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Sample records for lunarejo lutjanus guttatus

  1. Crecimiento en jaulas del pargo lunarejo Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner, 1869 con dos tipos de dieta en Bahía Málaga, municipio de Buenaventura, Colombia

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    Edgardo Andrés Banguera Gil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Para dar continuidad al “Programa de desarrollo de la maricultura en el Pacífico colombiano” adelantado por la Universidad del Pacífico, en un cerramiento natural ubicado en la vereda La Sierpe, Bahía Málaga, municipio de Buenaventura, se comparó la tasa de crecimiento de 204 ejemplares silvestres de pargo lunarejo Lutjanus guttatus , alimentados con pescado fresco y concentrado comercial al 35% en proteína, con peso y longitud total promedio de 13,79 cm y 32,21 g, respectivamente. El trabajo se realizó por espacio de 40 días en cuatro jaulas flotantes, de 3 x 1,5 x 0,75 m, dos para cada tratamiento, a densidades de 15 individuos/m 3 , utilizando el 12% de la biomasa corporal para el suministro de los alimentos a evaluar; el crecimiento se analizó mediante los siguientes índices: IPD = Incremento en Peso Diario; TCE = Tasa de Crecimiento Específico. Los peces alcanzaron un peso promedio final de 64,9±5,9 y 58,49±5,9 g para el alimento natural y balanceado comercial respectivamente, lo cual es equivalente a un IPD de 0.8 y 0.7 g/d y una TCE de 1,58 y 1,67 g/d, valores considerados buenos teniendo en cuenta su etapa de desarrollo y comparaciones con otros estudios realizados en Colombia. Los peces aceptaron los dos tipos de alimento de manera satisfactoria, durante el período de cultivo y mostraron gran tolerancia a la manipulación, resistencia a las enfermedades y a las fluctuaciones de la calidad del agua, en especial la salinidad. Los resultados señalan que existen diferencias significativas (P>0.05 entre los dos tratamientos a favor del alimento natural. Los índices de sobrevivencia fueron de 90,2% para peces alimentados con pescado fresco y 85,3% para los alimentados con concentrado. Se concluye que el pargo lunarejo Lutjanus guttatus presenta una importante ventaja para su cultivo como es la fácil aceptación de un concentrado comercial. pero el crecimiento de los peces alimentados con este producto fue

  2. Hábitos alimentarios de los peces Lutjanus peru y Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces:Lutjanidaeen Guerrero,México

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    Agustín A Rojas-Herrera

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la composición de la dieta del huachinango (Lutjanus peru y del flamenco (Lutjanus guttatus en la costa de Guerrero,México.Los ejemplares se obtuvieron mensualmente de las capturas comerciales en tres regiones de pesca y presentaron intervalos de talla comprendidos entre 130 y 684 mm de longitud horquilla (LHpara el caso de L.peru ,y de 120 a 550 mm para L. guttatus .A partir del número y del peso de los distintos componentes alimentarios,identificados hasta el taxon más bajo posible,se calcularon los porcentajes numéricos (%N,gravimétricos (%Py de frecuencia de ocurrencia (%FOque fueron sintetizados como valores de importancia relativa.En los estómagos de L.peru se identificaron 68 ítems alimentarios dentro de los cuales predominan los peces (%P =50.9,los crustáceos (%P =35.6y los moluscos (%P =7.2mientras que el espectro alimentario de L.guttatus estuvo integrado por 88 componentes que incluyeron principalmente peces (%P =50.8y crustáceos (%P =43.4.Ambas especies son depredadoras generalistas,con un amplio espectro de presas.Los valores de los índices de traslape de las dietas de estas especies sugieren que no existe un alto grado de competencia intraespecífica por el alimento.Con el fin de encontrar similitudes en la dieta de estos lutjánidos en varias localidades de México y Costa Rica,se realizó un análisis de conglomerados con los valores de importancia relativa de las presas,publicados en varios trabajos.Se encontró más afinidad en la dieta de aquellas especies que habitan en una misma localidad, que entre organismos de la misma especie distribuidos en diferentes zonas.Se infiere que la disponibilidad de las presas,más que la selectividad por el alimento,determina la dieta de estas especies.Feeding habits of the fishes Lutjanus peru and Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces:Lutjanidaeof Guerrero, México.Diet composition of the Pacific snapper (Lutjanus peru 130-684 mm fork length (FLand the spotted snapper (Lutjanus

  3. Cultivo del pargo de la mancha Lutjanus guttatus (pisces: Lutjanidae en jaulas flotantes.

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    Ricardo Gutiérrez Vargas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available En dos ensayos paralelos realizados frente a Playa Pájaros, en el Golfo de Nicoya, se engordaron pargos manchados (Lutjanus guttatus obtenidos del medio hasta 275 y 485 g, respectivamente, usando fauna de descarte obtenida de barcos camaroneros. La tasa de crecimiento fue de 1,87 y 1,7 g/día, respectivamente, el factor de conversión fue de 7,88 (alimento húmedo o 1,77 (alimento seco. La mortalidad se estimó en un 6% en todo el experimento. Se calcularon los costos de alimentación usando la fauna de descarte.

  4. Francisella marina sp. nov., etiologic agent of systemic disease in cultured spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) in Central America

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    Historically, piscine francisellosis in various warm, temperate and coldwater fish hosts has been attributed to Francisella noatunensis. From 2015-2016, an undescribed Francisella sp. was recovered during mortality events in cultured spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) off the Pacific coast of ...

  5. Crecimiento de juveniles de pargo mancha (Lutjanus guttatus utilizando alimento granulado en condiciones de laboratorio.

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    Oscar Olivares Paulette

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento de juveniles de pargo mancha (Lutjanus guttatus, peso inicial 42g, coeficiente de variación 13,8%, alimentados con alimento granulado, se evaluó en dependencia de la ración por un período de 14 días: Se aplicaron 5 tasas de alimentación entre 0 y 5% del peso corporal/día. La tasa de crecimiento específica aumentó desde valores negativos en ayunas (-0,32% PC/día hasta un máximo de 2,05% PC/día. La tasa óptima de crecimiento se estimó en 1,09% PC/día. El factor de conversión en condiciones de crecimiento óptimo y máximo fue de 0,94 y 1,86, respectivamente.

  6. Estado actual del cultivo de larvas del pargo flamenco (Lutjanus guttatus

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    María Isabel Abdo-de la Parra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El pargo flamenco (Lutjanus guttatus es un pez marino con alta demanda en los mercados de algunos países de Latinoamérica. Debido a su importancia se inició su cultivo en jaulas flotantes usando juveniles silvestres. A partir de la década pasada se iniciaron los primeros estudios para lograr su reproducción en cautiverio y la producción masiva de juveniles que puedan sustentar el cultivo completo. El presente trabajo presenta los resultados obtenidos hasta la fecha sobre desove, manejo e incubación de huevos y protocolos de larvicultura del pargo flamenco en Latinoamérica.

  7. Reproducción y crecimiento del pargo mancha Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae en el Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica

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    Rosa L Soto Rojas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Una de las pesquerías más importantes en el Golfo de Nicoya es la del pargo mancha (Lutjanus guttatus; su captura se realiza con diversas artes y principalmente por la flota artesanal. Estudiamos especímenes de la captura comercial artesanal entre el 2002 y 2006. Se analizaron las relaciones morfométricas para aplicar la ecuación P = aLb; el análisis del estado de madurez gonadal se hizo macroscópicamente; se determinó la edad a través de la lectura de anillos anuales de los otolitos sagitales y los parámetros de crecimiento fueron aplicados en la ecuación de von Bertalanffy: L (t = * [1-exp (-K*(t-t0]. La relación longitud total-peso total es y = 0.0236x 2.8153 y longitud total-peso eviscerado y = 0.0216x2.8129; las relaciones simplificadas correspondientes fueron y = 0.0173x3 y y = 0.0162x3. La reproducción es todo el año con dos picos en marzo y setiembre (época seca y lluviosa, respectivamente. La proporción macho-hembra es 1:1. Se generó para la población del Golfo de Nicoya una clave edad-talla donde su utilidad se presenta como adecuada hasta los 6 años de edad. La curva de crecimiento von Bertalanffy es L (t=65,9(1-e -0,13(t+2,66.Reproduction and growth of the fish Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. The fish Lutjanus guttatus is important in the fisheries of Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica where they are captured with varied gear mainly by the artisanal fleet. We measured specimens from the commercial catch of 2002-2006. Gonadal state was determined macroscopically and age with otoliths The total length-total weight relationship was y = 0.0236x2.8153 and total length-eviscerated weight y = 0.0216x2.8129. Simplified relationships were y = 0.0173x3 and y = 0.0162x3. There is year-round reproduction with peaks in March (dry season and September (rainy season. Male-female sexual ratio was 1:1. The age-length key for the gulf shows availability until the 6 years of age. The von Bertalanffy

  8. Helminth parasite communities of spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus from the Mexican Pacific

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    Morales-Serna F. N.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The helminth communities of L. guttatus from Mazatlan Bay (MB and Banderas Bay (BB, on the Pacific coast of Mexico, were studied during two consecutive years. A total of 536 fish were collected and 19 parasite taxa registered (six digeneans, two cestodes, nine nematodes, and two monogeneans. Infection levels of common helminth species (Helicometrina nimia, Siphodera vinaledwardsii, Tetraphyllidea gen. sp., Pseudoterranova sp., Ancyrocephalidae gen. sp. and Microcotyloides incisa as well as the infracommunity indices varied significantly between MB and BB, and among dry and rainy seasons; however, no clear seasonal patterns were observed. Pseudoterranova larvae appeared frequently in MB, possibly because of the presence of the California sea lion in this locality. Similarity analysis did not show a clear separation of parasite species composition between both localities, which suggest that fish samples came from a single population of L. guttatus.

  9. [Feeding habits of Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) at Los Cóbanos and Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador].

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    Rodrigo Rojas, José; Maravilla, Erick; Chicas, Francisco

    2004-03-01

    Abstract: A total of 175 spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus were collected monthly in the Los Cobanos and Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador, from January to December 2000 to determine its feeding habits. The fishes studied ranged 9.8 - 58.0 cm in total length. Were collected using push-net and hook and line. This snapper is a bentonic opportunistic carnivorous predator. The total biomass of the stomach contents was 260.5 g. Crustaceans (Squillidae, Portunidae, Dynomenidae. Penaeidae, Sicyoniidae, Callianassidae), were the most abundant group: they accounted for 50.4% of the total biomass. Numerically, Portunus asper was the most abundant prey. Ontogenic differences were observed in the diet. In juveniles (16 cm TL). at any time of the year, the most frequent and abundant components were crustaceans and in adults were crustaceans, fishes and mollusks. The relative importance of different components of the diet was assessed with two indexes that combine. in different ways. percentage frequency of occurrence, percentage number and percentage weight of prey categories. The commercial use this resource and the absence of management strategies are discussed.

  10. Hábitos alimentarios del pargo mancha Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae en Los Cóbanos y Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador

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    José Rodrigo Rojas M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron los hábitos alimentarios del pargo mancha Lutjanus guttatus a partir de 175 ejemplares (9.8 y 58.0 cm LT, recolectados entre enero y diciembre del 2000 en Los Cóbanos y Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador. L. guttatus es un depredador carnívoro oportunista bentónico. La biomasa total fue de 260.5g. Los crustáceos, representados por seis familias (Squillidae, Portunidae, Dynomenidae, Penaeidae, Sicyoniidae, Callianassidae, constituyeron el 50.4% de la biomasa total. Numéricamente, la especie que más consumió el pargo mancha fue Portunus asper. Especimenes menores de 16 cm LT consumen preferentemente crustáceos. Después de los 24 cm y hasta los 44 cm el espectro alimenticio se ve diversificado con la inclusión de peces y moluscos. El 59.5% de los estómagos contenían restos (escamas, exoesqueletos y rostros de camarones con una biomasa de 47.8 g. Se discute sobre la importancia comercial de este recurso y de la ausencia de una estrategia de manejoA total of 175 spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus were collected monthly in the Los Cobanos and Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador, from January to December 2000 to determine its feeding habits. The fishes studied ranged 9.8 - 58.0 cm in total length. Were collected using pushnet and hook and line. This snapper is a bentonic opportunistic carnivorous predator. The total biomass of the stomach contents was 260.5 g. Crustaceans (Squillidae, Portunidae, Dynomenidae, Penaeidae, Sicyoniidae, Callianassidae, were the most abundant group; they accounted for 50.4% of the total biomass. Numerically, Portunus asper was the most abundant prey. Ontogenic differences were observed in the diet. In juveniles (16 cm TL, at any time of the year, the most frequent and abundant components were crustaceans and in adults were crustaceans, fishes and mollusks. The relative importance of different components of the diet was assessed with two indexes that combine, in different ways, percentage frequency of

  11. Estimación de parámetros biológico-pesqueros para el pargo mancha Lutjanus guttatus en el Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica. (ING

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    Mauricio Vargas Barquero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus is one of the most important demersal species of the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica. This demersal fish is caught mainly by the artesanal fleet with gill nets and bottom long lines in the external zone of the Nicoya Gulf, producing around 62 tonnes in 1996. Nevertheless not much attention have been paid to the study of this species. According to national statics the tendency in recent years for the spotted snapper is to decrease in landings as well as in size of capture. This could be a sign of overexploitation of this species which lead us to the development of the present study. The degree of exploitation exerted on this population was quantified through the estimation of the instantaneous rate of total, natural and fishing mortality: 1.2, 0.6 and 0.6/year, respectively. This means that this population is completely exploited and that no further fishing effort should be applied to this stock. As part of this study the sex ratio was estimated, which did not depart significantly from 1:1. The total length vs. total weight relationship was also estimated and no sex related differences were found, which supports the idea that this species presents no sexual dimorphism. Length at first maturity for the population was 33 ± 3 cm total length. The Von Bertalanffy growth parameters, L∞ and k, 67 cm and 0.30/years respectively, show that the spotted snapper is a slow growing species with a longevity of around 10 years.

  12. Desarrollo osteológico de la columna vertebral y del complejo caudal de larvas de Lutjanus guttatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae en condiciones de cultivo

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    Luz Estela Rodríguez-Ibarra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El pargo flamenco (Lutjanus guttatus es una especie de importancia comercial en México con un gran potencial para su cultivo. El estudio osteológico en estadios tempranos de esta especie bajo condiciones controladas, es una herramienta importante para el conocimiento de su estructura ósea normal y poder detectar las malformaciones que se puedan presentar. El objetivo del presente trabajo se realizó para conocer y describir el desarrollo osteológico normal de la columna vertebral y el complejo caudal de 540 larvas de 2.1 a 17.5mm de longitud total (LT bajo condiciones de cultivo a 28°C, 5.74mg/L de oxígeno y 32.2UPS de salinidad. Diariamente se tomó una muestra de 15 organismos desde el día uno hasta el 36 después de la eclosión (DDE y se procesaron con las técnicas de clareado y tinción de cartílago (azul aciano y hueso (rojo alizarina para llevar a cabo la descripción de las estructuras. La columna vertebral se divide en región abdominal con diez vértebras y región caudal compuesta por 14 vértebras incluido el urostilo. El desarrollo del esqueleto axial inicia con la formación de los arcos neurales y hemales a los 3.8mm de LT. A los 4.1mm de LT empieza la formación de los hipurales y parahipural que son elementos caudales. Entre los 5.3 y 5.8mm de LT se observó en pre-flexión y flexión del notocordio y la formación de todos los hipurales. La osificación de las vértebras en la región abdominal y en algunos arcos neurales inició a los 9.5mm de LT. A los 10.2mm de LT se osificó la región caudal y todos los arcos neurales y hemales. A los 11.2mm LT se osificaron todas las vértebras abdominales con sus respectivos arcos neurales y los parapófisis, mientras que los elementos del esqueleto caudal que se osificaron fueron los hipurales, parahipurales y las espinas hemales modificadas. A los 15.5mm de LT se osificaron los radios de la aleta caudal y 12 espinas neurales y 3 hemales. El proceso de osificación de las

  13. Variabilidad Oceanográfica en el Ecuador y su utilización para la planificación de la maricultura oceánica de las especies Pargo, Lutjanus guttatus, y Huayaipe, Seriola rivoliana

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    Jhonny Chavarría

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Existe una relación directa entre el comportamiento de las especies marinas y las condiciones oceanográficas en las que se desarrollan, lo cual hace indispensable un análisis de tales condiciones para la planificación y análisis de factibilidad técnica y ambiental de proyectos de maricultura. El mar ecuatoriano por encontrarse a ambos lados de la línea ecuatorial, y en el lado oriental del Océano Pacífico, presenta particularidades que deben ser consideradas y que pueden, en una fase inicial, ser abordadas desde la descripción de las masas de agua y la macro circulación de la zona como los ejes principales que caracterizan sus aguas. Aun cuando las aguas ecuatorianas son consideradas como propicias para el cultivo de especies tropicales como Pargo, Lutjanus guttatus, y Huayaipe, Seriola rivoliana, en estructuras confinadas mar afuera, la planificación de una maricultura oceánica sostenible debe considerar la variabilidad climática local que, a diferencia de otros países del Pacífico Sudeste, se manifiesta principalmente en la dirección latitudinal, con influencia prolongada de aguas subtropicales en el sector sur. Este trabajo muestra a través del análisis de la variabilidad oceanográfica ecuatoriana, distintos escenarios, en escalas espaciales y temporales, que pudieran representar mejores condiciones para el desarrollo de la maricultura oceánica, o en el otro extremo posibles escenarios de riesgo.

  14. Comparative characterization of protease activity in cultured spotted rose snapper juveniles (Lutjanus guttatus

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    Emyr Peña

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial characterizations of digestive proteases were studied in three life stages of spotted rose snapper: early (EJ, middle (MJ and late juvenile (LJ with corresponding average weights of 21.3 ± 2.6 g (3 months after hatching, MAH, 190 ± 4.4 g (7 MAH, and 400 ± 11.5 g (12 MAH. At sampling points, the digestive tract was dissected into the stomach (St, pyloric caeca (PC, and the intestine in three sections (proximal (PI, middle (MI and distal intestine (DI. The effect of pH and temperature and specific inhibitors were evaluated for acid and alkaline proteases. Total acid and alkaline protease activity showed a tendency to increase with juvenile life stage of fish while trypsin activity decreased. Differences were found in acid and alkaline protease activities at different pH and temperatures during juvenile stages. Pepstatin A inhibited total activity in the stomach extract in all juvenile stages. Activity in total alkaline protease inhibition was significantly higher in EJ using TLCK, PMSF, SBTI, Phen and Ovo than in MJ and LJ, while no significant differences were found with TPCK inhibition. Therefore increases in protease activities with fish growth through juvenile stages in which a substitution or diversification in the type of alkaline enzymes exist. These results lead a better comprehension of changes in digestive potential of Lutjanidae fish.

  15. ACUICULTURA DE PARGO LA MANCHA LUTJANUS GUTTATUS (STEINDACHNER, 1869 EN COSTA RICA DENTRO DE UN ENFOQUE ECOSISTÉMICO

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    Angel Herrera-Ulloa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La sobreexplotación pesquera y la búsqueda de alternativas ante la pobreza crónica han llevado a explorar el campo de la maricultura por medio de un enfoque ecosistémico se abrieron dos procesos paralelos: una estrategia e; investigación en laboratorio para el levantamiento larval de peces marinos tropicales y una estrategia de comanejo para desarrollar el cultivo de peces marinos tropicales. El pargo la mancha muestra gran potencial de producción de larvas y posterior cultivo en el mar. No mostró respuestas positivas a la inducción por medio de hormonas, el desarrollo de un ambiente adecuado para su reproducción espontánea, permitió tener desoves frecuentes y de calidad. La fase de levantamiento larval mostró contratiempos por el tamaño reducido de las larvas de pargo la mancha el manejo en tanques apropiados y el uso de enriquecedores permitieran mejorar los procesos y llegar a incrementar la producción de alevines. El enfoque ecosistémico permitió abrir los espacios necesarios que permitieron la operación de un proyecto piloto. La granja se creó con un enfoque productivo, pero también para turismo rural. Overfishing and the search for alternatives to it, led us to the explore mariculture as an option using an ecosystem-based approach through two parallel processes: an in-laboratory research strategy for larval rearing of tropical marine fish, and a strategy of co-management to develop tropical marine fish aquaculture. The spotted rose snapper shows great potential for larvae production and cage culture. This species showed no responses to hormone induction; however, the set up of a suitable environment allowed frequent, high-quality spontaneous spawnings. The larval rearing phase presented problems due to the small size of the larvae; although, management in appropriate tanks and the use of enrichments improved the processes, increasing the production of juveniles. This ecosystem approach allowed the operation of a profitable farm pilot project with a productive approach, but with rural tourism in mind as well.

  16. Can Lutjanus purpureus (South red snapper be "legally" considered a red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus?

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    Grazielle Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Red snappers (Lutjanus purpureus in Brazil and Lutjanus campechanus in USA and Gulf of Mexico are both under clear effect of overfishing. Because of their high morphological similarity it has already been suggested that they could possibly be considered as a single species. To investigate the degree of similarity and the genetic structure of red snapper populations we constructed a common dataset of partial D-loop mtDNA sequences of L. purpureus from Brazil (Amapá, Pará and Maranhão and L. campechanus from the Atlantic coast of the USA (Florida, Louisiana and Mississippi. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses surprisingly depicted high similarity between L. campechanus and L. purpureus, compatible with the hypothesis of a single species of red snapper for the Western Atlantic Ocean. These preliminary but very curious findings open an important discussion regarding the legislation involved on the capture of this overexploited fish resources as well as regarding their taxonomy.

  17. Cryopreservation of mutton snapper ( Lutjanus analis sperm

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    EDUARDO G. SANCHES

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a protocol of semen cryopreservation of the mutton snapper Lutjanus analis. The interaction between three extenders ( pH 6.1; 7.8 and 8.2 , two concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide ( DMSO, 5 and 10% and three cooling rates ( -90; -60 and -30°C.min−1 on the sperm motility rate and motility time were analyzed by a factorial experiment. A sample of 30 fishes ( 1,261 ± 449 g collected in the nature was kept in floating net cages. The semen was frozen by using cryogenic straws, in nitrogen vapour and transferred, later, to liquid nitrogen. Fertilization test was accomplished to evaluate the viability of the cryopreserved sperm. The highest sperm motility rate and motility time ( P < 0.05 was achieved by combining extender C ( pH 8.2 with DMSO ( 10% and cooling rate of -60°C.min−1 ( P < 0.05 . The use of cryopreserved sperm presented fertilization rates higher than 59% validating the present protocol for mutton snapper.

  18. Inbreeding in Mimulus guttatus reduces visitation by bumble bee pollinators.

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    David E Carr

    Full Text Available Inbreeding in plants typically reduces individual fitness but may also alter ecological interactions. This study examined the effect of inbreeding in the mixed-mating annual Mimulus guttatus on visitation by pollinators (Bombus impatiens in greenhouse experiments. Previous studies of M. guttatus have shown that inbreeding reduced corolla size, flower number, and pollen quantity and quality. Using controlled crosses, we produced inbred and outbred families from three different M. guttatus populations. We recorded the plant genotypes that bees visited and the number of flowers probed per visit. In our first experiment, bees were 31% more likely to visit outbred plants than those selfed for one generation and 43% more likely to visit outbred plants than those selfed for two generations. Inbreeding had only a small effect on the number of flowers probed once bees arrived at a genotype. These differences were explained partially by differences in mean floral display and mean flower size, but even when these variables were controlled statistically, the effect of inbreeding remained large and significant. In a second experiment we quantified pollen viability from inbred and self plants. Bees were 37-54% more likely to visit outbred plants, depending on the population, even when controlling for floral display size. Pollen viability proved to be as important as floral display in predicting pollinator visitation in one population, but the overall explanatory power of a multiple regression model was weak. Our data suggested that bees use cues in addition to display size, flower size, and pollen reward quality in their discrimination of inbred plants. Discrimination against inbred plants could have effects on plant fitness and thereby reinforce selection for outcrossing. Inbreeding in plant populations could also reduce resource quality for pollinators, potentially resulting in negative effects on pollinator populations.

  19. Isolation and characterization of eight polymorphic microsatellites for the spotted spiny lobster, Panulirus guttatus

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    Nathan Truelove

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite sequences were isolated from enriched genomic libraries of the spotted spiny lobster, Panulirus guttatus using 454 pyrosequencing. Twenty-nine previously developed polymerase chain reaction primer pairs of Panulirus argus microsatellite loci were also tested for cross-species amplification in Panulirus guttatus. In total, eight consistently amplifying, and polymorphic loci were characterized for 57 individuals collected in the Florida Keys and Bermuda. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 8 to 20 and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.409 to 0.958. Significant deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were found in one locus from Florida and three loci from Bermuda. Quality control testing indicated that all loci were easy to score, highly polymorphic and showed no evidence of linkage disequilibrium. Null alleles were detected in three loci with moderate frequencies ranging from (20% to 22%. These eight microsatellites provide novel molecular markers for future conservation genetics research of P. guttatus.

  20. Variation in fatty acid composition of the bigeye snapper Lutjanus lutjanus collected in coral reef habitats of the Malaysian South China Sea.

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    Arai, Takaomi; Amalina, Razikin; Bachok, Zainudin

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand trophic ecology, habitat use and migration of coral reef fish, fatty acid composition and levels were examined in the bigeye snapper Lutjanus lutjanus collected in the Malaysian South China Sea. Proportions of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) ranged from 55.0% to 66.5%, with the highest proportions in fatty acids, the second highest was monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) ranged from 30.7% to 40.2% while the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was the lowest ranged from 2.8% to 4.8%. Palmitic acid (16:0) was the most common in SAFA, oleic acid (C18:1ω9c) was the dominant in MUFA and linolenic acid (C18:3n3) showed the highest value in PUFA. Fatty acid concentrations, especially in SAFA and MUFA, increased with fish growth, suggesting diet and habitat shifts during the fish life history. Most of the fish had more than 1 of EPA: DHA ratio, which suggested that diets of L. lutjanus tended to be higher trophic organisms such as zooplankton and crustacean in coral ecosystem. The diet shift revealed by the composition and levels of the fatty acid profile revealed potential pattern in the habitat use and migration scale in coral reef environment of L. lutjanus.

  1. Within and between generation phenotypic plasticity in trichome density of Mimulus guttatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holeski, L M

    2007-11-01

    Mimulus guttatus (yellow monkeyflower) frequently produce glandular trichomes, a trait that may resist herbivory. Constitutive production of trichomes is variable both within and among populations of M. guttatus and most of this variation is genetic. This study demonstrates that damage on early leaves can induce increased trichome production on later leaves, a plastic response that is likely adaptive. Moreover, this study shows that this induction can be maternally transmitted, increasing trichome density in progeny before they experience herbivory. This transgenerational response must involve a yet undescribed epigenetic mechanism. These experiments also show genetic variation among plants in the capacity for both within and between plant generation induction. Despite the clear evolutionary importance of variation in constitutive and induced herbivory-resistance traits, few other studies have noted genetic variation in both within a plant species.

  2. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in maricultured fish, Lates calcarifer (Barramudi), Lutjanus campechanus (red snapper) and Lutjanus griseus (grey snapper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasyitah Sobihah, Nasri; Ahmad Zaharin, Aris; Khairul Nizam, Mohammad; Ley Juen, Looi; Kyoung-Woong, Kim

    2018-04-01

    Mariculture fish contains a rich source of protein, but some species may bioaccumulate high levels of heavy metals, making them unsafe for consumption. This study aims to identify heavy metal concentration in Lates calcarifer (Barramudi), Lutjanus campechanus (Red snapper) and Lutjanus griseus (Grey snapper). Three species of mariculture fish, namely, L. calcarifer, L. campechanus and L. griseus were collected for analyses of heavy metals. The concentration of heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Se, and Zn) was determined using inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The distribution of heavy metals mean concentration in muscle is Zn > Fe > As > Se > Cr > Cu > Mn > Pb > Ni > Cd for L. calcarifer, Fe > Zn > Cr > As > Ni > Mn > Se > Cu > Pb > Cd for L. campechanus and Fe > Zn > Cr > Ni > Se > Cu > As > Mn > Pb > Cd for L. griseus. Among all of the species under investigation, the highest concentration of Fe was found in the muscle tissue of L. campechanus (19.985 ± 1.773 mg kg -1 ) and liver tissue of L. griseus (58.248 ± 8.736 mg kg -1 ). Meanwhile, L. calcarifer has the lowest concentration of Cd in both muscle (0.007 ± 0.004 mg kg -1 ) and liver tissue (0.027 ± 0.016 mg kg -1 ). The heavy metal concentration in muscle tissue is below the permissible limit guidelines stipulated by the Food & Agriculture Organization, 1983 and Malaysia Food Act, 1983. The concentration of heavy metals varies significantly among fish species and tissues. L. campechanus was found to have a higher ability to accumulate heavy metals as compared to the other two species (p heavy metals compared to muscle tissue (p heavy metal concentration in mariculture fish must be performed to prevent acute and chronic food intoxication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An ultraviolet floral polymorphism associated with life history drives pollinator discrimination in Mimulus guttatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Megan L; Miller, Timothy J; Kay, Kathleen M

    2015-03-01

    • Ultraviolet (UV) floral patterns are common in angiosperms and mediate pollinator attraction, efficiency, and constancy. UV patterns may vary within species, yet are cryptic to human observers. Thus, few studies have explicitly described the distribution or ecological significance of intraspecific variation in UV floral patterning. Here, we describe the geographic distribution and pattern of inheritance of a UV polymorphism in the model plant species Mimulus guttatus (Phrymaceae). We then test whether naturally occurring UV phenotypes influence pollinator interactions within M. guttatus.• We document UV patterns in 18 annual and 19 perennial populations and test whether UV pattern is associated with life history. To examine the pattern of inheritance, we conducted crosses within and between UV phenotypes. Finally, we tested whether bee pollinators discriminate among naturally occurring UV phenotypes in two settings: wild bee communities and captive Bombus impatiens.• Within M. guttatus, perennial populations exhibit a small bulls-eye pattern, whereas a bilaterally symmetric runway pattern occurs mainly in annual populations. Inheritance of UV patterning is consistent with a single-locus Mendelian model in which the runway phenotype is dominant. Bee pollinators discriminate against unfamiliar UV patterns in both natural and controlled settings.• We describe a widespread UV polymorphism associated with life history divergence within Mimulus guttatus. UV pattern influences pollinator visitation and should be considered when estimating reproductive barriers between life history ecotypes. This work develops a new system to investigate the ecology and evolution of UV floral patterning in a species with extensive genomic resources. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  4. Disruption of endosperm development is a major cause of hybrid seed inviability between Mimulus guttatus and Mimulus nudatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneal, Elen; Willis, John H; Franks, Robert G

    2016-05-01

    Divergence of developmental mechanisms within populations could lead to hybrid developmental failure, and might be a factor driving speciation in angiosperms. We investigate patterns of endosperm and embryo development in Mimulus guttatus and the closely related, serpentine endemic Mimulus nudatus, and compare them to those of reciprocal hybrid seed. We address whether disruption in hybrid seed development is the primary source of reproductive isolation between these sympatric taxa. M. guttatus and M. nudatus differ in the pattern and timing of endosperm and embryo development. Some hybrid seeds exhibit early disruption of endosperm development and are completely inviable, while others develop relatively normally at first, but later exhibit impaired endosperm proliferation and low germination success. These developmental patterns are reflected in mature hybrid seeds, which are either small and flat (indicating little to no endosperm) or shriveled (indicating reduced endosperm volume). Hybrid seed inviability forms a potent reproductive barrier between M. guttatus and M. nudatus. We shed light on the extent of developmental variation between closely related species within the M. guttatus species complex, an important ecological model system, and provide a partial mechanism for the hybrid barrier between M. guttatus and M. nudatus. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Spotted black snake (Pseudechis guttatus) envenomation in a maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portas, Timothy J; Montali, Richard J

    2007-09-01

    Envenomation by a spotted black snake (Pseudechis guttatus), following multiple bites on the buccal mucosa of a captive maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), caused the animal's collapse, hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, local tissue necrosis, hepatic and renal failure, and subsequent death. The wolf died despite intensive supportive care including antivenom administration, fluid support, and a blood transfusion. Gross necropsy findings included myocardial and intestinal hemorrhage, pulmonary congestion, hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly. Microscopic examination of formalin-fixed tissues demonstrated pulmonary and abdominal visceral hemorrhage, acute nephrosis with casts, multifocal hepatic necrosis, and splenic congestion.

  6. Gene expression plasticity resulting from parental leaf damage in Mimulus guttatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchio, Jack M; Monnahan, Patrick J; Kelly, John K; Hileman, Lena C

    2015-01-01

    Leaf trichome density in Mimulus guttatus can be altered by the parental environment. In this study, we compared global gene expression patterns in progeny of damaged and control plants. Significant differences in gene expression probably explain the observed trichome response, and identify additional responsive pathways. Using whole transcriptome RNA sequencing, we estimated differential gene expression between isogenic seedlings whose parents had, or had not, been subject to leaf damage. We identified over 900 genes that were differentially expressed in response to parental wounding. These genes clustered into groups involved in cell wall and cell membrane development, stress response pathways, and secondary metabolism. Gene expression is modified as a consequence of the parental environment in a targeted way that probably alters multiple developmental pathways, and may increase progeny fitness if they experience environments similar to that of their parents. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. A Simulated Heat Wave Has Diverse Effects on Immune Function and Oxidative Physiology in the Corn Snake (Pantherophis guttatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlschmidt, Z R; French, S S; Ahn, A; Webb, A; Butler, M W

    Animals will continue to encounter increasingly warm environments, including more frequent and intense heat waves. Yet the physiological consequences of heat waves remain equivocal, potentially because of variation in adaptive plasticity (reversible acclimation) and/or aspects of experimental design. Thus, we measured a suite of physiological variables in the corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) after exposure to field-parameterized, fluctuating temperature regimes (moderate temperature and heat wave treatments) to address two hypotheses: (1) a heat wave causes physiological stress, and (2) thermal performance of immune function exhibits adaptive plasticity in response to a heat wave. We found little support for our first hypothesis because a simulated heat wave had a negative effect on body mass, but it also reduced oxidative damage and did not affect peak performance of three immune metrics. Likewise, we found only partial support for our second hypothesis. After exposure to a simulated heat wave, P. guttatus exhibited greater performance breadth and reduced temperature specialization (the standardized difference between peak performance and performance breadth) for only one of three immune metrics and did so in a sex-dependent manner. Further, a simulated heat wave did not elicit greater performance of any immune metric at higher temperatures. Yet a heat wave likely reduced innate immune function in P. guttatus because each metric of innate immune performance in this species (as in most vertebrates) was lower at elevated temperatures. Together with previous research, our study indicates that a heat wave may have complex, modest, and even positive physiological effects in some taxa.

  8. Molecular phylogeny and diversification of a widespread Neotropical rainforest bird group: The Buff-throated Woodcreeper complex, Xiphorhynchus guttatus/susurrans (Aves: Dendrocolaptidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Tainá C; Sequeira, Fernando; Aleixo, Alexandre; Rêgo, Péricles S; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Vallinoto, Marcelo

    2015-04-01

    The genus Xiphorhynchus is a species rich avian group widely distributed in Neotropical forests of Central and South America. Although recent molecular studies have improved our understanding of the spatial patterns of genetic diversity in some species of this genus, most are still poorly known, including their taxonomy. Here, we address the historical diversification and phylogenetic relationships of the X. guttatus/susurrans complex, using data from two mitochondrial (cyt b and ND2) and one nuclear (β-fibint7) genes. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred with both gene trees and a Bayesian-based species tree under a coalescent framework (∗BEAST). With exception of the nuclear β-fibint7 gene that produced an unresolved tree, both mtDNA and the species tree showed a similar topology and were congruent in recovering five main clades with high statistical support. These clades, however, are not fully concordant with traditional delimitation of some X. guttatus subspecies, since X. g. polystictus, X. g. guttatus, and X. g. connectens are not supported as distinct clades. Interestingly, these three taxa are more closely related to the mostly trans-Andean X. susurrans than the other southern and western Amazonian subspecies of X. guttatus, which constitutes a paraphyletic species. Timing estimates based on the species tree indicated that diversification in X. guttatus occurred between the end of the Pliocene and early Pleistocene, likely associated with the formation of the modern Amazon River and its main southern tributaries (Xingu, Tocantins, and Madeira), in addition to climate-induced changes in the distribution of rainforest biomes. Our study supports with an enlarged dataset a previous proposal for recognizing at least three species level taxa in the X. guttatus/susurrans complex: X. susurrans, X. guttatus, and X. guttatoides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. NEMÁTODOS PARÁSITOS DE Lutjanus synagris (Linneaus, 1758 Y Lutjanus analis (Cuvier, 1828 (PERCIFORMES, LUTJANIDAE EN LAS ZONAS DE SANTA MARTA Y NEGUANJE, CARIBE COLOMBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés J.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los nemátodos encontrados en el sistema digestivo de las especies de pargo Lutjanus synagris y Lutjanus analis. Esta investigación se orientó principalmente a la clasificación taxonómica de los parásitos y no a los efectos o patologías que estos puedan ocasionar en los peces. Se tuvo en cuenta que en Colombia los pargos constituyen uno de los recursos de mayor importancia para la comercialización; Lutjanus synagris y Lutjanus analis son especies demersales explotadas a lo largo de toda la región costera e insular del Caribe colombiano. Los tractos digestivos se colectaron de los pargos capturados artesanalmente (nasa, cordel por pescadores de las zonas de Santa Marta y Neguanje; se identificaron los siguientes géneros de nemátodos: Capillaria spp., Contracaecum spp., Cucullanus spp. y Raphidascaris spp.; el último género fue el más representativo.

  10. Feeding ecology of Lutjanus analis (Teleostei: Lutjanidae from Abrolhos Bank, Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Oliveira Freitas

    Full Text Available Diet and feeding ecology of the mutton snapper Lutjanus analis were investigated in the Abrolhos Bank, Eastern Brazil, the largest and richest coral reefs in the South Atlantic, where about 270 species of reef and shore fishes occur. To evaluate seasonal and ontogenetic shifts in the diet, specimens of L. analis were obtained through a fish monitoring program in four cities in southern Bahia State, from June 2005 to March 2007. Stomachs from 85 mutton snappers that ranged in size from 18.1 to 74.0 cm TL were examined. Prey were identified to the lowest possible taxon and assessed by the frequency of occurrence and volumetric methods. Variations in volume prey consumption were evaluated using non-metric multi-dimensional scaling ordination, analysis of similarity, and similarity percentage methods. Significant differences in diet composition among size classes were registered, whereas non significant differences between seasons were observed. Considering size-classes, food items consumption showed important variations: juveniles (50.1 cm TL consumed basically fish, mostly Anguiliformes. Lutjanus analis is an important generalist reef predator, with a broad array of food resources and ontogenetic changes in the diet. This snapper species plays an important role on the trophic ecology of the Abrolhos Bank coral reefs.

  11. Use of riverine through reef habitat systems by dog snapper ( Lutjanus jocu ) in eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Rodrigo L.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Chaves, Eduardo M.; Minte-Vera, Carolina V.; Lindeman, Kenyon C.

    2011-11-01

    The early life history of Western Atlantic snappers from the Southern hemisphere is largely unknown. Habitat use of different life stages (i.e. size categories) of the dog snapper ( Lutjanus jocu) was examined across the largest South Atlantic reef-estuarine complex (Abrolhos Shelf, Brazil, 16-19° S). Visual surveys were conducted in different habitats across the shelf (estuary, inner-shelf reefs and mid-shelf reefs). Lutjanus jocu showed higher densities on inner-shelf habitats, with a clear increase in fish size across the shelf. Individuals mangrove and rocky habitats) and inner-shelf reefs (particularly shallow fore-reefs and tide pools). Individuals ranging 10-30 cm were broadly distributed, but consistently more abundant on inner-shelf reefs. Individuals between 30 and 40 cm were more common on mid-shelf reefs, while individuals >40 cm were recorded only on mid-shelf reefs. Literature data indicate that individuals ranging 70-80 cm are common on deep offshore reefs. This pattern suggests that the dog snapper performs ontogenetic cross-shelf migrations. Protecting portions of the different habitats used by the dog snapper during its post-settlement life cycle is highlighted as an important conservation and management measure.

  12. Development of immune functionality in larval and juvenile crimson snapper Lutjanus erythropterus (Bloch 1790

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Cui

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ontogenetic development of the immune system in crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus Bloch 1790 larvae was histologically and enzymatically studied from hatch to 36 days post-hatch (DPH. Primitive hepatopancreas appeared on 2 DPH and renal tubules started hematopoiesis on 4 DPH. The spleen anlage appeared on 6 DPH and the thymus formed on 14 DPH. Total activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+ K+-ATPase gradually increased after hatch, and showed a sharp increase after 29 DPH during the transitional feeding period from Artemia to inert feed. The specific activities of SOD, CAT, and GPX showed a trend of sharp increase and reached the maximum level on 4 DPH when exogenous feeding started, except for Na+ K+-ATPase where the peak occurred on10 DPH. The specific activities of these five enzymes reached the peak during the food transition from rotifers to Artemia, but the total activity of enzymes showed an increasing trend as fish grew. The present study provides new knowledge of the development of functional enzymes relevant to fish larvae immunity, sheds light on the understanding of the change of larval health, and improves hatchery management of crimson snapper. Keywords: Immune system, Enzyme activity, Ontogenetic development, Crimson snapper Lutjanus erythropterus

  13. A Segregating Inversion Generates Fitness Variation in Yellow Monkeyflower (Mimulus guttatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Lila; Kelly, John K.; Willis, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphic chromosomal rearrangements can bind hundreds of genes into single genetic loci with diverse effects. Rearrangements are often associated with local adaptation and speciation and may also be an important component of genetic variation within populations. We genetically and phenotypically characterize a segregating inversion (inv6) in the Iron Mountain (IM) population of Mimulus guttatus (yellow monkeyflower). We initially mapped inv6 as a region of recombination suppression in three F2 populations resulting from crosses among IM plants. In each case, the F1 parent was heterozygous for a derived haplotype, homogenous across markers spanning over 5 Mb of chromsome 6. In the three F2 populations, inv6 reduced male and female fitness components. In addition, inv6 carriers suffered an ∼30% loss of pollen viability in the field. Despite these costs, inv6 exists at moderate frequency (∼8%) in the natural population, suggesting counterbalancing fitness benefits that maintain the polymorphism. Across 4 years of monitoring in the field, inv6 had an overall significant positive effect on seed production (lifetime female fitness) of carriers. This benefit was particularly strong in harsh years and may be mediated (in part) by strong positive effects on flower production. These data suggest that opposing fitness effects maintain an intermediate frequency, and as a consequence, inv6 generates inbreeding depression and high genetic variance. We discuss these findings in relation to the theory of inbreeding depression and the maintenance of fitness variation. PMID:26868767

  14. Adaptive divergence in the monkey flower Mimulus guttatus is maintained by a chromosomal inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyford, Alex D; Friedman, Jannice

    2015-06-01

    Organisms exhibit an incredible diversity of life history strategies as adaptive responses to environmental variation. The establishment of novel life history strategies involves multilocus polymorphisms, which will be challenging to establish in the face of gene flow and recombination. Theory predicts that adaptive allelic combinations may be maintained and spread if they occur in genomic regions of reduced recombination, such as chromosomal inversion polymorphisms, yet empirical support for this prediction is lacking. Here, we use genomic data to investigate the evolution of divergent adaptive ecotypes of the yellow monkey flower Mimulus guttatus. We show that a large chromosomal inversion polymorphism is the major region of divergence between geographically widespread annual and perennial ecotypes. In contrast, ∼40,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms in collinear regions of the genome show no signal of life history, revealing genomic patterns of diversity have been shaped by localized homogenizing gene flow and large-scale Pleistocene range expansion. Our results provide evidence for an inversion capturing and protecting loci involved in local adaptation, while also explaining how adaptive divergence can occur with gene flow. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Transgenerational plasticity is sex-dependent and persistent in yellow monkeyflower (Mimulus guttatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Kayla C; Sattarin, Arash; Kelly, John K; Scoville, Alison G

    2016-04-01

    Transgenerational phenotypic plasticity, whereby environmental cues experienced by parents alter the phenotype of their progeny, has now been documented in diverse organisms. Transmission of environmentally determined responses is known to occur through both maternal and paternal gametes, but the underlying mechanisms have rarely been compared. In addition, the persistence of induction over multiple generations appears to vary widely, but has been characterized for relatively few systems. Yellow monkeyflower ( Mimulus guttatus ) is known to exhibit transgenerational induction of increased glandular trichome production in response to simulated insect damage. Here, we test for differences between maternal and paternal transmission of this response and examine its persistence over five generations following damage. Maternal and paternal damage resulted in similar and apparently additive increases in progeny trichome production. Treatment of germinating seeds with the genome-wide demethylating agent 5-azacytidine erased the effect of maternal but not paternal damage. The number of glandular trichomes remained elevated for three generations following damage. These results indicate that transgenerational transmission occurs through both maternal and paternal germ lines, but that they differ in the proximate mechanism of epigenetic inheritance. Our results also indicate that a wounding response can persist for multiple generations in the absence of subsequent damage.

  16. Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis in a coral reef fish (Lutjanus carponotatus, Lutjanidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.

    2014-05-25

    Parentage analysis is an important tool for identifying connectivity patterns in coral reef fishes, but often requires numerous highly polymorphic markers. We isolated 21 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the stripey snapper, Lutjanus carponotatus and describe their integration into three multiplex PCRs. All markers were highly polymorphic with a mean of 24.9 ± 1.8 SE alleles per locus and an average observed heterozygosity of 0.797 ± 0.038 SE across 285 genotyped individuals. Using a simulated dataset, we conclude that the complete marker set provides sufficient resolution to resolve parent–offspring relationships in natural populations with 99.6 ± 0.1 % accuracy in parentage assignments. This multiplex assay provides an effective means of investigating larval dispersal and population connectivity in this fishery-targeted coral reef fish species and informing the design of marine protected area networks for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management.

  17. Immunologic responses in corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neul, Annkatrin; Schrödl, Wieland; Marschang, Rachel E; Bjick, Tina; Truyen, Uwe; von Buttlar, Heiner; Pees, Michael

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To measure immunologic responses of snakes after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses. ANIMALS 42 adult corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) of both sexes. PROCEDURES Snakes were inoculated intratracheally with genogroup A (n = 12), B (12), or C (12) ferlavirus (infected groups) or cell-culture supernatant (6; control group) on day 0. Three snakes from each infected group were euthanized on days 4, 16, 28, and 49, and 3 snakes from the control group were euthanized on day 49. Blood samples were collected from live snakes on days -6 (baseline), 4, 16, 28, and 49. Hematologic tests were performed and humoral responses assessed via hemagglutination-inhibition assays and ELISAs. Following euthanasia, gross pathological and histologic evaluations and virus detection were performed. RESULTS Severity of clinical signs of and immunologic responses to ferlavirus infection differed among snake groups. Hematologic values, particularly WBC and monocyte counts, increased between days 4 and 16 after infection. A humoral response was identified between days 16 and 28. Serum IgM concentrations increased from baseline earlier than IgY concentrations, but the IgY relative increase was higher at the end of the study. The hemagglutination-inhibition assay revealed that the strongest reactions in all infected groups were against the strain with which they had been infected. Snakes infected with genogroup A ferlavirus had the strongest immune response, whereas those infected with genogroup B had the weakest responses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this experimental study suggested that the ferlavirus strain with the highest virulence induced the weakest immune response in snakes.

  18. Two new gonad-infecting Philometra species (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the marine fish Lutjanus vitta (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) off New Caledonia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Justine, J.-L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2011), s. 302-310 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : parasitic nematode * Philometra * MARINE FISH * Lutjanus * New Caledonia * South Pacific Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.812, year: 2011 http://www.paru.cas.cz/folia/pdfs/showpdf.php?pdf=22005

  19. HISTOLOGICAL STUDY ON INTERNAL ORGANS DEVELOPMENT OF MANGROVE SNAPPER, Lutjanus argentimaculatus LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Mahardika

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus is one of highly economic value of marine fish commodity. Culture of this species has been developed a few years ago. Basic data on biological aspect is still limited whereas those kinds of information are needed. Histological study to determine development of internal organs of the larvae of mangrove snapper was conducted. Amount of 15-20 larvae each from 1 day after DAH hatching (1 DAH up to 30 days after hatching (30 DAH were collected, fixed in Bouin’s solution for 4-6 hours and then transferred into 70% alcohol. The samples were then embedded in paraffin wax and the sections were stained with haematoxylineosin (H&E. Results showed that the eye retina of the mangrove snapper larvae well developed on 3 DAH, whereas their digestive tract was on 5 DAH. Under this condition, the larvae started feeding as showed by present of natural food tissues in the intestine. Development of digestive tract and other internal organs reached their complete form like in adult fish after 20 DAH.

  20. Molecular authentication of Pargo fillets Lutjanus purpureus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae by DNA barcoding reveals commercial fraud

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    Ivana Veneza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Caribbean Red Snapper (Pargo Lutjanus purpureus is the most economically important snapper in Brazil, which is sold, among other forms, as frozen fillets. During the process of transformation into fillets there is the removal of the distinctive morphological traits, being able to favor the substitution by less valued species. In addition, there is no national legislation requiring the insertion of the specific name on the product label. However, according to a Normative Instruction (IN N ° 29/2015 MAPA that correlates the common and specific names of the products destined to the national trade, in Brazil only L. purpureus and L. campechanus can be denominated “Pargo”. Thus, the DNA barcode tool was used to identify the fillets sold in north of Brazil, labeled “Pargo”, with the aid of sequences from the public and control databases. The results showed that among 142 fillets examined, 78% was identified as L. purpureus and 22% as Rhomboplites aurorubens, a snapper with low commercial value in the country, revealing commercial fraud. The molecular identification method successfully used in this study to authenticate fillets snappers may also be used by surveillance authorities in the quality control of processed fish products, towards ensuring consumer rights.

  1. [Reproductive biology of the golden snapper Lutjanus inermis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in the central Mexican Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Ceballos-Vázquez, Bertha Patricia

    2012-03-01

    Reproductive aspects and information on the effect of fishery activities over this species stock are scarce, despite the imperative need of effective protection and resource management programs. To support the possible establishment of closed seasons and catch levels for the area, our study aimed to evaluate the spawning season of the Golden snapper (Lutjanus inermis). For this, fish caught by artisanal fisheries in the Navidad, Tenacatita and Chamela bays (Jalisco, Mexico) were sampled monthly from 1999-2008, and analyzed sex ratios, spawning season and size at first maturity. A total of 311 (53.1%) females and 275 (46.9%) males were caught, and the observed sex ratio was 1:0.88. The total length range was 14.4-37.0cm and total weight range from 48-575g. The length at first maturity was 23.9cm TL for females and 23.6cm TL for males. The gonadosomatic index showed two principal reproductive periods in the year (February-April and September-November), when the largest number of mature gonads were observed. Ovaries were of asynchronic development type and seven oocyte development stages were identified. Testicles showed lobular development and spermatozoa were observed in the center of the cysts and in the collecting ducts. It is important to mention that our results support the current suitable exploitation of this species in the area.

  2. Reproduction of the fish Lutjanus analis (mutton snapper; Perciformes: Lutjanidae) from Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Simone F; Duarte, Yalan F; Ferreira, Beatrice P

    2010-09-01

    The mutton snapper Lutjanus analis is an overexploited species of economic importance for the Northeast region of Brazil. To determine the reproductive aspects of the mutton snapper, biological data were sampled from Bahia, Pernambuco, Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte and Ceará States, between 7 and 200m depth, from February 1997 to December 1999, performed in the Brazilian Economic Exclusive Zone Study Program (REVIZEE-NE Program). Data on total length (TL), fork length (FL), standard length (SL), total weight (TW) and gutted weight (GW) were measured. The gonads were collected and fixed in FAACC for histological analysis on maturational stage and calculation of the gonadosomatic index (GSI). A total of 135 fishes were collected; from these, 74 were females and 61 were males. Females were between 28.0 and 69.0cm (TL) and the males between 35.0 and 75.0cm (TL). Mutton snapper are gonochorists, and the spawning season, determined by the maturity stages frequency and the GSI, occurred between November and April, with peak spawning in March. The mature females' minimum length was 28.0cm fork length, smaller than the minimum maturation length previously reported for the species in Cuba. The exploitation status of the species and the biological traits enhances the importance of establishing spatial and seasonal protection measures such as protected areas both in nursery and spawning sites.

  3. Cucullanus pargi sp. n. (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) from the grey snapper Lutjanus griseus off the southern coast of Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, David; Tuz-Paredes, Vielka M; Quintal-Loria, Miguel A

    2007-09-01

    A new nematode species, Cucullanus pargi sp. n., is described from the intestine and pyloric caeca of the grey snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus), off the southern Quintana Roo coast, Mexico. This species shows similar morphological features as cucullanids occurring in marine and brackish-water fishes; however, it differs from all other species in the length of spicules, arrangement and number of caudal papillae, position of the excretory pore and deirids. Cucullanus pargi is the third species of this genus described from fishes in Mexico and the second one from Mexican marine fishes.

  4. PENGARUH PERBEDAAN FREKUENSI PEMBERIAN PAKAN TERHADAP PERTAMBAHAN BOBOT YUWANA KAKAP MERAH, Lutjanus argentimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Melianawati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Frekuensi pemberian pakan merupakan faktor yang penting karena berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan dan berperanan penting dalam efektivitas penggunaan pakan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui frekuensi pemberian pakan yang tepat pada pemeliharaan yuwana kakap merah. Hewan uji yang digunakan untuk penelitian adalah yuwana kakap merah, Lutjanus argentimaculatus umur 56 hari dengan bobot awal 0,18 ± 0,03 g sebanyak 180 ekor. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan 12 tangki polyethylene volume 60 L. Rancangan penelitian adalah acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan dan tiga ulangan. Perlakuan yang diujikan dalam penelitian ini adalah perbedaan frekuensi pemberian pakan, yaitu (A 2 kali sehari (08:00, 14:00; (B 4 kali sehari (08:00, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00; (C 6 kali sehari (08:00, 10:00, 12:00, 14:00, 16:00, 18:00; dan (D 8 kali sehari (08:00, 09:30, 11:00, 12:30, 14:00, 15:30, 17:00, 18:30. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan frekuensi pemberian pakan berpengaruh nyata (P0,05. Frekuensi pemberian pakan delapan kali sehari dengan interval waktu setiap 1,5 jam menghasilkan pertumbuhan bobot dan laju pertumbuhan harian yuwana kakap merah yang paling besar serta nisbah konversi pakan yang terendah dan efisiensi pakan yang tertinggi. Feeding frequency was an important factor that gave the influence to growth and also for effectiveness using the feed. This research was aimed to get the information about effective feeding frequency on rearing of mangrove snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus juvenile. This research was using12 polyethylene tank of 60 L in volume and 180 juvenile of 56 days old with 0.18 ± 0.03 grams of body weight. Complete random design with four treatments and three replicates was used in this research. The treatment was different feeding frequency, i.e.: (A 2 times perday (08:00, 14:00; (B 4 times perday (08:00, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00; 6 times perday (08:00, 10:00, 12:00, 14:00, 16:00, 18:00; dan 8 times perday (08:00, 09:30, 11:00, 12

  5. Human health risk assessment of pesticide residues in snappers (Lutjanus) fish from the Navachiste Lagoon complex, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Galván, Ingrid Alejandra; Rodríguez-Meza, Durga Guadalupe; Luna-González, Antonio; González-Ocampo, Héctor Abelardo

    2015-08-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues were determined in fillets of Lutjanus colorado, L. argentiventris, and L. novemfasciatus. Fillet samples were collected bimonthly from February 2012 to February 2013. OCPs average concentrations do not differ significantly according to size, weight, or season, nor do they relate with the physico-chemical parameters of the sea water. The highest concentration and most frequently encountered OCPs were endosulfan sulfate, δ-HCH, and heptachlor epoxide, which indicates their use in the recent past and confirms their persistence. Average concentrations of ∑HCHs, ∑chlordane, and ∑heptachlor in samples were above cancer MRLs according to data from monthly consumed portions. HCHs and heptachlor are listed in Appendix III of the Rotterdam Convention of chemicals placed on a prior informed consent procedure for import and export purposes; they are considered illegal in Mexico. The OCPs concentrations above cancer MRLs in Lutjanus spp. turn its frequent consumption into a human health risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) parasitic in Lutjanus spp. (Osteichthyes: Lutjanidae) in the Bay of Bengal, India

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Manoharan, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 9 (2014), s. 3299-3307 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bay of Bengal * Lutjanus * parasite * Philometra Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2014

  7. Expression of the melatonin receptor Mel(1c) in neural tissues of the reef fish Siganus guttatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Ju; Park, Ji-Gweon; Jeong, Hyung-Bok; Takeuchi, Yuki; Kim, Se-Jae; Lee, Young-Don; Takemura, Akihiro

    2007-05-01

    The golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus, is a reef fish exhibiting a restricted lunar-related rhythm in behavior and reproduction. Here, to understand the circadian rhythm of this lunar-synchronized spawner, a melatonin receptor subtype-Mel(1c)-was cloned. The full-length Mel(1c) melatonin receptor cDNA comprised 1747 bp with a single open reading frame (1062 bp) that encodes a 353-amino acid protein, which included 7 presumed transmembrane domains. Real-time PCR revealed high Mel(1c) mRNA expression in the retina and brain but not in the peripheral tissues. When the fish were reared under light/dark (LD 12:12) conditions, Mel(1c) mRNA in the retina and brain was expressed with daily variations and increased during nighttime. Similar variations were noted under constant conditions, suggesting that Mel(1c) mRNA expression is regulated by the circadian clock system. Daily variations of Mel(1c) mRNA expression with a peak at zeitgeber time (ZT) 12 were observed in the cultured pineal gland under LD 12:12. Exposure of the cultured pineal gland to light at ZT17 resulted in a decrease in Mel(1c) mRNA expression. When light was obstructed at ZT5, the opposite effect was obtained. These results suggest that light exerts certain effects on Mel(1c) mRNA expression directly or indirectly through melatonin actions.

  8. Morphology and Morphometry of the Lung in Corn Snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) Infected with Three Different Strains of Ferlavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starck, J M; Neul, A; Schmidt, V; Kolb, T; Franz-Guess, S; Balcecean, D; Pees, M

    2017-05-01

    Ophidian paramyxovirus (ferlavirus) is a global threat to reptilian sauropsids in herpetological collections, with occasional but fatal effects. This study characterizes the effects of three different genetic strains of ferlavirus on the dynamic changes of histology and morphometry of the lung of corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus). Lungs from 42 corn snakes were either sham-infected or infected experimentally under standardized conditions. From 4 to 49 days after intratracheal inoculation, the lungs were examined qualitatively and quantitatively. Progressive microscopical changes were seen in the lung. Initially, increased numbers of heterophils were observed in the interstitium followed by proliferation and vacuolation of epithelial cells lining faveoli. Electron microscopy revealed loss of type-I pneumocytes, hyperplasia of type-II pneumocytes, and interstitial infiltrates of heterophils and mononuclear cells. With progression of disease the respiratory epithelium was initially overgrown by transformed type-II pneumocytes and later became multilayered. The results of the study suggest that the respiratory capacity of the lungs declines with disease development. The dynamics of disease development and histopathology differed in snakes infected with different ferlavirus genogroups. Animals infected with virus genogroup B developed histopathological changes and morphometric changes more rapidly and of greater intensity than snakes infected with viruses from genogroups A or C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Candidatus Renichlamydia lutjani, a Gram-negative bacterium in internal organs of blue striped snapper Lutjanus kasmira from Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, Daniele; Work, Thierry M.

    2012-01-01

    The blue-striped snapper Lutjanus kasmira (Perciformes, Lutjanidae) are cosmopolitan in the Indo-Pacific but were introduced into Oahu, Hawaii, USA, in the 1950s and have since colonized most of the archipelago. Studies of microparasites in blue-striped snappers from Hawaii revealed chlamydia-like organisms (CLO) infecting the spleen and kidney, characterized by intracellular basophilic granular inclusions containing Gram-negative and Gimenez-positive bacteria similar in appearance to epitheliocysts when seen under light microscopy. We provide molecular evidence that CLO are a new member of Chlamydiae, i.e. Candidatus Renichlamydia lutjani, that represents the first reported case of chlamydial infection in organs other than the gill in fishes.

  10. Biología reproductiva del pargo Lutjanus inermis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae, en el Pacífico central mexicano Reproductive biology of the Golden snapper Lutjanus inermis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae in the central Mexican Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lucano-Ramírez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Debido a los escasos antecedentes del efecto de las pesquerías y manejo del pargo Lutjanus inermis, es importante conocer la época reproductiva para el establecimiento de temporadas de veda, ya que la biomasa de los peces en fase de reproducción, es usada como punto de referencia para evaluar la condición del stock explotado y para establecer futuros niveles de captura. Por ello, el objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar algunos aspectos reproductivos como proporción sexual, época reproductiva, talla de madurez de L. inermis en las costas de Jalisco, México. Durante 1999-2008, se llevaron a cabo muestreos mensuales de los ejemplares capturados por la pesca artesanal en las bahías de Navidad, Tenacatita y Chamela (Jalisco, México. Se recolectaron 311 (53.1% hembras y 275 (46.9% machos y, la proporción de sexos (1:0.88 no presentó diferencia significativa. El intervalo de longitud total fue 14.4 a 37.0cm y el peso total de 48 a 575g. L. inermis presentó los máximos valores del IGS en dos periodos, febrero-abril y septiembre-noviembre, también en estos periodos se presentaron los mayores porcentajes de organismos en estadio de maduración. El ovario presentó el tipo de desarrollo asincrónico y se reconocieron siete fases del desarrollo de los ovocitos. En los testículos se observó el tipo de desarrollo lobular, se observaron espermatozoides en el centro de los cistos y en el conducto recolector. La talla de madurez (L50 fue de 23.9cm LT para hembras y 23.6cm LT para machos. Considerando el periodo de muestreo de este estudio, los antecedentes descritos podrían ser de utilidad en la formulación de planes o estrategias de manejo de esta especie.Reproductive biology of the Golden snapper Lutjanus inermis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae in the central Mexican Pacific. Reproductive aspects and information on the effect of fishery activities over this species stock are scarce, despite the imperative need of effective protection and resource

  11. Komposisi Asam Lemak, Angka Peroksida, dan Angka TBA Fillet Ikan Kakap (Lutjanus sp pada Suhu dan Lama Penyimpanan Berbeda

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    Rahim Husain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish has a high nutritional value and is a major food source in many countries. Fish lipid has a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20: 5n-3 and docosahexsanoic acid (DHA; 22: 6n-3. The objective of this research was to determine fatty acids composition of snapper (Lutjanus sp fillet and its damage during the storage process. The results showed that total of the saturated fatty acids (SFA increased from 4.35% to 25.55%, 28.06%, 32.73%, and 61.75% during storage at 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C, respectively. Total mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA were 23.72%, 23.69%, 14.4%, 22.66%, and 29.4% at storage temperature of 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C. Total PUFA decreased from 25.06% to 15.98%, 14.99%, 10.32%, and 8.84% at 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C. Peroxide value, as primary peroxide of snapper fillet, increased about 10.60 times with an increased in storage temperature from 0 °C to 40 °C. Value of TBA increased 6.60 times with an increased in temperature from 0 °C to 40 °C during 45 days. ABSTRAK Ikan memiliki nilai gizi tinggi dan merupakan sumber makanan utama di banyak negara. Lipid ikan memiliki kandungan tinggi asam tak jenuh ganda (Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid, PUFA, terutama asam eikosapentanoat (EPA; 20:5n-3 dan asam docosahexsanoat (DHA; 22:6n-3. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui komposisi asam lemak fillet ikan kakap (Lutjanus sp dan kerusakan akibat proses penyimpanan. Hasil analisis asam lemak jenuh (Saturated Fatty Acid, SFA menunjukkan bahwa asam lemak jenuh meningkat dari 4,35% menjadi 25,55%, 28,06%, 32,73%, dan 61,75% selama penyimpanan pada 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C, dan 40 °C. Total asam lemak tak jenuh (Mono Unsaturated Fatty Acid, MUFA adalah 23,72%, 23,69, 14,4%, 22,66%, dan 29,4% pada penyimpanan 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C, dan 40 °C. Sedangkan total PUFA turun dari 25,05% menjadi 15,98%, 14,99%, 10,32%, dan

  12. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF DIETARY PROTEIN AND LIPID ON THE GROWTH OF RED SNAPPER, Lutjanus sebae

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    Nyoman Adiasmara Giri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Red snapper, Lutjanus sebae is favored in mariculture activities because it has a relatively good market and price. Technology for big scale seed production of this species has been developed and is now adequate to supply seed for grow-out activities. However, the availability of artifical diets for L. sebae is still a major constraint for grow-out production. Data on optimum dietary protein and lipid requirements for this fish as a basic information in feed development is not available yet. The objective of the present study was to find out dietary protein and lipid requirements for juvenile of L. sebae. A 70-day feeding experiment was conducted in 24 fiberglass tanks, 200 L volume. Each tank was equipped with a flow-through water system. Twenty five hatchery-produced juveniles of L. sebae (43.1 g BW were randomly selected and stocked in each tank. The fish were fed with the experimental diets twice everyday at a level of 3% of biomass for the first 4 weeks, and then 2% of biomass afterward. Twelve experimental diets were prepared in form of dry pellet containing casein and fish meal as the main protein sources. Experimental diet had 4 levels of crude protein (32%, 37%, 42%, and 47% and each protein level consisted of 3 levels of lipid (7%, 12%, and 17%. The experiment employed factorial method with completely random design using 12 combination treatments and 2 replications for each treatment. Result of the experiment showed that there was no significant effect of dietary protein and lipid on growth, feed consumption, and feed efficiency of tested fish. Growth and feed efficiency of fish fed on diet containing 42% and 47% crude protein were significantly higher than that of fish fed on diet containing 32% and 37% crude protein. High lipid content in the diet (17% resulted in poor growth and poor feed efficiency. This data indicates that Lutjanus sebae has limited ability to utilize dietary lipid as an energy

  13. Trophic and reproductive ecology of Red Snapper, Lutjanus campechanus, on natural and artificial reefs in the western Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajemian, M. J.; Wetz, J. J.; Brewton, R. A.; Downey, C. H.; Stunz, G. W.

    2016-02-01

    Energy exploration in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) has resulted in the addition of numerous oil and gas production rigs that have added structurally complex habitat to an area otherwise dominated by bare bottom. The impact of these artificial structures on fish populations is largely unknown and there is ongoing debate about their functionality. Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), an ecologically and economically important sportfish to the region, use natural as well as the artificial reefs created by standing and reefed (toppled or cutoff) oil and gas rigs. However, little is known about how trophic and reproductive characteristics of Red Snapper vary over these multiple habitat types. We analyzed stable isotopic composition (δ13C, δ 15N) of epaxial muscle and compared reproductive potential of Red Snapper (155-855 mm TL) from standing rigs, reefed rigs, and natural hard-bottom habitats off Texas. Red Snapper from standing rig sites were isotopically enriched in δ 15N compared to lower relief habitats, suggesting they were feeding at a higher trophic level on standing rigs. While gonadosomatic indices (GSI) and comparative histology implied a similar spawning season among structure types, GSI was highest for both sexes at standing rigs. These initial results suggest that while standing rigs appear to provide more enriched food resources leading to higher Red Snapper reproductive capacity, the productivity of this species is similar between currently permitted rig decommissioning options (i.e., cutoff and toppled rigs) and natural hard-bottom habitats in the Gulf of Mexico.

  14. Influence of the temperature on the early larval development of the Pacific red snapper, Lutjanus peru (Nichols & Murphy, 1922

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    José Antonio Estrada-Godínez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific red snapper, Lutjanus peru, is a commercially important species throughout its distribution range, making it a good alternative for aquaculture; however, there is few information regarding environmental conditions and their influence on early development of this species. Temperature is one of the main factors affecting embryo and larval development in marine fishes. In this paper, the effects of different temperatures upon hatching rate, growth, consumption of yolk sac and oil droplet and the formation of the digestive system and eye pigmentation were evaluated in larvae of this species under experimental conditions. Eggs incubated between 20 and 32°C showed hatching rates higher than 90%. However, larvae maintained at 26°C showed significantly larger notochord length and were the first to complete the pigmentation of the eyes and the formation of the digestive system when still possessing enough reserves in the yolk sac. Therefore, according to the results obtained, it is recommended that the incubation of eggs and larval rearing in Pacific red snapper takes place between 25 and 26°C.

  15. Characterization and expression analysis of B Cell receptor accessory molecule CD79 gene in humphead snapper ( Lutjanus sanguineus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yucong; Yan, Xiuying; Cai, Shuanghu; Cai, Jia; Jian, Jichang; Lu, Yishan; Tang, Jufen; Wu, Zaohe

    2016-04-01

    CD79, a key component of the B cell antigen receptor complex, is composed of CD79α(Igα) and CD79β(Igβ) encoded by mb-1 and B29 respectively, and plays an important role in B cell signaling. In this study, we isolated and characterized mb-1 and B29 from humphead snapper ( Lutjanus sanguineus). Their tissue distribution and expression profiles after stimulations in vitro and in vivo were also investigated. The humphead snapper mb-1 and B29 contain open reading frames of 684 bp and 606 bp, encoding 227 amino acids and 201 amino acids, respectively. Both CD79α and CD79β possess signal peptide, extracellular Ig domain, transmembrane region and immunoreceptor tyrosine kinase activation motif (ITAM). Mb-1 is highly expressed in lymphoid organs (thymus, posterior kidney and spleen) and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues (gill and intestine), while B29 is mainly detected in posterior kidney, spleen, gill and skin. Furthermore, transcription of mb-1 and B29 in head kidney leucocytes was up-regulated following lipopolysaccharide (LPS), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) stimulation, respectively, and their expression level in anterior kidney and spleen was also increased after challenged with formalin-inactived Vibrio harveyi. These results indicated that humphead snapper CD79 molecule might play an important role in immune response to pathogen infection.

  16. Isolation and identification of bacteria from marine market fish Scomberomorus guttatus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) from Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthiga Rani, M; Chelladurai, G; Jayanthi, G

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the hygienic quality and freshness of fish Indo-pacific King Mackerel "Scomberomorus guttatus" through the investigation of the occurrence of bacteria which is an indicator for fish quality. Fishes were collected every fortnight from Madurai fish market on monthly twice of January 2014 to March 2014. Skin surface of the fish was examined. Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were identified by Biochemical tests (IMViC Tests). Among the six bacterial species E. coli and K. pneumonia were found in all the collected samples where as other bacterial species were not found. The result of this study revealed that raw fish sold in Madurai fish market has high contamination so the presence of the bacterial species has strongly suggested the urgent need to improve the quality control systems in Madurai fish market.

  17. Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Donovan, Therese M.

    2012-01-01

    With spotted breast and reddish tail, the Hermit Thrush lives up to its name. Although celebrated for its ethereal song, it is mostly a quiet and unobtrusive bird that spends much of its time in the lower branches of the undergrowth or on the forest floor, often seen flicking its wings while perched and quickly raising and slowly lowering its tail. A highly variable species in color and size, the Hermit Thrush's morphological characteristics and plumage have been well studied, with 12-13 subspecies now recognized (see Systematics).This thrush is one of the most widely distributed forest-nesting migratory birds in North America and the only forest thrush whose population has increased or remained stable over the past 20 years. Its extensive breeding range includes the northern hardwood forest, as well as most of the boreal and mountainous coniferous forest areas north of Mexico, with relatively recent expansions into New England and the southern Appalachians. In migration, the species moves to lower elevations and southward, spreading out to winter over much of the southern United States, through Mexico to Guatemala and east to Bermuda. It is the only species of Catharus that winters in North America, switching from a breeding diet of mainly arthropods to a wintering diet heavily supplemented with fruits.Much has been learned about this widely distributed species since the original Birds of North America account of 1996. New information pertaining to its song, migratory behavior, winter territoriality, survival, and diet has been added, as well as many new insights into the potential effects of forest management and other human disturbances. Still lacking are detailed nesting studies, studies of juvenile dispersal, of daily activities and time budgets, and of migratory routes.

  18. Hábitos alimentarios e interacciones tróficas de Anisotremus interruptus (Pisces: Haemulidae) y Lutjanus argentiventris (Pisces: Lutjanidae) en el Pacífico Central Mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Ortega,Juan R; Avila-Castro,Elizabeth; Haro-Preciado,Hugo J; Godínez-Domínguez,Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Se obtuvieron estómagos de ejemplares adultos de Anisotremus interruptus y Lutjanus argentiventris para conocer los componentes alimentarios de cada especie y sus interacciones tróficas durante un periodo de surgencia en el Pacífico Central Mexicano. Se identificaron 79 tipos de presas agrupadas en 15 categorías alimentarias. La dieta de A. interruptus está constituida principalmente de microinvertebrados (anfípodos y larvas de crustáceos), holotúridos y ofiuros. L. argentiventris se alimenta...

  19. Evaluación de la pesquería de Lutjanus peru (Pisces: Lutjanidae de Guerrero, México

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    Apolinar Santamaría

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available La pesquería del huachinango Lutjanus peru, que se explota cerca de Acapulco, México, fue evaluada a través de muestreos de los desembarcos y de datos de captura. Se aplicó el paquete de programas Fisat para evaluar los parámetros de crecimiento del modelo de von Bertalanffy (K= 0.1442; to= -0.23; L = 80.8 cm; W = 6.824 Kg y reconstruir la estructura por edades en la población en nueve años de datos de captura. El coeficiente de mortalidad natural M según varios métodos, oscila entre 0.14 y 0.38. El tamaño de cada cohorte a través del tiempo, evaluado con el método de análisis de la población virtual (VPA, estima una población de 5.2*10(6 peces explotados con una biomasa media de 8,454 t. La intensidad de explotación F, oscila entre 0.06 y 1.13 y depende del valor de M que se elija; según esto, se puede concluir que el recurso se encuentra subexplotado si el valor de M es bajo, o bien que se encuentra sobreexplotado si el valor elegido de M es alto. El modelo de rendimiento por recluta señala que hay sobrepesca de reclutas por que gravita sobre animales muy chicos (tc Red snapper (Lutjanus peru fishery was analyzed from landings and catch records. Stock age structure was reconstructed after the parameter values of the von Bertalanffy growth model, the length-weight relationship, ages and the natural mortality coefficient through each of nine years of catch records. The Fisat software package was applied to assess population parameters, whose estimates are, for the von Bertalanffy growth model, K = 0.1442 to 0.38; to = -0.2; L = 87 cm; W = 9.4 Kg , and the natural mortality coefficient (M after several methods (0.14 to 0.38. Cohort size was assessed by the virtual population analysis (VPA, estimating population size in 5.2*10(6 fish with a biomass of 8 454 tonnes. Current fishing mortality F, ranges from 0.06 to 1.13, depending upon the chosen M value; according to this, when the M value used is low, the results suggest that the

  20. PEMANFAATAN MINYAK BUAH MERAH, Pandanus conoideus Lam DAN CAROPHYLL PINK DALAM RANSUM PAKAN YUWANA IKAN KAKAP MERAH, Lutjanus sebae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titiek Aslianti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ikan kakap merah, Lutjanus sebae termasuk komoditas budidaya yang banyak diminati konsumen. Kualitas benih untuk pembesaran selain ditentukan dari ukuran dan performansi fisik, juga berdasarkan warna ikan. Dalam penelitian ini telah dilakukan 4 perlakuan pakan yang diperkaya dengan Minyak Buah Merah (MBM dan Carophyll Pink (CP yaitu: (A 10 mL MBM/kg pakan; (B 10 mL MBM+1,4 g CP/kg pakan; (C 1,4 g CP/kg pakan, dan (D Kontrol. Hewan uji adalah yuwana kakap merah dengan rata-rata panjang dan bobot tubuh awal 11,32±0,76 cm dan 37,56±7,22 g. Ikan ditempatkan dalam bak fiber kapasitas 5 m3 dengan kepadatan 200 ekor/bak dan diberi pakan 2 kali sehari secara ad libitum serta dipelihara selama 2 bulan dengan pergantian air 200%-300%/hari. Kualitas yuwana diamati pada akhir penelitian melalui pengukuran panjang dan bobot tubuh, sedangkan performansi warna diamati dengan kamera digital dan dianalisis secara diskriptif menggunakan Microsoft Adobe Photoshop 8. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa MBM dan CP dapat dimanfaatkan dalam ransum pakan guna meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan performansi warna yuwana kakap merah. Pakan yang mengandung 10 mL MBM+1,4 g CP menghasilkan sintasan 94%, kenaikan pertumbuhan panjang dan bobot mutlak 58,92% dan 281%, konversi pakan 0,82 serta performansi yuwana berwarna merah cerah dengan nilai persentase rata-rata sebesar 89,58%±0,07%. Red emperor snapper, Lutjanus sebae is one of high demanded cultured fishes. The quality of seeds does not only depend on size and performance of fish, but also depends on fish color. A feeding experiment was conducted during two-months period by adding red fruit oil (RFO and carophyll pink (CP to every kilogram of pellet fed as the treatment i.e. (A 10 mL RFO/kg feed; (B 10 mL RFO+1.4 g CP/kg feed; (C 1.4 g CP /kg feed and (D Control. Two hundred seeds with initial total length of 11.32±0.76 cm and 37.56±7.22 g of body weight were stocked in a fiber glass tank of 5 m3. Feeding frequency was

  1. Spatial and temporal variability in the otolith chemistry of the Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei from estuarine and coastal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, A; Ferreira, B P; Rooker, J R

    2016-07-01

    Otolith chemistry of juvenile and adult individuals of the Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei was measured to assess the utility of natural markers for investigating individual movements. Individuals were collected over a 3-year period (2010-2012) along the north-eastern coast of Brazil from both estuarine (juvenile to sub-adult stages) and coastal (sub-adult to adult stages) areas. Six elements ((7) Li, (24) Mg, (55) Mn, (59) Co, (88) Sr and (137) Ba) were measured in sectioned otoliths of L. alexandrei using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Edge composition analysis indicated that element:Ca ratios in the otoliths of juvenile and sub-adult L. alexandrei from estuaries were not significantly different among the three consecutive years (2010, 2011 and 2012), suggesting that physicochemical conditions within the nursery area investigated were temporally stable. Similarly, apart from two elements (Ba and Co), element:Ca ratios for larger L. alexandrei inhabiting coastal waters were also similar. In contrast, otolith chemistry of similar sized L. alexandrei from estuarine and coastal areas was significantly different (based on recently accreted material). Otolith Mn:Ca and Ba:Ca were both significantly higher for L. alexandrei collected in estuaries compared to fish from adjacent coastal reefs, while the opposite trend was observed for Sr:Ca. Given the pronounced differences in otolith chemistry between estuarine and coastal areas, element:Ca transects were constructed from the core to margin of the otoliths for adults (age 7+ years) collected on reefs to determine the timing of movement (ontogenetic migration) from estuarine to coastal areas. Based on observed patterns of decline for both Mn:Ca and Ba:Ca, it appears that L. alexandrei begin the move to more coastal habitats (i.e. lower element:Ca ratios) after age 2 years. The patterns observed for this species highlight the importance of conserving connectivity between

  2. Biología reproductiva del pargo Lutjanus inermis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae, en el Pacífico central mexicano

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    Gabriela Lucano-Ramírez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Debido a los escasos antecedentes del efecto de las pesquerías y manejo del pargo Lutjanus inermis, es importante conocer la época reproductiva para el establecimiento de temporadas de veda, ya que la biomasa de los peces en fase de reproducción, es usada como punto de referencia para evaluar la condición del stock explotado y para establecer futuros niveles de captura. Por ello, el objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar algunos aspectos reproductivos como proporción sexual, época reproductiva, talla de madurez de L. inermis en las costas de Jalisco, México. Durante 1999-2008, se llevaron a cabo muestreos mensuales de los ejemplares capturados por la pesca artesanal en las bahías de Navidad, Tenacatita y Chamela (Jalisco, México. Se recolectaron 311 (53.1% hembras y 275 (46.9% machos y, la proporción de sexos (1:0.88 no presentó diferencia significativa. El intervalo de longitud total fue 14.4 a 37.0cm y el peso total de 48 a 575g. L. inermis presentó los máximos valores del IGS en dos periodos, febrero-abril y septiembre-noviembre, también en estos periodos se presentaron los mayores porcentajes de organismos en estadio de maduración. El ovario presentó el tipo de desarrollo asincrónico y se reconocieron siete fases del desarrollo de los ovocitos. En los testículos se observó el tipo de desarrollo lobular, se observaron espermatozoides en el centro de los cistos y en el conducto recolector. La talla de madurez (L50 fue de 23.9cm LT para hembras y 23.6cm LT para machos. Considerando el periodo de muestreo de este estudio, los antecedentes descritos podrían ser de utilidad en la formulación de planes o estrategias de manejo de esta especie.

  3. Hábitos alimenticios del pargo rayado, Lutjanus synagris (Perciformes: Lutjanidae, en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano Food habits of the lane snapper, Lutjanus synagris (Perciformes: Lutjanidae, in the north zone of the Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Doncel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los hábitos alimenticios de Lutjanus synagris, mediante el análisis de contenido estomacal, considerando el espectro trófico a nivel general, por sexo y talla, los aspectos ecológicos de las presas, su distribución espacial y la relación de la dieta con las condiciones del habitat. Se analizaron 148 estómagos, de los cuales el 45,3% estaba lleno y el 54,7% vacío. Las presas más representativas (%N fueron: Portunus spp. (27,3%; n = 44 y Squilla intermedia (10,6%; n = 17. El análisis gravimétrico (%P mostró que entre las categorías con mayor peso se encontraron: Gastropoda (31,8%; 51,7 g y Farfantepenaeus spp. (17,5%o; 28,5 g. La frecuencia de ocurrencia (%>FO mostró que: Portunus spp. (25,8%>; 17 estómagos y S. intermedia (10,5%>; 7 estómagos fueron las presas más frecuentes. Según el %>IIR, las categorías más representativas en la dieta fueron Portunus spp. (43,0%> y Gastropoda (13,4%>. Se identificaron cuatro categorías como presas principales: Portunidae (837,06, Gastropoda (260,29, Squillidae (234,66 y Penaeidae (218,05, dos como presas secundarias: Sicyoniidae (126,35 y Trichiuridae (75,64 y las demás como presas circunstanciales. La distribución espacial de la amplitud del nicho trófico y de las tallas de L. synagris, permitió identificar dos zonas: la primera entre Riohacha y Dibulla con los valores más altos de amplitud del nicho trófico (0,64 a 1,00 denotando predadores generalista y donde se registraron las tallas menores y la segunda, entre Riohacha y Punta Gallinas con los valores más bajos de amplitud del nicho trófico (0,00 a 0,23, donde los individuos mostraron alto grado de especialización en la dieta y las tallas mayores.This work describes the food habits of Lutjanus synagris by means of stomach content analysis, considering the trophic spectrum in general as well as by sex and size, the ecological aspeets of the preys, their spatial distribution, and the relationship of the diet with

  4. Hábitos alimentarios de Lutjanus peru (Pisces: Lutjanidae en las costas de Guerrero, México

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    Apolinar Santamaría Miranda

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describen los hábitos alimentarios del huachinango del Pacífico Lutjanus peru en la costa sur del estado de Guerrero, México. Estos datos son importantes para el manejo de las pesquerías locales. A partir de capturas comerciales, se recolectaron 385 estómagos llenos (206 de hembras y 179 de machos en total, mensualmente, durante 1993 y 1994. El contenido estomacal se identificó hasta el nivel de especie cuando fue posible. Los elementos alimentarios se agruparon taxonómicamente, y se cuantificaron, se pesaron y se obtuvo la frecuencia de aparición. Se calculó el índice de importancia relativa (IIR del total de la muestra, por meses, por sexos y tallas. Se obtuvieron 42 elementos alimentarios en total, en 1993, y 43 en 1994. En 1993 La dieta estuvo constituida por peces, crustáceos y moluscos. El agrupamiento de las especies, géneros o familias presa produjo 14 grupos alimentarios, de la siguiente forma: Moluscos, Anfípodos, Copépodos, Estomatópodos, Penaeus vannamei, Larvas de braquiuros, Larvas de estomatópodos, Larvas de la familia Albuneidae, Otros crustáceos, Anchoa ischana, Anchoa lucida, Otros peces, Salpas, Moni. Anchoa ischana dominó el espectro trófico ambos años. Pero, los Anfípodos, Anchoa lucida y Otros peces tuvieron índices importantes en 1994. Existió una gran variabilidad en la composición de la dieta de cada mes. Sin embargo, los crustáceos en conjunto dominaron la dieta de febrero a agosto de 1993. En 1994, los crustáceos sólo fueron dominantes en marzo y agosto. No se encontraron diferencias en la dieta de peces inmaduros, machos y hembras. La dieta del huachinango del Pacífico varía con el crecimiento, aunque siempre se encuentran los mismos grupos de alimento. En la fase adulta, en clases de longitud mayores a 261 mm LF, existe un cierto grado de especialización, ya que consumen más peces, principalmente engráulidos.In this paper we describe the feeding habits of the Red

  5. Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography imaging of spectacular ecdysis in the corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) and the California king snake (Lampropeltis getulus californiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazalot, Guillaume; Rival, Franck; Linsart, Adeline; Isard, Pierre-François; Tissier, Marion; Peiffer, Robert Louis; Dulaurent, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    One of the singularities of the eyes of snakes is the presence of the spectacle, a transparent and vascularized integument covering the cornea. The spectacle is completely renewed during ecdysis. Combined scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and conventional macrophotography were used to image this phenomenon. A spectral OCT/SLO examination and macrophotography were performed in four healthy adult corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) and one healthy adult California king snake (Lampropeltis getulus californiae) the day before the start of ecdysis and then daily during ecdysis. In all animals, ecdysis lasted 5 days. The spectacle was hardly visible at baseline, but became obvious at day one, while the subspectacular space became larger and the superficial cornea presented a hyperechoic band. At day two, eye surface became translucent, and at the same time, vascularization of the spectacle was visible using SLO. At day 3, the vascularization was no longer visible, while the subspectacular space increased and the eye surface remained translucent. At day 4, the eye surface was transparent and the superficial hyperechoic band started to become less bright. At day 5, the old spectacle was shed and all the parameters returned to baseline. We hypothesize that the echogenicity modifications of the anterior cornea correspond to major metabolic activity associated with new spectacle formation. This increased metabolic activity may contribute to the neovascularization and play an important role in the accumulation of fluid in the subspectacular space, facilitating the shedding of the old spectacle. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  6. Biochemical and physicochemical analysis of fish protein isolate recovered from red snapper (Lutjanus sp.) by-product using isoelectric solubilization/precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, H.; Pujiastuti, D. Y.; Sahidu, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of acid- and alkali-process on biochemical and physicochemical characteristics of fish protein isolate from red snapper (Lutjanus sp) by-product was evaluated. Protein recovered by alkali process (16.79%) was higher compared to acid process (13.75%). Reduction of lipid content and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) exhibited in both treatments indicated both process improved fish protein isolate recovered from red snapper by-product. In addition, the increasing of water holding capacity and oil binding capacity were observed. However, high peroxide value of fish protein isolate was showed in both treatment. This finding indicated that acid and alkali process can be used as a useful method to recover proteins from red snapper by-product. Alkali process gave a protein isolate with better overall quality compared to acid process.

  7. A new species of Dentiphilometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the musculature of the gray snapper Lutjanus griseus (osteichthyes) off the Caribbean coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, David; Moravec, Frantisek; Paredes, Vielka M Tuz

    2007-10-01

    A new nematode, Dentiphilometra lutjani n. sp. (Philometridae), is described from gravid females (the male is unknown) collected from the body musculature of the marine perciform fish gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Lutjanidae), from the Bay of Chetumal and southern coast of Quintana Roo, off the Caribbean coast of Mexico. The new species differs from the only other congener, Dentiphilometra monopteri, from the swamp eel Monopterus albus in China, mainly in the body length of gravid female (15.40-53.21 mm), the shape of the posterior body end (not markedly narrowed, with low caudal projections), the esophageal gland (maximum width near its posterior end), and the length (344-483 microm) of larvae from the uterus; both species also differ in their host types (marine perciform fish vs. freshwater swamp eel) and geographical distribution (Mexico vs. China).

  8. Hábitos alimentarios e interacciones tróficas de Anisotremus interruptus (Pisces: Haemulidae y Lutjanus argentiventris (Pisces: Lutjanidae en el Pacífico Central Mexicano

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    Juan R Flores-Ortega

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvieron estómagos de ejemplares adultos de Anisotremus interruptus y Lutjanus argentiventris para conocer los componentes alimentarios de cada especie y sus interacciones tróficas durante un periodo de surgencia en el Pacífico Central Mexicano. Se identificaron 79 tipos de presas agrupadas en 15 categorías alimentarias. La dieta de A. interruptus está constituida principalmente de microinvertebrados (anfípodos y larvas de crustáceos, holotúridos y ofiuros. L. argentiventris se alimenta de macroinvertebrados (camarones, cangrejos y estomatópodos, peces y cefalópodos. Ambas especies presentan una estrategia alimentaria generalista y una superposición trófica baja. La dieta de estas especies está relacionada con la apertura de la boca.

  9. Feeding ecology of juvenile dog snapper Lutjanus jocu (Bloch and Shneider, 1801 (Lutjanidae in intertidal mangrove creeks in Curuçá estuary (Northern Brazil

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    Dijane Pantoja Monteiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet and feeding ecology of juvenile dog snapper (Lutjanus jocu were investigated in 92 specimens collected in four intertidal mangrove creeks of Curuçá estuary, Northern Brazil, between September 2003 and July 2004. No significant differences in total length were found between the sampling months. Feeding intensity was high as indicated by high stomach fullness index and low vacuity index. The most important prey was Penaeidae, followed by Grapsidae and Porcellanidae. The diet of juvenile dog snapper showed clear seasonal differences. Specimens from dry season (September and November and dry / wet season transition (January, were specialists feeding exclusively on Penaeidae. However, the specimens from wet season (March and May and wet /dry season transition (July that consumed mainly Grapsidae, Penaeidae and Porcellanidae were generalist. These seasonal changes in diet could be related to variations in food availability.A dieta e a ecologia alimentar de juvenis de Lutjanus jocu foram verificadas em 92 espécimes coletados em quatro canais de maré do estuário do rio Curuçá, Norte do Brasil, entre setembro de 2003 e julho de 2004. O comprimento total dos peixes coletados não apresentou diferenças significativas entre os meses amostrados. A intensidade alimentar foi elevada conforme indicado pelos altos valores do índice de repleção estomacal e os baixos valores do índice de vacuidade. A presa mais importante foi Penaeidae, seguida por Grapsidae e Porcellanidae. A dieta de juvenis de L. jocu apresentou diferenças sazonais evidentes. Os espécimes da estação seca (setembro e novembro e transição seca/chuvosa (janeiro foram considerados especialistas alimentando-se exclusivamente de Penaeidae. No entanto, os espécimes da estação chuvosa (março e maio e da transição chuvosa/seca (julho, que alimentaram-se principalmente de Grapsidae, Penaeidae e Porcellanidae, foram considerados generalistas. Esta mudança sazonal na dieta

  10. Temperature and diet effect on the pepsin enzyme activities, digestive somatic index and relative gut length of Malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus Bloch & Schneider, 1801

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    Sabuj Kanti Mazumder

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An integrated experiment was performed on juvenile Malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus to investigate the effect of temperature and diet in their pepsin activities in relation with digestive somatic index (IDS and relative gut length (RGL. One hundred twenty L. malabaricus juvenile (13–15 cm were equally distributed among four exposed temperature treatments (22, 26, 30 and 34 °C representing their seasonal range and to account for end of century predicted temperatures, and two diets as commercial pellet and natural shrimp. After 7 days of acclimation period fish were reared for 30 days in twenty four 400 l glass aquaria at a stocking density of 5 fish tank−1. All treatments were three replications. The result showed that, IDS and RGL gradually decreased with increasing temperature up to 30 °C and again increase at 34 °C. And the values were also higher in pellet feeding fish than shrimp feeding fish at all the temperatures. Alternatively, in pepsin activity, an increased activity was seen between 26 °C to 30 °C and this activity was significantly higher than the 22 °C and 34 °C (P < 0.05. In general, highest pepsin activity was observed among fish which fed on a natural shrimp diet reared at temperature 30 °C (5.47 ± 1.60 U mg protein−1, followed by those at 26, 34 and 22 °C (P < 0.05 at both diet however, no mortalities were observed. These results could be used as a basis for selecting a suitable diet for maximizing the growth and sustainable aquaculture coping with global warming.

  11. A new species of Trichosomoididae (Nematoda) from skin of red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), on the Texas-Louisiana shelf, northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Carlos F; Ray, Candis L; Cook, Melissa; Grace, Mark A; Bullard, Stephen A

    2013-04-01

    Eggs and larvae of Huffmanela oleumimica n. sp. infect red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus (Poey, 1860), were collected from the Texas-Louisiana Shelf (28°16'36.58″N, 93°03'51.08″W) and are herein described using light and scanning electron microscopy. Eggs in skin comprised fields (1-5 × 1-12 mm; 250 eggs/mm(2)) of variously oriented eggs deposited in dense patches or in scribble-like tracks. Eggs had clear (larvae indistinct, principally vitelline material), amber (developing larvae present) or brown (fully developed larvae present; little, or no, vitelline material) shells and measured 46-54 μm (x = 50; SD ± 1.6; n = 213) long, 23-33 (27 ± 1.4; 213) wide, 2-3 (3 ± 0.5; 213) in eggshell thickness, 18-25 (21 ± 1.1; 213) in vitelline mass width, and 36-42 (39 ± 1.1; 213) in vitelline mass length with protruding polar plugs 5-9 (7 ± 0.6; 213) long and 5-8 (6 ± 0.5; 213) wide. Fully developed larvae were 160-201 (176 ± 7.9) long and 7-8 (7 ± 0.5) wide, had transverse cuticular ridges, and were emerging from some eggs within and beneath epidermis. The new species differs from its congeners by having eggs 110 μm long with transverse cuticular ridges. The eggs lack a spindle-shaped envelope, polar filaments, and eggshell ridges. This is the first report of a species of Huffmanela from a snapper (Lutjanidae) or from the Gulf of Mexico. A table of egg and larval characteristics, hosts, and localities for Huffmanela spp. is provided.

  12. Life-stages, exploitation status and habitat use of Lutjanus goreensis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae in coastal marine environments of Lagos, SW Nigeria

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    Kafayat A. Fakoya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Gorean snapper, Lutjanus goreensis is an important component of artisanal fisheries and trawl landings in the Gulf of Guinea. Despite its economic importance, there is a dearth of information on size structure and life history strategies of the species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on the life stages, exploitation status and habitat use for the species in Nigeria. Monthly samples were obtained from artisanal and trawl catches in Five Cowrie Creek and Lagos coastal waters between December 2008 and December 2010, respectively. Length-frequency distributions of the fishes caught were analysed to provide preliminary information on mean and modal lengths at capture and life - history strategies based on habitat use and estuarine-dependency for L. goreensis. A total of 822 specimens of L. goreensis were collected from Five Cowrie Creek while 377 specimens were collected from Lagos coastal waters. Total length varied between 7.90-34.90cm for creek samples and from 21.90-56.10cm for marine samples. Length-frequency histograms showed polymodal size distributions in creek and marine samples. Length-frequency distributions of L. goreensis showed a high abundance of juveniles (<20cm and sub-adults (20-35cm which accounted for 84.1% and 68.4% of creek and marine samples examined, respectively. For the creek samples, fish in modal length class of 13.00-13.99cm were the most exploited while in the marine samples, length classes of 29.00-30.99cm and 31.00-32.99cm constituted the most frequently exploited fishes. Increase in total lengths from the creek (mean±SD; 16.19±3.73cm to the marine habitat samples (32.89±6.14cm indicated ontogenetic shift in habitat use. Occurrence of a predominant juvenile population in Five Cowrie Creek by L. goreensis suggests estuarine-dependency and is indicative of a temporary juvenile habitat or a migratory corridor. In conclusion, data from the presently reported study and previous

  13. Mitochondrial signatures revealed panmixia in Lutjanus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    mangrove red snapper is most valued food fish along the Indo-Pacific region. ... conservation of genetic diversity of our natural resources is beneficial in genetic ... to be fast evolving (1.3% per million years) and used to detect the population ...

  14. Population connectivity among geographic variants within the Lutjanidae (Pisces of the Mexican Pacific coast through fish scale shape recognition

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    Ana L. Ibáñez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish scale shape was used to identify geographic variants among Lutjanidae (Lutjanus argentiventris, L. guttatus and L. peru. Specimens were collected from three different geographic areas, north to south of the tropical Pacific coast of Mexico: Puerto Vallarta (PV, Manzanillo (MA and Caleta de Campos (CC. Configuration of landmark coordinates of fish scales were scaled, translated and rotated using generalized procrustes analysis, followed by principal components analysis of resulting shape coordinates. Principal component scores were submitted to cross-validated discriminant analysis to determine the efficacy of scale landmarks for discrimination by geographic variants. This was done with shape and form (shape plus size. PV and MA were recognized as one population different from the CC sampling area. Using only shape (without size, identification rates predicted geographic variant membership much better than chance (91.3%, 70.6% and 85.4% for L. argentiventris, L. guttatus and L. peru, respectively, and taking size into account, classification is somewhat improved (90.6%, 80.1% and 87.5% for L. argentiventris, L. guttatus and L. peru, respectively. Consistency of the two populations for the three species shows non-fortuitous events. Population discrimination confirmed previous genetic studies that show a zoogeographic barrier between the North Equatorial Current and the California Current. The method is non-destructive, fast and less expensive than genetic analysis, thus allowing screening of many individuals for traceability of fish.

  15. Diversity and Abundance of a Tropical Fishery on the Pacific Shelf of Michoacán, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, J.; Sánchez, P.; Ruiz, A.

    1997-10-01

    This study was undertaken on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Some 22 523 individual fish were sampled, representing two classes, 154 genera, 64 families and 257 species in a total area of 50 km 2. The species Lutjanus guttatus, Scomberomorus sierra, Cynoscion reticulatus, Sphyrna lewini, Arius platypogonand Caranx caninuswere the most numerically abundant, amounting to 53·2% of the whole sample. Two models for sample size analysis and richness prediction were used. From these, the forecast for a theoretical doubling of the level of sampling effort (90 days) was 297 and 331. The Shannon diversity indexes in summer (June-August) and winter (December-February) were significantly different (paired t-test, PUPGMA) indicated two climatic periods and three species assemblages. In addition, the nodal fidelity analysis agreed with the importance of the winter season in the study area. Two El Niño/southern oscillation incidences from 1986-87 and 1991-93 occurred during the sampling period.

  16. Age, growth, and natural mortality of schoolmaster (Lutjanus apodus from the southeastern United States

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    Jennifer C. Potts

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ages of schoolmaster (n = 136 from the southeastern Florida coast from 1981–2015 were determined using sectioned sagittal otoliths. Opaque zones were annular, forming March–July (peaking in May–June. Schoolmaster ranged in age from 1–42 years; the largest fish measured 505 mm total length (TL and was 19 years old. The oldest fish measured 440 mm TL. Estimated body size relationships for schoolmaster were: W = 9.26 × 10−6 TL3.11 (n = 256, r2 = 0.95; W = 2.13 × 10−5 FL2.99 (n = 161, r2 = 0.95; TL = 1.03 FL + 10.36 (n = 143, r2 = 0.99; and FL = 0.96 TL − 8.41 (n = 143, r2 = 0.99, where W = whole weight in g, FL = fork length in mm, and TL in mm. The fitted von Bertalanffy growth equation was: Lt = 482 (1 − e−0.12(t+2.79 (n = 136. Based on published life history relationships, a point estimate of natural mortality for schoolmaster was M = 0.10, while age-specific estimates of M ranged from 1.57–0.18 for ages 1–42.

  17. Waste utilization of red snapper (Lutjanus sp.) fish bone to improve phosphorus contents in compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhani, S.; Iswanto, B.; Purwaningrum, P.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to get the idea that bone waste will be the P content enhancer in compost so that the compost produced meets the standard P levels specified in SNI 19-7030-2004 which regulating compost quality standard. Nutrient levels were obtained in fish bone meal (FBM) are C (3.35%), N (0.48%), P (30.90%) and K (0.02%). Effects of fish bone meal to the rising levels of P in the compost has been known. P levels of compost B, C, D, and E increased at 428.57; 542.85; 657.14 and 914.28% against the compost A (blank). FBM ideal addition indicated in compost B, as much as 15 gr, with a P content of 0.37% and has been passed according standards (0.10% for P). C/N ratio decreased over the 21 days period of composting, with the greatest decline was compost E with a ratio of 16:1. Highest nitrogen (N) levels recorded respectively in compost B and C with value of 1.09% and the lowest of recorded N content was compost A, D and E (1.08%). N content in all samples of compost were eligible minimum N of 0.40%. Carbon (C) is the highest recorded in compost B; 20.20% and the lowest in the compost E; 17.34%. Highest and lowest C levels on the compost has met the minimum C of 9.80%. Composting is done in a bucket as an aerobic composter (with air holes), compost pile turnover for each sample is controlled as much as once/2 days. Mesophilic period (23-450C) occurs during the 21-day period of composting. Compost B has P content of 0.37%, so it has fulfilled the provisions of SNI 19-7030-2004 about the recommended compost standard.

  18. Egg quality traits and predictors of embryo and fry viability in red snapper Lutjanus campechanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Bardon-Albaret

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The quality of red snapper eggs is highly variable and unpredictable in aquaculture, leading to high mortality during early larval rearing. In this work, the viability of red snapper eggs was monitored from fertilization until unfed larvae expired because of exhaustion of vitelline reserves to determine egg quality traits in this species. The spawns were obtained via strip spawning wild-caught females following hormonal induction with chorionic gonadotropin. Females were induced immediately after capture (wild group, n = 17 or held captive for the entire maturation period prior to induction (captive group, n = 7. Candidate predictors of egg quality measured on the female parent at the time of induction or on the spawn at ovulation were evaluated using correlation and multiple regression analysis. The fertilization rate, the hatching rate, and the duration of survival of unfed larvae post hatch were weakly correlated to each other (-0.23 < r < −0.08, revealing occurrence of distinct and independent components of egg quality. Spawns from captive females were characterized by a longer latency interval between hormonal induction and ovulation, lower fecundity, and lower hatching rates, as compared to those from wild females. Among the wild brood fish, a positive correlation was observed between the age of the female and the hatching rate. The best model optimized during stepwise multiple regression analysis of hatching rate data only explained 34% of the variance for this trait and no model could be optimized for the prediction of fertilization rate or the duration of survival post hatch. These results highlight the need to develop alternative egg quality measures to predict the viability of fry with confidence.

  19. Effect of Protein-Based Edible Coating from Red Snapper (Lutjanus sp.) Surimi on Cooked Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostini, I.; Ibrahim, B.; Trilaksani, W.

    2018-02-01

    Surimi can be used as a raw material for making protein based edible coating to protect cooked shrimp color. The purpose of this study was to determine consumers preference level on cooked shrimp which coated by surimi edible coating from red snapper and to know the microscopic visualization of edible coating layer on cooked shrimp. The treatments for surimi edible coating were without and added by sappan wood (Caesalpinia sappan Linn) extract. Application of surimi edible coating on cooked shrimp was comprised methods (1) boiled then coated and (2) coated then boiled. Edible coating made from surimi with various concentrations which were 2, 6, 10 and 14% of distillated water. The analysis were done using hedonic test and microscopic observation with microscope photographs. Effect of surimi edible coating on cooked shrimp based on the hedonic and colour test results showed that the 14% surimi concentration, added by sappan wood (Caesalpinia sappan Linn) extract on edible coating was the most preferable by panellist and giving the highest shrimp colour. The edible coating surimi application on cooked shrimp which gave the best result was processed by boiling followed by coating.

  20. Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis in a coral reef fish (Lutjanus carponotatus, Lutjanidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.; Feldheim, Kevin Andrew; Jones, Geoffrey P.; Mansour, Hicham; Perumal, Sadhasivam; Williamson, David H.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    simulated dataset, we conclude that the complete marker set provides sufficient resolution to resolve parent–offspring relationships in natural populations with 99.6 ± 0.1 % accuracy in parentage assignments. This multiplex assay provides an effective means

  1. Estimating the community-level impact of the riparian alien species Mimulus guttatus by using a replicated BACI field experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejda, Martin; Pyšek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 7, - (2008), s. 250-257 ISSN 1619-0033 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0323 Grant - others:ALARM(XE) GOCE-CT-2003-506675 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * impact * species diversity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  2. 78 FR 49183 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... 15. The purpose of Regulatory Amendment 15 and this final rule is to provide socio-economic benefits... griseus Mahogany snapper, Lutjanus mahogoni Dog snapper, Lutjanus jocu Lane snapper, Lutjanus synagris...

  3. Temporal Assessment of Natural Radionuclide Bioaccumulation by the Cubera Snapper Fish (Lutjanus Cyanopterus, Cuvier, 1828) from the Brazilian Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W. S. [Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica, Unidade de Tratamento de Mineiros (UTM), Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG and Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Marinha, Instituto de Biologia, Depto. de Biologia Marinha, Universidade Federal Fluminense UFF, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Kelecom, A. [Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Marinha, Instituto de Biologia, Depto. de Biologia Marinha, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), and Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Py, Jr., D. A. [Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica, Unidade de Tratamento de Mineiros (UTM), Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    The present study aims to assess the seasonal variation in the accumulation of the isotopes {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 228}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in the cubera snapper fish from the coast of the state of Ceara (Brazil). The fish was caught in January (six specimens), June (eight) and September (seven). The uranium and thorium were analysed by electrodeposition, followed by alpha spectrometry. The isotopes of radium and lead were selectively co-precipitated and measured by gross alpha radiometry for {sup 226}Ra and gross beta radiometry for {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb. No seasonal variations could be observed neither for the uranium and thorium isotopes nor for the {sup 226}Ra isotope. For {sup 228}Ra, the activity concentration in February was equal to that of September, and both were higher than in June. For {sup 210}Pb, the situation was different: the month of February showed a lower activity concentration than in June, which in turn was lower than in September. (author)

  4. Interacciones tróficas de las seis especies de peces más abundantes en la pesquería artesanal en dos bahías del Pacífico Central Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R Flores Ortega

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los componentes tróficos de las seis especies de peces más importantes en la captura de la pesquería artesanal en las Bahía de Navidad y Chamela, ubicadas en la costa de Jalisco, México. Las especies estudiadas fueron Microlepidotus brevipinnis, Caranx caballus, Haemulon flaviguttatum, Lutjanus guttatus, Lutjanus argentiventris y Mulloidichthys dentatus. Se consideraron dos periodos de estudio de acuerdo a las pautas hidroclimáticas y los patrones de producción biológica en la zona: periodo de influencia de la Contracorriente Norecuatorial (T1, y periodo de influencia de la Corriente de California (T2. En Bahía de Navidad se identificaron 78 presas en total para las seis especies. En el periodo comprendido entre julio y diciembre (T1 se identificaron 64 presas y 45 de enero a junio (T2. En Bahía de Chamela se identificaron 93 presas, encontrando 74 presas en el periodo T1 y 60 presas para el periodo T2. El mayor número de presas se encontró en M. dentatus con 34 presas en el periodo T1 de Bahía de Chamela y el menor número fue en H. flaviguttatum en T1 de Bahía de Navidad con solo 7 presas. Los crustáceos fueron las presas de mayor presencia en la dieta, seguidos por peces, moluscos, poliquetos y equinodermos, en ambos periodos y sitios de muestreo. Las seis especies analizadas se consideran como especialistas, dados los bajos valores del índice de amplitud de nicho en ambos periodos y sitios de muestreo.Trophic interactions of the six most abundant fish species in the artisanal fishery in two bays, central Mexican Pacific. We surveyed the trophic components in six species of Bahía de Navidad and Bahía de Chamela: Microlepidotus brevipinnis, Caranx caballus, Haemulon flaviguttatum, Lutjanus guttatus, L. argentiventris and Mulloidichthys dentatus. Two main seasonal periods were considered: 1 North Equatorial Counter Current NECC period influence (T1 and 2 California Current CC period influence (T2. In Bahía de

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Inasua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferymon Mahulette

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Inasua is a traditionally product of wet salt fish fermentation produced by Teon, Nila and Serua (TNS Communities in Central Maluku, Indonesia. The community made this fermented fish to anticipate the lean time when fisherman could not go to sea.  The  fish that used as inasua raw material is demersal fishes that live around coral reefs, such as Samandar fish (Siganatus guttatus, Gala-gala fish (Lutjanus sp. and Sikuda fish (Lethrinus ornatus. The objective of the research was to isolate and characterize of bacterial indigenous in  Inasua from three producers in Seram Island. The measurement of pH from inasua samples were 5.9, 5.0 and 5.8, respectively. The highest number of lactic acid bacteria was found from  Gala – gala inasua was 2,5x107 cfu/g sample. Isolation of all isolates bacteria from inasua showed that a total of 7 isolates of bacteria was obtained  from Samadar inasua, 9 isolates from  Gala-gala inasua, and 7 isolates from  Sikuda inasua.  From a total of 23 isolates, only 6 isolates had characteristic as lactic acid bacteria that were Gram  positive, negative catalase, and cocci shape. The microscopic characteristics  of the isolates are coccid in pairs or uniforms which combine to form tetrads. Carbohydrate utilization test  of selected isolate by using API 50 CHB kit indicated that 13 carbohydrates are fermented by these isolates  after incubation for 48 hours. The research  was concluded that the dominant bacteria in inasua sample  is  cocci-lactic acid bacteria. Keywords : fermented fish, inasua, lactic acid bacteria, MRSA medium

  6. Temporal and spatial comparisons of the reproductive biology of northern Gulf of Mexico (USA) red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) collected a decade apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaw, Dannielle H; Cowan, James H; Jackson, Melissa W

    2017-01-01

    In studies done a decade apart, we provide evidence of a recent shift toward a slower progression to sexual maturity as well as reduced egg production, especially among young, small female red snapper, in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf). Slower maturation rates (among fish ≤6 years old), lower GSI values and decreased spawning frequency were observed, and were especially pronounced in the northwestern Gulf. Furthermore, an Index of Reproductive Importance showed that young fish (ages 2-7) are contributing far less to the spawning stock in recent years, while older fish (>8 years) are contributing more, when compared to fish from the same age groups sampled in the previous decade. Coincident with these changes in reproductive output, fishing pressure has steadily declined gulf-wide, and spawning stock biomass and spawning potential ratio have increased. Thus, it is possible that the age structure of the red snapper stock is becoming less truncated, or that reproductive effort observed is due to the temporary influence of recent strong year classes produced in 2004 and 2006 as they begin to reach full reproductive potential. If the latter is true, careful documentation of the stock's reproductive dynamics during a time of population growth provides new understanding at the meta-population spatial and decadal temporal scales. In contrast, if the former is true, a truncated age structure due to overharvest can limit the productivity of the Gulf red snapper stock. In addition, we have learned that red snapper females in the northwestern Gulf collected on natural reefs and banks have much higher reproductive output than those on artificial reefs in the form of standing and toppled oil and gas platforms, thus making the need to know the relative abundance of females found on these disparate habitats an important next step toward better-understanding factors impacting the reproductive dynamics of this species.

  7. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO 4 ) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper

  8. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti, E-mail: sabujsau@gmail.com [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd., E-mail: magfish05@yahoo.com [Marine Ecosystem Research Centre (EKOMAR), Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Tropical Aquaculture, University of Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu (Malaysia); Das, Simon Kumar, E-mail: skdas-maa@yahoo.com [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Marine Ecosystem Research Centre (EKOMAR), Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper.

  9. A new species of Dentiphilometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the musculature of the gray snapper Lutjanus griseus (Osteichthyes) off the Caribbean coast of Mexico

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    González-Solís, D.; Moravec, František; Tuz Paredes, V. M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 6 (2007), s. 1132-1135 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : parasitic nematode * Dentiphilometra * Mexico Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.129, year: 2007

  10. Severe glomerular disease in juvenile grey snapper Lutjanus griseus L. in the Gulf of Mexico caused by the myxozoan Sphaerospora motemarini n. sp

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holzer, Astrid S.; Pecková, Hana; Patra, Sneha; Brennan, N.P.; Yanes-Roca, C.; Main, K.L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2, - (2013), s. 124-130 ISSN 2213-2244 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M200961250 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Mangrove snapper * Fisheries * Juvenile pathology * Glomerulonephritis * Mortality * Myxozoa Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  11. Three new gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) parasitic in Lutjanus spp. (Lutjanidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico off Florida, USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Bakenhaster, M.; Fajer-Avila, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2014), s. 355-369 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Dracunculoidea * parasitic nematode * fish parasites * marine fishes * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.147, year: 2014

  12. Attachment study of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to yam spp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charles S.Wortmann

    guttatus (Scrophulariaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 77:1505–1507. 13. Dole, J.A. (1992). Reproductive assurance mechanisms in three taxa of the Mimulus guttatus complex (Scrophulariaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 79:650–659. 14. Ellstrand, N.C. and Foster, K.W. (1983). Impact of population structure on the apparent out-crossing rate of ...

  13. Natural variation for a hybrid incompatibility between two species of Mimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweigart, Andrea L; Mason, Amanda R; Willis, John H

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the process by which hybrid incompatibility alleles become established in natural populations remains a major challenge to evolutionary biology. Previously, we discovered a two-locus Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibility that causes severe hybrid male sterility between two inbred lines of the incompletely isolated wildflower species, Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. An interspecific cross between these two inbred lines revealed that the M. guttatus (IM62) allele at hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) acts dominantly in combination with recessive M. nasutus (SF5) alleles at hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2) to cause nearly complete hybrid male sterility. In this report, we extend these genetic analyses to investigate intraspecific variation for the hms1-hms2 incompatibility in natural populations of M. nasutus and M. guttatus, performing a series of interspecific crosses between individuals collected from a variety of geographic locales. Our results suggest that hms2 incompatibility alleles are common and geographically widespread within M. nasutus, but absent or rare in M. guttatus. In contrast, the hms1 locus is polymorphic within M. guttatus and the incompatibility allele appears to be extremely geographically restricted. We found evidence for the presence of the hms1 incompatibility allele in only two M. guttatus populations that exist within a few kilometers of each other. The restricted distribution of the hms1 incompatibility allele might currently limit the potential for the hms1-hms2 incompatibility to act as a species barrier between sympatric populations of M. guttatus and M. nasutus. Extensive sampling within a single M. guttatus population revealed that the hms1 locus is polymorphic and that the incompatibility allele appears to segregate at intermediate frequency, a pattern that is consistent with either genetic drift or natural selection.

  14. Tracing carbon flow through coral reef food webs using a compound-specific stable isotope approach

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton; Thorrold, Simon R.; Houghton, Leah A.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    . Seascape configuration played an important role in structuring resource utilization patterns. For instance, Lutjanus ehrenbergii showed a significant shift from a benthic macroalgal food web on shelf reefs (71 ± 13 % of dietary C) to a phytoplankton

  15. Feeding ecology of some fish species occurring in artisanal fishery of Socotra Island (Yemen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Ali', Mohammed Kaed; Belluscio, Andrea; Ventura, Daniele; Ardizzone, Giandomenico

    2016-04-30

    The demersal species Lethrinus borbonicus, Lethrinus mahsena, Lethrinus microdon, Lethrinus nebulosus, Lutjanus bohar, Lutjanus gibbus, Lutjanus kasmira, Epinephelus fasciatus, Epinephelus stoliczkae, Carangoides gymnostethus and Euthynnus affinis are important coastal fishes species of the northern coast of Socotra (Yemen), exploited by local fishery. The biology and feeding ecology of these species are poorly known in the area. A total of 1239 specimens were sampled from the main fishing landing site of the island (Hadibo). Total length and weight were measured, stomach contents were analyzed, diet overlap, Fulton's Condition index, and trophic levels were estimated. C. gymnostethus, L. microdon and L. kasmira occupied the highest position (T=4.50), L. nebulosus occupied the lower one (TL=3.41). The role of the increasing abundance of small pelagic fish in the diet of many species after the upwelling event is evident, but also different feeding strategies are reported, according to fish ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of conspecific and heterospecific aggregation cues and alarm odors on shelter choice by syntopic spiny lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-Fourzán, Patricia; Ramírez-Zaldívar, Eunice; Lozano-Alvarez, Enrique

    2008-10-01

    In spiny lobsters, conspecific scents ("aggregation cues") may mediate gregarious diurnal sheltering, but scents from injured conspecifics ("alarm odors") may elicit avoidance behavior. In laboratory experiments, individuals of two coexisting species, Panulirus guttatus (a reef-obligate) and P. argus (a temporary reef-dweller), significantly chose shelters emanating conspecific aggregation cues and responded randomly to shelters emanating heterospecific aggregation cues. However, despite evidence that the two species perceived each other's alarm odors to a similar extent, P. guttatus responded randomly to shelters emanating either conspecific or heterospecific alarm odors, whereas P. argus significantly avoided both. This differential influence of alarm odors likely reflects interspecific differences in life history, sociality, and behavior. The less social, reef-obligate P. guttatus lobsters forage close to their reef dens, into which they retract deeply upon perception of risk. This cryptic behavior may offset the need to avoid conspecific (and heterospecific) alarm odors. In contrast, avoidance of conspecific alarm odors by P. argus is consistent with its ontogenetic habitat shifts and greater sociality. Furthermore, because reef-dwelling P. argus lobsters forage across open areas away from the reef, an ability to avoid alarm odors from P. guttatus upon returning to their reef dens may increase their fitness.

  17. Differential adaptation to a harsh granite outcrop habitat between sympatric Mimulus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Kathleen G; Willis, John H

    2018-03-31

    Understanding which environmental variables and traits underlie adaptation to harsh environments is difficult because many traits evolve simultaneously as populations or species diverge. Here, we investigate the ecological variables and traits that underlie Mimulus laciniatus' adaptation to granite outcrops compared to its sympatric, mesic-adapted progenitor, Mimulus guttatus. We use fine-scale measurements of soil moisture and herbivory to examine differences in selective forces between the species' habitats, and measure selection on flowering time, flower size, plant height, and leaf shape in a reciprocal transplant using M. laciniatus × M. guttatus F 4 hybrids. We find that differences in drought and herbivory drive survival differences between habitats, that M. laciniatus and M. guttatus are each better adapted to their native habitat, and differential habitat selection on flowering time, plant stature, and leaf shape. Although early flowering time, small stature, and lobed leaf shape underlie plant fitness in M. laciniatus' seasonally dry environment, increased plant size is advantageous in a competitive mesic environment replete with herbivores like M. guttatus'. Given that we observed divergent selection between habitats in the direction of species differences, we conclude that adaptation to different microhabitats is an important component of reproductive isolation in this sympatric species pair. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. A Study of Some Problems in Network Information Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Sudeep Uday

    2013-01-01

    Red snapper, "Lutjanus campechanus," were sampled with hook and line at natural (n = 33) and artificial (n = 27) reef sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico from 2009-2011. Stomachs (n = 708) were extracted and their contents preserved for gut content analysis, and muscle tissue samples (n = 200) were dissected and frozen for stable…

  19. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Florida): Gray, Lane, Mutton and Yellowtail Snappers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    pargo prieto, pargo, criollo , vivaneau sorbe (Cervigon pargo dienton, pargo de piedra, 1966, Fisher 1978) pargo moreno, vivaneau sarde grise, aquadera... criollo , Lutjanus 1970-79. Florida landings, analis. Cent. Invest. Pesq. annual summary 1969-1978. U.S. uba. Nota 2:1-16. Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv. Curr

  20. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 635 - Species Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Lemon, Negaprion brevirostris Nurse, Ginglymostoma cirratum Scalloped hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini Smooth..., Lutjanus analis Nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum Queen snapper, Etelis oculatus Red grouper, Epinephelus... and will not become effective until approval has been given by the Office of Management and Budget. ...

  1. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. P. VIJAYAGOPAL. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 97 Issue 1 March 2018 pp 179-187 RESEARCH ARTICLE. Mitochondrial signatures revealed panmixia in Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål 1775) · A. GOPALAKRISHNAN N. VINEESH SHIHAB ISMAIL MUKTHA ...

  2. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 622 - Species Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Table 2 of Appendix A to Part 622—Caribbean Reef Fish Lutjanidae—Snappers Unit 1 Silk snapper, Lutjanus... adscensionis Graysby, Epinephelus cruentatus Creole-fish, Paranthias furcifer Unit 4 Red grouper, Epinephelus... striatus Redspotted hawkfish, Amblycirrhitus pinos Flying gurnard, Dactylopterus volitans Atlantic...

  3. Comparative analysis of diet composition and its relation to morphological characteristics in juvenile fish of three lutjanid species in a Mexican Pacific coastal lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo M. Aguilar-Betancourt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The main goal of this research was to investigate the differences in diet composition among three species of the genus Lutjanus inhabiting a coastal lagoon as juveniles. The working hypothesis was that these species feed on a common base of food resources and therefore, some niche overlap is present in terms of general diet composition. However, changes in the trophic niche with size and differences in some morphological traits among species explain observed differences in diet. Fish were collected during 42 sampling trips conducted regularly from February 2011 to January 2012 using several types of fishing gear. Total number of analyzed stomachs was 288 for Lutjanus argentiventris from 2.3 to 19.9 cm total length (TL; 178 for Lutjanus colorado ranging from 2.4 to 30.1 cm TL; and 183 for Lutjanus novemfasciatus with 1.2 to 20.0 cm TL. Results indicate that juveniles of all three lutjanid species share a general diet based on decapods and fishes. However, L. novemfasciatus has a more piscivorous habit, which can be explained by a more slender body shape and larger teeth, characteristics, which increase fish catching performance. Larger fish of all three species eat larger prey, which is consistent with the optimum foraging theory.

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U00318-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 Mim... 48 0.90 1 ( CV517394 ) 0089P0002Z_H11_T7 Mimulus guttatus library 2 Mimu... 48 0.90 1 ( CT863034 ) Oryza sati...069 CHORI-252 Vervet Mo... 48 0.90 1 ( CV517459 ) 0089P0002Z_H11_SP6 Mimulus guttatus library...va Indica Group EST sequence:OSIGCRA212... 48 0.90 1 ( EW966883 ) LS_11_C22_T7 Headlice composite library...2( CP000609 |pid:none) Methanococcus maripaludis C5, c... 112 2e-23 EU016596_13( EU016596 |pid:none) Uncultured marine mic...roorganism H... 112 2e-23 EU016609_22( EU016609 |pid:none) Uncultured marine microorganism H..

  5. Does reef architectural complexity influence resource availability for a large reef-dwelling invertebrate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Álvarez, Enrique; Luviano-Aparicio, Nelia; Negrete-Soto, Fernando; Barradas-Ortiz, Cecilia; Aguíñiga-García, Sergio; Morillo-Velarde, Piedad S.; Álvarez-Filip, Lorenzo; Briones-Fourzán, Patricia

    2017-10-01

    In coral reefs, loss of architectural complexity and its associated habitat degradation is expected to affect reef specialists in particular due to changes in resource availability. We explored whether these features could potentially affect populations of a large invertebrate, the spotted spiny lobster Panulirus guttatus, which is an obligate Caribbean coral reef-dweller with a limited home range. We selected two separate large coral reef patches in Puerto Morelos (Mexico) that differed significantly in structural complexity and level of degradation, as assessed via the rugosity index, habitat assessment score, and percent cover of various benthic components. On each reef, we estimated density of P. guttatus and sampled lobsters to analyze their stomach contents, three different condition indices, and stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) in muscle. Lobster density did not vary with reef, suggesting that available crevices in the less complex patch still provided adequate refuge to these lobsters. Lobsters consumed many food types, dominated by mollusks and crustaceans, but proportionally more crustaceans (herbivore crabs) in the less complex patch, which had more calcareous macroalgae and algal turf. Lobsters from both reefs had a similar condition (all three indices) and mean δ15N, suggesting a similar quality of diet between reefs related to their opportunistic feeding, but differed in mean δ13C values, reflecting the different carbon sources between reefs and providing indirect evidence of individuals of P. guttatus foraging exclusively over their home reef. Overall, we found no apparent effects of architectural complexity, at least to the degree observed in our less complex patch, on density, condition, or trophic level of P. guttatus.

  6. Mimulus peregrinus (Phrymaceae: A new British allopolyploid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vallejo-Marin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidization plays an important role in species formation as chromosome doubling results in strong reproductive isolation between derivative and parental taxa. In this note I describe a new species, Mimulus peregrinus (Phrymaceae, which represents the first recorded instance of a new British polyploid species of Mimulus (2n = 6x = 92 that has arisen since the introduction of this genus into the United Kingdom in the 1800’s. M. peregrinus presents floral and vegetative characteristics intermediate between M. guttatus and M. luteus, but can be distinguished from all naturalized British Mimulus species and hybrids based on a combination of reproductive and vegetative traits. M. peregrinus displays high pollen and seed fertility as well as traits usually associated with genome doubling such as increased pollen and stomata size. The intermediate characteristics of M. peregrinus between M. guttatus (2n = 2x = 28 and M. luteus (2n = 4x = 60-62, and its close affinity with the highly sterile, triploid (2n = 3x = 44-45 hybrid taxon M. × robertsii (M. guttatus × M. luteus, suggests that M. peregrinus may constitute an example of recent allopolyploid speciation.

  7. Hybrid male sterility in Mimulus (Phrymaceae) is associated with a geographically restricted mitochondrial rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Andrea L; Willis, John H

    2008-05-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and nuclear fertility restoration (Rf) involves intergenomic coevolution. Although male-sterile phenotypes are rarely expressed in natural populations of angiosperms, CMS genes are thought to be common. The evolutionary dynamics of CMS/Rf systems are poorly understood, leaving gaps in our understanding of mechanisms and consequences of cytonuclear interactions. We characterized the molecular basis and geographic distribution of a CMS gene in Mimulus guttatus. We used outcrossing M. guttatus (with CMS and Rf) to self-fertilizing M. nasutus (lacking CMS and Rf) to generate hybrids segregating for CMS. Mitochondrial transcripts containing an essential gene (nad6) were perfectly associated with male sterility. The CMS mitotype was completely absent in M. nasutus, present in all genotypes collected from the original collection site, but in only two individuals from 34 other M. guttatus populations. This pattern suggests that the CMS likely originated at a single locality, spread to fixation within the population, but has not spread to other populations, indicating possible ecological or genetic constraints on dispersal of this CMS mitotype between populations. Extreme localization may be characteristic of CMS in hermaphroditic species, in contrast to geographically widespread mitotypes commonly found in gynodioecious species, and could directly contribute to hybrid incompatibilities in nature.

  8. Ichthyofauna in an estuary of the Mataripe area, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, June Ferraz; Gonçalves, Aline Mariane; Fernandez, Wellington Silva; Silbiger, Helcy Lylian Nogueira; Fiadi, Carla Bertolucci; Schmidt, Thassya Christina dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    The community structure and dynamics as well as some biological parameters of selected species of the ichthyofauna of the Mataripe estuarine region affected by the Landulfo Alves Oil Refinery (RLAM) were analyzed. Twenty stations were sampled with a gillnet in five different periods: August and December 2003, March and July/August 2004 and January 2005. Thirty-five actinopterygian species and one elasmobranch species were recorded, Oligoplites saurus, Diapterus rhombeus, Lutjanus synagris and...

  9. Inventory of the tropical coral reef fishes in Wondama Bay regency, West Papua, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiyani, K. D. P.; Triastuti, J.; Pursetyo, K. T.

    2018-04-01

    Teluk Wondama Regency is one of the areas in West Papua that is part of the Cendrawasih Bay National Park due to its potential of coral fishes. Until now, there is no thorough information that gives the potential diversities of coral fishes species can be found in the waters, and one of the attempts to find out is to carry out an inventory. Inventories were conducted from March to May 2016 in Rariei and Auri (Roon District), Numamuran (Duairi District), Nusrowi (Rumberpon District) and Waprak (Roswar District). The results of these inventories found 28 species of coral fishes in Rariei consisting of 8 genus (Balistapus, Synodus, Pentapodus, Thalassoma, Zebrasoma, Amblyglyphidodon, Chaetodon and Labroides) in Rariei, 11 genus (Abudefduf, Chaetodon, Amphiprion, Cheilinus, Dascyllus, Chromis, Parastromateus, Priacanthus, Epinephelus, Nemipterus and Lutjanus) in Namamuran, 11 genus in Nusrowi (Halichoeres, Pomacentrus, Dischistodus, Heniochus, Amblyglyphidodon, Arothron, Parupeneus, Lutjanus, Plectropomus, Epinephelus and Acanthurus), 4 genus in the waters of Waprak (Parupeneus, Pomacentrus, Chaetodon and Amblyglyphidodon) and 10 genus in Auri (Lutjanus, Pomacentrus, Amphiprion, Chaetodon, Chromis, Dascyllus, Zanclus, Halichoeres, Siganus and Amblyglyphidodon)

  10. Mechanisms of Transmission Ratio Distortion at Hybrid Sterility Loci Within and Between Mimulus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Kerwin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid incompatibilities are a common correlate of genomic divergence and a potentially important contributor to reproductive isolation. However, we do not yet have a detailed understanding of how hybrid incompatibility loci function and evolve within their native species, or why they are dysfunctional in hybrids. Here, we explore these issues for a well-studied, two-locus hybrid incompatibility between hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1 and hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2 in the closely related yellow monkeyflower species Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. By performing reciprocal backcrosses with introgression lines (ILs, we find evidence for gametic expression of the hms1-hms2 incompatibility. Surprisingly, however, hybrid transmission ratios at hms1 do not reflect this incompatibility, suggesting that additional mechanisms counteract the effects of gametic sterility. Indeed, our backcross experiment shows hybrid transmission bias toward M. guttatus through both pollen and ovules, an effect that is particularly strong when hms2 is homozygous for M. nasutus alleles. In contrast, we find little evidence for hms1 transmission bias in crosses within M. guttatus, providing no indication of selfish evolution at this locus. Although we do not yet have sufficient genetic resolution to determine if hybrid sterility and transmission ratio distortion (TRD map to the same loci, our preliminary fine-mapping uncovers a genetically independent hybrid lethality system involving at least two loci linked to hms1. This fine-scale dissection of TRD at hms1 and hms2 provides insight into genomic differentiation between closely related Mimulus species and reveals multiple mechanisms of hybrid dysfunction.

  11. Mechanisms of Transmission Ratio Distortion at Hybrid Sterility Loci Within and Between Mimulus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, Rachel E; Sweigart, Andrea L

    2017-11-06

    Hybrid incompatibilities are a common correlate of genomic divergence and a potentially important contributor to reproductive isolation. However, we do not yet have a detailed understanding of how hybrid incompatibility loci function and evolve within their native species, or why they are dysfunctional in hybrids. Here, we explore these issues for a well-studied, two-locus hybrid incompatibility between hybrid male sterility 1 ( hms1 ) and hybrid male sterility 2 ( hms2 ) in the closely related yellow monkeyflower species Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus By performing reciprocal backcrosses with introgression lines (ILs), we find evidence for gametic expression of the hms1-hms2 incompatibility. Surprisingly, however, hybrid transmission ratios at hms1 do not reflect this incompatibility, suggesting that additional mechanisms counteract the effects of gametic sterility. Indeed, our backcross experiment shows hybrid transmission bias toward M. guttatus through both pollen and ovules, an effect that is particularly strong when hms2 is homozygous for M. nasutus alleles. In contrast, we find little evidence for hms1 transmission bias in crosses within M. guttatus , providing no indication of selfish evolution at this locus. Although we do not yet have sufficient genetic resolution to determine if hybrid sterility and transmission ratio distortion (TRD) map to the same loci, our preliminary fine-mapping uncovers a genetically independent hybrid lethality system involving at least two loci linked to hms1 This fine-scale dissection of TRD at hms1 and hms2 provides insight into genomic differentiation between closely related Mimulus species and reveals multiple mechanisms of hybrid dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Kerwin and Sweigart.

  12. Phenotypic and genetic differentiation among yellow monkeyflower populations from thermal and non-thermal soils in Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekberg, Ylva; Roskilly, Beth; Hendrick, Margaret F; Zabinski, Catherine A; Barr, Camille M; Fishman, Lila

    2012-09-01

    In flowering plants, soil heterogeneity can generate divergent natural selection over fine spatial scales, and thus promote local adaptation in the absence of geographic barriers to gene flow. Here, we investigate phenotypic and genetic differentiation in one of the few flowering plants that thrives in both geothermal and non-thermal soils in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Yellow monkeyflowers (Mimulus guttatus) growing at two geothermal ("thermal") sites in YNP were distinct in growth form and phenology from paired populations growing nearby ( 0.34), which were only weakly differentiated from each other (all F (ST) geothermal gradient in Yellowstone.

  13. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae: target species and suggestions for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clauzet Mariana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae, including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State and the southeast (SE Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.. We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis and lane snapper (L. synagris, are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages. Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population.

  14. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae): target species and suggestions for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begossi, Alpina; Salivonchyk, Svetlana V; Araujo, Luciana G; Andreoli, Tainá B; Clauzet, Mariana; Martinelli, Claudia M; Ferreira, Allan G I; Oliveira, Luiz E C; Silvano, Renato A M

    2011-03-16

    In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.).We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages.Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population.

  15. Differential SPL gene expression patterns reveal candidate genes underlying flowering time and architectural differences in Mimulus and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Stacy A; Preston, Jill C

    2014-04-01

    Evolutionary transitions in growth habit and flowering time responses to variable environmental signals have occurred multiple times independently across angiosperms and have major impacts on plant fitness. Proteins in the SPL family of transcription factors collectively regulate flowering time genes that have been implicated in interspecific shifts in annuality/perenniality. However, their potential importance in the evolution of angiosperm growth habit has not been extensively investigated. Here we identify orthologs representative of the major SPL gene clades in annual Arabidopsis thaliana and Mimulus guttatus IM767, and perennial A. lyrata and M. guttatus PR, and characterize their expression. Spatio-temporal expression patterns are complex across both diverse tissues of the same taxa and comparable tissues of different taxa, consistent with genic sub- or neo-functionalization. However, our data are consistent with a general role for several SPL genes in the promotion of juvenile to adult phase change and/or flowering time in Mimulus and Arabidopsis. Furthermore, several candidate genes were identified for future study whose differential expression correlates with growth habit and architectural variation in annual versus perennial taxa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A study on the relationship of arsenic accumulation with protein, lipid, ash and moisture contents in muscle of eight species of fish in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Askary Sary

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was conducted to investigate a relationship between concentration of arsenic with protein, lipid, ash and moisture content in Cyprinus carpio, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Aristichthys nobilis, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Scomberomorus commerson, Scomberomorus guttatus and Otolithes ruber. A total of 72 sample of common carp, Bighead carp, silver carp and grass carp fishing from Azadegan fish farming center, Ahvaz; Rainbow trout from Cheshme Dimeh and Scomberomorus commerson, Scomberomorus guttatus and Otolithes ruber caught with gill netfrom Hendijan. Wet-digestion method was performed prior to arsenic determination in the samples. The level of arsenic was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that concentration of arsenic in the muscle of fishes was 269.87 ± 20.96 µg/Kg. Moreover, levels of protein, lipid, ash and moisture in the samples were estimated at 19.67±0.78 g/100, 2.45±0.45 g/100, 1.49±0.23 g/100, 78±1.89 g/100, respectively. Results also showed a positive correlation between the accumulation of arsenic in muscle of fishes with levels of protein, lipid, ash and moisture (p

  17. Speciation on a local geographic scale: the evolution of a rare rock outcrop specialist in Mimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Kathleen G; Sexton, Jason P; Willis, John H

    2014-08-05

    Speciation can occur on both large and small geographical scales. In plants, local speciation, where small populations split off from a large-ranged progenitor species, is thought to be the dominant mode, yet there are still few examples to verify speciation has occurred in this manner. A recently described morphological species in the yellow monkey flowers, Mimulus filicifolius, is an excellent candidate for local speciation because of its highly restricted geographical range. Mimulus filicifolius was formerly identified as a population of M. laciniatus due to similar lobed leaf morphology and rocky outcrop habitat. To investigate whether M. filicifolius is genetically divergent and reproductively isolated from M. laciniatus, we examined patterns of genetic diversity in ten nuclear and eight microsatellite loci, and hybrid fertility in M. filicifolius and its purported close relatives: M. laciniatus, M. guttatus and M. nasutus. We found that M. filicifolius is genetically divergent from the other species and strongly reproductively isolated from M. laciniatus. We conclude that M. filicifolius is an independent rock outcrop specialist despite being morphologically and ecologically similar to M. laciniatus, and that its small geographical range nested within other wide-ranging members of the M. guttatus species complex is consistent with local speciation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of predation risk through conspecific alarm odors by spiny lobsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Strong “alarm odors” emanating from lethally injured conspecifics may indicate an imminent risk of predation to spiny lobsters. In laboratory trials,1 strong conspecific alarm odors elicited avoidance in Panulirus argus, a highly gregarious species that displays collective defense behavior, but not in Panulirus guttatus, a species that tends to aggregate when reproductive activity is high (spring) but not when it is low (late summer) and does not display collective defensive behavior. To reduce predation risk, however, lobsters may autotomize limbs, thus sustaining nonlethal injuries. I tested the response of these lobsters to scents emanating from intact, lethally-injured and non-lethally injured conspecifics. In P. argus, these scents elicited, respectively, attraction, avoidance and a random response, suggesting that, in P. argus, avoidance of conspecific alarm odors depends on their strength. In contrast, P. guttatus lobsters responded at random to scents of lethally injured conspecifics and showed a similar response to scents of intact and non-lethally injured conspecifics in the spring (attraction) and in the summer (random), reflecting the more cryptic defensive behavior of this species. Therefore, both species use conspecific alarm odors for risk-assessment, but each responds to these cues in the most effective way to reduce its risk of predation. PMID:19721871

  19. Assessment of predation risk through conspecific alarm odors by spiny lobsters: How much is too much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-Fourzán, Patricia

    2009-07-01

    Strong "alarm odors" emanating from lethally injured conspecifics may indicate an imminent risk of predation to spiny lobsters. In laboratory trials,1 strong conspecific alarm odors elicited avoidance in Panulirus argus, a highly gregarious species that displays collective defense behavior, but not in Panulirus guttatus, a species that tends to aggregate when reproductive activity is high (spring) but not when it is low (late summer) and does not display collective defensive behavior. To reduce predation risk, however, lobsters may autotomize limbs, thus sustaining nonlethal injuries. I tested the response of these lobsters to scents emanating from intact, lethally-injured and non-lethally injured conspecifics. In P. argus, these scents elicited, respectively, attraction, avoidance and a random response, suggesting that, in P. argus, avoidance of conspecific alarm odors depends on their strength. In contrast, P. guttatus lobsters responded at random to scents of lethally injured conspecifics and showed a similar response to scents of intact and non-lethally injured conspecifics in the spring (attraction) and in the summer (random), reflecting the more cryptic defensive behavior of this species. Therefore, both species use conspecific alarm odors for risk-assessment, but each responds to these cues in the most effective way to reduce its risk of predation.

  20. Moonlight controls lunar-phase-dependency and regular oscillation of clock gene expressions in a lunar-synchronized spawner fish, Goldlined spinefoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yuki; Kabutomori, Ryo; Yamauchi, Chihiro; Miyagi, Hitomi; Takemura, Akihiro; Okano, Keiko; Okano, Toshiyuki

    2018-04-18

    Goldlined spinefoot, Siganus guttatus, inhabits tropical and subtropical waters and synchronizes its spawning around the first quarter moon likely using an hourglass-like lunar timer. In previous studies, we have found that clock genes (Cryptochrome3 and Period1) could play the role of state variable in the diencephalon when determining the lunar phase for spawning. Here, we identified three Cry, two Per, two Clock, and two Bmal genes in S. guttatus and investigated their expression patterns in the diencephalon and pituitary gland. We further evaluated the effect on their expression patterns by daily interruptions of moonlight stimuli for 1 lunar cycle beginning at the new moon. It significantly modified the expression patterns in many of the examined clock(-related) genes including Cry3 in the diencephalon and/or pituitary gland. Acute interruptions of moonlight around the waxing gibbous moon upregulated nocturnal expressions of Cry1b and Cry2 in the diencephalon and pituitary gland, respectively, but did not affect expression levels of the other clock genes. These results highlighted the importance of repetitive moonlight illumination for stable or lunar-phase-specific daily expression of clock genes in the next lunar cycle that may be important for the lunar-phase-synchronized spawning on the next first quarter moon.

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16187-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CI 5 ALP Hydra magnipapill... 62 2e-14 2 ( AW719233 ) LjNEST1e12r Lotus japonicus nodule library, matur... 5... 17ACDHMS_UP_015_C09_27OCT2004_075 Brassica napus ... 50 2e-09 3 ( EX123282 ) BR107112 mature green leaf cDNA library...a rapa sub... 50 2e-09 3 ( EX125217 ) BR109047 mature green leaf cDNA library KHLM Bras... 50 2e-09 3 ( EV161608 ) 0085470 Brassic...ETGS6H_UP_013_E04_15NOV2004_024 Brassica napus 6... 50 3e-08 3 ( CV515629 ) 0048P0010Z_H11_T7 Mimulus guttatus library 1 Mimu...E543256 ) 9RDBNGA_UP_037_C07_03DEC2003_059 Brassica napus -... 50 3e-08 3 ( CV515401 ) 0048P0009Z_D01_T7 Mimulus guttatus library

  2. Novos táxons de Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae da Região Neotropical New taxa of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae from the Neotropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Novos táxons descritos da Costa Rica: Erana cretaria sp. nov., Itumbiara denudata sp. nov., Hilaroleopsis coloratus sp. nov., Alampyris flavicollis sp. nov., Cotycuara viridis sp. nov., Adesmus stellatus sp. nov., A. pilatus sp. nov. (também do Panamá; do Panamá: Eulachnesia amoena sp. nov., Cotycuara crinita sp. nov.; da Venezuela: Abanycha fasciata sp. nov.; do Equador: Mariliana hovorei sp. nov., Adesmus ocellatus sp. nov.; do Peru: Susuanycha gen. nov., espécie-tipo, S. susua sp. nov., Malacoscylus elegantulus sp. nov., Adesmus guttatus sp. nov., A. calca sp. nov.; do Brasil (Minas Gerais: Sybaguasu cornutum sp. nov. Acrescenta-se chave para as espécies de Cotycuara.New taxa described from Costa Rica: Erana cretaria sp. nov., Itumbiara denudata sp. nov., Hilaroleopsis coloratus sp. nov., Alampyris flavicollis sp. nov., Cotycuara viridis sp. nov., Adesmus stellatus sp. nov., A. pilatus sp. nov. (also from Panama; from Panama: Eulachnesia amoena sp. nov., Cotycuara crinita sp. nov.; from Venezuela: Abanycha fasciata sp. nov.; from Ecuador: Mariliana hovorei sp. nov., Adesmus ocellatus sp. nov.; from Peru: Susuanycha gen. nov., type species, S. susua sp. nov., Malacoscylus elegantulus sp. nov., Adesmus guttatus sp. nov., A. calca sp. nov.; from Brazil (Minas Gerais: Sybaguasu cornutum sp. nov. A key to the species of Cotycuara is added.

  3. Screening three Finfish Species for their Potential in Removing Organic Matter from the Effluent of White Leg Shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen, LQ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available White leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei farming effluent contains pollutants that include high levels of organic matter (OM nutrients and growth-promoting substances. This study investigated the effects of varied concentrations of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei farm wastewater 0, 50, 75 and 100%, on the survival rate (SR of three finfish species: tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, grey mullet (Mugil cephalus and rabbit fish (Siganus guttatus as part of screening their potential in removing organic matter from the effluent of white leg shrimp farming. The different initial levels of shrimp wastewater from 50% to 100% had no significant effect on the survival rate of tilapia and mullet; but the survival rate of S. guttatus significantly decreased with increasing shrimp wastewater (P<0.05. The results showed that the removal of BOD, COD and TSS occurred in the range of 66-83, 68-81 and 30-54%; respectively and the removal efficiency of OM by mullet was higher than Tilapia in all treatments. The study also indicated that the reduction highest removal of BOD, COD and TSS was achieved being 83.1%, 80.7and 53,7% respectively, at the medium stocking density (25 fish/m2 of mullet.

  4. A simple genetic incompatibility causes hybrid male sterility in mimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweigart, Andrea L; Fishman, Lila; Willis, John H

    2006-04-01

    Much evidence has shown that postzygotic reproductive isolation (hybrid inviability or sterility) evolves by the accumulation of interlocus incompatibilities between diverging populations. Although in theory only a single pair of incompatible loci is needed to isolate species, empirical work in Drosophila has revealed that hybrid fertility problems often are highly polygenic and complex. In this article we investigate the genetic basis of hybrid sterility between two closely related species of monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. In striking contrast to Drosophila systems, we demonstrate that nearly complete hybrid male sterility in Mimulus results from a simple genetic incompatibility between a single pair of heterospecific loci. We have genetically mapped this sterility effect: the M. guttatus allele at the hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) locus acts dominantly in combination with recessive M. nasutus alleles at the hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2) locus to cause nearly complete hybrid male sterility. In a preliminary screen to find additional small-effect male sterility factors, we identified one additional locus that also contributes to some of the variation in hybrid male fertility. Interestingly, hms1 and hms2 also cause a significant reduction in hybrid female fertility, suggesting that sex-specific hybrid defects might share a common genetic basis. This possibility is supported by our discovery that recombination is reduced dramatically in a cross involving a parent with the hms1-hms2 incompatibility.

  5. Evidence of natural selection acting on a polymorphic hybrid incompatibility locus in Mimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweigart, Andrea L; