits (OR=0.64), and a direct association for fat foods (OR=1.68). Comparing the effects of diet/physical activity on lung cancer risk among nonsmokers versus smokers, interactions with smoking appeared for the intake of black tea and milk/dairy products among women, and for moderate intake of spirits in men. When the effects of diet/physical exercise on risk were analyzed by major cell types in women, the intake of wine and physical exercise were inversely associated with the risk of both adenocarcinoma and small cell cancer, the intakes of fruits and vitamin supplements were inversely associated with the risk of squamous cell cancer. In men, the intake of fat foods was directly associated with the risk of squamous cell cancer, while the frequent intake of apples was inversely associated with the risk of both squamous- and small cell cancers. In men an inverse association with the risk of squamous cell cancer was found for the intake of other fruits. These data suggest that diet/physical exercise may affect the risk of lung cancer and major cell types, and that interactions between

  14. Associations of Teen Dating Violence Victimization With School Violence and Bullying Among US High School Students*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Olsen, Emily O’malley; Bacon, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Teen dating violence (TDV) negatively impacts health, mental and physical well-being, and school performance. METHODS Data from a nationally representative sample of high school students participating in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)’s 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) are used to demonstrate associations of physical and sexual TDV with school violence-related experiences and behaviors, including bullying victimization. Bivariate and adjusted sex-stratified regressions assessed relationships between TDV and school violence-related experiences and behaviors. RESULTS Compared to students not reporting TDV, those experiencing both physical and sexual TDV were more likely to report carrying a weapon at school, missing school because they felt unsafe, being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property, having a physical fight at school, and being bullied on school property. CONCLUSIONS School-based prevention efforts should target multiple forms of violence. PMID:27374352

  15. Bidirectional associations between emotions and school adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Maciel M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Spinrad, Tracy L; Berger, Rebecca H; VanSchyndel, Sarah K; Silva, Kassondra M; Diaz, Anjolii; Thompson, Marilyn S; Gal, Diana E; Southworth, Jody

    2017-11-24

    We examined the relations of children's (N = 301) observed expression of negative and positive emotion in classes or nonclassroom school contexts (i.e., lunch and recess) to school adjustment from kindergarten to first grade. Naturalistic observations of children's emotional expressivity were collected, as were teachers' reports of children's school engagement and relationship quality with teachers and peers. In longitudinal panel models, greater teacher-student conflict and lower student engagement in kindergarten predicted greater negative expressivity in both school contexts. School engagement and peer acceptance in kindergarten positively predicted first grade positive emotion in the classroom. Suggestive of possible bidirectional relations, there was also small unique prediction (near significant) from negative expressivity at lunch and recess to higher teacher-student conflict, from negative expressivity in the classroom to low peer acceptance, and from positive expressivity in the classroom to higher peer acceptance. The pattern of findings suggests that the quality of experience at school uniquely predicts children's emotional expressivity at school more consistently than vice versa-a finding that highlights the important role of school context in young children's emotionality at school. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Investigating the Association Between Sociodemographic Factors and Lung Cancer Risk Using Cyber Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia

    2016-02-01

    Openly available online sources can be very valuable for executing in silico case-control epidemiological studies. Adjustment of confounding factors to isolate the association between an observing factor and disease is essential for such studies. However, such information is not always readily available online. This paper suggests natural language processing methods for extracting socio-demographic information from content openly available online. Feasibility of the suggested method is demonstrated by performing a case-control study focusing on the association between age, gender, and income level and lung cancer risk. The study shows stronger association between older age and lower socioeconomic status and higher lung cancer risk, which is consistent with the findings reported in traditional cancer epidemiology studies.

  17. The association between systemic inflammatory cellular levels and lung function: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia McKeever

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lower lung function is associated with an elevated systemic white cell count in men. However, these observations have not been demonstrated in a representative population that includes females and may be susceptible to confounding by recent airway infections or recent cigarette smoking. We tested the hypothesis that lung function is inversely associated with systemic white cell count in a population-based study. METHODS: The study population consisted adults aged 17-90+ years who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who did not report a recent cough, cold or acute illness in a non-smoking and smoking population. RESULTS: In non-smoking adults with the highest quintile of the total white cell count had a FEV(1 125.3 ml lower than those in the lowest quintile (95% confidence interval CI: -163.1 to -87.5. Adults with the highest quintile of the total white cell count had a FVC 151.1 ml lower than those in the lowest quintile (95% confidence interval CI: -195.0 to -107.2. Similar associations were observed for granulocytes, mononuclear cells and lymphocytes. In current smokers, similar smaller associations observed for total white cell count, granulocytes and mononuclear cells. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic cellular inflammation levels are inversely associated with lung function in a population of both non-smokers and smokers without acute illnesses. This may contribute to the increased mortality observed in individuals with a higher baseline white cell count.

  18. High affective risk perception is associated with more lung cancer-specific distress in CT screening for lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunge, Eveline M.; van den Bergh, Karien A. M.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; van Klaveren, Rob J.; de Koning, Harry J.

    2008-01-01

    Screening for cancer can cause distress. People who perceive their risk of cancer as high may be more vulnerable to distress. This study evaluated whether participants of a lung cancer Computed Tomography (CT) screening trial with a high affective risk perception of developing lung cancer had a

  19. Earlier school start times are associated with higher rates of behavioral problems in elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peggy S; Gilbert, Lauren R; Haak, Eric A; Bi, Shuang; Smith, Olivia A

    2017-04-01

    Early school start times may curtail children's sleep and inadvertently promote sleep restriction. The current study examines the potential implications for early school start times for behavioral problems in public elementary schools (student ages 5-12 years) in Kentucky. School start times were obtained from school Web sites or by calling school offices; behavioral and disciplinary problems, along with demographic information about schools, were obtained from the Kentucky Department of Education. Estimated associations controlled for teacher/student ratio, racial composition, school rank, enrollment, and Appalachian location. Associations between early school start time and greater behavioral problems (harassment, in-school removals, suspensions, and expulsions) were observed, although some of these associations were found only for schools serving the non-Appalachian region. Findings support the growing body of research showing that early school start times may contribute to student problems, and extend this research through a large-scale examination of elementary schools, behavioral outcomes, and potential moderators of risk. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Associations among School Characteristics and Foodservice Practices in a Nationally Representative Sample of United States Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Martin, Corby K.; LeBlanc, Monique M.; Onufrak, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Determine school characteristics associated with healthy/unhealthy food service offerings or healthy food preparation practices. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting: Nationally representative sample of public and private elementary, middle, and high schools. Participants: Data from the 2006 School Health Policies…

  1. High School Students' Experiences of Bullying and Victimization and the Association with School Health Center Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Soleimanpour, Samira; Sakashita, Kimi; Brindis, Claire D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying and victimization are ongoing concerns in schools. School health centers (SHCs) are well situated to support affected students because they provide crisis intervention, mental health care, and broader interventions to improve school climate. This study examined the association between urban adolescents' experiences of…

  2. Genetic variants in regulatory regions of microRNAs are associated with lung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kaipeng; Wang, Cheng; Qin, Na; Yang, Jianshui; Zhu, Meng; Dai, Juncheng; Jin, Guangfu; Shen, Hongbing; Ma, Hongxia; Hu, Zhibin

    2016-07-26

    Genetic variants in regulatory regions of some miRNAs might be associated with lung cancer risk and survival. We performed a case-control study including 1341 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases and 1982 controls to evaluate the associations of 7 potentially functional polymorphisms in several differently expressed miRNAs with NSCLC risk. Each SNP was also tested for the association with overall survival of 1001 NSCLC patients. We identified that rs9660710 in miR-200b/200a/429 cluster and rs763354 in miR-30a were significantly associated with NSCLC risk [odds ratio (OR) = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.30, P = 0.002; OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.80-0.98, P = 0.017; respectively]. However, no significant association between variants and NSCLC death risk was observed in survival analysis. Functional annotation showed that both rs9660710 and rs763354 were located in regulatory elements in lung cancer cells. Compared to normal tissues, miR-200a-3p, miR-200a-5p, miR-200b-3p, miR-200b-5p and miR-429 were significantly increased in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Lung Adenocarcinoma (LUAD) tumors, whereas miR-30a-3p and miR-30a-5p were significantly decreased in tumors (all P < 0.05). Furthermore, we observed that rs9660710 is an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) or methylation eQTL for miR-429 expression in TCGA normal tissues. Our results indicated that rs9660710 in miR-200b/200a/429 cluster and rs763354 in miR-30a might modify the susceptibility to NSCLC.

  3. Lung cancer stage at diagnosis: Individual associations in the prospective VITamins and lifestyle (VITAL cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Au David H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Identifying factors associated with stage of diagnosis can improve our understanding of biologic and behavioral pathways of lung cancer development and detection. We used data from a prospective cohort study to evaluate associations of demographic, health history, and health behaviors with early versus late stage at diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods We calculated odds ratios (ORs for the association of patient-level characteristics with advanced stage of diagnosis for NSCLC. The OR's were then adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking status, income, education, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and a comorbidity index. Results We identified 612 cases of NSCLC among 77,719 adults, aged 50 to 76 years from Washington State recruited in 2000-2002, with followup through December 2007. In univariate analyses, subjects who quit smoking Conclusions Smoking status, education, and a screening activity were associated with stage at diagnosis of NSCLC. These results may guide future studies of the underlying mechanisms that influence how NSCLC is detected and diagnosed.

  4. Large-scale association analysis identifies new lung cancer susceptibility loci and heterogeneity in genetic susceptibility across histological subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mckay, James D.; Hung, Rayjean J; Han, Younghun; Zong, Xuchen; Carreras-Torres, Robert; Christiani, David C.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Johansson, Mattias; Xiao, Xiangjun; Li, Yafang; Byun, Jinyoung; Dunning, Alison; Pooley, Karen A.; Qian, David C.; Ji, Xuemei; Liu, Geoffrey; Timofeeva, Maria N.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Wu, Xifeng; Le Marchand, Loic; Albanes, Demetrios; Bickeboeller, Heike; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Bush, William S.; Tardon, Adonina; Rennert, Gad; Teare, M. Dawn; Field, John K.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Lazarus, Philip; Haugen, Aage; Lam, Stephen; Schabath, Matthew B.; Andrew, Angeline S.; Shen, Hongbing; Hong, Yun-Chul; Yuan, Jian-Min; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Pesatori, Angela C.; Ye, Yuanqing; Diao, Nancy; Su, Li; Zhang, Ruyang; Brhane, Yonathan; Leighl, Natasha; Johansen, Jakob S.; Mellemgaard, Anders; Saliba, Walid; Marcus, Michael W.; Timens, Wim

    Although several lung cancer susceptibility loci have been identified, much of the heritability for lung cancer remains unexplained. Here 14,803 cases and 12,262 controls of European descent were genotyped on the OncoArray and combined with existing data for an aggregated genomewide association

  5. The Association of School Climate, Depression Literacy, and Mental Health Stigma Among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Lisa; Musci, Rashelle; Stuart, Elizabeth; Ruble, Anne; Beaudry, Mary B; Schweizer, Barbara; Owen, Megan; Goode, Carly; Johnson, Sarah L; Bradshaw, Catherine; Wilcox, Holly; Swartz, Karen

    2017-08-01

    Although school climate is linked with youth educational, socioemotional, behavioral, and health outcomes, there has been limited research on the association between school climate and mental health education efforts. We explored whether school climate was associated with students' depression literacy and mental health stigma beliefs. Data were combined from 2 studies: the Maryland Safe Supportive Schools Project and a randomized controlled trial of the Adolescent Depression Awareness Program. Five high schools participated in both studies, allowing examination of depression literacy and stigma measures from 500 9th and 10th graders. Multilevel models examined the relationship between school-level school climate characteristics and student-level depression literacy and mental health stigma scores. Overall school climate was positively associated with depression literacy (odds ratio [OR] = 2.78, p stigma (Est. = -3.822, p = .001). Subscales of engagement (OR = 5.30, p stigma (Est. = -6.610, p < .001), (Est. = -2.742, p < .001). Positive school climate was associated with greater odds of depression literacy and endorsement of fewer stigmatizing beliefs among students. Our findings raise awareness regarding aspects of the school environment that may facilitate or inhibit students' recognition of depression and subsequent treatment-seeking. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  6. Association of lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 cardiovascular health metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenjun; Lee, Hwa; Lee, Angela; Kieu, Chi; Wong, Nathan D

    2017-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the U.S. There is a strong association between COPD and cardiovascular (CV) disease; however, the relation between COPD and CV health factors is not well defined. We examined the relation between lung function and CV health factors defined by American Heart Association's (AHA) Life's Simple 7 (LS7). We studied 6352 adults aged ≥20 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2012. Analysis of variance was used to compare mean FEV1% of predicted across levels of each LS7 metric and population attributable risk was calculated based on COPD prevalence. We also conducted linear regression and logistic regression analyses to determine the association between lung function, COPD and LS7 score. Overall 19.9% of subjects were defined as having COPD. Subjects in the highest categories of the LS7 metrics had the highest mean values of FEV1% of predicted (p < 0.0001 except for total cholesterol). Current smoking and hypertension had a population attributed risk of 21.8% and 21.1% of COPD, respectively. Compared to subjects with 0 ideal health factors, the gender and ethnicity-adjusted odds (95% CI) for COPD were 0.45 (0.22-0.93), 0.22 (0.11-0.43) for those with 4 and 5-7 factors, but adjustment for age attenuated this relation. LS7 score is associated with lung function as well as the odds of COPD that is largely explained by age. Studies are needed to show if promotion of CV health will preserve healthy lung function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Are characteristics of the school district associated with active transportation to school in Danish adolescents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, Christiane; Bloomfield, Kim; Ejstrud, Bo

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study sought to determine the influence of individual factors on active transportation to school among Danish seventh graders and whether school district factors are associated with such behaviour independently of individual factors. METHODS: Mixed effects logistic regression...... models determined the effects of individual (gender, family affluence, enjoyment of school and academic performance) and school district factors (educational level, household savings, land use and size) on active transportation to school (by foot, bicycle or other active means) among 10 380 pupils aged...... 13-15 years nested in 407 school districts. RESULTS: Of all students, 64.4% used active transportation to school daily. Boys, those with perceived higher school performance and those with lower family affluence were more likely to use active transportation to school. After adjustment for all...

  8. Impact of Neuro-Psychological Factors on Smoking-Associated Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuller, Hildegard M. [Experimental Oncology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-03-13

    Smoking has been extensively documented as a risk factor for all histological types of lung cancer and tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reproducibly cause lung cancer in laboratory rodents. However, the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), frequently develops in never smokers and is particularly common in women and African Americans, suggesting that factors unrelated to smoking significantly impact this cancer. Recent experimental investigations in vitro and in animal models have shown that chronic psychological stress and the associated hyperactive signaling of stress neurotransmitters via β-adrenergic receptors significantly promote the growth and metastatic potential of NSCLC. These responses were caused by modulation in the expression and sensitization state of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that regulate the production of stress neurotransmitters and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Similar changes in nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter production were identified as the cause of NSCLC stimulation in vitro and in xenograft models by chronic nicotine. Collectively, these data suggest that hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system caused by chronic psychological stress or chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists in cigarette smoke significantly contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC. A recent clinical study that reported improved survival outcomes with the incidental use of β-blockers among patients with NSCLC supports this interpretation.

  9. Impact of Neuro-Psychological Factors on Smoking-Associated Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, Hildegard M.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking has been extensively documented as a risk factor for all histological types of lung cancer and tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reproducibly cause lung cancer in laboratory rodents. However, the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), frequently develops in never smokers and is particularly common in women and African Americans, suggesting that factors unrelated to smoking significantly impact this cancer. Recent experimental investigations in vitro and in animal models have shown that chronic psychological stress and the associated hyperactive signaling of stress neurotransmitters via β-adrenergic receptors significantly promote the growth and metastatic potential of NSCLC. These responses were caused by modulation in the expression and sensitization state of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that regulate the production of stress neurotransmitters and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Similar changes in nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter production were identified as the cause of NSCLC stimulation in vitro and in xenograft models by chronic nicotine. Collectively, these data suggest that hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system caused by chronic psychological stress or chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists in cigarette smoke significantly contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC. A recent clinical study that reported improved survival outcomes with the incidental use of β-blockers among patients with NSCLC supports this interpretation

  10. Secondary-care costs associated with lung cancer diagnosed at emergency hospitalisation in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Martyn P T; Hall, Peter S; Callister, Matthew E J

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer diagnosis during emergency hospital admission has been associated with higher early secondary-care costs and lower longer-term costs than outpatient diagnoses. This retrospective cohort study analyses the secondary-care costs of 3274 consecutive patients with lung cancer. Patients diagnosed during emergency admissions incurred greater costs during the first month and had a worse prognosis compared with outpatient diagnoses. In patients who remained alive, costs after the first month were comparable between diagnostic routes. In addition to improving patient experience and outcome, strategies to increase earlier diagnosis may reduce the additional healthcare costs associated with this route to diagnosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. 18FDG uptake associated with CT density on PET/CT in lungs with and without chronic interstitial lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kentaro; Okada, Ken; Taki, Yasuyuki; Goto, Ryoi; Kinomura, Shigeo; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The dependent-density of computed tomography (CT) images of positron emission tomography (PET)/CT is sometimes difficult to distinguish from chronic interstitial lung disease (ILD) when it accompanies increased 18 F-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose ( 18 FDG) uptake. Though the possible utility of 18 FDG-PET for the diagnosis of active ILD has been reported, the clinical relevance of mild lung 18 FDG uptake in ILD cases without signs and symptoms suggesting acute progression has not been described. This study aimed to test relationships between 18 FDG uptake and lung density on CT using PET/CT in patients with normal lung as well as clinically stable chronic ILD. Thirty-six patients with normal lungs (controls) and 28 patients with chronic ILD (ILD cases) without acute exacerbation were retrospectively selected from 18 FDG PET/CT scans performed in examination of malignant neoplasms. Elliptical regions of interest (ROIs) were placed on the lung. The relationships between CT density and 18 FDG uptake between the control and ILD cases were tested. The CT density and 18 FDG uptake had a linear correlation in both the controls and the ILD cases without a difference in their regression slopes, and they were overlapped between the controls and the ILD cases with higher mean values in the ILD cases. Lung 18 FDG uptake was considered to reflect a gravity-dependent tissue density in the normal lung. Though the lung 18 FDG uptake as well as the CT density tended to be higher in chronic ILD patients, it may be difficult to distinguish them in normal dependent regions from those related to chronic ILD in some cases. (author)

  12. Large-scale association analysis identifies new lung cancer susceptibility loci and heterogeneity in genetic susceptibility across histological subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, James D; Hung, Rayjean J; Han, Younghun; Zong, Xuchen; Carreras-Torres, Robert; Christiani, David C; Caporaso, Neil E; Johansson, Mattias; Xiao, Xiangjun; Li, Yafang; Byun, Jinyoung; Dunning, Alison; Pooley, Karen A; Qian, David C; Ji, Xuemei; Liu, Geoffrey; Timofeeva, Maria N; Bojesen, Stig E; Wu, Xifeng; Le Marchand, Loic; Albanes, Demetrios; Bickeböller, Heike; Aldrich, Melinda C; Bush, William S; Tardon, Adonina; Rennert, Gad; Teare, M Dawn; Field, John K; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Lazarus, Philip; Haugen, Aage; Lam, Stephen; Schabath, Matthew B; Andrew, Angeline S; Shen, Hongbing; Hong, Yun-Chul; Yuan, Jian-Min; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Pesatori, Angela C; Ye, Yuanqing; Diao, Nancy; Su, Li; Zhang, Ruyang; Brhane, Yonathan; Leighl, Natasha; Johansen, Jakob S; Mellemgaard, Anders; Saliba, Walid; Haiman, Christopher A; Wilkens, Lynne R; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Fernandez-Tardon, Guillermo; van der Heijden, Henricus F M; Kim, Jin Hee; Dai, Juncheng; Hu, Zhibin; Davies, Michael P A; Marcus, Michael W; Brunnström, Hans; Manjer, Jonas; Melander, Olle; Muller, David C; Overvad, Kim; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Tumino, Rosario; Doherty, Jennifer A; Barnett, Matt P; Chen, Chu; Goodman, Gary E; Cox, Angela; Taylor, Fiona; Woll, Penella; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, H-Erich; Manz, Judith; Muley, Thomas R; Risch, Angela; Rosenberger, Albert; Grankvist, Kjell; Johansson, Mikael; Shepherd, Frances A; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Arnold, Susanne M; Haura, Eric B; Bolca, Ciprian; Holcatova, Ivana; Janout, Vladimir; Kontic, Milica; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mukeria, Anush; Ognjanovic, Simona; Orlowski, Tadeusz M; Scelo, Ghislaine; Swiatkowska, Beata; Zaridze, David; Bakke, Per; Skaug, Vidar; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Duell, Eric J; Butler, Lesley M; Koh, Woon-Puay; Gao, Yu-Tang; Houlston, Richard S; McLaughlin, John; Stevens, Victoria L; Joubert, Philippe; Lamontagne, Maxime; Nickle, David C; Obeidat, Ma'en; Timens, Wim; Zhu, Bin; Song, Lei; Kachuri, Linda; Artigas, María Soler; Tobin, Martin D; Wain, Louise V; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E; Reginsson, Gunnar W; Stefansson, Kari; Hancock, Dana B; Bierut, Laura J; Spitz, Margaret R; Gaddis, Nathan C; Lutz, Sharon M; Gu, Fangyi; Johnson, Eric O; Kamal, Ahsan; Pikielny, Claudio; Zhu, Dakai; Lindströem, Sara; Jiang, Xia; Tyndale, Rachel F; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Bossé, Yohan; Chanock, Stephen; Brennan, Paul; Landi, Maria Teresa; Amos, Christopher I

    2017-07-01

    Although several lung cancer susceptibility loci have been identified, much of the heritability for lung cancer remains unexplained. Here 14,803 cases and 12,262 controls of European descent were genotyped on the OncoArray and combined with existing data for an aggregated genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis of lung cancer in 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls. We identified 18 susceptibility loci achieving genome-wide significance, including 10 new loci. The new loci highlight the striking heterogeneity in genetic susceptibility across the histological subtypes of lung cancer, with four loci associated with lung cancer overall and six loci associated with lung adenocarcinoma. Gene expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in 1,425 normal lung tissue samples highlights RNASET2, SECISBP2L and NRG1 as candidate genes. Other loci include genes such as a cholinergic nicotinic receptor, CHRNA2, and the telomere-related genes OFBC1 and RTEL1. Further exploration of the target genes will continue to provide new insights into the etiology of lung cancer.

  13. Is the environment near school associated with active commuting to school among preschoolers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Cazuza Farias Junior

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Available studies show that environmental factors may influence how parentes choose to commute their children from home to school. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the association between the characteristics of the physical and social environment near school and active commuting to school among preschool children. A school-based cross-sectional study with a sample of children aged 3to 5 years (n=914 was undertaken. Participants were selected by a single-stage cluster sampling process. To obtain data on commuting to school and demographicand socioeconomic variables, a previously validated questionnaire was used while an audit tool was used to assess the environment near school. Binarylogistic regression was used to analyze the association and results were presented as Odds Ratio values. Results showed that 28.3% (95%CI 25.5-31.3 ofthe children were active commuters from home to school. A positive association was found between public transportation (p=0.002 and social environment(p=0.004 domains and active commuting. However, this association was foundonly among children from families that did not have a car. The likelihood of achild being an active commuter was higher among those who are enrolled in schools with better environmental surroundings (OR=1.88; 95%CI 1.31-2.70. It was concluded that there was a positive association between some of the environmental factors near school and active commuting to school among children from families that did not have a car.

  14. WDR62 overexpression is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmura, Kazuya; Kato, Hisami; Kawanishi, Yuichi; Igarashi, Hisaki; Inoue, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Katsuhiro; Nakamura, Satoki; Fujita, Hidehiko; Funai, Kazuhito; Tanahashi, Masayuki; Niwa, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Sugimura, Haruhiko

    2017-08-01

    Human WDR62, which is localized in the cytoplasm including the centrosome, is known to be responsible for primary microcephaly; however, the role of WDR62 abnormality in cancers remains largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to reveal the pathological role of WDR62 abnormality in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC). We first examined the WDR62 mRNA expression level of LAC (n = 64) using a QRT-PCR analysis and found that WDR62 mRNA transcripts were significantly overexpressed in LAC (P = 0.0432, Wilcoxon matched pairs test). An immunohistochemical analysis for LAC (n = 237) showed that WDR62 proteins were also significantly overexpressed in LAC (P overexpression have a short overall survival (P = 0.0378, log-rank test), and a multivariate analysis revealed that WDR62 overexpression was an independent predictor of a poor survival outcome among LAC patients (hazard ratio, 2.032; 95% confidence interval, 1.071-3.777; P = 0.0305). Next, we examined the functional effect of WDR62 overexpression on the lung cancer cell line H1299. WDR62-overexpressing lung cancer cells exhibited an increase in cell growth. Moreover, the concurrent overexpression of WDR62 and TPX2, a WDR62-interacting protein that is also overexpressed in LAC, induced centrosome amplification in the lung cells. Finally, we disclosed that the concurrent overexpression of WDR62 and TPX2 is common in diverse human cancers, using data from the Cancer Genome Atlas. These results suggested that WDR62 overexpression is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with LAC and leads to an increase in the malignant potential of lung cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Metagenes Associated with Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgard, Egon; Vooder, Tõnu; Võsa, Urmo; Välk, Kristjan; Liu, Mingming; Luo, Cheng; Hoti, Fabian; Roosipuu, Retlav; Annilo, Tarmo; Laine, Jukka; Frenz, Christopher M.; Zhang, Liqing; Metspalu, Andres

    2011-01-01

    NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer) comprises about 80% of all lung cancer cases worldwide. Surgery is most effective treatment for patients with early-stage disease. However, 30%–55% of these patients develop recurrence within 5 years. Therefore, markers that can be used to accurately classify early-stage NSCLC patients into different prognostic groups may be helpful in selecting patients who should receive specific therapies. A previously published dataset was used to evaluate gene expression profiles of different NSCLC subtypes. A moderated two-sample t-test was used to identify differentially expressed genes between all tumor samples and cancer-free control tissue, between SCC samples and AC/BC samples and between stage I tumor samples and all other tumor samples. Gene expression microarray measurements were validated using qRT-PCR. Bayesian regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were performed to determine metagenes associated with survival. We identified 599 genes which were down-regulated and 402 genes which were up-regulated in NSCLC compared to the normal lung tissue and 112 genes which were up-regulated and 101 genes which were down-regulated in AC/BC compared to the SCC. Further, for stage Ib patients the metagenes potentially associated with survival were identified. Genes that expressed differently between normal lung tissue and cancer showed enrichment in gene ontology terms which were associated with mitosis and proliferation. Bayesian regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that gene-expression patterns and metagene profiles can be applied to predict the probability of different survival outcomes in NSCLC patients. PMID:21695068

  16. Subpleural lung cysts in Down syndrome: prevalence and association with coexisting diagnoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biko, David M. [Pennsylvania Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schwartz, Michael; Anupindi, Sudha A. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Altes, Talissa A. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Although subpleural cysts are known to be associated with Down syndrome, their etiology and prevalence remains unknown. To determine the prevalence of subpleural cysts in children with Down syndrome and the association with prematurity, congenital heart disease (CHD), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and chronic ventilator support. A review of the CT examinations of 25 children with Down syndrome was performed to determine the presence, location, and distribution of cysts along with associated abnormalities. Charts were reviewed and coexistent diagnoses and past treatments were recorded. The prevalence of subpleural cysts was 36% with no significant association with CHD, ECMO, or chronic ventilator support. An association was found in the two children with a history of prematurity. The cysts were most commonly found in the anteromedial portion of the lung. Subpleural cysts are common in Down syndrome and should not be confused with another pathological process. An association with prematurity was found, but the low number of children in this study makes the connection uncertain. The etiology remains unclear, but it has been hypothesized that the cysts are associated with lung hypoplasia. (orig.)

  17. Subpleural lung cysts in Down syndrome: prevalence and association with coexisting diagnoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biko, David M.; Schwartz, Michael; Anupindi, Sudha A.; Altes, Talissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Although subpleural cysts are known to be associated with Down syndrome, their etiology and prevalence remains unknown. To determine the prevalence of subpleural cysts in children with Down syndrome and the association with prematurity, congenital heart disease (CHD), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and chronic ventilator support. A review of the CT examinations of 25 children with Down syndrome was performed to determine the presence, location, and distribution of cysts along with associated abnormalities. Charts were reviewed and coexistent diagnoses and past treatments were recorded. The prevalence of subpleural cysts was 36% with no significant association with CHD, ECMO, or chronic ventilator support. An association was found in the two children with a history of prematurity. The cysts were most commonly found in the anteromedial portion of the lung. Subpleural cysts are common in Down syndrome and should not be confused with another pathological process. An association with prematurity was found, but the low number of children in this study makes the connection uncertain. The etiology remains unclear, but it has been hypothesized that the cysts are associated with lung hypoplasia. (orig.)

  18. Adolescents' perceptions about smoking prevention strategies: a comparison of the programmes of the American Lung Association and the Tobacco Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBon, M; Klesges, R C

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate components of the teenage smoking prevention programmes of the American Lung Association (ALA) and the Tobacco Institute (TI). Group administration of written questionnaires in school. The components of the ALA's and TI's programmes were presented to students in seven strategy vignettes, covering the following topics: peer pressure/enhanced communication; parents as role models; health consequences of smoking; cost of smoking; smoking as an illegal act; tips for quitting smoking; and responsible decision making. 172 seventh-grade students (mean age = 12.3 years) from six parochial schools in Memphis, Tennessee, United States. Student ratings of the perceived effectiveness of the ALA and TI approaches (in helping to stop teens from smoking) within each strategy vignette, and students' choice between these two approaches as to which was the better smoking prevention technique. Although there were some moderating effects of gender and race, participants overall strongly favoured the ALA programme over that of the TI. Of the seven programme components, the ALA's approach was rated more effective on six (peer pressure, parents as role models, the health consequences of smoking, the cost of smoking, tips for quitting smoking, responsible decision making) and the TI's was rated more effective on one (not smoking because it is illegal). The ALA's programme was perceived to be much more effective than the TI's programme by those whom these programmes are ultimately intended to influence-young people. Future research in this area should pursue longitudinal designs to determine if programme endorsement is predictive of smoking status.

  19. Associates of School Absenteeism in Adolescents With Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lisa A.; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite high rates of school absenteeism in adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD), the issue remains understudied. Potential associates of school absenteeism in adolescents with SCD include demographic (age, income), psychosocial (IQ, self-efficacy, competence, internalizing symptoms, negative thinking), and health-related (hemoglobin, health-care utilization, pain, disease knowledge). Procedure Forty participants ages 12–18 completed measures of psychosocial functioning, IQ, and pain. Medical chart reviews identified other health-related variables. A subsample also completed an assessment of goals. Using school records, absenteeism was the percent of school days missed in the previous year. Correlations tested associates of absenteeism and linear regression tested a model of absenteeism. Results Participants missed an average of 12% of the school year and more than 35% missed at least 1 month of school. Health-related and psychosocial variables, but not demographic variables, correlated with absenteeism. Attendance at clinic appointments and parent-reported teen pain frequency were significant associates of absenteeism in the regression model. For those who completed goal assessment, over 40% of goals identified were academically focused. Absenteeism was positively related to current academic goals and health-related hindrance of academic goals, and negatively related to future-oriented academic goals. Conclusions School absenteeism is a significant problem for adolescents with SCD despite the presence of academic goals. Collaboration between schools, parents, patients, and providers to understand and manage the impact of SCD on school attendance is recommended. PMID:19006248

  20. Cytoplasmic Kaiso is associated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Shun-Dong; Wang, Yan; Miao, Yuan; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Yong; Jiang, Gui-Yang; Zhang, Peng-Xin; Yang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, En-Hua

    2009-01-01

    Kaiso has been identified as a new member of the POZ-zinc finger family of transcription factors that are implicated in development and cancer. Although controversy still exists, Kaiso is supposed to be involved in human cancer. However, there is limited information regarding the clinical significance of cytoplasmic/nuclear Kaiso in human lung cancer. In this study, immunohistochemical studies were performed on 20 cases of normal lung tissues and 294 cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including 50 cases of paired lymph node metastases and 88 cases with complete follow-up records. Three lung cancer cell lines showing primarily nuclear localization of Kaiso were selected to examine whether roles of Kaiso in cytoplasm and in nucleus are identical. Nuclear Kaiso was down-regulated by shRNA technology or addition a specific Kaiso antibody in these cell lines. The proliferative and invasive abilities were evaluated by MTT and Matrigel invasive assay, transcription of Kaiso's target gene matrilysin was detected by RT-PCR. Kaiso was primarily expressed in the cytoplasm of lung cancer tissues. Overall positive cytoplasmic expression rate was 63.61% (187/294). The positive cytoplasmic expression of Kaiso was higher in advanced TNM stages (III+IV) of NSCLC, compared to lower stages (I+II) (p = 0.019). A correlation between cytoplasmic Kaiso expression and lymph node metastasis was found (p = 0.003). In 50 paired cases, cytoplasmic expression of Kaiso was 78.0% (41/50) in primary sites and 90.0% (45/50) in lymph node metastases (p = 0.001). The lung cancer-related 5-year survival rate was significantly lower in patients who were cytoplasmic Kaiso-positive (22.22%), compared to those with cytoplasmic Kaiso-negative tumors (64.00%) (p = 0.005). Nuclear Kaiso staining was seen in occasional cases with only a 5.10% (15/294) positive rate and was not associated with any clinicopathological features of NSCLC. Furthermore, after the down-regulation of the nuclear

  1. Higher Mobility Scores in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis Are Associated with Better Lung Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneesha Thobani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mobility and physical activity were associated with lung function in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF. Design. This was a prospective cohort observational study in an urban, academic, specialized care center. Participants were ambulatory, nonhospitalized adults with CF. Main Outcome Measures. Mobility was assessed monthly by the Life-Space Assessment (LSA questionnaire and quarterly by pedometer. Lung function was assessed by spirometry. Results. Twenty-seven subjects participated. Subjects recorded mean pedometer steps of 20,213 ± 11,331 over three days and FEV1% predicted of 77.48% ± 22.60% over one year. The LSA score at enrollment was correlated with initial pedometer steps (r=0.42 and P=0.03, and mean LSA score over one year was correlated with mean number of steps (r=0.51 and P=0.007. LSA mobility and pedometer scores were correlated with FEV1% predicted at enrollment and throughout the study. Conclusions. Mobility and physical activity measured by LSA questionnaire and pedometer are positively associated with lung function in adults with CF. This study confirms the importance of mobility and physical activity and supports the utility of a simple office-based questionnaire as a measure of mobility in adults with CF.

  2. Higher mobility scores in patients with cystic fibrosis are associated with better lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobani, Aneesha; Alvarez, Jessica A; Blair, Shaina; Jackson, Kaila; Gottlieb, Eric R; Walker, Seth; Tangpricha, Vin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether mobility and physical activity were associated with lung function in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). This was a prospective cohort observational study in an urban, academic, specialized care center. Participants were ambulatory, nonhospitalized adults with CF. Mobility was assessed monthly by the Life-Space Assessment (LSA) questionnaire and quarterly by pedometer. Lung function was assessed by spirometry. Twenty-seven subjects participated. Subjects recorded mean pedometer steps of 20,213 ± 11,331 over three days and FEV1% predicted of 77.48% ± 22.60% over one year. The LSA score at enrollment was correlated with initial pedometer steps (r = 0.42 and P = 0.03), and mean LSA score over one year was correlated with mean number of steps (r = 0.51 and P = 0.007). LSA mobility and pedometer scores were correlated with FEV1% predicted at enrollment and throughout the study. Mobility and physical activity measured by LSA questionnaire and pedometer are positively associated with lung function in adults with CF. This study confirms the importance of mobility and physical activity and supports the utility of a simple office-based questionnaire as a measure of mobility in adults with CF.

  3. Low-flow venovenous CO₂ removal in association with lung protective ventilation strategy in patients who develop severe progressive respiratory acidosis after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberto, F; Bergantino, B; Testa, M C; D'Arena, C; Zullino, V; Congi, P; Paglialunga, S G; Diso, D; Venuta, F; Pugliese, F

    2013-09-01

    Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) might occur after lung transplantation. In some severe cases, conventional therapies like ventilatory support, administration of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), and intravenous prostacyclins are not sufficient to provide an adequate gas exchange. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of a lung protective ventilation strategy associated with a low-flow venovenous CO2 removal treatment to reduce ventilator-associated injury in patients that develop severe PGD after lung transplantation. From January 2009 to January 2011, 3 patients developed PGD within 24 hours after lung transplantation. In addition to conventional medical treatment, including hemodynamic support, iNO and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), we initiated a ventilatory protective strategy associated with low-flow venovenous CO2 removal treatment (LFVVECCO2R). Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were assessed at baseline as well as after 3, 12, 24, and 48 hours. No adverse events were registered. Despite decreased baseline elevated pulmonary positive pressures, application of a protective ventilation strategy with LFVVECCO2R reduced PaCO2 and pulmonary infiltrates as well as increased pH values and PaO2/FiO2 ratios. Every patient showed simultaneous improvement of clinical and hemodynamic conditions. They were weaned from mechanical ventilation and extubated after 24 hours after the use of the low-flow venovenous CO2 removal device. The use of LFVVECCO2R together with a protective lung ventilation strategy during the perioperative period of lung transplantation may be a valid clinical strategy for patients with PGD and severe respiratory acidosis occured despite adequate mechanical ventilation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genome-wide association study in discordant sibships identifies multiple inherited susceptibility alleles linked to lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Antonella; Falvella, Felicia S; Frullanti, Elisa; Spinola, Monica; Incarbone, Matteo; Nosotti, Mario; Santambrogio, Luigi; Conti, Barbara; Pastorino, Ugo; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Dragani, Tommaso A

    2010-03-01

    We analyzed a series of young (median age = 52 years) non-smoker lung cancer patients and their unaffected siblings as controls, using a genome-wide 620 901 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis and a case-control DNA pooling approach. We identified 82 putatively associated SNPs that were retested by individual genotyping followed by use of the sib transmission disequilibrium test, pointing to 36 SNPs associated with lung cancer risk in the discordant sibs series. Analysis of these 36 SNPs in a polygenic model characterized by additive and interchangeable effects of rare alleles revealed a highly statistically significant dosage-dependent association between risk allele carrier status and proportion of cancer cases. Replication of the same 36 SNPs in a population-based series confirmed the association with lung cancer for three SNPs, suggesting that phenocopies and genetic heterogeneity can play a major role in the complex genetics of lung cancer risk in the general population.

  5. Geographical variations in the use of cancer treatments are associated with survival of lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Coupland, Victoria H; Tataru, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer outcomes in England are inferior to comparable countries. Patient or disease characteristics, healthcare-seeking behaviour, diagnostic pathways, and oncology service provision may contribute. We aimed to quantify associations between geographic variations in treatment...... and survival of patients in England. METHODS: We retrieved detailed cancer registration data to analyse the variation in survival of 176,225 lung cancer patients, diagnosed 2010-2014. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression to investigate survival in the two-year period following...... diagnosis. RESULTS: Survival improved over the period studied. The use of active treatment varied between geographical areas, with inter-quintile ranges of 9%-17% for surgical resection, 4%-13% for radical radiotherapy, and 22%-35% for chemotherapy. At 2 years, there were 188 potentially avoidable deaths...

  6. Geographical variations in the use of cancer treatments are associated with survival of lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Coupland, Victoria H; Tataru, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer outcomes in England are inferior to comparable countries. Patient or disease characteristics, healthcare-seeking behaviour, diagnostic pathways, and oncology service provision may contribute. We aimed to quantify associations between geographic variations in treatment...... and survival of patients in England. METHODS: We retrieved detailed cancer registration data to analyse the variation in survival of 176,225 lung cancer patients, diagnosed 2010-2014. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression to investigate survival in the two-year period following...... to statistical adjustments for age, sex, socio-economic status, performance status and co-morbidity. CONCLUSION: The extent of use of different treatment modalities varies between geographical areas in England. These variations are not attributable to measurable patient and tumour characteristics, and more...

  7. Pulmonary Artery Size in Interstitial Lung Disease and Pulmonary Hypertension: Association with Interstitial Lung Disease Severity and Diagnostic Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Chin

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeIt is postulated that ILD causes PA dilatation independent of the presence of pulmonary hypertension (PH, so the use of PA size to screen for PH is not recommended. The aims of this study were to investigate the association of PA size with the presence and severity of ILD and to assess the diagnostic accuracy of PA size for detecting PH.MethodsIncident patients referred to a tertiary PH centre underwent baseline thoracic CT, MRI and right heart catheterisation (RHC. Pulmonary artery diameter was measured on CT pulmonary angiography and pulmonary arterial areas on MRI. A thoracic radiologist scored the severity of ILD on CT from 0 to 4, 0 = absent, 1 = 1–25%, 2 = 26–50%, 3 = 51–75%, and 4 = 76–100% extent of involvement. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and linear regression were employed to assess diagnostic accuracy and independent associations of PA size.Results110 had suspected PH due to ILD (age 65 years (SD 13, M:F 37:73 and 379 had suspected PH without ILD (age 64 years (SD 13, M:F 161:218. CT derived main PA diameter was accurate for detection of PH in patients both with and without ILD - AUC 0.873, p =< 0.001, and AUC 0.835, p =< 0.001, respectively, as was MRI diastolic PA area, AUC 0.897, p =< 0.001, and AUC 0.857, p =< 0.001, respectively Significant correlations were identified between mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP and PA diameter in ILD (r = 0.608, p < 0.001, and non-ILD cohort (r = 0.426, p < 0.001. PA size was independently associated with mPAP (p < 0.001 and BSA (p = 0.001, but not with forced vital capacity % predicted (p = 0.597, Transfer factor of the lungs for carbon monoxide (TLCO % predicted (p = 0.321 or the presence of ILD on CT (p = 0.905. The severity of ILD was not associated with pulmonary artery dilatation (r = 0.071, p = 0.459.ConclusionsPulmonary arterial pressure elevation leads to pulmonary arterial dilation, which is not independently influenced by the presence or severity of

  8. [An example of partnership cooperation. Cantonal League against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases/Association "Das Band"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, E

    1984-01-01

    Together with the Cantonal League against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases of Zurich, the Association "Das Band" has organized a first course for parents of children with asthma. The course is a component of the associations new "Prophylaxis Program for Children with Asthma and Their Parents". By exchanging ideas, the parents should become able to reflect their situation, characterized by excessive protectionism, aggressiveness, and guiltiness, and they also should learn to accept the disease as a part of their daily life. The first course, which meanwhile is followed by a second one, provided a first base for the solution of the many problems.

  9. The association between organic school food policy and school food environment: results from an observational study in Danish schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2014-03-01

    School food in many countries has become the object of change and innovation processes, not only in relation to policies for healthier eating but also in relation to policies for more sustainable food consumption and procurement. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible influence that organic food sourcing policies in Danish school meal systems may have on the development of healthier school food environments. The study was a cross-sectional analysis undertaken among 179 school food coordinators (SFCs) through a web-based questionnaire (WBQ) in a sample of Danish public primary schools. The 'organic' schools were compared to 'non-organic' schools. The questionnaire explored the attitudes, intentions/policies and actions in relation to organic and healthy foods served in the schools. Data indicates that 20 'organic' schools were associated with the indicators of healthier school environments, including adopting a Food and Nutrition Policy (FNP) in the school (p = .032), recommending children to eat healthily (p = .004). The study suggests that organic food policies in schools may have potential to support a healthier school food environment.

  10. Associations of IL6 polymorphisms with lung function decline and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian-Qing; Foreman, Marilyn G.; Shumansky, Karey; Zhang, Xuekui; Akhabir, Loubna; Sin, Don D; Man, S F Paul; DeMeo, Dawn L.; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Connett, John E; Anthonisen, Nicholas R; Wise, Robert A; Paré, Peter D; Sandford, Andrew J

    2010-01-01

    Background Interleukin-6 (IL6) is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokine which likely plays an important role in the pathogenesis of COPD. There is a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), −174G/C, in the promoter region of IL6. We hypothesized that IL6 SNPs influence susceptibility for impaired lung function and COPD in smokers. Methods Seven and 5 SNPs in IL6 were genotyped in two nested case-control samples derived from the Lung Health Study (LHS) based on phenotypes of rate of decline of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) over 5 years and baseline FEV1 at the beginning of the LHS. Serum IL6 concentrations were measured for all subjects. A partially overlapping panel of 9 IL6 SNPs was genotyped in 389 COPD cases from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) and 420 controls from the Normative Aging Study (NAS). Results In the LHS, three IL6 SNPs were associated with FEV1 decline (0.023 ≤ P ≤ 0.041 in additive models). Among them the IL6_−174C allele was associated with rapid decline of lung function. The association was more significant in a genotype-based analysis (P = 0.006). In the NETT-NAS study, IL6_−174G/C and four other IL6 SNPs, all of which are in linkage disequilibrium with IL6_−174G/C, were associated with susceptibility to COPD (0.01 ≤ P ≤ 0.04 in additive genetic models). Conclusion Our results suggest that the IL6_−174G/C SNP is associated with rapid decline of FEV1 and susceptibility to COPD in smokers. PMID:19359268

  11. Increased proximal acid reflux is associated with early readmission following lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, W-K; Goldberg, H J; Burakoff, R; Feldman, N; Chan, W W

    2016-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease has been associated with poor outcomes following lung transplantation. However, the association between pretransplant reflux and post-transplant readmission, an indicator of early clinical outcome, has not been previously assessed. This was a retrospective cohort study of lung transplant recipients undergoing pretransplant multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH (MII-pH) study off acid suppression at a tertiary care center since 2007. Subjects with pretransplant fundoplication were excluded. Time to readmission was defined as duration from post-transplant discharge to next hospital admission for any reason. Subgroup analysis was performed to exclude elective readmissions. Time-to-event analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards model, with appropriate censoring. Forty-three subjects (60% men, mean age: 57, median follow-up: 1.7 years) met inclusion criteria for the study. Patient demographics and pretransplant cardiopulmonary function were similar between readmission cohorts. Time to all-cause readmission was associated with increased distal acid episodes (HR: 3.15, p = 0.04) and proximal acid episodes (HR: 3.61, p = 0.008) on impedance, increased acid exposure on pH (HR: 2.22, p = 0.04), and elevated Demeester score (HR: 2.26, p = 0.03). When elective readmissions were excluded, early readmission remained significantly associated with increased proximal acid reflux episodes (HR: 2.49, p = 0.04). All findings were confirmed on Kaplan-Meier analysis. Elevated proximal acid reflux on pretransplant MII-pH testing was associated with early readmission following lung transplantation, even after excluding elective readmissions. Exposure to severe acid reflux has measurable effects on early postoperative outcomes such as readmission, and aggressive early antireflux therapy should be considered. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The multistep road to ventilator-associated lung abscess: A retrospective study of S.aureus ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier, Roman; Lobo, David; Voulgaropoulos, Julia; Martin, Mathieu; Aït-Mamar, Bouziane; Bitot, Valérie; Jost, Paul-Henri; Birnbaum, Ron; Nebbad, Biba; Cook, Fabrice; Dhonneur, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    We observed some cases of lung abscess (LA) in ICU patients suffering S.aureus ventilator-associated pneumonia (S.aureus-VAP). We aimed to assess which of the host and/or bacteria-related features are associated with LA. We conducted a retrospective study from January 2009 to July 2013 in a trauma surgical ICU within a teaching hospital. All adult patients presenting with S.aureus-VAP were included. We compared two groups of patients according to the formation or not of LA concomitantly to S.aureus-VAP. Seventy-nine S.aureus-VAP patients, predominantly males (85%) of rather young age (mean [SD]: 35yr [21-64]) with severe trauma (initial Simplified Acute Score II = 42 [32-52]) related-ICU admission, were included. Among them, 10 (14%) developed LA. Patient's characteristics significantly associated with LA development were: a younger age (p = 0.003), road traffic accidents admission (p = 0.017), head injury (p = 0.002), lower Glasgow Coma Scale (p = 0.009), blunt chest trauma (p = 0.01) pneumothorax (p = 0.01) and lung contusions (p = 0.002). No microbiological factors were significantly associated with LA formation. Abscesses were mostly bilateral, ≥5 cm of diameter and with a posterior location. Our results do not favor a specific virulence of S.aureus, but rather highlight the role of multiple insults to the lung, promoting LA formation. Despite a similar severity score, patients with LA had more serious trauma, combining severe both chest and head insults.

