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Sample records for lund spectroscopy group

  1. Revisiting the Lund Fragmentation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.; Nilsson, A.

    1992-10-01

    We present a new method to implement the Lund Model fragmentation distributions for multi-gluon situations. The method of Sjoestrand, implemented in the well-known Monte Carlo simulation program JETSET, is robust and direct and according to his findings there are no observable differences between different ways to implement his scheme. His method can be described as a space-time method because the breakup proper time plays a major role. The method described in this paper is built on energy-momentum space methods. We make use of the χ-curve, which is defined directly from the energy momentum vectors of the partons. We have shown that the χ-curve describes the breakup properties and the final state energy momentum distributions in the mean. We present a method to find the variations around the χ-curve, which also implements the basic Lund Model fragmentation distributions (the area-law and the corresponding iterative cascade). We find differences when comparing the corresponding Monte Carlo implementation REVJET to the JETSET distributions inside the gluon jets. (au)

  2. Report of the Nuclear Spectroscopy Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerry, T.B.; Wylie, W.; Hugo

    1978-01-01

    This is a report of the group working with Nuclear Spectroscopy. They made a general discussion involving personnel, research interests (present and future) and suggestions, on general. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  3. The lund Monte Carlo for jet fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestrand, T.

    1982-03-01

    We present a Monte Carlo program based on the Lund model for jet fragmentation. Quark, gluon, diquark and hadron jets are considered. Special emphasis is put on the fragmentation of colour singlet jet systems, for which energy, momentum and flavour are conserved explicitly. The model for decays of unstable particles, in particular the weak decay of heavy hadrons, is described. The central part of the paper is a detailed description on how to use the FORTRAN 77 program. (Author)

  4. Third ATLAS Physics Workshop in Lund

    CERN Multimedia

    Gianotti, F

    The 3rd ATLAS Physics Workshop was held in Lund (Sweden) on September 12-16 2001. It was a very successful meeting, attended by more than 170 people and characterised by an impressive amount of work presented and discussed. The meeting was opened by the Dean of the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Prof. Bengt Söderström. We were all in a shocked state of mind because of the attacks the previous day on the WTC in New York. The Dean therefore asked us to observe a minute of silence to express our sorrow over the event, and sympathy to all the victims and their families. He then welcomed the ATLAS collaboration to Lund University. He explained the broad range of activities at the University, and also its history. The Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences has a strong research profile and an international orientation through collaborations, visitors and many students from outside Sweden. He expressed his satisfaction with Lund University hosting our workshop, and wished us an inspiring meet...

  5. A neglected FDI contribution – Arne Lund (1944)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kurt; Strandskov, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    of international production. Significant parts of the contributions to the theories of foreign direct investments had, however, been presented in a coherent and systematic way by the Danish economist Arne Lund in an article in Nationaløkonomisk Tidsskrift in 1944. The purpose of this paper is to present Lund...

  6. Soft photons in the Lund model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.; Dahlqvist, P.; Gustafson, G.

    1988-03-01

    We investigate the emission of real and virtual photons with small transverse momenta close to zero cms rapidity in proton-proton collisions. We consider a model, built upon the space time structure of the Lund string fragmentation model combined with the Fritiof model for hadronic interactions. The model contains a gauge and Lorentz invariant, albeit semiclassical, treatment of the currents from the final state hadrons as well as their valence constituents. We further investigate the effects of resonance decay, increase of the transverse momentum width of the string fluxtube, gluon emission leading to 'bent' strings and finally also the occurrence of polarization charges (virtual qq-production) along the string world sheet. We show that the spectrum for real and virtual (e + e - pairs) photon emission always will be within a factor of 2 to 3 from the long wave length limit (the Low limit) for transverse momenta up to a few hundred MeV/c. We conclude that if the present experimental indications for a much larger source of emission should be confirmed, then a major revision will be necessary in our present understanding of the space time structure and/or the energy densities available in hadron fragmentation. (authors)

  7. Raman spectroscopy of garnet-group minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingsheng, P.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Dien, L.; Chao, E.C.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Raman spectra of the natural end members of the garnet-group minerals, which include pyrope, almandine and spessarite of Fe-Al garnet series and grossularite, andradite and uvarovite of Ca-Fe garnet series, have been studied. Measured Raman spectra of these minerals are reasonably and qualitatively assigned to the internal modes, translational and rotatory modes of SiO4 tetrahedra, as well as the translational motion of bivalent cations in the X site. The stretch and rotatory Alg modes for the Fe-Al garnet series show obvious Raman shifts as compared with those for the Ca-Fe garnet series, owing to the cations residing in the X site connected with SiO4 tetrahedra by sharing the two edges. The Raman shifts of all members within either of the series are attributed mainly to the properties of cations in the X site for the Fe-Al garnet series and in the Y site for the Ca-Fe garnet series. ?? 1994 Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. P. W. Lunds samling - overraskende og oversete fund

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Lykke

    2010-01-01

    Det kom som en stor overraskelse, da jeg for nylig, under min gennemgang af P.W. Lunds subfossile samling på Zoologisk Museum, opdagede fem gamle og støvede skuffer godt gemt nederst i et skab. Skufferne var fyldte med knogler og tænder fra krokodiller, padder og slanger - dyr der normalt ikke...

  9. Morten Lund: Eesti Skype'i programmeerijad on planeedi nutikaimad inimesed / Morten Lund ; intervjueerinud Kaspar Näf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lund, Morten, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    Skype'i rahastaja, riskiinvestor Morten Lund vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad riskiinvestorite erinevust investeerimispankuritest, riskikapitali investoriks saamist, investeerimist majanduskriisi ajal, Skype'i investeerimist ja tulevikku, Eesti konkurentsivõimet innovaatilisest apektist ning käimasolevaid ja lõppenud projekte

  10. Bose-Einstein correlation in the Lund model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.

    1998-01-01

    I will present the Lund Model fragmentation in a somewhat different way than what is usually done. It is true that the formulas are derived from (semi-)classical probability arguments, but they can be motivated in a quantum mechanical setting and it is in particular possible to derive a transition matrix element. I will present two scenarios, one based upon Schwinger tunneling and one upon Wilson loop operators. The results will coincide and throw some light upon the sizes of the three main phenomenological parameters which occur in the Lund Model. After that I will show that in this way it is possible to obtain a model for the celebrated Bose-Einstein correlations between two bosons with small relative momenta. This model will exhibit non-trivial two- and three-particle BE correlations, influence the observed p-spectrum and finally be different for charged and neutral pion correlations. (author)

  11. Report of the Study Group on Complete Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    This report summarizes the topics considered in four discussions of about two hours each attended by most of the workshop participants. The contents of the lectures of David Radford, Fumihiko Sakata, Ben Mottelson, and Jerry Garret pertaining to Complete Spectroscopy are contained elsewhere in this proceedings. Most detailed nuclear structure information is derived from measurements of the spectroscopic properties (e.g. excitation energies, angular momenta, parities, lifetimes, magnetic moments, population cross sections, methods of decay, etc.) of discrete nuclear eigenstates. The present instrumentation allows in the best cases such measurements to approach the angular momentum limit imposed by fission and to as many as fifteen different excited bands. In anticipation of the new generation of detection equipment, such as the EUROBall and the GAMMASPHERE, the Complete Spectroscopy Study Group attempted to define the limits to such studies imposed by physical considerations and to consider some of the new, interesting physics that can be addressed from more complete discrete spectroscopic studies. 28 refs

  12. Annual report 1975 University of Lund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    In the Department of Cosmic High Energy Physics proton-nucleus interactions at 200-400 GeV are studied in nuclear emulsions exposed at the Fermi National Acceleration Laboratory in an international collaboration. The angular distribution of shower particles and the correlation between the number of shower particles and heavy prongs are studied and compared with interactions models. Multiplicities in proton-tungsten interactions at 200-400 GeV are studied in emulsion with embedded tungsten wires. 160-nucleus interactions are studied in emulsions exposed at the Berkeley Bevatron at 2.1 and 0.25 GeV/nucleon. An investigation of the primary cosmic ray charge spectrum in the interval 14 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 28 has been finished and measurements of the isotopic composition of cosmic ray boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon and iron are in progress. Thecosmic ray composition is studied with nuclear emulsion detectors and high resolution nuclear track photometers. The photonuclear group has continued the study of medium energy photonuclear reactions. During the year simple reactions of type (γ,p), (γ, d), (γ,t): (γ, α), (γ, γ) and (γ, π) which give information on the primary photon interaction in nuclei and secondary effects have been studied. More complex reactions have also been studied and the parameters in the cascade-evaporation process investigated. The photo yield of 24 Na has been measured as a function of the target mass number looking for photo-fragmentation. Medium-energy photofission studies have given knowledge about the competition between neutron evaporation, symmetric fission and asymmetric fission. At low photon energies, single particle excitations have been studied using monoenergetic photons from nuclear reactions. The programme of fission barrier studies with photons at energies below the barrier height using bremsstrahlung from the 6.5 MeV KTH microtron has continued. (author)

  13. Nuclear overhauser spectroscopy of chiral CHD methylene groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustyniak, Rafal [Ecole Normale Supérieure – PSL Research University, Département de chimie (France); Stanek, Jan [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Colaux, Henri; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey [Ecole Normale Supérieure – PSL Research University, Département de chimie (France); Koźmiński, Wiktor [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Herrmann, Torsten [Université de Lyon/UMR 5280 CNRS/ENS Lyon/UCB Lyon 1, Institut des Sciences Analytiques, Centre de RMN à Très Hauts Champs (France); Ferrage, Fabien, E-mail: Fabien.Ferrage@ens.fr [Ecole Normale Supérieure – PSL Research University, Département de chimie (France)

    2016-01-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) can provide a great deal of information about structure and dynamics of biomolecules. The quality of an NMR structure strongly depends on the number of experimental observables and on their accurate conversion into geometric restraints. When distance restraints are derived from nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY), stereo-specific assignments of prochiral atoms can contribute significantly to the accuracy of NMR structures of proteins and nucleic acids. Here we introduce a series of NOESY-based pulse sequences that can assist in the assignment of chiral CHD methylene protons in random fractionally deuterated proteins. Partial deuteration suppresses spin-diffusion between the two protons of CH{sub 2} groups that normally impedes the distinction of cross-relaxation networks for these two protons in NOESY spectra. Three and four-dimensional spectra allow one to distinguish cross-relaxation pathways involving either of the two methylene protons so that one can obtain stereospecific assignments. In addition, the analysis provides a large number of stereospecific distance restraints. Non-uniform sampling was used to ensure optimal signal resolution in 4D spectra and reduce ambiguities of the assignments. Automatic assignment procedures were modified for efficient and accurate stereospecific assignments during automated structure calculations based on 3D spectra. The protocol was applied to calcium-loaded calbindin D{sub 9k}. A large number of stereospecific assignments lead to a significant improvement of the accuracy of the structure.

  14. Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules.......This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules....

  15. Nuclear and atomic spectroscopy group. Dosimetry in medical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, M.

    1990-01-01

    The main activities of radiation physics on the sector of atomic spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence analysis in the Faculty of Mathematics, Astronomy and Physics (University of Cordoba, Argentina),are presented, including dosimetric studies in radiodiagnostic: dosimetric determination using Monte Carlo method; distortion effect study on PET image and lasers in medicine. (C.G.C.)

  16. New applications of 14C measurements at the Lund AMS Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenstroem, K.

    1995-11-01

    Some new applications of accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) with 14 C are presented. In the first part the sample preparation used for production of elemental carbon at the Lund AMS facility is described. The second part concerns the release of 14 C from nuclear power plants. In a one-year study, the total airborne discharge of 14 C from two Swedish reactors was measured. In another study, the fraction of 14 CO 2 of the total airborne 14 C release was determined. The third part of the thesis involves the use of 14 C in nuclear medicine. The long-term retention of 14 C-labelled triolein after a fat-malabsorption test has been investigated by means of AMS by analysis of expired CO 2 . The possibilities of using ultra-low amounts of activity for fat-malabsorption tests, employing AMS technique, is demonstrated. In the last part AMS and 14 C-labelled tracers are used in food chemistry studies of interactions between foods and packaging materials. 22 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Conformal three dimensional radiotherapy treatment planning in Lund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoos, T; Nilsson, P [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics; Anders, A [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology

    1995-12-01

    The use of conformal therapy is based on 3-dimensional treatment planning as well as on methods and routines for 3-dimensional patient mapping, 3-dimensional virtual simulation and others. The management of patients at the Radiotherapy Department at the University Hospital in Lund (Sweden) is discussed. About 2100 new patients are annually treated with external radiotherapy using seven linear accelerators. Three of the accelerators have dual photon energies and electron treatment facilities. A multi-leaf collimator as well as an electronic portal imaging device are available on one machine. Two simulators and an in-house CT-scanner are used for treatment planning. From 1988 to 1992 Scandiplan (Umplan) was used. Since 1992, the treatment planning system is TMS (HELAX AB, Sweden), which is based on the pencil beam algorithm of Ahnesjo. The calculations use patient modulated accelerator specific energy fluence spectra which are compiled with pencil beams from Monte Carlo generated energy absorption kernels. Heterogeneity corrections are performed with results close to conventional algorithms. Irregular fields, either from standard or individual blocks and from multi-leaf collimators are handled by the treatment planning system. The field shape is determined conveniently using the beam`s eye view. The final field shape is exported electronically to either the block cutting machine or the multileaf collimator control computer. All patient fields are checked against the beam`s eye view during simulation using manual methods. Treatment verification is performed by portal films and in vivo dosimetry with silicon diodes or TL-dosimetry. Up to now, approximately 4400 patients have received a highly individualized 3-dimensional conformal treatment.

  18. Conformal three dimensional radiotherapy treatment planning in Lund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoos, T.; Nilsson, P.; Anders, A.

    1995-01-01

    The use of conformal therapy is based on 3-dimensional treatment planning as well as on methods and routines for 3-dimensional patient mapping, 3-dimensional virtual simulation and others. The management of patients at the Radiotherapy Department at the University Hospital in Lund (Sweden) is discussed. About 2100 new patients are annually treated with external radiotherapy using seven linear accelerators. Three of the accelerators have dual photon energies and electron treatment facilities. A multi-leaf collimator as well as an electronic portal imaging device are available on one machine. Two simulators and an in-house CT-scanner are used for treatment planning. From 1988 to 1992 Scandiplan (Umplan) was used. Since 1992, the treatment planning system is TMS (HELAX AB, Sweden), which is based on the pencil beam algorithm of Ahnesjo. The calculations use patient modulated accelerator specific energy fluence spectra which are compiled with pencil beams from Monte Carlo generated energy absorption kernels. Heterogeneity corrections are performed with results close to conventional algorithms. Irregular fields, either from standard or individual blocks and from multi-leaf collimators are handled by the treatment planning system. The field shape is determined conveniently using the beam's eye view. The final field shape is exported electronically to either the block cutting machine or the multileaf collimator control computer. All patient fields are checked against the beam's eye view during simulation using manual methods. Treatment verification is performed by portal films and in vivo dosimetry with silicon diodes or TL-dosimetry. Up to now, approximately 4400 patients have received a highly individualized 3-dimensional conformal treatment

  19. Radiotracer Spectroscopy on Group II Acceptors in GaN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The semiconductor GaN is already used for the production of high power light emitting diodes in the blue and UV spectral range. But the $\\rho$-type doping, which is usually obtained by Mg doping, is still inefficient due to compensation and passivation effects caused by defects present in the material. It is theoretically predicted, that Be is a more promising candidate for $\\rho$-doping with a lower ionization energy of 60meV. It is our goal to investigate the electrical and optical properties of Be- and Mg-related defects in GaN to clarify the problem of compensation and passivation. The used methods are standard spectroscopic methods in semiconductor physics which are improved by using radioactive isotopes. The radioactive decay of $^{7}$Be and $^{28}$Mg is used to clearly correlate different signals with Be or Mg related defects. We intend to use the spectroscopic techniques Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS), Thermal Admittance Spectroscopy (TAS), photoluminescence (PL) and additionally Hall-effect...

  20. From movement to pain: a tribute to professor James P. Lund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, Karl-Gunnar; McFarland, David; Kolta, Arlette; Stohler, Christian; Feine, Jocelyne; Woda, Alain

    2008-01-01

    This tribute article to Professor James P. Lund stems from 6 of the presentations delivered at the July 1, 2008, symposium that honored 3 "giants" in orofacial neuroscience: B. J. Sessle, A. G. Hannam, and J. P. Lund. It was noted that soon after his training as a dentist in Australia, Jim Lund became interested in research. At the time he decided to do a PhD, there was a lot of discussion about how rhythmic movements were programmed. The early belief, based on Sherrington's studies of motor systems, was that these movements were simply an alternating series of reflexes. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, some still shared this belief, whereas others favored Graham Brown's hypothesis that repetitive movements were centrally programmed and did not depend on reflexes triggered by sensory inputs. There was no strong evidence then for either scenario except for the rhythmic movements of respiration. Lund's pioneering work during his PhD proved the existence of a central pattern generator (CPG) for mastication in the brainstem. Since then he has been interested in understanding how CPGs function and how sensory feedback works to adjust the motor patterns that they produce. Sections in this tribute article to Lund are written by some of his close collaborators and reflect the evolution of his work throughout the years. The first 4 presentations in this article (by K.-G. Westberg, D. McFarland, A. Kolta, and C. Stohler) highlight various aspects of these interests, and the final 2 presentations (by J. Feine and A. Woda) focus especially on clinical aspects of Lund's interests. The last section of this article is a final commentary from Professor Lund.

  1. Functional Groups Quantification of Chondritic Organics by XANES Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guillou, C.; Bernard, S.

    2017-07-01

    We have developed a new method to quantify the functional group concentration of organics using STXM-XANES. Applied to IOM and in situ FIB sections measurement, it reveals a lower aromaticity than expected from previous NMR results (35% vs. 60%).

  2. Functional Group Analysis of Biomass Burning Particles Using Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrell, K.; Lau, A.; Bond, T.; Iraci, L. T.

    2008-12-01

    Biomass burning is a significant source of particulate organic carbon in the atmosphere. These particles affect the energy balance of the atmosphere directly by absorbing and scattering solar radiation, and indirectly through their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The chemical composition of biomass burning particles influences their ability to act as CCN, thus understanding the chemistry of these particles is required for understanding their effects on climate and air quality. As climate change influences the frequency and severity of boreal forest fires, the influence of biomass burning aerosols on the atmosphere may become significantly greater. Only a small portion of the organic carbon (OC) fraction of these particles has been identified at the molecular level, although several studies have explored the general chemical classes found in biomass burning smoke. To complement those studies and provide additional information about the reactive functional groups present, we are developing a method for polarity-based separation of compound classes found in the OC fraction, followed by infrared (IR) spectroscopic analysis of each polarity fraction. It is our goal to find a simple, relatively low-tech method which will provide a moderate chemical understanding of the entire suite of compounds present in the OC fraction of biomass burning particles. Here we present preliminary results from pine and oak samples representative of Midwestern United States forests burned at several different temperatures. Wood type and combustion temperature are both seen to affect the composition of the particles. The latter seems to affect relative contributions of certain functional groups, while oak demonstrates at least one additional chemical class of compounds, particularly at lower burning temperatures, where gradual solid-gas phase reactions can produce relatively large amounts of incompletely oxidized products.

  3. Higher-order anisotropies in the Buda-Lund model: Disentangling flow and density field anisotropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loekoes, Sandor [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Csanad, Mate [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Tomasik, Boris [Univerzita Mateja Bela, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Prague (Czech Republic); Csoergo, Tamas [Wigner RCP, Budapest (Hungary); KRF, Gyoengyoes (Hungary)

    2016-10-15

    The Buda-Lund hydro model describes an expanding ellipsoidal fireball, and fits the observed elliptic flow and oscillating HBT radii successfully. Due to fluctuations in energy depositions, the fireball shape however fluctuates on an event-by-event basis. The transverse plane asymmetry can be translated into a series of multipole anisotropy coefficients. These anisotropies then result in measurable momentum-space anisotropies, to be measured with respect to their respective symmetry planes. In this paper we detail an extension of the Buda-Lund model to multipole anisotropies and investigate the resulting flow coefficients and oscillations of HBT radii. (orig.)

  4. Changes in Editorial board Rhinology, Prof. Valerie Lund demits office as Editor in Chief of Rhinology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkens, W. J.

    2014-01-01

    At the Editorial Board Meeting of Rhinology Valerie Lund indicated that she has decided to emit office as Editor in Chief of Rhinology. She became a member of the editorial board in 1993, a co-editor with Prof. Bert Huizing in 1999 and Editor in Chief in 2004. She leaves with our grateful thanks for

  5. Final version of the pick-up wheels in the Pelletron tandem accelerator at Lund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakansson, K.; Hellborg, R.

    1993-01-01

    A new type of pick-up wheel has been designed and constructed for the charge transport system of the Lund 3UDH Pelletron tandem accelerator. The major improvements compared with older types are a slender design with only one ball bearing and more robust contact pins with a rubber ring between the pinhead and the wheel nave. (orig.)

  6. Group fellowship training in nuclear spectroscopy instrumentation maintenance at the Seibersdorf Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Y.; Abdel-Rassoul, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear spectroscopy instruments are important tools for nuclear research and applications. Several types of nuclear spectrometers are being sent to numerous laboratories in developing countries through technical co-operation projects. These are mostly sophisticated systems based on different radiation detectors, analogue and digital circuitry. In most cases, they use microprocessor or computer techniques involving software and hardware. Maintenance service and repair of these systems is a major problem in many developing countries because suppliers do not set up service stations. The Agency's Laboratories at Seibersdorf started conducting group fellowship training on nuclear spectroscopy instrumentation maintenance in 1987. This article describes the training programme

  7. Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses spectroscopy, the study of absorption of radiation by matter, including X-ray, gamma-ray, microwave, mass spectroscopy, as well as others. Spectroscopy has produced more fundamental information to the study of the detailed structure of matter than any other tools.

  8. Surface functional group characterization using chemical derivatization X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (CD-XPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagst, Eda

    2011-03-18

    Chemical derivatization - X-ray photolectron spectroscopy (CD-XPS) was applied successfully in order to determine different functional groups on thin film surfaces. Different amino group carrying surfaces, prepared by spin coating, self-assembly and plasma polymerization, were successfully investigated by (XPS) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. Amino groups were derivatized with the widely used primary amino group tags, pentafluorobenzaldehyde (PFB) and 4-(trifluoromethyl)-benzaldehyde (TFBA), prior to analysis. Primary amino group quantification was then carried out according to the spectroscopical data. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of different terminal groups were prepared and investigated with XPS and spectra were compared with reference surfaces. An angle resolved NEXAFS measurement was applied to determine the orientation of SAMs. Plasma polymerized allylamine samples with different duty cycle, power and pressure values were prepared in order to study the effects of external plasma parameters on the primary amino group retention. CD-XPS was used to quantify the amino groups and experiments show, that the milder plasma conditions promote the retention of amino groups originating from the allylamine monomer. An interlaboratory comparison of OH group determination on plasma surfaces of polypropylene treated with oxygen plasma, was studied. The surfaces were investigated with XPS and the [OH] amount on the surfaces was calculated. (orig.)

  9. Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, S

    1976-01-01

    The three volumes of Spectroscopy constitute the one comprehensive text available on the principles, practice and applications of spectroscopy. By giving full accounts of those spectroscopic techniques only recently introduced into student courses - such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy - in addition to those techniques long recognised as being essential in chemistry teaching - sucha as e.s.r. and infrared spectroscopy - the book caters for the complete requirements of undergraduate students and at the same time provides a sound introduction to special topics for graduate students.

  10. The inhabitants of Lund and Gaevle and the legacy of Chernobyl a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlandsson, B.

    1999-01-01

    The body burden of 137 Cs in the population of two Swedish cities, Lund and Gaevle has been calculated from measurements of the activity concentration in the sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants serving these cities. Now 13 years after the Chernobyl accident the activity in the run-off water during the winter season, January to March, and during dry periods is very low. Already 1996, 10 years after the accident, the distribution of the mean value of the activity concentration of 137 Cs has leveled out, and does not depend on the amount of precipitation. Therefor almost all 137 Cas activity can be determined as coming from the inhabitants of the two cities. The number of inhabitants and the distribution of men, women and children are well known for both Lund and Gaevle. These values are in good agreement with values obtained from whole-body measurements. (au)

  11. Raw data report: Cave Valley orientation study, Lund 10 x 20 NTMS area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchlik, K.P.; Holder, B.E.; Smith, C.F.

    1977-11-01

    This report presents the results of the Cave Valley, Nevada, orientation study in the Lund 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle of the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS). Wet, dry, and playa sediment samples were collected throughout the 360 km 2 semi-arid, closed basin. Water samples were collected at the few available streams and springs. In addition to neutron activation analysis for uranium and 15 to 20 trace elements on all samples, field and laboratory measurements were made on water samples. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tabular hardcopy and fiche format. Four full-size overlays for use with the Lund NTMS 1:250,000 quadrangle are included. Water site locations, water sample uranium concentration, sediment site locations, and sediment sample total uranium concentration are shown on the separate overlays. A general description of the area and the rock type distribution is presented

  12. Modeling Friction in Modelica with the Lund-Grenoble Friction Model

    OpenAIRE

    Aberger, Martin; Otter, Martin

    2002-01-01

    The properties of the Lund-Grenoble friction model are summarized and different types of friction elements - bearing friction, clutch, one-way clutch, are implemented in Modelica using this friction formulation. The dynamic properties of these components are determined in simulations and compared with the friction models available in the Modelica standard library. This includes also an automatic gearbox model where 6 friction elements are coupled dynamically.

  13. Mechanical design of the recirculating, terminal pumping in the Lund Pelletron, and experimental experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellborg, R.; Hakansson, K.; Faarinen, M.; Kiisk, M.; Persson, P.; Skog, G.; Stenstroem, K.

    2002-01-01

    A recirculating terminal pumping system has been installed in the 3 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator in Lund. An extremely limited space in the high voltage terminal and the absence of electrical power in the terminal, forced us to provide a unique design for the installation and powering of the new pumps. Details of the technical design, as well as experience of the use of the new system for accelerator mass spectrometry, will be given. (author)

  14. ATTILA (All Type Target Independent Lund Algorithm) for nuclear collisions at ≅ 200 AGeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1987-08-01

    The Lund string model, Fritiof, is applied in the form of a Monte-Carlo event generator, ATTILA, to nuclear collisions in the 200 AGeV range. We study how uncertainties at the pp level amplify at the AB level and compare preliminary CERN data on multiplicity, transverse energy, and veto energy distributions to this linear extrapolation scheme from pp to AB dynamics. (orig.)

  15. Status of the Single Stage AMS machine at Lund University after 4 years of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skog, Goeran; Rundgren, Mats; Skoeld, Pia

    2010-01-01

    The Lund SSAMS machine has been in routine operation since 2004. We present results from the last year of operation of the facility. The reference sample IAEA C7 and the 'old' oxalic acid, OxI, were used as secondary standards. As primary standard for calculations the OxII was used. The background and long term stability of the facility are discussed. We also report on the quality of the 13 C/ 12 C ratio from the SSAMS system.

  16. Development of the Lund AMS system and the evaluation of a new AMS detection technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebert, A

    1995-09-01

    This thesis is based on work at the Lund Pelletron accelerator facility in order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the Lund Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) system. To obtain high accuracy, all measurements are performed relative to a standard of known activity. Charge state distributions have been obtained for a number of isotopes: {sup 9}Be, {sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 16}O, {sup 19}F, {sup 27}Al, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 48}Ti and {sup 58}Ni order to improve the transmission through the system and to reduce the isotopic fractionation in the measurements. For carbon, charge states distributions were obtained both under foil and gas stripping. The pressure profile of the Lund Pelletron system has been calculated, both under foil and gas stripping, to make possible to perform transmission calculations for a carbon beam. These results were used to design a new terminal stripper of the accelerator system. A new ion source has, during the last few years, been constructed providing a multiple sample wheel, enabling more accurate relative measurements and also providing more efficient measurements, due to a higher beam current. A new detection technique suitable for AMS measurements on heavier radionuclides, such as {sup 36}Cl,{sup 44}Ti and {sup 59}Ni, has been evaluated and detection limits for {sup 59}Ni have been derived. 59 refs, 13 figs.

  17. Development of the Lund AMS system and the evaluation of a new AMS detection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebert, A.

    1995-09-01

    This thesis is based on work at the Lund Pelletron accelerator facility in order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the Lund Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) system. To obtain high accuracy, all measurements are performed relative to a standard of known activity. Charge state distributions have been obtained for a number of isotopes: 9 Be, 12 C, 13 C, 16 O, 19 F, 27 Al, 35 Cl, 48 Ti and 58 Ni order to improve the transmission through the system and to reduce the isotopic fractionation in the measurements. For carbon, charge states distributions were obtained both under foil and gas stripping. The pressure profile of the Lund Pelletron system has been calculated, both under foil and gas stripping, to make possible to perform transmission calculations for a carbon beam. These results were used to design a new terminal stripper of the accelerator system. A new ion source has, during the last few years, been constructed providing a multiple sample wheel, enabling more accurate relative measurements and also providing more efficient measurements, due to a higher beam current. A new detection technique suitable for AMS measurements on heavier radionuclides, such as 36 Cl, 44 Ti and 59 Ni, has been evaluated and detection limits for 59 Ni have been derived. 59 refs, 13 figs

  18. Infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of group I and group II metal complexes with Boc-hydroxylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Ryan P; Gresham, Gary; Groenewold, Gary S; Steill, Jeffrey D; Oomens, Jos; Van Stipdonk, Michael J

    2013-08-30

    Hydroxamates are essential growth factors for some microbes, acting primarily as siderophores that solubilize iron for transport into a cell. Here we determined the intrinsic structure of 1:1 complexes between Boc-protected hydroxylamine and group I ([M(L)](+)) and group II ([M(L-H)](+)) cations, where M and L are the cation and ligand, respectively, which are convenient models for the functional unit of hydroxamate siderphores. The relevant complex ions were generated by electrospray ionization (ESI) and isolated and stored in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Infrared spectra of the isolated complexes were collected by monitoring (infrared) photodissociation yield as a function of photon energy. Experimental spectra were then compared to those predicted by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra collected are in good agreement with those predicted to be lowest-energy by DFT. The spectra for the group I complexes contain six resolved absorptions that can be attributed to amide I and II type and hydroxylamine N-OH vibrations. Similar absorptions are observed for the group II cation complexes, with shifts of the amide I and amide II vibrations due to the change in structure with deprotonation of the hydroxylamine group. IRMPD spectroscopy unequivocally shows that the intrinsic binding mode for the group I cations involves the O atoms of the amide carbonyl and hydroxylamine groups of Boc-hydroxylamine. A similar binding mode is preferred for the group II cations, except that in this case the metal ion is coordinated by the O atom of the deprotonated hydroxylamine group. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Continental Environment of Triassic Alluvial Beds in the Northern North Sea Area: Core Examples from the Lunde Formation, Snorre Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystuen, Johan Petter; Bergan, Morten

    1999-07-01

    Alluvial processes transport and deposit gravel, sand and mud in a series of depositional systems such as alluvial fans, fluvial channels, floodplain and lacustrine basins. In the northernmost part of the North Sea alluvial sandstones form major reservoir rocks in several oil fields in the Tampen Spur area. In the Snorre Field, the Norian- Early Rhaetian Lunde Formation has given a great database from exploration and production wells, seismic studies, reservoir modelling, production experience and comparative analogue studies on facies distribution, alluvial architecture, heterogeneities and reservoir properties of alluvial successions. The Lunde Formation is subdivided in three members, the lower, middle and upper Lunde members, with the upper member being the main part of the Lunde reservoir rocks. The scope of presenting core samples from the upper Lunde member is to demonstrate main alluvial facies and facies associations, how facies analysis proceeds into construction of conceptual fluvial models that in turn are fundamental in evaluation of reservoir heterogeneities and reservoir modelling. The upper Lunde member consists of repeated units of red and grey sandstone and mudstone. Sandstones are dominantly medium-grained with common range from coarse- to very fine-grained. A basic building stone of the alluvial succession consists of a thick single- or multi-storey sandstone body overlain by a thick mudstone unit. Such couplets form allostratigraphic units and define the main reservoir zones.

  20. European Group for Atomic Spectroscopy. Summaries of contributions, eleventh annual conference, Paris-Orsay, July 10-13, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Summaries are presented of talks given at the eleventh conference of the European group for atomic spectroscopy. Topics covered include: lifetimes; collisions; line shape; hyperfine structure; isotope shifts; saturation spectroscopy; Hanle effect; Rydberg levels; quantum beats; helium and helium-like atoms; metrology; and molecules. (GHT)

  1. A new design for the low-energy optics of the Lund pelletron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellborg, R.; Hakansson, K.; Skog, G.

    1990-01-01

    Several improvements have been implemented on the low-energy side of the Lund 3UDH Pelletron tandem accelerator. We report on the use of an ANIS sputtering source, the installation of a new injector with two legs and the rebuilding of the low-energy optics between sources and accelerator. New lenses have been placed at optimum positions which, together with a higher pump capacity, increased the beam transmission. Angular misalignment of the beam has been minimized by repositioning steerers and profile monitors. (orig.)

  2. Calculations of the beam transport through the low energy side of the Lund Pelletron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymnikov, A.; Hellborg, R.; Pallon, J.; Skog, G.; Yang, C.

    1993-01-01

    A new recursive technique has been used to solve the equations of motion of charged particles in electric and magnetic fields taking into account the effect of space charge. Based on this technique a computer code has been written and calculations have been carried out for the beam optics, from the ion-source to the terminal, stripper of the Lund Pelletron tandem accelerator. The code has been found capable of describing the beam-optics of the existing setup and will in future be used together with a library of typical field descriptions to design new beam lines. (orig.)

  3. The Lund Monte Carlo programme for high energy interactions between hadrons and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson-Almqvist, B.; Stenlund, E.

    1985-07-01

    In high energy hadron-nucleus and hadron-hadron collisions low Psub(T) is the dominating feature, not explained by QCD and related to quark confinement. Nevertheless QCD inspired formulations have been used to explain low Psub(T) interactions. Experimentally observed features like cascades are still not fully explained and we do not know when and in what way the hadronization take place. We present a Monte Carlo programme for ultra relativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions where we let the projectile nucleon rescatter inside the target nucleus, get excited and then fragment according to the Lund fragmentation scheme for particle production. (Author)

  4. Electromagnetic field enhancement effects in group IV semiconductor nanowires. A Raman spectroscopy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pura, J. L.; Anaya, J.; Souto, J.; Prieto, A. C.; Rodríguez, A.; Rodríguez, T.; Periwal, P.; Baron, T.; Jiménez, J.

    2018-03-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are the building blocks of future nanoelectronic devices. Furthermore, their large refractive index and reduced dimension make them suitable for nanophotonics. The study of the interaction between nanowires and visible light reveals resonances that promise light absorption/scattering engineering for photonic applications. Micro-Raman spectroscopy has been used as a characterization tool for semiconductor nanowires. The light/nanowire interaction can be experimentally assessed through the micro-Raman spectra of individual nanowires. As compared to both metallic and dielectric nanowires, semiconductor nanowires add additional tools for photon engineering. In particular, one can grow heterostructured nanowires, both axial and radial, and also one could modulate the doping level and the surface condition among other factors than can affect the light/NW interaction. We present herein a study of the optical response of group IV semiconductor nanowires to visible photons. The study is experimentally carried out through micro-Raman spectroscopy of different group IV nanowires, both homogeneous and axially heterostructured (SiGe/Si). The results are analyzed in terms of the electromagnetic modelling of the light/nanowire interaction using finite element methods. The presence of axial heterostructures is shown to produce electromagnetic resonances promising new photon engineering capabilities of semiconductor nanowires.

  5. spectroscopy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-10-14

    Oct 14, 2015 ... characterized by using phenotypic, API and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods. One hundred and fifty-seven (157) strains were isolated from 13 cheese samples, and identification test was performed for 83 strains. At the end of the study, a total of 22 Lactococcus sp., 36 Enterecoccus ...

  6. Study on the surface hydroxyl group on solid breeding materials by infrared absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Satoru; Taniguchi, Masaki [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Hydroxyl groups on the surface of Li{sub 2}O were studied by using a diffuse reflectance method with Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy at high temperature up to 973K under controlled D{sub 2}O or D{sub 2} partial pressure. It was found that hydroxyl groups could exist on Li{sub 2}O surface up to 973K under Ar atmosphere. Under D{sub 2}O containing atmosphere, only the sharp peak at 2520cm{sup -1} was observed at 973K in the O-D stretching vibration region. Below 973K, multiple peaks due to the surface -OD were observed and they showed different behavior with temperature or atmosphere. Multiple peaks mean that surface is not homogeneous for D{sub 2}O adsorption. Assignment of the observed peaks to the surface bonding structure was also discussed. (author)

  7. Physiological and biochemical principles underlying volume-targeted therapy--the "Lund concept".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The optimal therapy of sustained increase in intracranial pressure (ICP) remains controversial. The volume-targeted therapy ("Lund concept") discussed in this article focuses on the physiological volume regulation of the intracranial compartments. The balance between effective transcapillary hydrostatic and osmotic pressures constitutes the driving force for transcapillary fluid exchange. The low permeability for sodium and chloride combined with the high crystalloid osmotic pressure (approximately 5700 mmHg) on both sides of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) counteracts fluid exchange across the intact BBB. Additionally, variations in systemic blood pressure generally are not transmitted to these capillaries because cerebral intracapillary hydrostatic pressure (and blood flow) is physio-logically tightly autoregulated. Under pathophysiological conditions, the BBB may be partially disrupted. Transcapillary water exchange is then determined by the differences in hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressure between the intra- and extracapillary compartments. Pressure autoregulation of cerebral blood flow is likely to be impaired in these conditions. A high cerebral perfusion pressure accordingly increases intracapillary hydrostatic pressure and leads to increased intracerebral water content and an increase in ICP. The volume-targeted "Lund concept" has been evaluated in experimental and clinical studies to examine the physiological and biochemical (utilizing intracerebral microdialysis) effects, and the clinical experiences have been favorable.

  8. Chemical reactions on platinum-group metal surfaces studied by synchrotron-radiation-based spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Hiroshi; Nakai, Ikuyo; Nagasaka, Masanari; Amemiya, Kenta; Ohta, Toshiaki

    2009-01-01

    A new version of synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray spectroscopy, wave-length-dispersive near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (dispersive-NEXAFS), and fast x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been applied to mechanistic studies on several surface catalytic reactions on platinum-group-metal surfaces. In this review, our approach using above techniques to understand the reaction mechanism and actual application studies on three well-known catalytic surface reactions, CO oxidation on Pt(111) and Pd(111), NO reduction on Rh(111), and H 2 O formation on Pt(111), are introduced. Spectroscopic monitoring of the progress of the surface reactions enabled us to detect reaction intermediates and analyze the reaction kinetics quantitatively which provides information on reaction order, rate constant, pre-exponential factor, activation energy and etc. Such quantitative analyses combined with scanning tunneling microscopy and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations revealed significant contribution of the adsorbate configurations and their dynamic changes to the reaction mechanisms of the above fundamental catalytic surface reactions. (author)

  9. Electron momentum spectroscopy of the group I and Il metal and oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.J.; Dorsett, H.E.; Sashin, V.A.; Bolorizadeh, M.A.; Mikajlo, E.A.; Soule de Bas, B.; Nixon, K.L.; Coleman, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The group I and Il metals and oxides are relatively simple condensed phase systems that are easily accessible to theoretical studies. For this reason they have been the subject of a number of studies using a range of theoretical techniques. Calculated electronic band structures have traditionally been compared with optical, X-ray and photo emissions measurements. While these techniques provide excellent data for testing theoretical predictions they generally probe certain aspects of the electronic structure, such as special point energies or densities of states, or require considerable theoretical input for their interpretation. In this paper we present our electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS) measurements for the lighter group Il metals and oxides and group I oxides. EMS can measure directly the full band dispersions and intensities and provides a sensitive test of theoretical predictions. We compare our measurements with Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations carried out within the linear combination of atomic orbitals approximation. As expected HF significantly overestimates the bandwidths and bandgaps. DFT gives reasonable overall agreement, albeit with slight overestimation of bandwidths for the oxides. The intensity distribution for the oxides show a systematic difference from all the calculations which cannot easily be explained by experimental effects such as multiple scattering in the target. This work was funded by the Australian Research Council and Flinders University. EA Mikajlo and K L Nixon acknowledge receipt of SENRAC and Ferry scholarships respectively

  10. New Atomic Data for Doubly Ionized Iron Group Atoms by High Resolution UV Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter L.; Pickering, Juliet C.; Thorne, A. P.

    2002-01-01

    Currently available laboratory spectroscopic data of doubly ionized iron-group element were obtained about 50 years ago using spectrographs of modest dispersion, photographic plates, and eye estimates of intensities. The accuracy of the older wavelength data is about 10 mAngstroms at best, whereas wavelengths are now needed to an accuracy of 1 part in 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 7) (0.2 to 2 mAngstroms at 2000 Angstroms). The Fourier transform (FT) spectroscopy group at Imperial College, London, and collaborators at the Harvard College Observatory have used a unique VUV FT spectrometer in a program focussed on improving knowledge of spectra of many neutral and singly and doubly ionized, astrophysically important, iron group elements. Spectra of Fe II and Fe III have been recorded at UV and VUV wavelengths with signal-to-noise ratios of several hundred for the stronger lines. Wavelengths and energy levels for Fe III are an order of magnitude more accurate than previous work; analysis is close to completion. f-values for Fe II have been published.

  11. GROUPING OF ORAL STREPTOCOCCAL SPECIES USING FOURIER-TRANSFORM INFRARED-SPECTROSCOPY IN COMPARISON WITH CLASSICAL MICROBIOLOGICAL IDENTIFICATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERMEI, HC; NAUMANN, D; BUSSCHER, HJ

    1993-01-01

    The grouping and identification made by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) of 40 oral streptococcal strains was compared with their known taxonomic positions. Grouping was obtained by cluster analysis on the spectral distances between the first derivative spectra of the strains. Spectra

  12. Elemental analysis of single phytoplankton cells using the Lund nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallon, Jan; Elfman, Mikael; Kristiansson, Per; Malmqvist, Klas; Graneli, Edna; Sellborn, Anders; Karlsson, Chatarina

    1999-01-01

    The occurrence of annual marine phytoplankton blooms is becoming a global problem. In Europe, the NUTOX project supported by the EC investigates if unbalanced nutrient compositions in the water promote the dominance of harmful phytoplankton species. One of the tasks is the determination of the elemental composition of single phytoplankton cells. This is carried out using the Lund Nuclear Microprobe with a special focus on C, N, P and K. The overall aim is to understand the mechanism leading to toxin production, model it and eventually propose a counteracting method. The preparative method, used to isolate single living cells while reducing their salt environment, is an important part of the analytical procedure. A comparison of light element detection using backscattering from protons and nuclear reaction analysis using deuterons is made

  13. Characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy of a carbosilane dendrimer with peripheral ammonium groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina, E-mail: cpopescu@icmpp.ro [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry (Romania); Gomez, Rafael; Mata, Fco Javier de la; Rasines, Beatriz [Universidad de Alcala, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica (Spain); Simionescu, Bogdan C. [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry (Romania)

    2013-06-15

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 2D correlation spectroscopy were used to study the microstructural changes occurring on heating of a new carbosilane dendrimer with peripheral ammonium groups. Temperature-dependent spectral variations in the 3,010-2,710, 1,530-1,170, and 1,170-625 cm{sup -1} regions were monitored during the heating process. The dependence, on temperature, of integral absorptions and position of spectral bands was established and the spectral modifications associated with molecular conformation rearrangements, allowing molecular shape changes, were found. Before 180 Degree-Sign C, the studied carbosilane dendrimer proved to be stable, while at higher temperatures it oxidizes and Si-O groups appear. 2D IR correlation spectroscopy gives new information about the effect of temperature on the structure and dynamics of the system. Synchronous and asynchronous spectra indicate that, at low temperature, conformational changes of CH{sub 3} and CH{sub 3}-N{sup +} groups take place first. With increasing temperature, the intensity variation of the CH{sub 2}, C-N, Si-C and C-C groups from the dendritic core is faster than that of the terminal units. This indicates that, with increasing temperature, the segments of the dendritic core obtain enough energy to change their conformation more easily as compared to the terminal units, due to their internal flexibility.

  14. Characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy of a carbosilane dendrimer with peripheral ammonium groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Gómez, Rafael; Mata, Fco Javier de la; Rasines, Beatriz; Simionescu, Bogdan C.

    2013-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 2D correlation spectroscopy were used to study the microstructural changes occurring on heating of a new carbosilane dendrimer with peripheral ammonium groups. Temperature-dependent spectral variations in the 3,010–2,710, 1,530–1,170, and 1,170–625 cm −1 regions were monitored during the heating process. The dependence, on temperature, of integral absorptions and position of spectral bands was established and the spectral modifications associated with molecular conformation rearrangements, allowing molecular shape changes, were found. Before 180 °C, the studied carbosilane dendrimer proved to be stable, while at higher temperatures it oxidizes and Si–O groups appear. 2D IR correlation spectroscopy gives new information about the effect of temperature on the structure and dynamics of the system. Synchronous and asynchronous spectra indicate that, at low temperature, conformational changes of CH 3 and CH 3 –N + groups take place first. With increasing temperature, the intensity variation of the CH 2 , C–N, Si–C and C–C groups from the dendritic core is faster than that of the terminal units. This indicates that, with increasing temperature, the segments of the dendritic core obtain enough energy to change their conformation more easily as compared to the terminal units, due to their internal flexibility.

  15. CEBAF at higher energies: Working group report on hadron spectroscopy and production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)]| [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); Napolitano, J. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes topics in hadron spectroscopy and production which could be addressed at CEBAF with an energy upgrade to E{sub {gamma}} = 8 GeV and beyond. The topics discussed include conventional meson and baryon spectrocopy, spectroscopy of exotica (especially molecules and hybrids), CP and CPT tests using {phi} mesons, and new detector and accelerator options.

  16. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 7th Liquid Matter Conference (Lund, Sweden, 27 June 1 July 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Gerhard; Sciortino, Francesco; Ullner, Magnus

    2008-12-01

    The three-yearly Liquid Matter Conference is organized by the Liquids Section of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society. This series of meetings began in Lyon in 1990. The previous meeting was held in 2005 in Utrecht. The original aim of the Liquid Matter Conference was to bring together scientists working on the liquid state of matter. A closer analysis of the program booklets over the past 18 years reveals that new and highly active research fields that are closely related to liquid matter have been successfully integrated in the scope of the conference, notably the rapidly developing fields of soft matter and biophysics. Concomitantly, a broadening of the spectrum from the classical liquid state to a wide spectrum of phases and systems could be observed. Therefore, the rapidly growing field covered by this conference series at present includes physics, chemistry, biology, and chemical engineering as well as various applied research areas. Liquid state physics is at the interface of many research fields. As a consequence, many of the attendants come from adjacent fields and encounter at the Liquid Matter Conference a community where they can meet experts from other research areas. This aspect of the Liquid Matter Conference makes it an exciting meeting as it not only offers the participants an up-to-date picture of the status of research into the liquid state of matter, but it also allows them to establish new (and often unexpected) transdisciplinary contacts for joint scientific endeavours. This applies in particular to the area of soft condensed matter such as colloidal suspensions, polymeric systems and biological materials. The Lund meeting, organized in collaboration with Lund University, had 574 registered participants from five continents. During the conference, and following the tradition established at the Utrecht meeting, the second Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society was awarded to Professor Henk Lekkerkerker

  17. Final Technical Report Project: Low-Energy Photonuclear Studies at HIGS and Lund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, Gerald [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-06-15

    This report summarizes a program of low-energy photonuclear studies at MAX-Lab in Lund (Sweden) and at the High Intensity Gamma Source (HIGS) at Duke University. A major emphasis has been on Compton scattering from deuterium in order to determine the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of the neutron. The studies at Lund utilized unpolarized photons at Egamma = 62-115 MeV to measure differential cross sections. The studies at HIGS utilized polarized and unpolarized photon beams (both linear and circular) at Egamma < 90 MeV. Polarization observables will be exploited to improve our understanding of the electric and magnetic polarizabilities, and in particular, double-polarization observables (using polarized targets) will be measured in the future to provide new information about the spin polarizabilities of the nucleon. The MAX-Lab experiments (using unpolarized photons) focused on an approved PAC proposal for Compton scattering on the deuteron aimed at making a precise determination of the electromagnetic polarizabilities of the neutron. At MAX-Lab we had three of the largest NaI detectors in the world, each capable of ~2% energy resolution. We have completed our measurements in two separate tagged photon energy ranges which overlap each other (62-97 MeV and 90-115 MeV) and the results of these experiments have been published. The photon beam at the High Intensity Gamma Source (HIGS) has several distinct advantages that make it unique: (1) ultra-high photon flux, ultimately reaching 100 MHz, (2) 100% linearly polarized photon beam, as well as circular polarization, (3) monoenergetic beam, with ~2% energy resolution, and (4) extremely low-background beam environment. Exploiting the high flux and polarization capabilities of the HIGS photon beam is central in the series of experiments being performed at this facility. Very little data exist on Compton scattering using polarized photons. We will exploit clear sensitivities in the polarization observables to the

  18. The Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion: a prospective validation of the onset of sustained stress and exhaustion warnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Österberg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for instruments that can assist in detecting the prodromal stages of stress-related exhaustion has been acknowledged. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion (LUCIE could accurately and prospectively detect the onset of incipient exhaustion and to what extent work stressor exposure and private burdens were associated with increasing LUCIE scores. Methods Using surveys, 1355 employees were followed for 11 quarters. Participants with prospectively elevated LUCIE scores were targeted by three algorithms entailing 4 quarters: (1 abrupt onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 18, (2 gradual onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 42, and (3 sustained Exhaustion Warning (n = 36. The targeted participants’ survey reports on changes in work situation and private life during the fulfillment of any algorithm criteria were analyzed, together with the interview data. Participants untargeted by the algorithms constituted a control group (n = 745. Results Eighty-seven percent of participants fulfilling any LUCIE algorithm criteria (LUCIE indication cases rated a negative change in their work situation during the 4 quarters, compared to 48 % of controls. Ratings of negative changes in private life were also more common in the LUCIE indication groups than among controls (58 % vs. 29 %, but free-text commentaries revealed that almost half of the ratings in the LUCIE indication groups were due to work-to-family conflicts and health problems caused by excessive workload, assigned more properly to work-related negative changes. When excluding the themes related to work-stress-related private life compromises, negative private life changes in the LUCIE indication groups dropped from 58 to 32 %, while only a negligible drop from 29 to 26 % was observed among controls. In retrospective interviews, 79 % of the LUCIE indication participants

  19. Design of a WWW database server for Atomic Spectroscopy Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contis, A

    1995-12-01

    The department of Atomic Spectroscopy at Lund Univ produces large amounts of experimental data on energy levels and emissions for atomic systems. In order to make this data easily available to users outside the institution, a database has been produced and made available on the Internet. This report describes the organization of the data and the Internet interface of the data base. 4 refs.

  20. Design of a WWW database server for Atomic Spectroscopy Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contis, A.

    1995-12-01

    The department of Atomic Spectroscopy at Lund Univ produces large amounts of experimental data on energy levels and emissions for atomic systems. In order to make this data easily available to users outside the institution, a database has been produced and made available on the Internet. This report describes the organization of the data and the Internet interface of the data base. 4 refs

  1. Interactions between hadrons and nuclei. The Lund Monte Carlo - FRITIOF VERSION 1.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson-Almqvist, B.; Stenlund, E.

    1986-08-01

    This paper presents a Monte Carlo programme based upon a model, in which a hadron is treated as a vortex line in a superconducting vacuum. The vortex line consists of a hard core which is surrounded by an exponentially damped field. In a soft interaction a momentum transfer between two colliding hadrons is assumed to be due to the overlap of those fields. Having transferred momenta we end up with two longitudinally excited string states which finally fragment into hadrons. When the model is extended into hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions, the incoming hadrons may collide more than once and the excited states continue to collide during their passage through the nucleus. The model shows good agreement with data. FRITIOF 1.6 consists of a main programme where the variables are set and where the user handles the information. Information on the generated event and on the produced particles are stored in common blocks which make the information easy to handle. Furthermore FRITIOF 1.6 contains a set of subroutines for internal use, which administrates the event, gives masses to the excited nucleons etc. The hadronization and the particle decays are taken care of by routines in JETSET 6.2, which perform the hadronization according to the Lund Model for jet fragmentation. The programme is written in FORTRAN 77 and the only non-standard function needed to run the programme is a random number generator, which supplies uniformly distributed random numbers between 0 and 1

  2. Infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of group I and group II metal complexes with Boc-hydroxylamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dain, R.P.; Gresham, G.; Groenewold, G.S.; Steill, J.D.; Oomens, J.; van Stipdonk, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE: Hydroxamates are essential growth factors for some microbes, acting primarily as siderophores that solubilize iron for transport into a cell. Here we determined the intrinsic structure of 1:1 complexes between Boc-protected hydroxylamine and group I ([M(L)](+)) and group II ([M(L-H)](+))

  3. Diameter grouping in bulk samples of single-walled carbon nanotubes from optical absorption spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golden, M.S.; Fink, J.; Dunsch, L.; Bauer, H.-D.; Reibold, M.; Knupfer, M.; Friedlein, R.; Pichler, T.; Jost, O.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of the synthesis parameters on the mean characteristics of single-wall carbon nanotubes in soot produced by the laser vaporization of graphite has been analyzed using optical absorption spectroscopy. The abundance and mean diameter of the nanotubes were found to be most influenced by

  4. UV-Vis spectroscopy of tyrosine side-groups in studies of protein structure. Part 2: selected applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antosiewicz, Jan M; Shugar, David

    2016-06-01

    In Part 2 we discuss application of several different types of UV-Vis spectroscopy, such as normal, difference, and second-derivative UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, linear and circular dichroism spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, of the side-chain of tyrosine residues in different molecular environments. We review the ways these spectroscopies can be used to probe complex protein structures.

  5. Serum estradiol does not differentiate stress, mixed and urge incontinent women around menopause. A report from the Women's Health in the Lund Area (WHILA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Maria Andrada; Källén, Karin; Lidfeldt, Jonas; Samsioe, Göran; Teleman, Pia

    2011-11-01

    To outline serum estradiol levels in perimenopausal women with stress, mixed or urge incontinence. We believe the majority of urgency symptoms in perimenopausal women to be caused by a pelvic floor dysfunction and a hypermobility of the bladder neck. If this is the case, there would be no difference in estradiol levels between the groups. University hospital. In the observational Women's Health in the Lund Area study, a subset of 400/2221 women reporting urinary incontinence completed a detailed questionnaire regarding lower urinary tract symptoms and had their serum steroid hormone levels measured. Statistical analyses were made by Chi-square test, nonparametrical tests, ANOVA, multi- and univariate logistic regression analysis. Stress incontinence was reported by 196, mixed incontinence by 153 and urge incontinence by 43 women; in 369, serumestradiol values were available. Serum estradiol did not differ significantly between stress incontinent (median 49.5 pmo/l, range 2.63-875.4), urge incontinent (median 31.6 pmol/l, range 2.63-460.7) or mixed incontinent women (median 35.5 pmol/l, range 2.63-787.9, p=0.62). Logistic regression analysis correcting for age, parity, hormonal status, smoking, hysterectomy and BMI also failed to show any difference in estradiol levels between the groups (p=0.41-0.58). No significant differences in serum estradiol levels between stress, mixed or urge incontinent perimenopausal women could be demonstrated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Division of Atomic Physics. Lund Institute of Technology. Progress Report 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, C.G.

    1995-01-01

    The Division of Atomic Physics is responsible for basic physics teaching in all engineering disciplines and for specialized teaching in Optics, Atomic Physics, Spectroscopy, Laser Physics, and Non-Linear Optics. Research activities are mainly carried out in the fields of basic and applied spectroscopy, largely based on the use of lasers. Projects in the following areas are reported: Basic Atomic Physics - Atomic physics with high power laser radiation; Laser spectroscopic investigations of atomic and ionic excited states in the short-wavelength region; Laser spectroscopy in the visible; Theoretical Atomic Physics; Applied Optics and Quantum Electronics -High resolution spectroscopy; Photon echoes in Rare Earth Ion Doped Crystals; diode laser Spectroscopy; Environmental Remote Sensing -Tropospheric Ozone Lidar; Measurement of gases of geophysical origin; Industrial and Urban Pollution Measurements; Laser induced fluorescence of vegetation and water; Applications in Medicine and Biology - Tissue diagnostic using Laser-induced fluorescence; Photodynamic Therapy; Measurement of Optical Properties of Tissue with applications to Diagnostics; Two Photon Excited fluorescence Microscopy; Capillary Electrophoresis; New Techniques; Industrial Applications - Optical spectroscopy in Metallurgy; Physics of Electric Breakdown in Dielectric liquids; Optical Spectroscopy of Paper

  7. Division of Atomic Physics. Lund Institute of Technology. Progress Report 1993-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstroem, C.G. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    The Division of Atomic Physics is responsible for basic physics teaching in all engineering disciplines and for specialized teaching in Optics, Atomic Physics, Spectroscopy, Laser Physics, and Non-Linear Optics. Research activities are mainly carried out in the fields of basic and applied spectroscopy, largely based on the use of lasers. Projects in the following areas are reported: Basic Atomic Physics - Atomic physics with high power laser radiation; Laser spectroscopic investigations of atomic and ionic excited states in the short-wavelength region; Laser spectroscopy in the visible; Theoretical Atomic Physics; Applied Optics and Quantum Electronics -High resolution spectroscopy; Photon echoes in Rare Earth Ion Doped Crystals; diode laser Spectroscopy; Environmental Remote Sensing -Tropospheric Ozone Lidar; Measurement of gases of geophysical origin; Industrial and Urban Pollution Measurements; Laser induced fluorescence of vegetation and water; Applications in Medicine and Biology - Tissue diagnostic using Laser-induced fluorescence; Photodynamic Therapy; Measurement of Optical Properties of Tissue with applications to Diagnostics; Two Photon Excited fluorescence Microscopy; Capillary Electrophoresis; New Techniques; Industrial Applications - Optical spectroscopy in Metallurgy; Physics of Electric Breakdown in Dielectric liquids; Optical Spectroscopy of Paper.

  8. Division of Atomic Physics. Lund Institute of Technology. Progress Report 1993-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstroem, C G [ed.

    1996-12-31

    The Division of Atomic Physics is responsible for basic physics teaching in all engineering disciplines and for specialized teaching in Optics, Atomic Physics, Spectroscopy, Laser Physics, and Non-Linear Optics. Research activities are mainly carried out in the fields of basic and applied spectroscopy, largely based on the use of lasers. Projects in the following areas are reported: Basic Atomic Physics - Atomic physics with high power laser radiation; Laser spectroscopic investigations of atomic and ionic excited states in the short-wavelength region; Laser spectroscopy in the visible; Theoretical Atomic Physics; Applied Optics and Quantum Electronics -High resolution spectroscopy; Photon echoes in Rare Earth Ion Doped Crystals; diode laser Spectroscopy; Environmental Remote Sensing -Tropospheric Ozone Lidar; Measurement of gases of geophysical origin; Industrial and Urban Pollution Measurements; Laser induced fluorescence of vegetation and water; Applications in Medicine and Biology - Tissue diagnostic using Laser-induced fluorescence; Photodynamic Therapy; Measurement of Optical Properties of Tissue with applications to Diagnostics; Two Photon Excited fluorescence Microscopy; Capillary Electrophoresis; New Techniques; Industrial Applications - Optical spectroscopy in Metallurgy; Physics of Electric Breakdown in Dielectric liquids; Optical Spectroscopy of Paper.

  9. Studying sulfur functional groups in Norway spruce year rings using S L-edge total electron yield spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struis, Rudolf P.W.J.; Ludwig, Christian; Barrelet, Timothee; Kraehenbuehl, Urs; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Profiles of the major sulfur functional groups in mature Norway spruce wood tissue have been established for the first time. The big challenge was the development of a method suitable for sulfur speciation in samples with very low sulfur content (< 100 ppm). This became possible by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the sulfur L-edge in total electron yield (TEY) detection mode with thin gold-coated wood slices. Functional groups were identified using sulfur compound spectra as fingerprints. Latewood of single year rings revealed metabolic plausible sulfur forms, particularly inorganic sulfide, organic disulfide, methylthiol, and highly oxidized sulfur. Form-specific profiles with Norway spruces from three different Swiss forest sites revealed high, but hitherto little-noticed, sulfur intensities attributable to natural heartwood formation and a common, but physiologically unexpected maximum around year ring 1986 with trees from the industrialized Swiss Plateau. It is hypothesized whether it may have resulted from the huge reduction in sulfur emissions after 1980 due to Swiss policy. Comparison with total S content profiles from optical emission spectroscopy underlined the more accurate and temporally better resolved TEY data with single wood year rings and it opened novel insights into the wood cell chemistry

  10. NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF TROJAN ASTEROIDS: EVIDENCE FOR TWO COMPOSITIONAL GROUPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, J. P.; Burr, D. M.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    The Trojan asteroids, a very substantial population of primitive bodies trapped in Jupiter's stable Lagrange regions, remain quite poorly understood. Because they occupy these orbits, the physical properties of Trojans provide a unique perspective on the chemical and dynamical processes that shaped the Solar System. The current study was therefore undertaken to investigate surface compositions of these objects. We present 66 new near-infrared (NIR; 0.7-2.5 μm) spectra of 58 Trojan asteroids, including members of both the leading and trailing swarms. We also include in the analysis previously published NIR spectra of 13 Trojans (3 of which overlap with the new sample). This data set permits not only a direct search for compositional signatures, but also a search for patterns that may reveal clues to the origin of the Trojans. We do not report any confirmed absorption features in the new spectra. Analysis of the spectral slopes, however, reveals an interesting bimodality among the NIR data. The two spectral groups identified appear to be equally abundant in the leading and trailing swarms. The spectral groups are not a result of family membership; they occur in the background, non-family population. The average albedos of the two groups are the same within uncertainties (0.051 ± 0.016 and 0.055 ± 0.016). No correlations between spectral slope and any other physical or orbital parameter are detected, with the exception of a possible weak correlation with inclination among the less-red spectral group. The NIR spectral groups are consistent with a similar bimodality previously suggested among visible colors and spectra. Synthesizing the present results with previously published properties of Trojans, we conclude that the two spectral groups represent objects with different intrinsic compositions. We further suggest that whereas the less-red group originated near Jupiter or in the main asteroid belt, the redder spectral group originated farther out in the Solar System

  11. Resonating group method as applied to the spectroscopy of α-transfer reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotin, V. B.; Semjonov, V. M.; Gridnev, K. A.; Hefter, E. F.

    1983-10-01

    In the conventional approach to α-transfer reactions the finite- and/or zero-range distorted-wave Born approximation is used in liaison with a macroscopic description of the captured α particle in the residual nucleus. Here the specific example of 16O(6Li,d)20Ne reactions at different projectile energies is taken to present a microscopic resonating group method analysis of the α particle in the final nucleus (for the reaction part the simple zero-range distorted-wave Born approximation is employed). In the discussion of suitable nucleon-nucleon interactions, force number one of the effective interactions presented by Volkov is shown to be most appropriate for the system considered. Application of the continuous analog of Newton's method to the evaluation of the resonating group method equations yields an increased accuracy with respect to traditional methods. The resonating group method description induces only minor changes in the structures of the angular distributions, but it does serve its purpose in yielding reliable and consistent spectroscopic information. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE 16O(6Li,d)20Ne; E=20 to 32 MeV; calculated B(E2); reduced widths, dσdΩ extracted α-spectroscopic factors. ZRDWBA with microscope RGM description of residual α particle in 20Ne; application of continuous analog of Newton's method; tested and applied Volkov force No. 1; direct mechanism.

  12. Deformations of the Heme Group of Different Ferrocytochrome c Proteins Probed by Resonance Raman Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagarman, Andrew; Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard; Wallace, Carmichael; Laberge, Monique

    2008-01-01

    We measured the low-frequency polarized resonance Raman spectra of horse heart, chicken, and yeast(C102T) ferrocytochromes c with Soret excitation. We examined the out-of-plane deformations of the heme groups by determining the relative intensities and depolarization ratios of a variety of out-of-plane and in-plane Raman active bands. Analysis of relative Raman intensities shows differences in non-planarity of the heme groups of yeast(C102T), horse heart and chicken cytochrome c. Cytochrome c has been shown to have a dominant ruffling (B 1u ) deformation by means of normal coordinate structural decomposition (NSD) analysis of the heme group in crystal structures. The presence and intensity of B 1u modes, γ 10 -γ 12 , support the indication of ruffling being the major contribution to the non-planar deformations in cytochrome c. Other types of non-planar deformations like doming (A 2U ) and waving (E g ) can be deduced from the Raman activity of γ 5 (A 2u ), γ 21 and γ 22 (E g ). The depolarization ratios of γ 5 , γ 10 , γ 11 and γ 12 are larger than 0.125, indicating the presence of other deformations such as saddling (B 2u ) and propellering (A 1u ), which is again in agreement with the crystal structures of horse heart and yeast ferrocytochrome c. An analysis of the intensities and depolarization ratios of out-of-plane modes revealed that ruffling is comparable in yeast and horse heart cytochrome c, saddling is larger and doming as well as propellering are lower in yeast cytochrome c. With respect to doming and ruffling our results contradict values obtained from the NSD analysis of the corresponding crystal structures. With respect to saddling, our data are in agreement with the crystal structure. The NSD analysis of heme structures resulting from MD simulations did not correlate very well with the spectroscopically obtained results concerning the ruffling and doming coordinate, whereas a qualitative agreement was again obtained for saddling.

  13. Synthesis, characterization, vibrational spectroscopy, and factor group analysis of partially metal-doped phosphate materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sronsri, Chuchai; Boonchom, Banjong

    2018-04-01

    A simple precipitating method was used to synthesize effectively a partially metal-doped phosphate hydrate (Mn0.9Mg0.1HPO4·3H2O), whereas the thermal decomposition process of the above hydrate precursor was used to obtain Mn1.8Mg0.2P2O7 and LiMn0.9Mg0.1PO4 compounds under different conditions. To separate the overlapping thermal decomposition peak, a deconvolution technique was used, and the separated peak was applied to calculate the water content. The factor group splitting analysis was used to exemplify their vibrational spectra obtained from normal vibrations of HPO42-, H2O, P2O74- and PO43- functional groups. Further, the deconvoluted bending mode of water was clearly observed. Mn0.9Mg0.1HPO4·3H2O was observed in the orthorhombic crystal system with the space group of Pbca (D2h15). The formula units per unit cell were found to be eight (Z = 8), and the site symmetric type of HPO42- was observed as Cs. For the HPO42- unit, the correlation filed splitting analysis of type C3v - Cs - D2h15 was calculated and had 96 internal modes, whereas H2O in the above hydrate was symbolized as C2v - Cs - D2h15 and had 24 modes. The symbol C2v - Cs - C2h3 was used for the correlation filed splitting analysis of P2O74- in Mn1.8Mg0.2P2O7 (monoclinic, C2/m (C2h3), Z = 2, and 42 modes). Finally, the symbol Td - Cs - D2h16 was used for the correlation filed splitting analysis of PO43- in LiMn0.9Mg0.1PO4 (orthorhombic, Pnma (D2h16), Z = 4, and 36 modes).

  14. Sensitivity of core-level spectroscopy to electrostatic environments of nitrile groups: An ab initio study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Hussain

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ab initio quantum chemistry calculations have been performed to probe the influence of hydrogen bonding on the electronic structure of hydrogen cyanide (HCN. Our calculations determine the origin of nitrogen-specific Raman spectral features from resonant inelastic X-ray scattering occurring in the presence of a water molecule and an electric dipole field. The similarity of the two interactions in altering the electronic structure of the nitrogen atom differs only in the covalent contributions from the water molecule. The CN stretching mode as a structural probe was also investigated to study the electronic origin of the anomalous frequency shift of the nitrile group when subjected to hydrogen bonding and an electrostatic dipole field. The major changes in the electronic structure of HCN are electrostatic in nature and originate from dipole-dipole interactions. The relative shifts of the CN stretching frequency are in good agreement with those experimentally observed.

  15. 14C sample preparation for AMS microdosing studies at Lund University using online combustion and septa-sealed vials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydoff, Marie; Stenström, Kristina

    2010-04-01

    The Department of Physics at Lund University is participating in a European Union project called EUMAPP (European Union Microdose AMS Partnership Programme), in which sample preparation and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements of biological samples from microdosing studies have been made. This paper describes a simplified method of converting biological samples to solid graphite for 14C analysis with AMS. The method is based on online combustion of the samples, and reduction of CO 2 in septa-sealed vials. The septa-sealed vials and disposable materials are used to eliminate sample cross-contamination. Measurements of ANU and Ox I standards show deviations of 2% and 3%, respectively, relative to reference values. This level of accuracy is sufficient for biological samples from microdosing studies. Since the method has very few handling steps from sample to graphite, the risk of failure during the sample preparation process is minimized, making the method easy to use in routine preparation of samples.

  16. {sup 14}C sample preparation for AMS microdosing studies at Lund University using online combustion and septa-sealed vials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sydoff, Marie, E-mail: marie.sydoff@med.lu.s [Department of Clinical Sciences, Medical Radiation Physics, Malmo University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Lund University, Department of Physics, Division of Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Stenstroem, Kristina [Lund University, Department of Physics, Division of Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-04-15

    The Department of Physics at Lund University is participating in a European Union project called EUMAPP (European Union Microdose AMS Partnership Programme), in which sample preparation and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements of biological samples from microdosing studies have been made. This paper describes a simplified method of converting biological samples to solid graphite for {sup 14}C analysis with AMS. The method is based on online combustion of the samples, and reduction of CO{sub 2} in septa-sealed vials. The septa-sealed vials and disposable materials are used to eliminate sample cross-contamination. Measurements of ANU and Ox I standards show deviations of 2% and 3%, respectively, relative to reference values. This level of accuracy is sufficient for biological samples from microdosing studies. Since the method has very few handling steps from sample to graphite, the risk of failure during the sample preparation process is minimized, making the method easy to use in routine preparation of samples.

  17. 14C sample preparation for AMS microdosing studies at Lund University using online combustion and septa-sealed vials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydoff, Marie; Stenstroem, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Physics at Lund University is participating in a European Union project called EUMAPP (European Union Microdose AMS Partnership Programme), in which sample preparation and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements of biological samples from microdosing studies have been made. This paper describes a simplified method of converting biological samples to solid graphite for 14 C analysis with AMS. The method is based on online combustion of the samples, and reduction of CO 2 in septa-sealed vials. The septa-sealed vials and disposable materials are used to eliminate sample cross-contamination. Measurements of ANU and Ox I standards show deviations of 2% and 3%, respectively, relative to reference values. This level of accuracy is sufficient for biological samples from microdosing studies. Since the method has very few handling steps from sample to graphite, the risk of failure during the sample preparation process is minimized, making the method easy to use in routine preparation of samples.

  18. Necrophagous Muscoids that develop in carcasses of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1841 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ândrio Zafalon da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding the similarity of the fauna that colonizes decomposing wildlife is insipient among the different carcass models. Species with different tissues and alimentary diets are hypothesized to be a colonization source of different necrophagous species. To verify this hypothesis, we observed the decomposition of a carcass of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1841 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae, that had been run over by a vehicle. 2,273 adults were reared from specimens at immature stages collected on the carcass. The most representative species belongs to Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae and Fanniidae, with numeric dominance of Lucilia eximia Wiedemann, 1819 (Diptera, Calliphoridae. Another six species were found, besides non-identified Fanniidae specimens. All species were colonizers of traditionally used forensic models.

  19. Usability Testing and Redesign of Library Web Pages at Lund University, Faculty of Engineering: A Case Study Applying a Two-Phase, Systematic Quality Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ann-Christin; Langh, Maria; Nilsson, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The Lund University Faculty of Engineering's LibQual+[R] survey 2007 showed that students and faculty had difficulties finding the information they needed at the libraries' Websites. To be able to improve the Websites, we needed to find out how the users navigated the Websites, as well as what content they needed. Method: Twenty-four…

  20. Cell surface groups of two picocyanobacteria strains studied by zeta potential investigations, potentiometric titration, and infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Maria; Sibler, Sabine

    2005-06-15

    In order to clarify the role of picocyanobacteria in aquatic biogeochemical processes (e.g., calcite precipitation), cell surface properties need to be investigated. An experimental study of the cell surface characteristics of two Synechococcus-type unicellular autotrophic picocyanobacterial strains was carried out. One strain was isolated from Lake Plon and contained phycocyanin, the other strain came from Lago Maggiore and was rich in phycoerythrin. Potentiometric titrations were conducted to determine the different types of sites present on the bacteria cell walls. Infrared spectroscopy allowed characterization of the various functional groups (RNH(2), RCOOH, ROH, RPO(2)) and investigations of zeta potential provided insight into the isoelectrical points of the strains. Titrations reveal three distinct sites on the bacterial surfaces of phycocyanin- and phycoerythrin-rich strains with pK values of 4.8+/-0.3/5.0+/-0.2, 6.6+/-0.2/6.7+/-0.4, and 8.8+/-0.1/8.7+/-0.2, corresponding to carboxyl, phosphate, and amine groups with surface densities of 2.6+/-0.4/7.4+/-1.6 x 10(-4), 1.9+/-0.5/4.4+/-0.8 x 10(-4), and 2.5+/-0.4/4.8+/-0.7 x 10(-4) mol/g of dry bacteria. The deprotonation constants are similar to those of bacterial strains and site densities are also within an order of magnitude of other strains. The phycoerythrin-rich strain had a higher number of binding sites than the phycocyanin-rich strain. The results showed that picocyanobacteria may adsorb either calcium cations or carbonate anions and therefore strongly influence the biogeochemical cycling of calcite in pelagic systems.

  1. Development of the Lund AMS facility for the detection of Al-26 - with applications in plant ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faarinen, Mikko

    2003-09-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a highly sensitive technique to count atoms. The method has a high efficiency, which makes it possible to measure small samples in a relatively short time, usually less than an hour. During the work for this thesis, methods have been developed to detect Al-26 at the Lund AMS facility. This includes the design, installation and testing of a new injector that is used mainly for Al-26 ions with the Pelletron accelerator at the Department of Physics, Lund. Al-26 is rare in nature and, as the natural background can therefore be ignored, well suited for tracer measurements. The long half life, 717,000 year, makes it difficult to measure Al-26 by conventional decay counting but is well suited for AMS measurements. A new, high resolution, 90 deg-injector has been installed in addition to the existing 15 deg-injector. The low mass resolution of the old 15 deg-injector allowed energy tails from MgH to pass the injector and, after being split during the stripping process, Mg-26 is able to enter the detector. This is the limiting factor for Al-26 measurements with the 15 deg-injector. For the new injector high quality energy- and mass-resolution is obtained by a 90 deg electrostatic energy analyser combined with a 90 deg magnetic mass analyser. Results of Al-26 measurements with the existing 15 deg-injector as well as with the new 90 deg-injector are presented. This injector has a more than ten times better resolution than the old 15 deg-injector. The new injector has proven to efficiently remove the troublesome isobar Al-26. Methods for preparing aluminium samples for the AMS ion source have been developed, both for chemically pure samples as well as for plant samples. The samples are dissolved in an acid to insure a homogeneous mixture of the Al-26 from the sample and the added Al-27 carrier. By heating the samples the Al is oxidised to Al2O3, which is a suitable material for AMS samples. As the amount of carrier is known, the content

  2. In situ speciation of the functional groups at mineral/electrolyte interfaces by sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floersheimer, M.; Kruse, K.; Klenze, R.; Kim, J.I. [Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fanghaenel, Th. [Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 253, D-69120, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to describe surface reactivity and adsorption/desorption processes on the molecular level, a large number of functional groups has been postulated. In most cases, however, a direct proof for the existence of these species in real aquatic environment is lacking because it is difficult to obtain chemical analytical information in situ under electrolyte with interface selectivity. Here we apply interface selective sum frequency (SF) vibrational spectroscopy to study the (001) and (110) surfaces of sapphire ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) under water between pH 4 and 12. This work is part of an ongoing fundamental study of the sorption mechanism of actinides on single crystals faces of sapphire by various experimental and theoretical techniques. Sapphire is used as a simple model for natural clay minerals and related iron phases. In the O-H stretch region of the infrared spectrum between 2800 and 4000 cm{sup -1}, we observe a surprisingly large number of 8 SF bands in total. Two of them are due to the polar ordered water film near the mineral surface which is well known from various aquatic interfaces. The other bands originate from up to 6 different aluminol species or from specifically [1] bound water molecules. The prominent peak of the (001) surface (SF intensity maximum at 3690 cm{sup -1}), we attribute to an OH species bridging two [1-4] aluminium atoms. At the (110) surface, the concentration of this species is considerably smaller. Another aluminol species that can be detected at the (001) and the (110) surface (signal maximum near 3450 cm{sup -1}) exhibits O-H bonds which are almost parallel to the interface plane. This species is probably the in-plane aluminol group predicted in recent molecular dynamics calculations [4]. SF spectroscopy allows us also to measure the absolute polar orientation of the water molecules adjacent to the mineral surface. The inversion of the molecules polar orientation upon alteration of the p

  3. Annual report 1976 of the Radiation Physics Department, University of Lund, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The research activities during 1976 are summarized. The following studies are included. Radioecological studies in the environment of a nuclear power station. Radioecological studies of transuranic elements and very longlived radionucleids. Long term variation of cesium-137 in different ethnical groups. Long term variation of cesium-137 in water, vegetation and fish from a oligotrophic lake

  4. Effect of electron transport properties on unipolar CdZnTe radiation detectors: LUND, SpectrumPlus, and Coplanar Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, Ralph B.

    2000-01-01

    Device simulations of (1) the laterally-contacted-unipolar-nuclear detector (LUND), (2) the SpectrumPlus, (3) and the coplanar grid made of Cd 0.9 Zn 0.1 Te (CZT) were performed for 137 Cs irradiation by 662.15 keV gamma-rays. Realistic and controlled simulations of the gamma-ray interactions with the CZT material were done using the MCNP4B2 Monte Carlo program, and the detector responses were simulated using the Sandia three-dimensional multielectrode simulation program (SandTMSP). The simulations were done for the best and the worst expected carrier nobilities and lifetimes of currently commercially available CZT materials for radiation detector applications. For the simulated unipolar devices, the active device volumes were relatively large and the energy resolutions were fairly good, but these performance characteristics were found to be very sensitive to the materials properties. The internal electric fields, the weighting potentials, and the charge induced efficiency maps were calculated to give insights into the operation of these devices

  5. In pursuit of a promise perspectives on the political process to establish the European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    On 28 May 2009, at a closed meeting in Brussels, ministers and state secretaries of education and science from several EU countries decided to build the European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden. Or did they? It is common for big European science projects to be surrounded by secrecy and political deceit, but the ESS is extraordinary in its elusiveness. There is a remarkable lack of concrete economic, political, technical and scientific underpinnings to the project - but a boasting certainty in the promises of future paybacks. The ESS is an accelerator-based neutron spallation facility that will cost billions of Euros to build and run. It is expected to bring new knowledge in several fields including materials science, energy research, and the life sciences. But its financing is not yet certain, and future returns hard to predict. How then could the decision to build ESS occur? Why was there so little organized resistance? This book places the ESS project in its political and scientific context. It link...

  6. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Lund quadrangle, Ely quadrangle, Nevada. Volume I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An airborne combined radiometric and magnetic survey was performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) over the area covered by the Ely and Lund 1:250,000 National Topographic Map Series (NTMS quadrangle maps). The survey was part of DOE's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Aerial Radiometric Reconnaissance program. Data were collected by a helicopter equipped with a gamma-ray spectrometer having a large crystal volume, and a high sensitivity proton precession magnetometer. The radiometric system was calibrated at the Walker Field Calibration pads and the Lake Mead Dynamic Test range. Data quality was ensured during the survey by daily test flights and equipment checks. Radiometric data were corrected for live time, aircraft and equipment background, cosmic background, atmospheric radon, Compton scatter, and altitude dependence. The corrected data were statistically evaluated, plotted, and contoured to produce anomaly maps based on the radiometric response of individual geological units. The maps were interpreted and an anomaly interpretation map produced. Volume I contains a description of the systems used in the survey, a discussion of the calibration of the systems, the data processing procedures, the data display format, the interpretation rationale, and interpretation methodology. Volume II contains the data displays for a quadrangle and the interpretation results

  7. Aspects of the History of the Nerves: Bell's Theory, the Bell-Magendie Law and Controversy, and Two Forgotten Works by P.W. Lund and D.F. Eschricth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C. Barker

    2003-01-01

    History of nerves, Bell's Idea, Bell-Magendie law, Bell-Magendie controversy, Charles Bell, Francois Magendie, P.W. Lund, D.F. Eschricht, Herbert Mayo, Johannes Müller, Claude Bernard, spinal nerve roots, cranial nerves, recurrent sensitivity......History of nerves, Bell's Idea, Bell-Magendie law, Bell-Magendie controversy, Charles Bell, Francois Magendie, P.W. Lund, D.F. Eschricht, Herbert Mayo, Johannes Müller, Claude Bernard, spinal nerve roots, cranial nerves, recurrent sensitivity...

  8. A family-based intervention targeting parents of preschool children with overweight and obesity: conceptual framework and study design of LOOPS- Lund overweight and obesity preschool study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önnerfält Jenny

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the rate of overweight among children is rising there is a need for evidence-based research that will clarify what the best interventional strategies to normalize weight development are. The overall aim of the Lund Overweight and Obesity Preschool Study (LOOPS is to evaluate if a family-based intervention, targeting parents of preschool children with overweight and obesity, has a long-term positive effect on weight development of the children. The hypothesis is that preschool children with overweight and obesity, whose parents participate in a one-year intervention, both at completion of the one-year intervention and at long term follow up (2-, 3- and 5-years will have reduced their BMI-for-age z-score. Methods/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial, including overweight (n=160 and obese (n=80 children 4-6-years-old. The intervention is targeting the parents, who get general information about nutrition and exercise recommendations through a website and are invited to participate in a group intervention with the purpose of supporting them to accomplish preferred lifestyle changes, both in the short and long term. To evaluate the effect of various supports, the parents are randomized to different interventions with the main focus of: 1 supporting the parents in limit setting by emphasizing the importance of positive interactions between parents and children and 2 influencing the patterns of daily activities to induce alterations of everyday life that will lead to healthier lifestyle. The primary outcome variable, child BMI-for-age z-score will be measured at referral, inclusion, after 6 months, at the end of intervention and at 2-, 3- and 5-years post intervention. Secondary outcome variables, measured at inclusion and at the end of intervention, are child activity pattern, eating habits and biochemical markers as well as parent BMI, exercise habits, perception of health, experience of parenthood and level of

  9. A family-based intervention targeting parents of preschool children with overweight and obesity: conceptual framework and study design of LOOPS- Lund overweight and obesity preschool study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önnerfält, Jenny; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Orban, Kristina; Broberg, Malin; Helgason, Christina; Thorngren-Jerneck, Kristina

    2012-10-17

    As the rate of overweight among children is rising there is a need for evidence-based research that will clarify what the best interventional strategies to normalize weight development are. The overall aim of the Lund Overweight and Obesity Preschool Study (LOOPS) is to evaluate if a family-based intervention, targeting parents of preschool children with overweight and obesity, has a long-term positive effect on weight development of the children. The hypothesis is that preschool children with overweight and obesity, whose parents participate in a one-year intervention, both at completion of the one-year intervention and at long term follow up (2-, 3- and 5-years) will have reduced their BMI-for-age z-score. The study is a randomized controlled trial, including overweight (n=160) and obese (n=80) children 4-6-years-old. The intervention is targeting the parents, who get general information about nutrition and exercise recommendations through a website and are invited to participate in a group intervention with the purpose of supporting them to accomplish preferred lifestyle changes, both in the short and long term. To evaluate the effect of various supports, the parents are randomized to different interventions with the main focus of: 1) supporting the parents in limit setting by emphasizing the importance of positive interactions between parents and children and 2) influencing the patterns of daily activities to induce alterations of everyday life that will lead to healthier lifestyle. The primary outcome variable, child BMI-for-age z-score will be measured at referral, inclusion, after 6 months, at the end of intervention and at 2-, 3- and 5-years post intervention. Secondary outcome variables, measured at inclusion and at the end of intervention, are child activity pattern, eating habits and biochemical markers as well as parent BMI, exercise habits, perception of health, experience of parenthood and level of parental stress. The LOOPS project will provide

  10. Electrochemical impedance and spectroscopy study of the EDC/NHS activation of the carboxyl groups on poly(ε-caprolactone/poly(m-anthranilic acid nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Guler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and spectroscopy was applied to investigate the surface activation of carboxyl group (–COOH containing nanofibers by the reaction of 1-ethyl-3-(dimethyl-aminopropyl carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC/N-hydroxyl succinimide (NHS in different concentrations. Poly(!-caprolactone/poly(m-anthranilic acid (PCL/P3ANA nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning and were activated with 5/0.5, 0.5/5, 5/5 and 50/50 mM of EDC/NHS. The surface activation was investigated by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR and activation yield was estimated. Albumin was immobilized after surface activation and the amount of covalently immobilized protein was determined by bicinchoninic acid (BCA assay. Morphology and composition of albumin immobilized nanofibers were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDX and Atomic force microscope (AFM. EIS measurements indicated that nanofibers become resistant after albumin immobilization. The obtained data revealed that the highest amount of albumin bound to nanofibers activated with 50/50 mM of EDC/NHS which was found to be the optimum concentration for the activation of PCL/P3ANA nanofibers.

  11. Nonlocal integrable PDEs from hierarchies of symmetry laws: The example of Pohlmeyer-Lund-Regge equation and its reflectionless potential solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontis, F.; Ortenzi, G.; van der Mee, C.

    2018-04-01

    By following the ideas presented by Fukumoto and Miyajima in Fukumoto and Miyajima (1996) we derive a generalized method for constructing integrable nonlocal equations starting from any bi-Hamiltonian hierarchy supplied with a recursion operator. This construction provides the right framework for the application of the full machinery of the inverse scattering transform. We pay attention to the Pohlmeyer-Lund-Regge equation coming from the nonlinear Schrödinger hierarchy and construct the formula for the reflectionless potential solutions which are generalizations of multi-solitons. Some explicit examples are discussed.

  12. The charge state distribution of a carbon beam measured at the Lund pelletron accelerator with the newly installed terminal pumping system in use

    CERN Document Server

    Kiisk, M; Faarinen, M P; Hellborg, R; Haakansson, K; Persson, P; Skog, G; Stenström, K

    2002-01-01

    Charge state distributions for sup 1 sup 2 C and sup 1 sup 3 C ions have been measured at the Lund Pelletron tandem accelerator for the N sub 2 gas stripper with a newly installed terminal pumping system in use. A comparison of the results obtained for the ion energies between 1.5 and 2.8 MeV with the foil stripper and the gas stripper without terminal pumping demonstrates the great improvement of the stripping process achieved with the new terminal pumping.

  13. UV-Vis spectroscopy of tyrosine side-groups in studies of protein structure. Part 1: basic principles and properties of tyrosine chromophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antosiewicz, Jan M; Shugar, David

    2016-06-01

    Spectroscopic properties of tyrosine residues may be employed in structural studies of proteins. Here we discuss several different types of UV-Vis spectroscopy, like normal, difference and second-derivative UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, linear and circular dichroism spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, and corresponding optical properties of the tyrosine chromophore, phenol, which are used to study protein structure.

  14. Exploring the interactions and binding sites between Cd and functional groups in soil using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation based spectromicroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fusheng [Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization and National Engineering Research Center for Organic-Based Fertilizers, College of Resources & Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Polizzotto, Matthew L. [Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Guan, Dongxing [Key Laboratory of Surficial Geochemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210026 (China); Wu, Jun [College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Shen, Qirong; Ran, Wei [Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization and National Engineering Research Center for Organic-Based Fertilizers, College of Resources & Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Wang, Boren [Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Yu, Guanghui, E-mail: yuguanghui@njau.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization and National Engineering Research Center for Organic-Based Fertilizers, College of Resources & Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • The interactions and binding between Cd and functional groups are essential for their fates. • Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy can identify Cd binding to functional groups in soils. • Synchrotron radiation based spectromicroscopy shows the micro-scale distribution of Cd in soils. • Soil functional groups controlling Cd binding can be modified by fertilization treatments. - Abstract: Understanding how heavy metals bind and interact in soils is essential for predicting their distributions, reactions and fates in the environment. Here we propose a novel strategy, i.e., combining two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D COS) and synchrotron radiation based spectromicroscopies, for identifying heavy metal binding to functional groups in soils. The results showed that although long-term (23 yrs) organic fertilization treatment caused the accumulation of Cd (over 3 times) in soils when compared to no fertilization and chemical fertilization treatments, it significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the Cd concentration in wheat grain. The 2D COS analyses demonstrated that soil functional groups controlling Cd binding were modified by fertilization treatments, providing implications for the reduced bioavailability of heavy metals in organic fertilized soils. Furthermore, correlative micro X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy, electron probe micro-analyzer mapping, and synchrotron-radiation-based FTIR spectromicroscopy analysis showed that Cd, minerals, and organic functional groups were heterogeneously distributed at the micro-scale in soil colloids. Only minerals, rather than organic groups, had a similar distribution pattern with Cd. Together, this strategy has a potential to explore the interactions and binding sites among heavy metals, minerals and organic components in soil.

  15. Functional Groups Determine Biochar Properties (pH and EC as Studied by Two-Dimensional (13C NMR Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Li

    Full Text Available While the properties of biochar are closely related to its functional groups, it is unclear under what conditions biochar develops its properties. In this study, two-dimensional (2D (13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR correlation spectroscopy was for the first time applied to investigate the development of functional groups and establish their relationship with biochar properties. The results showed that the agricultural biomass carbonized to biochars was a dehydroxylation/dehydrogenation and aromatization process, mainly involving the cleavage of O-alkylated carbons and anomeric O-C-O carbons in addition to the production of fused-ring aromatic structures and aromatic C-O groups. With increasing charring temperature, the mass cleavage of O-alkylated groups and anomeric O-C-O carbons occurred prior to the production of fused-ring aromatic structures. The regression analysis between functional groups and biochar properties (pH and electrical conductivity further demonstrated that the pH and electrical conductivity of rice straw derived biochars were mainly determined by fused-ring aromatic structures and anomeric O-C-O carbons, but the pH of rice bran derived biochars was determined by both fused-ring aromatic structures and aliphatic O-alkylated (HCOH carbons. In summary, this work suggests a novel tool for characterising the development of functional groups in biochars.

  16. Ionizing radiation target groups of band 3 inserted into egg lecithin liposomes as determined by Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, S.P.; Sonwalkar, N.

    1993-01-01

    The purified integral membrane protein, band 3, from human erythrocytes was inserted into egg lecithin liposomes. The insertion of band 3 was determined from thermal transition data from the analysis of the C-H stretching region bands recorded at temperatures from 25 to -22 o C. Raman spectra show that band 3 considerably broadens and lowers the thermal transition of egg lecithin liposomes, suggesting the insertion of band 3. The band 3-inserted liposomes were irradiated with gamma-rays (40 Gy) and the radiation target groups were determined by the analysis of the structural sensitive Raman bands in the 1600-1700 cm -1 (amide I), 1200-1300 cm -1 (amide III) and 550-1030 cm -1 (side chain amino groups) regions. The radiation-sensitive groups as identified from Raman spectra in the region 550-1030 cm -1 are tyrosines and cysteines. The radiation-induced changes in the secondary structure were determined from amide I and III bands. Quantitative estimation using the curve fitting method shows that ban 3 contains 44% total helix, 48% beta strand and 8% undefined plus turns (error + or - 4%). The secondary structure changes to 35% total helix, 42% total beta-strand and 23% turned and undefined upon irradiating band 3 containing liposomes. (Author)

  17. Prediction of intramuscular fat content and major fatty acid groups of lamb M. longissimus lumborum using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Stephanie M; Ponnampalam, Eric N; Schmidt, Heinar; Wynn, Peter; Hopkins, David L

    2015-12-01

    A hand held Raman spectroscopic device was used to predict intramuscular fat (IMF) levels and the major fatty acid (FA) groups of fresh intact ovine M. longissimus lumborum (LL). IMF levels were determined using the Soxhlet method, while FA analysis was conducted using a rapid (KOH in water, methanol and sulphuric acid in water) extraction procedure. IMF levels and FA values were regressed against Raman spectra using partial least squares regression and against each other using linear regression. The results indicate that there is potential to predict PUFA (R(2)=0.93) and MUFA (R(2)=0.54) as well as SFA values that had been adjusted for IMF content (R(2)=0.54). However, this potential was significantly reduced when correlations between predicted and observed values were determined by cross validation (R(2)cv=0.21-0.00). Overall, the prediction of major FA groups using Raman spectra was more precise (relative reductions in error of 0.3-40.8%) compared to the null models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influences of the propyl group on the van der Waals structures of 4-propylaniline complexes with one and two argon atoms studied by electronic and cationic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhijun; Gu, Quanli; Trindle, Carl O.; Knee, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    4-propylaniline complexes with one and two argon atoms formed in the molecular beam were studied in the first excited electronic state, S 1 , using resonance enhanced two-photon ionization spectroscopy and in the cation ground state, D 0 , using mass analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy. The combination of electronic and cationic spectra of the clusters allows two conformations to be identified in both aniline-Ar 1 and aniline-Ar 2 , which are assigned to either the gauche configuration or anti-configuration of 4-propylaniline. The gauche isomer exhibits complex bands shifted 29 cm −1 and 89 cm −1 from the S 1 origin bands and 83 cm −1 and 148 cm −1 from the ionization potential assigned to the Ar 1 and Ar 2 complexes, respectively. For the anti-rotamer, the corresponding shifts actually become nearly additive, 53 cm −1 and 109 cm −1 for the S 1 origin bands, and 61 cm −1 and 125 cm −1 for the ionization potentials. Ab initio calculations provide insights into the influences of the propyl and amino groups on the positions of the argon atoms within the clusters. In addition, the binding energy of one argon with the gauche isomer of 4-propylaniline has been measured to be 550 ± 5 cm −1 in the D 0 state, 496 ± 5 cm −1 in the S 1 state, and 467 ± 5 cm −1 in the neutral ground state, S 0

  19. Assignment of Colletotrichum coccodes isolates into vegetative compatibility groups using infrared spectroscopy: a step towards practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, A; Shufan, E; Lapidot, I; Tsror, L; Moreh, R; Mordechai, S; Huleihel, M

    2015-05-07

    Colletotrichum coccodes (C. coccodes) is a pathogenic fungus that causes anthracnose on tomatoes and black dot disease in potatoes. It is considered as a seed tuber and soil-borne pathogen that is difficult to control. C. coccodes isolates are classified into Vegetative Compatibility Groups (VCGs). Early classification of isolates into VCGs is of great importance for a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease and improving its control. Moreover, the differentiation among these isolates and the assignment of newly-discovered isolates enable control of the disease at its early stages. Distinguishing between isolates using microbiological or genetic methods is time-consuming and not readily available. Our results show that it is possible to assign the isolates into their VCGs and to classify them at the isolate level with a high success rate using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  20. The Ombudperson Initiative Group

    CERN Multimedia

    Laura Stewart

    Following many discussions that took place at some of the ATLAS Women's Network lunch gatherings, a few ATLAS women joined forces with similarly concerned CERN staff women to form a small group last Fall to discuss the need for a CERN-wide Ombudsperson. This has since evolved into the Ombudsperson Initiative Group (OIG) currently composed of the following members: Barbro Asman, Stockholm University; Pierre Charrue, CERN AB; Anna Cook, CERN IT; Catherine Delamare, CERN and IT Ombudsperson; Paula Eerola, Lund University; Pauline Gagnon, Indiana University; Eugenia Hatziangeli, CERN AB; Doreen Klem, CERN IT; Bertrand Nicquevert, CERN TS and Laura Stewart, CERN AT. On June 12, members of the OIG met with representatives of Human Resources (HR) and the Equal Opportunity Advisory Panel (EOAP) to discuss the proposal drafted by the OIG. The meeting was very positive. Everybody agreed that the current procedures at CERN applicable in the event of conflict required a thorough review, and that a professionnally trai...

  1. Calculation of average molecular parameters, functional groups, and a surrogate molecule for heavy fuel oils using 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Jameel, Abdul Gani

    2016-04-22

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) is primarily used as fuel in marine engines and in boilers to generate electricity. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a powerful analytical tool for structure elucidation and in this study, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy were used for the structural characterization of 2 HFO samples. The NMR data was combined with elemental analysis and average molecular weight to quantify average molecular parameters (AMPs), such as the number of paraffinic carbons, naphthenic carbons, aromatic hydrogens, olefinic hydrogens, etc. in the HFO samples. Recent formulae published in the literature were used for calculating various derived AMPs like aromaticity factor 〖(f〗_a), C/H ratio, average paraffinic chain length (¯n), naphthenic ring number 〖(R〗_N), aromatic ring number〖 (R〗_A), total ring number〖 (R〗_T), aromatic condensation index (φ) and aromatic condensation degree (Ω). These derived AMPs help in understanding the overall structure of the fuel. A total of 19 functional groups were defined to represent the HFO samples, and their respective concentrations were calculated by formulating balance equations that equate the concentration of the functional groups with the concentration of the AMPs. Heteroatoms like sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen were also included in the functional groups. Surrogate molecules were finally constructed to represent the average structure of the molecules present in the HFO samples. This surrogate molecule can be used for property estimation of the HFO samples and also serve as a surrogate to represent the molecular structure for use in kinetic studies.

  2. Calculation of average molecular parameters, functional groups, and a surrogate molecule for heavy fuel oils using 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Jameel, Abdul Gani; Elbaz, Ayman M.; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Roberts, William L.; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) is primarily used as fuel in marine engines and in boilers to generate electricity. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a powerful analytical tool for structure elucidation and in this study, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy were used for the structural characterization of 2 HFO samples. The NMR data was combined with elemental analysis and average molecular weight to quantify average molecular parameters (AMPs), such as the number of paraffinic carbons, naphthenic carbons, aromatic hydrogens, olefinic hydrogens, etc. in the HFO samples. Recent formulae published in the literature were used for calculating various derived AMPs like aromaticity factor 〖(f〗_a), C/H ratio, average paraffinic chain length (¯n), naphthenic ring number 〖(R〗_N), aromatic ring number〖 (R〗_A), total ring number〖 (R〗_T), aromatic condensation index (φ) and aromatic condensation degree (Ω). These derived AMPs help in understanding the overall structure of the fuel. A total of 19 functional groups were defined to represent the HFO samples, and their respective concentrations were calculated by formulating balance equations that equate the concentration of the functional groups with the concentration of the AMPs. Heteroatoms like sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen were also included in the functional groups. Surrogate molecules were finally constructed to represent the average structure of the molecules present in the HFO samples. This surrogate molecule can be used for property estimation of the HFO samples and also serve as a surrogate to represent the molecular structure for use in kinetic studies.

  3. IR spectroscopy study of SBA-15 silicas functionalized with the ethylthiocarbamidepropyl groups and their interactions with Ag(I) and Hg(II) ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Inna V.; Nazarchuk, Galyna I.; Václavíková, Miroslava; Zub, Yuriy L.

    2018-04-01

    Mesoporous structure of silica is determined by the type of template, but the introduction of functional groups during the synthesis has additional influence. The structure of SBA-15 may be violated by the introduction of long functions, such as ≡Si(CH2)3NHC(=S)NHC2H5. These ethylthiocarbamidepropyl groups can form complexes with metal ions in thiol or thione tautomeric forms. We determined that the 2D hexagonal p6 mm structure is preserved for SBA-15 with thiourea groups at maximal TEOS:trifunctional silane ratio (mol) = 10:2, which was confirmed by TEM and by the presence of an intense reflex in the small-angle region of diffractograms of the final product. It was shown that the obtained sorbents possess high kinetic characteristics. The experimental data fit pseudo-second-order kinetic equation, but the rate constants depend on the content of functional groups in the surface layer. Template Pluronic P-123 defines the porosity of functional mesoporous silica materials even at increasing content of trifunctional silane in the initial solution. Infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that thione form of thiourea ligand is prevalent on the surface of pores of mesoporous samples. However, during the sorption of silver(I) ions, there are both thione and thiol forms on the surface. Thione form is transformed into thiol with increasing concentration of mercury(II) ions in the sorption solution. Adsorption experiments showed that the SBA-15 silicas functionalized with ethylthiocarbamidepropyl groups had high selectivity for silver(I) ions and could concentrate Ag(I) ions from metal ions mixture at pH 2.

  4. Influences of the propyl group on the van der Waals structures of 4-propylaniline complexes with one and two argon atoms studied by electronic and cationic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhijun [School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, Henan 453003 (China); Gu, Quanli [School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, Henan 453003 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Trindle, Carl O., E-mail: cot@virginia.edu [Chemistry Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Knee, J. L., E-mail: jknee@wesleyan.edu [Chemistry Department, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459 (United States)

    2015-07-21

    4-propylaniline complexes with one and two argon atoms formed in the molecular beam were studied in the first excited electronic state, S{sub 1}, using resonance enhanced two-photon ionization spectroscopy and in the cation ground state, D{sub 0}, using mass analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy. The combination of electronic and cationic spectra of the clusters allows two conformations to be identified in both aniline-Ar{sub 1} and aniline-Ar{sub 2}, which are assigned to either the gauche configuration or anti-configuration of 4-propylaniline. The gauche isomer exhibits complex bands shifted 29 cm{sup −1} and 89 cm{sup −1} from the S{sub 1} origin bands and 83 cm{sup −1} and 148 cm{sup −1} from the ionization potential assigned to the Ar{sub 1} and Ar{sub 2} complexes, respectively. For the anti-rotamer, the corresponding shifts actually become nearly additive, 53 cm{sup −1} and 109 cm{sup −1} for the S{sub 1} origin bands, and 61 cm{sup −1} and 125 cm{sup −1} for the ionization potentials. Ab initio calculations provide insights into the influences of the propyl and amino groups on the positions of the argon atoms within the clusters. In addition, the binding energy of one argon with the gauche isomer of 4-propylaniline has been measured to be 550 ± 5 cm{sup −1} in the D{sub 0} state, 496 ± 5 cm{sup −1} in the S{sub 1} state, and 467 ± 5 cm{sup −1} in the neutral ground state, S{sub 0}.

  5. Gender and age groups interactions in the quantification of bone marrow fat content in lumbar spine using 3T MR spectroscopy: A multivariate analysis of covariance (Mancova)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Piña-Jimenez, Carlos; Favila, Rafael; Rios, Camilo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: There is an age-related conversion of red to yellow bone marrow in the axial skeleton, with a gender-related difference less well established. Our purpose was to clarify the variability of bone marrow fat fraction (FF) in the lumbar spine due to the interaction of gender and age groups. Methods: 44 healthy volunteers (20 males, 30–65 years old and 24 females, 30–69 years old) underwent 3T magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and conventional MRI examination of the lumbar spine; single-voxel spectrum was acquired for each vertebral body (VB). After controlling body mass index (BMI), a two-way between-groups multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) assessed the gender and age group differences in FF quantification for each lumbar VB. Results: There was a significant interaction between gender and age group, p = .017, with a large effect size (partial η 2 = .330). However the interaction explained only 33% of the observed variance. Main effects were not statistically significant. BMI was non-significantly related to FF quantification. Conclusions: Young males showed a high FF content, which declined in the 4th decade, then increased the next 3 decades to reach a FF content just below the initial FF means. Females’ FF were low in the 3rd decade, depicted an accelerated increase in the 4th decade, then a gradual increase the next 3 decades to reach a FF content similar to males’ values. Our findings suggest that quantification of bone marrow FF using MRS might be used as a surrogate biomarker of bone marrow activity in clinical settings

  6. Gender and age groups interactions in the quantification of bone marrow fat content in lumbar spine using 3T MR spectroscopy: A multivariate analysis of covariance (Mancova)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto, E-mail: ernest.roldan@usa.net [Magnetic Resonance Unit, Medica Sur Clinic and Foundation, Mexico City (Mexico); Piña-Jimenez, Carlos [Magnetic Resonance Unit, Medica Sur Clinic and Foundation, Mexico City (Mexico); Favila, Rafael [GE Healthcare, Mexico City (Mexico); Rios, Camilo [Neurochemistry Department, Mexican National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2013-11-01

    Introduction: There is an age-related conversion of red to yellow bone marrow in the axial skeleton, with a gender-related difference less well established. Our purpose was to clarify the variability of bone marrow fat fraction (FF) in the lumbar spine due to the interaction of gender and age groups. Methods: 44 healthy volunteers (20 males, 30–65 years old and 24 females, 30–69 years old) underwent 3T magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and conventional MRI examination of the lumbar spine; single-voxel spectrum was acquired for each vertebral body (VB). After controlling body mass index (BMI), a two-way between-groups multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) assessed the gender and age group differences in FF quantification for each lumbar VB. Results: There was a significant interaction between gender and age group, p = .017, with a large effect size (partial η{sup 2} = .330). However the interaction explained only 33% of the observed variance. Main effects were not statistically significant. BMI was non-significantly related to FF quantification. Conclusions: Young males showed a high FF content, which declined in the 4th decade, then increased the next 3 decades to reach a FF content just below the initial FF means. Females’ FF were low in the 3rd decade, depicted an accelerated increase in the 4th decade, then a gradual increase the next 3 decades to reach a FF content similar to males’ values. Our findings suggest that quantification of bone marrow FF using MRS might be used as a surrogate biomarker of bone marrow activity in clinical settings.

  7. Probing adenine rings and backbone linkages using base specific isotope-edited Raman spectroscopy: application to group II intron ribozyme domain V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Eldho, Nadukkudy V; Dayie, T Kwaku; Carey, Paul R

    2010-04-27

    Raman difference spectroscopy is used to probe the properties of a 36-nt RNA molecule, "D5", which lies at the heart of the catalytic apparatus in group II introns. For D5 that has all of its adenine residues labeled with (13)C and (15)N and utilizing Raman difference spectroscopy, we identify the conformationally sensitive -C-O-P-O-C- stretching modes of the unlabeled bonds adjacent to adenine bases, as well as the adenine ring modes themselves. The phosphodiester modes can be assigned to individual adenine residues based on earlier NMR data. The effect of Mg(2+) binding was explored by analyzing the Raman difference spectra for [D5 + Mg(2+)] minus [D5 no Mg(2+)], for D5 unlabeled, or D5 labeled with (13)C/(15)N-enriched adenine. In both sets of data we assign differential features to G ring modes perturbed by Mg(2+) binding at the N7 position. In the A-labeled spectra we attribute a Raman differential near 1450 cm(-1) and changes of intensity at 1296 cm(-1) to Mg binding at the N7 position of adenine bases. The A and G bases involved in Mg(2+) binding again can be identified using earlier NMR results. For the unlabeled D5, a change in the C-O-P-O-C stretch profile at 811 cm(-1) upon magnesium binding is due to a "tightening up" (in the sense of a more rigid molecule with less dynamic interchange among competing ribose conformers) of the D5 structure. For adenine-labeled D5, small changes in the adenine backbone bond signatures in the 810-830 cm(-1) region suggest that small conformational changes occur in the tetraloop and bulge regions upon binding of Mg(2+). The PO(2)(-) stretching vibration, near 1100 cm(-1), from the nonbridging phosphate groups, probes the effect of Mg(2+)-hydrate inner-sphere interactions that cause an upshift. In turn, the upshift is modulated by the presence of monovalent cations since in the presence of Na(+) and Li(+) the upshift is 23 +/- 2 cm(-1) while in the presence of K(+) and Cs(+) it is 13 +/- 3 cm(-1), a finding that correlates

  8. Sub-Doppler spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansch, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter examines Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy, tunable cw sources, and Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy. Discusses saturation spectroscopy; continuous wave saturation spectroscopy in the ultraviolet; and two-photon spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen 1S-2S. Focuses on Doppler-free laser spectroscopy of gaseous samples. Explains that in saturation spectroscopy, a monochromatic laser beam ''labels'' a group of atoms within a narrow range of axial velocities through excitation or optical pumping, and a Doppler-free spectrum of these selected atoms is observed with a second, counterpropagating beam. Notes that in two-photon spectroscopy it is possible to record Doppler-free spectra without any need for velocity selection by excitation with two counterpropagating laser beams whose first order Doppler shifts cancel

  9. Profile characterization of soil developed on pelitic rocks from the Bambui Group through chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and Moessbaur spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Barbosa, L.C. de.

    1986-07-01

    Five sample from a Red-yellow latosol developed on pelitic rocks from the Bambui Group, located close to Paraopeba, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were collected and studied. The sample with color patterns varying from yellowish (sample SL11; 0.3m depth), in superficial horizons, to reddish (SL12; 1.0m) in intermediate profile positions, and various shades (SL14A and SL14V; 3.0m), in deeper horizons, were studied through Moessbauer spectroscopy in order to characterize, in detail, the ferruginous species present. The total iron content within the soil is practically constant in relation to the depth. Yet, the hematite/goethite content ratio varies within the expected sequence according to the color. A linear relationship was observed between the reddish intensity and the hematite content of the argillaceous fraction. The hematite contents are proportionally less in the SL14A sample, apparently due to deficient drainage in the past, and in the SL11 sample, due to organic matter effects. This latter sample is also characterized by at least two goethite populations: one with 20% mol replacing aluminum and another with certainly more than 30% mol. In to explan this difference, three hypothesis were elaborated. The most suitable one suggests that the goethite is destroyed and formed again through the soil column, in response to pedo environmental changes closer to the surface. (D.J.M.) [pt

  10. Electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    An introduction to the various techniques in electron spectroscopy is presented. These techniques include: (1) UV Photoelectron spectroscopy, (2) X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy, (3) Auger electron spectroscopy, (4) Electron energy loss spectroscopy, (5) Penning ionization spectroscopy and (6) Ion neutralization spectroscopy. The radiations used in each technique, the basis of the technique and the special information obtained in structure determination in atoms and molecules by each technique are summarised. (A.K.)

  11. The charge state distribution of Be, C, Cl and Al ions at the Lund Pelletron accelerator with the recently modified terminal pumping in use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiisk, Madis; Hellborg, Ragnar; Persson, Per; Faarinen, Mikko; Skog, Goeran; Stenstroem, Kristina

    2004-01-01

    Some years ago terminal pumping for the gas stripper system at the 3 MV Lund Tandem Pelletron accelerator was installed and charge state distribution measurements using the new installation were reported. Since then, new modifications of the mechanical design of the stripper system have been made. The results of pressure profile measurements as well as the results of charge state distribution measurements in a N 2 and Ar gas stripper at different, new geometrical modifications of the stripper system using C, Be, Al and Cl ion beams are reported. A comparison between pressure profiles obtained for different geometries shows a clear improvement of the vacuum conditions outside the stripper housing for the smallest conductance pipes between the stripper system and the accelerator tubes. These improvements are also well reflected in the charge state distribution measurements, as a higher mean charge state is obtained under the same vacuum conditions in the accelerator tubes for the improved stripper system in comparison with the former mechanical design

  12. Conflict Management in Student Groups - a Teacher’s Perspective in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Borg; Joakim Kembro; Jesper Notander; Catarina Petersson; Lars Ohlsson

    2011-01-01

    Students working in groups is a commonly used method of instruction in higher education, popularized by the introduction of problem based learning. As a result, management of small groups of people has become an important skill for teachers. The objective of our study is to investigate why conflicts arise in student groups at the Faculty of Engineering at Lund University and how teachers manage them. We have conducted an exploratory interdepartmental interview study on teachers' views on this...

  13. Gamma Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemantsverdriet, J.W.; Butz, Tilman; Ertl, G.; Knözinger, H.; Schüth, F.

    2008-01-01

    No abstract. The sections in this article are 1 Introduction 2 Mössbauer Spectroscopy 3 Time-Differential Perturbed Angular Correlations (TDPAC) 4 Conclusions and Outlook Keywords: Mössbauer spectroscopy; gamma spectroscopy; perturbed angular correlation; TDPAC

  14. The Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion-a cross-sectional comparison of a new instrument with similar contemporary tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Roger; Österberg, Kai; Viborg, Njördur; Jönsson, Peter; Tenenbaum, Artur

    2016-04-21

    Stress-related health problems (e.g., work-related exhaustion) are a societal concern in many postindustrial countries. Experience suggests that early detection and intervention are crucial in preventing long-term negative consequences. In the present study, we benchmark a new tool for early identification of work-related exhaustion-the Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion (LUCIE)-against other contextually relevant inventories and two contemporary Swedish screening scales. A cross-sectional population sample (n = 1355) completed: LUCIE, Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), Self-reported Exhaustion Disorder Scale (s-ED), Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ), Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Big Five Inventory (BFI), and items concerning work-family interference and stress in private life. Increasing signs of exhaustion on LUCIE were positively associated with signs of exhaustion on KEDS and s-ED. The prevalence rates were 13.4, 13.8 and 7.8 %, respectively (3.8 % were identified by all three instruments). Increasing signs of exhaustion on LUCIE were also positively associated with reports of burnout, job demands, stress in private life, family-to-work interference and neuroticism as well as negatively associated with reports of job control, job support and work engagement. LUCIE, which is intended to detect pre-stages of ED, exhibits logical and coherent positive relations with KEDS and s-ED as well as other conceptually similar inventories. The results suggest that LUCIE has the potential to detect mild states of exhaustion (possibly representing pre-stages to ED) that if not brought to the attention of the healthcare system and treated, may develop in to ED. The prospective validity remains to be evaluated.

  15. A tailored 200 parameter VME based data acquisition system for IBA at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility – Hardware and software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfman, Mikael; Ros, Linus; Kristiansson, Per; Nilsson, E.J. Charlotta; Pallon, Jan

    2016-01-01

    With the recent advances towards modern Ion Beam Analysis (IBA), going from one- or few-parameter detector systems to multi-parameter systems, it has been necessary to expand and replace the more than twenty years old CAMAC based system. A new VME multi-parameter (presently up to 200 channels) data acquisition and control system has been developed and implemented at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility (LIBAF). The system is based on the VX-511 Single Board Computer (SBC), acting as master with arbiter functionality and consists of standard VME modules like Analog to Digital Converters (ADC’s), Charge to Digital Converters (QDC’s), Time to Digital Converters (TDC’s), scaler’s, IO-cards, high voltage and waveform units. The modules have been specially selected to support all of the present detector systems in the laboratory, with the option of future expansion. Typically, the detector systems consist of silicon strip detectors, silicon drift detectors and scintillator detectors, for detection of charged particles, X-rays and γ-rays. The data flow of the raw data buffers out from the VME bus to the final storage place on a 16 terabyte network attached storage disc (NAS-disc) is described. The acquisition process, remotely controlled over one of the SBCs ethernet channels, is also discussed. The user interface is written in the Kmax software package, and is used to control the acquisition process as well as for advanced online and offline data analysis through a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). In this work the system implementation, layout and performance are presented. The user interface and possibilities for advanced offline analysis are also discussed and illustrated.

  16. A tailored 200 parameter VME based data acquisition system for IBA at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility – Hardware and software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfman, Mikael, E-mail: Mikael.Elfman@nuclear.lu.se; Ros, Linus; Kristiansson, Per; Nilsson, E.J. Charlotta; Pallon, Jan

    2016-03-15

    With the recent advances towards modern Ion Beam Analysis (IBA), going from one- or few-parameter detector systems to multi-parameter systems, it has been necessary to expand and replace the more than twenty years old CAMAC based system. A new VME multi-parameter (presently up to 200 channels) data acquisition and control system has been developed and implemented at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility (LIBAF). The system is based on the VX-511 Single Board Computer (SBC), acting as master with arbiter functionality and consists of standard VME modules like Analog to Digital Converters (ADC’s), Charge to Digital Converters (QDC’s), Time to Digital Converters (TDC’s), scaler’s, IO-cards, high voltage and waveform units. The modules have been specially selected to support all of the present detector systems in the laboratory, with the option of future expansion. Typically, the detector systems consist of silicon strip detectors, silicon drift detectors and scintillator detectors, for detection of charged particles, X-rays and γ-rays. The data flow of the raw data buffers out from the VME bus to the final storage place on a 16 terabyte network attached storage disc (NAS-disc) is described. The acquisition process, remotely controlled over one of the SBCs ethernet channels, is also discussed. The user interface is written in the Kmax software package, and is used to control the acquisition process as well as for advanced online and offline data analysis through a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). In this work the system implementation, layout and performance are presented. The user interface and possibilities for advanced offline analysis are also discussed and illustrated.

  17. The Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion–a cross–sectional comparison of a new instrument with similar contemporary tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Persson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress-related health problems (e.g., work-related exhaustion are a societal concern in many postindustrial countries. Experience suggests that early detection and intervention are crucial in preventing long-term negative consequences. In the present study, we benchmark a new tool for early identification of work-related exhaustion–the Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion (LUCIE–against other contextually relevant inventories and two contemporary Swedish screening scales. Methods A cross-sectional population sample (n = 1355 completed: LUCIE, Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS, Self-reported Exhaustion Disorder Scale (s-ED, Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9, Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ, Big Five Inventory (BFI, and items concerning work-family interference and stress in private life. Results Increasing signs of exhaustion on LUCIE were positively associated with signs of exhaustion on KEDS and s-ED. The prevalence rates were 13.4, 13.8 and 7.8 %, respectively (3.8 % were identified by all three instruments. Increasing signs of exhaustion on LUCIE were also positively associated with reports of burnout, job demands, stress in private life, family-to-work interference and neuroticism as well as negatively associated with reports of job control, job support and work engagement. Conclusions LUCIE, which is intended to detect pre-stages of ED, exhibits logical and coherent positive relations with KEDS and s-ED as well as other conceptually similar inventories. The results suggest that LUCIE has the potential to detect mild states of exhaustion (possibly representing pre-stages to ED that if not brought to the attention of the healthcare system and treated, may develop in to ED. The prospective validity remains to be evaluated.

  18. Molecular spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokh, Eh.; Zonntag, B.

    1981-01-01

    The latest investigation results on molecular spectroscopy with application of synchrotron radiation in the region of vacuum ultraviolet are generalized. Some results on investigation of excited, superexcited and ionized molecule states with the use of adsorption spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, by fluorescent and mass-spectrometric methods are considered [ru

  19. Atom spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodling, K.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments on atom photoabsorption spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation in the 10-1000 eV range are reviewed. Properties of the necessary synchrotron radiation and the experiment on absorption spectroscopy are briefly described. Comparison with other spectroscopy methods is conducted. Some data on measuring photoabsorption, photoelectron emission and atom mass spectra are presented [ru

  20. Vibrational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Rajai Atalla

    2010-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy is an important tool in modern chemistry. In the past two decades, thanks to significant improvements in instrumentation and the development of new interpretive tools, it has become increasingly important for studies of lignin. This chapter presents the three important instrumental methods-Raman spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and...

  1. Régimen Dictadura Autoritaria Década de Brasil de 1960 y Violaciónes Derechos Humanos Reconocidos en Gomes Lund Caso y Otras que Falta en la Guerrilla Araguaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eudes Vitor Bezerra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La premisa de que la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos ha desempeñado un papel importante en la escena latinoamericana. En caso de condena "Gome Lund y otros" que resonaron en la reparabilidad de las personas desaparecidas. Vamos a utilizar el método hipotético-deductivo , con inversiones en la investigación dogmática y jurisprudencial, con la hipótesis inicial a través de un estudio evaluó la efectividad de los Derechos Humanos y la (inaplicabilidad de la Ley 9.140/95 .

  2. Early Detection of Cervical Intraepitelial Neoplasia in a Heterogeneos Group of Colombian Women Using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy and the Miranda-López Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, David A; Corzo, Sandra P; González-Correa, Carlos-A

    2012-01-01

    Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) allows the study of the electrical properties of materials and structures such as biological tissues. EIS can be used as a diagnostic tool for the identification of pathological conditions such as cervical cancer. We used EIS in combination with genetic algorithms to characterize cervical epithelial squamous tissue in a heterogeneous sample of 56 Colombian women. All volunteers had a cytology taken for Papanicolau test and biopsy taken for histopathological analysis from those with a positive result (9 subjects). ROC analysis of the results suggest a sensitivity and specificity in the order of 0.73 and 0.86, respectively.

  3. Terahertz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation I will review methods for spectroscopy in the THz range, with special emphasis on the practical implementation of the technique known ad THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). THz-TDS has revived the old field of far-infrared spectroscopy, and enabled a wealth of new...... activities that promise commercial potential for spectroscopic applications in the THz range. This will be illustrated with examples of spectroscopy of liquids inside their bottles as well as sensitive, quantitative spectroscopy in waveguides....

  4. Photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Research activities in photoelectron spectroscopy at Lawrence Radiation Laboratory during 1976 are described. Topics covered include: the orientation of CO on Pt(III) and Ni(III) surfaces from angle-resolved photoemission; photoemission from CO on Pt(III) in the range 40 eV less than or equal to dirac constant ω less than or equal to 150 eV; photoemission studies of electron states at clean surfaces using synchrotron radiation; angle and energy dependent photoemission studies of plasmon loss structure in Al and In; d-orbital directed photoemission from copper; interpretation of angle-resolved x-ray photoemission from valence bands; atomic cross-section effects in soft x-ray photoemission from Ag, Au, and Pt valence bands; x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of the electronic structure of transition metal difluorides; x-ray photoemission investigation of the density of states of B'-NiAl; the electronic structure of SrTiO 3 and some simple related oxides; fluorescence lifetime measurements of np 5 (n+1)S' states in krypton and xenon; Zeeman beats in the resonance fluorescence of the 3P 1 , states in krypton and xenon; lifetime measurements of rare-gas dimers; configuration interaction effects in the atomic photoelectron spectra of Ba, Sm, Eu, and Yb; glow discharge lamps as electron sources for electron impact excitation; electron impact excitation of electron correlation states in Ca, Sr, and Ba; photoelectron spectroscopy of atomic and molecular bismuth; relativistic effects in the uv photoelectron spectra of group VI diatomic molecules; and relative gas-phase acidities and basicities from a proton potential model

  5. Modern spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hollas, J Michael

    2013-01-01

    The latest edition of this highly acclaimed title introduces the reader to a wide range of spectroscopies, and includes both the background theory and applications to structure determination and chemical analysis.  It covers rotational, vibrational, electronic, photoelectron and Auger spectroscopy, as well as EXAFs and the theory of lasers and laser spectroscopy. A  revised and updated edition of a successful, clearly written book Includes the latest developments in modern laser techniques, such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy and femtosecond lasers Provides numerous worked examples, calculations and questions at the end of chapters.

  6. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy of cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase from Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 demonstrates that group I cations are particularly effective in providing structure and stability to this halophilic protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Reed

    Full Text Available Proteins from extremophiles have the ability to fold and remain stable in their extreme environment. Here, we investigate the presence of this effect in the cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase from Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 (NRC-1, which was used as a model halophilic protein. The effects of salt on the structure and stability of NRC-1 and of E. coli CysRS were investigated through far-UV circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and thermal denaturation melts. The CD of NRC-1 CysRS was examined in different group I and group II chloride salts to examine the effects of the metal ions. Potassium was observed to have the strongest effect on NRC-1 CysRS structure, with the other group I salts having reduced strength. The group II salts had little effect on the protein. This suggests that the halophilic adaptations in this protein are mediated by potassium. CD and fluorescence spectra showed structural changes taking place in NRC-1 CysRS over the concentration range of 0-3 M KCl, while the structure of E. coli CysRS was relatively unaffected. Salt was also shown to increase the thermal stability of NRC-1 CysRS since the melt temperature of the CysRS from NRC-1 was increased in the presence of high salt, whereas the E. coli enzyme showed a decrease. By characterizing these interactions, this study not only explains the stability of halophilic proteins in extremes of salt, but also helps us to understand why and how group I salts stabilize proteins in general.

  7. Determination of the two methyl group orientations at vapor/acetone interface with polarization null angle method in SFG vibrational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Gan, Wei; Wu, Bao-hua; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Hong-fei

    2005-06-01

    We report a direct measurement of the orientation of the two CH 3 groups of acetone molecule at the vapor/acetone interface. The interfacial acetone molecule is found well-ordered, with one methyl group points away around 14.4° ± 1.9° and another into the bulk liquid around 102.8° ± 1.9° from the interface normal, and thus the C dbnd O group points into the bulk around 135.8° ± 1.9°. These results directly confirmed the highly ordered and even crystal like interfacial structure of the vapor/acetone interface from previous MD simulation. The general formulation and accurate determination of the orientational parameter D can be used to treat interfaces with complex molecular orientations.

  8. Combining vibrational biomolecular spectroscopy with chemometric techniques for the study of response and sensitivity of molecular structures/functional groups mainly related to lipid biopolymer to various processing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gloria Qingyu; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this project were to (1) combine vibrational spectroscopy with chemometric multivariate techniques to determine the effect of processing applications on molecular structural changes of lipid biopolymer that mainly related to functional groups in green- and yellow-type Crop Development Centre (CDC) pea varieties [CDC strike (green-type) vs. CDC meadow (yellow-type)] that occurred during various processing applications; (2) relatively quantify the effect of processing applications on the antisymmetric CH3 ("CH3as") and CH2 ("CH2as") (ca. 2960 and 2923 cm(-1), respectively), symmetric CH3 ("CH3s") and CH2 ("CH2s") (ca. 2873 and 2954 cm(-1), respectively) functional groups and carbonyl C=O ester (ca. 1745 cm(-1)) spectral intensities as well as their ratios of antisymmetric CH3 to antisymmetric CH2 (ratio of CH3as to CH2as), ratios of symmetric CH3 to symmetric CH2 (ratio of CH3s to CH2s), and ratios of carbonyl C=O ester peak area to total CH peak area (ratio of C=O ester to CH); and (3) illustrate non-invasive techniques to detect the sensitivity of individual molecular functional group to the various processing applications in the recently developed different types of pea varieties. The hypothesis of this research was that processing applications modified the molecular structure profiles in the processed products as opposed to original unprocessed pea seeds. The results showed that the different processing methods had different impacts on lipid molecular functional groups. Different lipid functional groups had different sensitivity to various heat processing applications. These changes were detected by advanced molecular spectroscopy with chemometric techniques which may be highly related to lipid utilization and availability. The multivariate molecular spectral analyses, cluster analysis, and principal component analysis of original spectra (without spectral parameterization) are unable to fully distinguish the structural differences in the

  9. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., ultrafast lasers (atto- and femto-second lasers) and parametric oscillators, coherent matter waves, Doppler-free Fourier spectroscopy with optical frequency combs, interference spectroscopy, quantum optics, the interferometric detection of gravitational waves and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  10. Mass spectroscopy investigation of the effect of gamma irradiation on the mean value of the number of ethoxy groups in the triton X-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdés Díaz, Gilmer; Rodríguez Calvo, Simón; Pérez Gramatges, Aurora; Fernández Lima, Francisco Alberto; Rapado Paneque, Manuel; Ponciano, Cassia Ribero R.; Frota da Silveira, Enio

    2007-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation from a 60 Co source on the structure of a nonionic surfactant, namely TRITON X-100, was investigated. Three main regions can be distinguished in the behavior of the mean value of ethoxy groups with an increase in the absorbed dose. However just a slightly decrease on this mean value was obtained when the dose range from 0 to 70 kGy. (author)

  11. New Low-mass Stars in the 25 Orionis Stellar Group and Orion OB1a Sub-association from SDSS-III/BOSS Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Genaro; Downes, Juan José; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos; Covey, Kevin R.; Tapia, Mauricio; Hernández, Jesús; Petr-Gotzens, Monika G.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Briceño, César

    2017-07-01

    The Orion OB1a sub-association is a rich low-mass star (LMS) region. Previous spectroscopic studies have confirmed 160 LMSs in the 25 Orionis stellar group (25 Ori), which is the most prominent overdensity of Orion OB1a. Nonetheless, the current census of the 25 Ori members is estimated to be lower than 50% complete, leaving a large number of members to be still confirmed. We retrieved 172 low-resolution stellar spectra in Orion OB1a observed as ancillary science in the SDSS-III/BOSS survey, for which we classified their spectral types and determined physical parameters. To determine memberships, we analyzed the {{{H}}}α emission, Li I λ6708 absorption, and Na I λλ8183, 8195 absorption as youth indicators in stars classified as M type. We report 50 new LMSs spread across the 25 Orionis, ASCC 18, and ASCC 20 stellar groups with spectral types from M0 to M6, corresponding to a mass range of 0.10≤slant m/{M}⊙ ≤slant 0.58. This represents an increase of 50% in the number of known LMSs in the area and a net increase of 20% in the number of 25 Ori members in this mass range. Using parallax values from the Gaia DR1 catalog, we estimated the distances to these three stellar groups and found that they are all co-distant, at 338 ± 66 pc. We analyzed the spectral energy distributions of these LMSs and classified their disks into evolutionary classes. Using H-R diagrams, we found a suggestion that 25 Ori could be slightly older than the other two observed groups in Orion OB1a.

  12. Role of chemical functional groups on thermal and electrical properties of various graphene oxide derivatives: a comparative x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji Mohan, Velram; Jakisch, Lothar; Jayaraman, Krishnan; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, graphene and its derivatives have become prominent subject matter due to their fascinating combination of properties and potential applications in a number application. While several fundamental studies have been progressed, there is a particular need to understand how different graphene derivatives are influenced in terms of their electrical and thermal conductivities by different functional groups they end up with through their manufacturing and functionalisation methods. This article addresses of the role of different functional groups present of different of reduced graphene oxides (rGO) concerning their electrical and thermal properties, and the results were compared with elemental analyses of functionalised reduced graphene oxide (frGO) and graphene. The results showed that electrical and thermal conductivities of the rGO samples, highly dependent on the presence of residual functional groups from oxidation, reduction and functionalisation processes. The increase in reduction of oxygen, hydroxyl, carboxylic, epoxide moieties and heterocyclic compounds increase the specific surface area of the samples through which the mean electron path has increased. This improved both electrical and thermal conductivities together in all the samples which were highly dependent on the efficiency of different reductant used in this study.

  13. A summary of the Nordic-group conference on safety management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, I.; Svenson, O.

    2005-04-01

    The report summarizes the Nordic-group conference on safety management, which took place in Lund, Sweden on October 28-29, 2004. The theme-group was originally created by researchers who had a common interest in cooperation, sharing their results, and discuss topics focusing on safety management and safety culture in nuclear power production, but also in other technologies involving risks. The research has, so far, basically been related to the areas of MTO, partly from a psychological perspective, but also from other perspectives. Today, the group consists primarily of members from Sweden, Finland and Norway. During the last three years the group has gathered twice a year. (au)

  14. [Effect of Long-Term Fertilization on Organic Nitrogen Functional Groups in Black Soil as Revealed by Synchrotron-Based X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Gao, Qiang; Wang, Shuai; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Jin-jing; Zhao, Yi-dong

    2015-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a common limiting nutrient in crop production. The N content of soil has been used as an important soil fertility index. Organic N is the major form of N in soil. In most agricultural surface soils, more than 90% of total N occurs in organic forms. Therefore, understanding the compositional characteristics of soil organic N functional groups can provide the scientific basis for formulating the reasonable farmland management strategies. Synchrotron radiation soft X-ray absorption near-edge structure (N K-edge XANES) spectroscopy is the most powerful tool to characterize in situ organic N functional groups compositions in soil. However, to our most knowledge, no studies have been conducted to examine the organic N functional groups compositions of soil using N K-edge XANES spectroscopy under long-term fertilization practices. Based on a long-term field experiment (started in 1990) in a black soil (Gongzhuling, Northeast China), we investigated the differences in organic N functional groups compositions in bulk soil and clay-size soil fraction among fertilization patterns using synchrotron-based N K- edge XANES spectroscopy. Composite soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in 2008. The present study included six treatments: farmland fallow (FALL), no-fertilization control (CK), chemical nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilization (NPK), NPK in combination with organic manure (NPKM), 1.5 times of NPKM (1.5 NPKM), and NPK in combination with maize straw (NPKS). The results showed that N K-edge XANES spectra of all the treatments under study exhibited characteristic absorption peaks in the ranges of 401.2-401.6 and 402.7-403.1 eV, which were assigned as amides/amine-N and pyrrole-N, respectively. These characteristic absorption peaks were more obvious in clay-size soil fraction than in bulk soil. The results obtained from the semi-quantitative analysis of N K-edge XANES spectra indicated that the relative proportion of amides/amine-N was the highest

  15. Laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letokhov, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    This article describes recent progress in the application of laser atomic spectroscopy to study parameters of nuclei available in very small quantities; radioactive nuclei, rare isotopes, nuclear isomers, etc, for which study by conventional spectroscopic methods is difficult. (author)

  16. Conformational Analysis of Indole Alkaloids Corynantheine and Dihydrocorynantheine by Dynamic 1H NMR Spectroscopy and Computational Methods: Steric Effects of Ethyl vs Vinyl Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærk, Dan; Norrby, Per-Ola; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W.

    2001-01-01

    H-1 NMR (400 MHz) spectra of the indole alkaloid dihydrocorynantheine recorded at room temperature show the presence of two conformers near coalescence. Low temperature H-1 NMR allowed characterization of the conformational equilibrium, which involves rotation of the 3-methoxypropenoate side chain...... bulk of the vinyl and the ethyl group. The conformational equilibria involving the side chain rotation as well as inversion of the bridgehead nitrogen in corynantheine and dihydrocorynantheine was studied by force-field (Amber(*) and MMFF) and ab initio (density-functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31G...

  17. Fluorescence spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool used by scientists from many disciplines. During the last decades there have been important developments on distinct fluorescence methods, particularly those related to the study of biological phenomena. This chapter discusses the foundati......Fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool used by scientists from many disciplines. During the last decades there have been important developments on distinct fluorescence methods, particularly those related to the study of biological phenomena. This chapter discusses...

  18. When Work Was Its Own Reward: A Swedish Study from the Perspective of Women's History, of the Kindergarten Teacher as Public Educator. Reprints and Miniprints from Department of Educational and Psychological Research. No. 792. Summary of a Doctoral Thesis, Malmo School of Education, University of Lund, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, Ingegerd Tallberg

    This report summarizes a doctoral thesis defended and published in Swedish in 1991 at the Malmo School of Education, University of Lund. The thesis examined the preconditions necessary for the development of a new profession in Sweden for the education and care of young children in the 19th century. These preconditions led to the creation, in the…

  19. Recommendations for the presentation of NMR structures of proteins and nucleic acids - IUPAC-IUBMB-IUPAB Inter-Union Task Group on the Standardization of Data Bases of Protein and Nucleic Acid Structures Determined by NMR Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, John L.; Bax, Ad; Arata, Yoji; Hilbers, C. W.; Kaptein, Robert; Sykes, Brian D.; Wright, Peter E.; Wuethrich, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    The recommendations presented here are designed to support easier communication of NMR data and NMR structures of proteins and nucleic acids through unified nomenclature and reporting standards. Much of this document pertains to the reporting of data in journal articles; however, in the interest of the future development of structural biology, it is desirable that the bulk of the reported information be stored in computer-accessible form and be freely accessible to the scientific community in standardized formats for data exchange. These recommendations stem from an IUPAC-IUBMB-IUPAB inter-union venture with the direct involvement of ICSU and CODATA. The Task Group has reviewed previous formal recommendations and has extended them in the light of more recent developments in the field of biomolecular NMR spectroscopy. Drafts of the recommendations presented here have been examined critically by more than 50 specialists in the field and have gone through two rounds of extensive modification to incorporate suggestions and criticisms

  20. Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonser, U.

    1975-01-01

    This book is addressed to persons interested in learning about what has been done and what can be done with Moessbauer spectroscopy. In an introductory chapter the basic principle is explained and the general parameters governing Moessbauer spectroscopy are tabulated. For the following chapters various disciplines are chosen and the wide applicability of this measuring technique is demonstrated. The second chapter discusses a few representative examples of chemical interesting information being reflected by isomer shifts and quadrupole splittings, particularly with respect to bonding and structural properties. The third chapter deals with some applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy for characterizing magnetic compounds and its use for magnetic structure investigations, particularly by making use of polarized radiation. The fourth chapter describes the use of the Moessbauer spectroscopy for studying iron in biological molecules. As an example of recent applications to mineralogy and geology the results of the studies of lunar samples are reviewed in the fifth chapter. Finally, in the last chapter, work is described on the use of Moessbauer spectroscopy in physical metallurgy, particularly quantitative analyses which have enabled metallurgists to solve many old problems. (orig./FW) [de

  1. Real-time Kinetics of High-mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) Oxidation in Extracellular Fluids Studied by in Situ Protein NMR Spectroscopy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandarashvili, Levani; Sahu, Debashish; Lee, Kwanbok; Lee, Yong Sun; Singh, Pomila; Rajarathnam, Krishna; Iwahara, Junji

    2013-01-01

    Some extracellular proteins are initially secreted in reduced forms via a non-canonical pathway bypassing the endoplasmic reticulum and become oxidized in the extracellular space. One such protein is HMGB1 (high-mobility group box 1). Extracellular HMGB1 has different redox states that play distinct roles in inflammation. Using a unique NMR-based approach, we have investigated the kinetics of HMGB1 oxidation and the half-lives of all-thiol and disulfide HMGB1 species in serum, saliva, and cell culture medium. In this approach, salt-free lyophilized 15N-labeled all-thiol HMGB1 was dissolved in actual extracellular fluids, and the oxidation and clearance kinetics were monitored in situ by recording a series of heteronuclear 1H-15N correlation spectra. We found that the half-life depends significantly on the extracellular environment. For example, the half-life of all-thiol HMGB1 ranged from ∼17 min (in human serum and saliva) to 3 h (in prostate cancer cell culture medium). Furthermore, the binding of ligands (glycyrrhizin and heparin) to HMGB1 significantly modulated the oxidation kinetics. Thus, the balance between the roles of all-thiol and disulfide HMGB1 proteins depends significantly on the extracellular environment and can also be artificially modulated by ligands. This is important because extracellular HMGB1 has been suggested as a therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases and cancer. Our work demonstrates that the in situ protein NMR approach is powerful for investigating the behavior of proteins in actual extracellular fluids containing an enormous number of different molecules. PMID:23447529

  2. Optical Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrhaug, Erling

    The work presented in this thesis is broadly concerned with how complexation reactions and molecular motion can be characterized with the standard techniques in optical spectroscopy. The thesis aims to show a relatively broad range of methods for probing physico-chemical properties in fluorophore...... information about chemical equilibria, kinetics and molecular motion by monitoring changes in optical properties of the system. The five presented research projects are largely unrelated to each other both in aim and in what property is probed, however they are all connected in that they are fluorophore...... reactions by optical spectroscopy. In project 1 simple steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the stoichiometries and equilibrium constants in the inclusion complex formation between cyclodextrins and derivatives of the water-insoluble oligo(phenylene vinylene) in aqueous...

  3. Optogalvanic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianarosa, P.; Demers, Y.; Gagne, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Laser induced optogalvanic spectroscopy in a hollow cathode-produced plasma has been used to resolve the isotopic structure of some absorption lines in uranium. We have shown that the optogalvanic signal associated with any isotope can be related to the concentration of that isotope in a multi-isotopic sample. From the results we have obtained, optogalvanic spectroscopy of sputtered samples appears to be an interesting approach to the isotopic analysis of both natural and enriched uranium and could easily be applied to the analysis of other fissile elements, such as the plutonium isotopes

  4. Photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, W.C.

    1974-01-01

    A survey is given of the development of x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Applications of photoelectron spectroscopy to studies of atomic electronic configurations are discussed, including photoelectron spectra of hydrides isoelectronic with the inert gases; photoelectron spectra of the halogen derivatives of methane; photoelectron spectra of multiple bonded diatomic molecules; spectra and structure of some multiple bonded polyatomic molecules; spectra and structure of triatomic molecules; and methods of orbital assignment of bands in photoelectron spectra. Physical aspects are considered, including intensities; selection rules; dependence of cross section on photoelectron energy; autoionization; angular distribution of photoelectrons; electron-molecule interactions; and transient species. (26 figures, 54 references) (U.S.)

  5. Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman spectroscopy has gained increased use and importance in recent years for accurate and precise detection of physical and chemical properties of food materials, due to the greater specificity and sensitivity of Raman techniques over other analytical techniques. This book chapter presents Raman s...

  6. Bioimpedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klösgen, Beate; Rümenapp, Christine; Gleich, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    causes relaxation processes with characteristic contributions to the frequency-dependent complex dielectric constant. These dipolar relaxations were initially described by Debye (Polare Molekeln 1929). They are the basis of impedance spectroscopy (K’Owino and Sadik Electroanalysis 17(23):2101–2113, 2005...

  7. Photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, A.

    1982-01-01

    In this work examples of the various aspects of photoelectron spectroscopy are given. The investigation was started with the development of an angle-resolved spectrometer so that the first chapters deal with angle-resolved ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy. To indicate the possibilities and pitfalls of the technique, in chapter II the theory is briefly reviewed. In chapter III the instrument is described. The system is based on the cylindrical mirror deflection analyzer, which is modified and improved for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. In combination with a position sensitive detector, a spectrometer is developed with which simultaneously several angle-resolved spectra can be recorded. In chapter IV, the results are reported of angle-integrated UPS experiments on dilute alloys. Using the improved energy resolution of the instrument the author was able to study the impurity states more accurately and shows that the photoemission technique has become an important tool in the study of impurities and the interactions involved. XPS and Auger results obtained from dilute alloys are presented in chapter V. It is shown that these systems are especially suited for the study of correlation effects and can provide interesting problems related to the satellite structure and the interaction of the impurity with the host. In chapter VI, the valence bands of ternary alloys are studied with UPS and compared to recent band structure calculation. The core level shifts are analyzed in a simple, thermodynamic scheme. (Auth.)

  8. Fusion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, N.J.

    1995-09-01

    This article traces developments in the spectroscopy of high temperature laboratory plasma used in controlled fusion research from the early 1960's until the present. These three and a half decades have witnessed many orders of magnitude increase in accessible plasma parameters such as density and temperature as well as particle and energy confinement timescales. Driven by the need to interpret the radiation in terms of the local plasma parameters, the thrust of fusion spectroscopy has been to develop our understanding of (i) the atomic structure of highly ionised atoms, usually of impurities in the hydrogen isotope fuel; (ii) the atomic collision rates and their incorporation into ionization structure and emissivity models that take into account plasma phenomena like plasma-wall interactions, particle transport and radiation patterns; (iii) the diagnostic applications of spectroscopy aided by increasingly sophisticated characterisation of the electron fluid. These topics are discussed in relation to toroidal magnetically confined plasmas, particularly the Tokamak which appears to be the most promising approach to controlled fusion to date. (author)

  9. Ocorrência de muscóideos necrófagos em carcaça de Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1841 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Abelaira dos Anjos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n2p211 As informações relativas quanto à similaridade da fauna colonizadora de animais silvestres em decomposição são incipientes entre os diferentes modelos de carcaças. É esperado que espécies que possuam tecidos e dietas alimentares diferentes ao morrerem sejam fontes de colonização de diferentes espécies necrófagas. Para a verificação desta hipótese foi acompanhada a decomposição de uma carcaça de Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1841 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae, encontrado morto por atropelamento. Foram criados 2.273 adultos a partir de imaturos coletados na carcaça, representados por espécies pertencentes á Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae e Fanniidae, com dominância numérica de Lucilia eximia Wiedemann, 1819 (Diptera, Calliphoridae. Outras seis espécies foram encontradas junto de espécimes não identificados de Fanniidae. Todas as espécies encontradas são colonizadoras de modelos tradicionalmente utilizados para estudos de Entomologia Forense.

  10. Lecturers, librarians and students in collaboration – A way of achieving complex educational goals in information literacy in three programmes at Lund University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cajsa Andersson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A key factor in achieving educational goals is collaboration between lecturers at faculty and departmental level, and librarians. Experience has shown that generic skills should be integrated into courses. For example, exercises in information searching, criticism of sources of information and group work will only be meaningful if they are clearly related to the students' subject of study. This is a challenging logistical problem in large groups of students. In the spring of 2009, we started working on the introduction and integration of generic skills using two variations of a model. The experience gained from these initial attempts has been applied in the introduction of first-year university students. To date (autumn term 2012, almost 900 students starting programmes in Engineering Physics, Environmental Engineering, and Industrial Management and Engineering, have taken part in a compulsory introductory course.

  11. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., frequency doubling in external cavities, reliable cw-parametric oscillators, tunable narrow-band UV sources, more sensitive detection techniques, tunable femtosecond and sub-femtosecond lasers (X-ray region and the attosecond range), control of atomic and molecular excitations, frequency combs able to synchronize independent femtosecond lasers, coherent matter waves, and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  12. NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenert, J.

    1989-01-01

    The book reviews the applications of NMR-spectroscopy in medicine and biology. The first chapter of about 40 pages summarizes the history of development and explains the chemical and physical fundamentals of this new and non-invasive method in an easily comprehensible manner. The other chapters summarize diagnostic results obtained with this method in organs and tissues, so that the reader will find a systematic overview of the available findings obtained in the various organ systems. It must be noted, however, that ongoing research work and new insight quite naturally will necessitate corrections to be done, as is the case here with some biochemical interpretations which would need adjustment to latest research results. NMR-spectroscopy is able to measure very fine energy differences on the molecular level, and thus offers insight into metabolic processes, with the advantage that there is no need of applying ionizing radiation in order to qualitatively or quantitatively analyse the metabolic processes in the various organ systems. (orig./DG) With 40 figs., 4 tabs [de

  13. Hadron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igi, K.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is related to mini-rapporteur talk on baryonium spectroscopy. First of all, the models of baryonium, namely the diquark model, the string picture, the linear baryonium and the bag model, are described. All of these models so far discussed are highly suggestive. In this paper, discussions are confined to the spectroscopy of the string and the bag models. Because of the color degree of freedom, the bag model has mock diquonium and mock mesonium besides true baryonium. It might be possible that the string model takes into account only a part of them. The constraints among baryonium, baryon and boson trajectories using duality and unitarity were proposed as a guide for classifying various spectra. Inequalities were derived as the modest and reliable constraints on baryonium intercepts from baryon and boson intercepts by imposing unitarity and Regge behaviors on scattering amplitudes. As a consequence of residue factorization and duality, the baryonium slopes were derived. The spin of S (1936) was also obtained. The baryonium containing s or c quarks can also be studied. Topics such as the EXD patterns of baryons, linear baryons, linear Regge trajectories for all Q-anti Q families, and the Al and two Q mesons, are presented in this paper. Comments on di-baryon are described. (Kato, T.)

  14. Hadron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Spectra of hadrons show various and complex structures due to the strong coupling constants of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) constituting its fundamental theory. For their understandings, two parameters, i.e., (1) the quark mass and (2) their excitation energies are playing important roles. In low energies, for example, rather simple structures similar to the positronium appear in the heavy quarks such as charms and bottoms. It has been, however, strongly suggested by the recent experiments that the molecular resonant state shows up when the threshold to decay to mesons is exceeded. On the other hand, chiral symmetry and its breaking play important roles in the dynamics of light quarks. Strange quarks are in between and show special behaviors. In the present lecture, the fundamental concept of the hadron spectroscopy based on the QCD is expounded to illustrate the present understandings and problems of the hadron spectroscopy. Sections are composed of 1. Introduction, 2. Fundamental Concepts (hadrons, quarks and QCD), 3. Quark models and exotic hadrons, 4. Lattice QCD and QCD sum rules. For sections 1 to 3, only outline of the concepts is described because of the limited space. Exotic hadrons, many quark pictures of light hadrons and number of quarks in hadrons are described briefly. (S. Funahashi)

  15. First record of Eremotherium laurillardi (Lund, 1842) (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Megatheriidae) in the Quaternary of Uberaba, Triângulo Mineiro (Minas Gerais State), Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Agustín G.; Ferraz, Patrícia Fonseca; Cunha, Gabriel Cardoso; Cunha, Isabella Cardoso; de Souza Carvalho, Ismar; Borges Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos; Neto, Francisco Macedo; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; da Fonseca Ferraz, Mara Lúcia

    2012-08-01

    Although the occurrence of Pleistocene mammals is abundant in many localities of Minas Gerais State (e.g., Lagoa Santa, Janaúba, Bambuí, Cordisburgo, Patos de Minas, Araxá), there are no references at present of Quaternary megafauna in Uberaba, Triângulo Mineiro, southeastern Brazil. This region is traditionally recognized for its taxonomically diverse fauna of the Late Cretaceous Bauru Group. In 2006, fossil material attributed to giant ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi (Xenarthra, Megatheriidae), a typical taxon of the Brazilian Pleistocene, was discovered in the Uberaba City (Minas Gerais State). The specimen (CPP 1122) which is here described consists of several cranial and postcranial bones of a single individual. The material was confined to a small alluvial deposit, yielding in the Córrego da Saudade stream, which due its restricted area distribution it is not represented in geological maps.

  16. Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemcik, T.

    1984-01-01

    The emission and absorption of photons taking place without changes in the frequency spectrum of the crystal lattice are known as the Moessbauer effect. It takes place in the low energy levels of heavy nuclei in solid lattices at low temperatures. On the basis of the hyperfine structure of Moessbauer spectra the notions are explained of isomer shift, quadrupole splitting and magnetic splitting. The principle and function are explained of Moessbauer spectrometers and the methods of graphical processing of spectra, also the use of the least square fit. Moessbauer spectroscopy is nondestructive, highly sensitive and selective and makes structural resolution possible. It is used for quantitative and qualitative analysis of compounds. Examples are given of the use of this method for mineralogical and crystallo-chemical analysis of lunar minerals and rocks, for analysis of corrosion products of iron and for phase analysis of alloys. (M.D.)

  17. Handbook of Molecular Force Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Noy, Aleksandr

    2008-01-01

    "...Noy's Handbook of Molecular Force Spectroscopy is both a timely and useful summary of fundamental aspects of molecular force spectroscopy, and I believe it would make a worthwhile addition to any good scientific library. New research groups that are entering this field would be well advisedto study this handbook in detail before venturing into the exciting and challenging world of molecular force spectroscopy." Matthew F. Paige, University of Saskatchewan, Journal of the American Chemical Society Modern materials science and biophysics are increasingly focused on studying and controlling intermolecular interactions on the single-molecule level. Molecular force spectroscopy was developed in the past decade as the result of several unprecedented advances in the capabilities of modern scientific instrumentation, and defines a number of techniques that use mechanical force measurements to study interactions between single molecules and molecular assemblies in chemical and biological systems. Examples of these...

  18. SIMP spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, Yonit [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kuflik, Eric [Department of Physics, LEPP, Cornell University,Ithaca NY 14853 (United States); Murayama, Hitoshi [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Center for Japanese Studies, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-16

    We study the interactions between strongly interacting massive particle dark matter and the Standard Model via a massive vector boson that is kinetically mixed with the hypercharge gauge boson. The relic abundance is set by 3→2 self-interactions of the dark matter, while the interactions with the vector mediator enable kinetic equilibrium between the dark and visible sectors. We show that a wide range of parameters is phenomenologically viable and can be probed in various ways. Astrophysical and cosmological constraints are evaded due to the p-wave nature of dark matter annihilation into visible particles, while direct detection methods using electron recoils can be sensitive to parts of the parameter space. In addition, we propose performing spectroscopy of the strongly coupled dark sector at e{sup +}e{sup −} colliders, where the energy of a mono-photon can track the resonance structure of the dark sector. Alternatively, some resonances may decay back into Standard Model leptons or jets, realizing ‘hidden valley’ phenomenology at the LHC and ILC in a concrete fashion.

  19. SIMP spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochberg, Yonit; Kuflik, Eric; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    We study the interactions between strongly interacting massive particle dark matter and the Standard Model via a massive vector boson that is kinetically mixed with the hypercharge gauge boson. The relic abundance is set by 3→2 self-interactions of the dark matter, while the interactions with the vector mediator enable kinetic equilibrium between the dark and visible sectors. We show that a wide range of parameters is phenomenologically viable and can be probed in various ways. Astrophysical and cosmological constraints are evaded due to the p-wave nature of dark matter annihilation into visible particles, while direct detection methods using electron recoils can be sensitive to parts of the parameter space. In addition, we propose performing spectroscopy of the strongly coupled dark sector at e + e − colliders, where the energy of a mono-photon can track the resonance structure of the dark sector. Alternatively, some resonances may decay back into Standard Model leptons or jets, realizing ‘hidden valley’ phenomenology at the LHC and ILC in a concrete fashion.

  20. Planetary spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, U.

    1988-01-01

    The main goal of the research is charge coupled device (CCD) spectroscopic and imaging studies of the solar system in support of spacecraft investigations. Studies include the physical behavior of comets, the atmosphere of the gaseous planets, and the solid surfaces of satellites and asteroids. The major observing program consisted of approximately 50 nights of photometry of Comet Halley in order to resolve the controversy over this comet's rotation period. This data is presently being analyzed. Additional observing projects included the spectroscopic occultation of Charon by Pluto, reflection spectroscopy of Mercury, and a spectrum of the satellite Oberon. Mercury data does not corroborate the Fe(++) absorption feature reported by McCord and Clark at 8800 A but instead potentially shows a weaker feature at longer wavelengths. This position is in much closer accord with expectations for Mercury since a band center near 8800 A implies too little Fe(++) on Mercury, especially if band shifts with temperature are considered. The Pluto project proved that the deep methane absorptions visible in their combined specta are due soley to Pluto with Charon showing a flat and featureless spectrum. It appears that if Charon ever contained a substantial methane component, the satellite's low surface gravity could not hold it and the methane evaporated and escaped

  1. Intermolecular spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbart, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    In this article some of the theoretical background is presented for the following papers on 'Intermolecular Spectroscopy and Dynamical Properties of Dense Systems'. In Section 1 we outline a simple semi-classical description of the interaction between optical radiation and matter. The motion of a many-body polarizability is introduced; limiting forms of this complicated quantity lead to the familiar cases of light scattering spectra. In Section 2 we consider the linear response approximation, and the equation of motion for the many-body density matrix is solved to first order in the matter-radiation interaction. The often quoted fluctuation-dissipation theorem and the time-dependent, equilibrium correlation functions are discussed. Section 3 treats the problem of the local field. In Section 4 we consider the special case of collision-induced light scattering by atomic fluids in the low-density limit. This allows us to focus on determining the interaction polarizability for simple gases. Finally, in Section 5 we distinguish between collision-induced and multiple light scattering, and discuss the double-light-scattering analyses which provide new information about critical and thermodynamically unstable fluids. (KBE)

  2. Physics Results from the Lund Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    Dobbs, M

    Anticipation for the first LHC run has already started to take hold of many ATLAS members. Though it will be a stripped down version of the ATLAS detector which is exposed to the LHC beam for the August 2006 - February 2007 physics run, the reach of the experiment in the first days is already enough to keep many physicists awake at night: hermetic calorimetry will allow measurements of missing transverse energy SUSY channels with a mass reach for squarks and gluinos up to 1.3 TeV using the first fb-1 (or 10 days) of data, probing the majority of the preferred region of SUSY parameter space. Verification of the missing transverse energy signature will be possible through high transverse momentum lepton channels, after 4-6 fb-1 of data. The discovery of the Standard Model Higgs boson will be possible with just 10fb-1 of data (combining ATLAS and CMS) regardless of the Higgs mass chosen by nature. The pressure will be on for all of us to bring the sub-detectors up to design performance in a timely manner. But w...

  3. Auger electron spectroscopy, ionization loss spectroscopy, appearance potential spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riwan, R.

    1973-01-01

    The spectroscopy of surfaces using an incident electron beam is studied. The fundamental mechanisms are discussed together with the parameters involved in Auger emission: excitation of the atom, de-excitation by electron emission, and the migration of electrons towards the surface and their ejection. Some examples of applications are given (surface structures, metallurgy, chemical information). Two new techniques for analyzing surfaces are studied: ionization spectroscopy, and appearance potential spectroscopy [fr

  4. Consistent spectroscopy for a extended gauge model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Neto, G. de.

    1990-11-01

    The consistent spectroscopy was obtained with a Lagrangian constructed with vector fields with a U(1) group extended symmetry. As consistent spectroscopy is understood the determination of quantum physical properties described by the model in an manner independent from the possible parametrizations adopted in their description. (L.C.J.A.)

  5. The research group, the conference programme and academic training in safety promotion - a report of the activities at Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörte, Lars-Gunnar; Jansson, Bjarne; Svanström, Leif

    2012-01-01

    The research group was established in 1967 at Lund University and moved to Karolinska Institutet in 1980. Work began with epidemiological studies of all injuries in the local community in support of various experimental local interventions. An important element was the creation of 'surveillance systems' in healthcare. The work resulted in the establishment of a WHO Collaborating Centre and an international safety-building programme called 'Safe Communities'. In parallel, training at both master's and doctoral level and the building of a conference programme were embarked upon. The research group consists of three sections. Specific efforts are being made by some countries to address their own injury problems.

  6. Analytical applications of spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creaser, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    This book provides an up to date overview of recent developments in analytical spectroscopy, with a particular emphasis on the common themes of chromatography - spectroscopy combinations, Fourier transform methods, and data handling techniques, which have played an increasingly important part in the development of all spectroscopic techniques. The book contains papers originally presented at a conference entitled 'Spectroscopy Across The Spectrum' held jointly with the first 'International Near Infrared Spectroscopy Conference' at the University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK, in July 1987, which have been edited and rearranged with some additional material. Each section includes reviews of key areas of current research as well as short reports of new developments. The fields covered are: Near Infrared Spectroscopy; Infrared Spectroscopy; Mass Spectroscopy; NMR Spectroscopy; Atomic and UV/Visible Spectroscopy; Chemometrics and Data Analysis. (author)

  7. Resonance ionization spectroscopy 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, J.E.; Omenetto, N.

    1991-01-01

    The Fifth International Symposium on Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) and its Applications was held in Varese, Italy, 16-21 September 1990. Interest in RIS and its applications continues to grow, and RIS is expanding into a more diverse and mature field of study. This maturity was evident in this meeting both in the basic science and understanding of RIS processes and in the number of new and improved applications and techniques. The application of RIS techniques to molecular detection problems made remarkable progress since the last meeting two years ago. Subtle effects pertaining to isotopic discrimination received more theoretical attention, and there now seems to be good understanding of these effects, which can lead to correction procedures and/or methods to avoid isotopic effects. RIS applications were presented in which significant, real world problems were addressed, demonstrating its capability to solve problems that previously could not be accurately solved by other more traditional techniques. The contributions to the conference are grouped under the following major topic headings: physics applications of rare atoms; laser ionization mechanisms - spectroscopy; atomic, molecular and ion sources; molecular RIS; atomic RIS - Rydberg states; environmental trace analysis; biological and medical applications; state selected chemistry; new laser sources and techniques; ultra-high resolution and isotopic selectivity; surface and bulk analysis. (Author)

  8. Introductory Raman spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R

    2012-01-01

    Praise for Introductory Raman Spectroscopy Highlights basic theory, which is treated in an introductory fashion Presents state-of-the-art instrumentation Discusses new applications of Raman spectroscopy in industry and research.

  9. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1997-01-01

    This series describes selected advances in the area of atomic spectroscopy. It is primarily intended for the reader who has a background in atmoic spectroscopy; suitable to the novice and expert. Although a widely used and accepted method for metal and non-metal analysis in a variety of complex samples, Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy covers a wide range of materials. Each Chapter will completely cover an area of atomic spectroscopy where rapid development has occurred.

  10. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  11. Symposium on atomic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Topics covered by the conference include: fast beam spectroscopy; astrophysical and other spectra; highly ionized spectroscopy; complex spectra; rydberg levels; fine structure, hyperfine structure and isotope shift; lineshapes; lifetimes, oscillator strengths and Einstein coefficients; and spectroscopy with lasers. Abstracts of the conference papers are presented. (GHT)

  12. Symposium on atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Topics covered by the conference include: fast beam spectroscopy; astrophysical and other spectra; highly ionized spectroscopy; complex spectra; rydberg levels; fine structure, hyperfine structure and isotope shift; lineshapes; lifetimes, oscillator strengths and Einstein coefficients; and spectroscopy with lasers. Abstracts of the conference papers are presented

  13. News Event: UK to host Science on Stage Travel: Gaining a more global perspective on physics Event: LIYSF asks students to 'cross scientific boundaries' Competition: Young Physicists' tournament is international affair Conference: Learning in a changing world of new technologies Event: Nordic physical societies meet in Lund Conference: Tenth ESERA conference to publish ebook Meeting: Rugby meeting brings teachers together Note: Remembering John L Lewis OBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Event: UK to host Science on Stage Travel: Gaining a more global perspective on physics Event: LIYSF asks students to 'cross scientific boundaries' Competition: Young Physicists' tournament is international affair Conference: Learning in a changing world of new technologies Event: Nordic physical societies meet in Lund Conference: Tenth ESERA conference to publish ebook Meeting: Rugby meeting brings teachers together Note: Remembering John L Lewis OBE

  14. Spectroscopy in catalysis : an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemantsverdriet, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Spectroscopy in Catalysis describes the most important modern analytical techniques used to investigate catalytic surfaces. These include electron spectroscopy (XPS, UPS, AES, EELS), ion spectroscopy (SIMS, SNMS, RBS, LEIS), vibrational spectroscopy (infrared, Raman, EELS), temperature-programmed

  15. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    2000-01-01

    This fifth volume of the successful series Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy continues to discuss and investigate the area of atomic spectroscopy.It begins with a description of the use of various atomic spectroscopic methods and applications of speciation studies in atomic spectroscopy. The emphasis is on combining atomic spectroscopy with gas and liquid chromatography. In chapter two the authors describe new developments in tunable lasers and the impact they will have on atomic spectroscopy. The traditional methods of detection, such as photography and the photomultiplier, and how they are being replaced by new detectors is discussed in chapter three. The very active area of glow discharge atomic spectrometry is presented in chapter four where, after a brief introduction and historical review, the use of glow discharge lamps for atomic spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are discussed. Included in this discussion is geometry and radiofrequency power. The future of this source in atomic spectroscopy is also dis...

  16. Application of fluorescent and vibration spectroscopy for septic serum human albumin structure deformation during pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyubin, A.; Konstantinova, E.; Slezhkin, V.; Matveeva, K.; Samusev, I.; Bryukhanov, V.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we perform results of conformational analysis of septic human serum albumin (HSA) carried out by Raman spectroscopy (RS), infrared (IR) spectroscopy and fluorescent spectroscopy. The main vibrational groups were identified and analyzed for septic HSA and its health control. Comparison between Raman and IR results were done. Fluorescent spectral changes of Trp-214 group were analyzed. Application of Raman, IR spectroscopy, fluorescent spectroscopy for conformational changes study of HSA during pathology were shown.

  17. Critical Metadata for Spectroscopy Field Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Rasaiah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A field spectroscopy metadata standard is defined as those data elements that explicitly document the spectroscopy dataset and field protocols, sampling strategies, instrument properties and environmental and logistical variables. Standards for field spectroscopy metadata affect the quality, completeness, reliability, and usability of datasets created in situ. Currently there is no standardized methodology for documentation of in situ spectroscopy data or metadata. This paper presents results of an international experiment comprising a web-based survey and expert panel evaluation that investigated critical metadata in field spectroscopy. The survey participants were a diverse group of scientists experienced in gathering spectroscopy data across a wide range of disciplines. Overall, respondents were in agreement about a core metadataset for generic campaign metadata, allowing for a prioritization of critical metadata elements to be proposed including those relating to viewing geometry, location, general target and sampling properties, illumination, instrument properties, reference standards, calibration, hyperspectral signal properties, atmospheric conditions, and general project details. Consensus was greatest among individual expert groups in specific application domains. The results allow the identification of a core set of metadata fields that enforce long term data storage and serve as a foundation for a metadata standard. This paper is part one in a series about the core elements of a robust and flexible field spectroscopy metadata standard.

  18. Progress in atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, H.J.; Kleinpoppen, H.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents reviews by leading experts in the field covering areas of research at the forefront of atomic spectroscopy. Topics considered include the k ordering of atomic structure, multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock calculations for complex atoms, new methods in high-resolution laser spectroscopy, resonance ionization spectroscopy (inert atom detection), trapped ion spectroscopy, high-magnetic-field atomic physics, the effects of magnetic and electric fields on highly excited atoms, x rays from superheavy collision systems, recoil ion spectroscopy with heavy ions, investigations of superheavy quasi-atoms via spectroscopy of electron rays and positrons, impact ionization by fast projectiles, and amplitudes and state parameters from ion- and atom-atom excitation processes

  19. New Hadronic Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccini, R.

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years the field of hadron spectroscopy has seen renewed interest due to the publication, initially mostly from B-Factories, of evidences of states that do not match regular spectroscopy, but are rather candidates for bound states with additional quarks or gluons (four quarks for tetraquarks and molecules and two quarks and gluons for hybrids). A huge effort in understanding the nature of this new states and in building a new spectroscopy is ongoing. This paper reviews the experimental and theoretical state of the art on heavy quarkonium exotic spectroscopy, with particular attention on the steps towards a global picture.

  20. Advances in DUV spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Mogensen, Claus Tilsted

    The would-be advantages of deep UV (DUV) spectroscopy are well known, but the potential applications have so far not been fully realized due to technological limitations and, perhaps, lack of bright ideas. However, new components and new knowledge about DUV spectra and spectroscopic methods...... combined with increasing needs for solutions to practical problems in environmental protection, medicine and pollution monitoring promise a new era in DUV spectroscopy. Here we shall review the basis for DUV spectroscopy, both DUV fluorescence and DUV Raman spectroscopy, and describe recent advances...

  1. Spectroscopy for Dummies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvold, Lars René

    This presentation will give short introduction to the most pertinent topics of optical spectroscopy. The following topics will be discussed: • The origin of spectra in UV, VIS and IR spectral range • Spectroscopic methods like absorption, luminescence and Raman • Wavelength dispersive optical...... components • Materials for use optical spectroscopy • Spectrometer geometries • Detectors for use in spectrometer • Practical examples of optical spectroscopy The objective of this presentation is to give the audience a good feel for the range of possibilities that optical spectroscopy can provide....

  2. IR Cards: Inquiry-Based Introduction to Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jacqueline; Forster, Tabetha

    2010-01-01

    As infrared spectroscopy (IR) is frequently used in undergraduate organic chemistry courses, an inductive introduction to IR spectroscopy that uses index cards printed with spectra, structures, and chemical names is described. Groups of students are given an alphabetized deck of these "IR cards" to sort into functional groups. The students then…

  3. Trapping and spectroscopy of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, Claudio Lenz

    1997-01-01

    I review the results and techniques used by the MIT H↑ group to achieve a fractional resolution of 2 parts in 10 12 in the 1S-2S transition in hydrogen [Cesar, D. Fried, T. Killian, A. Polcyn, J. Sandberg, I.A. Yu, T. Greytak, D. Kleppner and J. Doyle, Two-photon spectroscopy of trapped atomic hydrogen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 (1996) 255.] With some improvements, this system should deliver 100 times higher resolution with an improved signal count rate getting us closer to an old advertised goal of a precision of 1 part in 10 18 . While these developments are very important for the proposed test of the CPT theorem through the comparison with anti-hydrogen, some of the techniques used with hydrogen are not applicable to anti-hydrogen and I discuss some difficulties and alternatives for the trapping and spectroscopy of anti-hydrogen

  4. Infrared diode laser spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Cihelka, Jaroslav; Matulková, Irena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2010), s. 408-420 ISSN 1230-3402 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : FTIR spectroscopy * absorption spectroscopy * laser diodes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.027, year: 2010

  5. Acoustic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitters, G.; Kamsma, D.; Thalhammer, G.; Ritsch-Marte, M.; Peterman, E.J.G.; Wuite, G.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Force spectroscopy has become an indispensable tool to unravel the structural and mechanochemical properties of biomolecules. Here we extend the force spectroscopy toolbox with an acoustic manipulation device that can exert forces from subpiconewtons to hundreds of piconewtons on thousands of

  6. Coherent atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garton, W.R.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Argonne Spectroscopy Laboratory, initiated and advanced over several decades by F.S. Tomkins and M. Fred, has been a major international facility. A range of collaborative work in atomic spectroscopy is selected to illustrate advances in experimental physics which have been made possible by combination of the talents of Tomkins and Fred with the unique facilities of the Argonne Laboratory. (orig.)

  7. Heavy quark spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, J.L.

    1985-10-01

    New experimental and theoretical developments in heavy quark spectroscopy are reviewed. From studies of J/psi decays, the eta' is found to have some ''glue'' or other inert component, while the iota (a glueball candidate) probably contains some quarks as well. The xi(2.2) persists in new Mark III data, but is not seen by the DM2 collaboration. The production of charmonium states by anti pp reactions is reviewed. First evidence for a P- wave charmed meson, D(2420), has been presented by the ARGUS group. Radiative UPSILON decay studies fail to confirm the zeta(8.3) and begin to place useful limits on Higgs bosons. First results from an experiment at Fermilab on low-background hadronic production of UPSILON states are shown. Accurate measurements of chi/sub b/(1P) masses by the ARGUS collaboration are noted, and interpreted as favoring scalar quark confinement. Studies of t and other heavy quarks will probe the q anti q interaction below 0.05 fm, are likely to be strongly affected by t anti t-Z interference, and can provide varied information on Higgs bosons. 144 refs., 21 figs

  8. Pentafluorobenzene end-group as a versatile handle for para fluoro “click” functionalization of polythiophenes† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, MALDI-TOF, 1H and 19F NMR, UV-visible spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy results. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc04427a Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufflet, Pierre; Casey, Abby; Xia, Yiren; Stavrinou, Paul N.

    2017-01-01

    A convenient method of introducing pentafluorobenzene (PFB) as a single end-group in polythiophene derivatives is reported via in situ quenching of the polymerization. We demonstrate that the PFB-group is a particularly useful end-group due to its ability to undergo fast nucleophilic aromatic substitutions. Using this molecular handle, we are able to quantitatively tether a variety of common nucleophiles to the polythiophene backbone. The mild conditions required for the reaction allows sensitive functional moieties, such as biotin or a cross-linkable trimethoxysilane, to be introduced as end-groups. The high yield enabled the formation of a diblock rod-coil polymer from equimolar reactants under transition metal-free conditions at room temperature. We further demonstrate that water soluble polythiophenes end-capped with PFB can be prepared via the hydrolysis of an ester precursor, and that such polymers are amenable to functionalization under aqueous conditions. PMID:28507677

  9. Cavity-enhanced spectroscopies

    CERN Document Server

    van Zee, Roger

    2003-01-01

    ""Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy"" discusses the use of optical resonators and lasers to make sensitive spectroscopic measurements. This volume is written by the researcchers who pioneered these methods. The book reviews both the theory and practice behind these spectroscopic tools and discusses the scientific discoveries uncovered by these techniques. It begins with a chapter on the use of optical resonators for frequency stabilization of lasers, which is followed by in-depth chapters discussing cavity ring-down spectroscopy, frequency-modulated, cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, intracavity spectr

  10. Homogeneity spoil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, J.; Boesch, C.; Martin, E.; Grutter, R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the problems of in vivo MR spectroscopy of P-31 is spectra localization. Surface coil spectroscopy, which is the method of choice for clinical applications, suffers from the high-intensity signal from subcutaneous muscle tissue, which masks the spectrum of interest from deeper structures. In order to suppress this signal while maintaining the simplicity of surface coil spectroscopy, the authors introduced a small sheet of ferromagnetically dotted plastic between the surface coil and the body. This sheet destroys locally the field homogeneity and therefore all signal from structures around the coil. The very high reproducibility of the simple experimental procedure allows long-term studies important for monitoring tumor therapy

  11. Baryon spectroscopy at KAON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comyn, Martin

    1992-07-01

    The unique opportunities for the study of baryon spectroscopy at the TRIUMF KAON Factory are outlined. Related issues in other areas of hadron spectroscopy are discussed. The complex of accelerators that comprise the TRIUMF KAON Factory, and the properties of the separated beams that will be available to experimenters, are described. Initial design considerations for detectors to be used in the study of hadron spectroscopy are presented, along with a proposed detector configuration. The progress towards realization of the TRIUMF KAON Factory is examined, and the timetable for the determination of the initial experimental programme and facilities is explained. 23 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. IR Spectroscopy. An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenzler, H.; Gremlich, H.U.

    2002-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: absorption and molecular design, spectrometers, sample preparation, qualitative spectral interpretation and assertions, near-infrared and far-infrared spectroscopy, reference spectra and expert systems

  13. Charmonium spectroscopy, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahn, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    The state of charmonium spectroscopy is reviewed. All analyses proceed from a spin-dependent, non-relativistic Schroedinger equation. Many of the possible branching ratios for charm like states are investigated. 17 refs

  14. Dual THz comb spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Takeshi

    2017-08-01

    Optical frequency combs are innovative tools for broadband spectroscopy because a series of comb modes can serve as frequency markers that are traceable to a microwave frequency standard. However, a mode distribution that is too discrete limits the spectral sampling interval to the mode frequency spacing even though individual mode linewidth is sufficiently narrow. Here, using a combination of a spectral interleaving and dual-comb spectroscopy in the terahertz (THz) region, we achieved a spectral sampling interval equal to the mode linewidth rather than the mode spacing. The spectrally interleaved THz comb was realized by sweeping the laser repetition frequency and interleaving additional frequency marks. In low-pressure gas spectroscopy, we achieved an improved spectral sampling density of 2.5 MHz and enhanced spectral accuracy of 8.39 × 10-7 in the THz region. The proposed method is a powerful tool for simultaneously achieving high resolution, high accuracy, and broad spectral coverage in THz spectroscopy.

  15. Multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, Barry D; Soifer, Hadas; Shafir, Dror; Dudovich, Nirit; Serbinenko, Valeria; Smirnova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    High harmonic generation (HHG) has opened up a new frontier in ultrafast science where attosecond time resolution and Angstrom spatial resolution are accessible in a single measurement. However, reconstructing the dynamics under study is limited by the multiple degrees of freedom involved in strong field interactions. In this paper we describe a new class of measurement schemes for resolving attosecond dynamics, integrating perturbative nonlinear optics with strong-field physics. These approaches serve as a basis for multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy. Specifically, we show that multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy can measure tunnel ionization dynamics with high precision, and resolves the interference between multiple ionization channels. In addition, we show how multidimensional HHG can function as a type of lock-in amplifier measurement. Similar to multi-dimensional approaches in nonlinear optical spectroscopy that have resolved correlated femtosecond dynamics, multi-dimensional high harmonic spectroscopy reveals the underlying complex dynamics behind attosecond scale phenomena. (paper)

  16. Foundations of laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Stenholm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    A simple presentation of the theoretical foundations of steady-state laser spectroscopy, this text helps students to apply theory to calculations with a systematic series of examples and exercises. 1984 edition.

  17. Surface vibrational spectroscopy (EELS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Adsorbed states of hydrogen on metal surfaces have been studied by means of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). In this article, typical spectra and analysis as well as recent development are introduced. (author)

  18. EDITORIAL: Nano Meets Spectroscopy Nano Meets Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, David J. S.

    2012-08-01

    The multidisciplinary two-day Nano Meets Spectroscopy (NMS) event was held at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington, UK, in September 2011. The event was planned from the outset to be at the interface of several areas—in particular, spectroscopy and nanoscience, and to bring together topics and people with different approaches to achieving common goals in biomolecular science. Hence the meeting cut across traditional boundaries and brought together researchers using diverse techniques, particularly fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy. Despite engaging common problems, these techniques are frequently seen as mutually exclusive with the two communities rarely interacting at conferences. The meeting was widely seen to have lived up to its billing in good measure. It attracted the maximum capacity of ~120 participants, including 22 distinguished speakers (9 from outside the UK), over 50 posters and a vibrant corporate exhibition comprising 10 leading instrument companies and IOP Publishing. The organizers were Professor David Birch (Chair), Dr Karen Faulds and Professor Duncan Graham of the University of Strathclyde, Professor Cait MacPhee of the University of Edinburgh and Dr Alex Knight of NPL. The event was sponsored by the European Science Foundation, the Institute of Physics, the Royal Society of Chemistry, NPL and the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance. The full programme and abstracts are available at http://sensor.phys.strath.ac.uk/nms/program.php. The programme was quite ambitious in terms of the breadth and depth of scope. The interdisciplinary and synergistic concept of 'X meets Y' played well, cross-fertilization between different fields often being a source of inspiration and progress. Fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy provided the core, but the meeting had little repetition and also attracted contributions on more specialist techniques such as CARS, super-resolution, single molecule and chiral methods. In terms of application the

  19. Molecular spectroscopy in biodiagnostics (from Hippocrates to Herschel and beyond)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantsch, Henry; Jackson, Michael

    1995-03-01

    After two decades of intense research on the spectroscopic properties of biological molecules in isolated systems, infrared spectroscopy is now being applied to the study of human tissues. Extending this approach, it is possible to use the sensitivity of infrared spectroscopy to probe the biochemical events underlying transformation from normal to a diseased state within tissues, and so develop novel diagnostic methods. We highlight some of the areas of research within our group aimed at developing clinically useful methodologies based upon infrared spectroscopy.

  20. Positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundar, C.S.; Viswanathan, B.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of positron annihilation spectroscopy, the experimental techniques and its application to studies on defects and electronic structure of materials is presented. The scope of this paper is to present the requisite introductory material, that will enable a better appreciation of the subsequent specialized articles on the applications of positron annihilation spectroscopy to investigate various problems in materials science. (author). 31 refs., 3 figs

  1. Ultrafast infrared vibrational spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fayer, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    The past ten years or so have seen the introduction of multidimensional methods into infrared and optical spectroscopy. The technology of multidimensional spectroscopy is developing rapidly and its applications are spreading to biology and materials science. Edited by a recognized leader in the field and with contributions from top researchers, including experimentalists and theoreticians, this book presents the latest research methods and results and will serve as an excellent resource for other researchers.

  2. Spectroscopy stepping stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, M.R.; Sturman, B.T.

    2003-01-01

    Determining the elemental composition of samples has long been a basic task of analytical science. Some very powerful and convenient approaches are based on the wavelength-specific absorption or emission of light by gas-phase atoms. Techniques briefly described as examples of analytical atomic spectrometry include atomic emission and absorption spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma emission and mass spectroscopy and laser induced breakdown spectrometry

  3. Fast antihydrogen beam spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The motivation for production and precision spectroscopy of antihydrogen atoms is outlined. An experimental configuration is considered, concerning laser-microwave spectroscopy of a fast hydrogen beam with characteristics similar to those of an antihydrogen beam emanating from an antiproton-positron overlap region in an antiproton storage ring. In particular, a possible experiment for the measurement of the ground state hyperfine structure splitting is described. (orig.)

  4. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  5. Group Flow and Group Genius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  6. Crystal structure, thermal behaviour, vibrational spectroscopy and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-23

    May 23, 2018 ... modes corresponding to the kröhnkite is identified by the IR and Raman spectroscopies in the frequency ranges ..... The two weak bands near 1227 and 1202 cm ... ciated with the hydroxyl groups are taken into consideration.

  7. Permutation groups

    CERN Document Server

    Passman, Donald S

    2012-01-01

    This volume by a prominent authority on permutation groups consists of lecture notes that provide a self-contained account of distinct classification theorems. A ready source of frequently quoted but usually inaccessible theorems, it is ideally suited for professional group theorists as well as students with a solid background in modern algebra.The three-part treatment begins with an introductory chapter and advances to an economical development of the tools of basic group theory, including group extensions, transfer theorems, and group representations and characters. The final chapter feature

  8. In vivo spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.R.; Cady, E.B.

    1987-01-01

    The technique which the authors describe in this chapter provides alternative information to imaging, although based upon the same physical principles. The experiments are carried out differently and have instrumental requirements which are not met by a standard imaging system. Furthermore, although the clinical efficacy of NMR imaging has been proven, clinical spectroscopy is very much in its infancy. With the exception of some specific /sup 31/P applications not is not even clear how spectroscopic investigations will be performed. This is particularly true with regard to localization techniques for investigating other than superficial organs and and in the use of /sup 1/H spectroscopy. They attempt to show what information spectroscopy can provide in principle and point out some of the problems associated with such investigations. NMR has come to the notice of the clinical community mainly through its use as an imaging technique, and many may consider spectroscopy as a secondary discipline. NMR spectroscopy, however, has a longer history than imaging and has been a standard technique in chemistry laboratories for more than two decades. It is a technique without peer for structural analysis of molecules and no new chemical compound is discovered or synthesized without an NMR spectrum being taken. The influence of molecular structure on resonant frequency has been termed the chemical shift

  9. Moessbauer spectroscopy. Tutorial book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yutaka; Langouche, Guido

    2013-01-01

    First textbook on Moessbauer Spectroscopy covering the complete field. Offers a concise introduction to all aspects of Moessbauer spectroscopy by the leading experts in the field. Tutorials on Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Since the discovery of the Moessbauer Effect many excellent books have been published for researchers and for doctoral and master level students. However, there appears to be no textbook available for final year bachelor students, nor for people working in industry who have received only basic courses in classical mechanics, electromagnetism, quantum mechanics, chemistry and materials science. The challenge of this book is to give an introduction to Moessbauer Spectroscopy for this level. The ultimate goal of this book is to give this audience not only a scientific introduction to the technique, but also to demonstrate in an attractive way the power of Moessbauer Spectroscopy in many fields of science, in order to create interest among the readers in joining the community of Moessbauer spectroscopists. This is particularly important at times where in many Moessbauer laboratories succession is at stake.

  10. Autobalanced Ramsey Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanner, Christian; Huntemann, Nils; Lange, Richard; Tamm, Christian; Peik, Ekkehard

    2018-01-01

    We devise a perturbation-immune version of Ramsey's method of separated oscillatory fields. Spectroscopy of an atomic clock transition without compromising the clock's accuracy is accomplished by actively balancing the spectroscopic responses from phase-congruent Ramsey probe cycles of unequal durations. Our simple and universal approach eliminates a wide variety of interrogation-induced line shifts often encountered in high precision spectroscopy, among them, in particular, light shifts, phase chirps, and transient Zeeman shifts. We experimentally demonstrate autobalanced Ramsey spectroscopy on the light shift prone Yb+ 171 electric octupole optical clock transition and show that interrogation defects are not turned into clock errors. This opens up frequency accuracy perspectives below the 10-18 level for the Yb+ system and for other types of optical clocks.

  11. Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Zeitler, Axel; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    "This book presents the current state of knowledge in the field of terahertz spectroscopy, providing a comprehensive source of information for beginners and experienced researchers alike whose interests lie in this area. The book aims to explain the fundamental physics that underpins terahertz  technology and to describe its key applications. Highlights of scientific research in the field of terahertz science are also outlined in some chapters, providing an overview as well as giving an insight into future directions for research.  Over the past decade terahertz spectroscopy has developed into one of the most rapidly growing areas of its kind, gaining an important impact across a wide range of scientific disciplines. Due to substantial advances in femtosecond laser technology, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has established itself as the dominant spectroscopic technique for experimental scientists interested in measurements at this frequency range. In solids and liquids THz radiation is in reso...

  12. Group devaluation and group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, C.W.; Rodriguez Mosquera, P.M.; Vliek, M.L.W.; Hirt, E.

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, we showed that increased in-group identification after (perceived or actual) group devaluation is an assertion of a (preexisting) positive social identity that counters the negative social identity implied in societal devaluation. Two studies with real-world groups used order

  13. Lie groups and algebraic groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We give an exposition of certain topics in Lie groups and algebraic groups. This is not a complete ... of a polynomial equation is equivalent to the solva- bility of the equation ..... to a subgroup of the group of roots of unity in k (in particular, it is a ...

  14. Computing Device Applications of Group IV Nanoparticle Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    suspending liquid by the laser illumination dominated the movement of the scattering nanospheres. A third concept to characterize nanosphere charge...anticipation that the imposed drift would dominate both convection and Brownian motion. No effect of the drift voltage was discerned. Speculating that silicon

  15. High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy of clusters of Group V elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lai-sheng; Niu, B.; Lee, Y.T.; Shirley, D.A.

    1989-07-01

    High resolution HeI (580 angstrom) photoelectron spectra of As 2 , As 4 , and P 4 were obtained with a newly-built high temperature molecular beam source. Vibrational structure was resolved in the photoelectron spectra of the three cluster species. The Jahn-Teller effect is discussed for the 2 E and 2 T 2 states of P 4 + and As 4 + . As a result of the Jahn-Teller effect, the 2 E state splits into two bands, and the 2 T 2 state splits into three bands, in combination with the spin-orbit effect. It was observed that the ν 2 normal vibrational mode was involved in the vibronic interaction of the 2 E state, while both the ν 2 and ν 3 modes were active in the 2 T 2 state. 26 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristy J.; Brickman, Peggy; Brame, Cynthia J.

    2018-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics faculty are increasingly incorporating both formal and informal group work in their courses. Implementing group work can be improved by an understanding of the extensive body of educational research studies on this topic. This essay describes an online, evidence-based teaching guide published by…

  17. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  18. Dye lasers in atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, W.; Luther, J.; Steudel, A.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of dye lasers which are relevant to atomic spectroscopy are discussed. Several experiments made possible by tunable dye lasers are discussed. Applications of high spectral density dye lasers are covered in areas such as absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, photoionization and photodetachment, and two- and multi-photon processes. Applications which take advantage of the narrow bandwidth of tunable dye lasers are discussed, including saturation spectroscopy, fluorescence line narrowing, classic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, nonoptical detection of optical resonances, heterodyne spectroscopy, and nonlinear coherent resonant phenomena. (26 figures, 180 references) (U.S.)

  19. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 11. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Biological Applications. B G Hegde. General Article Volume 20 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 1017-1032. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Photoacoustic and photothermal spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Tsuguo; Kitamori, Takehiko; Nakamura, Masato

    1995-01-01

    Photoacoustic and photothermal spectroscopy methods can be effectively applied to the analysis of microparticles in condensed matter. A more violent photothermal conversion phenomenon of a particle, laser breakdown and accompanying plasma and acoustic emission, was applied to individual detection and analysis of ultrafine particles in ultrapure water. Laser-like nonlinear emission from the plasma was observed. (author)

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueterjans, H.

    1987-01-01

    Contributions by various authors who are working in the field of NMR imaging present the current status and the perspectives of in-vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, explaining not only the scientific and medical aspects, but also technical and physical principles as well as questions concerning practical organisation and training, and points of main interest for further research activities. (orig./TRV) [de

  2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy: Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. General Article Volume 20 Issue 2 February 2015 pp 151-164. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Perspectives in hadron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, J.M. [Universite Joseph Fourier-IN2P3-CNRS, Lab. de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    A brief survey is presented of selected recent results on hadron spectroscopy and related theoretical studies. Among the new hadron states, some of them are good candidates for exotic structures: chiral partners of ground-states, hybrid mesons (quark, antiquark and constituent gluon), four-quark states, or meson-meson molecules.

  4. Outlook for baryon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, R.D.

    1976-09-01

    The review of baryon spectroscopy includes a number of new generation experiments with greatly improved statistics which have emerged and are enhancing experimental knowledge of baryon resonances. The future research directions are pointed out, and some problems and deficiencies which can be resolved with contemporary techniques are mentioned

  5. Laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The technique of laser resonance magnetic resonance allows one to study the high-resolution spectroscopy of transient paramagnetic species, viz, atoms, radicals, and molecular ions. This article is a brief exposition of the method, describing the principles, instrumentation and applicability of the IR and FIR-LMR and shows results of HF + . (Author) [pt

  6. Astronomical Spectroscopy -24 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    growth of spectroscopy and its application to the study of .... Cesium was discovered ten years earlier, in 1859; it is the ... Kirchhoff and Bunsen's discovery; he was spared the pain of seeing ... We will have to go back about twenty years.

  7. Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos-Vollebregt, M.T.C. de.

    1980-01-01

    A new method of background correction in atomic absorption spectroscopy has recently been introduced, based on the Zeeman splitting of spectral lines in a magnetic field. A theoretical analysis of the background correction capability observed in such instruments is presented. A Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer utilizing a 50 Hz sine wave modulated magnetic field is described. (Auth.)

  8. Surface vibrational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erskine, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A brief review of recent studies which combine measurements of surface vibrational energies with lattice dynamical calculations is presented. These results suggest that surface vibrational spectroscopy offers interesting prospects for use as a molecular-level probe of surface geometry, adsorbate bond distances and molecular orientations

  9. Spectroscopy of new particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, G.

    1977-08-01

    A review of the spectroscopy of the ''psions'' with hidden charm or charm quantum number ch = o is followed by a discussion of charmed mesons and baryons. The anomalous C-μ events and the heavy lepton hypothesis are briefly considered

  10. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Susanta Das. General Article Volume 9 Issue 1 January 2004 pp 34-49. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/01/0034-0049. Keywords.

  11. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styczen, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The contributions given hereafter to this Annual Report cover a broad activity of the Department in 1999 both in the pure nuclear spectroscopy and in the applied spectroscopy investigations. That activity is then assembled in the two main groups: the nuclear structure studies with the application of the multidetector systems such as GASP, GAMMASPHERE, EUROBALL and the RFD - as its ancillary device, and investigations of condensed matter properties with the use of nuclear methods. In addition, non-nuclear methods such as the atomic force microscopy provided several new encouraging results. The nice data obtained are due to the great skill and hard work of all members of the staff, and a vast cooperation both with international and national institutes and institutions. When anticipated for calling the attractive results of the past year, I would rather admit that all data given here pretend to be those. To meet with, I refer directly to the short presentations given in the next pages. (author)

  12. Spectroscopy of antiproton helium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, Ryugo

    2005-01-01

    Antiproton helium atom is three-body system consisting of an antiproton, electrons and a helium nucleus (denoted by the chemical symbol, p-bar H + ). The authors produced abundant atoms of p-bar 4 He + , and p-bar 3 He + in a cooled He gas target chamber stopping the p-bar beam decelerated to approximately 100 keV in the Antiproton Decelerator at CERN. A precision laser spectroscopy on the atomic transitions in the p-bar 4 He + , and in p-bar 3 He + was performed. Principle of laser spectroscopy and various modifications of the system to eliminate factors affecting the accuracy of the experiment were described. Deduced mass ratio of antiproton and proton, (|m p -bar - m p |)/m p reached to the accuracy of 10 ppb (10 -8 ) as of 2002, as adopted in the recent article of the Particle Data Group by P.J. Mohr and B.N. Taylor. This value is the highest precise data for the CPT invariance in baryon. In future, antihydrogen atoms will be produced in the same facility, and will provide far accurate value of antiproton mass thus enabling a better confirmation of CPT theorem in baryon. (T. Tamura)

  13. Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Brooks

    2014-06-01

    The past decade has seen several major technology advances in electronics operating at microwave frequencies making it possible to develop a new generation of spectrometers for molecular rotational spectroscopy. High-speed digital electronics, both arbitrary waveform generators and digitizers, continue on a Moore's Law-like development cycle that started around 1993 with device bandwidth doubling about every 36 months. These enabling technologies were the key to designing chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometers which offer significant sensitivity enhancements for broadband spectrum acquisition in molecular rotational spectroscopy. A special feature of the chirped-pulse spectrometer design is that it is easily implemented at low frequency (below 8 GHz) where Balle-Flygare type spectrometers with Fabry-Perot cavity designs become technologically challenging due to the mirror size requirements. The capabilities of CP-FTMW spectrometers for studies of molecular structure will be illustrated by the collaborative research effort we have been a part of to determine the structures of water clusters - a project which has identified clusters up to the pentadecamer. A second technology trend that impacts molecular rotational spectroscopy is the development of high power, solid state sources in the mm-wave/THz regions. Results from the field of mm-wave chirped-pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy will be described with an emphasis on new problems in chemical dynamics and analytical chemistry that these methods can tackle. The third (and potentially most important) technological trend is the reduction of microwave components to chip level using monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) - a technology driven by an enormous mass market in communications. Some recent advances in rotational spectrometer designs that incorporate low-cost components will be highlighted. The challenge to the high-resolution spectroscopy community - as posed by Frank De

  14. Application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnakumar, N.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading causes of death next to heart diseases, Half of all cancer cases occur in developing countries. The conventional histopathology is usually the most trustable gold standard for pre-cancer and cancer diagnosis. However, the applicability of this method is more or less restricted because of the requirement of removing human tissues and the difficulty of real time diagnosis. Recently, there has been increased interest in 'optical biopsy' system using tissue spectroscopy to establish the pathological changes. Among optical based methods, Raman spectroscopy is a unique vibrational spectroscopic technique capable of probing biomolecular structures and conformation of tissues, and has excelled in the early detection of pre-cancer and cancer in the number of organs with high diagnostic specificity. Raman spectroscopy offers certain distinct advantages over than other optical diagnostic techniques such as high spatial resolution, use of less harmful NIR radiation, less or no sample preparation, no influence of water bands which facilitates in vivo/in situ measurements. This makes Raman spectroscopy also very useful for biomedical applications. Several research groups have demonstrated the efficacy of this technique in biomedical applications. The background and principle of these techniques will be discussed with some examples and discussions on how Raman spectroscopy can act as a promising technique for rapid in vivo diagnosis and detection of various cancers at the molecular level. (author)

  15. Nuclear spectroscopy using the neutron capture reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidy, T.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental methods using neutron spectroscopy as a means to study the nucleus structure are described. Since reactions of neutron capture (n, γ) are non-selective, they permit to study the nature of excitation (monoparticle and collective) of nuclear levels, the nature of vibrational excitations, to check the connection between shell model and liquid drop model etc. In many cases (n, γ) reactions are the only way to check the forecast of nuclear models. Advantages of (n, γ) spectroscopy, possessing a high precision of measurement and high sensitivity, are underlined. Using neutron spectroscopy on facilities with a high density of neutron flux the structures of energy levels of a large group of nuclei are studied. In different laboratories complete schemes of energy levels of nuclei are obtained, a great number of new levels are found, the evergy level densities are determined, multipolarities of γ-transitions, spins, level parities are considered. StrUctures of rotational bands of heavy deformed nuclei are studied. The study of the structure of high-spin states is possible only using the methods of (n, γ) spectroscopy Investigation results of the nuclei 24 Na, 114 Cd, 154 Eu, 155 Cd, 155 Sm, 233 Th are considered as examples. The most interesting aspects of the investigations using neutron spectroscopy are discUssed

  16. Group theory

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, W R

    2010-01-01

    Here is a clear, well-organized coverage of the most standard theorems, including isomorphism theorems, transformations and subgroups, direct sums, abelian groups, and more. This undergraduate-level text features more than 500 exercises.

  17. Group Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  18. Computer group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, H.; Black, I.; Heusler, A.; Hoeptner, G.; Krafft, F.; Lang, R.; Moellenkamp, R.; Mueller, W.; Mueller, W.F.; Schati, C.; Schmidt, A.; Schwind, D.; Weber, G.

    1983-01-01

    The computer groups has been reorganized to take charge for the general purpose computers DEC10 and VAX and the computer network (Dataswitch, DECnet, IBM - connections to GSI and IPP, preparation for Datex-P). (orig.)

  19. Group learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel, Ricardo; Noguira, Eloy Eros da Silva; Elkjær, Bente

    The article presents a study that aims at the apprehension of the group learning in a top management team composed by teachers in a Brazilian Waldorf school whose management is collective. After deciding to extend the school, they had problems recruiting teachers who were already trained based...... on the Steiner´s ideas, which created practical problems for conducting management activities. The research seeks to understand how that group of teachers collectively manage the school, facing the lack of resources, a significant heterogeneity in the relationships, and the conflicts and contradictions......, and they are interrelated to the group learning as the construction, maintenance and reconstruction of the intelligibility of practices. From this perspective, it can be said that learning is a practice and not an exceptional phenomenon. Building, maintaining and rebuilding the intelligibility is the group learning...

  20. Group technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    Group Technology has been conceptually applied to the manufacture of batch-lots of 554 machined electromechanical parts which now require 79 different types of metal-removal tools. The products have been grouped into 7 distinct families which require from 8 to 22 machines in each machine-cell. Throughput time can be significantly reduced and savings can be realized from tooling, direct-labor, and indirect-labor costs

  1. Abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, László

    2015-01-01

    Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...

  2. Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing isocyanate groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Chungui; Ji Lijun; Liu Huiju; Hu Guangjun; Zhang Shimin; Yang Mingshu; Yang Zhenzhong

    2004-01-01

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing isocyanate groups can extend the nanotube chemistry, and may promote their many potential applications such as in polymer composites and coatings. This paper describes a facile method to prepare functionalized carbon nanotubes containing highly reactive isocyanate groups on its surface via the reaction between toluene 2,4-diisocyanate and carboxylated carbon nanotubes. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed that reactive isocyanate groups were covalently attached to carbon nanotubes. The content of isocyanate groups were determined by chemical titration and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

  3. International symposium on NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication consists of 32 papers and presentations from the field of NMR spectroscopy applications submitted to the International Symposium on NMR Spectroscopy held at Smolenice between 29 Sep and 3 Oct, 1980. (B.S.)

  4. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 2. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy - Recent Advancement of Raman Spectroscopy. Ujjal Kumar Sur. General Article Volume 15 Issue 2 February 2010 pp 154-164 ...

  5. Ultrabroadband spectroscopy for security applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Sunniva; Berge, Luc; Skupin, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Ultrabroadband spectroscopy is a promising novel approach to overcome two major hurdles which have so far limited the application of THz spectroscopy for security applications: the increased bandwidth enables to record several characteristic spectroscopic features and the technique allows...

  6. Group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandiffio, A L

    1990-12-01

    Group dynamics play a significant role within any organization, culture, or unit. The important thing to remember with any of these structures is that they are made up of people--people with different ideas, motivations, background, and sometimes different agendas. Most groups, formal or informal, look for a leader in an effort to maintain cohesiveness of the unit. At times, that cultural bond must be developed; once developed, it must be nurtured. There are also times that one of the group no longer finds the culture comfortable and begins to act out behaviorally. It is these times that become trying for the leader as she or he attempts to remain objective when that which was once in the building phase of group cohesiveness starts to fall apart. At all times, the manager must continue to view the employee creating the disturbance as an integral part of the group. It is at this time that it is beneficial to perceive the employee exhibiting problem behaviors as a special employee, as one who needs the benefit of your experience and skills, as one who is still part of the group. It is also during this time that the manager should focus upon her or his own views in the area of power, communication, and the corporate culture of the unit that one has established before attempting to understand another's point of view. Once we understand our own motivation and accept ourselves, it is then that we may move on to offer assistance to another. Once we understand our insecurities recognizing staff dysfunction as a symptom of system dysfunction will not be so threatening to the concept of the manager that we perceive ourselves to be. It takes a secure person to admit that she or he favors staff before deciding to do something to change things. The important thing to know is that it can be done. The favored staff can find a new way of relating to others, the special employee can find new modes of behavior (and even find self-esteem in the process), the group can find new ways

  7. Mid-infrared upconversion spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Andersen, H. V.

    2016-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy is emerging as an attractive alternative to near-infrared or visible spectroscopy. MIR spectroscopy offers a unique possibility to probe the fundamental absorption bands of a large number of gases as well as the vibrational spectra of complex molecules. In this paper...

  8. Antihydrogen Experiment Gravity Interferometry Spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Trezzi, D; Dassa, L; Rienacker, B; Khalidova, O; Ferrari, G; Krasnicky, D; Perini, D; Cerchiari, G; Belov, A; Boscolo, I; Sacerdoti, M G; Ferragut, R O; Nedelec, P; Hinterberger, A; Al-qaradawi, I; Malbrunot, C L S; Brusa, R S; Prelz, F; Manuzio, G; Riccardi, C; Fontana, A; Genova, P; Haider, S; Haug, F; Turbabin, A; Castelli, F; Testera, G; Lagomarsino, V E; Doser, M; Penasa, L; Gninenko, S; Cataneo, F; Zenoni, A; Cabaret, L; Comparat, D P; Zmeskal, J; Scampoli, P; Nesteruk, K P; Dudarev, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Mariazzi, S; Carraro, C; Zavatarelli, S M

    The AEGIS experiment (Antihydrogen Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) has the aim of carrying out the first measurement of the gravitational interaction of antimatter to a precision of 1%, by applying techniques from atomic physics, laser spectroscopy and interferometry to a beam of antihydrogen atoms. A further goal of the experiment is to carry out spectroscopy of the antihydrogen atoms in flight.

  9. Femtosecond laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hannaford, Peter

    2005-01-01

    As concepts and methodologies have evolved over the past two decades, the realm of ultrafast science has become vast and exciting and has impacted many areas of chemistry, biology and physics, and other fields such as materials science, electrical engineering, and optical communication. The field has recently exploded with the announcement of a series of remarkable new developments and advances. This volume surveys this recent growth in eleven chapters written by leading international researchers in the field. It includes sections on femtosecond optical frequency combs, soft x-ray femtosecond laser sources, and attosecond laser sources. In addition, the contributors address real-time spectroscopy of molecular vibrations with sub-5-fs pulses and multidimensional femtosecond coherent spectroscopies for studying molecular and electron dynamics. Novel methods for measuring and characterizing ultrashort laser pulses and ultrashort pulses of light are also described. The topics covered are revolutionizing the field...

  10. Visible spectroscopy on ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, J.V.

    1991-12-01

    In this report visible spectroscopy and impurity investigations on ASDEX are reviewed and several sets of visible spectra are presented. As a basis for identification of metallic impurity lines during plasma discharges spectra from a stainless steel - Cu arc have been recorded. In a next step a spectrum overview of ASDEX discharges is shown which reveals the dominating role of lines from light impurities like carbon and oxygen throughout the UV and visible range (2000 A ≤ λ ≤ 8000 A). Metallic impurity lines of neutrals or single ionized atoms are observed near localized surfaces. The dramatic effect of impurity reduction by boronization of the vessel walls is demonstrated in a few examples. In extension to some ivesti-gations already published, further diagnostic applications of visible spectroscopy are presented. Finally, the hardware and software system used on ASDEX are described in detail. (orig.)

  11. Hadron spectroscopy in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Palano, Antimo

    2018-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to study the properties and decays of heavy flavored hadrons produced in pp collisions at the LHC. The data collected in the LHC Run I enables precision spectroscopy studies of beauty and charm hadrons. The latest results on spectroscopy of conventional and exotic hadrons are reviewed. In particular the discovery of the first charmonium pentaquark states in the $J/\\psi p$ system, the possible existence of four-quark states decaying to $J/\\psi \\phi$ and the confirmation of resonant nature of the $Z_c(4430)^−$ mesonic state are discussed. In the sector of charmed baryons, the observation of five new $\\Omega_c$ states, the observation of the $\\Xi^+_{cc}$ and the study of charmed baryons decaying to $D^0 p$ are presented.

  12. Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS)

    CERN Document Server

    Tetin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    This new volume of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy and includes chapters on such topics as Förster resonance energy transfer (fret) with fluctuation algorithms, protein corona on nanoparticles by FCS, and FFS approaches to the study of receptors in live cells. Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field Covers fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy Contains chapters on such topics as Förster resonance energy transfer (fret) with fluctuation algorithms, protein corona on nanoparticles by FCS, and FFS approaches to the study of receptors in live cells.

  13. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhoff, D.J.; Weiner, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    A major function of the liver is regulation of carbohydrate, lipid, and nitrogen metabolism. Food is absorbed by the intestines and transported to the liver by the portal circulation. Substrates are metabolized and stored in the liver to maintain optimal blood concentrations of glucose and lipids. Ammonia generated in the gastrointestinal tract is converted to urea in the liver by the urea cycle. Various forms of liver disease are associated with disorders of carbohydrate, fat, and nitrogen metabolism. Therefore the ability to characterize liver metabolism noninvasively is of potential diagnostic value. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides information about tissue metabolism by measuring concentrations of metabolites. However, to determine the anatomic location from which spectroscopic signals are derived, MRS could be performed in conjunction with MRI. This paper summarizes the current experience with spectroscopy ion animal models of human disease and reviews the clinical experience with hepatic MRS to date

  14. Precision muonium spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungmann, Klaus P.

    2016-01-01

    The muonium atom is the purely leptonic bound state of a positive muon and an electron. It has a lifetime of 2.2 µs. The absence of any known internal structure provides for precision experiments to test fundamental physics theories and to determine accurate values of fundamental constants. In particular ground state hyperfine structure transitions can be measured by microwave spectroscopy to deliver the muon magnetic moment. The frequency of the 1s–2s transition in the hydrogen-like atom can be determined with laser spectroscopy to obtain the muon mass. With such measurements fundamental physical interactions, in particular quantum electrodynamics, can also be tested at highest precision. The results are important input parameters for experiments on the muon magnetic anomaly. The simplicity of the atom enables further precise experiments, such as a search for muonium–antimuonium conversion for testing charged lepton number conservation and searches for possible antigravity of muons and dark matter. (author)

  15. Basic Principles of Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Michael H.

    Spectroscopy deals with the production, measurement, and interpretation of spectra arising from the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. There are many different spectroscopic methods available for solving a wide range of analytical problems. The methods differ with respect to the species to be analyzed (such as molecular or atomic spectroscopy), the type of radiation-matter interaction to be monitored (such as absorption, emission, or diffraction), and the region of the electromagnetic spectrum used in the analysis. Spectroscopic methods are very informative and widely used for both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Spectroscopic methods based on the absorption or emission of radiation in the ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis), infrared (IR), and radio (nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR) frequency ranges are most commonly encountered in traditional food analysis laboratories. Each of these methods is distinct in that it monitors different types of molecular or atomic transitions. The basis of these transitions is explained in the following sections.

  16. Mössbauer spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Boi Hanh

    2011-01-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy has contributed significantly to the studies of Fe-containing proteins. Early applications yielded detailed electronic characterizations of hemeproteins, and thus enhanced our understanding of the chemical properties of this important class of proteins. The next stage of the applications was marked by major discoveries of several novel Fe clusters of complex structures, including the 8Fe7S P cluster and the mixed metal 1Mo7Fe M center in nitrogenase. Since early 1990 s, rapid kinetic techniques have been used to arrest enzymatic reactions for Mössbauer studies. A number of reaction intermediates were discovered and characterized, both spectroscopically and kinetically, providing unprecedented detailed molecular-level mechanistic information. This chapter gives a brief summary of the historical accounts and a concise description of some experimental and theoretical elements in Mössbauer spectroscopy that are essential for understanding Mössbauer spectra. Major biological applications are summarized at the end.

  17. Spectroscopy of neutral radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mol, Aran; De, Subhadeep; Jungmann, Klaus; Wilschut, Hans; Willmann, Lorenz [KVI, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    The heavy alkaline earth atoms radium is uniquely sensitive towards parity and time reversal symmetry violations due to a large enhancement of an intrinsic permanent electric dipole moment of the nucleous or the electron. Furthermore, radium is sensitive to atomic parity violation and the nuclear anapole moment. To prepare such experiments spectroscopy of relevant atomic states need to be done. At a later stage we will build a neutral atom trap for radium. We have built an atomic beam of the short lived isotope {sup 225}Ra with a flux of several 10{sup 4} atoms/sec. We are preparing the laser spectroscopy using this beam setup. In the preparation for efficient laser cooling and trapping we have successfully trapped barium, which is similar in it's requirements for laser cooling. The techniques which we have developed with barium can be used to trap rare radium isotopes. We report on the progress of the experiments.

  18. Group representations

    CERN Document Server

    Karpilovsky, G

    1994-01-01

    This third volume can be roughly divided into two parts. The first part is devoted to the investigation of various properties of projective characters. Special attention is drawn to spin representations and their character tables and to various correspondences for projective characters. Among other topics, projective Schur index and projective representations of abelian groups are covered. The last topic is investigated by introducing a symplectic geometry on finite abelian groups. The second part is devoted to Clifford theory for graded algebras and its application to the corresponding theory

  19. Lego Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2010-01-01

    The last years’ rather adventurous journey from 2004 to 2009 had taught the fifth-largest toy-maker in the world - the LEGO Group - the importance of managing the global supply chain effectively. In order to survive the largest internal financial crisis in its roughly 70 years of existence......, the management had, among many initiatives, decided to offshore and outsource a major chunk of its production to Flextronics. In this pursuit of rapid cost-cutting sourcing advantages, the LEGO Group planned to license out as much as 80 per cent of its production besides closing down major parts...

  20. Theory and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, John F.

    2015-05-01

    The interaction between quantum-mechanical theory and spectroscopy is one of the most fertile interfaces in all of science, and has a richly storied history. Of course it was spectroscopy that provided essentially all of the evidence that not all was well (or, perhaps more correctly put, complete) with the world of 19th century classical physics. From the discoveries of the dark lines in the solar spectrum by Fraunhöfer in 1814 to the curiously simple geometric formula discovered seventy years later that described the hydrogen atom spectrum, spectroscopy and spectroscopists have consistently identified the areas of atomic and molecular science that are most in need of hard thinking by theoreticians. The rest of the story, of course, is well-known: spectroscopic results were used to understand and motivate the theory of radioactivity and ultimately the quantum theory, first in its immature form that was roughly contemporaneous with the first World War, and then the Heisenberg-Schrödinger-Dirac version that has withstood the test of time. Since the basic principles of quantum mechanics ware first understood, the subject has been successfully used to understand the patterns found in spectra, and how these relate to molecular structure, symmetry, energy levels, and dynamics. But further understanding required to attain these intellectual achievements has often come only as a result of vital and productive interactions between theoreticians and spectroscopists (of course, many people have strengths in both areas). And indeed, a field that might be termed "theoretical spectroscopy" was cultivated and is now an important part of modern molecular science.

  1. NEUROFEEDBACK USING FUNCTIONAL SPECTROSCOPY

    OpenAIRE

    Hinds, Oliver; Wighton, Paul; Tisdall, M. Dylan; Hess, Aaron; Breiter, Hans; van der Kouwe, André

    2014-01-01

    Neurofeedback based on real-time measurement of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal has potential for treatment of neurological disorders and behavioral enhancement. Commonly employed methods are based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sequences that sacrifice speed and accuracy for whole-brain coverage, which is unnecessary in most applications. We present multi-voxel functional spectroscopy (MVFS): a system for computing the BOLD signal from multiple volumes of...

  2. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  3. 2008 Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip J. Reid

    2009-09-21

    The conference focuses on using vibrational spectroscopy to probe structure and dynamics of molecules in gases, liquids, and interfaces. The goal is to bring together a collection of researchers who share common interests and who will gain from discussing work at the forefront of several connected areas. The intent is to emphasize the insights and understanding that studies of vibrations provide about a variety of systems.

  4. Optical imaging and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Brady, David J

    2009-01-01

    An essential reference for optical sensor system design This is the first text to present an integrated view of the optical and mathematical analysis tools necessary to understand computational optical system design. It presents the foundations of computational optical sensor design with a focus entirely on digital imaging and spectroscopy. It systematically covers: Coded aperture and tomographic imaging Sampling and transformations in optical systems, including wavelets and generalized sampling techniques essential to digital system analysis Geometric, wave, and statis

  5. Layman friendly spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentic, Stipo; Sessions, Sharon

    Affordable consumer grade spectroscopes (e.g. SCiO, Qualcomm Tricorder XPRIZE) are becoming more available to the general public. We introduce the concepts of spectroscopy to the public and K12 students and motivate them to delve deeper into spectroscopy in a dramatic participatory presentation and play. We use diffraction gratings, lasers, and light sources of different spectral properties to provide a direct experience of spectroscopy techniques. Finally, we invite the audience to build their own spectroscope--utilizing the APS SpectraSnapp cell phone application--and study light sources surrounding them in everyday life. We recontextualize the stigma that science is hard (e.g. ``Math, Science Popular Until Students Realize They're Hard,'' The Wall Street Journal) by presenting the material in such a way that it demonstrates the scientific method, and aiming to make failure an impersonal scientific tool--rather than a measure of one's ability, which is often a reason for shying away from science. We will present lessons we have learned in doing our outreach to audiences of different ages. This work is funded by the APS Outreach Grant ``Captain, we have matter matters!'' We thank New Mexico Tech Physics Department and Physics Club for help and technical equipment.

  6. Biomolecular EPR spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hagen, Wilfred Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive, Up-to-Date Coverage of Spectroscopy Theory and its Applications to Biological SystemsAlthough a multitude of books have been published about spectroscopy, most of them only occasionally refer to biological systems and the specific problems of biomolecular EPR (bioEPR). Biomolecular EPR Spectroscopy provides a practical introduction to bioEPR and demonstrates how this remarkable tool allows researchers to delve into the structural, functional, and analytical analysis of paramagnetic molecules found in the biochemistry of all species on the planet. A Must-Have Reference in an Intrinsically Multidisciplinary FieldThis authoritative reference seamlessly covers all important bioEPR applications, including low-spin and high-spin metalloproteins, spin traps and spin lables, interaction between active sites, and redox systems. It is loaded with practical tricks as well as do's and don'ts that are based on the author's 30 years of experience in the field. The book also comes with an unprecedented set of...

  7. Vibrational Spectroscopy and Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Galina M.; Kwak, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Role of vibrational spectroscopy in solving problems related to astrobiology will be discussed. Vibrational (infrared) spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool for identifying molecules. Theoretical approach used in this work is based on direct computation of anharmonic vibrational frequencies and intensities from electronic structure codes. One of the applications of this computational technique is possible identification of biological building blocks (amino acids, small peptides, DNA bases) in the interstellar medium (ISM). Identifying small biological molecules in the ISM is very important from the point of view of origin of life. Hybrid (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) theoretical techniques will be discussed that may allow to obtain accurate vibrational spectra of biomolecular building blocks and to create a database of spectroscopic signatures that can assist observations of these molecules in space. Another application of the direct computational spectroscopy technique is to help to design and analyze experimental observations of ice surfaces of one of the Jupiter's moons, Europa, that possibly contains hydrated salts. The presence of hydrated salts on the surface can be an indication of a subsurface ocean and the possible existence of life forms inhabiting such an ocean.

  8. Informal groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van den Berg; P. van Houwelingen; J. de Hart

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Informele groepen Going out running with a group of friends, rather than joining an official sports club. Individuals who decide to take action themselves rather than giving money to good causes. Maintaining contact with others not as a member of an association, but through an

  9. FTIR spectroscopy applications in forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, C.; Maynard, P.; Dawson, M.

    1999-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy, and especially Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, is a well-established technique in analytical chemistry and finds widespread application in qualitative and quantitative analyses. Infrared spectra depend on the nature of the functional groups present in the analyte, and are generally complex with numerous maxima and minima. These features are useful for comparison purposes and, in most cases, the infrared spectrum of an organic compound is considered as a unique functional print of this compound (i e the infrared spectrum constitutes the chemical signature or fingerprint of an organic compound). Many inorganic substances may also be uniquely identified using infrared spectroscopy. Until recently, infrared spectroscopy was of only limited utility in forensic science, despite its high selectivity. This is because infrared spectroscopy suffered from a lack of sensitivity in its early forms. However, with the advance of modern technology this is no longer the case. The widespread use of microscope attachments, along with numerous new sampling accessories, has overcome most of the previous limitations. For example, with an infrared microscope, it is possible to focus the infrared beam, and therefore select relevant areas of the sample as small as 10 x 10 μm and achieve a measurement in situ. Such a configuration enables the rapid generation of high-resolution spectra from samples of 10 ng. Typical forensic applications include the analysis of single textile fibres, minute paint chips or smears, drugs, laser printer and photocopy toners, polymers and miscellaneous unknown substances. Here we will broadly review the most common applications of infrared spectroscopy in forensic science

  10. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide that are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS offline and computing operations, hosting dedicated analysis efforts such as during the CMS Heavy Ion lead-lead running. With a majority of CMS sub-detectors now operating in a “shifterless” mode, many monitoring operations are now routinely performed from there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. The CMS Communications Group, CERN IT and the EVO team are providing excellent videoconferencing support for the rapidly-increasing number of CMS meetings. In parallel, CERN IT and ...

  11. Group therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: In his review 'Genesis of Unified Gauge Theories' at the symposium in Honour of Abdus Salam (June, page 23), Tom Kibble of Imperial College, London, looked back to the physics events around Salam from 1959-67. He described how, in the early 1960s, people were pushing to enlarge the symmetry of strong interactions beyond the SU(2) of isospin and incorporate the additional strangeness quantum number. Kibble wrote - 'Salam had students working on every conceivable symmetry group. One of these was Yuval Ne'eman, who had the good fortune and/or prescience to work on SU(3). From that work, and of course from the independent work of Murray Gell- Mann, stemmed the Eightfold Way, with its triumphant vindication in the discovery of the omega-minus in 1964.' Yuval Ne'eman writes - 'I was the Defence Attaché at the Israeli Embassy in London and was admitted by Salam as a part-time graduate student when I arrived in 1958. I started research after resigning from the Embassy in May 1960. Salam suggested a problem: provide vector mesons with mass - the problem which was eventually solved by Higgs, Guralnik, Kibble,.... (as described by Kibble in his article). I explained to Salam that I had become interested in symmetry. Nobody at Imperial College at the time, other than Salam himself, was doing anything in groups, and attention further afield was focused on the rotation - SO(N) - groups. Reacting to my own half-baked schemes, Salam told me to forget about the rotation groups he taught us, and study group theory in depth, directing me to Eugene Dynkin's classification of Lie subalgebras, about which he had heard from Morton Hamermesh. I found Dynkin incomprehensible without first learning about Lie algebras from Henri Cartan's thesis, which luckily had been reproduced by Dynkin in his 1946 thesis, using his diagram method. From a copy of a translation of Dynkin's thesis which I found in the British Museum Library, I

  12. Infrared spectroscopy of some organocobalt (III) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetti, A.V.; Mauro, A.E.

    1982-01-01

    The compounds [MeCo(DH) 2 py], [MeCo(DH) 2 H 2 O] (M = methyl; DH = dimethyl-glyoxymate; py = pyridine) and others of general formulae [Co(L)(H 2 O) 2 ] ClO 4 , where L = SALOPHEN = bis (salicylaldehyde)-o-phenylenediimine; SALCN = 1,2-bis (salicylaldehyde) cyclohexylenediimine; SALEN = bis (salicylaldehyde) ethylenediimine; BAE = bis (acetylacetone)-ethylenediimine were synthesized and studied by infrared spectroscopy. The frequencies observed have been assigned to specific group vibrations. (Author) [pt

  13. Conflict Management in Student Groups - a Teacher’s Perspective in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Borg

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Students working in groups is a commonly used method of instruction in higher education, popularized by the introduction of problem based learning. As a result, management of small groups of people has become an important skill for teachers. The objective of our study is to investigate why conflicts arise in student groups at the Faculty of Engineering at Lund University and how teachers manage them. We have conducted an exploratory interdepartmental interview study on teachers' views on this matter, interviewing ten university teachers with different levels of seniority. Our results show that conflicts frequently arise in group work, most commonly caused by different levels of ambition among students. We also found that teachers prefer to work proactively against conflicts and stress the student’s responsibility. Finally, we show that teachers at our faculty tend to avoid the more drastic conflict resolution strategies suggested by previous research. The outcome of our study could be used as input to future guidelines on conflict management in student groups.

  14. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styczen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclear Spectroscopy Department is the largest department of the Institute. It merges a variety of research groups having been performing investigations with a rich diversity of methods: from pure studies of the structure of nucleus and of nuclear properties through applied nuclear spectroscopy in condensed matter research, to the complex biophysical investigations of biological tissues. The nuclear structure experiments were performed mainly in European Large Scale Facilities (ALPIINFN-Legnaro, VIVITRON-IReS-Strasbourg, JYFL-K100-Cyclotron) with the use of the GASP, EUROBALL IV, RITU systems and with application of ancillary detectors - HECTOR+HELENA, RFD. Some data were obtained with the GAMMASPHERE in USA. Other research has been based on our own instrumentation - VdG, AFM, Dual-Beam-Implanter, PAC, Moessbauer spectrometers etc., in a strong co-operation with Polish and European institutions, of course. The atomic studies were done on the ESR at GSI in Darmastadt. In several pages which follow, some important results of the investigations in the Department are presented. In 2001, Dr hab. Jerzy Dryzek and Dr hab. Adam Maj were granted the Associated Professor positions, and Miss Agnieszka Kulinska and Mrs Maria Kmiecik - the Ph.D. degrees. Dr Kmiecik was also awarded the Henryk Niewodniczanski prize for studies of 147 Eu compound nucleus shape evolution. Some of us became (continued to be) members of International Committees - the PHINUFY (R. Broda), the Steering Committee of RISING at GSI (J. Styczen), the PAC of the VIVITRON at Strasbourg (J. Styczen). We organized an International Conference on Condensed Matter Studies (100 participants), which belonged to the well known series of Zakopane School of Physics. It's Proceedings appeared as a volume of the Acta Physica Polonica A journal. (author)

  15. Nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.

    1985-03-01

    This article is a summary of a short course lecture given in conjunction with the 1984 Nuclear Science Symposium. Measuring systems for nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy using single-photon counting techniques are presented. These involve systems based on relaxation-type spark gap light pulser and synchronously pumped mode-locked dye lasers. Furthermore, typical characteristics and optimization of operating conditions of the critical components responsible for the system time resolution are discussed. A short comparison of the most important deconvolution methods for numerical analysis of experimental data is given particularly with respect to the signal-to-noise ratio of the fluorescence signal. 22 refs., 8 figs

  16. Theory overview on spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Ahmed

    2011-08-01

    A theoretical overview of the exotic spectroscopy in the charm and beauty quark sector is presented. These states are unexpected harvest from the e + e - and hadron colliders and a permanent abode for the majority of them has yet to be found. We argue that some of these states, in particular the Y b (10890) and the recently discovered states Z b (10610) and Z b (10650), discovered by the Belle collaboration are excellent candidates for tetraquark states [bq][ anti b anti q], with q=u,d light quarks. Theoretical analyses of the Belle data carried out in the tetraquark context is reviewed. (orig.)

  17. Hadron spectroscopy 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    With much particle physics research using particle beams to probe the behaviour of the quark constituents deep inside nucleons and other strongly interacting particles (hadrons), it is easy to overlook the progress being made through hadron spectroscopy – the search for and classification of rare particles – and the way it has increased our understanding of quark physics. One way of remedying this was to attend the stimulating and encouraging Hadron 87 meeting held earlier this year at the Japanese KEK Laboratory, where Jonathan Rosner from Chicago's Enrico Fermi Institute gave the concluding talk

  18. Hadron spectroscopy 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-09-15

    With much particle physics research using particle beams to probe the behaviour of the quark constituents deep inside nucleons and other strongly interacting particles (hadrons), it is easy to overlook the progress being made through hadron spectroscopy – the search for and classification of rare particles – and the way it has increased our understanding of quark physics. One way of remedying this was to attend the stimulating and encouraging Hadron 87 meeting held earlier this year at the Japanese KEK Laboratory, where Jonathan Rosner from Chicago's Enrico Fermi Institute gave the concluding talk.

  19. Auger electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalaraman, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    General features of electron excited Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) which is a nondestructive technique for the analysis of surfaces upto about 15 Adeg depth with a detection limit of about 0.1% of a monolayer. Methods of measuring the Auger electron energies and recent improvements in the instrumentation are reviewed. Typical energy resolution is found to be about 0.5% which is specially suited for the detection of light elements. It is widely used in metallurgy, surface chemistry and thin film studies. (K.B.)

  20. Spectroscopy of 212Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchbery, A.E.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Byrne, A.P.; Poletti, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    Excited states of 212 Rn have been studied using γ-ray and electron spectroscopy following the reactions 208 Pb( 9 Be, 5n) and 204 Hg( 13 C,5n). With the exception of the energy of the yrast 8 + → 6 + transition, the previously proposed level scheme has been verified. New transitions have been placed in the level scheme and new lifetime and g-factor results obtained. The level scheme and electromagnetic properties of selected isomeric states are compared with the results of shell model and semi-empirical shell-model calculations, including coupling to octupole vibrations. (orig.)

  1. Spectroscopy of 212Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchbery, A.E.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Byrne, A.P.; Poletti, A.R.

    1988-06-01

    Excited states of 212 Rn have been studied using γ-ray and electron spectroscopy following the reactions 208 Pb ( 9 Be,5n) and 204 Hg( 13 C,5n). With the exception of the energy of the yrast 8 + → 6 + transition, the previously proposed level scheme has been verified. New transitions have been placed in the level scheme and new lifetime and g-factor results obtained. The level scheme and electromagnetic properties of selected isomeric states are compared with the results of shell model and semi-empirical shell-model calculations, including coupling to octupole vibrations

  2. MR spectroscopy in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, T.; Gerigk, L.; Giesel, F.; Schuster, L.; Essig, M.

    2010-01-01

    With an increasingly aging population we are faced with the problem of an increasing number of dementia patients. In addition to clinical, neuropsychological and laboratory procedures, MRI plays an important role in the early diagnosis of dementia. In addition to various morphological changes functional changes can also help in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementia. Overall the diagnosis of dementia can be improved by using parameters from MR spectroscopy. This article focuses on MR spectroscopic changes in the physiological aging process as well as on changes in mild cognitive impairment a precursor of Alzheimer's dementia, in Alzheimer's dementia, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia and Lewy body dementia. (orig.) [de

  3. Fourier transforms in spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kauppinen, Jyrki

    2000-01-01

    This modern approach to the subject is clearly and logically structured, and gives readers an understanding of the essence of Fourier transforms and their applications. All important aspects are included with respect to their use with optical spectroscopic data. Based on popular lectures, the authors provide the mathematical fundamentals and numerical applications which are essential in practical use. The main part of the book is dedicated to applications of FT in signal processing and spectroscopy, with IR and NIR, NMR and mass spectrometry dealt with both from a theoretical and practical poi

  4. Statistical nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of nuclear spectroscopy is to study properties of nuclear energy levels and transitions (electromagnetic, particle transfer, etc.) between these levels. Traditionally, the properties that involve a single level or a few levels have theoretically been investigated using models e.g. shell model, self-consistent field approximation, collective model (RPA, Generator Coordinate) and so on. Basically from these models, one obtains eigenvalues and eigenfunctions (or expectation values and transfer strengths) which can be compared with data. The choice of the model depends upon the properties that one wants to examine and the usefulness of the model depends upon its ability to explain observations and make predictions

  5. The Local Group : Inventory and History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E.; Kerschbaum, F; Lebzelter, T; Wing, RF

    2011-01-01

    An overview is presented of what we know about the Local Group of galaxies, primarily from optical imaging and spectroscopy. AGB stars are on the whole a very sparse and unrepresentative stellar population in most Local Group galaxies. However, more detailed studies of star formation histories and

  6. Overview. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy. Section 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styczen, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The 1994 year activity in the Nuclear Spectroscopy Department was like in previous years spread over large variety of subjects concerned with the in-beam nuclear spectroscopy and many nucleon transfer reactions, properties of high excited nuclear states, and the applied nuclear spectroscopy. The studies in the first two groups were mostly carried out in a vast international collaboration which enabled us to carry out experiments on highly sophisticated experimental facilities abroad like EUROGAM, GASP, HECTOR or OSIRIS, and others. Some preparations for `home` experiments have been carried out on the very much looked forward and recently obtained heavy ion beam from the cyclotron at the Warsaw University. The applied nuclear spectroscopy works, on the other hand, were based on using our own installations: an elaborated set-up for perturbed angular correlations, the RBS and PIXE set-ups at the Van de Graaff accelerator, the implanter, an atomic force microscope and several others. Much of the effort manifests itself in several valuable results which are summarized in the following pages. It is to be underlined that those results, as well as some new instrumentation developments were possible due to additional support via special grants and the promotion of the international cooperation by the State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN). (author).

  7. Overview. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy. Section 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styczen, J [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The 1994 year activity in the Nuclear Spectroscopy Department was like in previous years spread over large variety of subjects concerned with the in-beam nuclear spectroscopy and many nucleon transfer reactions, properties of high excited nuclear states, and the applied nuclear spectroscopy. The studies in the first two groups were mostly carried out in a vast international collaboration which enabled us to carry out experiments on highly sophisticated experimental facilities abroad like EUROGAM, GASP, HECTOR or OSIRIS, and others. Some preparations for `home` experiments have been carried out on the very much looked forward and recently obtained heavy ion beam from the cyclotron at the Warsaw University. The applied nuclear spectroscopy works, on the other hand, were based on using our own installations: an elaborated set-up for perturbed angular correlations, the RBS and PIXE set-ups at the Van de Graaff accelerator, the implanter, an atomic force microscope and several others. Much of the effort manifests itself in several valuable results which are summarized in the following pages. It is to be underlined that those results, as well as some new instrumentation developments were possible due to additional support via special grants and the promotion of the international cooperation by the State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN). (author).

  8. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been strengthening the activities in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The Communications Group has invested a lot of effort to support the operations needs of CMS. Hence, the CMS Centres where physicists work on remote CMS shifts, Data Quality Monitoring, and Data Analysis are running very smoothly. There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide, up from just 16 at the start of CMS data-taking. The latest to join are Imperial College London, the University of Iowa, and the Università di Napoli. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, which is now full repaired after the major flooding at the beginning of the year, has been at the centre of CMS offline and computing operations, most recently hosting a large fraction of the CMS Heavy Ion community during the lead-lead run. A number of sub-detector shifts can now take pla...

  9. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer...

  10. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS Offline and Computing operations, and a number of subdetector shifts can now take place there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. A new CMS meeting room has been equipped for videoconferencing in building 42, next to building 40. Our building 28 meeting room and the facilities at P5 will be refurbished soon and plans are underway to steadily upgrade the ageing equipment in all 15 CMS meeting rooms at CERN. The CMS evaluation of the Vidyo tool indicates that it is not yet ready to be considered as a potential replacement for EVO. The Communications Group provides the CMS-TV (web) cha...

  11. Detection of biologically active diterpenoic acids by Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talian, Ivan; Orinak, Andrej; Efremov, Evtim V.

    2010-01-01

    Three poorly detectable, biologically active diterpenoic acids, kaurenoic, abietic, and gibberellic acid, were studied by using different modes of Raman spectroscopy. Because of their structural similarities, in the absence of strongly polarizable groups, conventional Raman spectroscopy is not su......Three poorly detectable, biologically active diterpenoic acids, kaurenoic, abietic, and gibberellic acid, were studied by using different modes of Raman spectroscopy. Because of their structural similarities, in the absence of strongly polarizable groups, conventional Raman spectroscopy...... few enhanced Raman lines. SERS spectra with 514-nm excitation with Ag colloids were also relatively weak. The best SERS spectrawere obtained with 785-nm excitation on a novel nanostructured substrate, 'black silicon' coated with a 400-nm gold layer. The spectra showed clear differences...

  12. Charmonium(like) spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhiqing [Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Since its discovery in 1974, charmonium spectroscopy has always been an important probe to study strong interactions and the structure of hadronic matter. Below open-charm threshold, the charmonium spectrum is well established now. Also our understanding of charmonium states above the open-charm threshold has seen a big progress during recent years. However, the most surprising was the discovery of charmonium-like states, which have a similar mass scale as charmonium states but can not be classified as conventional states easily. Indeed, charmonium-like states are good candidates for the so-called exotic hadron states, i.e. particles with a quark content different from normal mesons and baryons, such as multi-quark states, hybrid states or molecule states. Although neutral charmonium-like states are more difficult to be identified, the observation of charged states provide us a convincing evidence. In this talk, I review the recent progress on charmonium and charmonium-like spectroscopy from BESIII, Belle, BABAR, CLEO-c and LHCb and the prospect for future experiments at Belle II and PANDA.

  13. Neutron resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunsing, F.

    2005-06-01

    The present document has been written in order to obtain the diploma 'Habilitation a Diriger des Recherches'. Since this diploma is indispensable to supervise thesis students, I had the intention to write a document that can be useful for someone starting in the field of neutron resonance spectroscopy. Although the here described topics are already described elsewhere, and often in more detail, it seemed useful to have most of the relevant information in a single document. A general introduction places the topic of neutron-nucleus interaction in a nuclear physics context. The large variations of several orders of magnitude in neutron-induced reaction cross sections are explained in terms of nuclear level excitations. The random character of the resonances make nuclear model calculation predictions impossible. Then several fields in physics where neutron-induced reactions are important and to which I have contributed in some way or another, are mentioned in a first synthetic chapter. They concern topics like parity nonconservation in certain neutron resonances, stellar nucleosynthesis by neutron capture, and data for nuclear energy applications. The latter item is especially important for the transmutation of nuclear waste and for alternative fuel cycles. Nuclear data libraries are also briefly mentioned. A second chapter details the R-matrix theory. This formalism is the foundation of the description of the neutron-nucleus interaction and is present in all fields of neutron resonance spectroscopy. (author)

  14. Neutron resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunsing, F

    2005-06-15

    The present document has been written in order to obtain the diploma 'Habilitation a Diriger des Recherches'. Since this diploma is indispensable to supervise thesis students, I had the intention to write a document that can be useful for someone starting in the field of neutron resonance spectroscopy. Although the here described topics are already described elsewhere, and often in more detail, it seemed useful to have most of the relevant information in a single document. A general introduction places the topic of neutron-nucleus interaction in a nuclear physics context. The large variations of several orders of magnitude in neutron-induced reaction cross sections are explained in terms of nuclear level excitations. The random character of the resonances make nuclear model calculation predictions impossible. Then several fields in physics where neutron-induced reactions are important and to which I have contributed in some way or another, are mentioned in a first synthetic chapter. They concern topics like parity nonconservation in certain neutron resonances, stellar nucleosynthesis by neutron capture, and data for nuclear energy applications. The latter item is especially important for the transmutation of nuclear waste and for alternative fuel cycles. Nuclear data libraries are also briefly mentioned. A second chapter details the R-matrix theory. This formalism is the foundation of the description of the neutron-nucleus interaction and is present in all fields of neutron resonance spectroscopy. (author)

  15. Photothermal spectroscopy of aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campillo, A.J.; Lin, H.B.

    1981-04-01

    In situ aerosol absorption spectroscopy was performed using two novel photothermal detection schemes. The first, based on a photorefractive effect and coherent detection, called phase fluctuation optical heterodyne (PFLOH) spectroscopy, could, depending on the geometry employed, yield particle specific or particle and gas absorption data. Single particles of graphite as small as 1 μm were detected in the particle specific mode. In another geometrical configuration, the total absorption (both gas and particle) of submicron sized aerosols of ammonium sulfate particles in equilibrium with gaseous ammonia and water vapor were measured at varying CO 2 laser frequencies. The specific absorption coefficient for the sulfate ion was measured to be 0.5 m 2 /g at 1087 cm -1 . The absorption coefficient sensitivity of this scheme was less than or equal to 10 -8 cm -1 . The second scheme is a hybrid visible Mie scattering scheme incorporating photothermal modulation. Particle specific data on ammonium sulfate droplets were obtained. For chemically identical species, the relative absorption spectrum versus laser frequency can be obtained for polydisperse aerosol distributions directly from the data without the need for complex inverse scattering calculations

  16. Raman spectroscopy in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malard, L.M.; Pimenta, M.A.; Dresselhaus, G.; Dresselhaus, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    Recent Raman scattering studies in different types of graphene samples are reviewed here. We first discuss the first-order and the double resonance Raman scattering mechanisms in graphene, which give rise to the most prominent Raman features. The determination of the number of layers in few-layer graphene is discussed, giving special emphasis to the possibility of using Raman spectroscopy to distinguish a monolayer from few-layer graphene stacked in the Bernal (AB) configuration. Different types of graphene samples produced both by exfoliation and using epitaxial methods are described and their Raman spectra are compared with those of 3D crystalline graphite and turbostratic graphite, in which the layers are stacked with rotational disorder. We show that Resonance Raman studies, where the energy of the excitation laser line can be tuned continuously, can be used to probe electrons and phonons near the Dirac point of graphene and, in particular allowing a determination to be made of the tight-binding parameters for bilayer graphene. The special process of electron-phonon interaction that renormalizes the phonon energy giving rise to the Kohn anomaly is discussed, and is illustrated by gated experiments where the position of the Fermi level can be changed experimentally. Finally, we discuss the ability of distinguishing armchair and zig-zag edges by Raman spectroscopy and studies in graphene nanoribbons in which the Raman signal is enhanced due to resonance with singularities in the density of electronic states.

  17. Wave mixing spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.W.

    1980-08-01

    Several new aspects of nonlinear or wave mixing spectroscopy were investigated utilizing the polarization properties of the nonlinear output field and the dependence of this field upon the occurrence of multiple resonances in the nonlinear susceptibility. First, it is shown theoretically that polarization-sensitive detection may be used to either eliminate or controllably reduce the nonresonant background in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, allowing weaker Raman resonances to be studied. The features of multi-resonant four-wave mixing are examined in the case of an inhomogeneously broadened medium. It is found that the linewidth of the nonlinear output narrows considerably (approaching the homogeneous width) when the quantum mechanical expressions for the doubly- and triply-resonant susceptibilities are averaged over a Doppler or strain broadened profile. Experimental studies of nonlinear processes in Pr +3 :LaF 3 verify this linewidth narrowing, but indicate that this strain broadened system cannot be treated with a single broadening parameter as in the case of Doppler broadening in a gas. Several susceptibilities are measured from which are deduced dipole matrix elements and Raman polarizabilities related to the 3 H 4 , 3 H 6 , and 3 P 0 levels of the praseodymium ions

  18. Spectroscopy Division: progress report for January 1989-December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.; Marathe, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    Research and development activities of the Spectroscopy Division during the calendar year 1989 are reported in the form of individual summaries which are grouped under the headings entitled: (i)analysis by optical emission spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and x-ray fluroescence techniques, (ii)atomic, molecular, solid state and laser-spectroscopy, (iii)optics and thin films, (iv)electronics, (v)fabrication, (vi)publications, and (vii)other academic activities. A divisional staff chart is given at the end. (author). figs., tabs

  19. Sexuality education groups in juvenile detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, J A; Schroeder, E

    1984-01-01

    Several major studies have described the magnitude and character of adolescent sexual activity and sexual knowledge related to contraception and sexually transmitted diseases (Diepold & Young, 1979; Hass, 1979; Sorenson, 1973; Zelnick & Kantner, 1980). Few systematic studies have been conducted, however, which analyze the attitudes toward sexuality and contraception of delinquent adolescents who are generally school dropouts and who may engage in socially unacceptable behaviors such as running away, drug abuse, and prostitution. Delinquent youths, especially delinquent girls, have been characterized as being more sexually active and less sexually knowledgeable than their nondelinquent peers (Gibbon, 1981; Mannarino & Marsh, 1978). Despite the assumed high-risk nature of this delinquent population, few juvenile detention facilities have offered systematically evaluated coeducational sex education programs. One barrier to implementation of such programs in juvenile detention centers is the lack of a treatment or program orientation of most staff, and/or staff denial of adolescent sexuality in general, an attitude which suppresses the development of healthier sexual values and often promotes pathologic sexual interaction within institutions (Shore & Gochros, 1981). A recent survey of adolescent sexuality (Diepold, 1979) points out that teenagers' feelings about their "sexual selves" impacts greatly upon their general self-image. Low self-esteem is more frequently found among delinquents than nondelinquents (Jones & Swain, 1977; Lund & Salury, 1980), and treatment for delinquent girls often focuses on increasing self-esteem and developing assertiveness skills based on feelings of self-worth (DeLange, Lanahan, & Barton, 1981; NiCarthy, 1981). Two studies carried out with juvenile detainees from a large urban center confirmed that sexual activity among delinquent adolescents is significantly greater than that of the general adolescent population, and that the delinquents

  20. Clinical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The advantages and present limitations of the clinical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are reviewed in outline, with passing references to skeletal muscular studies, in particular a group of children with advanced Duchenne dystrophy, and the applications to the study of cerebral metabolism of neonates, excised kidneys, biopsy studies of breast and axillary lymph node samples, and NMR spectroscopy performed during chemotherapy of a secondary rhabdomyosarcoma in the skin. (U.K.)

  1. Clinical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, R.J. (Glasgow Western Infirmary (UK))

    1984-09-01

    The advantages and present limitations of the clinical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are reviewed in outline, with passing references to skeletal muscular studies, in particular a group of children with advanced Duchenne dystrophy, and the applications to the study of cerebral metabolism of neonates, excised kidneys, biopsy studies of breast and axillary lymph node samples, and NMR spectroscopy performed during chemotherapy of a secondary rhabdomyosarcoma in the skin.

  2. Photoelectron photoion molecular beam spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevor, D.J.

    1980-12-01

    The use of supersonic molecular beams in photoionization mass spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy to assist in the understanding of photoexcitation in the vacuum ultraviolet is described. Rotational relaxation and condensation due to supersonic expansion were shown to offer new possibilities for molecular photoionization studies. Molecular beam photoionization mass spectroscopy has been extended above 21 eV photon energy by the use of Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) facilities. Design considerations are discussed that have advanced the state-of-the-art in high resolution vuv photoelectron spectroscopy. To extend gas-phase studies to 160 eV photon energy, a windowless vuv-xuv beam line design is proposed

  3. Molecular studies by electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansteen, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experience gained in experimental nuclear physics has played a large role in the development of electron spectroscopy as a powerful tool for studying chemical systems. The use of ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) for the mapping of molecular properties connected with inner as well as outer electron shells is reviewed, mainly from a phenomological point of view. Molecular Auger electron spectroscopy is described as a means of gaining information on details in molecular structure, simultaneously being extensively applied for surface studies. Future highly promising research areas for molecular electron spectroscopy are suggested to be (e,2e) processes as well as continued exploitation of synchrotron radiation from high energy nuclear devices. (Auth.)

  4. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The recently established CMS Communications Group, led by Lucas Taylor, has been busy in all three of its main are areas of responsibility: Communications Infrastructure, Information Systems, and Outreach and Education Communications Infrastructure The damage caused by the flooding of the CMS Centre@CERN on 21st December has been completely repaired and all systems are back in operation. Major repairs were made to the roofs, ceilings and one third of the floor had to be completely replaced. Throughout these works, the CMS Centre was kept operating and even hosted a major press event for first 7 TeV collisions, as described below. Incremental work behind the scenes is steadily improving the quality of the CMS communications infrastructure, particularly Webcasting, video conferencing, and meeting rooms at CERN. CERN/IT is also deploying a pilot service of a new videoconference tool called Vidyo, to assess whether it might provide an enhanced service at a lower cost, compared to the EVO tool currently in w...

  5. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin is particularly busy at the moment, hosting about 50 physicists taking part in the heavy-ion data-taking and analysis. Three new CMS meeting room will be equipped for videoconferencing in early 2012: 40/5B-08, 42/R-031, and 28/S-029. The CMS-TV service showing LHC Page 1, CMS Page 1, etc. (http://cmsdoc.cern.ch/cmscc/projector/index.jsp) is now also available for mobile devices: http://cern.ch/mcmstv. Figure 12: Screenshots of CMS-TV for mobile devices Information Systems CMS has a new web site: (http://cern.ch/cms) using a modern web Content Management System to ensure content and links are managed and updated easily and coherently. It covers all CMS sub-projects and groups, replacing the iCMS internal pages. It also incorporates the existing CMS public web site (http:/...

  6. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2012-01-01

      Outreach and Education We are fortunate that our research has captured the public imagination, even though this inevitably puts us under the global media spotlight, as we saw with the Higgs seminar at CERN in December, which had 110,000 distinct webcast viewers. The media interest was huge with 71 media organisations registering to come to CERN to cover the Higgs seminar, which was followed by a press briefing with the DG and Spokespersons. This event resulted in about 2,000 generally positive stories in the global media. For this seminar, the CMS Communications Group prepared up-to-date news and public material, including links to the CMS results, animations and event displays [http://cern.ch/go/Ch8thttp://cern.ch/go/Ch8t]. There were 44,000 page-views on the CMS public website, with the Higgs news article being by far the most popular item. CMS event displays from iSpy are fast becoming the iconic media images, featuring on numerous major news outlets (BBC, CNN, MSN...) as well as in the sci...

  7. Visualizing Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy with Computer Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Charles B.; Fine, Leonard W.

    1996-01-01

    IR Tutor, an interactive, animated infrared (IR) spectroscopy tutorial has been developed for Macintosh and IBM-compatible computers. Using unique color animation, complicated vibrational modes can be introduced to beginning students. Rules governing the appearance of IR absorption bands become obvious because the vibrational modes can be visualized. Each peak in the IR spectrum is highlighted, and the animation of the corresponding normal mode can be shown. Students can study each spectrum stepwise, or click on any individual peak to see its assignment. Important regions of each spectrum can be expanded and spectra can be overlaid for comparison. An introduction to the theory of IR spectroscopy is included, making the program a complete instructional package. Our own success in using this software for teaching and research in both academic and industrial environments will be described. IR Tutor consists of three sections: (1) The 'Introduction' is a review of basic principles of spectroscopy. (2) 'Theory' begins with the classical model of a simple diatomic molecule and is expanded to include larger molecules by introducing normal modes and group frequencies. (3) 'Interpretation' is the heart of the tutorial. Thirteen IR spectra are analyzed in detail, covering the most important functional groups. This section features color animation of each normal mode, full interactivity, overlay of related spectra, and expansion of important regions. This section can also be used as a reference.

  8. High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arko, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) covers a very broad range of measurements, disciplines, and interests. As the next generation light source, the FEL will result in improvements over the undulator that are larger than the undulater improvements over bending magnets. The combination of high flux and high inherent resolution will result in several orders of magnitude gain in signal to noise over measurements using synchrotron-based undulators. The latter still require monochromators. Their resolution is invariably strongly energy-dependent so that in the regions of interest for many experiments (h upsilon > 100 eV) they will not have a resolving power much over 1000. In order to study some of the interesting phenomena in actinides (heavy fermions e.g.) one would need resolving powers of 10 4 to 10 5 . These values are only reachable with the FEL

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue ischaemia can be a significant contributor to increased morbidity and mortality. Conventional oxygenation monitoring modalities measure systemic oxygenation, but regional tissue oxygenation is not monitored. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a non-invasive monitor for measuring regional oxygen saturation which provides real-time information. There has been increased interest in the clinical application of NIRS following numerous studies that show improved outcome in various clinical situations especially cardiac surgery. Its use has shown improved neurological outcome and decreased postoperative stay in cardiac surgery. Its usefulness has been investigated in various high risk surgeries such as carotid endarterectomy, thoracic surgeries, paediatric population and has shown promising results. There is however, limited data supporting its role in neurosurgical population. We strongly feel, it might play a key role in future. It has significant advantages over other neuromonitoring modalities, but more technological advances are needed before it can be used more widely into clinical practice.

  10. Transit spectroscopy with GTC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osorio M.R. Zapatero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to different ground-based surveys and space missions, nowadays we have a fairly large sample of discovered extra-solar planets to study and, without a doubt, this number will increase in the future. One of the most succesful techniques that allows us to prove the physical properties and atmospheric composition of these exoplanets is transmission spectroscopy. The level of precision that is require to measure these effects provides a technical challenge that is solved by using big telescopes and stable instruments to reach low noise levels. In this article, we will discuss the use of the 10m class telescope GTC to observed planetary transits in spectroscopic mode and some of the results that we are currently obtaining.

  11. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1998-01-01

    This volume continues the series'' cutting-edge reviews on developments in this field. Since its invention in the 1920s, electrostatic precipitation has been extensively used in industrial hygiene to remove dust and particulate matter from gases before entering the atmosphere. This combination of electrostatic precipitation is reported upon in the first chapter. Following this, chapter two reviews recent advances in the area of chemical modification in electrothermal atomization. Chapter three consists of a review which deal with advances and uses of electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry. Flow injection atomic spectroscopy has developed rapidly in recent years and after a general introduction, various aspects of this technique are looked at in chapter four. Finally, in chapter five the use of various spectrometric techniques for the determination of mercury are described.

  12. Astronomical Spectroscopy for Amateurs

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Ken M

    2011-01-01

    Astronomical Spectroscopy for Amateurs is a complete guide for amateur astronomers who are looking for a new challenge beyond astrophotography. The book provides a brief overview of the history and development of the spectroscope, then a short introduction to the theory of stellar spectra, including details on the necessary reference spectra required for instrument testing and spectral comparison. The various types of spectroscopes available to the amateur are then described. Later sections cover all aspects of setting up and using various types of commercially available and home-built spectroscopes, starting with basic transmission gratings and going through more complex models, all the way to the sophisticated Littrow design. The final part of the text is about practical spectroscope design and construction. This book uniquely brings together a collection of observing, analyzing, and processing hints and tips that will allow the amateur to build skills in preparing scientifically acceptable spectra data. It...

  13. Introduction to NSE spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, C.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron Spin Echo (NSE) spectroscopy allows for reaching the highest energy resolution in inelastic neutron scattering while keeping the high intensity advantage of a beam which is only 10-20% monochromatic. Most spectroscopic methods determine separately the energies of the incident (ω 0 ) and scattered beams (ω) in order to deduce the energy transfer (Δω = ω-ω 0 ), which is the relevant parameter in inelastic neutron scattering. The accuracy in the determination of ω 0 and ω also determines the lowest limit for Δω, which can reach 10 -3 , but with the cost of a high incident beam monocromatisation. In NSE the precession of neutron spins in a magnetic field is used as a stop-watch, which is carried by each neutron individually and measures directly, with an accuracy of 10 -5 to 10 -3 , the difference in energy before and after the scattering process at the sample. (R.P.)

  14. Fast beam radiofrequency spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipkin, F.M.

    1983-01-01

    The combination of a fast atom or ion beam derived from a small accelerator with radiofrequency spectroscopy methods provides a powerful method for measuring the fine structure of atomic and molecular systems. The fast beam makes possible measurements in which two separated oscillatory fields are used to obtain resonance lines whose widths are less than the natural line width due to the lifetimes of the states. The separated oscillatory field lines have, in addition, a number of features which make possible measurements with greater precision and less sensitivity to systematic errors. The fast beam also makes accessible multiple photon radiofrequency transitions whose line width is intrinsically narrower than that of the single photon transitions and which offer great potential for high precision measurements. This report focuses on the techniques and their promise. Recent measurements of the fine structure of H and He + are used as illustrations

  15. Baryon spectroscopy in COMPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austregesilo, Alexander; Chung, Suh-Urk; Ketzer, Bernhard; Neubert, Sebastian; Paul, Stephan [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E18, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at CERN SPS which investigates the structure and spectroscopy of hadrons. During in total 9 weeks in 2008 and 2009, a 190 GeV/c proton beam impinging on a liquid hydrogen target has been used primarily to study the production of exotic mesons and glueball candidates at central rapidities. As no bias on the rapidity was introduced by the trigger system, the data also yield the unique possibility to study diffractive dissociation of the beam proton while an inert target is assumed. To this end exclusive events with three charged particles including one proton in the final state have been extracted. We report on the status of the event selection studies and discuss the prospect of using partial wave analysis techniques, which have been successfully applied for diffractive dissociation reactions of pions in COMPASS.

  16. Bragg Curve Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, C.R.

    1981-05-01

    An alternative utilization is presented for the gaseous ionization chamber in the detection of energetic heavy ions, which is called Bragg Curve Spectroscopy (BCS). Conceptually, BCS involves using the maximum data available from the Bragg curve of the stopping heavy ion (HI) for purposes of identifying the particle and measuring its energy. A detector has been designed that measures the Bragg curve with high precision. From the Bragg curve the range from the length of the track, the total energy from the integral of the specific ionization over the track, the dE/dx from the specific ionization at the beginning of the track, and the Bragg peak from the maximum of the specific ionization of the HI are determined. This last signal measures the atomic number, Z, of the HI unambiguously

  17. Laboratory molecular spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolis, J.

    1982-04-01

    The precision required in making spectroscopic measurements is discussed. Remarks are directed specifically to vibration-rotation spectra rather than continuum absorptions. The ultimate precision that is required for line positions is related to the width of the lines which may be no narrower than the Doppler width. The spectroscopic methods considered are those which are of the most general value to the astronomers, those which acquire and can handle large volumes of spectra in digital form, or in a form which is compatible with computer analysis, and in a form which is at least internally consistent. The use of dye laser, grating instruments, and the most versatile instrument for laboratory spectroscopy, the Fourier transform spectrometer is discussed

  18. EXAFS spectroscopy of quasicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menushenkov, A. P.; Rakshun, Ya. V.

    2007-01-01

    The results of the investigation of the features of the local structure of quasicrystalline materials by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy with the use of synchrotron radiation are analyzed. The advantages of this method from the point of view of deriving information about the local shifts of the atoms forming an icosahedral structure are demonstrated. The rearrangement of the local environment of copper and iron in Al-Fe-Cu ternary alloys at a transition from the crystalline to the quasicrystalline phase has been investigated. It is established that the nearest copper coordination retains the symmetry characteristic of the crystal; however, rotation and small displacements of copper matrix atoms lead to significant rearrangement of aluminum atoms around iron atoms. As a result, icosahedral clusters with pentagonal symmetry are formed around iron atoms and violation of the translational symmetry is accompanied by the transition of Al-Fe-Cu to the quasicrystalline state

  19. Intermediate valence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnarsson, O.; Schoenhammer, K.

    1987-01-01

    Spectroscopic properties of intermediate valence compounds are studied using the Anderson model. Due to the large orbital and spin degeneracy N/sub f/ of the 4f-level, 1/N/sub f/ can be treated as a small parameter. This approach provides exact T = 0 results for the Anderson impurity model in the limit N/sub f/ → ∞, and by adding 1/N/sub f/ corrections some properties can be calculated accurately even for N/sub f/ = 1 or 2. In particular valence photoemission and resonance photoemission spectroscopies are studied. A comparison of theoretical and experimental spectra provides an estimate of the parameters in the model. Core level photoemission spectra provide estimates of the coupling between the f-level and the conduction states and of the f-level occupancy. With these parameters the model gives a fair description of other electron spectroscopies. For typical parameters the model predicts two structures in the f-spectrum, namely one structure at the f-level and one at the Fermi energy. The resonance photoemission calculation gives a photon energy dependence for these two peaks in fair agreement with experiment. The peak at the Fermi energy is partly due to a narrow Kondo resonance, resulting from many-body effects and the presence of a continuous, partly filled conduction band. This resonance is related to a large density of low-lying excitations, which explains the large susceptibility and specific heat observed for these systems at low temperatures. 38 references, 11 figures, 2 tables

  20. Vibrational spectroscopy of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaighofer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Two important steps for the development of a biosensor are the immobilization of the biological component (e.g. protein) on a surface and the enhancement of the signal to improve the sensitivity of detection. To address these subjects, the present work describes Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) investigations of several proteins bound to the surface of an attenuated total reflection (ATR) crystal. Furthermore, new nanostructured surfaces for signal enhancement were developed for use in FTIR microscopy. The mitochondrial redox-protein cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) was incorporated into a protein-tethered bilayer lipid membrane (ptBLM) on an ATR crystal featuring a roughened two-layer gold surface for signal enhancement. Electrochemical excitation by periodic potential pulses at different modulation frequencies was followed by time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy. Phase sensitive detection was used for deconvolution of the IR spectra into vibrational components. A model based on protonation-dependent chemical reaction kinetics could be fitted to the time evolution of IR bands attributed to several different redox centers of the CcO. Further investigations involved the odorant binding protein 14 (OBP14) of the honey bee (Apis mellifera), which was studied using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and circular dichroism. OBP14 was found to be thermally stable up to 45 °C, thus permitting the potential application of this protein for the fabrication of biosensors. Thermal denaturation measurements showed that odorant binding increases the thermal stability of the OBP-odorant complex. In another project, plasmonic nanostructures were fabricated that enhance the absorbance in FTIR microscopy measurements. The nanostructures are composed of an array of round-shaped insulator and gold discs on top of a continuous gold layer. Enhancement factors of up to ⁓125 could be observed with self-assembled monolayers of dodecanethiol molecules immobilized on the gold surface (author) [de

  1. Mental Health Services in South Africa: Taking stock | Lund | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mental Health Services in South Africa: Taking stock. ... This provides an opportunity to take stock of our mental health services. At primary care level key challenges include- training and ... on evaluating interventions. With current policy commitment, the time to act and invest in evidence-based mental health services is now.

  2. Mechanical design of the recirculating, terminal pumping in the Lund ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ory effect are essential. For the injector .... Copco oil-free rotating compressors, capacity 4.2 l/s at 1 MPa air, model Scroll-SF4-10) are fed with gas of a ... The expanding gas leaves the motors and enters the accelerator tank. 2.3 Design of the ...

  3. Mechanical design of the recirculating, terminal pumping in the Lund ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An extremly limited space in the high voltage terminal and the absence of electrical power in the terminal, forced us to provide a unique design for the installation and powering of the new pumps. Details of the technical design, as well as experience of the use of the new system for accelerator mass spectrometry, will be ...

  4. Workshop on Models for Plasma Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    A meeting was held at St. Johns College, Oxford from Monday 27th to Thursday 30th of September 1993 to bring together a group of physicists working on computational modelling of plasma spectroscopy. The group came from the UK, France, Israel and the USA. The meeting was organized by myself, Dr. Steven Rose of RAL and Dr. R.W. Lee of LLNL. It was funded by the U.S. European Office of Aerospace Research and Development and by LLNL. The meeting grew out of a wish by a group of core participants to make available to practicing plasma physicists (particularly those engaged in the design and analysis of experiments) sophisticated numerical models of plasma physics. Additional plasma physicists attended the meeting in Oxford by invitation. These were experimentalists and users of plasma physics simulation codes whose input to the meeting was to advise the core group as to what was really needed.

  5. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attekum, P.M.T.M. van.

    1979-01-01

    The methods and results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in the study of plasmons, alloys and gold compounds are discussed. After a comprehensive introduction, seven papers by the author, previously published elsewhere, are reprinted and these cover a wide range of the uses of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (W.D.L.)

  6. Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Shapiro, Alexander; Berg, Rolf W.

    Poster "Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy", See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/petroday2004.ppt......Poster "Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy", See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/petroday2004.ppt...

  7. Spectroscopy, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Hal

    This booklet is one of the "Understanding the Atom" Series. The science of spectroscopy is presented by a number of topics dealing with (1) the uses of spectroscopy, (2) its origin and background, (3) the basic optical systems of spectroscopes, spectrometers, and spectrophotometers, (4) the characteristics of wave motion, (5) the…

  8. Laser Spectroscopy and Frequency Combs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hänsch, Theodor W; Picqué, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The spectrum of a frequency comb, commonly generated by a mode-locked femtosecond laser consists of several hundred thousand precisely evenly spaced spectral lines. Such laser frequency combs have revolutionized the art measuring the frequency of light, and they provide the long-missing clockwork for optical atomic clocks. The invention of the frequency comb technique has been motivated by precision laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom. The availability of commercial instruments is facilitating the evolution of new applications far beyond the original purpose. Laser combs are becoming powerful instruments for broadband molecular spectroscopy by dramatically improving the resolution and recording speed of Fourier spectrometers and by creating new opportunities for highly multiplexed nonlinear spectroscopy, such as two-photon spectroscopy or coherent Raman spectroscopy. Other emerging applications of frequency combs range from fundamental research in astronomy, chemistry, or attosecond science to telecommunications and satellite navigation

  9. Transient Infrared Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roger W.; McClelland, John F.

    1989-12-01

    Transient Infrared Emission Spectroscopy (TIRES) is a new technique that reduces the occurrence of self-absorption in optically thick solid samples so that analytically useful emission spectra may be observed. Conventional emission spectroscopy, in which the sample is held at an elevated, uniform temperature, is practical only for optically thin samples. In thick samples the emission from deep layers of the material is partially absorbed by overlying layers.1 This self-absorption results in emission spectra from most optically thick samples that closely resemble black-body spectra. The characteristic discrete emission bands are severely truncated and altered in shape. TIRES bypasses this difficulty by using a laser to heat only an optically thin surface layer. The increased temperature of the layer is transient since the layer will rapidly cool and thicken by thermal diffusion; hence the emission collection must be correlated with the laser heating. TIRES may be done with both pulsed and cw lasers.2,3 When a pulsed laser is used, the spectrometer sampling must be synchronized with the laser pulsing so that only emission during and immediately after each laser pulse is observed.3 If a cw laser is used, the sample must move rapidly through the beam. The hot, transient layer is then in the beam track on the sample at and immediately behind the beam position, so the spectrometer field of view must be limited to this region near the beam position.2 How much self-absorption the observed emission suffers depends on how thick the heated layer has grown by thermal diffusion when the spectrometer samples the emission. Use of a pulsed laser synchronized with the spectrometer sampling readily permits reduction of the time available for heat diffusion to about 100 acs .3 When a cw laser is used, the heat-diffusion time is controlled by how small the spectrometer field of view is and by how rapidly the sample moves past within this field. Both a very small field of view and a

  10. Raman Spectroscopy of Ocular Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Gellermann, Warner

    The optically transparent nature of the human eye has motivated numerous Raman studies aimed at the non-invasive optical probing of ocular tissue components critical to healthy vision. Investigations include the qualitative and quantitative detection of tissue-specific molecular constituents, compositional changes occurring with development of ocular pathology, and the detection and tracking of ocular drugs and nutritional supplements. Motivated by a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cataract formation in the aging human lens, a great deal of work has centered on the Raman detection of proteins and water content in the lens. Several protein groups and the hydroxyl response are readily detectable. Changes of protein compositions can be studied in excised noncataractous tissue versus aged tissue preparations as well as in tissue samples with artificially induced cataracts. Most of these studies are carried out in vitro using suitable animal models and conventional Raman techniques. Tissue water content plays an important role in optimum light transmission of the outermost transparent ocular structure, the cornea. Using confocal Raman spectroscopy techniques, it has been possible to non-invasively measure the water to protein ratio as a measure of hydration status and to track drug-induced changes of the hydration levels in the rabbit cornea at various depths. The aqueous humor, normally supplying nutrients to cornea and lens, has an advantageous anterior location for Raman studies. Increasing efforts are pursued to non-invasively detect the presence of glucose and therapeutic concentrations of antibiotic drugs in this medium. In retinal tissue, Raman spectroscopy proves to be an important tool for research into the causes of macular degeneration, the leading cause of irreversible vision disorders and blindness in the elderly. It has been possible to detect the spectral features of advanced glycation and advanced lipooxydation end products in

  11. Oasis-an innovative system for alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, R.; Richards, W.; Knight, K.; El-Sayad, G.

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, instrumental alpha spectroscopy has behind the technical developments of instrumentation and software that are available for low background o c/ counting, liquid scintillation, and gamma spectroscopy instruments. We report in this paper, the development of Oasis, a new family of alpha spectroscopy systems from oxford instruments Inc., Nuclear measurements Group. The Oasis instruments incorporate many hardware and software innovations providing an automated and integrated production environment for alpha spectroscopy. These instruments are needed because of the large number of samples to be measured and the required throughput of production laboratories processing these samples. Oasis is also useful for facilities because of their sophisticated vacuum control, management, and analysis features. One of the most important innovations is the electronic vacuum system and cartesian diver. Many additional features contribute to improving accuracy, lowering cost per sample, improving sample throughput, and ensuring accountability of laboratory results. 5 figs

  12. Oasis-an innovative system for alpha spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour, R; Richards, W; Knight, K; El-Sayad, G [Oxford Instruments Inc., P.O. Box 2560, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-2560 (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Until recently, instrumental alpha spectroscopy has behind the technical developments of instrumentation and software that are available for low background o c/ counting, liquid scintillation, and gamma spectroscopy instruments. We report in this paper, the development of Oasis, a new family of alpha spectroscopy systems from oxford instruments Inc., Nuclear measurements Group. The Oasis instruments incorporate many hardware and software innovations providing an automated and integrated production environment for alpha spectroscopy. These instruments are needed because of the large number of samples to be measured and the required throughput of production laboratories processing these samples. Oasis is also useful for facilities because of their sophisticated vacuum control, management, and analysis features. One of the most important innovations is the electronic vacuum system and cartesian diver. Many additional features contribute to improving accuracy, lowering cost per sample, improving sample throughput, and ensuring accountability of laboratory results. 5 figs.

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabenstein, D.L.; Guo, W.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most widely used instrumental methods, with applications ranging from the characterization of pure compounds by high-resolution NMR to the diagnosis of disease by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To give some idea of the wide-spread use of NMR, a computer search for the period 1985-1987 turned up over 500 books and review articles and over 7000 literature citations, not including papers in which NMR was used together with other spectroscopic methods for the routine identification of organic compounds. Consequently, they have by necessity been somewhat selective in the topics they have chosen to cover and in the articles they have cited. In this review, which covers the published literature for the approximate period Sept 1985-Aug 1987, they have focused on new developments and applications of interest to the chemist. First they review recent developments in instrumentation and techniques. Although there have not been any major break-throughs in NMR instrumentation during the past two years, significant refinements have been reported which optimize instrumentation for the demanding multiple pulse experiments in routine use today. Next they review new developments in methods for processing NMR data, followed by reviews of one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments

  14. Moessbauer spectroscopy in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingelhoefer, G [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Held, P [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Teucher, R [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Schlichting, F [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Foh, J [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Kankeleit, E [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    1995-03-01

    Nearly 40 years after the discovery of the Moessbauer effect for the first time a Moessbauer spectrometer will leave our planet to explore in situ the surface of another solar system body: the red planet Mars [1]. We are currently developing a miniaturized Moessbauer spectrometer (MIMOS) which is part of the scientific payload of the Russian Mars96 mission, to be launched within the next 2-4 years [2,3]. To fulfill the requirements for a space mission to the planet Mars, all parts of the spectrometer had to be extremely miniaturized and ruggedized to withstand the space flight and Mars environmental conditions. The relevant parts (e.g. drive, detector system, electronics etc.) will be described in more detail and its characteristics compared to standard systems. Because of this new development there now is a growing interest to include a Moessbauer (MB) instrument in future space missions to other solar system bodies as for instance Venus, the terrestrial Moon, and a comet nucleus. Because of extremely different environmental conditions (e.g. nearly zero gravity on the surface of a comet nucleus, high pressure and temperature on the surface of Venus, etc.) different instrument designs and concepts are required for different missions. We will present some ideas for various types of missions, as well as the motivation for using Moessbauer spectroscopy in these cases. (orig.)

  15. Meson Spectroscopy at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Grube, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The COmmon Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy (COMPASS) is a multi-purpose fixed-target experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) aimed at studying the structure and spectrum of hadrons. The two-stage spectrometer has a good acceptance for charged as well as neutral particles over a wide kinematic range and thus allows to access a wide range of reactions. Light mesons are studied with negative (mostly $\\pi^-$) and positive ($p$, $\\pi^+$) hadron beams with a momentum of 190 GeV/$c$. The spectrum of light mesons is investigated in various final states produced in diffractive dissociation reactions at squared four-momentum transfers to the target between 0.1 and 1.0 $(\\text{GeV}/c)^2$. The flagship channel is the $\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ final state, for which COMPASS has recorded the currently largest data sample. These data not only allow to measure the properties of known resonances with high precision, but also to search for new states. Among these is a new resonance-like signal, t...

  16. Optogalvanic photoionization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, S.; Gagne, J.-M.; Babin, F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, a systematic study of an optogalvanic method for photoionization spectroscopy. The method is particularly attractive for refractory and complex atoms, such as lanthanides and actinides. The relevant characteristics of the hollow cathode discharges used for this study are discussed in detail, along with the experimental protocol for this spectroscopic method. The rapid optogalvanic effect, which results solely from photoionization, is also described. Finally, we present as an example of the application of this method, a table containing some of the recorded uranium photoionization lines in the 16 300-20 500 cm -1 range, along with typical samples of the uranium single-colour photoionization spectrum recorded using the rapid optogalvanic technique. A brief discussion of the sensitivity of the rapid optogalvanic effect is also presented. It appears that the rapid optogalvanic effect is very effective in the detection of highly excited levels. This technique permitted the observation of many new single-colour resonant ionization uranium lines. (Author)

  17. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.K.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with 13 C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system

  18. Heavy flavor spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, J.; Marques, J.; Spiegel, L.

    1993-09-01

    As a useful by-product of the unfolding searches for mixing and CP-violation effects in the beauty sector there will accrue very large data samples for the study of heavy flavor spectroscopy. Interest in this field may be provisionally divided into two general classes: Hidden flavor states, i.e. c bar c and b bar b onium states; open flavor states: The D, D s , B, B s , and B c meson systems; and charm and beauty flavored baryons. In this brief note we emphasize that there are many missing states in both categories -- states which are not readily produced exclusively due to quantum number preferences or states which are not readily observed inclusively due to experimentally difficult decay channels. As recorded luminosities increase it may be possible to fill in some of the holes in the present listings of heavy flavor states. Of particular interest to us would be the identification of heavy flavor mesons which are not easily explained in terms of a q bar q paradigm but rather may be evidence for hadro-molecular states. At Snowmass 1993 the topic of self-tagging schemes in B meson production was very much in vogue. Whether or not excited B-meson flavor-tagging will prove to be competitive with traditional methods based on the partner bar B decay remains to be seen. We suggest however that the richness of the excited B-system may undermine the efficacy of self-tagging schemes

  19. Heavy flavor spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, J.; Marques, J.; Spiegel, L.

    1993-01-01

    As a useful by-product of the unfolding searches for mixing and CP-violation effects in the beauty sector there will accrue very large data samples for the study of heavy flavor spectroscopy. (I) Hidden flavor states, i.e. c bar c and b bar b onium states. (II) Open flavor states (a) the D, D s , B, B s , and B c meson systems; (b) Charm and beauty flavored baryons. In this brief note the authors emphasize that there are many missing (undiscovered) states in both categories - states which are not readily produced exclusively due to quantum number preferences or states which are not readily observed inclusively due to experimentally difficult decay channels. As recorded luminosities increase it may be possible to fill in some of the holes in the present listings of heavy flavor states. Of particular interest to the authors would be the identification of heavy flavor mesons which are not easily explained in terms of a q bar q paradigm but rather may be evidence for hadro-molecular status. At Snowmass 1993 the topic of self-tagging schemes in B meson production was very much in vogue. Whether or not excited B-meson flavor-tagging will prove to be competitive with traditional methods based on the partner B decay remains to be seen. The authors suggest however that the richness of the excited B-system may undetermine the efficacy of self-tagging schemes

  20. (e,2e) Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, I.E.; Weigold, E.

    1976-01-01

    We present a detailed treatment of the theoretical and experimental aspects of the symmetric (e,2e) reaction in atoms, molecules and solids. Two experimental arrangements are described for measuring angular correlations and separation energy spectra, the one arrangement employing coplanar and the other noncoplanar symmetric kinematics. The latter arrangement is shown to be particularly suitable for extracting structure information. The basic approximation, the factorized distorted-wave off-shell impulse approximation with fully distorted waves, is shown to correctly describe the reaction in some test cases, as does the phase distortion approximation. At energies of the order of 1200 eV the simple eikonal and plane wave approximations adequately describe the valence shell cross sections for light atoms and molecules containing first row elements. Energy independent structure information is obtained on: (a) shapes and magnitudes of the square of the momentum space wave functions for individual electron orbitals; (b) separation energies for individual ion eigenstates; (c) the characteristic orbital of each state; and (d) spectroscopic factors describing the probability that an eigenstate contains the principal configuration of a hole in the characteristic orbital for each eigenstate. Comparison is made with photoelectron spectroscopy and Compton scattering, since they separately yield some of the information obtained by the (e,2e) method. A brief summary is given of other electron-electron coincidence experiments. (author)

  1. Meson Spectroscopy at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Grube, Boris

    2016-11-29

    The goal of the COMPASS experiment at CERN is to study the structure and dynamics of hadrons. The two-stage spectrometer used by the experiment has large acceptance and covers a wide kinematic range for charged as well as neutral particles and can therefore measure a wide range of reactions. The spectroscopy of light mesons is performed with negative (mostly $\\pi^-$) and positive ($p$, $\\pi^+$) hadron beams with a momentum of 190 GeV/$c$. The light-meson spectrum is measured in different final states produced in diffractive dissociation reactions with squared four-momentum transfer $t$ to the target between 0.1 and 1.0 $(\\text{GeV}/c)^2$. The flagship channel is the $\\pi^-\\pi^-\\pi^+$ final state, for which COMPASS has recorded the currently world's largest data sample. These data not only allow to measure the properties of known resonances with high precision, but also to observe new states. Among these is a new axial-vector signal, the $a_1(1420)$, with unusual properties. Novel analysis techniques have been...

  2. Recon Spectroscopy with TRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, David W.; TRES Team

    2018-01-01

    The Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph (TRES) on the 1.5-m Tillinghast Reflector at the Fred L. Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins has been a workhorse for reconnaissance spectroscopy of transiting-planet candidates identified by a variety of ground- and space-based photometric surveys, including Vulcan, TrES, HATNet, KELT, QES, Kepler, and K2. In support of NASA missions, quick-look classifications of effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, line broadening due to rotation, and absolute radial velocity have been uploaded to ExoFOP at NExScI on a timely schedule. More careful results derived using the Stellar Parameter Classification (SPC) tool can be provided in support of publications. For example, SPC results for effective temperature and metallicity have been used extensively to help constrain asteroseismic analyses of Kepler and K2 targets. TRES has also been used effectively for orbital solutions, Rossiter-McLaughlin observations, and Doppler tomography of large planets orbiting brighter. We look forward to continuing this work on TESS Objects of Interest.

  3. Practical guide to interpretive near-infrared spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Workman, Jr, Jerry

    2007-01-01

    Containing focused, comprehensive coverage, Practical Guide to Interpretive Near-Infrared Spectroscopy gives you the tools necessary to interpret NIR spectra. The authors present extensive tables, charts, and figures with NIR absorption band assignments and structural information for a broad range of functional groups, organic compounds, and polymers. They include visual spectral representation of all major compound functional groupings and NIR frequency ranges. Organized by functional group type and chemical structure, based on standard compound classification, the chapters are easy to

  4. Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Keisuke

    2009-01-01

    Except in the very early stage of the development of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) by Kai Siegbahn and his coworkers, the excitation sources for XPS studies have predominantly been the Al Kα and Mg Kα emission lines. The advent of synchrotron radiation sources opened up the possibility of tuning the excitation photon energy with much higher throughputs for photoemission spectroscopy, however the excitation energy range was limited to the vacuum ultra violet and soft X-ray regions. Over the past 5-6 years, bulk-sensitive hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy using high-brilliance high-flux X-rays from third generation synchrotron radiation facilities has been developed. This article reviews the history of HXPES covering the period from Kai Siegbahn and his coworkers' pioneering works to the present, and describes the fundamental aspects, instrumentation, applications to solid state physics, applied physics, materials science, and industrial applications of HXPES. Finally, several challenging new developments which have been conducted at SPring-8 by collaborations among several groups are introduced.

  5. Recommendations concerning magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In medicine the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is applied in the form of in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In vivo MRS can be carried out non-invasively. The committee of the Dutch Health Council briefly discusses the qualities and potentialities of the nuclei that will probably be used in future clinical spectroscopy: 31 P, 13 C, 1 H (and possibly 19 F and 23 Na). The committee discusses several possibilities of combining imaging and spectroscopy. The imaging of nuclei other than protons is also possible with MRS. Potential applications are considered in oncology, cardiology, neurology and hepatology. (Auth.)

  6. VMEbus interface for spectroscopy ADCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeaeskelaeinen, M.

    1987-01-01

    A high performance VMEbus interface for spectroscopy ADCs and other similar devices used in nuclear spectroscopy coincidence experiments has been developed. This new module can be used to interface existing spectroscopy ADCs with fast parallel data transfer into the industry standard multiprocessor VMEbus. The unit provides a fast direct readout of the ADC data into the VMEbus memory. The interface also has built-in capabilities that enable it to be used in coincidence experiments for slow data timing and ADC pattern recognition. (orig.)

  7. Chlorococcalean microalgae Ankistrodesmus convolutes biodiesel characterization with Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati SONAWANE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chlorococcalean microalgae Ankistrodesmus convolutes was found in fresh water Godawari reservoir, Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra State, India. Microalgae are modern biomass for the production of liquid biofuel due to its high solar cultivation efficiency. The collection, harvesting and drying processes were play vital role in converting algal biomass into energy liquid fuel. The oil extraction was the important step for the biodiesel synthesis. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME synthesis was carried through base catalyzed transesterification method. The product was analyzed by using the hyphened techniques like Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS. FT-IR Spectroscopy was results the ester as functional group of obtained product while the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy was results the six type of fatty acid methyl ester with different concentration. Ankistrodesmus convolutes biodiesel consist of 46.5% saturated and 49.14% unsaturated FAME.

  8. Molecular symmetry and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Bunker, Philip; Jensen, Per

    2006-01-01

    The first edition, by P.R. Bunker, published in 1979, remains the sole textbook that explains the use of the molecular symmetry group in understanding high resolution molecular spectra. Since 1979 there has been considerable progress in the field and a second edition is required; the original author has been joined in its writing by Per Jensen. The Material of the first edition has been reorganized and much has been added. The molecular symmetry group is now introduced early on, and the explanation of how to determine nuclear spin statistical weights has been consolidated in one chapter, after groups, symmetry groups, character tables and the Hamiltonian have been introduced. A description of the symmetry in the three-dimensional rotation group K(spatial), irreducible spherical tensor operators, and vector coupling coefficients is now included. The chapters on energy levels and selection rules contain a great deal of material that was not in the first edition (much of it was undiscovered in 1979), concerning ...

  9. Admittance spectroscopy or deep level transient spectroscopy: A contrasting juxtaposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, Joachim; Venter, Andre

    2018-04-01

    A comprehensive understanding of defects in semiconductors remains of primary importance. In this paper the effectiveness of two of the most commonly used semiconductor defect spectroscopy techniques, viz. deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and admittance spectroscopy (AS) are reviewed. The analysis of defects present in commercially available SiC diodes shows that admittance spectroscopy allows the identification of deep traps with reduced measurement effort compared to deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS). Besides the N-donor, well-studied intrinsic defects were detected in these diodes. Determination of their activation energy and defect density, using the two techniques, confirm that the sensitivity of AS is comparable to that of DLTS while, due to its well defined peak shape, the spectroscopic resolution is superior. Additionally, admittance spectroscopy can analyze faster emission processes which make the study of shallow defects more practical and even that of shallow dopant levels, possible. A comparative summary for the relevant spectroscopic features of the two capacitance methods are presented.

  10. Nuclear Forensics using Gamma-ray Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman E. B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of George Dracoulis’s research career was devoted to utilising gamma-ray spectroscopy in fundamental studies in nuclear physics. This same technology is useful in a wide range of applications in the area of nuclear forensics. Over the last several years, our research group has made use of both high- and low-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers to: identify the first sample of plutonium large enough to be weighed; determine the yield of the Trinity nuclear explosion; measure fission fragment yields as a function of target nucleus and neutron energy; and observe fallout in the U. S. from the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.

  11. Near infrared spectroscopy of human muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarrone, R.; Currà, A.; Cardillo, A.; Bonifazi, G.; Serranti, S.

    2018-02-01

    Optical spectroscopy is a powerful tool in research and industrial applications. Its properties of being rapid, non-invasive and not destructive make it a promising technique for qualitative as well as quantitative analysis in medicine. Recent advances in materials and fabrication techniques provided portable, performant, sensing spectrometers readily operated by user-friendly cabled or wireless systems. We used such a system to test whether infrared spectroscopy techniques, currently utilized in many areas as primary/secondary raw materials sector, cultural heritage, agricultural/food industry, environmental remote and proximal sensing, pharmaceutical industry, etc., could be applied in living humans to categorize muscles. We acquired muscles infrared spectra in the Vis-SWIR regions (350-2500 nm), utilizing an ASD FieldSpec 4 Standard-Res Spectroradiometer with a spectral sampling capability of 1.4 nm at 350-1000 nm and 1.1 nm at 1001-2500 nm. After a preliminary spectra pre-processing (i.e. signal scattering reduction), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to identify similar spectral features presence and to realize their further grouping. Partial Least-Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) was utilized to implement discrimination/prediction models. We studied 22 healthy subjects (age 25-89 years, 11 females), by acquiring Vis-SWIR spectra from the upper limb muscles (i.e. biceps, a forearm flexor, and triceps, a forearm extensor). Spectroscopy was performed in fixed limb postures (elbow angle approximately 90‡). We found that optical spectroscopy can be applied to study human tissues in vivo. Vis-SWIR spectra acquired from the arm detect muscles, distinguish flexors from extensors.

  12. Threshold photoelectron spectroscopy and photoionization total ion yield spectroscopy of simple organic acids, aldehydes, ketones and amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yencha, Andrew J; Malins, Andrew E R; Siggel-King, Michele R F; Eypper, Marie; King, George C

    2009-01-01

    We have initiated a research program to investigate the ionization behavior of some simple organic molecules containing the carboxyl group (R 2 C=O), where R could be H, OH, NH 2 , or CH 3 or other aliphatic or aromatic carbon groups, using threshold photoelectron spectroscopy and photoionization total ion yield spectroscopy. We report here on the simplest organic acid, formic acid, and two simple aldehydes: acetaldehyde and the simplest unsaturated aldehyde, 2-propenal (acrolein). The objective of this study was to characterize the valence cationic states of these molecules with vibrational structural resolution.

  13. Lecture II. Charmed particle spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The discussion of charmed particle spectroscopy covers the particle properties and interrelations from a charmed quark composition point of view including SU(4)-symmetry generalities, mesons, baryons, charmed particle masses, and decays of charmed particles. 6 references

  14. Moessbauer Spectroscopy in Materials Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The publication in electronic form has been set up as proceedings of the conference dealing with applications of the Moessbauer spectroscopy in material science. Twenty-three abstracts and twenty-two presentations are included.

  15. New results from old spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemingway, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    A report is presented of some of the major experimental results during the last year in the field of old spectroscopy. Included are properties, quark model, multiplets, particle interactions, and cross sections. 34 references

  16. High-resolution reflection spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducloy, Martial

    1997-01-01

    In this article some recent developments in selective reflection spectroscopy is reviewed and the various ways to extend Doppler free techniques to this spectroscopic field is discussed. Its main feature is to probe atomic gas close to the cell boundaries

  17. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  18. Intermultiplet transitions using neutron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, R.; Lovesey, S.W.; Taylor, A.D.; Balcar, E.

    1989-12-01

    Neutron inelastic scattering is used here to attempt to obtain optical spectra for lanthanide metals and compounds. Intermultiplet spectroscopy provides information about transitions from different electronic configurations and hybridisation of the 4f shell. This report discusses the relatively limited contribution that neutron scattering has played in intermultiplet spectroscopy, and covers spin-orbit transitions and coulomb transitions Racah algebra is developed in calculating the scattering cross sections. (author)

  19. ESR spectroscopy and electron distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy can map out the electron distribution in a molecule, in much the same way as proton NMR spectroscopy can map out the proton distribution, and it provides some of the most direct evidence for the principal concepts underlying the electronic theory of organic structure and mechanism. This is illustrated for phenomena of conjugation, hyper-conjugation, substituent effects in annulenes, Hueckel theory, ring strain, the Mills-Nixon effect, and ion pairing. (author)

  20. Semiconductor optoelectronic infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollingworth, A.R.

    2001-08-01

    We use spectroscopy to study infrared optoelectronic inter and intraband semiconductor carrier dynamics. The overall aim of this thesis was to study both III-V and Pb chalcogenide material systems in order to show their future potential use in infrared emitters. The effects of bandstructure engineering have been studied in the output characteristics of mid-IR III-V laser diodes to show which processes (defects, radiative, Auger and phonon) dominate and whether non-radiative processes can be suppressed. A new three-beam pump probe experiment was used to investigate interband recombination directly in passive materials. Experiments on PbSe and theory for non-parabolic near-mirror bands and non-degenerate statistics were in good agreement. Comparisons with HgCdTe showed a reduction in the Auger coefficient of 1-2 orders of magnitude in the PbSe. Using Landau confinement to model spatial confinement in quantum dots (QDs) 'phonon bottlenecking' was studied. The results obtained from pump probe and cyclotron resonance saturation measurements showed a clear suppression in the cooling of carriers when Landau level separation was not resonant with LO phonon energy. When a bulk laser diode was placed in a magnetic field to produce a quasi quantum wire device the resulting enhanced differential gain and reduced Auger recombination lowered I th by 30%. This result showed many peaks in the light output which occurred when the LO phonon energy was a multiple of the Landau level separation. This showed for the first time evidence of the phonon bottleneck in a working laser device. A new technique called time resolved optically detected cyclotron resonance, was used as a precursor to finding the carrier dynamics within a spatially confined quantum dot. By moving to the case of a spatial QD using an optically detected intraband resonance it was possible to measure the energy separation interband levels and conduction and valence sublevels within the dot simultaneously. Furthermore

  1. Unquenched lattice upsilon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcantonio, L.M.

    2001-03-01

    A non-relativistic effective theory of QCD (NRQCD) is used in calculations of the upsilon spectrum. Simultaneous multi-correlation fitting routines are used to yield lattice channel energies and amplitudes. The lattice configurations used were both dynamical, with two flavours of sea quarks included in the action; and quenched, with no sea quarks. These configurations were generated by the UKQCD collaboration. The dynamical configurations used were ''matched'', having the same lattice spacing, but differing in the sea quark mass. Thus, it was possible to analyse trends of observables with sea quark mass, in the certainty that the trend isn't partially due to varying lattice spacing. The lattice spacing used for spectroscopy was derived from the lattice 1 1 P 1 - 1 3 S 1 splitting. On each set of configurations two lattice bare b quark masses were used, giving kinetic masses bracketing the physical Υ mass. The only quantity showing a strong dependence on these masses was the hyperfine splitting, so it was interpolated to the real Υ mass. The radial and orbital splittings gave good agreement with experiment. The hyperfine splitting results showed a clear signal for unquenching and the dynamical hyperfine splitting results were extrapolated to a physical sea quark mass. This result, combined with the quenched result yielded a value for the hyperfine splitting at n f = 3, predicting an η b mass of 9.517(4) GeV. The NRQCD technique for obtaining a value of the strong coupling constant in the M-barS-bar scheme was followed. Using quenched and dynamical results a value was extrapolated to n f = 3. Employing a three loop beta function to run the coupling, with suitable matching conditions at heavy quark thresholds, the final result was obtained for n f = 5 at a scale equal to the Z boson mass. This result was α(5)/MS(Mz)=0.110(4). Two methods for finding the mass of the b quark in the MS scheme were employed. The results of both methods agree within error but the

  2. Analysis of a Fossil Bone from Malu Rosu - Giurgiu by Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olariu, Agata; Popescu, I.V.; Hellborg, Ragnar; Stenstroem, Kristina; Skog, Goeran; Alexandrescu, E.

    2000-01-01

    In the present work we studied a fossil bone found in the archaeological site at Malu Rosu, near Giurgiu. Other specimens of fossil bones from Malu Rosu had been earlier dated by a chemical method, considering the content of the fluorine by neutron activation analysis. In this paper we have determined the age of a bone from Malu Rosu by the method of radiocarbon using the AMS (accelerator mass spectroscopy) technique. The measurement has been performed at 3 MeV Pelletron accelerator of the Lund University. The preparation of the bone sample was done in 2 steps: extraction of collagen from the structure of the bone by a chemical pretreatment, and then the transformation of collagen to pure carbon. The conversion to the elemental carbon is done also in two steps: formation of CO 2 by collagen combustion, and then the reduction of CO 2 to pure carbon. The sample of bone, as pure carbon is put in a copper holder and is arranged in a wheel in the following sequence: 5 carbon samples and 3 standards (1 standard of anthracite and 2 standards of oxalic acid). The anthracite being a very old coal is considered to have no 14 C traces and by its measurement one gets the background for 14 C both of the accelerator and of preparation installation of samples. Oxalic acid is a standard SRM prepared by USA National Bureau of Standards, with a well known activity of 14 C, measured in the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory, Lund University, used to normalize the value of the 14 C counting rate, for the sample measured in the same conditions of beam current and time as the standard. The wheel with samples and standards are put in the ion source of the accelerator. The central part of the Lund AMS system is a Pelletron tandem accelerator (model 3UDH, produced by NEC, Wisconsin USA). The accelerator is run at 2.4 MV during AMS experiments, which is optimal for the C 3+ charge state. On the experimental beam line a magnetic quadrupole triplet, a velocity selector and a second analyzing

  3. Characterization and optimization of an X-ray laser for the spectroscopy of Li-like heavy-ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielbauer, B.

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments in the theory of plasma-based collisionally excited x-ray lasers (XRL) have shown an optimization potential based on the dependence of the absorption region of the pumping laser on its angle of incidence on the plasma. For the experimental proof of this idea, a number of diagnostic schemes were developed, tested, qualified and applied. A high-resolution imaging system, yielding the keV emission profile perpendicular to the target surface, provided positions of the hottest plasma regions, interesting for the benchmarking of plasma simulation codes. The implementation of a highly efficient spectrometer for the plasma emission made it possible to gain information about the abundance of the ionization states necessary for the laser action in the plasma. The intensity distribution and deflection angle of the pump laser beam could be imaged for single XRL shots, giving access to its refraction process within the plasma. During a European collaboration campaign at the Lund Laser Center, Sweden, the optimization of the pumping laser incidence angle resulted in a reduction of the required pumping energy for a Ni-like Mo XRL, which enabled the operation at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. Using the experiences gained there, the XRL performance at the PHELIX facility, GSI Darmstadt with respect to achievable repetition rate and at wavelengths below 20 nm was significantly improved, and also important information for the development towards multi-100 eV plasma XRLs was acquired. Due to the setup improvements achieved during the work for this thesis, the PHELIX XRL system now has reached a degree of reproducibility and versatility which is sufficient for demanding applications like the XRL spectroscopy of heavy ions. In addition, a European research campaign, aiming towards plasma XRLs approaching the water-window (wavelengths below 5 nm) was initiated. (orig.)

  4. Characterization and optimization of an X-ray laser for the spectroscopy of Li-like heavy-ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielbauer, B.

    2007-10-24

    Recent developments in the theory of plasma-based collisionally excited x-ray lasers (XRL) have shown an optimization potential based on the dependence of the absorption region of the pumping laser on its angle of incidence on the plasma. For the experimental proof of this idea, a number of diagnostic schemes were developed, tested, qualified and applied. A high-resolution imaging system, yielding the keV emission profile perpendicular to the target surface, provided positions of the hottest plasma regions, interesting for the benchmarking of plasma simulation codes. The implementation of a highly efficient spectrometer for the plasma emission made it possible to gain information about the abundance of the ionization states necessary for the laser action in the plasma. The intensity distribution and deflection angle of the pump laser beam could be imaged for single XRL shots, giving access to its refraction process within the plasma. During a European collaboration campaign at the Lund Laser Center, Sweden, the optimization of the pumping laser incidence angle resulted in a reduction of the required pumping energy for a Ni-like Mo XRL, which enabled the operation at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. Using the experiences gained there, the XRL performance at the PHELIX facility, GSI Darmstadt with respect to achievable repetition rate and at wavelengths below 20 nm was significantly improved, and also important information for the development towards multi-100 eV plasma XRLs was acquired. Due to the setup improvements achieved during the work for this thesis, the PHELIX XRL system now has reached a degree of reproducibility and versatility which is sufficient for demanding applications like the XRL spectroscopy of heavy ions. In addition, a European research campaign, aiming towards plasma XRLs approaching the water-window (wavelengths below 5 nm) was initiated. (orig.)

  5. Spectroscopy Division progress report for January 1987 - December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    During the period January 1987 - December 1988, the Spectroscopy Division has carried out research and development in many areas of analytical spectroscopy, atomic spectra and spectra of diatomic and polyatomic molecules. The Division has acquired an ICP spectrometer and an excimer laser pumped dye laser during this period and they have been used very fruitfully for research and development. Research in high resolution atomic spectroscopy has continued to flourish. Beam foil spectroscopy and spectroscopy of low energy plasma focus sources have been put on a firm foundation. Setting up of new experimental systems for solid state spectral studies at liquid helium temperatures have been started. A good amount of theoretical work in forbidden transitions, has been carried out. Diode laser spectroscopy has been used for high precision intensity and frequency measurements. Service facilities like quality control analysis of nuclear materials and supply of optical components and thin film devices have performed with maximum efficiency. The electronics and instrumentation group has developed several facilities for various experimental set ups. Brief description of all these and other activities of the Division are given in the present progress report. A list of publications and a divisional staff chart are also given. (author). figs., tabs

  6. Near infrared spectroscopy and exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, Caroline

    2002-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method for the continuous monitoring of changes in tissue oxygenation and blood volume during aerobic exercise. During incremental exercise in adult subjects there was a positive correlation between lactate threshold (measured by blood sampling) and changes in the rate of muscle deoxygenation (measured by NIRS). However, the 7% failure rate for the NIRS test mitigated against the general use of this method. NIRS did not provide a valid method for LT determination in an adolescent population. NIRS was then used to examine whether haemodynamic changes could be a contributing factor to the mechanism underlying the cross-transfer effect. During a one-legged incremental aerobic exercise test the muscle was more deoxygenated in the exercising leg than in the non-exercising leg, consistent with oxygen consumption outstripping blood flow to the exercising limb. However, muscle blood volume increased equally in both legs. This suggests that blood flow may be raised to similar levels in both the legs; although local factors may signal an increase in blood volume, this effect is expressed in both legs. Muscle blood flow and changes in muscle blood volume were then measured directly by NIRS during an incremental one-arm aerobic exercise test. There was no significant difference in either blood volume or blood flow in the two arms at the end of the test. In the non-exercising arm changes in blood flow and blood volume were measured throughout the protocol. At higher exercise intensities, blood volume continued to rise as muscle blood flow plateaued, indicating that blood volume changes become independent of changes in blood flow. Finally, the effect of different training regimes on changes in muscle blood volume was examined. Subjects were assigned to a training group; two-arm training, one-arm training or a control group. Training did not affect blood volume changes during two-arm exercise. However, during one

  7. Skin biochemical composition analysis by Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Patricia Karen; Tosato, Maira Gaspar; Alves, Rani de Souza; Martin, Airton Abrahao; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro, E-mail: amartin@univap.br [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Vibracional Biomedica, Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento - IP e D, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba - UniVap, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Skin aging is characterized by cellular and molecular alterations. In this context, Confocal Raman spectroscopy was used in vivo to measure these biochemical changes as function of the skin depth. In this study we have tried to correlate spectra from pure amino acids to in vivo spectra from volunteers with different ages. This study was performed on 32 volunteers: 11 from Group A (20-23 years), 11 from Group B (39-42 years) and 10 from Group C (59-62 years). For each group, the Raman spectra were measured on the surface (0 mm), 30 +- 3 mm and 60 +- 3 {mu}m below the surface. The results from intergroup comparisons showed that the oldest group had a prevalence of the tyrosine band, but it also presented a decrease in the band centered at 875 cm{sup -1} of pyrrolidone acid. The amide I band centered at 1637 cm{sup -1} that is attributed to collagen, as well as other proteins and lipid, showed a smaller amount of these biomolecules for Group C, which can be explained by the decrease in collagen concentration as a function of age. (author)

  8. Scanning, non-contact, hybrid broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Johannes D; Mireles, Miguel; Morales-Dalmau, Jordi; Farzam, Parisa; Martínez-Lozano, Mar; Casanovas, Oriol; Durduran, Turgut

    2016-02-01

    A scanning system for small animal imaging using non-contact, hybrid broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (ncDOS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (ncDCS) is presented. The ncDOS uses a two-dimensional spectrophotometer retrieving broadband (610-900 nm) spectral information from up to fifty-seven source-detector distances between 2 and 5 mm. The ncDCS data is simultaneously acquired from four source-detector pairs. The sample is scanned in two dimensions while tracking variations in height. The system has been validated with liquid phantoms, demonstrated in vivo on a human fingertip during an arm cuff occlusion and on a group of mice with xenoimplanted renal cell carcinoma.

  9. Evolution of nuclear spectroscopy at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1990 to date a variety of medium energy heavy ions were made available from the BARC-TIFR Pel- letron and the Nuclear Science Centre Pelletron. The state of the art gamma detector arrays in these centres enabled the Saha Institute groups to undertake more sophisticated experiments. Front line nuclear spectroscopy ...

  10. Characterization Of Cobalt-Exchanged Zeolite A By DRIFT Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappers, M. J.; van der Maas, John H.; Chalmers, J. M.; Howard, J.

    1989-12-01

    In-situ DRIFT spectroscopy has been succesfully used for the characterization of Co4Na4-A. Dehydration of the zeolite A appears to involve formation and breakdown of hydration complexes and hydrolysis. The position of cations and hydroxyl groups within the zeolite structure was derived from the adsorption of carbon monoxide and acetonitrile.

  11. NMR spectroscopy in the optimization and evaluation of RAFT agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperman, B.; McLeary, J.B.; van den Dungen, E.; Pound, G.

    2007-01-01

    The selection of a suitable mediating agent in Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT) mediated polymerization is crucial to the degree of control that can be achieved. An overview of work from the Stellenbosch group is presented in which the use of NMR spectroscopy as a tool for

  12. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Ridgway, Mark

    2015-01-01

    X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) is a powerful technique with which to probe the properties of matter, equally applicable to the solid, liquid and gas phases. Semiconductors are arguably our most technologically-relevant group of materials given they form the basis of the electronic and photonic devices that now so widely permeate almost every aspect of our society. The most effective utilisation of these materials today and tomorrow necessitates a detailed knowledge of their structural and vibrational properties. Through a series of comprehensive reviews, this book demonstrates the versatility of XAS for semiconductor materials analysis and presents important research activities in this ever growing field. A short introduction of the technique, aimed primarily at XAS newcomers, is followed by twenty independent chapters dedicated to distinct groups of materials. Topics span dopants in crystalline semiconductors and disorder in amorphous semiconductors to alloys and nanometric material as well as in-sit...

  13. Advanced techniques for actinide spectroscopy (ATAS 2012). Abstract book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Mueller, Katharina; Steudtner, Robin [eds.

    2012-07-01

    The abstract book of the International workshop on advanced techniques for actinide spectroscopy (ATAS 2012) include contributions concerning the following issues: environmental applications, NMR spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and theory, technical application: separation processes, emission spectroscopy.

  14. Advanced techniques for actinide spectroscopy (ATAS 2012). Abstract book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Mueller, Katharina; Steudtner, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The abstract book of the International workshop on advanced techniques for actinide spectroscopy (ATAS 2012) include contributions concerning the following issues: environmental applications, NMR spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and theory, technical application: separation processes, emission spectroscopy.

  15. Photoemission spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.L.I.

    1980-01-01

    It is an epoch making event for photoemission spectroscopy that the light sources of continuous wavelength from vacuum ultra-violet to X-ray region have become available by the advent of synchrotron radiation. Specifically the progress after stable intense light has become obtainable from storage rings is very significant. One of the features of these synchrotron radiation is its extreme polarization of radiating pattern. Though the elementary processes of photoemission out of solids are the basic themes, phenomenalistic 3-stage model is usually applied to the analysis of experiments. In this model, the process of photoemission is considered by dividing into three stages, namely the generation of photoelectrons due to optical transition between electron status -- the transportation of photoelectrons to solid surfaces -- breaking away from the surfaces. The spectrometers, the energy analyzers of photoelectrons, and sample-preparing room used for photoemission spectroscopy are described. Next, energy distribution curves are explained. At the end, photoelectron yield spectroscopy, CFS (constant final energy spectroscopy) and CIS (constant initial energy spectroscopy), Auger yield and interatomic Auger yield, the determination of surface structure by normal emission CIS, and surface EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) are described. As seen above, the application specifically to surface physics is promising in the future. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  16. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokmakoff, Andrei [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Champion, Paul [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Heilweil, Edwin J. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Nelson, Keith A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ziegler, Larry [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2009-05-14

    This document contains the Proceedings from the 14th International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, which was held in Meredith, NH from May 9-14, 2009. The study of molecular dynamics in chemical reaction and biological processes using time-resolved spectroscopy plays an important role in our understanding of energy conversion, storage, and utilization problems. Fundamental studies of chemical reactivity, molecular rearrangements, and charge transport are broadly supported by the DOE's Office of Science because of their role in the development of alternative energy sources, the understanding of biological energy conversion processes, the efficient utilization of existing energy resources, and the mitigation of reactive intermediates in radiation chemistry. In addition, time-resolved spectroscopy is central to all fiveof DOE's grand challenges for fundamental energy science. The Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy conference is organized biennially to bring the leaders in this field from around the globe together with young scientists to discuss the most recent scientific and technological advances. The latest technology in ultrafast infrared, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy and the scientific advances that these methods enable were covered. Particular emphasis was placed on new experimental methods used to probe molecular dynamics in liquids, solids, interfaces, nanostructured materials, and biomolecules.

  17. Atomic spectroscopy and radiative processes

    CERN Document Server

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the basic physical principles of atomic spectroscopy and the absorption and emission of radiation in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. It summarizes the basics of electromagnetism and thermodynamics and then describes in detail the theory of atomic spectra for complex atoms, with emphasis on astrophysical applications. Both equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena in plasmas are considered. The interaction between radiation and matter is described, together with various types of radiation (e.g., cyclotron, synchrotron, bremsstrahlung, Compton). The basic theory of polarization is explained, as is the theory of radiative transfer for astrophysical applications. Atomic Spectroscopy and Radiative Processes bridges the gap between basic books on atomic spectroscopy and the very specialized publications for the advanced researcher: it will provide under- and postgraduates with a clear in-depth description of theoretical aspects, supported by practical examples of applications.

  18. Which finite simple groups are unit groups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Occhipinti, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    We prove that if G is a finite simple group which is the unit group of a ring, then G is isomorphic to either (a) a cyclic group of order 2; (b) a cyclic group of prime order 2^k −1 for some k; or (c) a projective special linear group PSLn(F2) for some n ≥ 3. Moreover, these groups do all occur a...

  19. Dark spectroscopy at lepton colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Yonit; Kuflik, Eric; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2018-03-01

    Rich and complex dark sectors are abundant in particle physics theories. Here, we propose performing spectroscopy of the mass structure of dark sectors via mono-photon searches at lepton colliders. The energy of the mono-photon tracks the invariant mass of the invisible system it recoils against, which enables studying the resonance structure of the dark sector. We demonstrate this idea with several well-motivated models of dark sectors. Such spectroscopy measurements could potentially be performed at Belle II, BES-III and future low-energy lepton colliders.

  20. Raman Spectroscopy of Microbial Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapid nondestructive technique providing spectroscopic and structural information on both organic and inorganic molecular compounds. Extensive applications for the method in the characterization of pigments have been found. Due to the high sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy for the detection of chlorophylls, carotenoids, scytonemin, and a range of other pigments found in the microbial world, it is an excellent technique to monitor the presence of such pigments, both in pure cultures and in environmental samples. Miniaturized portable handheld instruments are available; these instruments can be used to detect pigments in microbiological samples of different types and origins under field conditions. PMID:24682303

  1. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  2. Time-resolved ESR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckert, D.

    1986-06-01

    The time-resolved ESR spectroscopy is one of the modern methods in radiospectroscopy and plays an important role in solving various problems in chemistry and biology. Proceeding from the basic ideas of time-resolved ESR spectroscopy the experimental equipment is described generally including the equipment developed at the Central Institute of Isotope and Radiation Research. The experimental methods applied to the investigation of effects of chemically induced magnetic polarization of electrons and to kinetic studies of free radicals in polymer systems are presented. The theory of radical pair mechanism is discussed and theoretical expressions are summarized in a computer code to compute the theoretical polarization for each pair of the radicals

  3. Laser Spectroscopy : XII International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Allegrini, Maria; Sasso, Antonio

    1996-01-01

    This text includes all the recent advances in the field of laser spectroscopy. Major results span from the control of matter by electromagnetic fields (trapping and coding) to high precision measurements on simple atomic systems and to quantum optics with single atoms. It includes a report of the Bose-Einstein condensation achieved by laser-cooling of rubidium atoms. Achievements in the technology of tunable sources, in particular of miniaturized solid state devices, are also reported. Most recent advances in molecular spectroscopy are illustrated with emphasis on "cooled" spectra, clusters and high accuracy frequency references. Topics such as atomic interferometry and microcavity quantum optics are also covered.

  4. Migraine and magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younis, Samaira; Hougaard, Anders; Vestergaard, Mark B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review: To present an updated and streamlined overview of the metabolic and biochemical aspect of the migraine pathophysiology based on findings from phosphorous (31P) and hydrogen (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies. Recent findings: Despite of the variation in the meth......Purpose of review: To present an updated and streamlined overview of the metabolic and biochemical aspect of the migraine pathophysiology based on findings from phosphorous (31P) and hydrogen (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies. Recent findings: Despite of the variation...

  5. Annual reports on NMR spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Graham A; McCarthy, M J

    1995-01-01

    Over recent years, no other technique has grown to such importance as that of NMR spectroscopy. It is used in all branches of science where precise structural determination is required and where the nature of interactions and reactions in solution is being studied. Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy has established itself as a means for the specialist and non-specialist alike to become familiar with new applications of the technique in all branches of chemistry, including biochemistry, and pharmaceutics. This volume focuses on theoretical aspects of NMR nuclear shielding and on applications of

  6. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…

  7. Studies on low energy ion-atom collisions by means of electron-spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirosi Suzuki

    1991-01-01

    The typical results of studies on autoionization processes produced by low energy ion-atom collisions are given by means of the ejected electron spectroscopy, which have been performed by Atomic Physics Group of Sophia University

  8. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  9. Atomic and molecular spectroscopy basic concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kakkar, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopy is the study of electromagnetic radiation and its interaction with solid, liquid, gas and plasma. It is one of the widely used analytical techniques to study the structure of atoms and molecules. The technique is also employed to obtain information about atoms and molecules as a result of their distinctive spectra. The fast-spreading field of spectroscopic applications has made a noteworthy influence on many disciplines, including energy research, chemical processing, environmental protection and medicine. This book aims to introduce students to the topic of spectroscopy. The author has avoided the mathematical aspects of the subject as far as possible; they appear in the text only when inevitable. Including topics such as time-dependent perturbation theory, laser action and applications of Group Theory in interpretation of spectra, the book offers a detailed coverage of the basic concepts and applications of spectroscopy.

  10. Applications of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Asoka-Kumar , P.; Lynn , K.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the application of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) to some selected technologically important systems. The method involves a nondestructive probe to detect low levels of open-volume defects. The discussion shows the application of PAS to a wide range of advanced material systems.

  11. Astronomical Spectroscopy A Short History

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 5. Astronomical Spectroscopy A Short History. J C Bhattacharyya. General Article Volume 3 Issue 5 May 1998 pp 24-29. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/05/0024-0029 ...

  12. NMR spectroscopy and drug development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craik, D.; Munro, S.

    1990-01-01

    The use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for structural and conformational studies on drug molecules, the three-dimensional investigation of proteins structure and their interactions with ligands are discussed. In-vivo NMR studies of the effects of drugs on metabolism in perfused organs and whole animals are also briefly presented. 5 refs., ills

  13. Gluonic excitations in hadronic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.

    1983-09-01

    Theoretical expectations are described for new forms of hadronic matter containing gluons as excitable degrees of freedom. Particular attention is paid to hybrid states containing both quarks and gluons. Recent work on the spectroscopy of hybrid mesons and hybrid baryons is reviewed. Comparisons of bag model, lattice QCD and QCD sum rule predictions are made and some confrontation with data attempted. (author)

  14. Superconducting microphone for photoacoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, P.C.; Labrunie, M.; Weid, J.P. von der; Symko, O.G.

    1982-07-01

    A superconducting microphone has been developed for photoacoustic spectroscopy at low temperatures. The microphone consists of a thin mylar membrane coated with a film of lead whose motion is detected by a SQUID magnetometer. For the simple set-up presented here, the limiting pressure sensitivity is 7.5x10 -14 atmospheres/√Hz. (Author) [pt

  15. Evanescent spectroscopy - theory and experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Karabchevsky, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Outline1 Introduction2 Literature Overview3 Photonic-Plasmonic WaveguideStructureModellingTheory4 ResultsOptical TransmittanceLoss of Fundamental Mode in a Gold RegionOptical Surface Intensity5 NIR Spectroscopy - Experiment6 Conclusions7 Acknowledgements

  16. Trends in resonance ionization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    The author reviews the history of resonance ionization spectroscopy and then comments on the delineations of RIS with reference to many related laser processes. The substance of the paper deals with the trends in RIS and especially how the needs for sensitive analytical methods have overshadowed the orginal plan to study excited species. 9 refs., 1 fig

  17. High-spin nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.M.

    1986-07-01

    High-spin spectroscopy is the study of the changes in nuclear structure, properties, and behavior with increasing angular momentum. It involves the complex interplay between collective and single-particle motion, between shape and deformation changes, particle alignments, and changes in the pairing correlations. A review of progress in theory, experimentation, and instrumentation in this field is given

  18. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Vitor H; Faria, Luiz F O; Ribeiro, Mauro C C

    2017-05-24

    Vibrational spectroscopy has continued use as a powerful tool to characterize ionic liquids since the literature on room temperature molten salts experienced the rapid increase in number of publications in the 1990's. In the past years, infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies have provided insights on ionic interactions and the resulting liquid structure in ionic liquids. A large body of information is now available concerning vibrational spectra of ionic liquids made of many different combinations of anions and cations, but reviews on this literature are scarce. This review is an attempt at filling this gap. Some basic care needed while recording IR or Raman spectra of ionic liquids is explained. We have reviewed the conceptual basis of theoretical frameworks which have been used to interpret vibrational spectra of ionic liquids, helping the reader to distinguish the scope of application of different methods of calculation. Vibrational frequencies observed in IR and Raman spectra of ionic liquids based on different anions and cations are discussed and eventual disagreements between different sources are critically reviewed. The aim is that the reader can use this information while assigning vibrational spectra of an ionic liquid containing another particular combination of anions and cations. Different applications of IR and Raman spectroscopies are given for both pure ionic liquids and solutions. Further issues addressed in this review are the intermolecular vibrations that are more directly probed by the low-frequency range of IR and Raman spectra and the applications of vibrational spectroscopy in studying phase transitions of ionic liquids.

  19. Hollow waveguide cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Chris (Inventor); Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Laser light is confined in a hollow waveguide between two highly reflective mirrors. This waveguide cavity is used to conduct Cavity Ringdown Absorption Spectroscopy of loss mechanisms in the cavity including absorption or scattering by gases, liquid, solids, and/or optical elements.

  20. Principles of electron tunneling spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, E L

    2012-01-01

    Electron tunnelling spectroscopy as a research tool has strongly advanced understanding of superconductivity. This book explains the physics and instrumentation behind the advances illustrated in beautiful images of atoms, rings of atoms and exotic states in high temperature superconductors, and summarizes the state of knowledge that has resulted.

  1. Ultrafast spectroscopy of biological photoreceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennis, J.T.M.; Groot, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    We review recent new insights on reaction dynamics of photoreceptors proteins gained from ultrafast spectroscopy. In Blue Light sensing Using FAD (BLUF) domains, a hydrogen-bond rearrangement around the flavin chromophore proceeds through a radical-pair mechanism, by which light-induced electron and

  2. Current status of baryon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wali, K.C.

    1975-08-01

    In this review of baryon spectroscopy, the basic ideas of some of the current models and the experimental data for their claims to success are discussed including realistic or constituent quark models, experimental comparison, the experimental and theoretical basis for the assignments, algebraic quark models, and confinement schemes

  3. Towards laser spectroscopy of antihydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walz, J.; Pahl, A.; Eikema, K.S.E.; Hansch, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of the first continuous coherent source at 121.56 nm is described. Radiation at this wavelength of Lyman-alpha can be used for laser-cooling of antihydrogen on the strong 1S-2P transition. It also opens up a possibility for precision spectroscopy that requires just a few antihydrogen

  4. More seminars on muonium spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S.F.J.

    1984-12-01

    The paper concerns topics which illustrate the use of muonium spectroscopy in four major areas. The experimental method -muon spin rotation (muSR) is employed in the four topics, which include: muSR studies in magnetism, muons in metals and metal hydrides, muonium in semiconductors and muSR studies in chemistry. (U.K.)

  5. Spectroscopy in catalysis : an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemantsverdriet, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Spectroscopy in Catalysis is an introduction to the most important analytical techniques that are nowadays used in catalysis and in catalytic surface chemistry. The aim of the book is to give the reader a feeling for the type of information that characterization techniques provide about questions

  6. MR spectroscopy in clinical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O

    1994-01-01

    MR spectroscopy (MRS) offers unique possibilities for non-invasive evaluation of biochemistry in vivo. During recent years there has been a growing body of evidence from clinical research studies on human beings using 31P and 1H MRS. The results indicate that it is possible to evaluate phosphorous...

  7. Current Trends in Atomic Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, James J.

    1983-01-01

    Atomic spectroscopy is the study of atoms/ions through their interaction with electromagnetic radiation, in particular, interactions in which radiation is absorbed or emitted with an internal rearrangement of the atom's electrons. Discusses nature of this field, its status and future, and how it is applied to other areas of physics. (JN)

  8. Group Work Publication-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Lists 21 new publications in group work, of which 9 are reviewed. Those discussed include publications on group counseling and psychotherapy, structured groups, support groups, psychodrama, and social group work. (Author/NB)

  9. Quantum isometry groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jyotishman Bhowmick

    2015-11-07

    Nov 7, 2015 ... Classical. Quantum. Background. Compact Hausdorff space. Unital C∗ algebra. Gelfand-Naimark. Compact Group. Compact Quantum Group. Woronowicz. Group Action. Coaction. Woronowicz. Riemannian manifold. Spectral triple. Connes. Isometry group. Quantum Isometry Group. To be discussed.

  10. Ligand-receptor Interactions by NMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak. P.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Today NMR spectroscopy is a method of choice for elucidation of interactions between biomolecules and the potential ligands. Knowledge on these interactions is an essential prerequisite for the rational drug design. The most important contribution of NMR to drug design a few years ago was the 3D structure determination of proteins. Besides delivering the 3D structures of the free proteins as a raw material for the modeling studies on ligand binding, NMR can directly yield valuable experimental data on the biologically important protein-ligand complexes. In addition to X-ray diffraction, NMR spectroscopy can provide information on the internal protein dynamics ordynamics of intermolecular interactions. Changes in NMR parameters allow us to detect ("SAR by NMR" and quantitatively determine binding affinities (titration, diffusion NMR experiments, etc. of potential ligands. Also, it is possible to determine the binding site and conformations of ligands, receptors and receptor-ligand complexes with the help of NMR methods such as tr-NOESY. Epitopes or functional groups responsible for binding of ligands to the receptor can be identified by employing STD or WaterLOGSY experiments. In this review are described some of the most frequent NMR methods for the characterization of the interactions between biomolecules and ligands, together with their advantages and disadvantages.

  11. Application of Raman Spectroscopy and Infrared Spectroscopy in the Identification of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depciuch, Joanna; Kaznowska, Ewa; Zawlik, Izabela; Wojnarowska, Renata; Cholewa, Marian; Heraud, Philip; Cebulski, Józef

    2016-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy and infrared (IR) spectroscopy are both techniques that allow for the investigation of vibrating chemical particles. These techniques provide information not only about chemical particles through the identification of functional groups and spectral analysis of so-called "fingerprints", these methods allow for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of chemical substances in the sample. Both of these spectral techniques are frequently being used in biology and medicine in diagnosing illnesses and monitoring methods of therapy. The type of breast cancer found in woman is often a malignant tumor, causing 1.38 million new cases of breast cancer and 458 000 deaths in the world in 2013. The most important risk factors for breast cancer development are: sex, age, family history, specific benign breast conditions in the breast, ionizing radiation, and lifestyle. The main purpose of breast cancer screening tests is to establish early diagnostics and to apply proper treatment. Diagnoses of breast cancer are based on: (1) physical techniques (e.g., ultrasonography, mammography, elastography, magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography [PET]); (2) histopathological techniques; (3) biological techniques; and (4) optical techniques (e.g., photo acoustic imaging, fluorescence tomography). However, none of these techniques provides unique or especially revealing answers. The aim of our study is comparative spectroscopic measurements on patients with the following: normal non-cancerous breast tissue; breast cancer tissues before chemotherapy; breast cancer tissues after chemotherapy; and normal breast tissues received around the cancerous breast region. Spectra collected from breast cancer patients shows changes in amounts of carotenoids and fats. We also observed changes in carbohydrate and protein levels (e.g., lack of amino acids, changes in the concentration of amino acids, structural changes) in comparison with normal breast tissues. This fact

  12. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Erratum: Quantum corrections and black hole spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qing-Quan; Han, Yan; Cai, Xu

    2012-06-01

    In my paper [Qing-Quan Jiang, Yan Han, Xu Cai, Quantum corrections and black hole spectroscopy, JHEP 08 (2010) 049], there was an error in deriving the black hole spectroscopy. In this erratum, we attempt to rectify them.

  14. Imaging spectroscopy for characterisation of grass swards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Imaging spectroscopy, imaging spectrometry, remote sensing, reflection, reflectance, grass sward, white clover, recognition, characterisation, ground cover, growth monitoring, stress detection, heterogeneity quantification

    The potential of imaging spectroscopy as a tool for

  15. PHOTOACOUSTIC SPECTROSCOPY USING A SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JACKSON, R.S.; MICHAELIAN, K.H.; HOMES, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the use of a synchrotron as a source for infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. A synchrotron has an intrinsically high radiance, which is beneficial when photoacoustic spectroscopy is applied to small samples, especially at long wavelengths

  16. Applications of Group Theory: Infrared and Raman Spectra of the Isomers of 1,2-Dichloroethylene: A Physical Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Norman C.; Lacuesta, Nanette N.

    2004-01-01

    A study of the vibrational spectroscopy of the cis and trans isomers of 1,2-dichloroethylene provides an excellent opportunity to learn the applications group theory in laboratories. The necessity of using infrared (IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy in making full vibrational assignments is illustrated.

  17. Photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy of solids and surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalczyk, S.P.

    1976-01-01

    The use of photoelectron spectroscopy, primarily x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, to obtain information on the electronic structure of a wide variety of solids (especially the bulk electronic structure of solids) is covered. Both valence band and core-level spectra, as well as a few cases of photon excited Auger electron spectroscopy, are employed in the investigations to derive information on N(E). The effect of several modulations inherent in the measured I(E)'s, such as final state band structure, cross section, and relaxation, is discussed. Examples of many-electron interactions in PES are given. Some experimental aspects of PES and AES studies are given with emphasis on sample preparation techniques. Multiple splitting of core levels is examined using the Mn levels in MnF 2 as a detailed case study. Core level splittings in transition metals, rare earth metals, transition metal halides and several alloys are also reported. The application of PES to the study of the chemical bond in some crystalline semiconductors and insulators, A/sup N/B/sup 8-N/ and A/sup N/B/sup 10-N/ compounds is treated, and a spectroscopic scale of ionicity for these compounds is developed from the measured ''s-band'' splitting in the valence band density of states

  18. Session A5: hadron spectroscopy, experimental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, S.

    1978-01-01

    Reports 55 contubutions made by mini-rapporteurs and individual contributors are assembled. It is clear, from the contributions made to this session, that there has been steady progress in solving the problem of the hadron spectroscopy of the old style. The picture on the scalar mesons has become clearer. Among the vector meson group, we started to understand Q mesons, though the situation with A 1 is still not clear. Mesons with higher spin have been found and, in some cases, confirmed. In a sense, the jigsaw puzzle on the mesons is gradually being completed while more complex features are found. The same can be said on the baryons. An active study is in progress in the experiment on the exotic states such as narrow baryonium and dibaryon states. However, owing to the difficulty of such experiments and interpretation of the data, a definitive result is yet to come. 94 references

  19. Subcellular Nanoparticle Distribution from Light Transmission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatsch, Alison; Sun, Nan; Johnson, Jeffrey; Stack, Sharon; Tanner, Carol; Ruggiero, Steven

    We have measured the particle-size distribution (PSD) of subcellular structures in plant and animal cells. We have employed a new technique developed by our group, Light Transmission Spectroscopy-combined with cell fractionation-to accurately measure PSDs over a wide size range: from 10 nm to 3000nm, which includes objects from the size of individual proteins to organelles. To date our experiments have included cultured human oral cells and spinach cells. These results show a power-law dependence of particle density with particle diameter, implying a universality of the packing distribution. We discuss modeling the cell as a self-similar (fractal) body comprised of spheres on all size scales. This goal of this work is to obtain a better understanding of the fundamental nature of particle packing within cells in order to enrich our knowledge of the structure, function, and interactions of sub-cellular nanostructures across cell types.

  20. NMR spectroscopy: a tool for conformational analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormena, Claudio F.; Cormanich, Rodrigo A.; Rittner, Roberto; Freitas, Matheus P.

    2011-01-01

    The present review deals with the application of NMR data to the conformational analysis of simple organic compounds, together with other experimental methods like infrared spectroscopy and with theoretical calculations. Each sub-section describes the results for a group of compounds which belong to a given organic function like ketones, esters, etc. Studies of a single compound, even of special relevance, were excluded since the main goal of this review is to compare the results for a given function, where different substituents were used or small structural changes were introduced in the substrate, in an attempt to disclose their effects in the conformational equilibrium. Moreover, the huge amount of data available in the literature, on this research field, imposed some limitations which will be detailed in the Introduction, but it can be reminded in advance that these limitations include mostly the period when these results were published. (author)

  1. AREVA group overview; Presentation du groupe AREVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-08

    This document presents the Group Areva, a world nuclear industry leader, from a financial holding company to an industrial group, operating in two businesses: the nuclear energy and the components. The structure and the market of the group are discussed, as the financial assets. (A.L.B.)

  2. Overgroups of root groups in classical groups

    CERN Document Server

    Aschbacher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The author extends results of McLaughlin and Kantor on overgroups of long root subgroups and long root elements in finite classical groups. In particular he determines the maximal subgroups of this form. He also determines the maximal overgroups of short root subgroups in finite classical groups and the maximal overgroups in finite orthogonal groups of c-root subgroups.

  3. Interagency mechanical operations group numerical systems group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report consists of the minutes of the May 20-21, 1971 meeting of the Interagency Mechanical Operations Group (IMOG) Numerical Systems Group. This group looks at issues related to numerical control in the machining industry. Items discussed related to the use of CAD and CAM, EIA standards, data links, and numerical control.

  4. Liquid identification by Hilbert spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyatti, M; Divin, Y; Poppe, U; Urban, K, E-mail: M.Lyatti@fz-juelich.d, E-mail: Y.Divin@fz-juelich.d [Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Fast and reliable identification of liquids is of great importance in, for example, security, biology and the beverage industry. An unambiguous identification of liquids can be made by electromagnetic measurements of their dielectric functions in the frequency range of their main dispersions, but this frequency range, from a few GHz to a few THz, is not covered by any conventional spectroscopy. We have developed a concept of liquid identification based on our new Hilbert spectroscopy and high- T{sub c} Josephson junctions, which can operate at the intermediate range from microwaves to THz frequencies. A demonstration setup has been developed consisting of a polychromatic radiation source and a compact Hilbert spectrometer integrated in a Stirling cryocooler. Reflection polychromatic spectra of various bottled liquids have been measured at the spectral range of 15-300 GHz with total scanning time down to 0.2 s and identification of liquids has been demonstrated.

  5. Liquid identification by Hilbert spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyatti, M.; Divin, Y.; Poppe, U.; Urban, K.

    2009-11-01

    Fast and reliable identification of liquids is of great importance in, for example, security, biology and the beverage industry. An unambiguous identification of liquids can be made by electromagnetic measurements of their dielectric functions in the frequency range of their main dispersions, but this frequency range, from a few GHz to a few THz, is not covered by any conventional spectroscopy. We have developed a concept of liquid identification based on our new Hilbert spectroscopy and high- Tc Josephson junctions, which can operate at the intermediate range from microwaves to THz frequencies. A demonstration setup has been developed consisting of a polychromatic radiation source and a compact Hilbert spectrometer integrated in a Stirling cryocooler. Reflection polychromatic spectra of various bottled liquids have been measured at the spectral range of 15-300 GHz with total scanning time down to 0.2 s and identification of liquids has been demonstrated.

  6. Liquid identification by Hilbert spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyatti, M; Divin, Y; Poppe, U; Urban, K

    2009-01-01

    Fast and reliable identification of liquids is of great importance in, for example, security, biology and the beverage industry. An unambiguous identification of liquids can be made by electromagnetic measurements of their dielectric functions in the frequency range of their main dispersions, but this frequency range, from a few GHz to a few THz, is not covered by any conventional spectroscopy. We have developed a concept of liquid identification based on our new Hilbert spectroscopy and high- T c Josephson junctions, which can operate at the intermediate range from microwaves to THz frequencies. A demonstration setup has been developed consisting of a polychromatic radiation source and a compact Hilbert spectrometer integrated in a Stirling cryocooler. Reflection polychromatic spectra of various bottled liquids have been measured at the spectral range of 15-300 GHz with total scanning time down to 0.2 s and identification of liquids has been demonstrated.

  7. Femtosecond Broadband Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo-Y; Yoon, Sagwoon; Mathies, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is a new technique where a narrow bandwidth picosecond Raman pump pulse and a red-shifted broadband femtosecond Stokes probe pulse (with or without time delay between the pulses) act on a sample to produce a high resolution Raman gain spectrum with high efficiency and speed, free from fluorescence background interference. It can reveal vibrational structural information and dynamics of stationary or transient states. Here, the quantum picture for femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is used to develop the semiclassical coupled wave theory of the phenomenon and to derive an expression for the measurable Raman gain in FSRS. The semiclassical theory is applied to study the dependence of lineshapes in FSRS on the pump-probe time delay and to deduce vibrational dephasing times in cyclohexane in the ground state

  8. Supercurrent Spectroscopy of Andreev States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bretheau

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We measure the excitation spectrum of a superconducting atomic contact. In addition to the usual continuum above the superconducting gap, the single-particle excitation spectrum contains discrete, spin-degenerate Andreev levels inside the gap. Quasiparticle excitations are induced by a broadband on-chip microwave source and detected by measuring changes in the supercurrent flowing through the atomic contact. Since microwave photons excite quasiparticles in pairs, two types of transitions are observed: Andreev transitions, which consist of putting two quasiparticles in an Andreev level, and transitions to odd states with a single quasiparticle in an Andreev level and the other one in the continuum. In contrast to absorption spectroscopy, supercurrent spectroscopy allows detection of long-lived odd states.

  9. Nuclear spectroscopy with lithium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, C.

    1977-02-01

    A survey of the state of nuclear spectroscopy with lithium ions is given. Proceeding from the physical and nuclear properties the specific topics arising by the acceleration of these ions are discussed. The results obtained from measurements of excitation functions of different lithium reactions, particularly of compound reactions, with several target nuclei are summarized. Besides compound reactions direct reactions are important, especially transfer reactions, elastic and inelastic scattering and exchange reactions. The results on high spin states obtained by in-beam gamma-spectroscopy are discussed in detail. Finally the possibilities are considered for accelerating lithium ions in the cyclotron U-120 and in the tandem generator EGP-10 of the ZfK. (author)

  10. Development of atomic spectroscopy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Kyu Seok; Yang, Ki Ho; Baik, Dae Hyun; Lee, Young Joo; Yi, Jong Hoon; Jeong, Do Young; Jeong, Eui Chang; Yoo, Byung Duk; Cha, Byung Heon; Kim, Seong Ho; Nam, Seong Mo; Kim, Sun Kuk; Lee, Byung Cheol; Choi, Hwa Lim; Ko, Dok Yung; Han, Jae Min; Rho, Si Pyo; Lim, Chang Hwan; Choi, An Seong

    1992-12-01

    This project is aimed for the 'Development of extraction and separation techniques for stable isotopes by atomic laser spectroscopy technique'. The project is devided by two sub-projects. One is the 'Development of the selective photoionization technology' and the other is 'Development of ultrasensitive spectroscopic analysis technololgy'. This year studies on Hg and Yb, both of which have 7 isotopes, have been performed and, as a result, it was proved that specific isotopes of these elements could be selectively extracted. In addition study on plasma extraction technique, development of atomizers, design of electron gun have been the result of the project in 1992. In second sub-project trace determination of Pb has been performed with laser resonance ionization spectroscopy. As a result 20 picogram of detection limit has been obtained. In addition to these results, design of high sensitive laser induced fluorescence detection system as well as remote sensing DIAL system have been done. (Author)

  11. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rule, Gordon S

    2006-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful technique to study the structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy is a comprehensive textbook that guides the reader from a basic understanding of the phenomenological properties of magnetic resonance to the application and interpretation of modern multi-dimensional NMR experiments on 15N/13C-labeled proteins. Beginning with elementary quantum mechanics, a set of practical rules is presented and used to describe many commonly employed multi-dimensional, multi-nuclear NMR pulse sequences. A modular analysis of NMR pulse sequence building blocks also provides a basis for understanding and developing novel pulse programs. This text not only covers topics from chemical shift assignment to protein structure refinement, as well as the analysis of protein dynamics and chemical kinetics, but also provides a practical guide to many aspects of modern spectrometer hardware, sample preparation, experimental set-up, and data pr...

  12. Heavy quark spectroscopy and decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The understanding of q anti q systems containing heavy, charmed, and bottom quarks has progressed rapidly in recent years, through steady improvements in experimental techniques for production and detection of their decays. These lectures are meant to be an experimentalist's review of the subject. In the first of two lectures, the existing data on the spectroscopy of the bound c anti c and b anti b systems will be discussed. Emphasis is placed on comparisons with the theoretical models. The second lecture covers the rapidly changing subject of the decays of heavy mesons (c anti q and b anti q), and their excited states. In combination, the spectroscopy and decays of heavy quarks are shown to provide interesting insights into both the strong and electroweak interactions of the heavy quarks. 103 refs., 39 figs

  13. Blood analysis by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enejder, Annika M K; Koo, Tae-Woong; Oh, Jeankun; Hunter, Martin; Sasic, Slobodan; Feld, Michael S; Horowitz, Gary L

    2002-11-15

    Concentrations of multiple analytes were simultaneously measured in whole blood with clinical accuracy, without sample processing, using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were acquired with an instrument employing nonimaging optics, designed using Monte Carlo simulations of the influence of light-scattering-absorbing blood cells on the excitation and emission of Raman light in turbid medium. Raman spectra were collected from whole blood drawn from 31 individuals. Quantitative predictions of glucose, urea, total protein, albumin, triglycerides, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were made by means of partial least-squares (PLS) analysis with clinically relevant precision (r(2) values >0.93). The similarity of the features of the PLS calibration spectra to those of the respective analyte spectra illustrates that the predictions are based on molecular information carried by the Raman light. This demonstrates the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy for quantitative measurements of biomolecular contents in highly light-scattering and absorbing media.

  14. Laser spectroscopy of radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otten, E.W.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of using the laser spectroscopy in investigations radioactive beams is considered. The main attention is payed to the isotope shift of nuclear charge radii delta 2 >. The general trend of delta 2 > is discussed. Predictions for delta>r 2 < in the framework of the droplet model are given. It is noted that two parameter interpretation of the isotope shift based on the droplet model works the better, the further the distance spans and the clearer the nuclear structure is

  15. The nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyer, Ph.

    1997-01-01

    The spectroscopy of nuclear magnetic resonance constitutes a major analytical technique in biological and organic analysis. This technique appears now in the programme of preparatory classes and its teaching is developed in the second year of DEUG. The following article reviews on the nuclear magnetic resonance and on the possibilities it offers to bring to the fore the physico-chemical properties of molecules. (N.C.)

  16. Developments in inverse photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheils, W.; Leckey, R.C.G.; Riley, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    In the 1950's and 1960's, Photoemission Spectroscopy (PES) established itself as the major technique for the study of the occupied electronic energy levels of solids. During this period the field divided into two branches: X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) for photon energies greater than ∼l000eV, and Ultra-violet Photoemission Spectroscopy (UPS) for photon energies below ∼100eV. By the 1970's XPS and UPS had become mature techniques. Like XPS, BIS (at x-ray energies) does not have the momentum-resolving ability of UPS that has contributed much to the understanding of the occupied band structures of solids. BIS moved into a new energy regime in 1977 when Dose employed a Geiger-Mueller tube to obtain density of unoccupied states data from a tantalum sample at a photon energy of ∼9.7eV. At similar energies, the technique has since become known as Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy (IPS), in acknowledgment of its complementary relationship to UPS and to distinguish it from the higher energy BIS. Drawing on decades of UPS expertise, IPS has quickly moved into areas of interest where UPS has been applied; metals, semiconductors, layer compounds, adsorbates, ferromagnets, and superconductors. At La Trobe University an IPS facility has been constructed. This presentation reports on developments in the experimental and analytical techniques of IPS that have been made there. The results of a study of the unoccupied bulk and surface bands of GaAs are presented

  17. Liquid microjet for photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy from highly volatile liquids, especially from water and aqueous solutions, has recently become possible due to the development of the vacuum liquid microjet in combination of high-brilliance synchrotron radiation. The present status of this rapidly growing field is reported here, with an emphasize on the method's sensitivity for detecting local electronic structure, and for monitoring ultrafast dynamical processes in aqueous solution exploiting core-level resonant excitation.

  18. Liquid microjet for photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Bernd [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, and BESSY, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: bernd.winter@bessy.de

    2009-03-21

    Photoelectron spectroscopy from highly volatile liquids, especially from water and aqueous solutions, has recently become possible due to the development of the vacuum liquid microjet in combination of high-brilliance synchrotron radiation. The present status of this rapidly growing field is reported here, with an emphasize on the method's sensitivity for detecting local electronic structure, and for monitoring ultrafast dynamical processes in aqueous solution exploiting core-level resonant excitation.

  19. Heavy quark production and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.

    1993-11-01

    This review covers many new experimental results on heavy flavor production and spectroscopy. It also shows some of the increasingly improved theoretical understanding of results in light of basic perturbative QCD and heavy quark symmetry. At the same time, there are some remaining discrepancies among experiments as well as significant missing information on some of the anticipated lowest lying heavy quark states. Most interesting, perhaps, are some clearly measured production effects awaiting full explanation

  20. Spectroscopy, scattering, and KK molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, J. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The author presents a pedagogical description of a new theoretical technique, based on the multichannel Schroedinger equation, for simultaneously applying the quark model to both meson spectroscopy and meson-meson scattering. This is an extension of an earlier analysis which led to the prediction that the f{sub o}(975) and a{sub o}(980) scalar mesons are K{bar K} molecular states.

  1. Photoelectron spectroscopy principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hüfner, Stefan

    1995-01-01

    Photoelectron Spectroscopy presents an up-to-date introduction to the field by treating comprehensively the electronic structures of atoms, molecules, solids and surfaces Brief descriptions are given of inverse photoemission, spin-polarized photoemission and photoelectron diffraction Experimental aspects are considered throughout the book, and the results are carefully interpreted by theory A wealth of measured data is presented in the form of tables for easy use by experimentalists

  2. Neutron spectroscopy for confinement studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorn, R.

    2010-01-01

    Neutron spectroscopy is an important method for the study of microscopic dynamics because it captures the spatial as well as the temporal aspects of the atomic or molecular motion. In this article techniques will be presented which are of special importance for the study of confined systems. Many of these are based on the fact that neutron scattering is isotope-dependent. Possible sources of systematic errors in measurements of confined systems will be pointed out. (author)

  3. Theory of Lie groups

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalley, Claude

    2018-01-01

    The standard text on the subject for many years, this introductory treatment covers classical linear groups, topological groups, manifolds, analytic groups, differential calculus of Cartan, and compact Lie groups and their representations. 1946 edition.

  4. Laser spectroscopy probes the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.; Billowes, J.

    1998-01-01

    Extremely sensitive optical measurements are shedding new light on the shape and size of nuclei, and the properties of nuclear matter far from stability. Of the 7000 or so isotopes known to nuclear physicists, less than 270 are stable. In general isotopes become more and more unstable as we move away from the so-called valley of stability, and therefore become more difficult to study in experiments. The tests of the theory also become more demanding. Laser spectroscopy is one of the techniques that is helping to explore the properties of these isotopes and improve our understanding of the forces inside the nucleus. High-resolution laser spectroscopy of short-lived radioactive atoms now makes it possible to measure the nuclear charge radius of many elements, including many isotopes far from stability. The method can reveal fine details of the sizes, shapes and structures of nuclei. In addition, laser spectroscopy is making significant contributions to our understanding of the nuclear force in unstable nuclei with unusual, or extreme, proton-neutron ratios. In this article the authors discuss the latest advances in studying heavy nuclei. (author)

  5. Group Chemical Changes and Physical Property Correlations in Refining of Lube Base Stocks. Ir and Nmr Spectroscopy Corrélations entre les propriétés physiques et les changements de composition chimique au cours du raffinage des huiles de base. Spectrométrie infra rouge et résonance magnétique nucléaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes occurring in the chemical composition of lubricating oil base stocks with different degreeand typeof refining have been investigated by IR and NMR spectroscopy. Significant conclusions about the chemical composition have been reached through the study of structural parameters. Correlations between molecular parameters such as aromaticity , average number of carbon atoms per alkyl substituentand the Viscosity Indexof base oils are reported. The term degree of refininghas been assigned a quantitative value in combination with the VI to denote the progressive refining of raw lube distillates to base stocks. Les modifications de la composition chimique d'huiles lubrifiantes au cours de divers type de raffinage à des degrés variables de sévérité sont étudiées par spectrométries IR et RMN. L'étude des paramètres structuraux aboutit à des conclusions significatives sur la composition chimique. Des corrélations entre l'indice de viscosité et des paramètres structuraux tels que l'aromaticité et le nombre moyen d'atomes de carbone par substituant alkyl sont dégagées. On attribue au terme degré de raffinage une valeur quantitative - combiné avec l'indice de viscosité pour signifier le raffinage progressif de distillats bruts en huiles de base.

  6. Introduction to Sporadic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Boya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an introduction to finite simple groups, in particular sporadic groups, intended for physicists. After a short review of group theory, we enumerate the 1+1+16=18 families of finite simple groups, as an introduction to the sporadic groups. These are described next, in three levels of increasing complexity, plus the six isolated ''pariah'' groups. The (old five Mathieu groups make up the first, smallest order level. The seven groups related to the Leech lattice, including the three Conway groups, constitute the second level. The third and highest level contains the Monster group M, plus seven other related groups. Next a brief mention is made of the remaining six pariah groups, thus completing the 5+7+8+6=26 sporadic groups. The review ends up with a brief discussion of a few of physical applications of finite groups in physics, including a couple of recent examples which use sporadic groups.

  7. spectroscopy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-10-14

    Oct 14, 2015 ... properties, API CHL50 kit are useful at genus-species level but ... After growing the isolates in the appropriate media, they were centrifuged at ... scanned 64 times at 4 cm-¹ resolution. The study ..... New York, 142 p. Sandine ...

  8. Group Work: How to Use Groups Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Many students cringe and groan when told that they will need to work in a group. However, group work has been found to be good for students and good for teachers. Employers want college graduates to have developed teamwork skills. Additionally, students who participate in collaborative learning get better grades, are more satisfied with their…

  9. Free Boolean Topological Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Sipacheva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Known and new results on free Boolean topological groups are collected. An account of the properties that these groups share with free or free Abelian topological groups and properties specific to free Boolean groups is given. Special emphasis is placed on the application of set-theoretic methods to the study of Boolean topological groups.

  10. Small Group Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Joseph E.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  11. Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jason R.

    Clinical diagnoses of bone health and fracture risk typically rely upon measurements of bone density or structure, but the strength of a bone is also dependent upon its chemical composition. One technology that has been used extensively in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies to measure the chemical composition of bone is Raman spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique provides chemical information about a sample by probing its molecular vibrations. In the case of bone tissue, Raman spectra provide chemical information about both the inorganic mineral and organic matrix components, which each contribute to bone strength. To explore the relationship between bone strength and chemical composition, our laboratory has contributed to ex vivo, exposed-bone animal studies of rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, and prolonged lead exposure. All of these studies suggest that Raman-based predictions of biomechanical strength may be more accurate than those produced by the clinically-used parameter of bone mineral density. The utility of Raman spectroscopy in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies has inspired attempts to perform bone spectroscopy transcutaneously. Although the results are promising, further advancements are necessary to make non-invasive, in vivo measurements of bone that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk. In order to separate the signals from bone and soft tissue that contribute to a transcutaneous measurement, we developed an overconstrained extraction algorithm that is based upon fitting with spectral libraries derived from separately-acquired measurements of the underlying tissue components. This approach allows for accurate spectral unmixing despite the fact that similar chemical components (e.g., type I collagen) are present in both soft tissue and bone and was applied to experimental data in order to transcutaneously detect, to our knowledge for the first time, age- and disease-related spectral

  12. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy of macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, G.

    1996-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is a technique which makes use of the anti- particle of the electron, the positron (e + ), first predicted by Dirac in 1931. This talk will concentrate on the use of PALS as a technique in characterising macromolecules. PALS has been used by various groups to evaluate many properties that one associates with free volume such as physical ageing, gas permeability, the glass transition, uptake of a solvent, crystallinity, crosslinking, molecular mobility. One area of much interest has been the use of this technique in looking at miscibility of polymer blends. In miscible blends, the interactions of the different polymers may be expected to lead to a negative free volume of mixing because of the strong attraction between the different chains. This may influence the free volume properties. Conversely, if a material is partially miscible or totally immiscible, this should influence both the size and total content of free volume. This should be related to other properties such as mechanical properties and molecular mobility, such as measured by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. Variations on this involve copolymerization of crosslinked materials or linear thermoplastics (the ultimate 'molecular' miscibility) and this will also be discussed. Multiphase systems such as water uptake in polymers can vary polymer properties by filling molecular voids, as well as disturbing chain conformations and, in the case of polar polymers, associating with the polymer chains. The effect of polymer molecular structure on free volume - particularly in rigid polymer chains such as substituted poly(phenylenes) and liquid crystalline polymers will also be presented. Indeed, the unusual packing which arises from such anisotropic molecules leads to unusual behaviours both of the homolpolymers and subsequent liquid crystal polymer - liquid crystal polymer blends

  13. Photoelectron spectroscopy of molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, J.

    1974-01-01

    The history of physical science is replete with examples of phenomena initially discovered and investigated by physicists, which have subsequently become tools of the chemist. It is demonstrated in this paper that the field of photoelectron spectroscopy may develop in a reverse fashion. After a brief introduction to the subject, the properties characterized as physical ones, are discussed. These are intensities and angular distributions, from which one can infer transition probabilities and phase shifts. Three separate experiments are described which involve accurate intensity measurements and it is shown how an interpretation of the results by appropriate theory has given new insight into the photoionization process. (B.R.H.)

  14. Neutron molecular spectroscopy: future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkinson, J.; Carlile, C.J.; Krishna, P.S.R.

    1994-07-01

    The recent revolution in Neutron Molecular Spectroscopy, caused by extending the spectral range, is briefly reviewed. The need to constantly improve the spectral resolution is underlined and the likely benefits are identified. Recent work on improving the energy resolution on TFXA is presented and three future options for TFXA are outlined. Some preliminary high resolution results, from a mock-up spectrometer, are reported. These clearly show that narrow bands are available in solids and improved resolutions can be achieved to observe them. (Author)

  15. Spectroscopy after the new particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1975-06-01

    Conventional spectroscopy was reexamined, and the puzzles and paradoxes which have arisen in attempting to describe the properties of the known particles are sought. It is noted that these may offer clues to the missing elements necessary for the description of the new particles. The minimum number of elementary building blocks, charm and color, the colored quark model for saturation, spin splittings in the meson spectrum, three kinds of quarks, the Melosh transformation and the Jackson frame, the Zweig rule mystery, new particles and old symmetries, f--A2 interference, and nonleptonic decay. (U.S.)

  16. Atomic spectroscopy with diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tino, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Some applications of semiconductor diode lasers in atomic spectroscopy are discussed by describing different experiments performed with lasers emitting in the visible and in the near-infrared region. I illustrate the results obtained in the investigation of near-infrared transitions of atomic oxygen and of the visible intercombination line of strontium. I also describe how two offset-frequency-locked diode lasers can be used to excite velocity selective Raman transitions in Cs. I discuss the spectral resolution, the accuracy of frequency measurements, and the detection sensitivity achievable with diode lasers. (orig.)

  17. Laser excitation spectroscopy of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solarz, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    Laser excitation spectroscopy, recently applied to uranium enrichment research at LLL, has produced a wealth of new and vitally needed information about the uranium atom and its excited states. Among the data amassed were a large number of cross sections, almost a hundred radiative lifetimes, and many level assignments. Rydberg states, never before observed in uranium or any of the actinides, have been measured and cataloged. This work puts a firm experimental base under laser isotope separation, and permits a choice of the laser frequencies most appropriate for practical uranium enrichment

  18. The spectroscopy of fission fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, W.R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Collaboration: La Direction des Sciences de la Matiere du CEA (FR); Le Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (BE)

    1998-12-31

    High-resolution measurements on {gamma} rays from fission fragments have provided a rich source of information, unobtainable at the moment in any other way, on the spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei. In recent years important data have been obtained on the yrast- and near yrast-structure of neutron-rich fission fragments. We discuss the scope of measurements which can be made on prompt gamma rays from secondary fission fragments, the techniques used in the experiments and some results recently obtained. (author) 24 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. The spectroscopy of fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    High-resolution measurements on γ rays from fission fragments have provided a rich source of information, unobtainable at the moment in any other way, on the spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei. In recent years important data have been obtained on the yrast- and near yrast-structure of neutron-rich fission fragments. We discuss the scope of measurements which can be made on prompt gamma rays from secondary fission fragments, the techniques used in the experiments and some results recently obtained. (author)

  20. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  1. Supraconductor magnet for optical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, G.; Buhler, S.

    1985-01-01

    A superconductive magnet system for optic spectroscopy has been built. It includes an elaborate support structure, a LN2/LHe cryostat with its supplies and controls and a superconductive magnet of the split pole type equipped with a superconductive switch. A vertically introduced sample in the LHe bath, on request subcooled down to 2.2K is observed through two optical passages. Magnet characteristics are as follows : - clear bore 35mm - clear split 20mm - central field 6.33 Teslas - homogeneity over 10mm D.S.V.: 1% [fr

  2. [Meson spectroscopy and particle astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LoSecco, J.M.

    1993-07-01

    Progress in the design and construction of a light meson spectroscopy experiment is reported. The experiment will run in 1993. Some non- accelerator, activities and plans for the future are also discussed. Results of a Brookhaven beam test with a subset of the final detector are described. The test has been quite promising both in the speed with which results have been obtained and in the quality of the data itself. The status of the CsI veto is reported The target region, in particular the CsI veto experiment is Notre Dame's primary hardware responsibility on this experiment

  3. Development of MEMS photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Eichenfield, Matthew S.; Griffin, Benjamin; Harvey, Heidi Alyssa; Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Langlois, Eric; Resnick, Paul James; Shaw, Michael J.; Young, Ian; Givler, Richard C.; Reinke, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    After years in the field, many materials suffer degradation, off-gassing, and chemical changes causing build-up of measurable chemical atmospheres. Stand-alone embedded chemical sensors are typically limited in specificity, require electrical lines, and/or calibration drift makes data reliability questionable. Along with size, these "Achilles' heels" have prevented incorporation of gas sensing into sealed, hazardous locations which would highly benefit from in-situ analysis. We report on development of an all-optical, mid-IR, fiber-optic based MEMS Photoacoustic Spectroscopy solution to address these limitations. Concurrent modeling and computational simulation are used to guide hardware design and implementation.

  4. electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egerton, R.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a commemorative series of articles to mark the hundredth anniversary of the discovery of the electron, this article describes the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy. The physical and chemical properties of materials can be studied by considering the energy that electrons use as they travel through a solid, often in conjunction with other analytical techniques. The technique is often combined with electron diffraction and high-resolution imaging and can be used to provide elemental identification down to the atomic scale. 6 figs

  5. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egerton, R.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the commemorative series of articles to mark the hundredth anniversary of the discovery of the electron, this article discusses electron energy-loss spectroscopy. The physical and chemical properties of materials can be studied by considering the energy that electrons use as they travel through a solid, often in conjunction with other analytical techniques. The technique is often combined with electron diffraction and high-resolution imaging and can be used to provide elemental identification down to the atomic scale. (UK)

  6. Progress in far-infrared spectroscopy: Approximately 1890 to 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuishi, Akiyoshi

    2014-03-01

    The history of far-infrared spectroscopy from its beginning to around 1970 is reviewed. Before World War II, the size of the community investigating this topic was limited. During this period, in particular before 1925, about 90% of the papers were published by H. Rubens and his co-workers in Germany. One or two researchers from the US joined the Rubens group per year from 1890 to the beginning of 1910. During the next year or two, some researchers joined M. Czerny, who is seen as the successor of Rubens. After World War II, far-infrared techniques progressed further in the US, which did not suffer damage during the war. The advanced techniques of far-infrared grating spectroscopy were transferred from the US (R. A. Oetjen) to Japan (H. Yoshinaga). Yoshinaga and his co-workers expanded the techniques by themselves. This paper describes the historical development of far-infrared spectroscopy before Fourier transform spectroscopy became popular around 1970.

  7. Geometric group theory

    CERN Document Server

    Druţu, Cornelia

    2018-01-01

    The key idea in geometric group theory is to study infinite groups by endowing them with a metric and treating them as geometric spaces. This applies to many groups naturally appearing in topology, geometry, and algebra, such as fundamental groups of manifolds, groups of matrices with integer coefficients, etc. The primary focus of this book is to cover the foundations of geometric group theory, including coarse topology, ultralimits and asymptotic cones, hyperbolic groups, isoperimetric inequalities, growth of groups, amenability, Kazhdan's Property (T) and the Haagerup property, as well as their characterizations in terms of group actions on median spaces and spaces with walls. The book contains proofs of several fundamental results of geometric group theory, such as Gromov's theorem on groups of polynomial growth, Tits's alternative, Stallings's theorem on ends of groups, Dunwoody's accessibility theorem, the Mostow Rigidity Theorem, and quasiisometric rigidity theorems of Tukia and Schwartz. This is the f...

  8. Profinite graphs and groups

    CERN Document Server

    Ribes, Luis

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a detailed introduction to graph theoretic methods in profinite groups and applications to abstract groups. It is the first to provide a comprehensive treatment of the subject. The author begins by carefully developing relevant notions in topology, profinite groups and homology, including free products of profinite groups, cohomological methods in profinite groups, and fixed points of automorphisms of free pro-p groups. The final part of the book is dedicated to applications of the profinite theory to abstract groups, with sections on finitely generated subgroups of free groups, separability conditions in free and amalgamated products, and algorithms in free groups and finite monoids. Profinite Graphs and Groups will appeal to students and researchers interested in profinite groups, geometric group theory, graphs and connections with the theory of formal languages. A complete reference on the subject, the book includes historical and bibliographical notes as well as a discussion of open quest...

  9. Evaluation of the ID220 single photon avalanche diode for extended spectral range of photon time-of-flight spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Anderson-Engels, Stefan

    This paper describe the performance of the ID220 single photon avalanche diode for single photon counting, and investigates its performance for photon time-of-flight (PToF) spectroscopy. At first this report will serve as a summary to the group for PToF spectroscopy at the Department of Physics...

  10. Group purchasing: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetrich, J G

    1987-07-01

    The various types and operational methods of purchasing groups are described, and evaluation of groups is discussed. Since group purchasing is increasing in popularity as a method of controlling drug costs, community and hospital pharmacy managers may need to evaluate various groups to determine the appropriateness of their services. Groups are categorized as independent, system based, or alliance or association based. Instead of "purchasing," some groups develop contracts for hospitals, which then purchase directly from the vendor. Aside from this basic difference between groups that purchase and groups that contract, comparisons among groups are difficult because of the wide variation in sizes and services. Competition developing from diversification among groups has led to "super groups," formed from local and regional groups. In evaluating groups, advantages and disadvantages germane to accomplishing the member's objectives must be considered. To ensure a group's success, members must be committed and support the group's philosophies; hospital pharmacists must help to establish a strong formulary system. To select vendors, groups should develop formal qualification and selection criteria and should not base a decision solely on price. The method of solicitation (bidding or negotiating), as well as the role of the prime vendor, should be studied. Legal implications of group purchasing, especially in the areas of administrative fees and drug diversion, must also be considered. The most advantageous group for each organization will include members with common missions and will be able to implement strategies for future success.

  11. Assessment of testicular metabolic integrity by P-31 MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretan, P.N.; Vigneron, D.B.; Hricak, H.; McClure, R.D.; Yen, T.S.B.; Moseley, H.; Tanagho, E.A.; James, T.L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of P-31 MR spectroscopy in the assessment of acute testicular ischemia and spermatogenesis was studied in canine and primate testicles, grouped as follows: group I(n = 8), in situ canine controls; group II(n = 11), canine testes subjected to warm ischemia (two were reperfused after 3 and 6 hours of ischemia); group III, canine (n = 4) and primate (n = 4) testicles from hormone-treated animals (intramuscular injections of estradiol and testosterone once weekly for 6 weeks). All testicles were studied histologically. Normal testes showed high monophosphate (MP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels and low inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphodiester (PD), and phosphocreatinine (PCr) levels. Ischemic testes demonstrated a time-dependent decay of MP/Pi ratios (up to 30%). Regeneration of ATP was noted for up to 6 hours of ischemia. Group III testicles showed a significant decrease in MP and in MP/ATP ratios

  12. Group theory for chemists fundamental theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Molloy, K C

    2010-01-01

    The basics of group theory and its applications to themes such as the analysis of vibrational spectra and molecular orbital theory are essential knowledge for the undergraduate student of inorganic chemistry. The second edition of Group Theory for Chemists uses diagrams and problem-solving to help students test and improve their understanding, including a new section on the application of group theory to electronic spectroscopy.Part one covers the essentials of symmetry and group theory, including symmetry, point groups and representations. Part two deals with the application of group theory t

  13. Photoacoustic spectroscopy for analytical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisch, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Many different techniques, such as UV/vis absorption, IR spectroscopy, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy are routinely applied in chemical (micro-)analysis and chemical imaging, and a large variety of instruments is commercially available. Up to now, opto- or photoacoustic (PA) and other optothermal (OT) methods are less common and only a limited number of instruments reached a level of application beyond prototypes in research laboratories. The underlying principle of all these techniques is the detection of local heating due to the conversion of light into heat by optical absorption. Considering the versatility, robustness and instrumental simplicity of many PA techniques, it is surprising that the number of commercial instruments based on such approaches is so sparse. The impetus of this review is to summarize basic principles and possible applications described in the literature, in order to foster routine application of these techniques in industry, process analysis and environmental screening. While the terms OT and PA methods cover a very wide range of methods and physical phenomena, this review will concentrate on techniques with applications for analytical measurements. (topical review)

  14. Migraine and magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younis, Samaira; Hougaard, Anders; Vestergaard, Mark B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review: To present an updated and streamlined overview of the metabolic and biochemical aspect of the migraine pathophysiology based on findings from phosphorous (31P) and hydrogen (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies. Recent findings: Despite of the variation in the meth......Purpose of review: To present an updated and streamlined overview of the metabolic and biochemical aspect of the migraine pathophysiology based on findings from phosphorous (31P) and hydrogen (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies. Recent findings: Despite of the variation...... in the methodology and quality of the MRS migraine studies over time, some results were consistent and reproducible. 31P-MRS studies suggested reduced availability of neuronal energy and implied a mitochondrial dysfunction in the migraine brain. 1H-MRS studies reported interictal abnormalities in the excitatory...... and inhibitory neurotransmitters, glutamate and g-aminobutyric acid (GABA), suggesting persistent altered excitability in migraine patients. N-Acetylaspartate levels were decreased in migraine, probably due to a mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal energy metabolism. The reported abnormalities may increase...

  15. Nonlinear spectroscopy of trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlawin, Frank; Gessner, Manuel; Mukamel, Shaul; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Nonlinear spectroscopy employs a series of laser pulses to interrogate dynamics in large interacting many-body systems, and it has become a highly successful method for experiments in chemical physics. Current quantum optical experiments approach system sizes and levels of complexity that require the development of efficient techniques to assess spectral and dynamical features with scalable experimental overhead. However, established methods from optical spectroscopy of macroscopic ensembles cannot be applied straightforwardly to few-atom systems. Based on the ideas proposed in M. Gessner et al., (arXiv:1312.3365), we develop a diagrammatic approach to construct nonlinear measurement protocols for controlled quantum systems, and we discuss experimental implementations with trapped ion technology in detail. These methods, in combination with distinct features of ultracold-matter systems, allow us to monitor and analyze excitation dynamics in both the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. They are independent of system size, and they can therefore reliably probe systems in which, e.g., quantum state tomography becomes prohibitively expensive. We propose signals that can probe steady-state currents, detect the influence of anharmonicities on phonon transport, and identify signatures of chaotic dynamics near a quantum phase transition in an Ising-type spin chain.

  16. General Remarks about mossbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzababayev, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    More than forty years have passed since the discovery of Mossbauer effect; one of the most brilliant findings in modern physics. This effect proved itself to be the powerful tool in almost all disciplines of the natural sciences and technology. Its unique feature is that it gives the possibility to get the results which cannot be obtained by any other physical methods. Mossbauer effect has been used as a key to unlock some basic physical, chemical and biological phenomena, as a guide for finding the new ways of solving applied scientific and technical problems of electronics, metallurgy, civil engineering, and even fine arts and archaeology. Very few scientific techniques can claim entry into as many countries as Mossbauer spectroscopy. Due to its wide application in an education and research processes the community of Mossbauer spectroscopists extends to almost 100 different countries. Laboratory equipment necessary for conducting gamma resonance spectroscopy, do not require large investments, premises, personnel. The spectrometer is rather small in size and could be installed on the ordinary laboratory table. That is why Mossbauer effect is widely used at numerous Universities all over the world as an universal instrument for tuition and research

  17. Laser spectroscopy applied to environmental, ecological, food safety, and biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanberg, Sune; Zhao, Guangyu; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Jing; Lian, Ming; Li, Tianqi; Zhu, Shiming; Li, Yiyun; Duan, Zheng; Lin, Huiying; Svanberg, Katarina

    2016-03-21

    Laser spectroscopy provides many possibilities for multi-disciplinary applications in environmental monitoring, in the ecological field, for food safety investigations, and in biomedicine. The paper gives several examples of the power of multi-disciplinary applications of laser spectroscopy as pursued in our research group. The studies utilize mostly similar and widely applicable spectroscopic approaches. Air pollution and vegetation monitoring by lidar techniques, as well as agricultural pest insect monitoring and classification by elastic scattering and fluorescence spectroscopy are described. Biomedical aspects include food safety applications and medical diagnostics of sinusitis and otitis, with strong connection to the abatement of antibiotics resistance development.

  18. Ordered groups and infinite permutation groups

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    The subjects of ordered groups and of infinite permutation groups have long en­ joyed a symbiotic relationship. Although the two subjects come from very different sources, they have in certain ways come together, and each has derived considerable benefit from the other. My own personal contact with this interaction began in 1961. I had done Ph. D. work on sequence convergence in totally ordered groups under the direction of Paul Conrad. In the process, I had encountered "pseudo-convergent" sequences in an ordered group G, which are like Cauchy sequences, except that the differences be­ tween terms of large index approach not 0 but a convex subgroup G of G. If G is normal, then such sequences are conveniently described as Cauchy sequences in the quotient ordered group GIG. If G is not normal, of course GIG has no group structure, though it is still a totally ordered set. The best that can be said is that the elements of G permute GIG in an order-preserving fashion. In independent investigations around that t...

  19. Perspectives of shaped pulses for EPR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Philipp E.; Schöps, Philipp; Kallies, Wolfgang; Glaser, Steffen J.; Prisner, Thomas F.

    2017-07-01

    This article describes current uses of shaped pulses, generated by an arbitrary waveform generator, in the field of EPR spectroscopy. We show applications of sech/tanh and WURST pulses to dipolar spectroscopy, including new pulse schemes and procedures, and discuss the more general concept of optimum-control-based pulses for applications in EPR spectroscopy. The article also describes a procedure to correct for experimental imperfections, mostly introduced by the microwave resonator, and discusses further potential applications and limitations of such pulses.

  20. Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS), part A

    CERN Document Server

    Tetin, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    This new volume of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial by containing quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers Fluorescence Fluctuation SpectroscopyContains chapters on such topics as Time-integrated fluorescence cumulant analysis, Pulsed Interleaved Excitation, and raster image correlation spectroscopy and number and brightness analysis.Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the fieldCovers fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopyContains chapte

  1. XXII Conference on spectroscopy. Summaries of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    XXII Conference on spectroscopy took place 8-12 October 2001 in Zvenigorod, Moscow region. The recent advantages in the field of atomic and molecular spectroscopy were discussed. The current methods for elemental spectra analysis were considered. They are based on both traditional atomic emission, adsorption and Raman spectroscopic techniques and on introduction of the mass spectroscopy with the high-temperature plasma atomizer. The particular attention was given the application of spectroscopic methods for plasma diagnostics and air pollution control [ru

  2. Modern luminescence spectroscopy of minerals and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gaft, Michael; Panczer, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    Luminescence Spectroscopy of Minerals and Materials presents an overview of the general concepts in luminescence spectroscopy as well as experimental methods and their interpretation. Special emphasis is laid on the fluorescence lifetime and the determination of time-resolved spectra. This method enables the exposure of new luminescence in minerals previously hidden by more intensive centers. Specialists in the fields of solid state physics, chemistry and spectroscopy will find a wealth of new information in this unique book.

  3. ALIGNMENTS OF GROUP GALAXIES WITH NEIGHBORING GROUPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yougang; Chen Xuelei; Park, Changbom; Yang Xiaohu; Choi, Yun-Young

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of galaxy groups found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4, we measure the following four types of alignment signals: (1) the alignment between the distributions of the satellites of each group relative to the direction of the nearest neighbor group (NNG); (2) the alignment between the major axis direction of the central galaxy of the host group (HG) and the direction of the NNG; (3) the alignment between the major axes of the central galaxies of the HG and the NNG; and (4) the alignment between the major axes of the satellites of the HG and the direction of the NNG. We find strong signal of alignment between the satellite distribution and the orientation of central galaxy relative to the direction of the NNG, even when the NNG is located beyond 3r vir of the host group. The major axis of the central galaxy of the HG is aligned with the direction of the NNG. The alignment signals are more prominent for groups that are more massive and with early-type central galaxies. We also find that there is a preference for the two major axes of the central galaxies of the HG and NNG to be parallel for the system with both early central galaxies, however, not for the systems with both late-type central galaxies. For the orientation of satellite galaxies, we do not find any significant alignment signals relative to the direction of the NNG. From these four types of alignment measurements, we conclude that the large-scale environment traced by the nearby group affects primarily the shape of the host dark matter halo, and hence also affects the distribution of satellite galaxies and the orientation of central galaxies. In addition, the NNG directly affects the distribution of the satellite galaxies by inducing asymmetric alignment signals, and the NNG at very small separation may also contribute a second-order impact on the orientation of the central galaxy in the HG.

  4. Citizens' action group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andritzky, W.

    1978-01-01

    For the first empirical study of citizens' action groups 331 such groups were consulted. Important information was collected on the following aspects of these groups: their self-image, areas and forms of activities, objectives and their extent, how long the group has existed, successes and failures and their forms of organisation. (orig.) [de

  5. HOMES - Holographic Optical Method for Exoplanet Spectroscopy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HOMES (Holographic Optical Method for Exoplanet Spectroscopy) is a space telescope that employs a double dispersion architecture, using a holographic optical element...

  6. Raman Spectroscopy and its Application in Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shu-Lin

    2012-01-01

    Raman Spectroscopy and its Application in Nanostructures is an original and timely contribution to a very active area of physics and materials science research. This book presents the theoretical and experimental phenomena of Raman spectroscopy, with specialized discussions on the physical fundamentals, new developments and main features in low-dimensional systems of Raman spectroscopy. In recent years physicists, materials scientists and chemists have devoted increasing attention to low-dimensional systems and as Raman spectroscopy can be used to study and analyse such materials as carbon nan

  7. Communication in Organizational Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Monica RADU

    2007-01-01

    Organizational group can be defined as some persons between who exist interactive connections (functional, communication, affective, normative type). Classification of these groups can reflect the dimension, type of relationship or type of rules included. Organizational groups and their influence over the individual efficiency and the efficiency of the entire group are interconnected. Spontaneous roles in these groups sustain the structure of the relationship, and the personality of each indi...

  8. Quantitative fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media using fluorescence differential path length spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelink, Arjen; Kruijt, Bastiaan; Robinson, Dominic J.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a new technique, fluorescence differential path length spectroscopy (FDPS), that enables the quantitative investigation of fluorophores in turbid media. FDPS measurements are made with the same probe geometry as differential path length spectroscopy (DPS) measurements. Phantom

  9. [Social crisis, spontaneous groups and group order].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Lucila; Kordon, Diana

    2002-12-01

    Argentina has gone through very difficult times during the last years and, in particularly, new kinds of social practices have emerged in order to cope with the crisis. This situation demands and urges a new type of reflection upon the double role of groups, as tools to transform reality and as a way to elaborate those processes regarding subjectivity. In this paper we analyse some topics regarding the groupal field (considering spontaneous groups as well as groupal devices that allow to elaborate the crisis). We consider social bond to be the condition of possibility for the existence of the psyche and of time continuity, and that it also makes possible personal and social elaboration of trauma, crisis and social catastrophe. We develop some aspects of an specific device (the reflection group), which we have already depicted in another moment, showing it's usefulness to cope with social crisis and to promote the subjective elaboration of crisis.

  10. 1H NMR spectroscopy-based interventional metabolic phenotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Michael B; Bliddal, Henning; Christensen, Robin

    2010-01-01

    1H NMR spectroscopy-based metabolic phenotyping was used to identify biomarkers in the plasma of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Forty-seven patients with RA (23 with active disease at baseline and 24 in remission) and 51 healthy subjects were evaluated during a one-year follow-up with a......1H NMR spectroscopy-based metabolic phenotyping was used to identify biomarkers in the plasma of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Forty-seven patients with RA (23 with active disease at baseline and 24 in remission) and 51 healthy subjects were evaluated during a one-year follow......-up with assessments of disease activity (DAS-28) and 1H NMR spectroscopy of plasma samples. Discriminant analysis provided evidence that the metabolic profiles predicted disease severity. Cholesterol, lactate, acetylated glycoprotein, and lipid signatures were found to be candidate biomarkers for disease severity.......0007). However, after 31 days of optimized therapy, the two patient groups were not significantly different (P=0.91). The metabolic profiles of both groups of RA patients were different from the healthy subjects. 1H NMR-based metabolic phenotyping of plasma samples in patients with RA is well suited...

  11. Moessbauer spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, U.

    1994-01-01

    The short pulse nature of synchrotron radiation makes it possible to perform Moessbauer spectroscopy in the time domain, i.e. instead of measuring the transmitted intensity time integrated as a function of source/absorber velocity, the intensity of the scattered radiation is measured time differential. The resulting time spectrum is essentially source independent and complications in the data analysis which are related to the radioactive source are completely removed. Furthermore, the large brightness and well defined polarization of the synchrotron radiation can, e.g., speed up the data collection and facilitate studies of polarization phenomena. To illustrate these new spectroscopic possibilities, measurements of the temperature dependence and polarization dependence of forward scattering from alpha - sup 5 sup 7 Fe nuclei are presented and discussed 26 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  12. Nuclear level mixing resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussement, R.; Put, P.; Scheveneels, G.; Hardeman, F.

    1985-01-01

    The existent methods for measuring quadrupole interactions are not suited to nuclei with lifetimes in the micro-seconds to minutes region. AD/NQR, a possible candidate in this lifetime gap, has not yet succeeded in overcoming its predicted difficulties. A new resonant method, recently developed and based on the principles of level mixing (cfr atomic spectroscopy) covers this less accessible lifetime range. Many other kinds of resonances can be described according to the level mixing formalism. The particular example of NMR as a level mixing resonance (LMR) is discussed. The underlying theory of LMR and its important consequences, leading to some interesting features of the method, is briefly formulated. Two successfully performed measurements demonstrate the feasibility and the predicted characteristics of this new promising method. (orig.)

  13. Molecular Force Spectroscopy on Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoyu; Chen, Wei; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Molecular force spectroscopy has become a powerful tool to study how mechanics regulates biology, especially the mechanical regulation of molecular interactions and its impact on cellular functions. This force-driven methodology has uncovered a wealth of new information of the physical chemistry of molecular bonds for various biological systems. The new concepts, qualitative and quantitative measures describing bond behavior under force, and structural bases underlying these phenomena have substantially advanced our fundamental understanding of the inner workings of biological systems from the nanoscale (molecule) to the microscale (cell), elucidated basic molecular mechanisms of a wide range of important biological processes, and provided opportunities for engineering applications. Here, we review major force spectroscopic assays, conceptual developments of mechanically regulated kinetics of molecular interactions, and their biological relevance. We also present current challenges and highlight future directions.

  14. On Impedance Spectroscopy of Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchaikin, V. V.; Sibatov, R. T.; Ambrozevich, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    Supercapacitors are often characterized by responses measured by methods of impedance spectroscopy. In the frequency domain these responses have the form of power-law functions or their linear combinations. The inverse Fourier transform leads to relaxation equations with integro-differential operators of fractional order under assumption that the frequency response is independent of the working voltage. To compare long-term relaxation kinetics predicted by these equations with the observed one, charging-discharging of supercapacitors (with nominal capacitances of 0.22, 0.47, and 1.0 F) have been studied by means of registration of the current response to a step voltage signal. It is established that the reaction of devices under study to variations of the charging regime disagrees with the model of a homogeneous linear response. It is demonstrated that relaxation is well described by a fractional stretched exponent.

  15. Laser spectroscopy and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziemski, L.J.; Solarz, R.W.; Paisner, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy has applications in diverse fields ranging from combustion studies and trace-sample detection to biological research. At the same time, it has also contributed greatly to the discovery of hundreds of new lasers. This symbiotic relationship has promoted an especially rapid expansion of the field. This book provides a review of the subject. It includes, for example, chapters on laser isotope separation techniques, enabling scientists to compare their relative advantages and drawbacks. This volume also gives numerous tables that summarize important features of lasers, experiments, and parameters for quick reference. In addition, it presents diagrams for visualizing rotational molecular energy levels of high J in order to enhance our understanding of molecular motions and their relationship to molecular energy levels. Offering insights into how experts think this technology will improve, it considers research and development in each topic discussed

  16. Fission fragment spins and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durell, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Prompt γ-ray coincidence experiments have been carried out on γ-rays emitted from post-neutron emission fission fragments produced by the aup 19F + 197 Au and 18 O + 232 Th reactions. Decay schemes have been established for even-even nuclei ranging from 78 Se to 148 Nd. Many new states with spin up to ∼ 12h have been observed. Apart from providing a wealth of new information on the spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei, the data have been analyzed to determine the average spin of primary fission fragments as a function of fragment mass. The results suggest that the fragment spins are determined by the temperature and shape of the primary fragments at or near to scission

  17. The COMPASS Hadron Spectroscopy Programme

    CERN Document Server

    Austregesilo, A

    2011-01-01

    COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS for the investigation of the structure and the dynamics of hadrons. The experimental setup features a large acceptance and high momentum resolution spectrometer including particle identification and calorimetry and is therefore ideal to access a broad range of different final states. Following the promising observation of a spin-exotic resonance during an earlier pilot run, COMPASS focused on light-quark hadron spectroscopy during the years 2008 and 2009. A data set, world leading in terms of statistics and resolution, has been collected with a 190GeV/c hadron beam impinging on either liquid hydrogen or nuclear targets. Spin-exotic meson and glueball candidates formed in both diffractive dissociation and central production are presently studied. Since the beam composition includes protons, the excited baryon spectrum is also accessible. Furthermore, Primakoff reactions have the potential to determine radiative widths of the resonances and to probe chiral pe...

  18. Laser spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, M

    2005-01-01

    When antiprotons (i.e. the antimatter counterpart of protons) are stopped in helium gas, 97% of them annihilate within picoseconds by reacting with the helium nuclei; a 3% fraction, however, survive with an anomalously long lifetime of several microseconds. This longevity is due to the formation of antiprotonic helium, which is a three-body Rydberg atom composed of an antiproton, electron, and helium nucleus. The ASACUSA experimental collaboration has recently synthesized large numbers of these atoms using CERN's Antiproton Decelerator facility, and measured the atom's transition frequencies to 60 parts per billion by laser spectroscopy. By comparing the experimental results with recent three-body QED calculations and the known antiproton cyclotron frequency, we were able to show that the antiproton mass and charge are the same as the corresponding proton values to a precision of 10 parts per billion. Ongoing and future series of experiments will further improve the experimental precision by using chirp-compe...

  19. High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buckin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy (HR-US is an analytical technique for direct and non-destructive monitoring of molecular and micro-structural transformations in liquids and semi-solid materials. It is based on precision measurements of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in analysed samples. The application areas of HR-US in research, product development, and quality and process control include analysis of conformational transitions of polymers, ligand binding, molecular self-assembly and aggregation, crystallisation, gelation, characterisation of phase transitions and phase diagrams, and monitoring of chemical and biochemical reactions. The technique does not require optical markers or optical transparency. The HR-US measurements can be performed in small sample volumes (down to droplet size, over broad temperature range, at ambient and elevated pressures, and in various measuring regimes such as automatic temperature ramps, titrations and measurements in flow.

  20. Spectroscopy after the new particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    Conventional spectroscopy is reexamined in a search for puzzles and paradoxes which have arisen in attempting to describe the properties of the known particles. These may offer clues to the missing elements necessary for the description of the new particles. The minimum number of elementary building blocks, charm and color, the colored quark model for saturation, spin splittings in the meson spectrum, three kinds of quarks, the Melosh transformation and the Jackson frame, beyond the single-quark transition--the Zweig rule mystery, new particles and old symmetries, the f--A2 interference, and tests of the Zweig rule by rho--ω and f--A2--f' interference are considered