  13. Cross-Cancer Genome-Wide Analysis of Lung, Ovary, Breast, Prostate, and Colorectal Cancer Reveals Novel Pleiotropic Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehringer, Gordon; Kraft, Peter; Pharoah, Paul D; Eeles, Rosalind A; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Lindström, Sara; Brennan, Paul; Bickeböller, Heike; Houlston, Richard S; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Risch, Angela; Amin Al Olama, Ali; Berndt, Sonja I; Giovannucci, Edward L; Grönberg, Henrik; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Ma, Jing; Muir, Kenneth; Stampfer, Meir J; Stevens, Victoria L; Wiklund, Fredrik; Willett, Walter C; Goode, Ellen L; Permuth, Jennifer B; Risch, Harvey A; Reid, Brett M; Bezieau, Stephane; Brenner, Hermann; Chan, Andrew T; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hudson, Thomas J; Kocarnik, Jonathan K; Newcomb, Polly A; Schoen, Robert E; Slattery, Martha L; White, Emily; Adank, Muriel A; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Baglietto, Laura; Blomquist, Carl; Canzian, Federico; Czene, Kamila; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Eliassen, A Heather; Figueroa, Jonine D; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M; Johnson, Nichola; Hall, Per; Hazra, Aditi; Hein, Rebecca; Hofman, Albert; Hopper, John L; Irwanto, Astrid; Johansson, Mattias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Lichtner, Peter; Liu, Jianjun; Lund, Eiliv; Makalic, Enes; Meindl, Alfons; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Muranen, Taru A; Nevanlinna, Heli; Peeters, Petra H; Peto, Julian; Prentice, Ross L; Rahman, Nazneen; Sanchez, Maria Jose; Schmidt, Daniel F; Schmutzler, Rita K; Southey, Melissa C; Tamimi, Rulla; Travis, Ruth C; Turnbull, Clare; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Wang, Zhaoming; Whittemore, Alice S; Yang, Xiaohong R; Zheng, Wei; Buchanan, Daniel D; Casey, Graham; Conti, David V; Edlund, Christopher K; Gallinger, Steven; Haile, Robert W; Jenkins, Mark; Le Marchand, Loïc; Li, Li; Lindor, Noralene M; Schmit, Stephanie L; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Woods, Michael O; Rafnar, Thorunn; Gudmundsson, Julius; Stacey, Simon N; Stefansson, Kari; Sulem, Patrick; Chen, Y Ann; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Christiani, David C; Wei, Yongyue; Shen, Hongbing; Hu, Zhibin; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shiraishi, Kouya; Takahashi, Atsushi; Bossé, Yohan; Obeidat, Ma'en; Nickle, David; Timens, Wim; Freedman, Matthew L; Li, Qiyuan; Seminara, Daniela; Chanock, Stephen J; Gong, Jian; Peters, Ulrike; Gruber, Stephen B; Amos, Christopher I; Sellers, Thomas A; Easton, Douglas F; Hunter, David J; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Hung, Rayjean J

    2016-09-01

    Identifying genetic variants with pleiotropic associations can uncover common pathways influencing multiple cancers. We took a two-stage approach to conduct genome-wide association studies for lung, ovary, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer from the GAME-ON/GECCO Network (61,851 cases, 61,820 controls) to identify pleiotropic loci. Findings were replicated in independent association studies (55,789 cases, 330,490 controls). We identified a novel pleiotropic association at 1q22 involving breast and lung squamous cell carcinoma, with eQTL analysis showing an association with ADAM15/THBS3 gene expression in lung. We also identified a known breast cancer locus CASP8/ALS2CR12 associated with prostate cancer, a known cancer locus at CDKN2B-AS1 with different variants associated with lung adenocarcinoma and prostate cancer, and confirmed the associations of a breast BRCA2 locus with lung and serous ovarian cancer. This is the largest study to date examining pleiotropy across multiple cancer-associated loci, identifying common mechanisms of cancer development and progression. Cancer Res; 76(17); 5103-14. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. The use of abatacept in debilitating cavitating lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis, bronchocentric granulomatosis and aspergillosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neff, K

    2010-06-01

    A case of debilitating cavitating lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis and bronchocentric granulomatosis, which failed to respond to conventional medical or surgical treatment, is described. The patient was treated over 10 years with steroids, antimicrobial agents, disease-modifying antirheumatoid drugs and surgery. Lung function continued to decline and the patient presented for admission with recurrent pneumonia. Abatacept was initiated to modify the underlying immunopathology. Following 12 months of treatment with abatacept the patient has demonstrable improvement in lung function and lung anatomy, and has not presented to hospital with pneumonia. She has tolerated the treatment without complication. The use of abatacept has stabilised the lung disease in this case in the medium term and prevented readmission to hospital. These results suggest a larger role for abatacept in those with such disease in the future and may warrant further investigation.

  15. Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease secondary to electronic nicotine delivery system use confirmed with open lung biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Mark; Nandakumar, Lakshmy; Singh, Mahendra; Wyld, David; Windsor, Morgan; Fielding, David

    2017-05-01

    As a modern phenomenon, there is currently limited understanding of the possible toxic effects and broader implications of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Large volumes of aerosolized particles are inhaled during "vaping" and there are now an increasing number of case reports demonstrating toxic effects of ENDS, as well as human studies demonstrating impaired lung function in users. This article presents a case of respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD) precipitated by vaping in a 33-year-old male with 10 pack years of traditional cigarette and prior treatment for mixed germ cell tumour. The patient had started vaping 10-15 times per day while continuing to smoke 10 traditional cigarettes per day. After 3 months of exposure to e-cigarette vapour, chest computed tomography demonstrated multiple new poorly defined pulmonary nodules with fluffy parenchyma opacification centred along the terminal bronchovascular units. Video-assisted thoracoscopy with lung biopsy of the right upper and right middle lobes was undertaken. The microscopic findings were overall consistent with RB-ILD. This case demonstrates toxicity with use of ENDS on open lung biopsy with resolution of radiographic findings on cessation. We believe that this is the first case where open lung biopsy has demonstrated this and our findings are consistent with RB-ILD.

  16. Contribution of alpha- and beta-defensins to lung function decline and infection in smokers: an association study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonisen Nicholas R

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alpha-defensins, which are major constituents of neutrophil azurophilic granules, and beta-defensins, which are expressed in airway epithelial cells, could contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by amplifying cigarette smoke-induced and infection-induced inflammatory reactions leading to lung injury. In Japanese and Chinese populations, two different beta-defensin-1 polymorphisms have been associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease phenotypes. We conducted population-based association studies to test whether alpha-defensin and beta-defensin polymorphisms influenced smokers' susceptibility to lung function decline and susceptibility to lower respiratory infection in two groups of white participants in the Lung Health Study (275 = fast decline in lung function and 304 = no decline in lung function. Methods Subjects were genotyped for the alpha-defensin-1/alpha-defensin-3 copy number polymorphism and four beta-defensin-1 polymorphisms (G-20A, C-44G, G-52A and Val38Ile. Results There were no associations between individual polymorphisms or imputed haplotypes and rate of decline in lung function or susceptibility to infection. Conclusion These findings suggest that, in a white population, the defensin polymorphisms tested may not be of importance in determining who develops abnormally rapid lung function decline or is susceptible to developing lower respiratory infections.

  17. High school students' experiences of bullying and victimization and the association with school health center use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Soleimanpour, Samira; Sakashita, Kimi; Brindis, Claire D

    2015-05-01

    Bullying and victimization are ongoing concerns in schools. School health centers (SHCs) are well situated to support affected students because they provide crisis intervention, mental health care, and broader interventions to improve school climate. This study examined the association between urban adolescents' experiences of school-based bullying and victimization and their use of SHCs. Data was analyzed from 2063 high school students in 5 Northern California school districts using the 2009-2010 California Healthy Kids Survey. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were used to measure associations. Students who were bullied or victimized at school had significantly higher odds of using the SHCs compared with students who were not, and were also significantly more likely to report confidentiality concerns. The magnitude of associations was largest for Asian/Pacific Islander students, though this was likely due to greater statistical power. African American students reported victimization experiences at approximately the same rate as their peers, but were significantly less likely to indicate they experienced bullying. Findings suggest that SHCs may be an important place to address bullying and victimization at school, but confidentiality concerns are barriers that may be more common among bullied and victimized youth. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  18. Associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level with incidence of lung cancer and histologic types in Norwegian adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yi-Qian; Langhammer, Arnulf; Wu, Chunsen

    2018-01-01

    . We performed a population-based prospective case-cohort study including 696 incident lung cancer cases and 5804 individuals in a subcohort who participated in the second survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study in Norway. Cox proportional hazards regression models counting for the case-cohort design......Previous prospective studies have shown inconsistent associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and lung cancer incidence. The aim of the present study was to explore the associations of serum 25(OH)D levels with incidence of lung cancer overall and different histologic types...... were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CIs) for lung cancer overall or histologic types in relation to serum 25(OH)D levels. Compared with the fourth season-specific quartile of 25(OH)D (median 68.0 nmol/L), lower 25(OH)D levels were not associated with the incidence...

  19. Smoking-related emphysema is associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and rheumatoid lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Katerina M; Walsh, Simon L; Hansell, David M; Rubens, Michael R; Marten, Katharina; Tennant, Rachel; Hansel, Trevor; Desai, Sujal R; Siafakas, Nikolaos M; du Bois, Roland M; Wells, Athol U

    2013-11-01

    A combined pulmonary fibrosis/emphysema syndrome has been proposed, but the basis for this syndrome is currently uncertain. The aim was to evaluate the prevalence of emphysema in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and rheumatoid lung (rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD)), and to compare the morphological features of lung fibrosis between smokers and non-smokers. Using high-resolution computed tomography, the prevalence of emphysema and the pack-year smoking histories associated with emphysema were compared between current/ex-smokers with IPF (n = 186) or RA-ILD (n = 46), and non-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) controls (n = 103) and COPD controls (n = 34). The coarseness of fibrosis was compared between smokers and non-smokers. Emphysema, present in 66/186 (35%) patients with IPF and 22/46 (48%) smokers with RA-ILD, was associated with lower pack-year smoking histories than in control groups (P emphysema in IPF was positively linked to the pack-year smoking history (odds ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.06, P emphysema but did not differ significantly between smokers and non-smokers. In IPF and RA-ILD, a high prevalence of concurrent emphysema, in association with low pack-year smoking histories, and an association between coarser pulmonary fibrosis and a history of smoking in IPF together provide support for possible pathogenetic linkage to smoking in both diseases. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  20. Mycoplasma pneumonia-associated Acute Hepatitis in an Adult Patient without Lung Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Wu Lee

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumonia is a major cause of respiratory infections in school-aged children. Most M. pneumonia infections in adults involve the respiratory tract. Extrapulmonary manifestations of M. pneumonia infection may be found in the skin, cardiovascular, neurologic and hematologic systems. Concomitant liver disease is rare in adults. Here, we report an unusual case of a patient who presented with fever and abdominal pain, but without pulmonary manifestations. The laboratory work-up demonstrated a hepatocellular pattern of acute hepatitis caused by M. pneumonia infection. Symptoms subsided and laboratory parameters improved with antibiotics treatment. Thus, this case can help raise clinicians' awareness of the possibility of M. pneumonia infection, with or without lung involvement, as a part of the evaluation of undetermined hepatitis.

  1. Respiratory failure following anti-lung serum: study on mechanisms associated with surfactant system damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachmann, B.; Hallman, M.; Bergmann, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Within 2 minutes intravenous anti-lung serum (ALS) into guinea pig induces a respiratory failure that is fatal within 30 min. The relationship between surfactant, alveolar-capillary permeability and respiratory failure was studied. Within two minutes ALS induced a leak in the alveolar-capillary barrier. Within 30 minutes 28.3% (controls, given normal rabbit serum: 0.7%) of iv 131 I-albumin, and 0.5% (controls 0.02%) of iv surfactant phospholipid tracer were recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage. Furthermore, 57% (controls 32%) of the endotracheally administered surfactant phospholipid became associated with lung tissue and only less than 0.5% left the lung. The distribution of proteins and phospholipids between the in vivo small volume bronchoalveolar lavages and the ex vivo bronchoalveolar lavages were dissimilar: 84% (controls 20%) of intravenously injected, lavageable 131 I-albumin and 23% (controls 18%) of total lavageable phospholipid were recovered in the in vivo small volume bronchoalveolar lavages. ALS also decreased lavageable surfactant phospholipid by 41%. After ALS the minimum surface tension increased. The supernatant of the lavage increased the minimum surface tension of normal surfactant. In addition, the sediment fraction of the lavage had slow surface adsorption, and a marked reduction in 35,000 and 10,000 MW peptides. Exogenous surfactant ameliorated the ALS-induced respiratory failure. We propose that inhibition, altered intrapulmonary distribution, and dissociation of protein and phospholipid components of surfactant are important in early pathogenesis of acute respiratory failure

  2. Paraneoplastic Seronegative Pauci-Immune Glomerulonephritis Associated with Lung Adenocarcinoma Responds to Rituximab: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragnan Kancharla

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA play an important role in the pathogenesis of pauci-immune renal vasculitis. However, in 10% of the cases, ANCA are absent. We present a case of a 64-year-old man with a chronic untreated hepatitis C virus infection and Middle Eastern thalassemia who was ANCA-negative when he was hospitalized due to acute kidney injury and accounts for an uncommon presentation of renal vasculitis. The patient had earlier reported to have undergone local lobectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy (carboplatin/pemetrexed for lung adenocarcinoma a month prior. IL-6 has been reported to be involved in the pathophysiological cascade causing pauci-immune glomerulonephritis amongst non-small cell lung cancer patients. Previous studies with subgroup analysis have demonstrated that ANCA negativity has been associated with more chronic glomerular lesions and less crescent formation, which tends to have a critical outcome in the renal system. However, our patient underwent kidney biopsy exhibiting active crescentic glomerulonephritis, pauci-immune type with 5 cellular crescents amongst 15 glomeruli. To our knowledge, this is the third reported case of ANCA-negative vasculitis with typical presentation on biopsy in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

  3. Large-scale association analysis identifies new lung cancer susceptibility loci and heterogeneity in genetic susceptibility across histological subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, James D.; Hung, Rayjean J.; Han, Younghun; Zong, Xuchen; Carreras-Torres, Robert; Christiani, David C.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Johansson, Mattias; Xiao, Xiangjun; Li, Yafang; Byun, Jinyoung; Dunning, Alison; Pooley, Karen A.; Qian, David C.; Ji, Xuemei; Liu, Geoffrey; Timofeeva, Maria N.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Wu, Xifeng; Le Marchand, Loic; Albanes, Demetrios; Bickeböller, Heike; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Bush, William S.; Tardon, Adonina; Rennert, Gad; Teare, M. Dawn; Field, John K.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Lazarus, Philip; Haugen, Aage; Lam, Stephen; Schabath, Matthew B.; Andrew, Angeline S.; Shen, Hongbing; Hong, Yun-Chul; Yuan, Jian-Min; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Pesatori, Angela C.; Ye, Yuanqing; Diao, Nancy; Su, Li; Zhang, Ruyang; Brhane, Yonathan; Leighl, Natasha; Johansen, Jakob S.; Mellemgaard, Anders; Saliba, Walid; Haiman, Christopher A.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Fernandez-Tardon, Guillermo; van der Heijden, Henricus F.M.; Kim, Jin Hee; Dai, Juncheng; Hu, Zhibin; Davies, Michael PA; Marcus, Michael W.; Brunnström, Hans; Manjer, Jonas; Melander, Olle; Muller, David C.; Overvad, Kim; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Tumino, Rosario; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Barnett, Matt P.; Chen, Chu; Goodman, Gary E.; Cox, Angela; Taylor, Fiona; Woll, Penella; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Manz, Judith; Muley, Thomas R.; Risch, Angela; Rosenberger, Albert; Grankvist, Kjell; Johansson, Mikael; Shepherd, Frances A.; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Arnold, Susanne M.; Haura, Eric B.; Bolca, Ciprian; Holcatova, Ivana; Janout, Vladimir; Kontic, Milica; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mukeria, Anush; Ognjanovic, Simona; Orlowski, Tadeusz M.; Scelo, Ghislaine; Swiatkowska, Beata; Zaridze, David; Bakke, Per; Skaug, Vidar; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Duell, Eric J.; Butler, Lesley M.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Gao, Yu-Tang; Houlston, Richard S.; McLaughlin, John; Stevens, Victoria L.; Joubert, Philippe; Lamontagne, Maxime; Nickle, David C.; Obeidat, Ma’en; Timens, Wim; Zhu, Bin; Song, Lei; Kachuri, Linda; Artigas, María Soler; Tobin, Martin D.; Wain, Louise V.; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E.; Reginsson, Gunnar W.; Stefansson, Kari; Hancock, Dana B.; Bierut, Laura J.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Gaddis, Nathan C.; Lutz, Sharon M.; Gu, Fangyi; Johnson, Eric O.; Kamal, Ahsan; Pikielny, Claudio; Zhu, Dakai; Lindströem, Sara; Jiang, Xia; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Bossé, Yohan; Chanock, Stephen; Brennan, Paul; Landi, Maria Teresa; Amos, Christopher I.

    2017-01-01

    Summary While several lung cancer susceptibility loci have been identified, much of lung cancer heritability remains unexplained. Here, 14,803 cases and 12,262 controls of European descent were genotyped on the OncoArray and combined with existing data for an aggregated GWAS analysis of lung cancer on 29,266 patients and 56,450 controls. We identified 18 susceptibility loci achieving genome wide significance, including 10 novel loci. The novel loci highlighted the striking heterogeneity in genetic susceptibility across lung cancer histological subtypes, with four loci associated with lung cancer overall and six with lung adenocarcinoma. Gene expression quantitative trait analysis (eQTL) in 1,425 normal lung tissues highlighted RNASET2, SECISBP2L and NRG1 as candidate genes. Other loci include genes such as a cholinergic nicotinic receptor, CHRNA2, and the telomere-related genes, OFBC1 and RTEL1. Further exploration of the target genes will continue to provide new insights into the etiology of lung cancer. PMID:28604730

  4. Lung cancer-derived Dickkopf1 is associated with bone metastasis and the mechanism involves the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Tianqing; Teng, Jiajun; Jiang, Liyan; Zhong, Hua; Han, Baohui, E-mail: baohuihan1@163.com

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •DKK1 level was associated with NSCLC bone metastases. •Lung tumor cells derived DKK1 inhibited osteoblast differentiation. •Lung tumor cells derived DKK1 modulates β-catenin and RUNX2. -- Abstract: Wnt/β-catenin signaling and Dickkopf1 (DKK1) play important roles in the progression of lung cancer, which preferably metastasizes to skeleton. But the role of them in bone dissemination is poorly understood. This study aims to define the role of DKK1 in lung cancer bone metastases and investigate the underlying mechanism. Our results demonstrated that DKK1 over-expression was a frequent event in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) blood samples, and serous DKK1 level was much higher in bone metastatic NSCLC compared to non-bone metastatic NSCLC. We also found that conditioned medium from DKK1 over-expressing lung cancer cells inhibited the differentiation of osteoblast, determined by alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin secretion, whereas the conditioned medium from DKK1 silencing lung cancer cells exhibited the opposite effects. Mechanistically, DKK1 reduced the level of β-catenin and RUNX2, as well as inhibiting the nuclear translocation of β-catenin. Taken together, these results suggested that lung cancer-produced DKK1 may be an important mechanistic link between NSCLC and bone metastases, and targeting DKK1 may be an effective method to treat bone metastase of NSCLC.

  5. Lung cancer-derived Dickkopf1 is associated with bone metastasis and the mechanism involves the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Tianqing; Teng, Jiajun; Jiang, Liyan; Zhong, Hua; Han, Baohui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •DKK1 level was associated with NSCLC bone metastases. •Lung tumor cells derived DKK1 inhibited osteoblast differentiation. •Lung tumor cells derived DKK1 modulates β-catenin and RUNX2. -- Abstract: Wnt/β-catenin signaling and Dickkopf1 (DKK1) play important roles in the progression of lung cancer, which preferably metastasizes to skeleton. But the role of them in bone dissemination is poorly understood. This study aims to define the role of DKK1 in lung cancer bone metastases and investigate the underlying mechanism. Our results demonstrated that DKK1 over-expression was a frequent event in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) blood samples, and serous DKK1 level was much higher in bone metastatic NSCLC compared to non-bone metastatic NSCLC. We also found that conditioned medium from DKK1 over-expressing lung cancer cells inhibited the differentiation of osteoblast, determined by alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin secretion, whereas the conditioned medium from DKK1 silencing lung cancer cells exhibited the opposite effects. Mechanistically, DKK1 reduced the level of β-catenin and RUNX2, as well as inhibiting the nuclear translocation of β-catenin. Taken together, these results suggested that lung cancer-produced DKK1 may be an important mechanistic link between NSCLC and bone metastases, and targeting DKK1 may be an effective method to treat bone metastase of NSCLC

  6. Factors Associated with Absenteeism in High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    DEMIR, Kamile; AKMAN KARABEYOGLU, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: There are many factors that affect student achievement directly and indirectly at the secondary educational level. Lower attendance rates have been cited as detrimental to academic achievement; therefore, it is suggested that improved attendance is a direct indicator, rather than determinant of students’ academic achievement.Purpose of Study: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of individual, family and school variables on absenteeism among high sch...

  7. Cross-cancer genome-wide analysis of lung, ovary, breast, prostate and colorectal cancer reveals novel pleiotropic associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehringer, Gordon; Kraft, Peter; Pharoah, Paul D.; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Schumacher, Fred; Schildkraut, Joellen; Lindström, Sara; Brennan, Paul; Bickeböller, Heike; Houlston, Richard S.; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Risch, Angela; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Berndt, Sonja I; Giovannucci, Edward; Grönberg, Henrik; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Ma, Jing; Muir, Kenneth; Stampfer, Meir; Stevens, Victoria L.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Willett, Walter; Goode, Ellen L.; Permuth, Jennifer; Risch, Harvey A.; Reid, Brett M.; Bezieau, Stephane; Brenner, Hermann; Chan, Andrew T.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hudson, Thomas J.; Kocarnik, Jonathan K.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Schoen, Robert E.; Slattery, Martha L.; White, Emily; Adank, Muriel A.; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Baglietto, Laura; Blomquist, Carl; Canzian, Federico; Czene, Kamila; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Eliassen, A. Heather; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M.; Johnson, Nichola; Hall, Per; Hazra, Aditi; Hein, Rebecca; Hofman, Albert; Hopper, John L.; Irwanto, Astrid; Johansson, Mattias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Lichtner, Peter; Liu, Jianjun; Lund, Eiliv; Makalic, Enes; Meindl, Alfons; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Muranen, Taru A.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Peeters, Petra H.; Peto, Julian; Prentice, Ross L.; Rahman, Nazneen; Sanchez, Maria Jose; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Southey, Melissa C.; Tamimi, Rulla; Travis, Ruth C.; Turnbull, Clare; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Wang, Zhaoming; Whittemore, Alice S.; Yang, Xiaohong R.; Zheng, Wei; Rafnar, Thorunn; Gudmundsson, Julius; Stacey, Simon N.; Stefansson, Kari; Sulem, Patrick; Chen, Y. Ann; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Christiani, David C.; Wei, Yongyue; Shen, Hongbing; Hu, Zhibin; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shiraishi, Kouya; Takahashi, Atsushi; Bossé, Yohan; Obeidat, Ma’en; Nickle, David; Timens, Wim; Freedman, Matthew L.; Li, Qiyuan; Seminara, Daniela; Chanock, Stephen J.; Gong, Jian; Peters, Ulrike; Gruber, Stephen B.; Amos, Christopher I.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Hunter, David J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hung, Rayjean J.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying genetic variants with pleiotropic associations can uncover common pathways influencing multiple cancers. We took a two-staged approach to conduct genome-wide association studies for lung, ovary, breast, prostate and colorectal cancer from the GAME-ON/GECCO Network (61,851 cases, 61,820 controls) to identify pleiotropic loci. Findings were replicated in independent association studies (55,789 cases, 330,490 controls). We identified a novel pleiotropic association at 1q22 involving breast and lung squamous cell carcinoma, with eQTL analysis showing an association with ADAM15/THBS3 gene expression in lung. We also identified a known breast cancer locus CASP8/ALS2CR12 associated with prostate cancer, a known cancer locus at CDKN2B-AS1 with different variants associated with lung adenocarcinoma and prostate cancer and confirmed the associations of a breast BRCA2 locus with lung and serous ovarian cancer. This is the largest study to date examining pleiotropy across multiple cancer-associated loci, identifying common mechanisms of cancer development and progression. PMID:27197191

  8. Acute changes in lung function associated with proximity to a steel plant: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dales, Robert; Kauri, Lisa Marie; Cakmak, Sabit; Mahmud, Mamun; Weichenthal, Scott A; Van Ryswyk, Keith; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Thomson, Errol; Vincent, Renaud; Broad, Gayle; Liu, Ling

    2013-05-01

    Steel production is a major industry worldwide yet there is relatively little information on the pulmonary effects of air quality near steel manufacturing plants. The aim of this study was to examine how lung function changes acutely when healthy subjects are situated near a steel plant which is adjacent to a residential area. Sixty-one subjects were randomly assigned to spend 5 consecutive, 8-hour days in a residential neighborhood approximately 0.9km from a steel plant, or approximately 4.5km away at a college campus. Subjects crossed-over between sites after a nine-day washout period. Lung function was measured daily at both sites along with air pollutants including SO2, NO2, O3, PM2.5, and ultrafine particles. Diffusion capacity and pulse oximetry were also examined. Compared with the college site, the forced expiratory volume in 1-second/forced vital capacity, forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of the FVC, total lung capacity, functional residual capacity, and residual volume were lower near the steel plant by 0.67% (95% CI: 0.28, 1.06),1.62% (95% CI: 0.50, 2.75), 1.54% (95% CI: 0.68, 2.39), 3.54% (95% CI: 1.95, 5.13) and 11.3% (95% CI: 4.92, 17.75), respectively. Diffusion capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1s, and pulse oximetry were also lower near the plant but these effects were not statistically significant. Sulfur dioxide, ultrafine particulates, and oxides of nitrogen were greater near the steel plant site compared to the college site. Spending short periods of time near a steel plant is associated with a decrease in lung function. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between protein C levels and mortality in patients with advanced prostate, lung and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilts, I T; Hutten, B A; Meijers, J C M; Spek, C A; Büller, H R; Kamphuisen, P W

    2017-06-01

    Procoagulant factors promote cancer progression and metastasis. Protein C is involved in hemostasis, inflammation and signal transduction, and has a protective effect on the endothelial barrier. In mice, administration of activated protein C reduced experimental metastasis. We assessed the association between protein C and mortality in patients with three types of cancer. The study population consisted of patients with advanced prostate, non-small cell lung or pancreatic cancer, who participated in the INPACT trial (NCT00312013). The trial evaluated the addition of nadroparin to chemotherapy in patients with advanced malignancy. Patients were divided into tertiles based on protein C at baseline. The association between protein C levels and mortality was evaluated with Cox proportional hazard models. We analysed 477 patients (protein C tertiles: C level was 107% (IQR 92-129). In the lowest tertile, 75 patients per 100 patient-years died, as compared to 60 and 54 in the middle and high tertile, respectively. Lower levels of protein C were associated with increased mortality (in tertiles: HR for trend 1.18, 95%CI 1.02-1.36, adjusted for age, sex and nadroparin use; as a continuous variable: HR 1.004, 95%CI 1.00-1.008, p=0.07). Protein C seems inversely associated with mortality in patients with advanced prostate, lung and pancreatic cancer. Further research should validate protein C as a biomarker for mortality, and explore the effects of protein C on progression of cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The association between substantiated childhood maltreatment, asthma and lung function: A prospective investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Kisely, Steve; Williams, Gail; Strathearn, Lane; Suresh, Sadasivam; Najman, Jake Moses

    2017-10-01

    Asthma reflects multiple and likely complex causal pathways. We investigate the possibility that childhood maltreatment is one such causal pathway. Childhood maltreatment can be interpreted as a form of early life adversity and like other life adversities may predict a range of negative health outcomes, including asthma. A total of 3762 young adults (52.63% female) from the Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) participated in this study. MUSP is a prospective Australian birth cohort study of mothers consecutively recruited during their first antenatal clinic visit at Brisbane's Mater Hospital from 1981 to 1983. The study followed both mother-child dyads to the age of 21years after birth. Participants reported whether they had been diagnosed by a physician with asthma by the 21-year follow-up. Trained research assistants also performed gender- and height-standardized lung function tests using a Spirobank G spirometer system attached to a laptop computer. We linked this dataset with data obtained from the child protection services and which comprised all substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment in the MUSP cohort. Substantiations of childhood maltreatment included children in an age range of 0-14years. The experience of any childhood maltreatment, particularly emotional abuse, was independently associated with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma by the 21-year follow-up. The association was no longer significant after adjustment for a range of confounders and covariates in neglected children. Childhood maltreatment, including multiple events, was not associated with lung function in adjusted models. Childhood maltreatment, including emotional abuse, was associated with lifetime ever asthma. This was in contrast to the absence of an association with objective measures of lung function. More research is indicated on the effect of childhood maltreatment on lung function using objective measures. In the meantime, there should be a

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis on the results of screening of lung cancer using helical CT conducted by the anti-lung cancer association (ALCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iinuma, Takeshi; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Misawa, Jun

    1999-01-01

    To compare Yen/person saved in lung cancer screening using helical CT with Yen/person in the screening using conventional direct chest X-rays conducted under the Anti-lung cancer association program of the Tokyo Health Service Association. A mathematical model for cancer screening was used to estimate net number of person relieved from lung cancer by the screening and net cost required for the screening. Finally cost-effectiveness ratios in terms of Yen/person saved were calculated and compared between the two programs. Several important variables employed in the model were as follows: 5 year survival rate in chest X-ray group was 50%, and the rate in helical CT group was 75%. Cost of screening in the chest X-ray group was 15,000 Yen, and that in the helical CT group was 25,000 Yen. Cost/person screened was 14,470 Yen for chest X-ray and 21,890 Yen for helical CT. Cost/person saved was 267 x 10 5 Yen in X-ray group and 112 x 10 5 Yen in CT group. Thus the cost was higher, but cost-effectiveness ratio was better in the CT screening group. Helical CT can be adopted for lung cancer screening in stead of chest X-ray if total cost is affordable. (author)

  12. Decision-Making Capacity for Chemotherapy and Associated Factors in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Asao; Kondo, Kyoko; Takei, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Ohe, Yuichiro; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess decision-making capacity in patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer, clinical factors associated with impaired capacity, and physicians' perceptions of patients' decision-making capacity. We recruited 122 patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer. One hundred fourteen completed the assessment. All patients were receiving a combination of treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, chemo-radiotherapy, or targeted therapy). Decision-making capacity was assessed using the MacArthur Competence Tool for Treatment. Cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, and frailty were also evaluated. Physicians' perceptions were compared with the ascertainments. Twenty-seven (24%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 16-31) patients were judged to have incapacity. Clinical teams had difficulty in judging six (22.2%) patients for incapacity. Logistic regression identified frailty (odds ratio, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.13-10.8) and cognitive impairment (odds ratio, 5.45; 95% CI, 1.26-23.6) as the factors associated with decision-making incapacity. Brain metastasis, emphysema, and depression were not associated with decision-making incapacity. A substantial proportion of patients diagnosed with lung cancer show impairments in their capacity to make a medical decision. Assessment of cognitive impairment and frailty may provide appropriate decision-making frameworks to act in the best interest of patients. Decision-making capacity is the cornerstone of clinical practice. A substantial proportion of patients with cancer show impairments in their capacity to make a medical decision. Assessment of cognitive impairment and frailty may provide appropriate decision-making frameworks to act in the best interest of patients. © AlphaMed Press 2017.

  13. Interaction between a novel TGFB1 haplotype and CFTR genotype is associated with improved lung function in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Lindsay A; Blackman, Scott M; Vanscoy, Lori L; McDougal, Kathryn E; Bowers, Amanda; Naughton, Kathleen M; Cutler, David J; Cutting, Garry R

    2008-07-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common lethal single gene disorder in Caucasians, is due to mutations in the CFTR gene. Twin and sibling analysis indicates that modifier genes, rather than allelic variation in CFTR, are responsible for most of the variability in severity of lung disease, the major cause of mortality in CF patients. We used a family-based approach to test for association between lung function and two functional SNPs (rs1800469, '-509' and rs1982073, 'codon 10') in the 5' region of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFB1), a putative CF modifier gene. Quantitative transmission disequilibrium testing of 472 CF patient-parent-parent trios revealed that both TGFB1 SNPs showed significant transmission distortion when patients were stratified by CFTR genotype. Although lung function and nutritional status are correlated in CF patients, there was no evidence of association between the TGFB1 SNPs and variation in nutritional status. Additional tagging SNPs (rs8179181, rs2278422, rs8110090, rs4803455 and rs1982072) that capture most of the diversity in TGFB1 were also typed but none showed association with variation in lung function. However, a haplotype composed of the -509 C and codon 10 T alleles along with the C allele of the 3' SNP rs8179181 was highly associated with increased lung function in patients grouped by CFTR genotype. These results demonstrate that TGFB1 is a modifier of CF lung disease and reveal a previously unrecognized beneficial effect of TGFB1 variants upon the pulmonary phenotype.

  14. Associations among school characteristics and foodservice practices in a nationally representative sample of United States schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite knowledge that the school food environment can have a significant impact on children’s nutritional health, few studies have taken a comprehensive approach to assessing this environment. The purpose of this study was to determine school characteristics that were associated with healthy and u...

  15. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Post-Bronchodilation Lung Function in the SAPALDIA Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinemann, Nina; Grize, Leticia; Pons, Marco; Rothe, Thomas; Stolz, Daiana; Turk, Alexander; Schindler, Christian; Brombach, Christine; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2018-05-04

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not restricted to smokers. Dietary habits may contribute to the disease occurrence. Epidemiological studies point to a protective effect of fruit and vegetable intake against COPD. To investigate the associations between dietary patterns and parameters of lung function related to COPD in the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA). Data were included from the second follow-up assessment of the SAPALDIA cohort in 2010-2011 using a food frequency questionnaire. Principal component factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns, whose association with FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEF2575, and COPD was investigated by applying multivariate regression analyses. After adjustment for potential confounders, the "prudent dietary pattern" characterised by the predominant food groups vegetables, fruits, water, tea and coffee, fish, and nuts was positively associated with FEV1 (increase of 40 mL per SD, p promotion. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Cruciferous vegetable intake is inversely associated with lung cancer risk among smokers: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yuesheng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inverse associations between cruciferous vegetable intake and lung cancer risk have been consistently reported. However, associations within smoking status subgroups have not been consistently addressed. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case-control study with lung cancer cases and controls matched on smoking status, and further adjusted for smoking status, duration, and intensity in the multivariate models. A total of 948 cases and 1743 controls were included in the analysis. Results Inverse linear trends were observed between intake of fruits, total vegetables, and cruciferous vegetables and risk of lung cancer (ORs ranged from 0.53-0.70, with P for trend Conclusions Our findings are consistent with the smoking-related carcinogen-modulating effect of isothiocyanates, a group of phytochemicals uniquely present in cruciferous vegetables. Our data support consumption of a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables may reduce the risk of lung cancer among smokers.

  17. Nrf2 and Keap1 Abnormalities in 104 Lung Adenocarcinoma Cases and Association with Clinicopathologic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu XIAO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective There are significantly interindividual variations of the expression level of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and/or Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1 in our previous studies. It has been proven that Nrf2 or Keap1 is related to resistance of chemotherapeutic drugs and/or epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs. However, the expression of Nrf2 and Keap1 in lung adenocarcinoma patients with different “driver gene” is not clear. The aim of this study is to investigate the protein expression level of Nrf2 and Keap1 in lung adenocarcinoma and to elucidate the correlation between Nrf2 or Keap1 expression and the status of EGFR gene mutation and to determine the effects of Nrf2 and Keap1 on the patients. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis of Nrf2 and Keap1 in tumor specimens was performed in a total of 104 lung adenocarcinoma patients with the status of EGFR gene mutations or EGFR wide-type. Results The Nrf2 positive rate was 71.2% and Keap1 high expression rate was 34.6% in 104 patients. The Nrf2 positive rate significantly correlated with gender, stage and status of EGFR gene mutation (P0.05. The high expression of Keap1 was not significantly correlated with gender, age, smoking, differentiation, subtype of lung adenocarcinoma and status of EGFR gene mutation (P>0.05. The progression -free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS of the patients treated by EGFR-TKIs were significantly correlated with the expression level of Nrf2, but not with Keap1. The PFS and OS of the patients with Nrf2 high expression were significantly shorter than the patients with low/negative expression (P<0.05. Furthermore, Nrf2 high expression was the independent predictive factor for EGFR-TKIs induced PFS and OS (P<0.05. Conclusion The Nrf2 positive rate significantly correlated with the status of EGFR gene mutation in lung adenocarcinoma. The Nrf2 high expression significantly

  18. Spontaneous breathing during lung-protective ventilation in an experimental acute lung injury model: high transpulmonary pressure associated with strong spontaneous breathing effort may worsen lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takeshi; Uchiyama, Akinori; Matsuura, Nariaki; Mashimo, Takashi; Fujino, Yuji

    2012-05-01

    We investigated whether potentially injurious transpulmonary pressure could be generated by strong spontaneous breathing and exacerbate lung injury even when plateau pressure is limited to ventilation, each combined with weak or strong spontaneous breathing effort. Inspiratory pressure for low tidal volume ventilation was set at 10 cm H2O and tidal volume at 6 mL/kg. For moderate tidal volume ventilation, the values were 20 cm H2O and 7-9 mL/kg. The groups were: low tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingweak, low tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong, moderate tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingweak, and moderate tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong. Each group had the same settings for positive end-expiratory pressure of 8 cm H2O. Respiratory variables were measured every 60 mins. Distribution of lung aeration and alveolar collapse were histologically evaluated. Low tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong showed the most favorable oxygenation and compliance of respiratory system, and the best lung aeration. By contrast, in moderate tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong, the greatest atelectasis with numerous neutrophils was observed. While we applied settings to maintain plateau pressure at ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong, transpulmonary pressure rose >33 cm H2O. Both minute ventilation and respiratory rate were higher in the strong spontaneous breathing groups. Even when plateau pressure is limited to mechanical ventilation, transpulmonary pressure and tidal volume should be strictly controlled to prevent further lung injury.

  19. Emory University: High-Throughput Protein-Protein Interaction Dataset for Lung Cancer-Associated Genes | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    To discover novel PPI signaling hubs for lung cancer, CTD2 Center at Emory utilized large-scale genomics datasets and literature to compile a set of lung cancer-associated genes. A library of expression vectors were generated for these genes and utilized for detecting pairwise PPIs with cell lysate-based TR-FRET assays in high-throughput screening format. Read the abstract.

  20. Improved pulmonary function following pirfenidone treatment in a patient with progressive interstitial lung disease associated with systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarir F Udwadia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pirfenidone is an anti-fibrotic drug which has been approved for the management of patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF. However, its role in interstitial lung disease (ILD due to other causes such as systemic sclerosis (SSc is not clear. We present a case of a patient with SSc associated ILD who showed a subjective as well as objective improvement in lung function with pirfenidone.

  1. Low pretransplant IgA level is associated with early post-lung transplant seromucous infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Sudish C; Avery, Robin K; Budev, Marie; Gupta, Sandeep; Pettersson, Gösta B; Nowicki, Edward R; Mehta, Atul; Chapman, Jeffrey T; Rajeswaran, Jeevanantham; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2018-04-13

    Infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Immunoglobulins are part of both seromucous (IgA) and serum (IgG) infection defense mechanisms. We therefore hypothesized that lower pretransplant IgA levels would be associated with more early post-lung transplant seromucous infections and greater mortality independent of IgG. From January 2000 to July 2010, 538 patients undergoing primary lung transplantation had pretransplant IgA (n = 429) and IgG (n = 488) measured as a clinical routine. Median IgA was 200 mg·dL -1 (2% < 70 mg·dL -1 , lower limit of normal); median IgG was 970 mg·dL -1 (5% < 600 mg·dL -1 ). Intensive microbiology review was used to categorize infections and their causative organisms within the first posttransplant year. In total, 397 seromucous infections were observed in 247 patients, most bacterial. Although IgA and IgG were moderately correlated (r = 0.5, P < .0001), low pretransplant IgA was a strong risk factor (P = .01) for seromucous infections, but pretransplant IgG was not (P ≥ .6). As pretransplant IgA levels fell below 200 mg·dL -1 , the risk of these posttransplant infections rose nearly linearly. Lower pretransplant levels of IgA were associated with greater posttransplant mortality to end of follow-up (P = .004), but pretransplant IgG was not (P ≥ .3). Low levels of preoperative IgA, an important immunoglobulin involved in mucosal immunologic defense, but not IgG, are associated with seromucous infections in the year after lung transplantation and increased follow-up mortality. It would appear prudent to identify patients with relative IgA deficiency at listing and to increase vigilance of monitoring for, and prophylaxis against, seromucous infection in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Macrophage phenotype is associated with disease severity in preterm infants with chronic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Lynne R; Maxwell, Nicola C; Gill, Sharonjit K; Dockrell, David H; Sabroe, Ian; McGreal, Eamon P; Kotecha, Sailesh; Whyte, Moira K

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of persistent lung inflammation in preterm infants with chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD) is poorly characterized, hampering efforts to stratify prognosis and treatment. Airway macrophages are important innate immune cells with roles in both the induction and resolution of tissue inflammation. To investigate airway innate immune cellular phenotypes in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or CLD. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was obtained from term and preterm infants requiring mechanical ventilation. BAL cells were phenotyped by flow cytometry. Preterm birth was associated with an increase in the proportion of non-classical CD14(+)/CD16(+) monocytes on the day of delivery (58.9 ± 5.8% of total mononuclear cells in preterm vs 33.0 ± 6.1% in term infants, p = 0.02). Infants with RDS were born with significantly more CD36(+) macrophages compared with the CLD group (70.3 ± 5.3% in RDS vs 37.6 ± 8.9% in control, p = 0.02). At day 3, infants born at a low gestational age are more likely to have greater numbers of CD14(+) mononuclear phagocytes in the airway (p = 0.03), but fewer of these cells are functionally polarized as assessed by HLA-DR (p = 0.05) or CD36 (p = 0.05) positivity, suggesting increased recruitment of monocytes or a failure to mature these cells in the lung. These findings suggest that macrophage polarization may be affected by gestational maturity, that more immature macrophage phenotypes may be associated with the progression of RDS to CLD and that phenotyping mononuclear cells in BAL could predict disease outcome.

  3. Macrophage phenotype is associated with disease severity in preterm infants with chronic lung disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne R Prince

    Full Text Available The etiology of persistent lung inflammation in preterm infants with chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD is poorly characterized, hampering efforts to stratify prognosis and treatment. Airway macrophages are important innate immune cells with roles in both the induction and resolution of tissue inflammation.To investigate airway innate immune cellular phenotypes in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS or CLD.Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid was obtained from term and preterm infants requiring mechanical ventilation. BAL cells were phenotyped by flow cytometry.Preterm birth was associated with an increase in the proportion of non-classical CD14(+/CD16(+ monocytes on the day of delivery (58.9 ± 5.8% of total mononuclear cells in preterm vs 33.0 ± 6.1% in term infants, p = 0.02. Infants with RDS were born with significantly more CD36(+ macrophages compared with the CLD group (70.3 ± 5.3% in RDS vs 37.6 ± 8.9% in control, p = 0.02. At day 3, infants born at a low gestational age are more likely to have greater numbers of CD14(+ mononuclear phagocytes in the airway (p = 0.03, but fewer of these cells are functionally polarized as assessed by HLA-DR (p = 0.05 or CD36 (p = 0.05 positivity, suggesting increased recruitment of monocytes or a failure to mature these cells in the lung.These findings suggest that macrophage polarization may be affected by gestational maturity, that more immature macrophage phenotypes may be associated with the progression of RDS to CLD and that phenotyping mononuclear cells in BAL could predict disease outcome.

  4. The association between higher body mass index and poor school performance in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonetti, L; Fabbri, M; Filardi, M; Martoni, M; Natale, V

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and school performance in high school students by controlling for relevant mediators such as sleep quality, sleep duration and socioeconomic status. Thirty-seven high school students (mean age: 18.16 ± 0.44 years) attending the same school type, i.e. 'liceo scientifico' (science-based high school), were enrolled. Students' self-reported weight and height were used to calculate BMI. Participants wore an actigraph to objectively assess the quality and duration of sleep. School performance was assessed through the actual grade obtained at the final school-leaving exam, in which higher grades indicate higher performance. BMI, get-up time, mean motor activity, wake after sleep onset and number of awakenings were negatively correlated with the grade, while sleep efficiency was positively correlated. When performing a multiple regression analysis, BMI proved the only significant (negative) predictor of grade. When controlling for sleep quality, sleep duration and socioeconomic status, a higher BMI is associated with a poorer school performance in high school students. © 2015 World Obesity Federation.

  5. Evidence for chronic inflammation as a component of the interstitial lung disease associated with progressive systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, G.A.; Bitterman, P.B.; Rennard, S.I.; Ferrans, V.J.; Crystal, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) is a generalized disorder characterized by fibrosis of many organs including the lung parenchyma. Unlike most other interstitial disorders, traditional concepts of the interstitial lung disease associated with PSS have held it to be a ''pure'' fibrotic disorder without a significant inflammatory component. To directly evaluate whether an active alveolitis is associated with this disorder, patients with chronic interstitial lung disease and PSS were studied by open lung biopsy, gallium-67 scanning, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Histologic evaluation of the biopsies demonstrated that the interstitial fibrosis of PSS is clearly associated with the presence of macrophages, lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, both in the interstitium and on the alveolar epithelial surface. Gallium-67 scans were positive in 77% of the patients, showing diffuse, primarily lower zone uptake, suggestive of active inflammation. Consistent with the histologic findings, bronchoalveolar lavage studies demonstrated a mild increase in the proportions of neutrophils and eosinophils with occasional increased numbers of lymphocytes. Importantly, alveolar macrophages from patients with PSS showed increased release of fibronectin and alveolar-macrophage-derived growth factor, mediators that together stimulate lung fibroblasts to proliferate, thus suggesting at least one mechanism modulating the lung fibrosis of these patients

  6. Dietary nutrients associated with preservation of lung function in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white smokers from New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leng S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Shuguang Leng,1,2 Maria A Picchi,1 Yohannes Tesfaigzi,3 Guodong Wu,1 W James Gauderman,4 Fadi Xu,5 Frank D Gilliland,4 Steven A Belinsky1,2,6 1The Lung Cancer Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2Cancer Control Research Program, University of New Mexico Comprehensive Cancer Center, 3COPD Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM, 4Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 5Pathophysiology Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 6Cancer Genetics and Epigenetics Program, University of New Mexico Comprehensive Cancer Center, Albuquerque, NM, USA Background: COPD is the third leading cause of death in the United States. Cigarette smoking accelerates the age-related forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 decline, an important determinant for the genesis of COPD. Hispanic smokers have lower COPD prevalence and FEV1 decline than non-Hispanic whites (NHWs. Patients and methods: A nutritional epidemiological study was conducted in the Lovelace Smokers cohort (LSC; n=1,829 and the Veterans Smokers cohort (n=508 to identify dietary nutrients (n=139 associated with average FEV1 and its decline and to assess whether nutrient intakes could explain ethnic disparity in FEV1 decline between Hispanics and NHW smokers. Results: Nutrients discovered and replicated to be significantly associated with better average FEV1 included magnesium, folate, niacin, vitamins A and D, eicosenoic fatty acid (20:1n9, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n3, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3, and fiber. In addition, greater intakes of eicosenoic fatty acid and DPA were associated with slower FEV1 decline in the LSC. Among omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, DPA is the most potent nutrient associated with better average FEV1 and slower FEV1 decline. Adverse effect of continuous current smoking on FEV1 decline was completely negated in LSC members with high DPA intake (>20

  7. Factors associated with school nurses' HPV vaccine attitudes for school-aged youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brittany L; DiClemente, Ralph; Shepard, Allie L; Wilson, Kelly L; Fehr, Sara K

    2017-06-01

    School nurses are at the intersection of the healthcare and school communities, thus, they can be considered opinion leaders in providing health advice - including information about the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine - to parents and students. This study examined school nurses' attitudes toward the HPV vaccine based on age, years as a school nurse, geographic location, urban vs. rural work setting, HPV and vaccine knowledge, perception of role as opinion leaders, and school district support in providing health education. Participants (n = 413) were systematically sampled from the National Association of School Nurses' membership and completed a web-based survey. Multiple regression was used to predict positive HPV vaccine attitudes. The model was statistically significant accounting for 50.8% of the variance (F [9, 400] = 45.96, p school nurses' positive attitudes towards HPV vaccine. Despite school nurses being seen as champions for adolescent vaccines, they need additional professional development to increase their HPV vaccine knowledge and attitudes to encourage parents and adolescents to consider the uptake of HPV vaccination. To engage school nurses' in promoting HPV vaccine uptake, interventions need to focus on increasing school nurses' perception of their role as opinion leaders for HPV vaccine and knowledge to increase positive attitudes towards HPV vaccination for youth.

  8. Cancer stem cell marker Musashi-1 rs2522137 genotype is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wang

    Full Text Available Gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been extensively studied in association with development and prognosis of various malignancies. However, the potential role of genetic polymorphisms of cancer stem cell (CSC marker genes with respect to cancer risk has not been examined. We conducted a case-control study involving a total of 1000 subjects (500 lung cancer patients and 500 age-matched cancer-free controls from northeastern China. Lung cancer risk was analyzed in a logistic regression model in association with genotypes of four lung CSC marker genes (CD133, ALDH1, Musashi-1, and EpCAM. Using univariate analysis, the Musashi-1 rs2522137 GG genotype was found to be associated with a higher incidence of lung cancer compared with the TT genotype. No significant associations were observed for gene variants of CD133, ALDH1, or EpCAM. In multivariate analysis, Musashi-1 rs2522137 was still significantly associated with lung cancer when environmental and lifestyle factors were incorporated in the model, including lower BMI; family history of cancer; prior diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, or pulmonary tuberculosis; occupational exposure to pesticide; occupational exposure to gasoline or diesel fuel; heavier smoking; and exposure to heavy cooking emissions. The value of the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve (AUC was 0.7686. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show an association between a Musashi-1 genotype and lung cancer risk. Further, the prediction model in this study may be useful in determining individuals with high risk of lung cancer.

  9. Lung fibrosis-associated soluble mediators and bronchoalveolar lavage from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients promote the expression of fibrogenic factors in subepithelial lung myofibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouros, Evangelos; Filidou, Eirini; Arvanitidis, Konstantinos; Mikroulis, Dimitrios; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Bamias, George; Bouros, Demosthenes; Kolios, George

    2017-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, excessive collagen production and accumulation of myofibroblasts. We explored the possible role of subepithelial lung myofibroblasts (SELMs) in the development of fibrosis in IPF. SELMs, isolated from surgical specimens of healthy lung tissue, were cultured with pro-inflammatory factors or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with IPF or idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia (iNSIP) and their fibrotic activity was assessed. Stimulation of SELMs with pro-inflammatory factors induced a significant increase of Tissue Factor (TF) and Tumor necrosis factor-Like cytokine 1 A (TL1A) expression and collagen production in culture supernatants. Stimulation with BALF from IPF patients with mild to moderate, but not severe disease, and from iNSIP patients induced a significant increase of TF expression. BALF from all IPF patients induced a significant increase of TL1A expression and collagen production, while BALF from iNSIP patients induced a significant increase of TL1A, but not of collagen production. Interestingly, TGF-β1 and BALF from all IPF, but not iNSIP patients, induced a significant increase in SELMs migration. In conclusion, BALF from IPF patients induces fibrotic activity in lung myofibroblasts, similar to mediators associated with lung fibrosis, indicating a key role of SELMs in IPF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 9511 ANEMIA AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG SCHOOL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    Children with Hb lower than 11.5 g/dL were considered anemic. Information ... Anemia is commonly associated with nutritional deficiencies, especially iron ... children aged five to six years, given that public access to preschool education is not.

  11. Association between School Membership and Substance Use among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gaete

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSubstance use among adolescents is a major problem worldwide, producing many health and economic consequences. Even though there are well-known personal, familial, and social factors associated with drug use, less is known about the effect of school-related factors. School membership is a recognized variable affecting academic performance among students; however, its effect on substance use is less understood.AimsThe primary aim of this study was to explore the association between school membership and cigarette, alcohol, and cannabis use among a representative sample of secondary students from municipal state-funded schools in Santiago of Chile, and secondly, to test the hypothesis that depressive or anxiety symptoms mediate this association.MethodsA total of 2,508 students from 22 state-funded schools in Santiago, Chile, answered a questionnaire. This instrument included an abbreviated version of the psychological sense of school membership (PSSM, questions regarding the use of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis and scales of psychological functioning (depression, anxiety, self-concept, and problem-solving. The association analyses were performed using adjusted regression models for each outcome using all independent variables while controlling for gender and age. For the mediation effect, a combination of ordinary least square and logistic regression analyses was conducted.ResultsThere was an association between a strong PSSM and low risk for smoking (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.46–0.72, drinking (0.65; 95% CI: 0.51–0.83, and cannabis use (0.52; 95% CI 0.37–0.74. We also found that depressive and anxiety symptoms do not fully mediate the association between school membership and any substance use, and 73% of this effect in the case of smoking, 80% in the case of drinking, and 78.5% in the case of cannabis use, was direct.ConclusionThis is the first study in Latin America exploring the association between school membership and substance use

  12. The Association Between Electronic Bullying and School Absenteeism Among High School Students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinshteyn, Erin; Yang, Y T

    2017-02-01

    We examined the relationship between exposure to electronic bullying and absenteeism as a result of being afraid. This multivariate, multinomial regression analysis of the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data assessed the association between experiencing electronic bullying in the past year and how often students were absent in the last month due to feeling unsafe at/in transit to school. The model controlled for other predictors of school absence including demographics, physical/behavioral health, and risk factors. Missing data were multiply imputed. Electronic bullying was significantly associated with absences. Controlling for model covariates, the relative risk of missing 1 day of school was 1.77 times higher, the relative risk of missing 2 to 3 days of school per month increased by a factor of 2.08, and the relative risk of missing 4 or more days of school per month increased by a factor of 1.77 for those who experienced electronic bullying in the past year compared with those who were not electronically bullied. Electronic bullying's association with absenteeism places it among already recognized negative influences such as depression and binge drinking, necessitating schools to implement policies to mediate the resulting harmful effects. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  13. The association between anthropometric measures and lung function in a population-based study of Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, A; Hernandez, P; Kuhle, S; Kirkland, S

    2017-10-01

    Decreased lung function has health impacts beyond diagnosable lung disease. It is therefore important to understand the factors that may influence even small changes in lung function including obesity, physical fitness and physical activity. The aim of this study was to determine the anthropometric measure most useful in examining the association with lung function and to determine how physical activity and physical fitness influence this association. The current study used cross-sectional data on 4662 adults aged 40-79 years from the Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycles 1 and 2. Linear regression models were used to examine the association between the anthropometric and lung function measures (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV 1 ] and forced vital capacity [FVC]); R 2 values were compared among models. Physical fitness and physical activity terms were added to the models and potential confounding was assessed. Models using sum of 5 skinfolds and waist circumference consistently had the highest R 2 values for FEV 1 and FVC, while models using body mass index consistently had among the lowest R 2 values for FEV 1 and FVC and for men and women. Physical activity and physical fitness were confounders of the relationships between waist circumference and the lung function measures. Waist circumference remained a significant predictor of FVC but not FEV 1 after adjustment for physical activity or physical fitness. Waist circumference is an important predictor of lung function. Physical activity and physical fitness should be considered as potential confounders of the relationship between anthropometric measures and lung function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Outcome and prognostic factors in a French cohort of patients with myositis-associated interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obert, Julie; Freynet, Olivia; Nunes, Hilario; Brillet, Pierre-Yves; Miyara, Makoto; Dhote, Robin; Valeyre, Dominique; Naccache, Jean-Marc

    2016-12-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common form of extramuscular involvement in patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis and is associated with poor prognosis. This study was designed to describe the long-term outcome of myositis-associated ILD. This retrospective observational study was conducted in 48 consecutive patients. Two groups defined according to outcome were compared to determine prognostic factors: a "severe" group (vital capacity [VC] myositis-associated ILD had severe initial PFT results but a low mortality rate. Independent prognostic factors at presentation were initial VC and myopathic changes on electromyography. This study highlights the need for studies focusing on the correlation between muscle and lung pathogenic mechanisms.

  15. Association of ambient air quality with children`s lung function in urban and rural Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgari, M.M.; Dubois, A.; Beckett, W.S. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Asgari, M. [Shaheed Beheshti Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gent, J. [John B. Pierce Lab., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1998-05-01

    During the summer of 1994, a cross-sectional epidemiological study, in which the pulmonary function of children in Tehran was compared with pulmonary function in children in a rural town in Iran, was conducted. Four hundred children aged 5--11 y were studied. Daytime ambient nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter were measured with portable devices, which were placed in the children`s neighborhoods on the days of study. Levels of these ambient substances were markedly higher in urban Tehran than in rural areas. Children`s parents were questioned about home environmental exposures (including heating source and environmental tobacco smoke) and the children`s respiratory symptoms. Pulmonary function was assessed, both by spirometry and peak expiratory flow meter. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity--as a percentage of predicted for age, sex and height--were significantly lower in urban children than in rural children. Both measurements evidenced significant reverse correlations with levels of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter. Differences in spirometric lung function were not explained by nutritional status, as assessed by height and weight for age, or by home environmental exposures. Reported airway symptoms were higher among rural children, whereas reported physician diagnosis of bronchitis and asthma were higher among urban children. The association between higher pollutant concentrations and reduced pulmonary function in this urban-rural comparison suggests that there is an effect of urban air pollution on short-term lung function and/or lung growth and development during the preadolescent years.

  16. Available Interventions for Prevention of Cotton Dust-Associated Lung Diseases Among Textile Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafees, Asaad Ahmed; Fatmi, Zafar

    2016-08-01

    The authors reviewed literature on interventions for cotton dust-associated lung diseases among textile workers. Internet sources (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google and Google Scholar) were accessed and interventions were categorized into: Engineering or administrative controls, or personal protective equipment (PPE). Ten relevant articles were shortlisted, five related to engineering controls (pre-processing, bactericidal treatment of cotton, improved workplace design, machinery and dust control measures). Administrative controls may involve setting standards, environmental surveillance, periodic medical examinations, and workers training. Although specific guidelines are available regarding the use of PPEs, but there was little literature on their effectiveness. It was concluded that there is a dearth of literature regarding field-based assessment of interventions for control of cotton dust associated respiratory diseases and the available studies primarily focus on pre-processing of cotton. This review highlights the uncertainties that remain; and recommends several areas for future research on respiratory health of textile workers.

  17. Factors associated with children being driven to school: implications for walk to school programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li Ming; Fry, Denise; Rissel, Chris; Dirkis, Helen; Balafas, Angela; Merom, Dafna

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we examined factors associated with children being driven to school. Participants were 1603 students (aged 9-11 years) and their parents from 24 public primary schools in inner western Sydney, Australia. Students recorded their modes of travel to and from school for 5 days in a student survey. Parents recorded their demographic data, their attitudes to travel, and their modes of travel to work, using a self-administered survey. An analysis of the two linked data sets found that 41% of students travelled by car to or from school for more than 5 trips per week. Almost a third (32%) of students walked all the way. Only 1% of students rode a bike and 22% used more than one mode of travel. Of those who were driven, 29% lived less than 1 km and a further 18% lived between 1 and 1.5 km from school. Factors associated with car travel (after adjusting for other potential confounders) were mode of parents' travel to work, parent attitudes, number of cars in the household, and distance from home to school. To be effective, walk to school programs need to address the link between parent journey to work and student journey to school.

  18. Associations of school violence with physical activity among U.S. high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Zewditu; Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K; Hertz, Marci F; Lee, Sarah M

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated associations of violence-related behaviors with physical activity (PA)-related behaviors among U.S. high school students. Data from the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of 9th-12th grade students, were analyzed. Sex-stratified, adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for associations between violence-related behaviors and being physically active for ≥60 minutes daily, sports participation, TV watching for ≥3 hours/day, and video game/computer use for ≥3 hours/day. Among male students, at-school bullying victimization was negatively associated with daily PA (aOR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.58-0.87) and sports participation; skipping school because of safety concerns was positively associated with video game/computer use (1.42; 1.01-2.00); and physical fighting was positively associated with daily PA. Among female students, at-school bullying victimization and skipping school because of safety concerns were both positively associated with video game/computer use (1.46; 1.19-1.79 and 1.60; 1.09-2.34, respectively), and physical fighting at school was negatively associated with sports participation and positively associated with TV watching. Bullying victimization emerged as a potentially important risk factor for insufficient PA. Schools should consider the role of violence in initiatives designed to promote PA.

  19. Characteristics associated with US Walk to School programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelon Brian

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Participation in Walk to School (WTS programs has grown substantially in the US since its inception; however, no attempt has been made to systematically describe program use or factors associated with implementation of environment/policy changes. Objective Describe the characteristics of schools' WTS programs by level of implementation. Methods Representatives from 450 schools from 42 states completed a survey about their WTS program's infrastructure and activities, and perceived impact on walking to school. Level of implementation was determined from a single question to which respondents reported participation in WTS Day only (low, WTS Day and additional programs (medium, or making policy/environmental change (high. Results The final model showed number of community groups involved was positively associated with higher level of implementation (OR = 1.78, 95%CI = 1.44, 2.18, as was funding (OR = 1.56, 95%CI = 1.26, 1.92, years of participation (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.23, 1.70, and use of a walkability assessment (OR = 3.22, 95%CI = 1.84, 5.64. Implementation level was modestly associated with increased walking (r = 0.18. Conclusion Strong community involvement, some funding, repeat participation, and environmental audits are associated with progms that adopt environmental/policy change, and seem to facilitate walking to school.

  20. Framework for 21st Century School Nursing Practice: National Association of School Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The National Association of School Nurses (NASN) developed the Framework for 21st Century School Nursing Practice to reflect current school nurse practice. The Framework of practice was introduced in June 2015, and feedback was requested and obtained from practicing school nurses in a variety of ways. The final version of the Framework is introduced in this article. This article updates (and replaces) the articles in the July 2015 NASN School Nurse related to the Framework. Central to the Framework is student-centered nursing care that occurs within the context of the students' family and school community. Surrounding the student, family, and school community are the nonhierarchical, overlapping key principles of Care Coordination, Leadership, Quality Improvement, and Community/Public Health.These principles are surrounded by the fifth principle, Standards of Practice, which is foundational for evidence-based and clinically competent quality care. Each of these principles is further defined by practice components. Suggestions are provided regarding how the Framework can be used in a variety of settings to articulate and prioritize school nursing practice. The ultimate goal is to provide a resource to guide school nurses in their practice to help students be healthy, safe, and ready to learn. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Genetic Variation in the Scavenger Receptor MARCO and Its Association with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Lung Infection in 10,604 Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Kobzik, Lester

    2013-01-01

    Background: MARCO (macrophage receptor with collagenous structure) is a dominant receptor for unopsonized particles and bacteria in the lungs. Reduced function of this receptor due to genetic variation may be associated with susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung...... infection. Objectives: To identify novel genetic variants in MARCO that are associated with reduced lung function, or increased risk of COPD or lung infection. Methods: We first screened 760 individuals with extreme lung phenotypes in a large general population study to identify novel variants in the MARCO...... the entire cohort for these variants, we found low minor allele frequencies ranging from 0.005 to 5%. None of the individual MARCO genotypes were associated with reduced lung function, or risk of COPD or lung infection. H101Q heterozygotes had an increased odds ratio for sepsis of 2.2 (95% CI: 1...

  2. Food Insecurity and Its Association With School Absenteeism Among Rural School Adolescents in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiru, Dessalegn; Melaku, Yabsira; Belachew, Tefera

    2017-03-01

    Studies showed that poor health and nutrition among school adolescents are major barriers to educational access and achievements in low-income countries. This school-based study was aimed to assess the association of school absenteeism and food insecurity among rural school adolescents from grades 5 to 8 in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. Regression analyses were used to see the strength of association between dependent and independent variables using odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictor of school absenteeism. Validated tools are used to collect household food insecurity data. Results showed that school absenteeism is significantly high among adolescents from food insecure households when compared to adolescents from food secure households ( P absenteeism was negatively associated with male sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = -0.91, 95% CI -1.85 to -0.03), household food security (adjusted odds ratio = -1.85, 95% CI -3.11 to -0.59), being an elder sibling (AOR = -0.37, 95% CI, -0.62 to -0.12), and mother involvement in decision making (AOR = -0.68, 95% CI, -1.33 to -0.03) while male-headed household was positively associated (AOR = 2.46, 95% CI, 1.37 to 4.56). Generally, this study showed that household food insecurity has significant contribution to school absenteeism among rural adolescents. Therefore, efforts should be made to improve household income earning capacity to reduce the prevalence of school absenteeism among rural school adolescents.

  3. Cross-Cancer Genome-Wide Analysis of Lung, Ovary, Breast, Prostate, and Colorectal Cancer Reveals Novel Pleiotropic Associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fehringer, Gordon; Kraft, Peter; Pharoah, Paul D.; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Lindstrom, Sara; Brennan, Paul; Bickeboller, Heike; Houlston, Richard S.; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Risch, Angela; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Berndt, Sonja I.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Gronberg, Henrik; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Ma, Jing; Muir, Kenneth; Stampfer, Meir J.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Willett, Walter C.; Goode, Ellen L.; Permuth, Jennifer B.; Risch, Harvey A.; Reid, Brett M.; Bezieau, Stephane; Brenner, Hermann; Chan, Andrew T.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hudson, Thomas J.; Kocarnik, Jonathan K.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Schoen, Robert E.; Slattery, Martha L.; White, Emily; Adank, Muriel A.; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Baglietto, Laura; Blomquist, Carl; Canzian, Federico; Czene, Kamila; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Eliassen, A. Heather; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Timens, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Identifying genetic variants with pleiotropic associations can uncover common pathways influencing multiple cancers. We took a two-stage approach to conduct genome-wide association studies for lung, ovary, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer from the GAME-ON/GECCO Network (61,851 cases, 61,820

  4. Cross-cancer genome-wide analysis of lung, ovary, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer reveals novel pleiotropic associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fehringer, G. (Gordon); P. Kraft (Peter); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); R. Eeles (Rosalind); Chatterjee, N. (Nilanjan); F.R. Schumacher (Fredrick R); J.M. Schildkraut (Joellen); S. Lindstrom (Stephen); P. Brennan (Paul); H. Bickeböller (Heike); R. Houlston (Richard); M.T. Landi (Maria Teresa); N.E. Caporaso (Neil); Risch, A. (Angela); A.A. Al Olama (Ali Amin); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); Giovannucci, E.L. (Edward L.); H. Grönberg (Henrik); Z. Kote-Jarai; Ma, J. (Jing); K.R. Muir (K.); M.J. Stampfer (Meir J.); Stevens, V.L. (Victoria L.); F. Wiklund (Fredrik); W.C. Willett (Walter C.); E.L. Goode (Ellen); Permuth, J.B. (Jennifer B.); H. Risch (Harvey); Reid, B.M. (Brett M.); Bezieau, S. (Stephane); H. Brenner (Hermann); Chan, A.T. (Andrew T.); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); T.J. Hudson (Thomas); Kocarnik, J.K. (Jonathan K.); P. Newcomb (Polly); Schoen, R.E. (Robert E.); Slattery, M.L. (Martha L.); White, E. (Emily); M.A. Adank (Muriel); H. Ahsan (Habibul); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); Baglietto, L. (Laura); Blomquist, C. (Carl); F. Canzian (Federico); K. Czene (Kamila); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); Eliassen, A.H. (A. Heather); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); O. Fletcher (Olivia); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); M.M. Gaudet (Mia); Johnson, N. (Nichola); P. Hall (Per); A. Hazra (Aditi); R. Hein (Rebecca); Hofman, A. (Albert); J.L. Hopper (John); A. Irwanto (Astrid); M. Johansson (Mattias); R. Kaaks (Rudolf); M.G. Kibriya (Muhammad); P. Lichtner (Peter); J. Liu (Jianjun); E. Lund (Eiliv); Makalic, E. (Enes); A. Meindl (Alfons); B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); Muranen, T.A. (Taru A.); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); P.H.M. Peeters; J. Peto (Julian); R. Prentice (Ross); N. Rahman (Nazneen); M.-J. Sanchez (Maria-Jose); D.F. Schmidt (Daniel); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); M.C. Southey (Melissa); Tamimi, R. (Rulla); S.P.L. Travis (Simon); C. Turnbull (Clare); Uitterlinden, A.G. (Andre G.); Z. Wang (Zhaoming); A.S. Whittemore (Alice); X.R. Yang (Xiaohong); W. Zheng (Wei); D. Buchanan (Daniel); G. Casey (Graham); G. Conti (Giario); C.K. Edlund (Christopher); S. Gallinger (Steve); R. Haile (Robert); M. Jenkins (Mark); Marchand, L. (Loïcle); Li, L. (Li); N.M. Lindor (Noralane); Schmit, S.L. (Stephanie L.); S.N. Thibodeau (Stephen); M.O. Woods (Michael); T. Rafnar (Thorunn); J. Gudmundsson (Julius); S.N. Stacey (Simon); Stefansson, K. (Kari); P. Sulem (Patrick); Chen, Y.A. (Y. Ann); J.P. Tyrer (Jonathan); Christiani, D.C. (David C.); Wei, Y. (Yongyue); H. Shen (Hongbing); Z. Hu (Zhibin); X.-O. Shu (Xiao-Ou); Shiraishi, K. (Kouya); A. Takahashi (Atsushi); Y. Bossé (Yohan); M. Obeidat (Ma'en); D.C. Nickle (David); W. Timens (Wim); M. Freedman (Matthew); Li, Q. (Qiyuan); D. Seminara (Daniela); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); Gong, J. (Jian); U. Peters (Ulrike); S.B. Gruber (Stephen); Amos, C.I. (Christopher I.); T.A. Sellers (Thomas A.); D.F. Easton (Douglas F.); D. Hunter (David); C.A. Haiman (Christopher A.); B.E. Henderson (Brian); R.J. Hung (Rayjean)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIdentifying genetic variants with pleiotropic associations can uncover common pathways influencing multiple cancers. We took a two-stage approach to conduct genome-wide association studies for lung, ovary, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer from the GAME-ON/GECCO Network (61,851

  5. Cross-cancer genome-wide analysis of lung, ovary, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer reveals novel pleiotropic associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fehringer, Gordon; Kraft, Peter; Pharoah, Paul D.; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Lindström, Sara; Brennan, Paul; Bickeböller, Heike; Houlston, Richard S.; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Risch, Angela; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Berndt, Sonja I.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Grönberg, Henrik; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Ma, Jing; Muir, Kenneth; Stampfer, Meir J.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Willett, Walter C.; Goode, Ellen L.; Permuth, Jennifer B.; Risch, Harvey A.; Reid, Brett M.; Bezieau, Stephane; Brenner, Hermann; Chan, Andrew T.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hudson, Thomas J.; Kocarnik, Jonathan K.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Schoen, Robert E.; Slattery, Martha L.; White, Emily; Adank, Muriel A.; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Baglietto, Laura; Blomquist, Carl; Canzian, Federico; Czene, Kamila; Dos-Santos-silva, Isabel; Eliassen, A. Heather; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M.; Johnson, Nichola; Hall, Per; Hazra, Aditi; Hein, Rebecca; Hofman, Albert; Hopper, John L.; Irwanto, Astrid; Johansson, Mattias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Lichtner, Peter; Liu, Jianjun; Lund, Eiliv; Makalic, Enes; Meindl, Alfons; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Muranen, Taru A.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Peeters, Petra H.; Peto, Julian; Prentice, Ross L.; Rahman, Nazneen; Sanchez, Maria Jose; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Southey, Melissa C.; Tamimi, Rulla; Travis, Ruth C.; Turnbull, Clare; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Wang, Zhaoming; Whittemore, Alice S.; Yang, Xiaohong R.; Zheng, Wei; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Casey, Graham; Conti, David V.; Edlund, Christopher K.; Gallinger, Steven; Haile, Robert W.; Jenkins, Mark; Marchand, Loïcle; Li, Li; Lindor, Noralene M.; Schmit, Stephanie L.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Woods, Michael O.; Rafnar, Thorunn; Gudmundsson, Julius; Stacey, Simon N.; Stefansson, Kari; Sulem, Patrick; Chen, Y. Ann; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Christiani, David C.; Wei, Yongyue; Shen, Hongbing; Hu, Zhibin; Shu, Xiao Ou; Shiraishi, Kouya; Takahashi, Atsushi; Bossé, Yohan; Obeidat, Ma'en; Nickle, David; Timens, Wim; Freedman, Matthew L.; Li, Qiyuan; Seminara, Daniela; Chanock, Stephen J.; Gong, Jian; Peters, Ulrike; Gruber, Stephen B.; Amos, Christopher I.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Hunter, David J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hung, Rayjean J.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying genetic variants with pleiotropic associations can uncover common pathways influencing multiple cancers. We took a two-stage approach to conduct genome-wide association studies for lung, ovary, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer from the GAME-ON/GECCO Network (61,851 cases, 61,820

  6. Heart and lung organ offer acceptance practices of transplant programs are associated with waitlist mortality and organ yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Andrew; Valapour, Maryam; Skeans, Melissa A; Salkowski, Nicholas; Colvin, Monica; Kasiske, Bertram L; Israni, Ajay K; Snyder, Jon J

    2018-04-19

    Variation in heart and lung offer acceptance practices may affect numbers of transplanted organs and create variability in waitlist mortality. To investigate these issues, offer acceptance ratios, or adjusted odds ratios, for heart and lung transplant programs individually and for all programs within donation service areas (DSAs) were estimated using offers from donors recovered July 1, 2016-June 30, 2017. Logistic regressions estimated the association of DSA-level offer acceptance ratios with donor yield and local placement of organs recovered in the DSA. Competing risk methodology estimated the association of program-level offer acceptance ratios with incidence and rate of waitlist removals due to death or becoming too sick to undergo transplant. Higher DSA-level offer acceptance was associated with higher yield (odds ratios [ORs]: lung, 1.04 1.11 1.19 ; heart, 1.09 1.21 1.35 ) and more local placement of transplanted organs (ORs: lung, 1.01 1.12 1.24 ; heart, 1.47 1.69 1.93 ). Higher program-level offer acceptance was associated with lower incidence of waitlist removal due to death or becoming too sick to undergo transplant (hazard ratios [HRs]: heart, 0.80 0.86 0.93 ; lung, 0.67 0.75 0.83 ), but not with rate of waitlist removal (HRs: heart, 0.91 0.98 1.06 ; lung, 0.89 0.99 1.10 ). Heart and lung offer acceptance practices affected numbers of transplanted organs and contributed to program-level variability in the probability of waitlist mortality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding the Association Between School Climate and Future Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Pas, Elise; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2016-08-01

    Promoting students' future orientation is inherently a goal of the educational system. Recently, it has received more explicit attention given the increased focus on career readiness. This study aimed to examine the association between school climate and adolescents' report of future orientation using data from youth (N = 27,698; 49.4 % female) across 58 high schools. Three-level hierarchical linear models indicated that perceptions of available emotional and service supports, rules and consequences, and parent engagement were positively related to adolescents' future orientation. Additionally, the school-level average future orientation was significantly related to individuals' future orientation, indicating a potential influence of contextual effects on this construct. Taken together, these findings suggest that interventions targeting school climate may hold promise for promoting future orientation.

  8. Radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: volume definition and patient selection. Annecy 1998 international Association for the study of lung cancer (IASLC) Workshop recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornex, F.; Loubeyre, P.; Van houtte, P.; Scalliet, P.

    1998-01-01

    Chemo-radiation is the standard treatment of unresectable, locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer, with a mean dose of 60-66 Gy, excluding escalation dose schemes. The standard treated volume includes primary tumor, ipsilateral hilar and mediastinal nodes, supraclavicular and contralateral nodes as well, regardless of the node status. This work tries to answer the question of the optimal volume to be treated. Drainage routes analysis is in favor of large volumes, while toxicity analysis favors small volumes. Combined modality treatment may increase the observed toxicity. The optimal volume definition is difficult, and requires available conformal therapy tools. Patients selection is another important issue. A volume definition is then attempted, based on the IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) Annecy workshop experience, highlighting the inter-observers discrepancies, and suggests basic recommendations to harmonize volume definition. (author)

  9. The aging lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowery EM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Erin M Lowery,1 Aleah L Brubaker,2 Erica Kuhlmann,1 Elizabeth J Kovacs31Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine at Loyola University Medical Center, 2Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USAAbstract: There are many age-associated changes in the respiratory and pulmonary immune system. These changes include decreases in the volume of the thoracic cavity, reduced lung volumes, and alterations in the muscles that aid respiration. Muscle function on a cellular level in the aging population is less efficient. The elderly population has less pulmonary reserve, and cough strength is decreased in the elderly population due to anatomic changes and muscle atrophy. Clearance of particles from the lung through the mucociliary elevator is decreased and associated with ciliary dysfunction. Many complex changes in immunity with aging contribute to increased susceptibility to infections including a less robust immune response from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Considering all of these age-related changes to the lungs, pulmonary disease has significant consequences for the aging population. Chronic lower respiratory tract disease is the third leading cause of death in people aged 65 years and older. With a large and growing aging population, it is critical to understand how the body changes with age and how this impacts the entire respiratory system. Understanding the aging process in the lung is necessary in order to provide optimal care to our aging population. This review focuses on the nonpathologic aging process in the lung, including structural changes, changes in muscle function, and pulmonary immunologic function, with special consideration of obstructive lung disease in the elderly.Keywords: aging, lung, pulmonary immunology, COPD

  10. Association of incidental emphysema with annual lung function decline and future development of airflow limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koo HK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyeon-Kyoung Koo,1 Kwang Nam Jin,2 Deog Kyeom Kim,3 Hee Soon Chung,3 Chang-Hoon Lee3,4 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, College of Medicine, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-Do, 2Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government – Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea Objectives: Emphysema is one of the prognostic factors for rapid lung function decline in patients with COPD, but the impact of incidentally detected emphysema on population without spirometric abnormalities has not been evaluated. This study aimed to determine whether emphysema detected upon computed tomography (CT screening would accelerate the rate of lung function decline and influence the possibility of future development of airflow limitation in a population without spirometric abnormalities.Materials and methods: Subjects who participated in a routine screening for health checkup and follow-up pulmonary function tests for at least 3 years between 2004 and 2010 were retrospectively enrolled. The percentage of low-attenuation area below −950 Hounsfield units (%LAA−950 was calculated automatically. A calculated value of %LAA−950 that exceeded 10% was defined as emphysema. Adjusted annual lung function decline was analyzed using random-slope, random-intercept mixed linear regression models.Results: A total of 628 healthy subjects within the normal range of spriometric values were included. Multivariable analysis showed that the emphysema group exhibited a faster decline in forced vital capacity (−33.9 versus −18.8

  11. RTEL1 polymorphisms are associated with lung cancer risk in the Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shouchun; Xia, Ridong; Jin, Tianbo; Ren, Hui; Yang, Hua; Li, Jing; Yan, Mengdan; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Mingwei

    2016-10-25

    RTEL1 (regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1; OMIM 608833) gene polymorphisms were linked to lung cancer (LC) susceptibility in a cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS) Here, we assessed whether seven previously reported RTEL1 polymorphisms influenced LC risk in Han Chinese population. All study samples (554 LC cases and 696 cancer-free controls) were collected from the Affiliated Hospital of Xizang Minzu University in China. We assessed associations between SNPs and LC risk using various several genetic models (codominant, dominant, recessive, overdominant, and additive). Whereas rs2738780 showed a protective effect against LC (Odds ratio (OR) = 0.80 ;95% confidence interval (CI): 0.638 = 0.998; p = 0.048), rs7261546(OR = 4.16; 95% CI: 1.35-12.82; p = 0.007), rs6062299(OR=5.08; 95% CI: 1.43-18.10; p = 0.005) and rs3787098(OR = 5.10; 95% CI: 1.43-18.15; p = 0.004) were all associated with increased LC susceptibility (recessive model). Haplotype analysis suggested that ''CTC'' was associated with a 0.8-fold decrease in LC risk (OR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.63-1.00; Pearson's p = 0.05). These findings suggest a potential association between RTEL1 polymorphisms and LC risk in a Chinese Han population.

  12. A comprehensive evaluation of potential lung function associated genes in the SpiroMeta general population sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma'en Obeidat

    Full Text Available Lung function measures are heritable traits that predict population morbidity and mortality and are essential for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Variations in many genes have been reported to affect these traits, but attempts at replication have provided conflicting results. Recently, we undertook a meta-analysis of Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS results for lung function measures in 20,288 individuals from the general population (the SpiroMeta consortium.To comprehensively analyse previously reported genetic associations with lung function measures, and to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in these genomic regions are associated with lung function in a large population sample.We analysed association for SNPs tagging 130 genes and 48 intergenic regions (+/-10 kb, after conducting a systematic review of the literature in the PubMed database for genetic association studies reporting lung function associations.The analysis included 16,936 genotyped and imputed SNPs. No loci showed overall significant association for FEV(1 or FEV(1/FVC traits using a carefully defined significance threshold of 1.3×10(-5. The most significant loci associated with FEV(1 include SNPs tagging MACROD2 (P = 6.81×10(-5, CNTN5 (P = 4.37×10(-4, and TRPV4 (P = 1.58×10(-3. Among ever-smokers, SERPINA1 showed the most significant association with FEV(1 (P = 8.41×10(-5, followed by PDE4D (P = 1.22×10(-4. The strongest association with FEV(1/FVC ratio was observed with ABCC1 (P = 4.38×10(-4, and ESR1 (P = 5.42×10(-4 among ever-smokers.Polymorphisms spanning previously associated lung function genes did not show strong evidence for association with lung function measures in the SpiroMeta consortium population. Common SERPINA1 polymorphisms may affect FEV(1 among smokers in the general population.

  13. XRCC3 Thr241Met Polymorphism is not Associated with Lung Cancer Risk in a Romanian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Andreea; Pop, Monica; Marginean, Dragos Horea; Blaga, Ioana Cristina; Porojan, Mihai Dumitru; Popp, Radu Anghel; Pop, Ioan Victor

    2016-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) repair mechanisms play a critical role in protecting the cellular genome against carcinogens. X-ray cross-complementing gene 3 (XRCC3) is involved in DNA repair and therefore certain genetic polymorphisms that occur in DNA repair genes may affect the ability to repair DNA defects and may represent a risk factor in carcinogenesis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the association between XRCC3 gene substitution of Threonine with Methionine in codon 241 of XRCC3 gene (Thr241Met) polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer, in a Romanian population. We recruited 93 healthy controls and 85 patients with lung cancer, all smokers. Thr241Met, XRCC3 gene genotyping was determined by multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Statistical analysis (OR, recessive model), did not revealed an increased risk for lung cancer, for the variant 241Met allele and Thr241Met genotypes (p=0.138, OR=0.634, CI=0.348-1.157; p=0.023, OR=0.257, CI=0.085-6.824). Also, there were no positive statistical associations between Thr241Met polymorphism of XRCC3 gene, gender, tobacco and various histopathological tumor type of lung cancer. In conclusion, the results of the study suggest that the XRCC3 gene Thr241Met polymorphism is not associated with an increased risk for the development of lung cancer in this Romanian group.

  14. Association between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yingbo; Jiang, Ying; Jin, Shan; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has been the main cause of cancer death around the world. Cigarette smoking has been identified as a risk factor for lung cancer in males. However, the etiological factors in nonsmoking women remain elusive. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women. Thirteen articles containing three population-based case-control and ten hospital-based case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. These studies with a total of 3,596 lung cancer women and 6,082 healthy controls were analyzed by RevMan 5.3. Fixed effects model or random effects model was used to obtain pooled estimates of risk ratio. The risk ratios with a 95% CI were 1.74 (95% CI =1.57-1.94) and 2.11 (95% CI =1.54-2.89), respectively. Cooking oil fume exposure as well as not using a kitchen ventilator when cooking was significantly associated with lung cancer among nonsmoking women (Z=10.07, Poil fume exposure, especially lacking a fume extractor, may increase the risk of lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women.

  15. Estimates of Enhanced Outcomes in Employment, Income, Health, and Volunteerism for the Association of Boarding Schools Member School Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Allison; Erhardt, Robert; Phelps, Richard; Upham, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed data from 65 schools that are U.S. members of The Association of Boarding Schools (TABS) to estimate how TABS member school graduates who enter college compare with college entrants from non-boarding schools on several long-term quality-of-life estimates. Although TABS students are more likely to graduate college than the population of…

  16. Associations between Parental Limits, School Vending Machine Purchases, and Soft Drink Consumption among Kentucky Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Jen; Roseman, Mary G.; Forthofer, Melinda S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between parental limits on soft drinks and purchasing soft drinks from school vending machines and consuming soft drinks among middle school students. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the middle school Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Setting: Eight public middle schools in central Kentucky.…

  17. Investigating the Association between Home-School Dissonance and Disruptive Classroom Behaviors for Urban Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kenneth M.; Burris, Jennifer L.; Coleman, Sean T.

    2018-01-01

    Disruptive classroom behaviors are a major schooling dilemma in urban schools. While several contextual and motivational factors have been statistically associated with disruptive classroom behaviors, one overlooked factor has been home-school dissonance. The current study examined the relationship between 260 middle school students' reports of…

  18. High risks of lung disease associated with early-life and moderate lifetime arsenic exposure in northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmaus, Craig, E-mail: craigs@berkeley.edu [Arsenic Health Effects Research Program, UC Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ferreccio, Catterina; Acevedo, Johanna [School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), FONDAP, Santiago (Chile); Balmes, John R [Arsenic Health Effects Research Program, UC Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA (United States); Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Liaw, Jane [Arsenic Health Effects Research Program, UC Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA (United States); Troncoso, Patricia [Laboratorio de Anatomía Patológica Dra. Patricia Troncoso, Iquique (Chile); Hospital Felix Bulnes, Departmento de Anatomía Patológica, Santiago (Chile); Dauphiné, David C [Arsenic Health Effects Research Program, UC Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA (United States); Nardone, Anthony [Global Health Sciences Program, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Smith, Allan H [Arsenic Health Effects Research Program, UC Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Background: Arsenic in drinking water has been associated with increases in lung disease, but information on the long-term impacts of early-life exposure or moderate exposure levels are limited. Methods: We investigated pulmonary disease and lung function in 795 subjects from three socio-demographically similar areas in northern Chile: Antofagasta, which had a well-described period of high arsenic water concentrations (860 μg/L) from 1958 to 1970; Iquique, which had long-term arsenic water concentrations near 60 μg/L; and Arica, with long-term water concentrations ≤ 10 μg/L. Results: Compared to adults never exposed > 10 μg/L, adults born in Antofagasta during the high exposure period had elevated odds ratios (OR) of respiratory symptoms (e.g., OR for shortness of breath = 5.56, 90% confidence interval (CI): 2.68–11.5), and decreases in pulmonary function (e.g., 224 mL decrease in forced vital capacity in nonsmokers, 90% CI: 97–351 mL). Subjects with long-term exposure to arsenic water concentrations near 60 μg/L also had increases in some pulmonary symptoms and reduced lung function. Conclusions: Overall, these findings provide new evidence that in utero or childhood arsenic exposure is associated with non-malignant pulmonary disease in adults. They also provide preliminary new evidence that long-term exposures to moderate levels of arsenic may be associated with lung toxicity, although the magnitude of these latter findings were greater than expected and should be confirmed. - Highlights: • Based on its unique geology, lifetime arsenic exposure can be assessed in north Chile. • Signs and symptoms of lung disease were associated with early-life arsenic exposure. • Evidence of lung disease was also associated with moderate arsenic exposure.

  19. Large-scale genome-wide association studies and meta-analyses of longitudinal change in adult lung function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Tang

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified numerous loci influencing cross-sectional lung function, but less is known about genes influencing longitudinal change in lung function.We performed GWAS of the rate of change in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 in 14 longitudinal, population-based cohort studies comprising 27,249 adults of European ancestry using linear mixed effects model and combined cohort-specific results using fixed effect meta-analysis to identify novel genetic loci associated with longitudinal change in lung function. Gene expression analyses were subsequently performed for identified genetic loci. As a secondary aim, we estimated the mean rate of decline in FEV1 by smoking pattern, irrespective of genotypes, across these 14 studies using meta-analysis.The overall meta-analysis produced suggestive evidence for association at the novel IL16/STARD5/TMC3 locus on chromosome 15 (P  =  5.71 × 10(-7. In addition, meta-analysis using the five cohorts with ≥3 FEV1 measurements per participant identified the novel ME3 locus on chromosome 11 (P  =  2.18 × 10(-8 at genome-wide significance. Neither locus was associated with FEV1 decline in two additional cohort studies. We confirmed gene expression of IL16, STARD5, and ME3 in multiple lung tissues. Publicly available microarray data confirmed differential expression of all three genes in lung samples from COPD patients compared with controls. Irrespective of genotypes, the combined estimate for FEV1 decline was 26.9, 29.2 and 35.7 mL/year in never, former, and persistent smokers, respectively.In this large-scale GWAS, we identified two novel genetic loci in association with the rate of change in FEV1 that harbor candidate genes with biologically plausible functional links to lung function.

  20. Association between state school nutrition laws and subsequent child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakshappa, Deepak; Fiks, Alexander G; Faerber, Jennifer A; Feudtner, Chris

    2016-09-01

    Many states have enacted laws to improve school nutrition. We tested whether stronger state nutrition laws are associated with subsequently decreased obesity. We conducted a retrospective national multi-year panel data study (analyzed 2014-2016 at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia). The predictors were 2010 laws regarding 9 nutrition categories from the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students, which grades the strength of state laws (none, weak, or strong). The outcome was weight status (healthy weight, overweight, or obese) in elementary, middle, and high school from the 2011/2012 National Survey of Children's Health. We tested the association between the strength of laws and weight using multinomial logistic regression. To further evaluate our main results, we conducted state-level longitudinal analyses testing the association between competitive food and beverage laws on the change in obesity from 2003-2011. In main analyses of 40,177 children ages 10-17years, we found strong state laws restricting the sale of competitive food and beverages in elementary school (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.96) and strong advertising laws across all grades (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.86) were associated with reduced odds of obesity. In longitudinal analyses, states with strong competitive food and beverage laws from 2003-2010 had small but significant decreases in obesity, compared to states with no laws. Although further research is needed to determine the causal effect of these laws, this study suggests that strong state laws limiting the sale and advertising of unhealthy foods and beverages in schools are associated with decreased obesity rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tumor-Derived CXCL1 Promotes Lung Cancer Growth via Recruitment of Tumor-Associated Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils have a traditional role in inflammatory process and act as the first line of defense against infections. Although their contribution to tumorigenesis and progression is still controversial, accumulating evidence recently has demonstrated that tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs play a key role in multiple aspects of cancer biology. Here, we detected that chemokine CXCL1 was dramatically elevated in serum from 3LL tumor-bearing mice. In vitro, 3LL cells constitutively expressed and secreted higher level of CXCL1. Furthermore, knocking down CXCL1 expression in 3LL cells significantly hindered tumor growth by inhibiting recruitment of neutrophils from peripheral blood into tumor tissues. Additionally, tumor-infiltrated neutrophils expressed higher levels of MPO and Fas/FasL, which may be involved in TAN-mediated inhibition of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These results demonstrate that tumor-derived CXCL1 contributes to TANs infiltration in lung cancer which promotes tumor growth.

  2. Inducible Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue: Taming Inflammation in the Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji Young; Randall, Troy D; Silva-Sanchez, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Following pulmonary inflammation, leukocytes that infiltrate the lung often assemble into structures known as inducible Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (iBALT). Like conventional lymphoid organs, areas of iBALT have segregated B and T cell areas, specialized stromal cells, high endothelial venules, and lymphatic vessels. After inflammation is resolved, iBALT is maintained for months, independently of inflammation. Once iBALT is formed, it participates in immune responses to pulmonary antigens, including those that are unrelated to the iBALT-initiating antigen, and often alters the clinical course of disease. However, the mechanisms that govern immune responses in iBALT and determine how iBALT impacts local and systemic immunity are poorly understood. Here, we review our current understanding of iBALT formation and discuss how iBALT participates in pulmonary immunity.

  3. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Oral Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Oral radiology curricular guidelines developed by the American Association of Dental Schools are provided. The guidelines describe minimal conditions under which a satisfactory educational experience can be offered. Principles of x-radiation, radiobiological concepts, radiological health, radiographic technique, radiographic quality, and darkroom…

  4. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines reviewed and approved by the American Association of Dental Schools and sent to the Council on Dental Education in June 1979 are outlined. Educational goals and objectives and sequence of instruction (including growth and development, preclinical orthodontics, and clinical experience) are discussed. (MLW)

  5. Preschool Drawing and School Mathematics: The Nature of the Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanchini, Margherita; Tosto, Maria G.; Garfield, Victoria; Dirik, Aysegul; Czerwik, Adrian; Arden, Rosalind; Malykh, Sergey; Kovas, Yulia

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the etiology of individual differences in early drawing and of its longitudinal association with school mathematics. Participants (N = 14,760), members of the Twins Early Development Study, were assessed on their ability to draw a human figure, including number of features, symmetry, and proportionality. Human figure drawing was…

  6. Blood cadmium levels are associated with a decline in lung function in males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Chang-Mo; Oh, In-Hwan; Lee, Jong-Keun; Park, Yoon Hyung; Choe, Bong-Keun; Yoon, Tai-Young; Choi, Joong-Myung

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cadmium exposure was found to cause a decline in lung function among the general population, but these findings were limited to smokers and gender differences were not explored. Objectives: To examine the relationship between cadmium and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) according to gender and smoking status in Korea. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011 were analyzed. COPD was defined by a pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s divided by forced vital capacity of <0.70. A logistic regression model was used to elucidate the association between blood cadmium levels and COPD according to gender and smoking status. Results: Among 3861 eligible participants, 3622 were included in the analysis. The prevalence of COPD demonstrated an increasing trend in males (P for trend<0.001), but not in females (P for trend=0.67). After adjusting for covariates, a higher blood cadmium level, but within the normal range, was associated with COPD in males, including those who had never-smoked (P for trend <0.001 and P for trend=0.008). However, a higher blood cadmium level was not significantly associated with COPD in females, including those who had never smoked (P for trend=0.39 and P for trend=0.43). Conclusions: A higher blood cadmium level, within the normal range, was associated with COPD in males, including those who had never smoked. However, there was no significant association between blood cadmium levels and COPD in females. - Highlights: • Elevated blood cadmium level is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in male. • This association can be seen even in never smoked male. • However, this association is present only in male, but not in female

  7. Blood cadmium levels are associated with a decline in lung function in males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Chang-Mo [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); The Korea Central Cancer Registry, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Oh, In-Hwan; Lee, Jong-Keun [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yoon Hyung [Departments of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Bong-Keun; Yoon, Tai-Young [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Joong-Myung, E-mail: jmchoi@khu.ac.kr [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Background: Cadmium exposure was found to cause a decline in lung function among the general population, but these findings were limited to smokers and gender differences were not explored. Objectives: To examine the relationship between cadmium and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) according to gender and smoking status in Korea. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011 were analyzed. COPD was defined by a pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s divided by forced vital capacity of <0.70. A logistic regression model was used to elucidate the association between blood cadmium levels and COPD according to gender and smoking status. Results: Among 3861 eligible participants, 3622 were included in the analysis. The prevalence of COPD demonstrated an increasing trend in males (P for trend<0.001), but not in females (P for trend=0.67). After adjusting for covariates, a higher blood cadmium level, but within the normal range, was associated with COPD in males, including those who had never-smoked (P for trend <0.001 and P for trend=0.008). However, a higher blood cadmium level was not significantly associated with COPD in females, including those who had never smoked (P for trend=0.39 and P for trend=0.43). Conclusions: A higher blood cadmium level, within the normal range, was associated with COPD in males, including those who had never smoked. However, there was no significant association between blood cadmium levels and COPD in females. - Highlights: • Elevated blood cadmium level is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in male. • This association can be seen even in never smoked male. • However, this association is present only in male, but not in female.

  8. Association of TERT Polymorphisms with Clinical Outcome of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Zhao

    Full Text Available TERT is of great importance in cancer initiation and progression. Many studies have demonstrated the TERT polymorphisms as risk factors for many cancer types, including lung cancer. However, the impacts of TERT variants on cancer progression and treatment efficacy have remained controversial. This study aimed to investigate the association of TERT polymorphisms with clinical outcome of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients receiving first-line platinum-based chemotherapy, including response rate, clinical benefit, progression-free survival (PFS, overall survival (OS, and grade 3 or 4 toxicity. Seven polymorphisms of TERT were assessed, and a total of 1004 inoperable advanced NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy were enrolled. It is exhibited that the variant heterozygote of rs4975605 showed significant association with a low rate of clinical benefit, and displayed a much stronger effect in never-smoking female subset, leading to the clinical benefit rate decreased from 82.9% (C/C genotype to 56.4% (C/A genotype; adjusted OR, 3.58; P=1.40×10(-4. It is also observed that the polymorphism rs2736109 showed significant correlation with PFS (log-rank P=0.023. In age > 58 subgroup, patients carrying the heterozygous genotype had a longer median PFS than those carrying the wild-type genotypes (P=0.002. The results from the current study, for the first time to our knowledge, provide suggestive evidence of an effect of TERT polymorphisms on disease progression variability among Chinese patients with platinum-treated advanced NSCLC.

  9. How to Use the School Survey of Practices Associated with High Performance. REL 2016-162

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Phyllis; Yumoto, Futoshi; Abe, Yasuyo; Meyers, Coby; Wan, Yinmei

    2016-01-01

    This report describes and explains how to use the School Survey of Practices Associated with High Performance, which measures the degree to which schools are engaging in practices associated with high performance. State education departments and school districts can use the survey results to identify and describe school practices associated with…

  10. Genetic variants associated with longer telomere length are associated with increased lung cancer risk among never-smoking women in Asia : a report from the female lung cancer consortium in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Seow, Wei Jie; Wang, Zhaoming; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hong, Yun-Chul; Seow, Adeline; Wu, Chen; Hosgood, H Dean; Chen, Kexin; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wen, Wanqing; Cawthon, Richard; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Hu, Wei; Caporaso, Neil E; Park, Jae Yong; Chen, Chien-Jen; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Landi, Maria Teresa; Shen, Hongbing; Lawrence, Charles; Burdett, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Chang, I-Shou; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Kim, Hee Nam; Chang, Gee-Chen; Bassig, Bryan A; Tucker, Margaret; Wei, Fusheng; Yin, Zhihua; An, She-Juan; Qian, Biyun; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Lu, Daru; Liu, Jianjun; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Sung, Jae Sook; Kim, Jin Hee; Gao, Yu-Tang; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Jung, Yoo Jin; Guo, Huan; Hu, Zhibin; Hutchinson, Amy; Wang, Wen-Chang; Klein, Robert J; Chung, Charles C; Oh, In-Jae; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Berndt, Sonja I; Wu, Wei; Chang, Jiang; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Zheng, Hong; Wang, Junwen; Zhao, Xueying; Li, Yuqing; Choi, Jin Eun; Su, Wu-Chou; Park, Kyong Hwa; Sung, Sook Whan; Chen, Yuh-Min; Liu, Li; Kang, Chang Hyun; Hu, Lingmin; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Pao, William; Kim, Young-Chul; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Xu, Jun; Guan, Peng; Tan, Wen; Su, Jian; Wang, Chih-Liang; Li, Haixin; Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon; Zhao, Zhenhong; Chen, Ying; Choi, Yi Young; Hung, Jen-Yu; Kim, Jun Suk; Yoon, Ho-Il; Cai, Qiuyin; Lin, Chien-Chung; Park, In Kyu; Xu, Ping; Dong, Jing; Kim, Christopher; He, Qincheng; Perng, Reury-Perng; Kohno, Takashi; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Chen, Chih-Yi; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Wu, Junjie; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chow, Wong-Ho; Ji, Bu-Tian; Chan, John K C; Chu, Minjie; Li, Yao-Jen; Yokota, Jun; Li, Jihua; Chen, Hongyan; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yu, Chong-Jen; Kunitoh, Hideo; Wu, Guoping; Jin, Li; Lo, Yen-Li; Shiraishi, Kouya; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Lin, Hsien-Chih; Wu, Tangchun; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Yi-Long; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Zhou, Baosen; Shin, Min-Ho; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Dongxin; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence from several relatively small nested case-control studies in prospective cohorts shows an association between longer telomere length measured phenotypically in peripheral white blood cell (WBC) DNA and increased lung cancer risk. We sought to further explore this relationship by

  11. Serum tocopherol levels and vitamin E intake are associated with lung function in the normative aging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Furtado, Jeremy; Campos, Hannia; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Litonjua, Augusto A

    2016-02-01

    The results of studies assessing relationships between vitamin E intake and status and lung function are conflicting. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin E intake and serum levels of tocopherol isoforms on lung function in a cross-sectional sample of 580 men from the Normative Aging Study, a longitudinal aging study. Regression models were used to look at associations of serum tocopherol isoform levels and vitamin E intake with lung function parameters after adjustment for confounders. Vitamin E intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire and serum levels of γ, α, and δ-tocopherol levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. After adjustment for potential confounders, serum γ-tocopherol had a significant inverse association with forced vital capacity (β = -0.10, p = 0.05). Alpha and δ-tocopherol were not associated with any lung function parameter. After classifying COPD status according to Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage criteria, serum levels of δ-tocopherol were lower in participants with more severe COPD (p = 0.01). Serum levels of δ-tocopherol were also lower in participants with greater levels of smoking (p = 0.02). Both vitamin E intake (β = 0.03, p = 0.02; β = 0.03, p = 0.01) and use of vitamin E supplements (β = 0.05, p = 0.03; β = 0.06. p = 0.02) were positively associated with FEV1 and FVC, after adjusting for confounders. Subjects who took vitamin E supplements had significantly higher α-tocopherol levels (p tocopherol levels (p tocopherol and lung function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of non-traumatic complex regional pain syndrome with adenocarcinoma lung on 99mTc-MDP bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damle, Nishikant A.; Tripathi, Madhavi; Singhal, Abhinav; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Praveen Kumar; Kandasamy, Devasenathipathi; Jana, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is usually associated with trauma. Rarely, it may be seen in association with malignancies. We present here the bone scan and X-ray findings in the case of a 56-year-male-patient with adenocarcinoma lung who also had non-traumatic CRPS without involvement of the stellate ganglion. The case highlights the fact that spontaneous development of reflex sympathetic dystrophy may be associated with a neoplastic etiology. (author)

  13. Endothelial cell chimerism associated with graft rejection after human lung transplantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ratajczak , Philippe; Murata , Hideyuki; Meignin , Véronique; Groussard , Odile; Fournier , Michel; Socié , Gérard; Mal , Hervé; Janin , Anne

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Endotheliitis is a major sign of graft rejection. Recipient-derived endothelial cells found in two series of liver and kidney transplants were related to graft rejection. Here, we assessed the presence and the number of chimeric endothelial cells in lung transplants, and their relation with graft rejection. In six males grafted with female lungs out of 193 lung transplantations, endothelial chimerism was studied by combined XY-fluorescent in situ hybridization with CD3...

  14. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Computed Tomography Screening Workshop 2011 report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, John K; Smith, Robert A; Aberle, Denise R

    2011-01-01

    national screening programs; (iii) develop guidelines for the clinical work-up of "indeterminate nodules" resulting from CT screening programmers; (iv) guidelines for pathology reporting of nodules from lung cancer CT screening programs; (v) recommendations for surgical and therapeutic interventions...... of suspicious nodules identified through lung cancer CT screening programs; and (vi) integration of smoking cessation practices into future national lung cancer CT screening programs....

  15. School-level factors associated with increased fruit and vegetable consumption among students in California middle and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosliner, Wendi

    2014-09-01

    This study assessed associations between selective school-level factors and students' consumption of fruits and vegetables at school. Better understanding of school factors associated with increased produce consumption is especially important, as students are served more produce items at school. This cross-sectional study included 5439 seventh- and ninth-grade students from 31 schools in California in 2010. Multilevel regression models estimated whether the odds of consuming fruits or vegetables at school among students eating the school lunch were associated with the length of the lunch period, quality/variety of produce options, or other factors. A longer lunch period was associated with increased odds of a student eating fruits (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40) and vegetables (OR = 1.54) at school. Better fruit quality increased the odds of a student consuming fruit (OR = 1.44). Including a salad bar and involving students in food service decisions increased a student's odds of consuming vegetables (OR = 1.48 and OR = 1.34, respectively). This study suggests that institutional factors in schools are positively associated with middle and high school students' consumption of produce items at school. Additional efforts to structure school meal environments to enhance students' consumption of produce items can benefit students' nutrition and health. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  16. Circulating alpha1-antitrypsin in the general population: Determinants and association with lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Wolfgang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT deficiency associated with low AAT blood concentrations is an established genetic COPD risk factor. Less is known about the respiratory health impact of variation in AAT serum concentrations in the general population. We cross-sectionally investigated correlates of circulating AAT concentrations and its association with FEV1. Methods In 5187 adults (2669 females with high-sensitive c-reactive protein (CRP levels ≤ 10 mg/l from the population-based Swiss SAPALDIA cohort, blood was collected at the time of follow-up examination for measuring serum AAT and CRP. Results Female gender, hormone intake, systolic blood pressure, age in men and in postmenopausal women, as well as active and passive smoking were positively, whereas alcohol intake and BMI inversely correlated with serum AAT levels, independent of CRP adjustment. We observed an inverse association of AAT with FEV1 in the total study population (p Conclusion The results of this population-based study reflect a complex interrelationship between tobacco exposure, gender related factors, circulating AAT, systemic inflammatory status and lung function.

  17. Association of chronic lung disease with treatments and outcomes patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, Jonathan R; de Lemos, James A; Parikh, Shailja V; Peng, S Andrew; Spertus, John A; Holper, Elizabeth M; Roe, Matthew T; Rohatgi, Anand; Das, Sandeep R

    2013-01-01

    Although chronic lung disease (CLD) is common among patients with myocardial infarction (MI), little is known about the influence of CLD on patient management and outcomes following MI. Using the National Cardiovascular Data Registry's ACTION Registry-GWTG, demographics, clinical characteristics, treatments, processes of care, and in-hospital adverse events after acute MI were compared between patients with (n = 22,624) and without (n = 136,266) CLD. Multivariable adjustment was performed to determine the independent association of CLD with treatments and adverse events. CLD (17.0% of non-ST-elevation MI [NSTEMI] and 10.1% of ST-elevation MI [STEMI] patients) was associated with older age, female sex, and a greater burden of comorbidities. Among NSTEMI patients, those with CLD were less likely to undergo cardiac catheterization, percutaneous coronary intervention, and coronary artery bypass graft compared to those without; in contrast, no differences were seen in invasive therapies for STEMI patients with or without CLD. Multivariable-adjusted risk of major bleeding was significantly increased in CLD patients with NSTEMI (13.0% vs 8.1%, OR(adj) = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.20-1.34, P CLD was associated with a higher risk of inhospital mortality (OR(adj) = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.11-1.33); in STEMI no association between CLD and mortality was seen (OR(adj) = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.95-1.17). CLD is common among patients with MI and is independently associated with an increased risk for major bleeding. In NSTEMI, CLD is also associated with receiving less revascularization and with increased in-hospital mortality. Special attention should be given to this high-risk subgroup for the prevention and management of complications after MI. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Up-to-Date Information on Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Suda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary involvement is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and affects all the components of the lung. Interstitial lung disease (ILD is the most predominant pulmonary manifestation and has been identified as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in RA. Clinically significant RA-ILD occurs in approximately 10% of RA patients. Several risk factors, such as old age, male gender, and smoking, have been reported to date. Histologically, the proportion of the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP pattern is higher in RA-ILD than in ILD associated with other connective tissue diseases, and RA-ILD also shows nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and organizing pneumonia patterns. High-resolution computed tomography scans are highly predictive of the histological UIP pattern with a specificity of 96%-100%. Acute exacerbation, which is the acute deterioration of the respiratory status characterized by newly developed bilateral infiltrates with unknown etiologies, has been reported in RA-ILD. Although acute exacerbation of RA-ILD has high mortality, similar to that of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, its incidence is lower in RA-ILD than in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A consensus treatment has not yet been established. Current therapeutic regimens typically include corticosteroids with or without cytotoxic agents. Recent large longitudinal studies reported that the prognosis of RA-ILD was poor with a median survival of 2.6-3.0 years. Furthermore, histological and/or radiological patterns, such as UIP or non-UIP, have significant prognostic implications. RA-ILD patients with histological or radiological UIP patterns have poorer prognoses than those with non-UIP patterns. This review assessed the characteristics of RA-ILD by overviewing recent studies in the field and focused on the clinical significance of histological and/or radiological patterns in RA-ILD.

  19. Interstitial lung abnormalities in treatment-naïve advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients are associated with shorter survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishino, Mizuki, E-mail: Mizuki_Nishino@DFCI.HARVARD.EDU [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis St., Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Cardarella, Stephanie [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215, (United States); Dahlberg, Suzanne E. [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Araki, Tetsuro [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis St., Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Lydon, Christine; Jackman, David M.; Rabin, Michael S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215, (United States); Hatabu, Hiroto [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis St., Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Johnson, Bruce E. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215, (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 14% of stage IV NSCLC patients. • ILA was more common in older patients with heavier smoking history. • ILA was associated with shorter survival after adjusting for smoking and therapy. • ILA could be an additional independent marker for survival in advanced NSCLC. - Abstract: Objective: Interstitial lung diseases are associated with increased risk of lung cancer. The prevalence of ILA at diagnosis of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its impact on overall survival (OS) remain to be investigated. Materials and method: The study included 120 treatment-naïve stage IV NSCLC patients (53 males, 67 females). ILA was scored on CT prior to any systemic therapy using a 4-point scale [0 = no evidence of ILA, 1 = equivocal for ILA, 2 = suspicious for ILA, 3 = ILA] by a sequential reading method previously reported. ILA scores of 2 or 3 indicated the presence of ILA. Results: ILA was present in 17 patients (14%) with advanced NSCLC prior to any treatment (score3: n = 2, score2: n = 15). These 17 patients were significantly older (median age: 69 vs. 63, p = 0.04) and had a heavier smoking history (median: 40 vs. 15.5 pack-year, p = 0.003) than those with ILA score 0 or 1. Higher ILA scores were associated with shorter OS (p = 0.001). Median OS of the 17 patients with ILA was 7.2 months [95%CI: 2.9–9.4] compared to 14.8 months [95%CI: 11.1–18.4] in patients with ILA score 0 or 1 (p = 0.002). In a multivariate model, the presence of ILA remained significant for increased risk for death (HR = 2.09, p = 0.028) after adjusting for first-line systemic therapy (chemotherapy, p < 0.001; TKI, p < 0.001; each compared to no therapy) and pack years of smoking (p = 0.40). Conclusion: Radiographic ILA was present in 14% of treatment-naïve advanced NSCLC patients. Higher ILA scores were associated with shorter OS, indicating that ILA could be a marker of shorter survival in advanced NSCLC.

  20. Associations between school violence, military connection, and gang membership in California secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez; Gilreath, Tamika D; Sanchez, Cathia Y; Astor, Ron Avi

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have found that military-connected students confront many challenges-such as secondary traumatization-that may stem from a parent's deployment and frequent relocations. It is possible that multiple moves and deployments of family service members are associated with military-connected students' gang membership and involvement with school violence behaviors. In this study, a total of 13,484 students completed the core and military modules of the California Healthy Kids Survey. Logistic regressions examined the odds of a student being a member of a gang given their grade, gender, race/ethnicity, school violence behaviors, military-connectedness, changes in schools, and familial deployments. Results indicated that of the nearly 8% of students sampled who reported being in a gang, those with a parent or sibling currently serving in the military reported a higher prevalence rate of gang membership than students with no military connection. Students who reported being in fights or carrying weapons to school were at least twice more likely to be a gang member than students who reported not having been in fights or carrying weapons. Changing schools 4 or more times in a 5-year period and experiencing at least 1 familial deployment were also associated with an increased likelihood of gang membership. The findings of this study offer incentive to further explicate the gang and school violence experiences of military-connected students. This study supports schools in understanding the characteristics of the military-connected students and families they serve so they can implement appropriate interventions to curb gang and school violence behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Overexpression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene product in primary lung adenocarcinomas is associated with cigarette smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, W. H.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Goodman, S. N.; Slebos, R. J.; Polak, M.; Baas, I. O.; Rodenhuis, S.; Hruban, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene are frequently observed in primary lung adenocarcinomas, suggesting that these mutations are critical events in the malignant transformation of airway cells. These mutations are often associated with stabilization of the p53 gene product, resulting in the

  2. The 15q24/25 Susceptibility Variant for Lung Cancer and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Is Associated with Emphysema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambrechts, Diether; Buysschaert, Ian; Zanen, Pieter; Coolen, Johan; Lays, Natacha; Cuppens, Harry; Groen, Harry J. M.; Dewever, Walter; van Klaveren, Rob J.; Verschakelen, Johny; Wijmenga, Cisca; Postma, Dirkje S.; Decramer, Marc; Janssens, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) on chromosome 15q24/25 as a risk for nicotine dependence, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Assessment of bronchial obstruction by spirometry,

  3. High Frequency of Programmed Death-ligand 1 Expression in Emphysematous Bullae-associated Lung Adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Gouji; Takada, Kazuki; Okamoto, Tatsuro; Kozuma, Yuka; Matsubara, Taichi; Haratake, Naoki; Takamori, Shinkichi; Akamine, Takaki; Katsura, Masakazu; Shoji, Fumihiro; Oda, Yoshinao; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2017-09-01

    Emphysematous bullae (EB) are known to be associated with a high incidence of lung cancer; however, the reason for this has yet to be elucidated. The objective of the present study was to clarify the prevalence of programmed death-ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in EB-associated lung adenocarcinomas. A total of 369 patients with resected lung adenocarcinoma whose preoperative computed tomography findings were available for the examination of EB were analyzed for PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry and evaluated to determine the association between PD-L1 expression and EB-related adenocarcinomas. Among 369 patients, EB and cancer adjoining EB (Ca-ADJ) were identified in 81 (22.0%) and 50 (13.6%) patients, respectively. EB and Ca-ADJ were significantly associated with male gender, a smoking habit, a decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 second, a relatively higher tumor grade, advanced T status and stage, the presence of pleural and vessel invasion, invasive pathologic subtypes, and wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor. Seventy patients (19.0%) were positive for PD-L1 expression, whereas the remaining 299 patients (81.0%) were negative. Thirty-six (44.4%) and 29 (58.0%) of 81 and 50 patients with EB and Ca-ADJ, respectively, were positive for PD-L1 expression, which was shown to be significant by the Fisher exact test (P < .001 and P < .001, respectively). Among the 81 lung adenocarcinomas with EB, Ca-ADJ was significantly associated with PD-L1 expression (P = .021). In a multivariate analysis, the presence of Ca-ADJ was found to be an independent predictor of PD-L1 expression. EB-associated lung adenocarcinomas express PD-L1 protein more frequently than those without EB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Association between Subjective School Adaptation and Life Skills in Elementary School Children with Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoji, Yurina; Miyai, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the association between subjective school adaptation and life skills in elementary school children with chronic diseases. A cross-sectional sample of children with chronic diseases (n=76), who were being treated as pediatric outpatients and who were in the 4th to 6th grade of public elementary schools, was selected. The subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire that comprised an Adaptation Scale for School Environments on Six Spheres (ASSESS) and life skills scales for self-management and stress coping strategies. Structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the inter-relationship between subjective school adaptation and life skills. Compared with the gender- and schoolyear-matched healthy controls (n=380), a large number of children with chronic diseases had low scores on the measure of interpersonal relationship in school. From the structural equation modeling, the subscales "friend's support" and "victimized relationship" in interpersonal relationship were two of the factors closely related to subjective adaptation of learning as well as school satisfaction in the children with chronic diseases. Furthermore, the "decision-making" and "goal-setting" components of self-management skills demonstrated positive contributions to the adaptation of learning and interpersonal relationship either directly affected by the skills themselves or through the affirmative effects of stress coping strategies. These results suggest that life skills education, focusing on self-management and stress coping strategies along with support to improve interpersonal relationships, is effective in promoting subjective school adaptation and leads to increased school satisfaction in children with chronic diseases.

  5. Association between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yingbo Xue, Ying Jiang, Shan Jin, Yong Li Department of Oncology, Guizhou Provincial People’s Hospital, Guiyang, Guizhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Lung cancer has been the main cause of cancer death around the world. Cigarette smoking has been identified as a risk factor for lung cancer in males. However, the etiological factors in nonsmoking women remain elusive. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women. Thirteen articles containing three population-based case–control and ten hospital-based case–control studies were included in this meta-analysis. These studies with a total of 3,596 lung cancer women and 6,082 healthy controls were analyzed by RevMan 5.3. Fixed effects model or random effects model was used to obtain pooled estimates of risk ratio. The risk ratios with a 95% CI were 1.74 (95% CI =1.57–1.94 and 2.11 (95% CI =1.54–2.89, respectively. Cooking oil fume exposure as well as not using a kitchen ventilator when cooking was significantly associated with lung cancer among nonsmoking women (Z=10.07, P<0.00001; Z=4.65, P<0.00001. Cooking oil fume exposure, especially lacking a fume extractor, may increase the risk of lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women. Keywords: cooking oil fume exposure, lung cancer, meta-analysis, nonsmoking women 

  6. The Development of Associate Learning in School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Brian T.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Snyder, Peter J.; Thomas, Elizabeth; Mayes, Linda C.; Maruff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes. PMID:25014755

  7. The development of associate learning in school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T Harel

    Full Text Available Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes.

  8. School and local authority characteristics associated with take-up of free school meals in Scottish secondary schools, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Stephanie; Dundas, Ruth; Torsney, Ben

    2016-01-02

    School meals are an important state-delivered mechanism for improving children's diets. Scottish local authorities have a statutory duty to provide free school meals (FSM) to families meeting means-testing criteria. Inevitably take-up of FSM does not reach 100%. Explanations put forward to explain this include social stigma, as well as a more general dissatisfaction amongst pupils about lack of modern facilities and meal quality, and a preference to eat where friends are eating. This study investigated characteristics associated with take-up across Scottish secondary schools in 2013-2014 using multilevel modelling techniques. Results suggest that stigma, food quality and the ability to eat with friends are associated with greater take-up. Levels of school modernisation appeared less important, as did differences between more urban or rural areas. Future studies should focus on additional school-level variables to identify characteristics associated with take-up, with the aim of reducing the number of registered pupils not taking-up FSM.

  9. The associations between two vital GSTs genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer risk in the Chinese population: evidence from 71 studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase (GSTs have been suspected to be related to the development of lung cancer while the current results are conflicting, especially in the Chinese population. METHODS: Data on genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1 from 68 studies, glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1 from 17 studies and GSTM1-GSTT1 from 8 studies in the Chinese population were reanalyzed on their association with lung cancer risk. Odds ratios (OR were pooled using forest plots. 9 subgroups were all or partly performed in the subgroup analyses. The Galbraith plot was used to identify the heterogeneous records. Potential publication biases were detected by Begg's and Egger's tests. RESULTS: 71 eligible studies were identified after screening of 1608 articles. The increased association between two vital GSTs genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer risk was detected by random-effects model based on a comparable heterogeneity. Subgroup analysis showed a significant relationship between squamous carcinoma (SC, adenocarcinoma (AC or small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC and GSTM1 null genotype, as well as SC or AC and GSTT1 null genotype. Additionally, smokers with GSTM1 null genotype had a higher lung cancer risk than non-smokers. Our cumulative meta-analysis demonstrated a stable and reliable result of the relationship between GSTM1 null genotype and lung cancer risk. After the possible heterogeneous articles were omitted, the adjusted risk of GSTs and lung cancer susceptibility increased (fixed-effects model: ORGSTM1 = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.19 to 1.27, P<0.001; ORGSTT1 = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.26, P<0.001; ORGSTM1-GSTT1 = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.61, P = 0.004. CONCLUSIONS: An increased risk of lung cancer with GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype, especially with dual null genotype, was found in the Chinese population. In addition, special histopathological classification of lung cancers and a

  10. Increased red blood cell distribution width associates with cancer stage and prognosis in patients with lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Koma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Red cell distribution width (RDW, one of many routinely examined parameters, shows the heterogeneity in erythrocyte size. We investigated the association of RDW levels with clinical parameters and prognosis of lung cancer patients. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data from 332 patients with lung cancer in a single institution were retrospectively studied by univariate analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the effect of RDW on survival. RESULTS: THE RDW LEVELS WERE DIVIDED INTO TWO GROUPS: high RDW (>=15%, n=73 vs. low RDW, n=259 (<15%. Univariate analysis showed that there were significant associations of high RDW values with cancer stage, performance status, presence of other disease, white blood cell count, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, platelet count, albumin level, C-reactive protein level, and cytokeratin 19 fragment level. Kruskal-Wallis tests revealed an association of RDW values with cancer stage in patients irrespective of comorbidity (patient with/without comorbidity: p<0.0001, patient without comorbidity: p<0.0001. Stages I-IV lung cancer patients with higher RDW values had poorer prognoses than those with lower RDW values (Wilcoxon test: p=0.002. In particular, the survival rates of stage I and II patients (n=141 were lower in the high RDW group (n=19 than in the low RDW group (n=122 (Wilcoxon test: p<0.001. Moreover, multivariate analysis showed higher RDW is a significant prognostic factor (p=0.040. CONCLUSION: RDW is associated with several factors that reflect inflammation and malnutrition in lung cancer patients. Moreover, high levels of RDW are associated with poor survival. RDW might be used as a new and convenient marker to determine a patient's general condition and to predict the mortality risk of lung cancer patients.

  11. Factors associated with disease-specific survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Mirian Carvalho de; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a global public health problem and is associated with high mortality. Lung cancer could be largely avoided by reducing the prevalence of smoking. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of social, behavioral, and clinical factors on the survival time of patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated at Cancer Hospital I of the José Alencar Gomes da Silva National Cancer Institute, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2000 and 2003. This was a retrospective hospital cohort study involving 1,194 patients. The 60-month disease-specific survival probabilities were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method for three stage groups. The importance of the studied factors was assessed with a hierarchical theoretical model after adjustment by Cox multiple regression. The estimated 60-month specific-disease lethality rate was 86.0%. The 60-month disease-specific survival probability ranged from 25.0% (stages I/II) to 2.5% (stage IV). The performance status, the intention to treat, and the initial treatment modality were the major prognostic factors identified in the study population. In this cohort of patients, the disease-specific survival probabilities were extremely low. We identified no factors that could be modified after the diagnosis in order to improve survival. Primary prevention, such as reducing the prevalence of smoking, is still the best method to reduce the number of people who will suffer the consequences of lung cancer. O câncer de pulmão é um problema de saúde pública global e é associado a elevada mortalidade. Ele poderia ser evitado em grande parte com a redução da prevalência do tabagismo. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os efeitos de fatores sociais, comportamentais e clínicos sobre o tempo de sobrevida de pacientes com câncer de pulmão de células não pequenas atendidos, entre 2000 e 2003, no Hospital do Câncer I do Instituto Nacional de Câncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva, localizado na

  12. Integrative proteomics and tissue microarray profiling indicate the association between overexpressed serum proteins and non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yansheng Liu

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Clinically, the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC can be improved by the early detection and risk screening among population. To meet this need, here we describe the application of extensive peptide level fractionation coupled with label free quantitative proteomics for the discovery of potential serum biomarkers for lung cancer, and the usage of Tissue microarray analysis (TMA and Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM assays for the following up validations in the verification phase. Using these state-of-art, currently available clinical proteomic approaches, in the discovery phase we confidently identified 647 serum proteins, and 101 proteins showed a statistically significant association with NSCLC in our 18 discovery samples. This serum proteomic dataset allowed us to discern the differential patterns and abnormal biological processes in the lung cancer blood. Of these proteins, Alpha-1B-glycoprotein (A1BG and Leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG1, two plasma glycoproteins with previously unknown function were selected as examples for which TMA and MRM verification were performed in a large sample set consisting about 100 patients. We revealed that A1BG and LRG1 were overexpressed in both the blood level and tumor sections, which can be referred to separate lung cancer patients from healthy cases.

  13. Eating School Lunch Is Associated with Higher Diet Quality among Elementary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Lauren E; Rosen, Nila J; Fenton, Keenan; Hecht, Kenneth; Ritchie, Lorrene D

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have assessed the dietary quality of children who eat meals from home compared with school meals according to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The objective of this study was to examine diet quality for elementary school students in relation to source of breakfast and lunch (whether school meal or from an outside source). An observational study was conducted of students in 43 schools in San Diego, CA, during the 2011-2012 school year. Fourth- and fifth-grade students (N=3,944) completed a diary-assisted 24-hour food recall. The Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) scores of children who ate breakfast and lunch at school were compared with the HEI-2010 scores of children who obtained their meals from home and a combination of both school and home. Analysis of variance, χ 2 test, and generalized estimating equation models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, grade, language, and school level clustering were performed. School lunch eaters had a higher mean±standard deviation overall diet quality score (HEI-2010=49.0±11.3) compared with students who ate a lunch obtained from home (46.1±12.2; P=0.02). There was no difference in overall diet quality score by breakfast groups. Students who ate school breakfast had higher total fruit (P=0.01) and whole fruit (P=0.0008) scores compared with students who only ate breakfast obtained from home. Students who ate school foods had higher scores for dairy (P=0.007 for breakfast and Pempty calories from solid fats and added sugars (P=0.01 for breakfast and P=0.007 for lunch). Eating school lunch was associated with higher overall diet quality compared with obtaining lunch from home. Future studies are needed that assess the influence of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act on children's diet quality. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of radiation on the expression of tumor-associated antigens of human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hareyama, Masato

    1988-01-01

    We studied the effects of irradiation on the expression of a tumor-associated antigen (YH206 antigen) of cultured human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and flow cytometry. YH206 antigen is preferentially expressed on adenocarcinoma cells. Irradiation of A549 cells remarkably increased the expression of YH206 antigen on the cell surface and the level of the antigen in the culture supernatant as well as in the cell lysate, whereas it significantly affected the expression of HLA (MHC-class I) antigen on the same cells. The expression of HLA antigen on the cell was also increased after treatment of the cells with interferon-γ. In an additional experiment, cells were stained simultaneously for surface antigens (fluorescein coupled antibodies) and for DNA content (propidium iodide), and then dual parameter measurements were performed by flow cytometry to analyse the relationship between antigen levels and the cell cycle. YH206 antigen and HLA antigen increased more in the S and G 2 /M phases of the cell cycle than in G 0 /G 1 . The expression of YH206 antigen was enhanced in the S and G 2 /M phases by irradiation, whereas the expression of HLA antigen was enhanced in each phase of the cell cycle with irradiation or IFN. These results suggest that irradiation plays a key role in the change of the expression of certain tumor-associated antigens. (author)

  15. Mucin 5B promoter polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to interstitial lung diseases in Chinese males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunli Wang

    Full Text Available The variation of G>T in the MUC5B promoter (rs35705950 has been associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF and familial interstitial pneumonia (FIP in Caucasians, but no information is available regarding this variant in the Chinese population. We recruited 405 patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILD, including 165 IPF patients and 2043 healthy controls, for genotyping the MUC5B gene in the Chinese population. One hundred three patients with pneumonia and 360 patients with autoimmune diseases (ADs were recruited as disease controls. Our results indicated that the prevalence of the minor allele (T of the polymorphism rs35705950 in healthy Chinese subjects was approximately 0.66%, which was lower than that described in the Caucasian population. The frequencies of the T allele were 3.33% and 2.22% in IPF and ILD patients, respectively, and these values were significantly higher than those of healthy controls (P = 0.001, OR = 4.332 for IPF, and P = 0.002, OR = 2.855 for ILD. A stratified analysis showed that this variant in MUC5B associated with the risk for ILD mainly in older male Chinese subjects. No difference was observed between patients with pneumonia, AD patients, and healthy controls.

  16. Cytomegalovirus Viral Load in Bronchoalveolar Lavage to Diagnose Lung Transplant Associated CMV Pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodding, Isabelle Paula; Schultz, Hans Henrik; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnostic yield for cytomegalovirus (CMV) PCR viral load in Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) or in plasma to diagnose CMV pneumonia in lung transplant recipients remains uncertain, and was investigated in a large cohort of consecutive lung transplant recipients. METHODS: Bronchoscopi...

  17. Residential Radon Exposure and Lung Cancer: Evidence of an Inverse Association in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, John S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a descriptive study of lung cancer death rates compared to county levels of radon in Washington State. Age-specific death rates were computed for white female smokers according to radon exposure. A significant lung cancer excess was found in lowest radon counties. No significant difference was found between the proportion of…

  18. Trauma patient adverse outcomes are independently associated with rib cage fracture burden and severity of lung, head, and abdominal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, C Michael; Hileman, Barbara M; Ransom, Kenneth J; Malik, Rema J

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that lung injury and rib cage fracture quantification would be associated with adverse outcomes. Consecutive admissions to a trauma center with Injury Severity Score ≥ 9, age 18-75, and blunt trauma. CT scans were reviewed to score rib and sternal fractures and lung infiltrates. Sternum and each anterior, lateral, and posterior rib fracture was scored 1 = non-displaced and 2 = displaced. Rib cage fracture score (RCFS) = total rib fracture score + sternal fracture score + thoracic spine Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS). Four lung regions (right upper/middle, right lower, left upper, and left lower lobes) were each scored for % of infiltrate: 0% = 0; ≤ 20% = 1, ≤ 50% = 2, > 50% = 3; total of 4 scores = lung infiltrate score (LIS). Of 599 patients, 193 (32%) had 854 rib fractures. Rib fracture patients had more abdominal injuries (p fractures (p = 0.0028) and death or need for mechanical ventilation ≥ 3 days (Death/Vdays ≥ 3) (p rib fracture patients, Glasgow Coma Score 3-12 or head AIS ≥ 2 occurred in 43%. A lung infiltrate or hemo/pneumothorax occurred in 55%. Thoracic spine injury occurred in 23%. RCFS was 6.3 ± 4.4 and Death/Vdays ≥ 3 occurred in 31%. Death/Vdays ≥ 3 rates correlated with RCFS values: 19% for 1-3; 24% for 4-6; 42% for 7-12 and 65% for ≥ 13 (p rib fracture score (p = 0.08) or number of fractured ribs (p = 0.80). Rib fracture patients have increased risk for truncal injuries and adverse outcomes. Adverse outcomes are independently associated with rib cage fracture burden. Severity of head, abdominal, and lung injuries also influence rib fracture outcomes.

  19. Podoplanin expression in cancer-associated fibroblasts predicts unfavourable prognosis in patients with pathological stage IA lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubouchi, Yasuaki; Yurugi, Yohei; Wakahara, Makoto; Sakabe, Tomohiko; Haruki, Tomohiro; Nosaka, Kanae; Miwa, Ken; Araki, Kunio; Taniguchi, Yuji; Shiomi, Tatsushi; Nakamura, Hiroshige; Umekita, Yoshihisa

    2018-02-01

    Podoplanin expression in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) has been proposed as an unfavourable indicator in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, but little is known about its clinical significance in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma. We evaluated the prognostic impact of podoplanin expression in patients with pathological stage (p-stage) IA lung adenocarcinoma as categorised by the 8th edition of the tumour-node-metastasis classification for lung cancer. Immunohistochemical analyses using anti-podoplanin antibody were performed on resected specimens from 158 patients with p-stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. When more than 10% of cancer cells or CAFs showed immunoreactivity with podoplanin, the specimens were classified as podoplanin-positive. Podoplanin-positive status in cancer cells (n = 8) was not correlated with clinicopathological factors or with patient prognosis. Podoplanin-positive status in CAFs (n = 41) was correlated significantly with poorer tumour differentiation (P < 0.001), the presence of lymphatic invasion (P < 0.001) and high-grade (solid and/or micropapillary) components constituting ≥1% of the entire tumour (P < 0.001). The log-rank test showed that podoplanin-positive status in CAFs was associated significantly with shorter disease-free survival (DFS) (P < 0.001) and disease-specific survival (P = 0.015). In Cox's multivariate analysis, podoplanin-positive status in CAFs had the most significant effect on shorter DFS [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.411, P = 0.004], followed by the presence of high-grade components (HR = 3.581, P = 0.013). Podoplanin expression in CAFs could be an independent predictor of increased risk of recurrence in patients with p-stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. ANTIBODIES TO BENZO[A]PYRENE, ESTRADIOL AND PROGESTERONE AND GENE POLYMORPHISMS OF CYTOKINES: ASSOCIATIONS WITH LUNG CANCER IN MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Glushkov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have revealed associations of antibodies, specific to chemical carcinogens and steroid hormones with lung cancer in men. However, the mechanisms of their formation and action were remained unclear. In particular, the relationships between antibodies and gene polymorphisms of cytokines were un- known. The purpose of this study was to identify possible associations between occurrence of A class antibodies, specific to benzo[a]pyrene, estradiol and progesterone (IgA-Bp, IgA-Es and IgA-Pg, and frequency of genetic polymorphisms of IL1RN VNTR, IL1В (rs1143634, rs16944, IL4 VNTR, IL6 (rs1800795, IL10 (rs1800896, TNFA (rs1800629, rs361525 genes in healthy male smokers and lung cancer patients.We have examined 381 men with non-small cell lung cancer and 158 apparently healthy donors without respiratory diseases. A non-competitive solid phase immunoassay of antibodies was performed. Analysis of polymorphic loci of IL1RN (VNTR, intron 2, IL4 (VNTR, intron 3 was performed by means of conventional PCR; IL1В (rs1143634, rs16944, IL6 (rs1800795 SNPs were detected by RFLP, and IL10 (rs1800896, TNFA (rs1800629, rs361525 genotyping was carried out with TaqMan Real-time PCR. Results of the study have shown that the proportion of cases with high level of IgA-Pg and low levels of both IgA-Bp and IgA-Es among the lung cancer patients was lower than in healthy men (OR = 0.31, p < 0.0001. Vice versa, the ratio of cases with high levels of both IgA-Bp and IgA-Es and low levels of IgA-Pg was higher in lung cancer patients (OR = 3.6, p < 0.0001. No relationships were revealed between the levels of antibodies, and rates of genetic polymorphisms for the studied cytokines in both groups of men. At the same time, the detected associations of IgA-Bp, IgA-Es and IgA-Pg with lung cancer proved to be significant only in carriers of certain cytokine genotypes, e.g., in AG IL10 heterozygotes (OR = 5.1, p < 0.0001.In conclusion, these results provide indirect

  1. Abbreviation modalities of nitrogen multiple-breath washout tests in school children with obstructed lung disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Kent; Ejlertsen, Jacob S; Madsen, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    , the lung clearance index, calculated as lung volume turnovers required to reach 2.5% of the starting N2 concentration (LCI2.5 ). METHODS: Cross-sectional study of triplicate N2 MBW measurements obtained in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients (N = 60), primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) patients (N = 28......RATIONALE: Nitrogen multiple-breath washout (N2 MBW) is a promising tool for assessing early lung damage in children with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but it can be a time-consuming procedure. We compared alternative test-shortening endpoints with the most commonly reported N2 MBW outcome...... MBW runs in each session. N2 MBW endpoints were analyzed as z-scores calculated from healthy controls. RESULTS: In PCD, Cn@TO6 and LCI2.5 exhibited similar values (mean [95%CI] difference: 0.33 [-0.24; 0.90] z-scores), reducing the test duration by one-third (5.4 min; 95%CI: 4.0; 6.8). All other...

  2. Lunch frequency among adolescents:associations with sociodemographic factors and school characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Krølner, Rikke; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jørgensen, Thea Suldrup; Aarestrup, Anne Kristine; Utter, Jennifer; McNaughton, Sarah A; Neumark-Stzainer, Dianne; Rasmussen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate: (i) how lunch frequency of adolescents varies between schools and between classes within schools; (ii) the associations between frequency of lunch and individual sociodemographic factors and school characteristics; and (iii) if any observed associations between lunch frequency and school characteristics vary by gender and age groups.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in which students and school headmasters completed self-administered questionnaires. Associations were es...

  3. International association for the study of lung cancer/american thoracic society/european respiratory society international multidisciplinary classification of lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, William D; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Noguchi, Masayuki; Nicholson, Andrew G; Geisinger, Kim R; Yatabe, Yasushi; Beer, David G; Powell, Charles A; Riely, Gregory J; Van Schil, Paul E; Garg, Kavita; Austin, John H M; Asamura, Hisao; Rusch, Valerie W; Hirsch, Fred R; Scagliotti, Giorgio; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Huber, Rudolf M; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Jett, James; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montserrat; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Takahashi, Takashi; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Vansteenkiste, Johan; Wistuba, Ignacio; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Aberle, Denise; Brambilla, Christian; Flieder, Douglas; Franklin, Wilbur; Gazdar, Adi; Gould, Michael; Hasleton, Philip; Henderson, Douglas; Johnson, Bruce; Johnson, David; Kerr, Keith; Kuriyama, Keiko; Lee, Jin Soo; Miller, Vincent A; Petersen, Iver; Roggli, Victor; Rosell, Rafael; Saijo, Nagahiro; Thunnissen, Erik; Tsao, Ming; Yankelewitz, David

    2011-02-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic type of lung cancer. To address advances in oncology, molecular biology, pathology, radiology, and surgery of lung adenocarcinoma, an international multidisciplinary classification was sponsored by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society. This new adenocarcinoma classification is needed to provide uniform terminology and diagnostic criteria, especially for bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), the overall approach to small nonresection cancer specimens, and for multidisciplinary strategic management of tissue for molecular and immunohistochemical studies. An international core panel of experts representing all three societies was formed with oncologists/pulmonologists, pathologists, radiologists, molecular biologists, and thoracic surgeons. A systematic review was performed under the guidance of the American Thoracic Society Documents Development and Implementation Committee. The search strategy identified 11,368 citations of which 312 articles met specified eligibility criteria and were retrieved for full text review. A series of meetings were held to discuss the development of the new classification, to develop the recommendations, and to write the current document. Recommendations for key questions were graded by strength and quality of the evidence according to the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. The classification addresses both resection specimens, and small biopsies and cytology. The terms BAC and mixed subtype adenocarcinoma are no longer used. For resection specimens, new concepts are introduced such as adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) for small solitary adenocarcinomas with either pure lepidic growth (AIS) or predominant lepidic growth with ≤ 5 mm invasion (MIA) to define patients who, if they undergo complete resection, will have 100% or near 100

  4. Associations of Pet Ownership with Wheezing and Lung Function in Childhood: Findings from a UK Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Simon M; Granell, Raquel; Westgarth, Carri; Murray, Jane; Paul, Elizabeth S; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Henderson, A John

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous condition and differential effects of pet ownership on non-atopic versus atopic asthma have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pet ownership during pregnancy and early childhood was associated with wheezing from birth to age 7 years and with lung function at age 8 years in a UK population-based birth cohort. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were used to investigate associations of pet ownership at six time-points from pregnancy to age 7 years with concurrent episodes of wheezing, wheezing trajectories (phenotypes) and lung function at age 8 years using logistic regression models adjusted for child's sex, maternal history of asthma/atopy, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and family adversity. 4,706 children had complete data on pet ownership and wheezing. From birth to age 7 years, cat ownership was associated with an overall 6% lower odds of wheezing (OR=0.94 (0.89-0.99)). Rabbit and rodent ownership was associated with 21% (OR=1.21 (1.12-1.31)) and 11% (OR=1.11 (1.02-1.21)) higher odds of wheezing, respectively, with strongest effects evident during infancy. Rabbit and rodent ownership was positively associated with a 'persistent wheeze' phenotype. Pet ownership was not associated with lung function at age 8 years, with the exception of positive associations of rodent and bird ownership with better lung function. Cat ownership was associated with reduced risk, and rabbit and rodent ownership with increased risk, of wheezing during childhood. The mechanisms behind these differential effects warrant further investigation.

  5. Emphysema and soluble CD14 are associated with pulmonary nodules in HIV-infected patients: implications for lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplette, Matthew; Sigel, Keith M; Morris, Alison; Shahrir, Shahida; Wisnivesky, Juan P; Kong, Chung Y; Diaz, Phillip T; Petraglia, Alycia; Crothers, Kristina

    2017-07-31

    Lung cancer screening may benefit HIV-infected (HIV) smokers because of an elevated risk of lung cancer, but may have unique harms because of HIV-specific risk factors for false-positive screens. This study seeks to understand whether inflammatory biomarkers and markers of chronic lung disease are associated with noncalcified nodules at least 4 mm (NCN) in HIV compared with uninfected patients. This is a cohort study of Examinations of HIV-Associated Lung Emphysema (EXHALE), including 158 HIV and 133 HIV-uninfected participants. Participants underwent a laboratory assessment [including measurement of D-dimer, interleukin 6, and soluble CD14 (sCD14)], chest computed tomography (CT), and pulmonary function testing. We created multivariable logistic regression models to determine predictors of NCN in the participants stratified by HIV status, with attention to semiqualitative scoring of radiographic emphysema, markers of pulmonary function, and inflammatory biomarkers. Of the 291 participants, 69 had NCN on chest CT. As previously reported, there was no difference in prevalence of these nodules by HIV status. Emphysema and elevated sCD14 demonstrated an association with NCN in HIV participants independent of smoking status, CD4 cell count, HIV viral load, and pulmonary function. Emphysema and sCD14, a marker of immune activation, was associated with a higher prevalence of NCN on chest CT in HIV participants. Patients with chronic immune activation and emphysema may be at higher risk for both false-positive findings and incident lung cancer, thus screening in this group requires further study to understand the balance of benefits and harms.

  6. School environment factors were associated with BMI among adolescents in Xi'an City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibley Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School environment influences students' behaviours. The purpose of this research was to identify school environment factors associated with BMI. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1792 school-aged adolescents from 30 schools in six districts in Xi'an City in 2004. Height and weight were taken from students by trained field staff. School environment characteristics such as physical factors (school facilities, school shops and fast food outlets in school area, school curricula and policies were collected from school doctors using school environment questionnaire. School environment factors were identified in linear mixed effect models with BMI as outcome and adjusted for socio-demographic factors. Results After adjusted for socio-demographic factors, BMI was associated with the availability of soft drinks at school shops, the availability and the number of western food outlet in the school vicinity. School curricula such as sports-meeting and health education session were also associated with BMI. Conclusions Urgent actions are needed to address the obesogenic elements of school environments. Community and school policy makers should make efforts for students to avoid exposure to fast food outlet in school area and soft drinks at school shops, and to improve school curricula to promote healthy behaviours.

  7. Dietary Factors Associated To Obesity In Ahwaz Primary School Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorosty A.R; Tabatabaei M

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increase in obesity prevalence in recent years are associated to genetics as well environmental and behavioral factors. Change in dietary patterns including fatty and high density energy foods consumption have been reported to be very important. This study aimed to determine dietary factors (daily energy and macronutrient intakes, energy percentage of macronutrient, energy and macronutrient intakes per kilogram body weight, frequency of cola, natural fruit juice drinking, dairy products except cheese, tomato chips, puff, chocolate and fast food consumption and eating speed associated to obesity in Ahwaz primary school pupils. Materials and Methods: Using two stage cluster sampling from 35 Ahwaz primary schools, all 10-11y students who had a BMI 95th percentile of Hosseini et al. (1999 reference, were identified as obese (n=150 and 150 same age and gender pupils (having BMI0.05. macronutrient intakes per kilogram body weight were significantly lower in obese group (p0.05. Obese students used to eat faster (p<0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, high intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, tomato chips and puff and high eating speed were associated to obesity in Ahwaz primary school pupils.

  8. iASPP is over-expressed in human non-small cell lung cancer and regulates the proliferation of lung cancer cells through a p53 associated pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jinfeng; Xie, Fei; Zhang, Lijian; Jiang, Wen G

    2010-01-01

    iASPP is a key inhibitor of tumour suppressor p53 and is found to be up-regulated in certain malignant conditions. The present study investigated the expression of iASPP in clinical lung cancer, a leading cancer type in the world, and the biological impact of this molecule on lung cancer cells. iASPP protein levels in lung cancer tissues were evaluated using an immunohistochemical method. In vitro, iASPP gene expression was suppressed with a lentvirus-mediated shRNA method and the biological impact after knocking down iASSP on lung cancer cell lines was investigated in connection with the p53 expression status. We showed here that the expression of iASPP was significantly higher in lung cancer tissues compared with the adjacent normal tissues. iASPP shRNA treatment resulted in a down-regulation of iASPP in lung cancer cells. There was a subsequent reduction of cell proliferation of the two lung tumour cell lines A459 and 95D both of which had wild-type p53 expression. In contrast, reduction of iASPP in H1229 cells, a cell with little p53 expression, had no impact on its growth rate. iASPP regulates the proliferation and motility of lung cancer cells. This effect is intimately associated with the p53 pathway. Together with the pattern of the over-expression in clinical lung cancers, it is concluded that iASPP plays an pivotal role in the progression of lung cancer and is a potential target for lung cancer therapy

  9. Doença pulmonar intersticial associada a bronquiolite respiratória Respiratory bronchilitis-associated interstitial lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia CS. Rodrigues

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A doença pulmonar intersticial associada a bronquiolite respiratória faz parte do espectro anatomopatológico das lesões pulmonares infiltrativas difusas induzidas pela fumaça de cigarro. Raramente tem apresentação clínico-funcional exuberante. Descrevemos dois casos diagnosticados por biópsia pulmonar aberta, caracterizados por dispnéia de evolução insidiosa, baqueteamento digital, lesões císticas à tomografia computadorizada e hipoxemia ao exercício. Enfatizamos considerar, em indivíduos tabagistas, a doença pulmonar intersticial associada a bronquiolite respiratória no contexto das pneumopatias intersticiais císticas, juntamente com a linfangioleiomiomatose, o granuloma eosinofílico e a fibrose pulmonar idiopática.Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease is one of many within the spectrum of smoking-related diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. The clinical and functional characteristics are typically subtle. Herein, we describe two cases of diagnosed through open-lung biopsy, and characterized by insidious evolution of dyspnea, digital clubbing, cystic lesions on computed tomography scans, and hipoxemia upon exertion. We emphasize that, when smokers are evaluated, it is imprtant to consider a diagnosis of respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease in the context of interstitial cystitis, as well as in that of lymphangioleiomyomatosis, eosinophilic granuloma and idiophatic pulmonary fibrosis.

  10. Monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD) targeted by miR-140-5p regulates tumor growth in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weina; He, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Expression of MMD is increased in lung cancer tissues. • Knockdown of MMD inhibits growth of A549 and LLC cells in vitro and in vivo. • MMD is a direct functional target of miR-140-5p. • MiR-140-5p/MMD axis regulates Erk1/2 signaling. - Abstract: Monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD) is identified in macrophages as a gene associated with the differentiation from monocytes to macrophages. Recent microarray analysis for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) suggests that MMD is an important signature associated with relapse and survival among patients with NSCLC. Therefore, we speculate that MMD likely plays a role in lung cancer. In this study, we found that the protein level of MMD was increased in lung cancer compared to benign lung tissues, and knockdown of MMD inhibited the growth of A549 and Lewis lung cancer cells (LLC) in vitro and in vivo. Integrated analysis demonstrated that MMD was a direct functional target of miR-140-5p. Furthermore, we found that miR-140-5p/MMD axis could affect the cell proliferation of lung cancer cells by regulating Erk signaling. Together, our results highlight the significance of miR-140-5p/MMD axis in lung cancer, and miR-140-5p/MMD axis could serve as new molecular targets for the therapy against lung cancer

  11. Association between Domestic Violence and School Violence: a preliminary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Williams

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Usually, one investigates marital violence, children victimization, and school violence in an isolated way. The aim of this paper is to highlight the relationship between domestic violence and school violence, suggesting actions to deal with these serious issues. With this goal in mind, two studies are described in this paper. The first one evaluates if boys who behave aggressively in school, in comparison with their non-aggressive peers, have more incidence of domestic violence exposure and victimization. The second study investigates if exposure to domestic violence and child victimization are factors associated with bullying. These studies indicated that there is a relation between the violence experienced in these two contexts; however they emphasize the need for further investigations with more participant and longitudinal studies. Teacher in-service training is suggested, aimed at: identifying students living in families with a history of domestic violence; supporting teachers and principals in case of disclosures in the school setting; social skills training for students; class discussions about healthy and non-violent family relationships and, psychotherapy referral to students who are victimized.

  12. An examination of bullying in georgia schools: demographic and school climate factors associated with willingness to intervene in bullying situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldammer, Lori; Swahn, Monica H; Strasser, Sheryl M; Ashby, Jeffrey S; Meyers, Joel

    2013-08-01

    Research dedicated to identification of precursors to cases of aggravated bullying in schools has led to enhanced knowledge of risk factors for both victimization and perpetration. However, characteristics among those who are more likely to intervene in such situations are less understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations between demographic characteristics, school climate and psychosocial factors, and willingness to intervene in a bullying situation among middle and high school students in Georgia. We computed analyses using cross-sectional data from the Georgia Student Health Survey II (GSHS 2006) administered to public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 (n=175,311). We used logistic regression analyses to determine the demographic, school climate and psychosocial factors associated with a willingness to intervene in a bullying situation. Students who were white and who were girls were most likely to report willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Several school-climate factors, such as feeling safe at school, liking school, feeling successful at school and perceiving clear rules at school, were associated with willingness to intervene, while youth who reported binge drinking were less willing to intervene. These findings, while preliminary, indicate that girls, students who are white, and students who experience a relatively positive school climate and adaptive psychosocial factors are more likely to report that they would intervene in bullying situations. These findings may guide how bullying is addressed in schools and underscore the importance of safe school climates.

  13. Angiotensin-converting enzyme and its association with outcome in lung cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    R?mer, F. K.

    1981-01-01

    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) in 141 patients with newly detected primary lung cincer was 22.1 +/- 6.1 nmol/ml/min (mean +/- s.d.); lower than in healthy controls (24.4 +/- 6.2 nmol/ml/min, P less than 0.02). No correlation was found between SACE and sex, age, site of cancer, histological type, or lung function. After subdivision of the patients according to increasing SACE levels: less than 16.0 (mean SACE of lung cancer--s.d.), 16.0-22.0, 22.1-28.2 and greater than 28.2 nmol/ml...

  14. Medicaid Reimbursement for School Nursing Services: A Position Paper of the National Association of State School Nurse Consultants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of School Health, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This statement of the National Association of State School Nurse Consultants lists those school nursing services and procedures the organization believes should be reimbursable by Medicaid to school districts. Identified services are in the areas of case finding, nursing care procedures, care coordination, patient/student counseling, and emergency…

  15. Cost analysis of adverse events associated with non-small cell lung cancer management in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chouaid C

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Christos Chouaid,1 Delphine Loirat,2 Emilie Clay,3 Aurélie Millier,3 Chloé Godard,4 Amira Fannan,4 Laurie Lévy-Bachelot,4 Eric Angevin5 1Chest Department, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal Créteil, Créteil, France; 2Institut Curie, Paris, France; 3Creativ-Ceutical, Paris, France; 4MSD France, Courbevoie, France; 5Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France Background: Adverse events (AEs related to medical treatments in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC are frequent and need an appropriate costing in health economic models. Nevertheless, data on costs associated with AEs in NSCLC are scarce, particularly since the development of immunotherapy with specific immune-related AEs.Objective: To estimate the costs of grades 3 and 4 AEs related to NSCLC treatments including immunotherapy in France.Methods: Grades 3 and 4 AEs related to treatment and reported in at least 1% of patients in Phase III clinical trials for erlotinib, ramucirumab plus docetaxel, docetaxel, pemetrexed plus carboplatin plus bevacizumab, platinum-based chemotherapies, nivolumab and pembrolizumab were identified. When no cost evaluation was reported in literature, estimates on standard treatments and medical resource use for each AE were obtained thanks to an expert panel. Total cost per AE was calculated from a French national health insurance perspective and updated in 2017 Euros. Hospital stay costs were estimated based on public and private weighted tariffs and data from the French Medical Information System (Programme de Médicalisation des Systèmes d’Information. Costs of tests, consultations and treatments were calculated based on national reimbursement tariffs.Results: Overall, costs of grades 3 and 4 AEs related to treatment ranged from €46 per event to €7,742 per year. Fourteen out of 24 AEs identified had a mean estimated cost over €2,000. The highest mean costs were related to type 1 diabetes (€7,742 per year followed by pneumonitis (€5,786 per event

  16. Association studies of ERCC1 polymorphisms with lung cancer susceptibility: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhong Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excision repair cross-complimentary group 1 (ERCC1 is an essential component of the nucleotide excision repair system that is responsible for repairing damaged DNA. Functional genetic variations in the ERCC1 gene may alter DNA repair capacity and modulate cancer risk. The putative roles of ERCC1 gene polymorphisms in lung cancer susceptibility have been widely investigated. However, the results remain controversial. OBJECTIVES: An updated meta-analysis was conducted to explore whether lung cancer risk could be attributed to the following ERCC1 polymorphisms: rs11615 (T>C, rs3212986 (C>A, rs3212961 (A>C, rs3212948 (G>C, rs2298881 (C>A. METHODS: Several major databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus and the Chinese Biomedical database were searched for eligible studies. Crude odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to measure the strength of associations. RESULTS: Sixteen studies with 10,106 cases and 13,238 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled ORs from 11 eligible studies (8,215 cases vs. 11,402 controls suggested a significant association of ERCC1 rs11615 with increased risk for lung cancer (homozygous: CC versus TT, OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.04-1.48, P = 0.02. However, such an association was disproportionately driven by a single study. Removal of that study led to null association. Moreover, initial analyses suggested that ERCC1 rs11615 exerts a more profound effect on the susceptibility of non-smokers to lung cancer than that of smokers. Moreover, no statistically significant association was found between remaining ERCC1 polymorphisms of interest and lung cancer risk, except for rs3212948 variation (heterozygous: CG vs.GG, OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.67-0.90, P = 0.001; dominant: CG/CC vs.GG, OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.69-0.91, P = 0.001. CONCLUSION: Overall, this meta-analysis suggests that ERCC1 rs3212948 G>C, but not others, is a lung cancer risk-associated polymorphism. Carefully

  17. Bacterial lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groskin, S.A.; Panicek, D.M.; Ewing, D.K.; Rivera, F.; Math, K.; Teixeira, J.; Heitzman, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective review of patients with bacterial lung abscess was carried out. Demographic, clinical, and radiographical features of this patient group are compared with similar data from patients with empyema and/or cavitated lung carcinoma; differential diagnostic points are stressed. The entity of radiographically occult lung abscess is discussed. Complications associated with bacterial lung abscess are discussed. Current therapeutic options and treatment philosophy for patients with bacterial lung abscess are noted

  18. Modification by antioxidant supplementation of changes in human lung function associated with air pollutant exposure: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chow Katherine S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outdoor air pollution, given its demonstrated negative effects on the respiratory system, is a growing public health concern worldwide, particularly in urban cities. Human exposure to pollutants such as ozone, nitrogen oxides, combustion-related particulate matter and oxides of sulfur is responsible for significant cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in both adults and children. Several antioxidants have shown an ability to partially attenuate the negative physiological and functional impacts of air pollutants. This study systematically presents current data on the potential benefits of antioxidant supplementation on lung function outcomes associated with air pollutant exposures in intact humans. Methods Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, Web of Sciences, Environmental Sciences & Pollution Management and TOXNET were systematically searched for all studies published up to April 2009. Search terms relating to the concepts of respiratory tract diseases, respiratory function tests, air pollution, and antioxidants were used. Data was systematically abstracted from original articles that satisfied selection criteria for inclusion. For inclusion, the studies needed to have evaluated human subjects, given supplemental antioxidants, under conditions of known levels of air pollutants with measured lung function before and after antioxidant administration and/or air pollution exposure. Selected studies were summarized and conclusions presented. Results Eight studies investigated the role of antioxidant supplementation on measured lung function outcomes after subject exposure to air pollutants under controlled conditions; 5 of these studies concluded that pollutant-induced airway hyper-responsiveness and diminution in lung function measurements were attenuated by antioxidant supplementation. The remaining five studies took place under ambient (uncontrolled exposures and unanimously concluded that antioxidant

  19. Associations among bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Sheri; Toomey, Russell B; Walker, Jenny L

    2013-04-01

    This study examined associations among depression, suicidal behaviors, and bullying and victimization experiences in 1491 high school students using data from the 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results demonstrated that depression mediated the association between bullying/victimization and suicide attempts, but differently for males and females. Specifically, depression mediated the link between traditional victimization and suicide attempts similarly across gender, whereas depression mediated the link between cyber victimization and suicide attempts only for females. Similarly, depression mediated the link between traditional bullying and suicide attempts for females only. Depression did not mediate the link between cyberbullying and suicide attempts for either gender. Implications of the findings are discussed, including the importance of greater detection of depression among students involved in bullying, and the need for a suicide prevention and intervention component in anti-bullying programs. Findings suggest that bullying prevention efforts be extended from middle school students to include high school students. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Paradigm shift in LUNG SBRT dose calculation associated with Heterogeneity correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucca Aparicio, D.; Perez Moreno, J. M.; Fernandez Leton, P.; Garcia Ruiz-Zorrilla, J.; Pinto Monedero, M.; Marti Asensjo, J.; Alonso Iracheta, L.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of lung injury SBRT requires great dosimetric accuracy, the increasing clinical importance of dose calculation heterogeneities introducing algorithms that adequately model the transport of particles narrow beams in media of low density, as with Monte Carlo calculation. (Author)

  1. Health outcomes associated with lung function decline and respiratory symptoms and disease in a community cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baughman, Penelope; Marott, Jacob L; Lange, Peter

    2011-01-01

    in relation to asthma, chronic bronchitis, shortness of breath, and lung function level at examination 2 (1981-1983) or lung function decline established from examinations 1 (1976-1978) to 2 using 4 measures (FEV(1) slope, FEV(1) relative slope, American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine......BACKGROUND: In workplace respiratory disease prevention, a thorough understanding is needed of the relative contributions of lung function loss and respiratory symptoms in predicting adverse health outcomes. METHODS: Copenhagen City Heart Study respiratory data collected at 4 examinations (1976......, the increasing trend in the HR (95% CI) by quartiles of the FEV(1) slope reached a maximum of 3.77 (2.76-5.15) for males, 6.12 (4.63-8.10) for females, and 4.14 (1.57-10.90) for never-smokers. Significant increasing trends were also observed for mortality, with females at higher risk. CONCLUSION: Lung function...

  2. "Factors associated with non-small cell lung cancer treatment costs in a Brazilian public hospital".

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros Reis, Carla; Knust, Renata Erthal; de Aguiar Pereira, Claudia Cristina; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo

    2018-02-17

    The present study estimated the cost of advanced non-small cell lung cancer care for a cohort of 251 patients enrolled in a Brazilian public hospital and identified factors associated with the cost of treating the disease, considering sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of patients, service utilization patterns and survival time. Estimates were obtained from the survey of direct medical cost per patient from the hospital's perspective. Data was collected from medical records and available hospital information systems. The ordinary least squares (OLS) method with logarithmic transformation of the dependent variable for the analysis of cost predictors was used to take into account the positive skewness of the costs distribution. The average cost of NSCLC was US$ 5647 for patients, with 71% of costs being associated to outpatient care. The main components of cost were daily hospital bed stay (22.6%), radiotherapy (15.5%) and chemotherapy (38.5%). The OLS model reported that, with 5% significance level, patients with higher levels of education, with better physical performance and less advanced disease have higher treatment costs. After controlling for the patient's survival time, only education and service utilization patterns were statistically significant. Individuals who were hospitalized or made use of radiotherapy or chemotherapy had higher costs. The use of these outpatient and hospital services explained most of the treatment cost variation, with a significant increase of the adjusted R 2 of 0.111 to 0.449 after incorporation of these variables in the model. The explanatory power of the complete model reached 62%. Inequities in disease treatment costs were observed, pointing to the need for strategies that reduce lower socioeconomic status and population's hurdles to accessing cancer care services.

  3. Academic procrastination: associations with personal, school, and family variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Pedro; Costa, Marta; Núñez, José Carlos; González-Pienda, Julio; Solano, Paula; Valle, Antonio

    2009-05-01

    Procrastination is a common behavior, mainly in school settings. Only a few studies have analyzed the associations of academic procrastination with students' personal and family variables. In the present work, we analyzed the impact of socio-personal variables (e.g., parents' education, number of siblings, school grade level, and underachievement) on students' academic procrastination profiles. Two independent samples of 580 and 809 seventh to ninth graders, students attending the last three years of Portuguese Compulsory Education, have been taken. The findings, similar in both studies, reveal that procrastination decreases when the parents' education is higher, but it increases along with the number of siblings, the grade level, and the underachievement. The results are discussed in view of the findings of previous research. The implications for educational practice are also analyzed.

  4. The role of nailfold capillaroscopy in interstitial lung diseases - can it differentiate idiopathic cases from collagen tissue disease associated interstitial lung diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakmakçı Karadoğan, Dilek; Balkarlı, Ayşe; Önal, Özgür; Altınışık, Göksel; Çobankara, Veli

    2015-01-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC) is a non-invasive diagnostic test that is mostly used for early diagnosis of collagen tissue diseases (CTDs). We aimed to evaluate whether NFC findings could be a clue for discriminating idiopathic interstitial lung diseases (ILD) from CTD associated ILDs (CTD-ILD). Additionally it was aimed to determine whether NFC could be helpful in discriminating usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern from non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) pattern. We grouped patients into three main groups: 15 CTD-ILD, 18 idiopathic ILD, and 17 patients in the control group. The CTD-ILD group was split into two subgroups: 8 patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SJS)-associated ILD and 7 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-associated ILD. The idiopathic-ILD group consisted of 10 idiopathic NSIP and 8 IPF patients. The control group consisted of 10 SJS and 7 RA patients without lung disease. None of the patients were on acute exacerbation at the time of examination, and none had Reynaud's phenomenon. Mean capillary density was significantly reduced only in the CTD-ILD group as compared to the control group (p= 0.006). In subgroup analysis, it was determined that RA-ILD, IPF, and SJS-ILD subgroups had more severe capillaroscopic abnormalities. Mean capillary density in patients with the UIP pattern was reduced compared to patients with the NSIP pattern and those in the control group; p values were 0.008 and nailfold capillaroscopic findings of patients with NSIP and UIP patterns. NFC findings can be helpful in discriminating UIP patterns from NSIP patterns. But to show its role in differentiating idiopathic disease, more studies with more patients are needed.

  5. Seawater immersion aggravates burn-associated lung injury and inflammatory and oxidative-stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Wang, Ying; Wu, Qi; Chen, Xiaowei; Wang, Jiahan; Yang, Lei

    2017-08-01

    With the increasing frequency of marine development activities and local wars at sea, the incidence of scald burns in marine accidents or wars has been increasing yearly. Various studies have indicated that immersion in seawater has a systemic impact on some organs of animals or humans with burn. Thus, for burn/scald injuries after immersion in seawater, it is desirable to study the effects and mechanisms of action on important organs. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of immersion in seawater on lung injury, inflammatory and oxidative-stress responses in scalded rats. The structural damage to lungs was detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining and the results showed that seawater immersion aggravated structural lung injury in scalded rats. The expression of HMGB1 in lung tissues was detected by immunohistochemical analysis and the results showed that seawater immersion increased HMGB1 expression in lung tissues of scalded rats. Apoptosis in lung tissues was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transfer-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining and the results showed that seawater immersion increased apoptosis rate in lung tissues of scalded rats. In addition, the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, SOD, and MDA in serum were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and the results showed that seawater immersion induced secretion of proinflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8), increased MDA protein level, and suppressed SOD activity in the serum of scalded rats. Furthermore, measurement of plasma volume and pH showed that seawater immersion decreased plasma volume and pH value. Overall, the results indicated that all effects induced by immersion in seawater in scalded rats are more pronounced than those induced by freshwater. In conclusion, seawater immersion may aggravate lung injury and enhance inflammatory and oxidative-stress responses after burn. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights

  6. Diagnostic value of tumor markers for lung adenocarcinoma-associated malignant pleural effusion: a validation study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mei; Zhu, Jing; Liang, Liqun; Zeng, Ni; Wu, Yanqiu; Wan, Chun; Shen, Yongchun; Wen, Fuqiang

    2017-04-01

    Pleural effusion is one of the most common complications of lung adenocarcinoma and is diagnostically challenging. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic performance of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin fragment (CYFRA) 21-1, and cancer antigen (CA) 19-9 for lung adenocarcinoma-associated malignant pleural effusion (MPE) through a validation study and meta-analysis. Pleural effusion samples were collected from 81 lung adenocarcinoma-associated MPEs and 96 benign pleural effusions. CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The capacity of tumor markers was assessed with receiver operating characteristic curve analyses and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Standard methods for meta-analysis of diagnostic studies were used to summarize the diagnostic performance of CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 for lung adenocarcinoma-associated MPE. The pleural levels of CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 were significantly increased in lung adenocarcinoma-associated MPE compared to benign pleural effusion. The cut-off points for CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 were optimally set at 4.55 ng/ml, 43.10 μg/ml, and 12.89 U/ml, and corresponding AUCs were 0.93, 0.85, and 0.81, respectively. The combination of CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 increased the sensitivity to 95.06%, with an AUC of 0.95. Eight studies were included in this meta-analysis. CEA showed the best diagnostic performance with pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio of 0.75, 0.96, 16.01, 0.23, and 81.49, respectively. The AUC was 0.93. CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 play a role in the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma-associated MPE. The combination of these tumor markers increases the diagnostic accuracy.

  7. Association between spirometry controlled chest CT scores using computer-animated biofeedback and clinical markers of lung disease in children with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Thomas; Green, Kent; Buchvald, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    Background: Computed tomography (CT) of the lungs is the gold standard for assessing the extent of structural changes in the lungs. Spirometry-controlled chest CT (SCCCT) has improved the usefulness of CT by standardising inspiratory and expiratory lung volumes during imaging. This was a single...... (expressed as % of maximum score) to quantify different aspects of structural lung changes including bronchiectasis, airway wall thickening, mucus plugging, opacities, cysts, bullae and gas trapping. Clinical markers consisted of outcomes from pulmonary function tests, microbiological cultures from sputum......-centre cross-sectional study in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Using SCCCT we wished to investigate the association between the quantity and extent of structural lung changes and pulmonary function outcomes, and prevalence of known CF lung pathogens. Methods: CT images were analysed by CF-CT scoring...

  8. Association between lung function in adults and plasma DDT and DDE levels: results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2015-05-01

    Although DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane] has been banned in many countries since the 1970s, it may still pose a risk to human respiratory health. In agriculture, DDT exposures have been associated with asthma and chronic bronchitis. However, little is known about the effect of DDT on lung function. We used data on 1,696 participants 20-79 years of age from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) and conducted multiple regression analysis to estimate associations between plasma p,p´-DDT/DDE and lung function. Almost all participants (> 99.0%) had detectable concentrations of plasma p,p´-DDE, but only 10.0% had detectable p,p´-DDT. Participants with detectable p,p´-DDT had significantly lower mean FVC (difference = 311 mL; 95% CI: -492, -130; p = 0.003) and FEV1 (difference = 232 mL; 95% CI: -408, -55; p = 0.015) than those without. A 100-ng/g lipid increase in plasma p,p´-DDE was associated with an 18.8-mL decrease in mean FVC (95% CI: -29, -9) and an 11.8-mL decrease in mean FEV1 (95% CI: -21, -3). Neither exposure was associated with FEV1/FVC ratio or FEF25%-75%. DDT exposures, which may have occurred decades ago, were still detectable among Canadians. Plasma DDT and DDE were negatively associated with lung function parameters. Additional research on the potential effects of DDT use on lung function is warranted.

  9. Dietary Habits Are Associated With School Performance in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-03-01

    Several studies suggest that dietary habits are associated with poor academic performance. However, few studies have evaluated these relations after adjusting for numerous confounding factors. This study evaluated the frequency of various diet items (fruit, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk) and the regularity of meal times (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) all at once.A total of 359,264 participants aged from 12 to 18 years old were pooled from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) for the 2009 to 2013 period. Dietary habits over the last 7 days were surveyed, including the regularity of consuming breakfast, lunch and dinner and the frequency of eating fruits, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk. Physical activity, obesity, region of residence, subjective assessment of health, stress level, economic level, and parental education level were collected from all of the study participants. School performance was classified into 5 levels. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of dietary habits for school performance were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the effects of diet factors on school performance while considering the effects of other variables on both diet factors and school performance.Frequent intakes of breakfast (AOR = 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.20-2.48), fruits (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.62-1.86), vegetables (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.37-1.61), and milk (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.28-1.43) were related to high levels of school performance (each with P instant noodles (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.55-0.70), fast food (AOR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.72-0.96), and confectionary (AOR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.80-0.93) were negatively associated with school performance (each with P instant noodles, fast foods, and confections.

  10. Decrease of Airway Allergies After Lung Transplantation Is Associated With Reduced Basophils and Eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiecki, M; Yamada, Y; Inci, I; Weder, W; Jungraithmayr, W

    2016-01-01

    Allergies are hypersensitive reactions of the immune system on antigen exposure similar to immune reactions after transplantation (Tx). Their activity can change after Tx. The lung as a transplantable organ is challenged two-fold, by antigens from the blood and the air environment. Herein we analyzed if airway allergies change after lung Tx. We systematically reviewed patients' airway allergies before and after lung Tx between 1992 and 2014. The course of lymphocytes, thrombocytes, and leukocytes, among them neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils, was analyzed in patients in whom airway allergies have changed and in whom they did not change. From 362 lung transplanted patients, 44 patients had suffered from allergies before Tx (12.2%). In 20 of these patients (45.5%), airway allergies disappeared completely within 1 year after lung Tx and were persistently absent thereafter. In these patients, basophils and eosinophils decreased significantly (P allergies did not disappear. Leukocytes overall, and in particular, neutrophils, decreased significantly in patients whose allergy disappeared (P allergies disappeared in almost half of cases after lung Tx. Along with this reduction, basophils and eosinophils decreased as potentially responsible cells for this phenomenon. These findings may stimulate intensified research on basophils and eosinophils as major drivers of airway allergies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. MARS variant associated with both recessive interstitial lung and liver disease and dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rips, Jonathan; Meyer-Schuman, Rebecca; Breuer, Oded; Tsabari, Reuven; Shaag, Avraham; Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Reif, Shimon; Elpeleg, Orly; Antonellis, Anthony; Harel, Tamar

    2018-04-12

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are ubiquitously expressed enzymes responsible for charging tRNA with cognate amino acids during protein translation. Non-canonical functions are increasingly recognized, and include transcription and translation control and extracellular signaling. Monoallelic mutations in genes encoding several ARSs have been identified in axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT2) disease, whereas biallelic mutations in ARS loci have been associated with multi-tissue syndromes, variably involving the central nervous system, lung, and liver. We report a male infant of non-consanguineous origin, presenting with successive onset of transfusion-dependent anemia, hypothyroidism, cholestasis, interstitial lung disease, and developmental delay. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) revealed compound heterozygosity for two variants (p.Tyr307Cys and p.Arg618Cys) in MARS, encoding methionyl-tRNA synthetase. Biallelic MARS mutations are associated with interstitial lung and liver disease (ILLD). Interestingly, the p.Arg618Cys variant, inherited from an unaffected father, was previously reported in a family with autosomal dominant late-onset CMT2. Yeast complementation assays confirmed pathogenicity of p.Arg618Cys, yet suggested retained function of p.Tyr307Cys. Our findings underscore the phenotypic variability associated with ARS mutations, and suggest genetic or environmental modifying factors in the onset of monoallelic MARS-associated CMT2. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex-specific incidence of EGFR mutation and its association with age and obesity in lung adenocarcinomas: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Ryoun; Kim, Seo Yun; Kim, Cheol Hyeon; Yang, Sung Hyun; Lee, Jae Cheol; Choi, Chang-Min; Na, Im Il

    2017-11-01

    Age and obesity are well-known risk factors for various cancers, but the potential roles of age and obesity in lung cancer, especially in those with activating EGFR mutations, have not been thoroughly evaluated. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the associations between the sex-specific incidence of EGFR mutations and age and obesity. We conducted a retrospective study based on the data from 1378 lung adenocarcinoma cases. The degree of obesity was categorized by body mass index (BMI). The associations between EGFR mutational status and clinical factors, including stage, smoking history, age group (≤45 years, 46-55, 56-65 and >65), and BMI group (obesity (adjusted OR for BMI group = 1.23, p-trend = 0.04). In contrast, in women, the incidence of EGFR mutation was positively associated with age (adjusted OR for age group = 1.19, p-trend = 0.02). However, the incidence of EGFR mutation was not statistically associated with obesity (adjusted OR for BMI group = 1.03, p-trend = 0.76). Our data suggests that age and obesity may contribute to the sex-specific incidence of EGFR mutation in lung adenocarcinoma in different manners.

  13. Expressions of topoisomerase IIα and BCRP in metastatic cells are associated with overall survival in small cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijavec, Matija; Silar, Mira; Triller, Nadja; Kern, Izidor; Cegovnik, Urška; Košnik, Mitja; Korošec, Peter

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated proteins in chemo-naïve metastatic lung cancer cells and to determine the correlation with response to chemotherapy and overall survival. Metastatic cells were obtained by transbronchial fine needle aspiration biopsy of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes in 14 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and 7 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). After cytological confirmation of lung cancer type, total RNA was extracted from biopsy samples and reverse transcribed to cDNA, and real-time PCR for the genes of interest [P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), lung resistance protein (LRP) and topoisomerase IIα (TOPIIα)], was performed. We observed significantly decreased expression of BCRP and significantly increased expression of TOPIIα in metastatic SCLC cells compared to NSCLC. Furthermore, in SCLC high topoisomerase IIα and low BCRP expression levels positively correlated with longer overall survival. Our results showed higher expression levels of BCRP as well as lower levels of topoisomerase IIα in chemo-naïve metastatic cells in NSCLC than in SCLC. These results correlate with previous observations that metastatic SCLC cells at the beginning of chemotherapy are potentially more sensitive to chemotherapeutic agents while in metastatic NSCLC cells resistance is usually inherent. We also showed that altered levels of topoisomerase IIα and BCRP in SCLC are important factors that contribute to resistance to chemotherapeutics that interfere with the enzyme and/or DNA and are highly associated with overall survival.

  14. Association of ABO blood groups with von Willebrand factor, factor VIII and ADAMTS-13 in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Chen, Xiaogang; Yang, Jiezuan; Guo, Renyong

    2017-09-01

    Coagulative and fibrinolytic disorders appear to be associated with the development of lung cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif 13 (ADAMTS-13), and factor VIII (FVIII) activity, in association with O and non-O blood groups in patients with lung cancer. Plasma levels of VWF and ADAMTS-13, and FVIII activity were measured in 115 patients with lung cancer and 98 healthy subjects. Phenotyping of the ABO blood groups was also performed for the two groups. Significantly increased VWF levels and FVIII activity, as well as significantly decreased ADAMTS-13 levels, were observed in patients with distant metastasis as compared with those without distant metastasis and the healthy controls. Plasma VWF levels and FVIII activity were significantly increased in subjects with non-O type blood compared with those with type O blood in the two groups. However, a significant decrease in ADAMTS-13 levels was observed only in the control group among those with non-O type blood, compared with those with type O blood. The results of the present study indicate that increased VWF and decreased ADAMTS-13 levels facilitate the invasiveness and metastasis of lung cancer. Non-O blood groups constitute a risk factor for increased VWF and FVIII in plasma. Continued monitoring of VWF and ADAMTS-13 levels, and of FVIII activity in patients with lung cancer with distinct blood groups may help to minimize the incidence of thrombotic events and improve assessment of disease progression.

  15. Association of education & lifestyle factors with the perception of genetic knowledge on the development of lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The perception of genetic knowledge is useful for improving the heath behaviour change against developing cancers. However, no studies have investigated the perception of genetic knowledge on the development of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to examine demographic and lifestyle factors of the perception of genetic knowledge on the development of lung cancer. Methods: Data on 2,295 US adults (739 had the perception of genetic knowledge were taken from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate potential factors of the perception of genetic knowledge of lung cancer. Results: Participants aged ≥65 yr were more likely to have the perception of genetic knowledge than those aged 18-44 yr (OR=1.77, 95% CI=1.27-2.46. Higher education was associated with a greater perception of genetic knowledge (OR=1.47, 95% CI=1.16-1.87. Subjects with correct smoking attitude were more than three times more likely to have the perception of genetic knowledge (OR=3.15, 95% CI=2.10-4.72. Subjects with exercise were at an increased likelihood of having the perception of genetic knowledge than those without exercise (OR=1.63, 95% CI=1.24-2.13. Interpretation & conclusions: Positive associations were observed between education and lifestyle factors and the perception of genetic knowledge on the development of lung cancer among US adults. Strategies developed to improve the perception of genetic knowledge of lung cancer may target on individuals who are young, less educated, and lack correct smoking attitude or exercise.

  16. School bus travel is associated with bullying victimization among Canadian male, but not female, middle and high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hamilton, Hayley A; Larouche, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Previous research has found a link between active school transportation and bullying victimization among school-aged children. However, the link with other school travel modes (such as car, school bus, and public transportation) and bullying victimization is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between school travel mode and report of bullying victimization among Canadian middle and high school students. The sample consisted of 5065 students aged 11-20 years (mean age: 15.2±1.9 years; 56% females) who participated in the 2013 Ontario Students Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). Overall, 24.7% of students reported school bullying victimization in the past year. Females (27.2%) were more likely than males (22.3%) to be victims of school bullying (ptravel to (adjusted odd ratio (OR)=1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.25-2.68) and from (OR=1.79; 95% CI=1.70-2.67) school was associated with greater odds of bullying victimization among males, but not females. However, the use of public transportation to get to school was associated with lower odds of bullying victimization compared to active transportation among females only (OR=0.59; 95% CI=0.36-0.97). These findings suggest that school travel mode should be considered when considering risks for bullying victimization. Bullying prevention efforts should target school buses to make children's commute a safe and enjoyable experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of High-Dose Ibuprofen Use, Lung Function Decline, and Long-Term Survival in Children with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstan, Michael W; VanDevanter, Donald R; Sawicki, Gregory S; Pasta, David J; Foreman, Aimee J; Neiman, Evgueni A; Morgan, Wayne J

    2018-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis deaths result primarily from lung function loss, so chronic respiratory therapies, intended to preserve lung function, are cornerstones of cystic fibrosis care. Although treatment-associated reduction in rate of lung function loss should ultimately improve cystic fibrosis survival, no such relationship has been described for any chronic cystic fibrosis therapy. In part, this is because the ages of most rapid lung function decline-early adolescence-precede the median age of cystic fibrosis deaths by more than a decade. To study associations of high-dose ibuprofen treatment with the rate of forced expiratory volume in 1 second decline and mortality among children followed in the Epidemiologic Study of Cystic Fibrosis and subsequently in the U.S. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry. We performed a matched cohort study using data from Epidemiologic Study of Cystic Fibrosis. Exposure was defined as high-dose ibuprofen use reported at ≥80% of encounters over 2 years. Unexposed children were matched to exposed children 5:1 using propensity scores on the basis of demographic, clinical, and treatment covariates. The rate of decline of percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second during the 2-year follow-up period was estimated by mixed-effects modeling with random slopes and intercepts. Survival over 16 follow-up years in the U.S. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry was compared between treatment groups by using proportional hazards modeling controlling for matching and covariates. We included 775 high-dose ibuprofen users and 3,665 nonusers who were well matched on demographic, clinical, and treatment variables. High-dose ibuprofen users declined on average 1.10 percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second/yr (95% confidence interval; 0.51, 1.69) during the 2-year treatment period, whereas nonusers declined at a rate of 1.76% percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second/yr (95% confidence interval; 1.48, 2

  18. Association of School Characteristics and Implementation in the X:IT Study-A School-Randomized Smoking Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Lotus S; Due, Pernille; Ersbøll, Annette K; Damsgaard, Mogens T; Andersen, Anette

    2017-05-01

    Assessment of implementation is essential for the evaluation of school-based preventive activities. Interventions are more easily implemented in schools if detailed instructional manuals, lesson plans, and materials are provided; however, implementation may also be affected by other factors than the intervention itself-for example, school-level characteristics, such as principal support and organizational capacity. We examined school-level characteristics of schools in groups of high, medium, and low implementation of a smoking prevention intervention. The X:IT study is a school-randomized trial testing a multicomponent intervention to prevent smoking among adolescents. Our data came from electronic questionnaires completed by school coordinators at 96.1% of participating intervention schools (N = 49) at first follow -up. Schools that implemented the X:IT intervention to a medium or high degree had higher levels of administrative leadership (77.3% and 83.3% vs 42.9%), school climate/organizational health (95.5% and 91.7% vs 66.7%), mission-policy alignment (90.9% and 100.0% vs 71.4%), personnel expertise (81.8% and 75.0% vs 46.7%), school culture (77.3% and 91.7% vs 53.3%), positive classroom climate (91.4% and 96.2% vs 82.9%) compared with low implementation schools. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the school context in future health prevention initiatives. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  19. A meta-analytic review of the association between two common SNPs in miRNAs and lung cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Sha; Sun, Songzan; Long, Wenfang; Kuang, Shicheng; Liu, Yunru; Huang, Hairong; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Yongjiang; Lu, Xiaobo

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in many biological processes, including tumor suppression. Multiple studies have shown an association between the miRNA-196a2 rs11614913 and miRNA-146a rs2910164 polymorphisms and cancer risk. However, the implications of the reported data are debatable and inconclusive. Relevant articles were retrieved from the PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and WanFang databases from January 1, 2007, to April 30, 2017. Studies were assessed based on designated inclusion and exclusion criteria, and data were manually extracted from relevant studies by two investigators. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to explore the association between two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNAs and lung cancer susceptibility. Nine eligible articles were included, consisting of 3,101 cancer cases and 3,234 controls for miRNA-196a2 rs11614913, and 3,483 cases and 3,578 controls for miRNA-146a rs2910164. For studies evaluating miRNA-196a2 rs11614913, significant associations with lung cancer risk were discovered. Overall, the pooled analysis showed that miRNA-196a2 rs11614913 was associated with a decreased cancer risk (CC vs TT: OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09-1.44; CT vs TT: OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03-1.53). For miRNA-146a rs2910164, only the CC genotype was found to be associated with high lung cancer risk (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.13-1.49). Subgroup analyses based on ethnicity, source of control group, and country indicated that there were strong associations between miRNA-146a rs2910164 and cancer risk. The results indicated that lung cancer risk was significantly associated with miRNA-196a2 rs11614913 and miRNA-146a rs2910164. These two common SNPs in miRNAs may be potential biomarkers of lung cancer.

  20. Lack of any association between blood groups and lung cancer, independent of histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Arzu; Unal, Dilek; Tasdemir, Arzu; Karahan, Samet; Aykas, Fatma; Mutlu, Hasan; Cihan, Yasemin Benderli; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths, is divided into 2 main classes based on its biology, therapy and prognosis: non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Many cases are at an advanced stage at diagnosis, which is a major obstacle to improving outcomes. It is important to define the high risk group patients for early diagnosis and chance of cure. Blood group antigens are chemical components on erythrocyte membranes but they are also expressed on a variety of epithelial cells. Links between ABO blood groups with benign or malignant diseases, such as gastric and pancreas cancers, have been observed for a long time. In this study, we aimed to investigate any possible relationship between lung cancer histological subtypes and ABO-Rh blood groups. The files of 307 pathologically confirmed lung cancer patients were were reviewed retrospectively. Cases with a serologically determined blood group and Rh factor were included and those with a history of another primary cancer were excluded, leaving a total of 221. The distribution of blood groups of the lung cancer patients were compared with the distribution of blood groups of healthy donors admitted to the Turkish Red Crescent Blood Service in our city in the year 2012. There was no significant difference between patients with lung cancer of either type and the control group in terms of distribution of ABO blood groups and Rh factor (p: 0.073). There was also no relationship with non small cell cancer histological subtypes. In this study, we found no relationship between the ABO-Rhesus blood groups and NSCLC and SCLC groups. To our knowledge this is the first analysis of ABO blood groups in SCLC patients.

  1. Polymorphisms in GEMIN4 and AGO1 Genes Are Associated with the Risk of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Chinese Female Non-Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Fang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA biosynthesis genes can affect the regulatory effect of global microRNAs to target mRNA and hence influence the genesis and development of human cancer. Here, we selected five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs7813, rs2740349, rs2291778, rs910924, rs595961 in two key microRNA biosynthesis genes (GEMIN4 and AGO1 and systematically evaluated the association between these SNPs, the gene-environment interaction and lung cancer risk. To control the impact of cigarette smoking on lung cancer, we recruited Chinese female non-smokers for the study. The total number of lung cancer cases and cancer-free controls were 473 and 395 in the case-control study. Four SNPs showed statistically significant associations with lung cancer risk. After Bonferroni correction, rs7813 and rs595961 were evidently still associated with lung cancer risk. In the stratified analysis, our results revealed that all five SNPs were associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma; after Bonferroni correction, significant association was maintained for rs7813, rs910924 and rs595961. Haplotype analysis showed GEMIN4 haplotype C-A-G-T was a protective haplotype for lung cancer. In the combined unfavorable genotype analysis, with the increasing number of unfavorable genotypes, a progressively increased gene-dose effect was observed in lung adenocarcinoma. We also found that individuals exposed to cooking oil fumes showed a relatively high risk of lung cancer, but no interactions were found between cooking oil fume exposure or passive smoking exposure with these SNPs, either on an additive scale or a multiplicative scale. Overall, this is the first study showing that rs7813 and rs595961 could be meaningful as genetic markers for lung cancer risk.

  2. The education power of immigrant associations in multicultural schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Jiménez, Antonio J.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available With this qualitative research we are trying to know the collaborative capacity and contributions that Immigrant Associations could do to the schools that form part of a social context characterised by the recent and massive arrival of immigrants of Maghrebian, Sub-Sahara, South America, European Union, and East Europe origin. The sample constituted by 55 immigrants that are members of Immigrant Associations, 16 teachers and 16 directors of schools, makes us to think about the role the Immigrant Associations could play in the education centres. The information coming out from immigrants and teachers shows up that the participation of associations, besides to do a good intercultural work and favour the identity signs of new students, empower the school influence of immigrant children. In addition to, this participation would support the continuity between the school and the student family; it also constitutes a way of working with children and young people in communities of learning. Con esta investigación cualitativa pretendemos dar a conocer la capacidad colaborativa y las aportaciones que pueden realizar las asociaciones de inmigrantes a las escuelas que forman parte de un contexto social caracterizado por la llegada reciente y masiva de inmigrantes de orígenes Magrebí, África Subsahariana, Sudamérica, Unión Europea y Europa del Este. La muestra constituida por 55 inmigrantes miembros de asociaciones de inmigrantes y 16 profesores y 16 directores de centros educativos, nos permite comprender el papel que pueden jugar las asociaciones de inmigrantes en los centros educativos. Los datos obtenidos a partir de los propios inmigrantes y profesores, ponen de manifiesto que la participación de las asociaciones, además de realizar una buena labor de mediación intercultural y favorecer las señas identitarias de los nuevos escolares, potencia el “poder” escolar y social de niños y jóvenes inmigrantes. Además, esta participaci

  3. Modeling the Factors Associated with Children's Mental Health Difficulties in Primary School: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Neil; Wigelsworth, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores some of the factors associated with children's mental health difficulties in primary school. Multilevel modeling with data from 628 children from 36 schools was used to determine how much variation in mental health difficulties exists between and within schools, and to identify characteristics at the school and…

  4. School Factors Associated With the Percentage of Students Who Walk or Bike to School, School Health Policies and Practices Study, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active school transport, such as by walking or biking, increases physical activity levels, which has health and academic benefits for children. We examined school demographic and other characteristics to determine their association with the percentage of students who walk or bike to school. Methods We analyzed data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 2014 School Health Policies and Practices Study. The response rate for the module containing questions about transportation was 70% (N = 577). Multivariate logistic regression models examined whether certain school characteristics were associated with a school having 26% or more of students who walk or bike to school in the morning on an average school day. Results In most (61.5%) schools, 10% or fewer students walked or biked to school in the morning on an average school day; in 22.7% of schools, 26% or more students did so. Although having crossing guards (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9–6.0), having bicycle racks (AOR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2–5.8), and providing promotional materials to students or families on walking or biking to school (AOR = 2.9; 95% CI, 1.7–5.1) were associated with having 26% or more students who walk or bike to school, only 47.7% of schools had crossing guards, 62.4% had bicycle racks, and 33.3% provided promotional materials. Conclusion Several low-cost or no-cost strategies were associated with having 26% or more students who walked or biked to school, but these strategies are not commonly used in schools. PMID:27172258

  5. School Factors Associated With the Percentage of Students Who Walk or Bike to School, School Health Policies and Practices Study, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett Jones, Sherry; Sliwa, Sarah

    2016-05-12

    Active school transport, such as by walking or biking, increases physical activity levels, which has health and academic benefits for children. We examined school demographic and other characteristics to determine their association with the percentage of students who walk or bike to school. We analyzed data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2014 School Health Policies and Practices Study. The response rate for the module containing questions about transportation was 70% (N = 577). Multivariate logistic regression models examined whether certain school characteristics were associated with a school having 26% or more of students who walk or bike to school in the morning on an average school day. In most (61.5%) schools, 10% or fewer students walked or biked to school in the morning on an average school day; in 22.7% of schools, 26% or more students did so. Although having crossing guards (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-6.0), having bicycle racks (AOR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2-5.8), and providing promotional materials to students or families on walking or biking to school (AOR = 2.9; 95% CI, 1.7-5.1) were associated with having 26% or more students who walk or bike to school, only 47.7% of schools had crossing guards, 62.4% had bicycle racks, and 33.3% provided promotional materials. Several low-cost or no-cost strategies were associated with having 26% or more students who walked or biked to school, but these strategies are not commonly used in schools.

  6. Urinary thiocyanate concentrations are associated with adult cancer and lung problems: US NHANES, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-04-01

    Links between environmental chemicals and human health have emerged but the effects from perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate were unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of urinary perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate concentrations and adult health conditions in a national and population-based study. Data was retrieved from US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2009-2012, including demographics, blood pressure readings, self-reported health conditions and urinary perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate concentrations. Analyses included chi-square test, t test survey-weighted logistic regression models and population attributable risk estimation. There were no clear associations between urinary perchlorate concentrations and adult health conditions, although people with hearing loss and diabetes could be at the borderline risk. Urinary thiocyanate concentrations were significantly associated with emphysema (odds ratio (OR) 2.70 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.91-3.82, P cancer (OR 1.21 95%CI 1.06-1.39, P = 0.008), chronic bronchitis (OR 1.23 95%CI 1.10-1.52, P = 0.003), wheezing (OR 1.24 95%CI 1.05-1.46, P = 0.011), coughing (OR 1.19 95%CI 1.03-1.37, P = 0.018) and sleep complaints (OR 1.14 95%CI 1.02-1.26, P = 0.019). The population attributable risks accounted for 3.3% (1.8-5.3%), 1.9% (0.6-3.5%), 1.2% (0.5-2.6%), 2.2% (0.5-4.1%), 1.8% (0.3-6.2%) and 1.3% (0.2-2.4%) for emphysema, cancer, chronic bronchitis, wheezing, coughing and sleep complaints, respectively. In addition, there was an inverse association observed between urinary nitrate level and heart failure. This is for the first time observing significant risk effects of urinary thiocyanate concentrations on adult cancer and lung problems, although the causality cannot be established. Elimination of such environmental chemical in humans should be included in future health policy and intervention programs.

  7. Clinical, pathologic, and biologic features associated with BRAF mutations in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarella, Stephanie; Ogino, Atsuko; Nishino, Mizuki; Butaney, Mohit; Shen, Jeanne; Lydon, Christine; Yeap, Beow Y; Sholl, Lynette M; Johnson, Bruce E; Jänne, Pasi A

    2013-08-15

    BRAF mutations are found in a subset of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). We examined the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with NSCLC harboring BRAF mutations. Using DNA sequencing, we successfully screened 883 patients with NSCLC for BRAF mutations between July 1, 2009 and July 16, 2012. Baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes were compared between patients with and without BRAF mutations. Wild-type controls consisted of patients with NSCLC without a somatic alteration in BRAF, KRAS, EGFR, and ALK. In vitro studies assessed the biologic properties of selected non-V600E BRAF mutations identified from patients with NSCLC. Of 883 tumors screened, 36 (4%) harbored BRAF mutations (V600E, 18; non-V600E, 18) and 257 were wild-type for BRAF, EGFR, KRAS, and ALK negative. Twenty-nine of 36 patients with BRAF mutations were smokers. There were no distinguishing clinical features between BRAF-mutant and wild-type patients. Patients with advanced NSCLC with BRAF mutations and wild-type tumors showed similar response rates and progression-free survival (PFS) to platinum-based combination chemotherapy and no difference in overall survival. Within the BRAF cohort, patients with V600E-mutated tumors had a shorter PFS to platinum-based chemotherapy compared with those with non-V600E mutations, although this did not reach statistical significance (4.1 vs. 8.9 months; P = 0.297). We identified five BRAF mutations not previously reported in NSCLC; two of five were associated with increased BRAF kinase activity. BRAF mutations occur in 4% of NSCLCs and half are non-V600E. Prospective trials are ongoing to validate BRAF as a therapeutic target in NSCLC. ©2013 AACR.

  8. School Term vs. School Holiday: Associations with Children's Physical Activity, Screen-Time, Diet and Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, Amanda E; Broyles, Stephanie T; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2015-07-30

    This cross-sectional study examined differences in children's health behaviors during school term (ST) versus school holiday (SH: June-July) and how associations changed when weather characteristics were considered. Children aged 5-18 years (n = 406) from a subtropical climate reported behaviors over 20 months. Multivariable regression models controlling for age, sex, race and body mass index z-score (BMIz) were used to examine associations between SH and each behavior. A second model included heat index, precipitation and daylight hours. Strenuous activity, moderate activity, total activity and TV viewing were significantly higher during SH than ST. After adjusting for weather characteristics, total activity remained significantly higher during SH, but the association with TV viewing was attenuated. Youth surveyed during high precipitation were significantly less likely to meet physical activity guidelines. There were no significant associations between SH and meeting sleep, physical activity or screen-time guidelines. Weather characteristics influenced associations between SH and youth's physical activity and TV viewing.

  9. Assessment of pathological changes associated with chronic allograft rejection and tolerance in two experimental models of rat lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Y; Marchevsky, A; Zuo, X J; Kass, R M; Matloff, J M; Jordan, S C

    1995-06-15

    Lung transplantation is now routinely performed for a wide range of end-stage cardiopulmonary disorders. Despite overcoming the problems associated with early acute rejection, chronic rejection (CR) in the form of obliterative bronchiolitis has emerged as the primary cause of late graft loss. The mechanisms involved in the development of CR of lung allografts are poorly understood, and no effective therapy is currently available. To better understand the pathological events associated with CR and tolerance, we examined two models of lung allograft rejection established in our laboratory. First, we exchanged left lung allografts between moderately histoincompatible inbred rat strains (WKY-->F344: n = 42 and F344-->WKY: n = 40). The WKY-->F344 model was previously shown to develop spontaneous tolerance, while the converse model (F344-->WKY) showed persistent acute rejection. The purpose of this investigation was to assess histopathological changes associated with long-term grafts left in place up to 140 days after transplant. To confirm that tolerance had developed, skin-grafting experiments were performed. Five skin grafts from each strain were placed on lung allograft recipients on day 35 after transplant and skin allograft survival was assessed and compared with controls. Acute rejection (AR) was graded histologically (stage O-IV) and the pathologic intensity of inflammation and CR were graded (0-4: 0 = 0%, 1 = 1-25%, 2 = 26-50%, 3 = 51-75%, and 4 = 76-100%) on percentage of involvement with the following categories being examined: (a) lymphocytic infiltration (perivascular, peribronchial, and peribronchiolar) and (b) vasculitis, edema, hemorrhage, and necrosis. Finally, chronic rejection was diagnosed by the presence of intimal hyperplasia, interstitial fibrosis, peribronchiolar fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans, and bronchiectasis. The WKY-->F344 animals showed progressive AR (stage III, day 21). Thereafter, the AR subsided spontaneously and was stage 0 on day

  10. [Factors associated with adherence to school meals by adolescents in State public schools in Colombo, Paraná State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentim, Emanuele de Araujo; Almeida, Claudia Choma Bettega de; Taconeli, César Augusto; Osório, Mônica Maria; Schmidt, Suely Teresinha

    2017-10-26

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of adherence to school meals and associated factors among adolescent schoolchildren (N = 1,569). The adolescents completed an on-line questionnaire on adherence to school meals, and their parents answered another questionnaire on socioeconomic data. The chi-square test was used to assess the association between adherence to school meals and gender, nutritional status, per capita family income, maternal schooling, adolescents' opinions on the dining hall layout, whether they considered school meals healthy, and consumption of other foods. Variables with statistical significance for adherence to school meals were included in the multilevel proportional odds logistic regression model. The covariates for comprising the final model were defined by backward selection methods. The results of the adjusted model were presented as odds ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Prevalence of adherence to school meals was low, especially effective adherence (19.8%). Adherence was associated with per capita family income less than one minimum wage, lower consumption of foods outside of school meals, the fact that adolescents considered the dining hall space adequate, and believing that school meals are healthy. Adherence to school meals in this study falls short of universal coverage for the program. Different factors contribute to incomplete program implementation, which may hinder achieving the food and nutritional security policy under the Brazilian National School Feeding Program (PNAE).

  11. A Voxel-Based Approach to Explore Local Dose Differences Associated With Radiation-Induced Lung Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, Giuseppe [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Monti, Serena [IRCCS SDN, Naples (Italy); D' Avino, Vittoria [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Conson, Manuel [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Federico II University School of Medicine, Naples (Italy); Liuzzi, Raffaele [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Pressello, Maria Cristina [Department of Health Physics, S. Camillo-Forlanini Hospital, Rome (Italy); Donato, Vittorio [Department of Radiation Oncology, S. Camillo-Forlanini Hospital, Rome (Italy); Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Quarantelli, Mario [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Pacelli, Roberto [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Federico II University School of Medicine, Naples (Italy); Cella, Laura, E-mail: laura.cella@cnr.it [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: To apply a voxel-based (VB) approach aimed at exploring local dose differences associated with late radiation-induced lung damage (RILD). Methods and Materials: An interinstitutional database of 98 patients who were Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors treated with postchemotherapy supradiaphragmatic radiation therapy was analyzed in the study. Eighteen patients experienced late RILD, classified according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system. Each patient's computed tomographic (CT) scan was normalized to a single reference case anatomy (common coordinate system, CCS) through a log-diffeomorphic approach. The obtained deformation fields were used to map the dose of each patient into the CCS. The coregistration robustness and the dose mapping accuracy were evaluated by geometric and dose scores. Two different statistical mapping schemes for nonparametric multiple permutation inference on dose maps were applied, and the corresponding P<.05 significance lung subregions were generated. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC)-based test was performed on the mean dose extracted from each subregion. Results: The coregistration process resulted in a geometrically robust and accurate dose warping. A significantly higher dose was consistently delivered to RILD patients in voxel clusters near the peripheral medial-basal portion of the lungs. The area under the ROC curves (AUC) from the mean dose of the voxel clusters was higher than the corresponding AUC derived from the total lung mean dose. Conclusions: We implemented a framework including a robust registration process and a VB approach accounting for the multiple comparison problem in dose-response modeling, and applied it to a cohort of HL survivors to explore a local dose–RILD relationship in the lungs. Patients with RILD received a significantly greater dose in parenchymal regions where low doses (∼6 Gy) were delivered. Interestingly, the relation between differences in the high

  12. Causes of death and competing risk analysis of the associated factors for non-small cell lung cancer using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shenhai; Tian, Jintao; Song, Xiaoping; Wu, Bingqun; Liu, Limin

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the probability of death (POD) from any causes by time after diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the factors associated with survival for NSCLC patients. A total of 202,914 patients with NSCLC from 2004 to 2013 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The overall survival (OS) and lung cancer-specific survival (LCSS) were calculated and POD from any causes at different time periods after diagnosis was explored. The predictive factors for OS, LCSS and survival from non-lung cancer deaths were investigated using multivariate analysis with Cox proportional hazards regression and competing risk regression analysis. The 5- and 10-year OS were 20.4% and 11.5%, accordingly that for LCSS were 25.5% and 18.4%, respectively. Lung cancer contributed 88.3% (n = 128,402) of the deaths. The POD from lung cancer decreased with time after diagnosis. In multivariate analysis, advanced age and advanced stage of NSCLC were associated with decreased OS and LCSS. Comparing to no surgery, any kind of resection conferred lower risk of death from lung cancer and higher risk of dying from non-lung cancer conditions except lobectomy or bilobectomy, which was associated with lower risk of death from both lung cancer and non-lung cancer conditions. Most of the patients with NSCLC died from lung cancer. Rational surveillance and treatment policies should be made for them. Early stage and lobectomy or bilobectomy were associated with improved OS and LCSS. It is reasonable to focus on early detection and optimal surgical treatment for NSCLC.

  13. School nutritional capacity, resources and practices are associated with availability of food/beverage items in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mâsse, Louise C; de Niet, Judith E

    2013-02-19

    The school food environment is important to target as less healthful food and beverages are widely available at schools. This study examined whether the availability of specific food/beverage items was associated with a number of school environmental factors. Principals from elementary (n=369) and middle/high schools (n=118) in British Columbia (BC), Canada completed a survey measuring characteristics of the school environment. Our measurement framework integrated constructs from the Theories of Organizational Change and elements from Stillman's Tobacco Policy Framework adapted for obesity prevention. Our measurement framework included assessment of policy institutionalization of nutritional guidelines at the district and school levels, climate, nutritional capacity and resources (nutritional resources and participation in nutritional programs), nutritional practices, and school community support for enacting stricter nutritional guidelines. We used hierarchical mixed-effects logistic regression analyses to examine associations with the availability of fruit, vegetables, pizza/hamburgers/hot dogs, chocolate candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, and french fried potatoes. In elementary schools, fruit and vegetable availability was more likely among schools that have more nutritional resources (OR=6.74 and 5.23, respectively). In addition, fruit availability in elementary schools was highest in schools that participated in the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutritional Program and the BC Milk program (OR=4.54 and OR=3.05, respectively). In middle/high schools, having more nutritional resources was associated with vegetable availability only (OR=5.78). Finally, middle/high schools that have healthier nutritional practices (i.e., which align with upcoming provincial/state guidelines) were less likely to have the following food/beverage items available at school: chocolate candy (OR= .80) and sugar-sweetened beverages (OR= .76). School nutritional capacity, resources

  14. School nutritional capacity, resources and practices are associated with availability of food/beverage items in schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The school food environment is important to target as less healthful food and beverages are widely available at schools. This study examined whether the availability of specific food/beverage items was associated with a number of school environmental factors. Methods Principals from elementary (n = 369) and middle/high schools (n = 118) in British Columbia (BC), Canada completed a survey measuring characteristics of the school environment. Our measurement framework integrated constructs from the Theories of Organizational Change and elements from Stillman’s Tobacco Policy Framework adapted for obesity prevention. Our measurement framework included assessment of policy institutionalization of nutritional guidelines at the district and school levels, climate, nutritional capacity and resources (nutritional resources and participation in nutritional programs), nutritional practices, and school community support for enacting stricter nutritional guidelines. We used hierarchical mixed-effects logistic regression analyses to examine associations with the availability of fruit, vegetables, pizza/hamburgers/hot dogs, chocolate candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, and french fried potatoes. Results In elementary schools, fruit and vegetable availability was more likely among schools that have more nutritional resources (OR = 6.74 and 5.23, respectively). In addition, fruit availability in elementary schools was highest in schools that participated in the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutritional Program and the BC Milk program (OR = 4.54 and OR = 3.05, respectively). In middle/high schools, having more nutritional resources was associated with vegetable availability only (OR = 5.78). Finally, middle/high schools that have healthier nutritional practices (i.e., which align with upcoming provincial/state guidelines) were less likely to have the following food/beverage items available at school: chocolate candy (OR = .80) and sugar

  15. Low-level violence in schools: is there an association between school safety measures and peer victimization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosnich, John; Bossarte, Robert

    2011-02-01

    Low-level violent behavior, particularly school bullying, remains a critical public health issue that has been associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. School-based prevention programs, while a valuable line of defense to stave off bullying, have shown inconsistent results in terms of decreasing bullying. This study explored whether school safety measures (eg, security guards, cameras, ID badges) were associated with student reports of different forms of peer victimization related to bullying. Data came from the 2007 School Crime Supplement of the National Crime Victimization Survey. Chi-square tests of independence were used to examine differences among categorical variables. Logistic regression models were constructed for the peer victimization outcomes. A count variable was constructed among the bullying outcomes (0-7) with which a Poisson regression model was constructed to analyze school safety measures' impacts on degree of victimization. Of the various school safety measures, only having adults in hallways resulted in a significant reduction in odds of being physically bullied, having property vandalized, or having rumors spread. In terms of degree of victimization, having adults and/or staff supervising hallways was associated with an approximate 26% decrease in students experiencing an additional form of peer victimization. Results indicated that school safety measures overall were not associated with decreased reports of low-level violent behaviors related to bullying. More research is needed to further explore what best promotes comprehensive safety in schools. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  16. Detected troponin elevation is associated with high early mortality after lung resection for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tornout Fillip

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial infarction can be difficult to diagnose after lung surgery. As recent diagnostic criteria emphasize serum cardiac markers (in particular serum troponin we set out to evaluate its clinical utility and to establish the long term prognostic impact of detected abnormal postoperative troponin levels after lung resection. Methods We studied a historic cohort of patients with primary lung cancer who underwent intended surgical resection. Patients were grouped according to known postoperative troponin status and survival calculated by Kaplan Meier method and compared using log rank. Parametric survival analysis was used to ascertain independent predictors of mortality. Results From 2001 to 2004, a total of 207 patients underwent lung resection for primary lung cancer of which 14 (7% were identified with elevated serum troponin levels within 30 days of surgery, with 9 (64% having classical features of myocardial infarction. The median time to follow up (interquartile range was 22 (1 to 52 months, and the one and five year survival probabilities (95% CI for patients without and with postoperative troponin elevation were 92% (85 to 96 versus 60% (31 to 80 and 61% (51 to 71 versus 18% (3 to 43 respectively (p T stage and postoperative troponin elevation remained independent predictors of mortality in the final multivariable model. The acceleration factor for death of elevated serum troponin after adjusting for tumour stage was 9.19 (95% CI 3.75 to 22.54. Conclusion Patients with detected serum troponin elevation are at high risk of early mortality with or without symptoms of myocardial infarction after lung resection.

  17. Preschool Drawing and School Mathematics: The Nature of the Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanchini, Margherita; Tosto, Maria G; Garfield, Victoria; Dirik, Aysegul; Czerwik, Adrian; Arden, Rosalind; Malykh, Sergey; Kovas, Yulia

    2016-05-01

    The study examined the etiology of individual differences in early drawing and of its longitudinal association with school mathematics. Participants (N = 14,760), members of the Twins Early Development Study, were assessed on their ability to draw a human figure, including number of features, symmetry, and proportionality. Human figure drawing was moderately stable across 6 months (average r = .40). Individual differences in drawing at age 4½ were influenced by genetic (.21), shared environmental (.30), and nonshared environmental (.49) factors. Drawing was related to later (age 12) mathematical ability (average r = .24). This association was explained by genetic and shared environmental factors that also influenced general intelligence. Some genetic factors, unrelated to intelligence, also contributed to individual differences in drawing. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. Preschool Drawing and School Mathematics: The Nature of the Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanchini, M.; Tosto, M.G.; Garfield, V.; Czerwik, A.; Dirik, A.; Arden, R.; Malykh, S.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the aetiology of individual differences in early drawing and of its longitudinal association with school mathematics. Participants (N = 14,760), members of the Twins Early Development Study, were assessed on their ability to draw a human figure, including number of features, symmetry and proportionality. Human figure drawing was moderately stable across six months (average r = .40). Individual differences in drawing at age 4½ were influenced by genetic (.21), shared environmental (.30) and non-shared environmental (.49) factors. Drawing was related to later (age 12) mathematical ability (average r = .24). This association was explained by genetic and shared environmental factors that also influenced general intelligence. Some genetic factors, unrelated to intelligence, also contributed to individual differences in drawing. PMID:27079561

  19. Flatfoot in school-age children: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Demneh, Ebrahim; Jafarian, Fahimehsadat; Melvin, Jonathan M A; Azadinia, Fatemeh; Shamsi, Fatemeh; Jafarpishe, Mohamad

    2015-06-01

    Flatfoot has been shown to cause abnormal stresses on the foot and lower extremity. The altered mechanical stresses on these structures can aggravate the foot deformity. Screening of the flatfoot and its associated factors helps detect underlying risks influencing the stresses on the foot. The purpose of this study was to analyze the structure of the medial foot arch and investigate its associated factors in students, aged 7 to 14 years. Multistage cluster sampling was used and each cluster included 2 other random sampling levels. A total of 667 Iranian school children were recruited and their feet were bilaterally evaluated using a static footprint while standing in a fully weightbearing position. The footprint, an observational measurement, and a questionnaire were used for the foot assessment. The prevalence of flatfoot was 17.1% in the population studied. There was no gender difference but the prevalence of flatfoot did decrease with age. The significant differences were observed in the prevalence of flatfoot between normal-weight, overweight, and obese groups (P plantar arch in school-age children is influenced by age and weight. Age and weight were the primary predictive factors of flatfoot. Prognostic, Level IV: Case series. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. Smoking is associated with increased levels of extracellular peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) in the lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Dres; Friberg Bruun Nielsen, Michael; Quisgaard Gaunsbaek, Maria

    2015-01-01

    lavage (BAL) fluid from smokers, but intracellularly located PAD cannot be responsible for citrullination of extracellular self-antigens. We aimed to establish a link between smoking and extracellular PAD2 in the lungs. METHODS: BAL fluid samples were obtained from 13 smokers and 11 nonsmoking controls...... fluids from smokers as compared to non-smokers (p=0.018). The PAD2 content correlated with the overall CRP levels (p=0.009) and cell count (p=0.016). CONCLUSIONS: This first demonstration of increased levels of extracellular PAD2 in the lungs of smokers supports the hypothesis that smoking promotes...

  1. CMV infection associated with severe lung involvement and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) in two preterm twin neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Paolo; Vivalda, Mauro; Mostert, Michael; Priolo, Claudio; Galletto, Paolo; Gallo, Elena; Stronati, Mauro; Gili, Renata; Opramolla, Anna; Calabrese, Sara; Tavella, Elena; Luparia, Martina; Farina, Daniele

    2014-09-01

    The diagnosis of congenital CMV is usually guided by a number of specific symptoms and findings. Unusual presentations may occur and diagnosis is challenging due to uncommon or rare features. Here we report the case of two preterm, extremely low birthweight, 28-week gestational age old twin neonates with CMV infection associated with severe lung involvement and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). They were born to a HIV-positive mother, hence they underwent treatment with zidovudine since birth. Both infants featured severe refractory hypoxemia, requiring high-frequency ventilation, inhaled nitric oxide and inotropic support, with full recovery after 2 months. Treatment with ganciclovir was not feasible due the concomitant treatment with zidovudine and the risk of severe, fatal toxicity. Therefore administration of intravenous hyperimmune anti-CMV immunoglobulin therapy was initiated. Severe lung involvement at birth and subsequent pulmonary hypertension are rarely described in preterm infants as early manifestations of CMV congenital disease. In the two twin siblings here described, the extreme prematurity and the treatment with zidovudine likely worsened immunosuppression and ultimately required a complex management of the CMV-associated lung involvement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sources of household air pollution: The association with lung function and respiratory symptoms in middle-aged adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devien, Laurent; Giovannelli, Jonathan; Cuny, Damien; Matran, Régis; Amouyel, Philippe; Hulo, Sébastien; Edmé, Jean Louis; Dauchet, Luc

    2018-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sources of household air pollution, respiratory symptoms and lung function. 3039 adults aged from 40 to 65 participated in the 2011-2013 ELISABET cross-sectional survey in northern France. Lung function was measured using spirometry. During a structured interview, respiratory symptoms, household fuels, exposure to moulds, and use of ventilation were recorded on a questionnaire. The self-reported presence of mould in at least two rooms (not including the bathroom and the kitchen) was associated with a 2.5% lower predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (95% confidence interval, -4.7 to -0.29; p-trend respiratory disease. Our results suggest that the presence of mould (known to be associated with more severe asthma symptoms) could also have an impact on respiratory symptoms and lung function in the general population and in populations without known respiratory disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between Adult Height and Risk of Colorectal, Lung, and Prostate Cancer : Results from Meta-analyses of Prospective Studies and Mendelian Randomization Analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khankari, Nikhil K.; Shu, Xiao Ou; Wen, Wanqing; Kraft, Peter; Lindström, Sara; Peters, Ulrike; Schildkraut, Joellen; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bofetta, Paolo; Risch, Angela; Bickeböller, Heike; Amos, Christopher I.; Easton, Douglas; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Gruber, Stephen B.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hunter, David J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Pierce, Brandon L.; Zheng, Wei; Blalock, Kendra; Campbell, Peter T.; Casey, Graham; Conti, David V.; Edlund, Christopher K.; Figueiredo, Jane; James Gauderman, W.; Gong, Jian; Green, Roger C.; Harju, John F.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Jiao, Shuo; Li, Li; Lin, Yi; Manion, Frank J.; Moreno, Victor; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Raskin, Leon; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Seminara, Daniela; Severi, Gianluca; Stenzel, Stephanie L.; Thomas, Duncan C.; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; Gibson, Lorna; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Ahsan, Habib; Whittemore, Alice; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hofman, Albert; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lichtner, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckman, Lars; Crisponi, Laura; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Easton, Douglas F.; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Eeles, Rosalind; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham; Neal, David; Donovan, Jenny L.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher; Schumacher, Fred; Travis, Ruth; Riboli, Elio; Hunter, David; Gapstur, Susan; Berndt, Sonja; Chanock, Stephen; Han, Younghun; Su, Li; Wei, Yongyue; Hung, Rayjean J.; Brhane, Yonathan; McLaughlin, John; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D.; Rosenberger, Albert; Houlston, Richard S.; Caporaso, Neil; Teresa Landi, Maria; Heinrich, Joachim; Wu, Xifeng; Ye, Yuanqing; Christiani, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Observational studies examining associations between adult height and risk of colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers have generated mixed results. We conducted meta-analyses using data from prospective cohort studies and further carried out Mendelian randomization analyses, using

  4. Genome-wide study of percent emphysema on computed tomography in the general population. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Lung/SNP Health Association Resource Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manichaikul, Ani; Hoffman, Eric A.; Smolonska, Joanna; Gao, Wei; Cho, Michael H.; Baumhauer, Heather; Budoff, Matthew; Austin, John H. M.; Washko, George R.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Kaufman, Joel D.; Pottinger, Tess; Powell, Charles A.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zanen, Pieter; Groen, Harry J.M.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Wanner, Adam; Rouhani, Farshid N.; Brantly, Mark L.; Powell, Rhea; Smith, Benjamin M.; Rabinowitz, Dan; Raffel, Leslie J.; Stukovsky, Karen D. Hinckley; Crapo, James D.; Beaty, Terri H.; Hokanson, John E.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Dupuis, Josee; O'Connor, George T.; Boezen, Hendrika; Rich, Stephen S.; Barr, R. Graham

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Pulmonary emphysema overlaps partially with spirometrically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is heritable, with moderately high familial clustering. Objectives: To complete a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for the percentage of emphysema-like lung on computed

  5. Oestrogen receptor beta over expression in males with non-small cell lung cancer is associated with better survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Birgit Guldhammer; Sode, Birgitte M Fischer; Pappot, H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adenocarcinoma of the lung is more frequent in females than in males and the association with smoking is less pronounced than for the other histological subtypes of lung cancer. Oestrogen induction of cell proliferation has been found in breast adenocarcinomas, and since oestrogen...... the results to gender and survival. METHODS: Paraffin embedded, histological material was collected from 104 patients (71 men and 33 women), operated in the period 1989-1992 for NSCLC (56 squamous cell carcinomas, 40 adenocarcinomas and 8 large cell carcinomas). ERalpha, ERbeta and progesterone were...... and progesterone expression for the prognosis. RESULTS: ERbeta positivity was demonstrated in 69% (72 of 104) of the tumours. There was no statistically significant correlation between ERbeta positivity and age, gender, stage, or histology. After adjusting for gender, age, stage at diagnosis and histology...

  6. Diagnosis and successful treatment of a lung abscess associated with Brucella species infection in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassle, Stephen E; Jensen, Eric D; Smith, Cynthia R; Meegan, Jennifer M; Johnson, Shawn P; Lutmerding, Betsy; Ridgway, Sam H; Francis-Floyd, Ruth

    2013-06-01

    This brief communication describes the clinical presentation, antemortem diagnosis, and successful treatment of a pulmonary abscess associated with a Brucella sp. in a 27-yr-old female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Ultrasound revealed a 3-cm diameter hypoechoic mass deep to the pleural lining in the left lung field. Multiple ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirates were performed and tested for bacterial and fungal etiology. All cultures were negative, but the infectious agent was identified by MicroSEQ analysis in two samples and confirmed with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using known Brucella sp. primers. Amikacin was infused into the abscess and was followed by an oral doxycycline and rifampin protocol. Follow-up diagnostic imaging, including radiographs and computed tomography, revealed a resolved lesion with minimal mineralization within the affected lung fields. Brucellosis should be considered for pulmonary disease in dolphins, and personnel who interact with marine animals should use caution to prevent zoonotic brucellosis.

  7. Respiratory Failure Associated with the Lipodystrophy Syndrome in an HIV-Positive Patient with Compromised Lung Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Press

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Protease inhibitors, used as treatment in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, are associated with a syndrome of peripheral lipodystrophy, central adiposity, hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. An HIV-positive patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is presented who developed the lipodystrophy syndrome that is associated with the use of protease inhibitors. It is postulated that the lipodystrophy syndrome further compromised his lung function, leading to respiratory failure. Patients who have pulmonary disease and are taking protease inhibitors require monitoring of clinical status and pulmonary function tests.

  8. Paraneoplastic Encephalitis Associated with Anti-Ma2 Antibodies and Mesothelioma-Like Poorly Differentiated Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Ebru Bekircan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of paraneoplastic encephalitis associated with anti-Ma2 antibodies. Medical history and thorax computed tomog- raphy findings suggested malignant mesothelioma. Pleural biopsy results were compatible with high-grade neoplastic infiltration. Alt- hough the biopsy could not differentiate the type of neoplasm, mesothelioma was considered a strong possibility in this poorly dif- ferentiated lung carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report of paraneoplastic encephalitis associated with anti-Ma2 antibodies and mesothelioma

  9. Haplotypes of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 19q13.2-3 associated with susceptibility of lung cancer in a Chinese population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Jiaoyang; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Ma, Yegang

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the joint effect of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms for three DNA repair genes in the region of chromosome 19q13.2-3 on susceptibility of lung cancer in a Chinese population, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study consisting of 247 lung cancer cases and 253 cancer......-free controls matched on age, gender and ethnicity. Associations between the haplotypes and susceptibility of lung cancer were tested. The global test of haplotype association revealed a statistically significant difference in the haplotype distribution between cases and controls (global test: chi(2) = 60.45, d...

  10. Prevalence and factors associated with depression symptoms among school-going adolescents in Central Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Nalugya-Sserunjogi, Joyce; Rukundo, Godfrey Zari; Ovuga, Emilio; Kiwuwa, Steven M.; Musisi, Seggane; Nakimuli-Mpungu, Etheldreda

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression in adolescents constitutes a global public health concern. However, data on its prevalence and associated factors are limited in low income countries like Uganda. Methods Using a cross-sectional descriptive study design, 519 adolescent students in 4 secondary schools in Mukono district, Uganda, were randomly selected after meeting study criteria. The 4 school types were: boarding mixed (boys and girls) school; day mixed school; girls? only boarding school; and, boys? onl...

  11. Factors associated with sleep duration in Brazilian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Felden, Érico Pereira; Barbosa, Diego Grasel; Junior, Geraldo Jose Ferrari; Santos, Manoella De Oliveira; Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with short sleep duration on southern Brazilian high school students. Our study was comprised of 1,132 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years, enrolled in public high schools in São José, Brazil. The students answered a questionnaire about working (work and workload), health perception, smoking, school schedule, sleep (duration and daytime sleepiness), and socio-demographics data. The results showed that more than two thirds of adolescent workers had short sleep duration (76.7%), and those with a higher workload (more than 20 hours) had a shorter sleep duration (7.07 hours) compared to non-workers (7.83 hours). In the analysis of factors associated with short sleep duration, adolescents who worked (OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.53 to 2.95) were more likely to have short sleep duration compared to those who did not work. In addition, older adolescents (17-19 years) and students with poor sleep quality were 40% and 55% more likely to have short sleep duration compared to younger adolescents (14-16 years) and students with good sleep quality, respectively. Adolescents with daytime sleepiness were more likely to have short sleep duration (OR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.07) compared to those without excessive daytime sleepiness. In addition students of the morning shift (OR = 6.02, 95% CI 4.23 to 8.57) and evening shift (OR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.22) were more likely to have short sleep duration compared to adolescents of the afternoon shift. Thereby adolescents who are workers, older, attended morning and evening classes and have excessive daytime sleepiness showed risk factors for short sleep duration. In this sense, it is pointed out the importance of raising awareness of these risk factors for short sleep duration of students from public schools from São José, located in southern Brazil.

  12. Human mesenchymal stromal cells reduce influenza A H5N1-associated acute lung injury in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Michael C W; Kuok, Denise I T; Leung, Connie Y H; Hui, Kenrie P Y; Valkenburg, Sophie A; Lau, Eric H Y; Nicholls, John M; Fang, Xiaohui; Guan, Yi; Lee, Jae W; Chan, Renee W Y; Webster, Robert G; Matthay, Michael A; Peiris, J S Malik

    2016-03-29

    Influenza can cause acute lung injury. Because immune responses often play a role, antivirals may not ensure a successful outcome. To identify pathogenic mechanisms and potential adjunctive therapeutic options, we compared the extent to which avian influenza A/H5N1 virus and seasonal influenza A/H1N1 virus impair alveolar fluid clearance and protein permeability in an in vitro model of acute lung injury, defined the role of virus-induced soluble mediators in these injury effects, and demonstrated that the effects are prevented or reduced by bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. We verified the in vivo relevance of these findings in mice experimentally infected with influenza A/H5N1. We found that, in vitro, the alveolar epithelium's protein permeability and fluid clearance were dysregulated by soluble immune mediators released upon infection with avian (A/Hong Kong/483/97, H5N1) but not seasonal (A/Hong Kong/54/98, H1N1) influenza virus. The reduced alveolar fluid transport associated with down-regulation of sodium and chloride transporters was prevented or reduced by coculture with mesenchymal stromal cells. In vivo, treatment of aged H5N1-infected mice with mesenchymal stromal cells increased their likelihood of survival. We conclude that mesenchymal stromal cells significantly reduce the impairment of alveolar fluid clearance induced by A/H5N1 infection in vitro and prevent or reduce A/H5N1-associated acute lung injury in vivo. This potential adjunctive therapy for severe influenza-induced lung disease warrants rapid clinical investigation.

  13. Association of DNA repair gene XRCC1 and lung cancer susceptibility among nonsmoking Chinese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, J.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Ma, Y.

    2009-01-01

    predisposition to cancer risk. To address this question in more detail, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study consisting of 55 lung cancer cases and 74 cancer-free controls matched on age and ethnicity among nonsmoking Chinese women. We analyzed five coding single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the XRCC1...

  14. miR-638 regulates gene expression networks associated with emphysematous lung destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christenson, Stephanie A.; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Campbell, Joshua D.; Knight, Darryl A.; Pechkovsky, Dmitri V.; Hogg, James C.; Timens, Wim; Postma, Dirkje S.; Lenburg, Marc; Spira, Avrum

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by varying degrees of emphysematous lung destruction and small airway disease, each with distinct effects on clinical outcomes. There is little known about how microRNAs contribute specifically to the

  15. Exposure characteristics of familial cases of lung injury associated with the use of humidifier disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donguk; Leem, Jonghan; Lee, Kyoungmu; Lim, Heungkyu; Choi, Yeyong; Ahn, Jong-Ju; Lim, Sinye; Park, Jeongim; Choi, Kyungho; Lee, Naroo; Jung, Hyejung; Ha, Jongsik; Paek, Domyung

    2014-09-02

    This study describes 17 families with 38 lung injury patients (14 males, 24 females; 22 preschool-age children less than six years of age and 16 individuals of 13-50 years) who used disinfectant added to humidifiers in the home. Clinical examination and humidifier disinfectant-use histories were taken, and a thorough home investigation was performed to assess exposure to humidifier disinfectant. Nine of the patients (three pregnant females, six preschool-age children) died soon after they first developed lung damage. Six (16%) were pregnant females and 22 (58%) were preschool-aged children younger than six years. The patients used humidifier disinfectant products containing either polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG, n = 36) or oligo(2-(2-ethoxy)ethoxyethyl guanidinium chloride (PGH, n = 2). Twenty-six patients (68%) used the brand "Oxy"®, which contains PHMG. Of the ten patients with fatal lung injury, nine were found to have used PHMG. Our findings suggest that the use of humidifier disinfectant products containing either PGH or PHMG can cause lung injury, especially in preschool-age children younger than six years and pregnant women.

  16. Interstitial lung disease associated with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus infection in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolfa, Pompei; Nolf, Marie; Cadoré, Jean-Luc; Catoi, Cornel; Archer, Fabienne; Dolmazon, Christine; Mornex, Jean-François; Leroux, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    EIA (Equine Infectious Anemia) is a blood-borne disease primarily transmitted by haematophagous insects or needle punctures. Other routes of transmission have been poorly explored. We evaluated the potential of EIAV (Equine Infectious Anemia Virus) to induce pulmonary lesions in naturally infected equids. Lungs from 77 EIAV seropositive horses have been collected in Romania and France. Three types of lesions have been scored on paraffin-embedded lungs: lymphocyte infiltration, bronchiolar inflammation, and thickness of the alveolar septa. Expression of the p26 EIAV capsid (CA) protein has been evaluated by immunostaining. Compared to EIAV-negative horses, 52% of the EIAV-positive horses displayed a mild inflammation around the bronchioles, 22% had a moderate inflammation with inflammatory cells inside the wall and epithelial bronchiolar hyperplasia and 6.5% had a moderate to severe inflammation, with destruction of the bronchiolar epithelium and accumulation of smooth muscle cells within the pulmonary parenchyma. Changes in the thickness of the alveolar septa were also present. Expression of EIAV capsid has been evidenced in macrophages, endothelial as well as in alveolar and bronchiolar epithelial cells, as determined by their morphology and localization. To summarize, we found lesions of interstitial lung disease similar to that observed during other lentiviral infections such as FIV in cats, SRLV in sheep and goats or HIV in children. The presence of EIAV capsid in lung epithelial cells suggests that EIAV might be responsible for the broncho-interstitial damages observed.

  17. Elemental composition of particulate matter and the association with lung function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeftens, Marloes; Hoek, Gerard; Gruzieva, Olena; Mölter, Anna; Agius, Raymond; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Custovic, Adnan; Cyrys, Josef; Fuertes, Elaine; Heinrich, Joachim; Hoffmann, Barbara; de Hoogh, Kees; Jedynska, Aleksandra; Keuken, Menno; Klümper, Claudia; Kooter, Ingeborg; Krämer, Ursula; Korek, Michal; Koppelman, Gerard H; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Simpson, Angela; Smit, Henriëtte A; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Wang, Meng; Wolf, Kathrin; Pershagen, Göran; Gehring, Ulrike

    BACKGROUND: Negative effects of long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) on lung function have been shown repeatedly. Spatial differences in the composition and toxicity of PM may explain differences in observed effect sizes between studies. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter study in 5

  18. Elemental composition of particulate matter and the association with lung function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeftens, M.; Hoek, G.; Gruzieva, O.; Mölter, A.; Agius, R.; Beelen, R.; Brunekreef, B.; Custovic, A.; Cyrys, J.; Fuertes, E.; Heinrich, J.; Hoffmann, B.; De Hoogh, K.; Jedynska, A.; Keuken, M.; Klümper, C.; Kooter, I.; Krämer, U.; Korek, M.; Koppelman, G.H.; Kuhlbusch, T.A.J.; Simpson, A.; Smit, H.A.; Tsai, M.Y.; Wang, M.; Wolf, K.; Pershagen, G.; Gehring, U.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Negative effects of long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) on lung function have been shown repeatedly. Spatial differences in the composition and toxicity of PM may explain differences in observed effect sizes between studies. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter study in 5

  19. Superoxide Dismutase 3 Polymorphism Associated with Reduced Lung Function in Two Large Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Bowler, Russell P; Juul, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    . Measurements and Main Results: Genotyping the Copenhagen City Heart Study identified 35 E1/I1 homozygotes, 1,050 heterozygotes, and 8,008 noncarriers (Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium: P = 0.93). Using quadruple lung function measurements, we found that E1/I1 homozygotes had 7% lower FVC % predicted (P = 0...

  20. Study finds stronger nicotine dependency associated with higher risk of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI headed study finds people who are highly addicted to nicotine -- those who smoke their first cigarette within five minutes after awakening -- are at higher risk of developing lung cancer than those who wait for an hour or more to smoke.

  1. Collagen and elastin cross-linking is altered during aberrant late lung development associated with hyperoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mižíková, Ivana; Ruiz-Camp, Jordi; Steenbock, Heiko; Madurga, Alicia; Vadász, István; Herold, Susanne; Mayer, Konstantin; Seeger, Werner; Brinckmann, Jürgen; Morty, Rory E

    2015-06-01

    Maturation of the lung extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in the formation of alveolar gas exchange units. A key step in ECM maturation is cross-linking of collagen and elastin, which imparts stability and functionality to the ECM. During aberrant late lung development in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) patients and animal models of BPD, alveolarization is blocked, and the function of ECM cross-linking enzymes is deregulated, suggesting that perturbed ECM cross-linking may impact alveolarization. In a hyperoxia (85% O2)-based mouse model of BPD, blunted alveolarization was accompanied by alterations to lung collagen and elastin levels and cross-linking. Total collagen levels were increased (by 63%). The abundance of dihydroxylysinonorleucine collagen cross-links and the dihydroxylysinonorleucine-to-hydroxylysinonorleucine ratio were increased by 11 and 18%, respectively, suggestive of a profibrotic state. In contrast, insoluble elastin levels and the abundance of the elastin cross-links desmosine and isodesmosine in insoluble elastin were decreased by 35, 30, and 21%, respectively. The lung collagen-to-elastin ratio was threefold increased. Treatment of hyperoxia-exposed newborn mice with the lysyl oxidase inhibitor β-aminopropionitrile partially restored normal collagen levels, normalized the dihydroxylysinonorleucine-to-hydroxylysinonorleucine ratio, partially normalized desmosine and isodesmosine cross-links in insoluble elastin, and partially restored elastin foci structure in the developing septa. However, β-aminopropionitrile administration concomitant with hyperoxia exposure did not improve alveolarization, evident from unchanged alveolar surface area and alveoli number, and worsened septal thickening (increased by 12%). These data demonstrate that collagen and elastin cross-linking are perturbed during the arrested alveolarization of developing mouse lungs exposed to hyperoxia. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Childhood-onset asthma in smokers. association between CT measures of airway size, lung function, and chronic airflow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Alejandro A; Hardin, Megan E; Come, Carolyn E; San José Estépar, Raúl; Ross, James C; Kurugol, Sila; Okajima, Yuka; Han, MeiLan K; Kim, Victor; Ramsdell, Joe; Silverman, Edwin K; Crapo, James D; Lynch, David A; Make, Barry; Barr, R Graham; Hersh, Craig P; Washko, George R

    2014-11-01

    Asthma is associated with chronic airflow obstruction. Our goal was to assess the association of computed tomographic measures of airway wall volume and lumen volume with the FEV1 and chronic airflow obstruction in smokers with childhood-onset asthma. We analyzed clinical, lung function, and volumetric computed tomographic airway volume data from 7,266 smokers, including 590 with childhood-onset asthma. Small wall volume and small lumen volume of segmental airways were defined as measures 1 SD below the mean. We assessed the association between small wall volume, small lumen volume, FEV1, and chronic airflow obstruction (post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio childhood-onset asthma, those with childhood-onset asthma had smaller wall volume and lumen volume (P childhood-onset asthma, those with the smallest wall volume and lumen volume had the lowest FEV1 and greatest odds of chronic airflow obstruction. A similar tendency was seen in those without childhood-onset asthma. When comparing these two groups, both small wall volume and small lumen volume were more strongly associated with FEV1 and chronic airflow obstruction among subjects with childhood-asthma in multivariate models. In smokers with childhood-onset asthma, smaller airways are associated with reduced lung function and chronic airflow obstruction. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00608764).

  3. Parental perception of the nutritional quality of school meals and its association with students' school lunch participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2014-03-01

    This study explores the association between parental perception of the nutritional quality of school meals and whether students eat lunch served at school. We use data from five low-income cities in New Jersey that have high minority populations. Students whose parents perceive the quality of school meals to be healthy have greater odds of eating meals served at school. Recent changes in guidelines for the United States Department of Agriculture's National School Lunch Program met with resistance from several fronts. Advocates for and implementers of improved school meals may benefit from partnering with parents to increase the acceptance and utilization of improved school offerings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic variant of miR-4293 rs12220909 is associated with susceptibility to non-small cell lung cancer in a Chinese Han population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Fan

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancer is one of the most common cancers and the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Genetic variants in regulatory regions of some miRNAs might be involved in non-small cell lung cancer susceptibility and survival. rs12220909 (G/C genetic polymorphism in miR-4293 has been shown to be associated with decreased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. However, the influence of rs12220909 genetic variation on non-small cell lung cancer susceptibility has not been reported. In order to evaluate the potential association between miR-4293 rs12220909 and non-small cell lung cancer risk in a Chinese population, we performed a case-control study among 998 non-small cell lung cancer cases and 1471 controls. The data shows that miR-4293 rs12220909 was significantly associated with decreased susceptibility to non-small cell lung cancer (GC vs.GG: OR = 0.681, 95%CI = 0.555-0.835, P = 2.19E-4; GG vs. GC+CC: OR = 0.687, 95%CI = 0.564-0.837, P = 1.95E-4, which indicates that rs12220909 in miR-4293 may play a significant role in the development of non-small cell lung cancer.

  5. Food as a reward in the classroom: school district policies are associated with practices in US public elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-09-01

    The use of food as a reward for good student behavior or academic performance is discouraged by many national organizations, yet this practice continues to occur in schools. Our multiyear cross-sectional study examined the use of food as a reward in elementary schools and evaluated the association between district policies and school practices. School data were gathered during the 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2009-2010 school years via mail-back surveys (N=2,069) from respondents at nationally representative samples of US public elementary schools (1,525 unique schools, 544 of which also participated for a second year). During every year, the corresponding district policy for each school was gathered and coded for provisions pertaining to the use of food as a reward. School practices did not change over time and as of the 2009-2010 school year, respondents in 42.1% and 40.7% of schools, respectively, indicated that food was not used as a reward for academic performance or for good student behavior. In multivariate logistic regression analyses controlling for school characteristics and year, having a district policy that prohibited the use of food as a reward was significantly associated with school respondents reporting that food was not used as a reward for academic performance (Preward than were respondents in the South and Northeast. As of 2009-2010, only 11.9% of the districts in our study prohibited the use of food as a reward. Strengthening district policies may reduce the use of food rewards in elementary schools. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Examining the Associations Among Home–School Dissonance, Amotivation, and Classroom Disruptive Behavior for Urban High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth M.; Graves, Scott L.; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Mulder, Shambra

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the association among home–school dissonance, amotivation, and classroom disruptive behavior among 309 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southern region of the country. Students completed two subscales of the Patterns of Learning Activities Scales (PALS) and one subscale of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). ANCOVA analyses revealed significant differences in classroom disruptive behaviors for the gender independent variable. Control...

  7. Increased Circulating Endothelial Microparticles Associated with PAK4 Play a Key Role in Ventilation-Induced Lung Injury Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuming Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate mechanical ventilation (MV can result in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI. Probing mechanisms of VILI and searching for effective methods are current areas of research focus on VILI. The present study aimed to probe into mechanisms of endothelial microparticles (EMPs in VILI and the protective effects of Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP against VILI. In this study, C57BL/6 and TLR4KO mouse MV models were used to explore the function of EMPs associated with p21 activated kinases-4 (PAK-4 in VILI. Both the C57BL/6 and TLR4 KO groups were subdivided into a mechanical ventilation (MV group, a TMP + MV group, and a control group. After four hours of high tidal volume (20 ml/kg MV, the degree of lung injury and the protective effects of TMP were assessed. VILI inhibited the cytoskeleton-regulating protein of PAK4 and was accompanied by an increased circulating EMP level. The intercellular junction protein of β-catenin was also decreased accompanied by a thickening alveolar wall, increased lung W/D values, and neutrophil infiltration. TMP alleviated VILI via decreasing circulating EMPs, stabilizing intercellular junctions, and alleviating neutrophil infiltration.

  8. Associations between respiratory symptoms, lung function and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms in a population-based birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbison G Peter

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have reported an association between asthma and gastro-oesophageal reflux, but it is unclear which condition develops first. The role of obesity in mediating this association is also unclear. We explored the associations between respiratory symptoms, lung function, and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms in a birth cohort of approximately 1000 individuals. Methods Information on respiratory symptoms, asthma, atopy, lung function and airway responsiveness was obtained at multiple assessments from childhood to adulthood in an unselected birth cohort of 1037 individuals followed to age 26. Symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux and irritable bowel syndrome were recorded at age 26. Results Heartburn and acid regurgitation symptoms that were at least "moderately bothersome" at age 26 were significantly associated with asthma (odds ratio = 3.2; 95% confidence interval = 1.6–6.4, wheeze (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.7–7.2, and nocturnal cough (OR = 4.3; 95% CI = 2.1–8.7 independently of body mass index. In women reflux symptoms were also associated with airflow obstruction and a bronchodilator response to salbutamol. Persistent wheezing since childhood, persistence of asthma since teenage years, and airway hyperresponsiveness since age 11 were associated with a significantly increased risk of heartburn and acid regurgitation at age 26. There was no association between irritable bowel syndrome and respiratory symptoms. Conclusion Reflux symptoms are associated with respiratory symptoms in young adults independently of body mass index. The mechanism of these associations remains unclear.

  9. Lung cancer incidence and long-term exposure to air pollution from traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Hvidberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown associations between air pollution and risk for lung cancer.Objective: We investigated whether traffic and the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the residence are associated with risk for lung cancer.Methods: We identified 592 lung cancer cases...... for all addresses for each person. We used Cox models to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) after adjustment for smoking (status, duration, and intensity), environmental tobacco smoke, length of school attendance, occupation, and dietary intake of fruit.Results: For the highest compared with the lowest...... of stronger associations among nonsmokers, among those with a relatively low fruit intake, and among those with a longer school attendance; only length of school attendance modified the effect significantly.Conclusions: This study supports that risk for lung cancer is associated with different markers of air...

  10. Interactions between smoking and other exposures associated with lung cancer risk in women: diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubík, A; Zatloukal, P; Tomásek, L; Pauk, N; Havel, L; Dolezal, J; Plesko, I

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study is to estimate the differences in the impact of diet and physical exercise on lung cancer risk in female nonsmokers vs. smokers, and reveal interactions, if any. In a hospital based case-control study, data collected by in-person interviews from 569 female lung cancer cases and 2120 controls were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression stratifying by appropriate factors. Protective effects were observed for intake of milk/dairy products (OR=0.57, 95%CI 0.35-0.94), vegetables (OR=0.60, 95%CI 0.40-0.91), apples (OR=0.69), wine (OR=0.77), and physical exercise (OR=0.59, 95%CI 0.42-0.83) among smokers only, while no similar effects were found among nonsmokers. In contrast, the intake of black tea was associated with a protective effect (OR=0.66, 95%CI 0.47-0.94) among nonsmokers only. Comparing the effects of dietary items and physical activity on lung cancer risk among nonsmokers versus smokers, statistically significant effect modifications were found for black tea (P 0.005), and milk/dairy products (P 0.047). Borderline effect modifications emerged for physical exercise (P 0.077). These results indicate protective effects of some components of healthful diet and physical exercise among smokers, and of the intake of black tea among nonsmokers. The observed interactions of the impact of black tea, milk/dairy products and physical activity upon lung cancer risk in women at different levels of the smoking habit deserve further studies.

  11. DHA-Mediated Regulation of Lung Cancer Cell Migration Is Not Directly Associated with Gelsolin or Vimentin Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mehboob; Heyob, Kathryn; Rogers, Lynette K.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS Deaths associated with cancer metastasis have steadily increased making the need for newer, anti-metastatic therapeutics imparative. Gelsolin and vimentin, actin binding proteins expressed in metastatic tumors, participate in actin remodelling and regulate cell migration. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) limits cancer cell proliferation and adhesion but the mechanisms involved in reducing metastatic phenotypes are unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of DHA on gelsolin and vimentin expression, and ultimately cell migration and proliferation, in this context. MAIN METHODS Non-invasive lung epithelial cells (MLE12) and invasive lung cancer cells (A549) were treated with DHA (30 μmol/ml) or/and 8 bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8 Br-cAMP) (300 μmol/ml) for 6 or 24 h either before (pre-treatment) or after (post-treatment) plating in transwells. Migration was assessed by the number of cells that progressed through the transwell. Gelsolin and vimentin expression were measured by western blot and confocal microscopy in cells, and by immunohistochemistry in human lung cancer biospy samples. KEY FINDINGS A significant decrease in cell migration was detected for A549 cells treated with DHA verses control but this same decrease was not seen in MLE12 cells. DHA and 8 Br-cAMP altered gelsolin and vimentin expression but no clear pattern of change was observed. Immunoflorescence staining indicated slightly higher vimentin expression in human lung tissue that was malignant compared to control. SIGNIFICANCE Collectively, our data indicate that DHA inhibits cancer cell migration and further suggests that vimentin and gelsolin may play secondary roles in cancer cell migration and proliferation, but are not the primary regulators. PMID:27157519

  12. Reciprocal associations between interpersonal and values dimensions of school climate and peer victimization in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Smith, David; Bowen, François

    2015-01-01

    We examine longitudinal relations among children's and parents' reports of peer victimization and their perceptions of school climate dimensions reflecting school interpersonal relationships (relationships among children and their teachers and peers, and of parents and principals) and values (fairness and equity of access to resources). Children were in Grades 3 and 4 at Time 1 (Mage = 9.32, SDage = .74; 49% boys). Bidirectional influences of school climate and reports of peer victimization were investigated in path models across grade (Time 1 to Time 2) and within a grade (Time 2 to Time 3). Child and parent reports of school climate dimensions showed considerable stability. Hypothesized reciprocal relationships between each of the school climate dimensions and peer victimization were significant. Child-reported frequency of parent involvement in school activities was associated with lower levels of peer victimization within a school year. Parent perceptions of involvement in school activities and the schools' connection with the community were unrelated to the children's reports of peer victimization. Children's negative cognitions or "worldviews" coupled with peer victimization may fuel problems with school connectedness, safety, and help seeking. Findings shed light on possible pathways for reducing peer victimization by leveraging specific aspects of the social climate within schools.

  13. Association of School Environment and After-School Physical Activity with Health-Related Physical Fitness among Junior High School Students in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Kai-Yang; Wu, Min-Chen; Tung, Shu-Chin; Hsieh, City C.; Yao, Hsueh-Hua; Ho, Chien-Chang

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between students’ school environment and exercise habits is complex, and is affected by numerous factors. However, the few studies that have been conducted on this relationship have reported inconsistent results, especially regarding Taiwanese students. We conducted this cross-sectional study to investigate the association of school environment and after-school physical activity with health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese adolescents. Data were drawn from a national survey conducted by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008 of health-related physical fitness measurements among junior high school students (649,442 total) in grades seven to nine. School environment (level of urbanization, school size, presence of sports field or gymnasium) and after-school physical activity were assessed for their association with adolescents’ physical fitness measurements (body mass index (BMI), bent-leg sit-ups, 800-/1600-m run, sit-and-reach, standing long jump). Urban boys and girls perform significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; girls from rural areas exhibited significantly worse scores in body composition. Boys from large-size schools performed the worst in cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; whereas girls from large-size schools performed the worst in muscle strength, muscle endurance, and explosive power, but had the best score for body composition. However, the differences in body composition of boys from large-, medium-, and small- size schools did not reach a statistically significant level. Adolescents of both genders in schools with a sports field or gymnasium exhibited significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, and explosive power. Boys in schools with a sports field or gymnasium had significantly better body composition; girls in schools with sports field or gymnasium differed significantly in

  14. Association of School Environment and After-School Physical Activity with Health-Related Physical Fitness among Junior High School Students in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Yang Lo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between students’ school environment and exercise habits is complex, and is affected by numerous factors. However, the few studies that have been conducted on this relationship have reported inconsistent results, especially regarding Taiwanese students. We conducted this cross-sectional study to investigate the association of school environment and after-school physical activity with health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese adolescents. Data were drawn from a national survey conducted by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008 of health-related physical fitness measurements among junior high school students (649,442 total in grades seven to nine.School environment (level of urbanization, school size, presence of sports field or gymnasium and after-school physical activity were assessed for their association with adolescents’ physical fitness measurements (body mass index (BMI, bent-leg sit-ups, 800-/1600-m run, sit-and-reach, standing long jump. Urban boys and girls perform significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; girls from rural areas exhibited significantly worse scores in body composition. Boys from large-size schools performed the worst in cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; whereas girls from large-size schools performed the worst in muscle strength, muscle endurance, and explosive power, but had the best score for body composition. However, the differences in body composition of boys from large-, medium-, and small- size schools did not reach a statistically significant level. Adolescents of both genders in schools with a sports field or gymnasium exhibited significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, and explosive power. Boys in schools with a sports field or gymnasium had significantly better body composition; girls in schools with sports field or gymnasium differed

  15. School Public Relations and the Principalship: An Interview with Mark Bielang, President of American Association of School Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul

    2011-01-01

    From returning phone calls to traversing the political landscape to building trust, American Association of School Administrators (AASA) president Mark Bielang covers a lot of territory as he describes the public relations challenges confronting today's school administrators. Having just concluded his term as AASA president, Mr. Bielang has served…

  16. Low-Level Violence in Schools: Is There an Association between School Safety Measures and Peer Victimization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosnich, John; Bossarte, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background: Low-level violent behavior, particularly school bullying, remains a critical public health issue that has been associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. School-based prevention programs, while a valuable line of defense to stave off bullying, have shown inconsistent results in terms of decreasing bullying. This…

  17. Health promotion in primary and secondary schools in Denmark: time trends and associations with schools' and students' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Krølner, Rikke; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Diderichsen, Finn

    2015-02-07

    Schools are important arenas for interventions among children as health promoting initiatives in childhood is expected to have substantial influence on health and well-being in adulthood. In countries with compulsory school attention, all children could potentially benefit from health promotion at the school level regardless of socioeconomic status or other background factors. The first aim was to elucidate time trends in the number and types of school health promoting activities by describing the number and type of health promoting activities in primary and secondary schools in Denmark. The second aim was to investigate which characteristics of schools and students that are associated with participation in many (≥3) versus few (0-2) health promoting activities during the preceding 2-3 years. We used cross-sectional data from the 2006- and 2010-survey of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. The headmasters answered questions about the school's participation in health promoting activities and about school size, proportion of ethnic minorities, school facilities available for health promoting activities, competing problems and resources at the school and in the neighborhood. Students provided information about their health-related behavior and exposure to bullying which was aggregated to the school level. A total of 74 schools were available for analyses in 2006 and 69 in 2010. We used chi-square test, t-test, and binary logistic regression to analyze time trends and differences between schools engaging in many versus few health promoting activities. The percentage of schools participating in ≥3 health promoting activities was 63% in 2006 and 61% in 2010. Also the mean number of health promoting activities was similar (3.14 vs. 3.07). The activities most frequently targeted physical activity (73% and 85%) and bullying (78% and 67%). Schools' participation in anti-smoking activities was significantly higher in 2006 compared with 2010 (46% vs. 29

  18. Early extracellular matrix changes are associated with later development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Catharina; Andersson-Sjöland, Annika; Schultz, Hans Henrik

    2017-01-01

    are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to identify potential early changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) in different compartments of the transplanted lung prior to the development of BOS. Methods: Transbronchial biopsies from a cohort of 58 lung transplantation patients at the Copenhagen...... and immunohistochemistry. Results: A time-specific and compartment-specific pattern of ECM changes was detected. Alveolar total collagen (p=0.0190) and small airway biglycan (p=0.0199) increased between 3 and 12 months after transplantation in patients developing BOS, while collagen type IV (p=0.0124) increased...... in patients without BOS. Patients with early-onset BOS mirrored this increase. Patients developing grade 3 BOS showed distinct ECM changes already at 3 months. Patients with BOS with treated acute rejections displayed reduced alveolar total collagen (p=0.0501) and small airway biglycan (p=0.0485) at 3 months...

  19. Association of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in limited small cell lung cancers: interest of alternating protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Chevalier, T.; Arriagada, R.; Ruffie, P.; Cremoux, H. de; Douillard, J.Y.; Tuchais, C.; Chomy, P.; Riviere, A.; Tarayre, M.

    1992-01-01

    From 1980, alternating protocols of chemotherapy and thorax radiotherapy in limited small cell lung cancers have been elaborated in order to control locally the disease, to improve the total survival and to reduce the toxicity that are bound the simultaneous treatments of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Thanks to these protocols, the two-year survival rate is 27% and the five-year survival rate, 16%

  20. Exposure characteristics of familial cases of lung injury associated with the use of humidifier disinfectants

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Donguk; Leem, Jonghan; Lee, Kyoungmu; Lim, Heungkyu; Choi, Yeyong; Ahn, Jong-Ju; Lim, Sinye; Park, Jeongim; Choi, Kyungho; Lee, Naroo; Jung, Hyejung; Ha, Jongsik; Paek, Domyung

    2014-01-01

    Background This study describes 17 families with 38 lung injury patients (14 males, 24 females; 22 preschool-age children less than six years of age and 16 individuals of 13–50 years) who used disinfectant added to humidifiers in the home. Methods Clinical examination and humidifier disinfectant-use histories were taken, and a thorough home investigation was performed to assess exposure to humidifier disinfectant. Results Nine of the patients (three pregnant females, six preschool-age childre...

  1. Chemotherapy treatment is associated with altered PD-L1 expression in lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojkó, Lívia; Reiniger, Lilla; Téglási, Vanda

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: While the predictive value of programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) protein expression for immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy of lung cancer has been extensively studied, the impact of standard platinum-based chemotherapy on PD-L1 or programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) expression is unkn...... expression of TC in a subset of patients, therefore, rebiopsy and re-evaluation of PD-L1 expression may be necessary for the indication of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy.......Objectives: While the predictive value of programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) protein expression for immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy of lung cancer has been extensively studied, the impact of standard platinum-based chemotherapy on PD-L1 or programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) expression...... is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in PD-L1 expression of tumor cells (TC) and immune cells (IC), in PD-1 expression of IC, and in the amount of stromal mononuclear cell infiltration after platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer. Materials and methods: We...

  2. Correlation between HRCT findings, pulmonary function tests and bronchoalveolar lavage cytology in interstitial lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, J.; Muhle, C.; Heller, M.; Reuter, M.; Schnabel, A.; Gross, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    A prospective study correlating high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), lung function tests (PFT) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Fifty-three RA patients with suspected ILD (19 men, 34 women) underwent 71 HRCT (14 of 53 with sequential HRCT, mean follow-up 24.3 months). The HRCT evaluation by two observers on consensus included a semi-quantitative characterisation of lesion pattern and profusion on representative anatomical levels. Fifty-two HRCT were followed by PFT and BAL. Agreement or discordance of HRCT-, PFT- and BAL findings were analysed with Pearson's correlation, κ score and McNemar's test. Tobacco-fume exposure was estimated in pack years. Smoking/non-smoking groups were compared with Student's t test. In 49 of 53 patients, HRCT was suggestive of ILD associated with RA (66 of 71 HRCT). Reticular lesions were found in 40 of 53 patients, in 15 of 40 presenting as mixed pattern with ground-glass opacities (GGO). Pure reticular patterns predominated in patients with long duration of ILD (p>0.01). Pure GGO were not observed. Lesion profusion was highly variable and correlated moderately negative with diffusion capacity (mean 88.2% (SD±20.9%); r=-0.54; p 0.2), but not towards lymphocytosis (κ=0.10; p=0.23; McNemar test p>0.2). Differences in smoking history were not significant (p>0.1). The HRCT appears most appropriate for the detection and follow-up of ILD associated with RA. The PFT and BAL correlate only partially with lesion profusion or grading on HRCT, but they contribute valuable information about dynamic lung function and differential diagnoses (pneumonia, medication side effects). (orig.)

  3. The concentration of iron in real-world geogenic PM₁₀ is associated with increased inflammation and deficits in lung function in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme R Zosky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are many communities around the world that are exposed to high levels of particulate matter <10 µm (PM₁₀ of geogenic (earth derived origin. Mineral dusts in the occupational setting are associated with poor lung health, however very little is known about the impact of heterogeneous community derived particles. We have preliminary evidence to suggest that the concentration of iron (Fe may be associated with the lung inflammatory response to geogenic PM₁₀. We aimed to determine which physico-chemical characteristics of community sampled geogenic PM₁₀ are associated with adverse lung responses. METHODS: We collected geogenic PM₁₀ from four towns in the arid regions of Western Australia. Adult female BALB/c mice were exposed to 100 µg of particles and assessed for inflammatory and lung function responses 6 hours, 24 hours and 7 days post-exposure. We assessed the physico-chemical characteristics of the particles and correlated these with lung outcomes in the mice using principal components analysis and multivariate linear regression. RESULTS: Geogenic particles induced an acute inflammatory response that peaked 6 hours post-exposure and a deficit in lung mechanics 7 days post-exposure. This deficit in lung mechanics was positively associated with the concentration of Fe and particle size variability and inversely associated with the concentration of Si. CONCLUSIONS: The lung response to geogenic PM₁₀ is complex and highly dependent on the physico-chemical characteristics of the particles. In particular, the concentration of Fe in the particles may be a key indicator of the potential population health consequences for inhaling geogenic PM₁₀.

  4. Bullying and School Climate: Associations and Group Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernbaum, Mark A.; Lotyczewski, Bohdan S.

    2015-01-01

    Bullying is an international public health problem that school climate could help prevent or promote. The present paper contains an analysis of an anonymous school climate survey, completed by 9554 students, in grades 5-12 (response rate 87%). Links in the literature between school climate and bullying lack specificity. We examined associations…

  5. Student First Amendment Rights: Wisconsin School Board Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Gordon B.

    Issues in students' First Amendment rights are discussed in this paper, which is directed toward school board members. The "Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Schools" (1969) decision is discussed, in which the United States Supreme Court struck down the discipline imposed on students who wore black armbands during school hours to protest…

  6. Analysis of the Factors Associated with Abnormal Coagulation and Prognosis
in Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua LI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis is frequently encountered among cancer patients. Such tumors are associated with high risk of invasion, metastases, and negative final outcomes. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC accounts for approximately 80% to 85% of all lung malignancies. This study aims to investigate the prognostic value of blood coagulation tests for NSCLC and provide a reference to patients on the prevention and treatment of thrombophilia. Methods Data were collected from 604 cases of hospitalized patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC from January 2009 to December 2012 at the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University. Data included the related indexes of coagulation function in patients before treatment [(i.e., prothrombin time (PT, prothrombin time activity (PTA, international normalized ratio (INR, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, fibrinogen (Fib, D-dimer, and platelet count], as well as sex, age, pathological type, TNM stage, and lymph node status. Fifty control subjects without cancer were included in the analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted by using SPSS 13.0 software. Results The plasma level of all coagulation tests including D-dimer, Fib, PT, APTT, INR, and platelet counts revealed statistically significant differences between the patient and control group (P<0.001 for all variables; P=0.001,5 and P=0.004,5 for Fib and platelet counts, respectively. The squamous subtype exhibited high plasma Fib levels (P<0.001 compared with adenocarcinoma cell lung cancer patients. Fib and PLT levels increased (P<0.001 and P=0.014, respectively, and aPTT decreased (P<0.001 in patients at stages III and IV compared with those in patients at stages I and II. aPTT decreased significantly (P<0.001, and Fib and D-dimer levels increased (P<0.001 and P=0.048, respectively in N1-3 patients with NSCLC compared with those of N0 patients. Prolonged PT and INR, high plasma Fib levels, and

  7. Klippel-Feil syndrome with associated agenesis of lung and gall bladder presenting with asthma and allergic rhinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, Puneet; Panjabi, Chandramani; Shah, Ashok

    2005-01-01

    Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS), a triad of short neck, limitation of neck movement and low posterior hairline, is characterized by the presence of congenitally fused cervical vertebrae and is often associated with multiple congenital anomalies. A 35-year-old male was referred for evaluation of an 'opaque hemithorax'. This led to a diagnosis of KFS, agenesis of left lung and gall bladder. The patient had history of wheezing dyspnea with nasal symptoms, which were diagnosed as asthma and allergic rhinitis. A high index of suspicion is required to recognize such a patient, and efforts should be made to seek other congenital anomalies. (author)

  8. SU-F-R-07: Radiomics of CT Features and Associations and Correlation with Outcomes Following Lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreibmann, E; Iwinski Sutter, A; Whitaker, D; Switchenko, J; Elder, E; Higgins, K; Patel, P [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Objective: To investigate the prognostic significance of image gradients and in predicting clinical outcomes in a patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) on 71 patients with 83 treated lesions. Methods: The records of patients treated with lung SBRT were retrospectively reviewed. When applicable, SBRT target volumes were modified to exclude any overlap with pleura, chestwall, or mediastinum. The ITK software package was utilized to generate quantitative measures of image intensity, inhomogeneity, shape morphology and first and second-order CT textures. Multivariate and univariate models containing CT features were generated to assess associations with clinicopathologic factors. Results: On univariate analysis, tumor size (HR 0.54, p=0.045) sumHU (HR 0.31, p=0.044) and short run grey level emphasis STD (HR 0.22, p=0.019) were associated with regional failure-free survival; meanHU (HR 0.30, p=0.035), long run emphasis (HR 0.21, p=0.011) and long run low grey level emphasis (HR 0.14, p=0.005) was associated with distant failure-free survival (DFFS). No features were significant on multivariate modeling however long run low grey level emphasis had a hazard ratio of 0.12 (p=0.061) for DFFS. Adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma differed with respect to long run emphasis STD (p=0.024), short run low grey level emphasis STD (p<0.001), and long run low grey level emphasis STD (p=0.024). Multivariate modeling of texture features associated with tumor histology was used to estimate histologies of 18 lesions treated without histologic confirmation. Of these, MVA suggested the same histology as a prior metachronous lung malignancy in 3/7 patients. Conclusion: Extracting radiomics features on clinical datasets was feasible with the ITK package with minimal effort to identify pre-treatment quantitative CT features with prognostic factors for distant control after lung SBRT.

  9. Primary school students' mental health in Uganda and its association with school violence, connectedness, and school characteristics: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumann, Barbara F; Nur, Ula; Naker, Dipak; Devries, Karen M

    2016-07-29

    Few studies have explored risk factors for poor mental health in Ugandan primary schools. This study investigated whether individual- and contextual-level school-related factors including violence from school staff and other students, connectedness to school and peers, as well as school size and urban/rural location, were associated with mental health difficulties in Ugandan children. We also examined whether associations between violence exposure at school and mental health were mediated by connectedness as well as whether associations were different for boys and girls. The analytic sample consisted of 3,565 students from 42 primary schools participating in the Good Schools Study. Data were collected through individual interviews conducted in June and July 2012. Mental health was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multilevel logistic regression was applied to investigate factors associated with mental health difficulties. Experiences of violence from school staff and other students in the past week were strongly associated with mental health difficulties (OR = 1.58, 95 % CI 1.31 to 1.90 and 1.81, 1.47 to 2.23, respectively). Children with a low school connectedness had 1.43 times (1.11 to 1.83) the odds of mental health difficulties compared to those with a high school connectedness. The OR comparing children never feeling close to other students at their school with those always feeling close was 1.86 (1.18 to 2.93). The effect of violence on mental health was not mediated through the connectedness variables. School size was not related to mental health difficulties, but attending an urban school increased the odds of mental health difficulties after accounting for other factors. We did not find evidence that the effect of one or more of the exposures on the outcome differed between boys and girls. These findings suggest that violence in school and low connectedness to school and peers are independently associated with mental health

  10. Genetic association with overall survival of taxane-treated lung cancer patients - a genome-wide association study in human lymphoblastoid cell lines followed by a clinical association study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Nifang; Cunningham, Julie M; Li, Liang; Sun, Zhifu; Yang, Ping; Wang, Liewei; Schaid, Daniel J; Abo, Ryan P; Kalari, Krishna; Fridley, Brooke L; Feng, Qiping; Jenkins, Gregory; Batzler, Anthony; Brisbin, Abra G

    2012-01-01

    Taxane is one of the first line treatments of lung cancer. In order to identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that might contribute to taxane response, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for two taxanes, paclitaxel and docetaxel, using 276 lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), followed by genotyping of top candidate SNPs in 874 lung cancer patient samples treated with paclitaxel. GWAS was performed using 1.3 million SNPs and taxane cytotoxicity IC50 values for 276 LCLs. The association of selected SNPs with overall survival in 76 small or 798 non-small cell lung cancer (SCLC, NSCLC) patients were analyzed by Cox regression model, followed by integrated SNP-microRNA-expression association analysis in LCLs and siRNA screening of candidate genes in SCLC (H196) and NSCLC (A549) cell lines. 147 and 180 SNPs were associated with paclitaxel or docetaxel IC50s with p-values <10 -4 in the LCLs, respectively. Genotyping of 153 candidate SNPs in 874 lung cancer patient samples identified 8 SNPs (p-value < 0.05) associated with either SCLC or NSCLC patient overall survival. Knockdown of PIP4K2A, CCT5, CMBL, EXO1, KMO and OPN3, genes within 200 kb up-/downstream of the 3 SNPs that were associated with SCLC overall survival (rs1778335, rs2662411 and rs7519667), significantly desensitized H196 to paclitaxel. SNPs rs2662411 and rs1778335 were associated with mRNA expression of CMBL or PIP4K2A through microRNA (miRNA) hsa-miR-584 or hsa-miR-1468. GWAS in an LCL model system, joined with clinical translational and functional studies, might help us identify genetic variations associated with overall survival of lung cancer patients treated paclitaxel

  11. Student Media in U.S. Secondary Schools: Associations with School Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkowski, Piotr S.; Goodman, Mark; Bowen, Candace Perkins

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an up-to-date counting of student media in U.S. public high schools. The analysis underscores the importance of school demographic characteristics in predicting whether schools offer student media. The disparities identified here should inform how journalism schools, scholastic journalism organizations, funding agencies, and…

  12. Histopathological Correlations between Mediastinal Fat-Associated Lymphoid Clusters and the Development of Lung Inflammation and Fibrosis following Bleomycin Administration in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elewa, Yaser Hosny Ali; Ichii, Osamu; Takada, Kensuke; Nakamura, Teppei; Masum, Md Abdul; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2018-01-01

    Bleomycin (BLM) has been reported to induce lung inflammation and fibrosis in human and mice and showed genetic susceptibility. Interestingly, the C57BL/6 (B6) mice had prominent mediastinal fat-associated lymphoid cluster (MFALCs) under healthy condition, and showed susceptibility to development of lung fibrosis following BLM administration. However, the pathogenesis of lung lesion progression, and their correlation with MFALC morphologies, remain to be clarified. To investigate the correlations between MFALC structures and lung injuries in B6 mice, histopathological examination of mediastinal fat tissues and lungs was examined at 7 and 21 days (d) following a single 50 μL intranasal (i.n.) instillation of either BLM sulfate (5 mg/kg) (BLM group) or phosphate-buffered saline (control group). The lung fibrosis was examined by Masson's trichrome (MT) stain of paraffin sections and mRNA expression levels of Col1a1, Col3a1, and Acta2 in different frozen lung samples. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry for CD3, B220, Iba1, Gr1, BrdU, LYVE-1, and peripheral node addressin (PNAd) was performed to detect T- and B-cells, macrophages, granulocytes, proliferating cells, lymph vessels (LVs), and high endothelial venules (HEVs). We found that MFALCs were more abundant in the BLM group as compared to the control group. The lung of BLM group developed pneumonitis with severe cellular infiltrations at 7 days and significant collagen deposition (MT) and higher expression of Col1a1, and Col3a1 at 21 days post-administration. Numerous immune cells, proliferating cells, HEVs, and LVs were observed in both MFALCs and lungs of the BLM group. Interestingly, PNAd + HEVs were observed in the lungs of the BLM group, but not the control group. Moreover, numerous Gr1 + polymorphonuclear and mononuclear-like ring cells were found in the MFALCs and lungs of the BLM group. Interestingly, flow cytometric analysis revealed a significant increase of B-cell populations within the

  13. Histopathological Correlations between Mediastinal Fat-Associated Lymphoid Clusters and the Development of Lung Inflammation and Fibrosis following Bleomycin Administration in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Hosny Ali Elewa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bleomycin (BLM has been reported to induce lung inflammation and fibrosis in human and mice and showed genetic susceptibility. Interestingly, the C57BL/6 (B6 mice had prominent mediastinal fat-associated lymphoid cluster (MFALCs under healthy condition, and showed susceptibility to development of lung fibrosis following BLM administration. However, the pathogenesis of lung lesion progression, and their correlation with MFALC morphologies, remain to be clarified. To investigate the correlations between MFALC structures and lung injuries in B6 mice, histopathological examination of mediastinal fat tissues and lungs was examined at 7 and 21 days (d following a single 50 μL intranasal (i.n. instillation of either BLM sulfate (5 mg/kg (BLM group or phosphate-buffered saline (control group. The lung fibrosis was examined by Masson’s trichrome (MT stain of paraffin sections and mRNA expression levels of Col1a1, Col3a1, and Acta2 in different frozen lung samples. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry for CD3, B220, Iba1, Gr1, BrdU, LYVE-1, and peripheral node addressin (PNAd was performed to detect T- and B-cells, macrophages, granulocytes, proliferating cells, lymph vessels (LVs, and high endothelial venules (HEVs. We found that MFALCs were more abundant in the BLM group as compared to the control group. The lung of BLM group developed pneumonitis with severe cellular infiltrations at 7 days and significant collagen deposition (MT and higher expression of Col1a1, and Col3a1 at 21 days post-administration. Numerous immune cells, proliferating cells, HEVs, and LVs were observed in both MFALCs and lungs of the BLM group. Interestingly, PNAd + HEVs were observed in the lungs of the BLM group, but not the control group. Moreover, numerous Gr1 + polymorphonuclear and mononuclear-like ring cells were found in the MFALCs and lungs of the BLM group. Interestingly, flow cytometric analysis revealed a significant increase of B-cell populations

  14. Assessment of Lung Epithelial Cytological Changes Associated with Air Pollution in Hail Industrial Area in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz D. Alshammari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the lung epithelial atypical changes (if any, which might be associated with continuous exposure to air pollution resulting from motor vehicles maintenance. Methodology: This is a case control study, investigated 250 participants by cytological methods. Of the 250 participants, 200 were cases exposed to vehicle maintenance emissions air pollution and 50 were controls (non-exposed. Early morning expectorated sputum specimen was obtained and cytologically assessed. Results: Cytological atypia was identified in 7 (3.5% out of the 200 cases and could not be identified in 193 (96.5% cases, whereas, in the control group, cytological atypia was not found. The risk of cytological atypia, which is associated with exposure to vehicle maintenance emissions air pollution, the 95% confidence interval (95% CI and relative risk (RR; RR=3.9 (0.2199 to 69.7010, P=0.3529. Metaplasia was identified among 26 (13% cases and 2/50 (4% in the controls. The risk of metaplasia that is associated with exposure to vehicle maintenance emissions air pollution, the 95% CI and RR=3.5 (0.8218 to 15.649, P=0.0893. Conclusion: The exposure to vehicle maintenance air pollution increases the risk of lung epithelial atypical changes, which may develop in to precancerous and cancerous changes.

  15. Associations Between PET Textural Features and GLUT1 Expression, and the Prognostic Significance of Textural Features in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Young Wha; Park, Seong Yong; Hyun, Seung Hyup; Lee, Su Jin

    2018-02-01

    We evaluated the association between positron emission tomography (PET) textural features and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression level and further investigated the prognostic significance of textural features in lung adenocarcinoma. We evaluated 105 adenocarcinoma patients. We extracted texture-based PET parameters of primary tumors. Conventional PET parameters were also measured. The relationships between PET parameters and GLUT1 expression levels were evaluated. The association between PET parameters and overall survival (OS) was assessed using Cox's proportional hazard regression models. In terms of PET textural features, tumors expressing high levels of GLUT1 exhibited significantly lower coarseness, contrast, complexity, and strength, but significantly higher busyness. On univariate analysis, the metabolic tumor volume, total lesion glycolysis, contrast, busyness, complexity, and strength were significant predictors of OS. Multivariate analysis showed that lower complexity (HR=2.017, 95%CI=1.032-3.942, p=0.040) was independently associated with poorer survival. PET textural features may aid risk stratification in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. No mediating effects of glycemic control and inflammation on the association between vitamin D and lung function in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anne; Gläser, Sven; Hannemann, Anke; Stubbe, Beate; Felix, Stefan B; Nauck, Matthias; Ewert, Ralf; Friedrich, Nele

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is discussed to be associated with lung health. While former studies focused on subjects suffering from pulmonary diseases, we aimed to investigate the association of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] with lung function in the general population and examined whether mediating effects of inflammation, glycemic control or renal function exist. 1404 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania with pulmonary function testing assessed by expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity and Krogh index were used. Adjusted analysis of variance, linear regression models and mediation analyses were performed. Significant positive associations between 25(OH)D levels and FEV 1 , FVC and Krogh index were found. Mediator analyses revealed no mediating effect of inflammation (fibrinogen), glycemic control (HbA1c) or renal function (eGFR) on associations with FEV 1 or FVC. With respect to Krogh-Index, the association to 25(OH)D was slightly mediated by fibrinogen with a proportion mediated of 9.7%. Significant positive associations of 25(OH)D with lung function were revealed in a general population. The proposed mediating effects of inflammation, glycemic control and renal function on these relations were not confirmed. Further studies examining the causality of the association between 25(OH)D and lung function are necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. School Term vs. School Holiday: Associations with Children?s Physical Activity, Screen-Time, Diet and Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined differences in children’s health behaviors during school term (ST) versus school holiday (SH: June–July) and how associations changed when weather characteristics were considered. Children aged 5–18 years (n = 406) from a subtropical climate reported behaviors over 20 months. Multivariable regression models controlling for age, sex, race and body mass index z-score(BMIz ) were used to examine associations between SH and each behavior. A second model include...

  18. Are school policies focused on sexual orientation and gender identity associated with less bullying? Teachers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T; Day, Jack K; Ioverno, Salvatore; Toomey, Russell B

    2016-02-01

    Bullying is common in U.S. schools and is linked to emotional, behavioral, and academic risk for school-aged students. School policies and practices focused on sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) have been designed to reduce bullying and show promising results. Most studies have drawn from students' reports: We examined teachers' reports of bullying problems in their schools along with their assessments of school safety, combined with principals' reports of SOGI-focused policies and practices. Merging two independent sources of data from over 3000 teachers (California School Climate Survey) and nearly 100 school principals (School Health Profiles) at the school level, we used multi-level models to understand bullying problems in schools. Our results show that SOGI-focused policies reported by principals do not have a strong independent association with teachers' reports of bullying problems in their schools. However, in schools with more SOGI-focused policies, the association between teachers' assessments of school safety and bullying problems is stronger. Recent developments in education law and policy in the United States and their relevance for student well-being are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving Public Education through Comprehensive School Reform: An Issue Brief from the International Reading Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

    The Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program is a new initiative that could affect International Reading Association members in the United States--but will benefit only those who take advantage of it. The purpose of the CSR initiative is to provide financial incentives for schools to develop comprehensive school reforms. Funding is available to…

  20. Gender Differences in Factors Associated with How Parents Communicate with School in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Chin, Meejung

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored different factors that were associated with mothers' and fathers' choice between two forms of parent-school communication: school briefing sessions and parent-teacher conferences. A total of 585 parents--295 mothers and 290 fathers from different households--who had at least one child enrolled in middle school in Korea were…

  1. Is Participation in Organized Leisure-Time Activities Associated with School Performance in Adolescence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badura, Petr; Sigmund, Erik; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Sigmundova, Dagmar; Sirucek, Jan; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-01-01

    Background Organized leisure-time activities (OLTA) have been identified as a context suitable for improvement of school performance. This study aimed to assess the associations between participation in OLTA and school engagement, school-related stress, academic achievement and whether these

  2. School level contextual factors are associated with the weight status of adolescent males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Tracy K; Subramanian, S V

    2008-06-01

    To determine whether school context influences the BMI of adolescent males and females. Our sample was 17,007 adolescents (aged 12-19) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We used gender-stratified multilevel modeling to examine the contribution of schools to the overall variance in adolescent BMIs, calculated from self-reported weight and height. We then examined the associations of individual attributes with BMI after controlling for the average BMI of the school and the association of two school-level variables with BMI. Participants attended schools that were segregated by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). In females, when controlling only for individual-level attributes, individual household income was inversely associated (beta = -0.043, P = 0.01) while Hispanic (beta = 0.89, P school racial/ethnic makeup and the school level median household income, the relationship between individual race/ethnicity and BMI was attenuated in both male and female adolescents. Higher school level median household income was associated with lower individual BMIs in adolescent girls (gamma = -0.37, P school. Male and female adolescents attending schools with higher median household incomes have on average lower BMIs. Resources available to or cultural norms within schools may constitute critical mechanisms through which schools impact the BMI of their students.

  3. Connecting Schools to Neighborhood Revitalization: The Case of the Maple Heights Neighborhood Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Lawrence P.

    2014-01-01

    This case study focuses on the way a neighborhood association connects schools to broad change in an urban neighborhood of a large Midwestern city. The first section provides a review of the literature on community involvement in school and neighborhood reform. It reviews the historical origins of the current school-community relationship, the…

  4. The association between circulating adiponectin levels, lung function and adiposity in subjects from the general population; data from the Akershus Sleep Apnea Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Nina F; Røsjø, Helge; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2018-01-01

    results. Accordingly, we hypothesized that ADPN would be associated with lung function in a population-based sample and tested how abdominal adiposity, metabolic syndrome, and systemic inflammation influenced this association. METHODS: We measured total ADPN in serum, forced vital capacity (FVC...... for smoking (beta 1.4, p = 0.042)), but this association was attenuated and no longer significant in multivariate analysis (standardized beta -0.06, p = 0.254)). CONCLUSION: In this population-based sample no association between ADPN and lung function was evident after adjustment for covariates related...

  5. Examining the Associations Among Home-School Dissonance, Amotivation, and Classroom Disruptive Behavior for Urban High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth M; Graves, Scott L; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Mulder, Shambra

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the association among home-school dissonance, amotivation, and classroom disruptive behavior among 309 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southern region of the country. Students completed two subscales of the Patterns of Learning Activities Scales (PALS) and one subscale of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). ANCOVA analyses revealed significant differences in classroom disruptive behaviors for the gender independent variable. Controlling for gender in the multiple hierarchical regression analyses, it was revealed that home-school dissonance significantly predicted both amotivation and classroom disruptive behavior. In addition, a Sobel mediation analysis showed that amotivation was a significant mediator of the association between home-school dissonance and classroom disruptive behavior. Findings and limitations are discussed.

  6. Examining the Associations Among Home–School Dissonance, Amotivation, and Classroom Disruptive Behavior for Urban High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth M.; Graves, Scott L.; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Mulder, Shambra

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the association among home–school dissonance, amotivation, and classroom disruptive behavior among 309 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southern region of the country. Students completed two subscales of the Patterns of Learning Activities Scales (PALS) and one subscale of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). ANCOVA analyses revealed significant differences in classroom disruptive behaviors for the gender independent variable. Controlling for gender in the multiple hierarchical regression analyses, it was revealed that home–school dissonance significantly predicted both amotivation and classroom disruptive behavior. In addition, a Sobel mediation analysis showed that amotivation was a significant mediator of the association between home–school dissonance and classroom disruptive behavior. Findings and limitations are discussed. PMID:27081213

  7. The components of somatostatin and ghrelin systems are altered in neuroendocrine lung carcinoids and associated to clinical-histological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Martínez, Aura D; Gahete, Manuel D; Sánchez-Sánchez, Rafael; Salas, Rosa Ortega; Serrano-Blanch, Raquel; Salvatierra, Ángel; Hofland, Leo J; Luque, Raúl M; Gálvez-Moreno, María A; Castaño, Justo P

    2017-07-01

    Lung carcinoids (LCs) are rare tumors that comprise 1-5% of lung malignancies but represent 20-30% of neuroendocrine tumors. Their incidence is progressively increasing and a better characterization of these tumors is required. Alterations in somatostatin (SST)/cortistatin (CORT) and ghrelin systems have been associated to development/progression of various endocrine-related cancers, wherein they may become useful diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers. We aimed to evaluate the expression levels of ghrelin and SST/CORT system components in LCs, as well as to explore their putative relationship with histological/clinical characteristics. An observational retrospective study was performed; 75 LC patients with clinical/histological characteristics were included. Samples from 46 patients were processed to isolate mRNA from tumor and adjacent non-tumor region, and the expression levels of SST/CORT and ghrelin systems components, determined by quantitative-PCR, were compared to those of 7 normal lung tissues. Patient cohort was characterized by mean age 53±15 years, 48% males, 34% with tobacco exposure; 71.4/28.6% typical/atypical carcinoids, 21.7% incidental tumors, 4.3% functioning tumors, 17.7% with metastasis. SST/CORT and ghrelin system components were expressed at variable levels in a high proportion of tumors, as well as in adjacent non-tumor tissues, while a lower proportion of normal lung samples also expressed these molecules. A gradation was observed from normal non-neoplastic lung tissues, non-tumor adjacent tissue and LCs, being SST, sst4, sst5, GHS-R1a and GHS-R1b overexpressed in tumor tissue compared to normal tissue. Importantly, several SST/CORT and ghrelin system components displayed significant correlations with relevant clinical parameters, such as necrosis, peritumoral and vascular invasion, or metastasis. Altogether, these data reveal a prominent, widespread expression of key SST/CORT/ghrelin system components in LCs, where they display

  8. Does the local food environment around schools affect diet? Longitudinal associations in adolescents attending secondary schools in East London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Dianna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The local retail food environment around schools may act as a potential risk factor for adolescent diet. However, international research utilising cross-sectional designs to investigate associations between retail food outlet proximity to schools and diet provides equivocal support for an effect. In this study we employ longitudinal perspectives in order to answer the following two questions. First, how has the local retail food environment around secondary schools changed over time and second, is this change associated with change in diet of students at these schools? Methods The locations of retail food outlets and schools in 2001 and 2005 were geo-coded in three London boroughs. Network analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS ascertained the number, minimum and median distances to food outlets within 400 m and 800 m of the school location. Outcome measures were ‘healthy’ and ‘unhealthy’ diet scores derived from adolescent self-reported data in the Research with East London Adolescents: Community Health Survey (RELACHS. Adjusted associations between distance from school to food retail outlets, counts of outlets near schools and diet scores were assessed using longitudinal (2001–2005 n=757 approaches. Results Between 2001 and 2005 the number of takeaways and grocers/convenience stores within 400 m of schools increased, with many more grocers reported within 800 m of schools in 2005 (p Conclusions The results provide some evidence that the local food environment around secondary schools may influence adolescent diet, though effects were small. Further research on adolescents’ food purchasing habits with larger samples in varied geographic regions is required to identify robust relationships between proximity and diet, as small numbers, because of confounding, may dilute effect food environment effects. Data on individual foods purchased in all shop formats may clarify the frequent, overly simple

  9. Genetic association with overall survival of taxane-treated lung cancer patients - a genome-wide association study in human lymphoblastoid cell lines followed by a clinical association study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Nifang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxane is one of the first line treatments of lung cancer. In order to identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that might contribute to taxane response, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS for two taxanes, paclitaxel and docetaxel, using 276 lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs, followed by genotyping of top candidate SNPs in 874 lung cancer patient samples treated with paclitaxel. Methods GWAS was performed using 1.3 million SNPs and taxane cytotoxicity IC50 values for 276 LCLs. The association of selected SNPs with overall survival in 76 small or 798 non-small cell lung cancer (SCLC, NSCLC patients were analyzed by Cox regression model, followed by integrated SNP-microRNA-expression association analysis in LCLs and siRNA screening of candidate genes in SCLC (H196 and NSCLC (A549 cell lines. Results 147 and 180 SNPs were associated with paclitaxel or docetaxel IC50s with p-values -4 in the LCLs, respectively. Genotyping of 153 candidate SNPs in 874 lung cancer patient samples identified 8 SNPs (p-value PIP4K2A, CCT5, CMBL, EXO1, KMO and OPN3, genes within 200 kb up-/downstream of the 3 SNPs that were associated with SCLC overall survival (rs1778335, rs2662411 and rs7519667, significantly desensitized H196 to paclitaxel. SNPs rs2662411 and rs1778335 were associated with mRNA expression of CMBL or PIP4K2A through microRNA (miRNA hsa-miR-584 or hsa-miR-1468. Conclusions GWAS in an LCL model system, joined with clinical translational and functional studies, might help us identify genetic variations associated with overall survival of lung cancer patients treated paclitaxel.

  10. Positive school climate is associated with lower body mass index percentile among urban preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Rosenthal, Lisa; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2014-08-01

    Schools are an important environmental context in children's lives and are part of the complex web of factors that contribute to childhood obesity. Increasingly, attention has been placed on the importance of school climate (connectedness, academic standards, engagement, and student autonomy) as 1 domain of school environment beyond health policies and education that may have implications for student health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the association of school climate with body mass index (BMI) among urban preadolescents. Health surveys and physical measures were collected among fifth- and sixth-grade students from 12 randomly selected public schools in a small New England city. School climate surveys were completed district-wide by students and teachers. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test the association between students' BMI and schools' climate scores. After controlling for potentially confounding individual-level characteristics, a 1-unit increase in school climate score (indicating more positive climate) was associated with a 7-point decrease in students' BMI percentile. Positive school climate is associated with lower student BMI percentile. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms behind this relationship and to explore whether interventions promoting positive school climate can effectively prevent and/or reduce obesity. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  11. Traffic-related air pollution exposure is associated with allergic sensitization, asthma, and poor lung function in middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowatte, Gayan; Lodge, Caroline J; Knibbs, Luke D; Lowe, Adrian J; Erbas, Bircan; Dennekamp, Martine; Marks, Guy B; Giles, Graham; Morrison, Stephen; Thompson, Bruce; Thomas, Paul S; Hui, Jennie; Perret, Jennifer L; Abramson, Michael J; Walters, Haydn; Matheson, Melanie C; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure is associated with allergic airway diseases and reduced lung function in children, but evidence concerning adults, especially in low-pollution settings, is scarce and inconsistent. We sought to determine whether exposure to TRAP in middle age is associated with allergic sensitization, current asthma, and reduced lung function in adults, and whether these associations are modified by variants in Glutathione S-Transferase genes. The study sample comprised the proband 2002 laboratory study of the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study. Mean annual residential nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) exposure was estimated for current residential addresses using a validated land-use regression model. Associations between TRAP exposure and allergic sensitization, lung function, current wheeze, and asthma (n = 1405) were investigated using regression models. Increased mean annual NO 2 exposure was associated with increased risk of atopy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02-1.28 per 1 interquartile range increase in NO 2 [2.2 ppb]) and current wheeze (aOR, 1.14; 1.02-1.28). Similarly, living less than 200 m from a major road was associated with current wheeze (aOR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.06-1.80) and atopy (aOR, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.99-1.62), and was also associated with having significantly lower prebronchodilator and postbronchodilator FEV 1 and prebronchodilator forced expiratory flow at 25% to 75% of forced vital capacity. We found evidence of interactions between living less than 200 m from a major road and GSTT1 polymorphism for atopy, asthma, and atopic asthma. Overall, carriers of the GSTT1 null genotype had an increased risk of asthma and allergic outcomes if exposed to TRAP. Even relatively low TRAP exposures confer an increased risk of adverse respiratory and allergic outcomes in genetically susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lung volumes and emphysema in smokers with interstitial lung abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washko, George R; Hunninghake, Gary M; Fernandez, Isis E; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Ross, James C; Estépar, Raúl San José; Lynch, David A; Brehm, John M; Andriole, Katherine P; Diaz, Alejandro A; Khorasani, Ramin; D'Aco, Katherine; Sciurba, Frank C; Silverman, Edwin K; Hatabu, Hiroto; Rosas, Ivan O

    2011-03-10

    Cigarette smoking is associated with emphysema and radiographic interstitial lung abnormalities. The degree to which interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with reduced total lung capacity and the extent of emphysema is not known. We looked for interstitial lung abnormalities in 2416 (96%) of 2508 high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans of the lung obtained from a cohort of smokers. We used linear and logistic regression to evaluate the associations between interstitial lung abnormalities and HRCT measurements of total lung capacity and emphysema. Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 194 (8%) of the 2416 HRCT scans evaluated. In statistical models adjusting for relevant covariates, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with reduced total lung capacity (-0.444 liters; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.596 to -0.292; Ppulmonary disease (COPD) (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.76; P<0.001). The effect of interstitial lung abnormalities on total lung capacity and emphysema was dependent on COPD status (P<0.02 for the interactions). Interstitial lung abnormalities were positively associated with both greater exposure to tobacco smoke and current smoking. In smokers, interstitial lung abnormalities--which were present on about 1 of every 12 HRCT scans--were associated with reduced total lung capacity and a lesser amount of emphysema. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Parker B. Francis Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00608764.).

  13. Severity of Acute Kidney Injury in the Post-Lung Transplant Patient Is Associated With Higher Healthcare Resources and Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Albert P; Gabriel, Rodney A; Golts, Eugene; Kistler, Erik B; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2017-08-01

    Perioperative risk factors and the clinical impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) and failure after lung transplantation are not well described. The incidences of AKI and acute renal failure (ARF), potential perioperative contributors to their development, and postdischarge healthcare needs were evaluated. Retrospective. University hospital. Patients undergoing lung transplantation between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2015. The incidences of AKI and ARF, as defined using the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease criteria, were measured. Perioperative events were analyzed to identify risk factors for renal compromise. A comparison of ventilator days, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital lengths of stay (LOS), 1-year readmissions, and emergency department visits was performed among AKI, ARF, and uninjured patients. Ninety-seven patients underwent lung transplantation; 22 patients developed AKI and 35 patients developed ARF. Patients with ARF had significantly longer ICU LOS (12 days v 4 days, p < 0.001); ventilator days (4.5 days v 1 day, p < 0.001); and hospital LOS (22.5 days v 14 days, p < 0.001) compared with uninjured patients. Patients with AKI also had significantly longer ICU and hospital LOS. Patients with ARF had significantly more emergency department visits and hospital readmissions (2 v 1 readmissions, p = 0.002) compared with uninjured patients. A univariable analysis suggested that prolonged surgical time, intraoperative vasopressor use, and cardiopulmonary bypass use were associated with the highest increased risk for AKI. Intraoperative vasopressor use and cardiopulmonary bypass mean arterial pressure <60 mmHg were identified as independent risk factors by multivariable analysis for AKI. The severity of AKI was associated with an increase in the use of healthcare resources after surgery and discharge. Certain risk factors appeared modifiable and may reduce the incidence of AKI and ARF. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Colorectal Histology Is Associated With an Increased Risk of Local Failure in Lung Metastases Treated With Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkley, Michael S. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Trakul, Nicholas [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Jacobs, Lisa Rose; Eyben, Rie von; Le, Quynh-Thu; Maxim, Peter G.; Loo, Billy W. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Shultz, David Benjamin, E-mail: DavidS4@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian, E-mail: Diehn@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) is increasingly used to treat lung oligometastases. We set out to determine the safety and efficacy of this approach and to identify factors associated with outcomes. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective study of patients treated with SABR for metastatic lung tumors at our institution from 2003 to 2014. We assessed the association between various patient and treatment factors with local failure (LF), progression, subsequent treatment, systemic treatment, and overall survival (OS), using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: We identified 122 tumors in 77 patients meeting inclusion criteria for this study. Median follow-up was 22 months. The 12- and 24-month cumulative incidence rates of LF were 8.7% and 16.2%, respectively; the 24-month cumulative incidence rates of progression, subsequent treatment, and subsequent systemic treatment were 75.2%, 64.5%, and 35.1%, respectively. Twenty-four-month OS was 74.6%, and median OS was 36 months. Colorectal metastases had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of LF at 12 and 24 months (25.5% and 42.2%, respectively), than all other histologies (4.4% and 9.9%, respectively; P<.0004). The 24-month cumulative incidences of LF for colorectal metastases treated with a biologically effective dose at α/β = 10 (BED{sub 10}) of <100 Gy versus BED{sub 10} of ≥100 Gy were 62.5% and 16.7%, respectively (P=.08). Toxicity was minimal, with only a single grade 3 or higher event observed. Conclusions: SABR for metastatic lung tumors appears to be safe and effective with excellent local control, treatment-free intervals, and OS. An exception is metastases from colorectal cancer, which have a high LF rate consistent with a radioresistant phenotype, suggesting a potential role for dose escalation.

  15. Aberrant status and clinicopathologic characteristic associations of 11 target genes in 1,321 Chinese patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengnan; Zhan, Cheng; Li, Ming; Yang, Xiaodong; Yang, Xinyu; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Miao; Xia, Yifeng; Feng, Mingxiang; Wang, Qun

    2018-01-01

    The aberrant status of target genes and their associations with clinicopathologic characteristics are still unclear in primary lung adenocarcinoma. The common mutations and translocations of nine target genes were evaluated in 1,247 specimens of surgically-resected primary lung adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the expressions of programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in 731 specimens. The frequency of the aberrations and their associations with clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed. Overall, 952 (76.3%) of 1,247 patients harbored at least one target mutation or translocation: epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) (729, 58.5%), v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog ( KRAS ) (83, 6.7%), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 ( HER2 ) (82, 6.6%), anaplastic lymphoma kinase ( ALK) (23, 1.8%), phosphoinositide-3-kinase catalytic alpha polypeptide ( PIK3CA ) (20, 1.6%), Ret proto-oncogene RET (15, 1.2%), ROS proto-oncogene 1 receptor tyrosine kinase ( ROS1 ) (12, 1.0%), B-raf proto-oncogene ( BRAF ) (9, 0.7%), neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog ( NRAS ) (3, 0.2%). Fourteen (1.9%) of 731 patients were PD-1 positive and 95 (13.0%) were PD-L1 positive in tumor cells. In men and smokers, there were more frequent KRAS mutations (both Ppatients, while HER2 (Ppatients with EGFR mutations (all Ppatients with primary lung adenocarcinoma harbored target gene aberrations. The frequency of each alteration differed in patients depending on clinicopathologic characteristics.

  16. Identification of distinct genes associated with seawater aspiration-induced acute lung injury by gene expression profile analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Pan, Lei; Zhang, Minlong; Bo, Liyan; Li, Congcong; Liu, Qingqing; Wang, Li; Jin, Faguang

    2016-01-01

    Seawater aspiration-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is a syndrome associated with a high mortality rate, which is characterized by severe hypoxemia, pulmonary edema and inflammation. The present study is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to analyze gene expression profiles from a rat model of seawater aspiration-induced ALI. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were instilled with seawater (4 ml/kg) in the seawater aspiration-induced ALI group (S group) or with distilled water (4 ml/kg) in the distilled water negative control group (D group). In the blank control group (C group) the rats' tracheae were exposed without instillation. Subsequently, lung samples were examined by histopathology; total protein concentration was detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); lung wet/dry weight ratios were determined; and transcript expression was detected by gene sequencing analysis. The results demonstrated that histopathological alterations, pulmonary edema and total protein concentrations in BALF were increased in the S group compared with in the D group. Analysis of differential gene expression identified up and downregulated genes in the S group compared with in the D and C groups. A gene ontology analysis of the differential gene expression revealed enrichment of genes in the functional pathways associated with neutrophil chemotaxis, immune and defense responses, and cytokine activity. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed that the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway was one of the most important pathways involved in seawater aspiration-induced ALI. In conclusion, activation of the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway may have an essential role in the progression of seawater aspiration-induced ALI, and the downregulation of tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 10 may enhance inflammation. Furthermore, IL-6 may be considered a biomarker in seawater aspiration-induced ALI. PMID:27509884

  17. Prognostic classifications of lymph node involvement in lung cancer and current International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer descriptive classification in zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquet, Marc; Arame, Alex; Foucault, Christophe; Le Pimpec Barthes, Françoise

    2010-09-01

    The lymphatic drainage of solid organ tumors crosses through the lymph nodes (LNs) whose tumoral involvement may still be considered as local disease. Concerning lung cancer, LN involvement may be intrapulmonary (N1), and mediastinal and/or extra-thoracic. More than 30 years ago, mediastinal involved LNs were all considered as N2, and outside the scope of surgery. In 1978, Naruke presented an original article entitled 'Lymph node mapping and curability at various levels of metastasis in resected lung cancer', demonstrating that N2 was not a contraindication to surgery in all patients. The map permitted to localize the favorable N2 on the lung cancer ipsilateral side of the mediastinum. Several maps ensued aiming to discriminate between right and left involvement (1983), and to distinguish N2 (ipsilateral) and N3 (contralateral) mediastinal LN involvement (1983, 1986). The last map (1997 regional LN classification) was recently replaced by a descriptive classification in anatomical zones. This new LN map of the TNM classification for lung cancer is a step toward using anatomical view points which might be the best way to better understand lung cancer lymphatic spread. Nowadays, the LNs are easily identified by current radiological imaging, and their resectability may be anticipated. Each LN chain may be removed by en-bloc lymphadenectomy performed during radical lung resection, a safe procedure which seems to be more oncological based than sampling, and which avoids the source of discrepancies pointed out during the labeling of LN stations by surgeons.

  18. Genetic evidence linking lung cancer and COPD: a new perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crapo JD

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Robert P Young1,4, Raewyn J Hopkins1, Gregory D Gamble1, Carol Etzel2, Randa El-Zein2, James D Crapo31Department of Medicine and School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Department of Epidemiology, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 3National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, USA; 4Synergenz Biosciences Ltd, Auckland, New ZealandAbstract: Epidemiological studies indicate that tobacco smoke exposure accounts for nearly 90% of cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer. However, genetic factors may explain why 10%–30% of smokers develop these complications. This perspective reviews the evidence suggesting that COPD is closely linked to susceptibility to lung cancer and outlines the potential relevance of this observation. Epidemiological studies show that COPD is the single most important risk factor for lung cancer among smokers and predates lung cancer in up to 80% of cases. Genome-wide association studies of lung cancer, lung function, and COPD have identified a number of overlapping “susceptibility” loci. With stringent phenotyping, it has recently been shown that several of these overlapping loci are independently associated with both COPD and lung cancer. These loci implicate genes underlying pulmonary inflammation and apoptotic processes mediated by the bronchial epithelium, and link COPD with lung cancer at a molecular genetic level. It is currently possible to derive risk models for lung cancer that incorporate lung cancer-specific genetic variants, recently identified “COPD-related” genetic variants, and clinical variables. Early studies suggest that single nucleotide polymorphism-based risk stratification of smokers might help better target novel prevention and early diagnostic strategies in lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, association study, single nucleotide polymorphism, risk model

  19. Involvement of school students in fights with weapons: prevalence and associated factors in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Alice Cristina Medeiros; Garcia, Leila Posenato

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Violence, as well as other behaviors, is often intensified during adolescence and early adulthood. The objective of this study is estimate the prevalence of Brazilian school students involvement in fights with weapons and to analyze the associated factors. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using data from the National School Student Health Survey conducted in 2012 with 9th grade elementary school students attending 2842 schools in all 27 Brazilian Federative Units. T...

  20. Local cytokine treatment of HPV16-associated tumours results in inhibition of their lung metastases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikyšková, Romana; Bubeník, Jan; Mendoza, Luis; Vonka, V.; Šmahel, M.; Šímová, Jana; Jandlová, Táňa

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 7 (2001), s. 581-587 ISSN 0262-0898 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC5526; GA MZd NC5900; GA ČR GA312/99/0542; GA ČR GA301/01/0985; GA ČR GA301/00/0114; GA AV ČR IAA7052002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : HPV 16 * cytokines * lung metastasis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.966, year: 2001

  1. Psycho-Physiological Associates of Dyspnea in Hospitalized Patients with Interstitial Lung Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan Hua; Mak, Yim Wah

    2017-10-24

    Dyspnea has been found to be an independent predictor of mortality among patients with respiratory diseases and is often regarded as a difficult symptom to control in patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Previous studies have found an association of psychological and physiological factors with dyspnea among patients with chronic obstructive airway diseases. However, symptom management of hospitalized patients with ILDs has been hampered by difficulty in priority, since they are often admitted with multiple psycho-physiological needs. This study examined the prevalence of dyspnea and the psycho-physiological factors associated with it among hospitalized Chinese patients with ILDs. We studied 165 hospitalized patients with ILDs recruited consecutively over three months in a public hospital in Guangzhou, China. Dyspnea and common psycho-physiological factors, including cough symptoms, activity capacity, lung function, physical and mental health status, and anxiety and depression symptoms, were measured. By ordered logistic regression, level of dyspnea statistically significantly affected performance in a six-minute walk test and physical functioning in work or other regular daily activities in hospitalized patients with ILDs. Respiratory rehabilitation with an appropriate intensity of exercise training or other strategies for enhancing the physical functioning of this population with moderate and severe levels of dyspnea should be prioritized.

  2. Butylated Hydroxyanisole Blocks the Occurrence of Tumor Associated Macrophages in Tobacco Smoke Carcinogen-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yan; Choksi, Swati; Liu, Zheng-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote tumorigenesis because of their proangiogenic and immune-suppressive functions. Here, we report that butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) blocks occurrence of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) in tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis. Continuous administration of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), a ROS inhibitor, before or after NNK treatment significantly blocked tumor development, although less effectively when BHA is administered after NNK treatment. Strikingly, BHA abolished the occurrence of F4/80 + macrophages with similar efficiency no matter whether it was administered before or after NNK treatment. Detection of cells from bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) confirmed that BHA markedly inhibited the accumulation of macrophages while slightly reducing the number of lymphocytes that were induced by NNK. Immunohistological staining showed that BHA specifically abolished the occurrence of CD206 + TAMs when it was administered before or after NNK treatment. Western blot analysis of TAMs markers, arginase I and Ym-1, showed that BHA blocked NNK-induced TAMs accumulation. Our study clearly demonstrated that inhibiting the occurrence of TAMs by BHA contributes to the inhibition of tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis, suggesting ROS inhibitors may serve as a therapeutic target for treating smoke-induced lung cancer

  3. Are School Policies Focused on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Associated with Less Bullying? Teachers’ Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T.; Day, Jack K.; Ioverno, Salvatore; Toomey, Russell B.

    2016-01-01

    Bullying is common in U.S. schools and is linked to emotional, behavioral, and academic risk for school-aged students. School policies and practices focused on sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) have been designed to reduce bullying and show promising results. Most studies have drawn from students’ reports: We examined teachers’ reports of bullying problems in their schools along with their assessments of school safety, combined with principals’ reports of SOGI-focused policies and practices. Merging two independent sources of data from over 3,000 teachers (California School Climate Survey) and nearly 100 school principals (School Health Profiles) at the school level, we used multi-level models to understand bullying problems in schools. Our results show that SOGI-focused policies reported by principals do not have a strong independent association with teachers’ reports of bullying problems in their schools. However, in schools with more SOGI-focused policies, the association between teachers’ assessments of school safety and bullying problems is stronger. Recent developments in education law and policy in the United States and their relevance for student well-being are discussed. PMID:26790701

  4. Role of CCL-2, CCR-2 and CCR-4 in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Jean Louis; Lenglet, Sébastien; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Steffens, Sabine; Galan, Katia; Pelli, Graziano; Spahr, Laurent; Mach, Francois; Hadengue, Antoine

    2011-05-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of variable severity. Leucocytes are thought to play a key role in the development of pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung injury. The interactions between inflammatory cells and their mediators are crucial for determining tissue damage. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (or CCL-2), CCR-2 and CCR-4 are chemokines and chemokine receptors involved in leucocyte trafficking. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of the CCL-2, CCR-2 and CCR-4 chemokine receptors in the pathogenesis of cerulein-induced pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung injury. To address the role of CCL-2, CCR-2 and CCR-4 that attracts leucocytes cells in inflamed tissues, pancreatitis was induced by administering supramaximal doses of cerulein in mice that do not express CCL-2, CCR-2 or CCR-4. The severity of pancreatitis was measured by serum amylase, pancreatic oedema and acinar cell necrosis. Lung injury was quantitated by evaluating lung microvascular permeability and lung myeloperoxidase activity. Chemokine and chemokine-receptor expression were quantitated by real-time PCR. The nature of inflammatory cells invading the pancreas and lungs was studied by immunostaining. The authors have found that pancreas CCL-2 and CCR-2 levels rise during pancreatitis. Both pancreatitis and the associated lung injury are blunted, but not completely prevented, in mice deficient in CCL-2, whereas the deficiency in either CCR-2 or CCR-4 does not reduce the severity of both the pancreatitis and the lung injury. The amounts of neutrophils and monocyte/macrophages (MOMA)-2 cells were significantly lower in mice deficient in CCL-2 compared with their sufficient littermates. These results suggest that CCL-2 plays a key role in pancreatitis by modulating the infiltration by neutrophils and MOMA-2 cells, and that its deficiency may improve the outcome of the disease.

  5. Factors Associated with Adherence to and Treatment Duration of Erlotinib Among Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Lisa M; Louder, Anthony; Winfree, Katherine; Zhu, Yajun E; Oton, Ana B; Nair, Radhika

    2017-06-01

    In lung cancer, there is an increasing number of oral agents available for patients; however, little is known about the factors associated with adherence to and treatment duration on oral medications in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To evaluate the clinical and demographic factors associated with adherence and treatment discontinuation, respectively, to oral oncolytics among patients with NSCLC. A retrospective, claims-based analysis of the Humana Research Database supplemented with medical chart review was conducted among patients with NSCLC who started an oral oncolytic between January 1, 2008, and June 30, 2013. Patients were required to be enrolled at least 1 year before the start of oral oncolytics and have no evidence of any oral oncolytic use during this period. Logistic regression models and Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify predictors associated with medication adherence and treatment duration, respectively. Among all oral oncolytics, only the cohort starting on erlotinib had sufficient sample size (n = 1,452). A wide variety of factors were found to be associated with adherence. Low-income subsidy status, previous use of intravenous chemotherapy, and lower total baseline health care costs were significantly related to decreasing adherence (each P cost was associated with decreasing adherence to erlotinib (P costs (P Company to Comprehensive Health Insights, a Humana company, as a collaborative research project involving employees of both companies. Hess, Winfree, Zhu, and Oton are employees of Eli Lilly and Company. Louder and Nair are employees of Comprehensive Health Insights, which received funding to complete this research. Study concept and design were contributed by Hess, Zhu, Winfree, and Oton. Nair and Louder collected the data, and data interpretation was performed by all the authors. The manuscript was written primarily by Hess, along with Nair, and revised by Hess, Nair, Louder, and Winfree, with assistance from Zhu and

  6. A Rare Case of Intussusception Associated with Metastasize Small Cell Carcinoma of Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razrim Rahim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intussusception is common cause of bowel obstruction in the paediatric age group compared to the elderly population. Many times, The diagnosis may be difficult because of asymptomatic nature of thisbowel disorder. We hereby describe the case of a 75-year-old male who presented with lethargy, weakness,loss of movement in the joints and was found to be anemic. The haemoglobin level was low so he wastransfused with packed cells. On gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy, upper GI bleed was observed. A mass was observed beyond ampulla at the 2nd and 3rd part of the duodenal junction. Computerized tomography (CTscan also showed a mass at the head of pancreas and the lesion at the left lung. In view of persistent bleed,‘Whipple’s procedure’ was performed. Histopathological examination showed small cell carcinoma of the lungs with metastasis to the pancreas and the jejunum. We here discuss the case of intussusception with intestinal metastasis which presented with gastrointestinal bleeding.

  7. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer

  8. Is Participation in Organized Leisure-Time Activities Associated with School Performance in Adolescence?

    OpenAIRE

    Badura, Petr; Sigmund, Erik; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Sigmundova, Dagmar; Sirucek, Jan; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Organized leisure-time activities (OLTA) have been identified as a context suitable for improvement of school performance. This study aimed to assess the associations between participation in OLTA and school engagement, school-related stress, academic achievement and whether these associations differ by specific pattern of OLTA participation, gender and age. Furthermore, it assessed whether OLTA participants are more likely to acquire support for schoolwork from outside the family....

  9. Podoplanin Expression in Cancer-associated Fibroblasts Predicts Poor Prognosis in Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurugi, Yohei; Wakahara, Makoto; Matsuoka, Yuki; Sakabe, Tomohiko; Kubouchi, Yasuaki; Haruki, Tomohiro; Nosaka, Kanae; Miwa, Ken; Araki, Kunio; Taniguchi, Yuji; Shiomi, Tatsushi; Nakamura, Hiroshige; Umekita, Yoshihisa

    2017-01-01

    Podoplanin is a candidate cancer stem cell marker in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Several studies have reported the prognostic value of podoplanin expression in tumor cells in lung SCC but few have focused on its expression in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). The aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic significance of podoplanin expression, with special reference to the expression pattern in both tumor cells and CAFs. Immunohistochemical analyses using anti-podoplanin antibody were performed on 126 resected specimens of lung SCC. When more than 10% of tumor cells or CAFs showed immunoreactivity with podoplanin levels as strong as those of the positive controls, the specimens were classified as a podoplanin-positive. Podoplanin-positive status in tumor cells (n=54) was correlated with a lower incidence of lymphatic invasion (p=0.031) but there were no significant differences in disease-free survival (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) by the log-rank test. Podoplanin-positive status in CAFs (n=41) was correlated with more advanced stage (p=0.008), higher frequency of pleural invasion (p=0.002) and both shorter DFS (p=0.006) and DSS (p=0.006). In Cox's multivariate analysis, podoplanin-positive status in CAFs was an independent negative prognostic factor for DFS (p=0.027) and DSS (p=0.027). Podoplanin expression in CAFs might be an independent unfavorable prognostic indicator in patients with lung SCC, irrespective of the expression status of tumor cells. Copyright© 2017 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Potential use of local and systemic humoral immune response parameters to forecast Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae associated lung lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Garcia-Morante

    Full Text Available Immunopathological events are key for the development of enzootic pneumonia (EP, which is macroscopically observed as cranioventral pulmonary consolidation (CVPC. This study aimed to investigate the putative association between the humoral immune response against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae and prevalence and extension of CVPC in 1 experimentally infected pigs, 2 slaughtered pigs and 3 sequentially necropsied pigs in a longitudinal study. CVPC was scored by means of the European Pharmacopoeia recommended methodology. Specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies were assessed in serum. In addition, mucosal IgG and IgA antibodies were analyzed in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF from experimentally challenged pigs. The systemic humoral immune response in experimentally infected pigs was delayed in onset whereas humoral respiratory mucosal immune response appeared more rapidly but declined earlier. Although low, BALF IgG antibodies showed the highest correlation with CVPC scores (r = 0.49, p<0.05. In slaughter-aged pigs, both percentage of lungs with CVPC and mean lung lesion score were significantly higher in M. hyopneumoniae seropositive farms compared to the seronegative ones (p<0.001. Similarly, seropositive sequentially necropsied pigs showed more severe CVPC than seronegative ones. Overall, mean serological values might help to forecast prevalence and severity of EP-like lung lesions using a population based approach. Remarkably, the specific systemic humoral immune response was found to be predominated by the IgG2 subclass, suggesting a dominant Th1-mediated immune response to M. hyopneumoniae.

  11. Severe respiratory failure as a presenting feature of an interstitial lung disease associated with anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroddi, Ines Maria Grazia; Ferraioli, Gianluca; Barlascini, Cornelius; Castagneto, Corrado; Nicolini, Antonello

    2016-07-01

    Anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS) is defined as a heterogeneous connective tissue disorder characterized by the association of an interstitial lung disease (ILD) with or without inflammatory myositis with the presence of anti-aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase antibodies. ILD is one of the major extra-muscular manifestations of polymyositis and dermatomyositis. We report a case of a patient with dyspnea, cough, and intermittent fever as well as ILD associated ASS in the absence of muscular involvement. This patient was admitted to the emergency department with severe respiratory failure requiring non-invasive ventilation. Our patient's case demonstrates that the diagnosis of ASS may not be obvious. However, its diagnosis leads to appropriate and potentially life-saving treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Very low tidal volume ventilation with associated hypercapnia--effects on lung injury in a model for acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Fuchs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ventilation using low tidal volumes with permission of hypercapnia is recommended to protect the lung in acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the most lung protective tidal volume in association with hypercapnia is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of different tidal volumes with associated hypercapnia on lung injury and gas exchange in a model for acute respiratory distress syndrome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this randomized controlled experiment sixty-four surfactant-depleted rabbits were exposed to 6 hours of mechanical ventilation with the following targets: Group 1: tidal volume = 8-10 ml/kg/PaCO(2 = 40 mm Hg; Group 2: tidal volume = 4-5 ml/kg/PaCO(2 = 80 mm Hg; Group 3: tidal volume = 3-4 ml/kg/PaCO(2 = 120 mm Hg; Group 4: tidal volume = 2-3 ml/kg/PaCO(2 = 160 mm Hg. Decreased wet-dry weight ratios of the lungs, lower histological lung injury scores and higher PaO(2 were found in all low tidal volume/hypercapnia groups (group 2, 3, 4 as compared to the group with conventional tidal volume/normocapnia (group 1. The reduction of the tidal volume below 4-5 ml/kg did not enhance lung protection. However, oxygenation and lung protection were maintained at extremely low tidal volumes in association with very severe hypercapnia and no adverse hemodynamic effects were observed with this strategy. CONCLUSION: Ventilation with low tidal volumes and associated hypercapnia was lung protective. A tidal volume below 4-5 ml/kg/PaCO(2 80 mm Hg with concomitant more severe hypercapnic acidosis did not increase lung protection in this surfactant deficiency model. However, even at extremely low tidal volumes in association with severe hypercapnia lung protection and oxygenation were maintained.

  13. Occurrence of hypermutable Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients is associated with the oxidative stress caused by chronic lung inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Riis, Bente; Pressler, Tacjana

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress caused by chronic lung inflammation in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is characterized by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) liberated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). We formulated the hypothesis that oxidation...

  14. Investigating Associations between School Climate and Bullying in Secondary Schools: Multilevel Contextual Effects Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Miyazaki, Yasuo; Hymel, Shelley; Waterhouse, Terry

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how student reports of bullying were related to different dimensions of school climate, at both the school and the student levels, using a contextual effects model in a two-level multilevel modeling framework. Participants included 48,874 secondary students (grades 8 to 12; 24,244 girls) from 76 schools in Western Canada.…

  15. The Association Between the Physical Environment of Primary Schools and Active School Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kann, D.H.H. van; Kremers, S.P.J.; Gubbels, J.S.; Bartelink, N.H.M.; Vries, S.I. de; Vries, N.K. de; Jansen, M.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the physical environment characteristics of primary schools and active school transport among 3,438 5- to 12-year-old primary school children in the Netherlands. The environmental characteristics were categorized into four theory-based clusters (function,

  16. Sex, Race/Ethnicity, and Context in School-Associated Student Homicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joanne M.; Hall, Jeffrey E.; Zagura, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the importance of sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic context for incidents of school-associated student homicides between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1999, covering 5 academic years. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Associated Violent Deaths Study (n = 125 incidents), we compared percentages…

  17. Dating Violence among Urban, Minority, Middle School Youth and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lormand, Donna K.; Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Whereas dating violence among high school students has been linked with sexual risk-taking and substance use, this association has been understudied among early adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of physical and nonphysical dating violence in a sample of middle school students and examined associations between dating violence,…

  18. Parent Involvement in the Getting Ready for School Intervention Is Associated With Changes in School Readiness Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Marti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of parent involvement in school readiness interventions is not well-understood. The Getting Ready for School (GRS intervention is a novel program that has both home and school components and aims to improve early literacy, math, and self-regulatory skills in preschool children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families. In this study, we first examined associations between family characteristics and different indices of parent involvement in the GRS intervention. We then examined associations between parent involvement and change in children's school readiness skills over time. Participants were 133 preschool children attending Head Start and their parents who participated in the GRS intervention during the academic year 2014–2015. Parent involvement was operationalized as attendance to GRS events at the school, time spent at home doing GRS activities, and usage of digital program materials, which included a set of videos to support the implementation of parent-child activities at home. Although few family characteristics were significantly associated with parent involvement indices, there was a tendency for some markers of higher socioeconomic status to be linked with greater parent involvement. In addition, greater parent involvement in the GRS intervention was significantly associated with greater gains in children's early literacy, math, and self-regulatory skills. These findings suggest that parent involvement in comprehensive early interventions could be beneficial in terms of improving school readiness for preschoolers from disadvantaged families.

  19. Parent Involvement in the Getting Ready for School Intervention Is Associated With Changes in School Readiness Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Maria; Merz, Emily C.; Repka, Kelsey R.; Landers, Cassie; Noble, Kimberly G.; Duch, Helena

    2018-01-01

    The role of parent involvement in school readiness interventions is not well-understood. The Getting Ready for School (GRS) intervention is a novel program that has both home and school components and aims to improve early literacy, math, and self-regulatory skills in preschool children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families. In this study, we first examined associations between family characteristics and different indices of parent involvement in the GRS intervention. We then examined associations between parent involvement and change in children's school readiness skills over time. Participants were 133 preschool children attending Head Start and their parents who participated in the GRS intervention during the academic year 2014–2015. Parent involvement was operationalized as attendance to GRS events at the school, time spent at home doing GRS activities, and usage of digital program materials, which included a set of videos to support the implementation of parent-child activities at home. Although few family characteristics were significantly associated with parent involvement indices, there was a tendency for some markers of higher socioeconomic status to be linked with greater parent involvement. In addition, greater parent involvement in the GRS intervention was significantly associated with greater gains in children's early literacy, math, and self-regulatory skills. These findings suggest that parent involvement in comprehensive early interventions could be beneficial in terms of improving school readiness for preschoolers from disadvantaged families. PMID:29904362

  20. A dual role for the immune response in a mouse model of inflammation-associated lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Dougan, Michael; Li, Danan; Neuberg, Donna; Mihm, Martin; Googe, Paul; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Dranoff, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Both principal factors known to cause lung cancer, cigarette smoke and asbestos, induce pulmonary inflammation, and pulmonary inflammation has recently been implicated in several murine models of lung cancer. To further investigate the role of inflammation in the development of lung cancer, we generated mice with combined loss of IFN-γ and the β-common cytokines GM-CSF and IL-3. These immunodeficient mice develop chronic pulmonary in...

  1. Early smoking initiation and associated factors among in-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This report examines the prevalence and common correlates of early smoking initiation among male and female school children across seven African countries. Method: The total sample included 17,725 school children aged 13 to 15 years from nationally representative samples in seven African countries.

  2. DNA methylation changes measured in pre‐diagnostic peripheral blood samples are associated with smoking and lung cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglietto, Laura; Ponzi, Erica; Haycock, Philip; Hodge, Allison; Bianca Assumma, Manuela; Jung, Chol‐Hee; Chung, Jessica; Fasanelli, Francesca; Guida, Florence; Campanella, Gianluca; Chadeau‐Hyam, Marc; Grankvist, Kjell; Johansson, Mikael; Ala, Ugo; Provero, Paolo; Wong, Ee Ming; Joo, Jihoon; English, Dallas R.; Kazmi, Nabila; Lund, Eiliv; Faltus, Christian; Kaaks, Rudolf; Risch, Angela; Barrdahl, Myrto; Sandanger, Torkjel M.; Southey, Melissa C.; Giles, Graham G.; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Polidoro, Silvia; Relton, Caroline L.

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation changes are associated with cigarette smoking. We used the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 array to determine whether methylation in DNA from pre‐diagnostic, peripheral blood samples is associated with lung cancer risk. We used a case‐control study nested within the EPIC‐Italy cohort and a study within the MCCS cohort as discovery sets (a total of 552 case‐control pairs). We validated the top signals in 429 case‐control pairs from another 3 studies. We identified six CpGs for which hypomethylation was associated with lung cancer risk: cg05575921 in the AHRR gene (p‐valuepooled = 4 × 10−17), cg03636183 in the F2RL3 gene (p‐valuepooled = 2 × 10 − 13), cg21566642 and cg05951221 in 2q37.1 (p‐valuepooled = 7 × 10−16 and 1 × 10−11 respectively), cg06126421 in 6p21.33 (p‐valuepooled = 2 × 10−15) and cg23387569 in 12q14.1 (p‐valuepooled = 5 × 10−7). For cg05951221 and cg23387569 the strength of association was virtually identical in never and current smokers. For all these CpGs except for cg23387569, the methylation levels were different across smoking categories in controls (p‐valuesheterogeneity ≤ 1.8 x10 − 7), were lowest for current smokers and increased with time since quitting for former smokers. We observed a gain in discrimination between cases and controls measured by the area under the ROC curve of at least 8% (p‐values ≥ 0.003) in former smokers by adding methylation at the 6 CpGs into risk prediction models including smoking status and number of pack‐years. Our findings provide convincing evidence that smoking and possibly other factors lead to DNA methylation changes measurable in peripheral blood that may improve prediction of lung cancer risk. PMID:27632354

  3. How does School Experience Relate to Adolescent Identity Formation Over Time? Cross-Lagged Associations between School Engagement, School Burnout and Identity Processing Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erentaitė, Rasa; Vosylis, Rimantas; Gabrialavičiūtė, Ingrida; Raižienė, Saulė

    2018-04-01

    The existing research findings still do not provide a clear understanding of the links between adolescent school experience and their identity formation. To address this gap, we analyzed the dynamic links between adolescent school experiences and identity formation by exploring the cross-lagged associations between school engagement, school burnout and identity processing styles (information-oriented, normative and diffuse-avoidant) over a 2-year period during middle-to-late adolescence. The sample of this school-based study included 916 adolescents (51.4% females) in the 9th to 12th grades from diverse socio-economic and family backgrounds. The results from the cross-lagged analyses with three time points revealed that (a) school engagement positively predicted information-oriented identity processing over a 2-year period; (b) school burnout positively predicted the reliance on normative and diffuse-avoidant identity styles across the three measurements; (c) the effects were stable over the three time points and across different gender, grade, and socio-economic status groups. The unidirectional effects identified in our study support the general prediction that active engagement in learning at school can serve as a resource for adolescent identity formation, while school burnout, in contrast, can hinder the formation of adolescent identity. This points to the importance of taking developmental identity-related needs of adolescents into account when planning the school curriculum.

  4. Drug use prevention: factors associated with program implementation in Brazilian urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Paula Dias; Sanchez, Zila M

    2018-03-07

    A school is a learning environment that contributes to the construction of personal values, beliefs, habits and lifestyles, provide convenient settings for the implementation of drug use prevention programs targeting adolescents, who are the population group at highest risk of initiating drug use. The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of factors associated with implementing drug use prevention programs in Brazilian public and private middle and high urban schools. The present population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with a probability sample of 1151 school administrators stratified by the 5 Brazilian administrative divisions, in 2014. A close-ended, self-reported online questionnaire was used. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with implementing drug use prevention programs in schools. A total of 51.1% of the schools had adopted drug use prevention programs. The factors associated with program implementation were as follows: belonging to the public school network; having a library; development of activities targeting sexuality; development of "Health at School Program" activities; offering extracurri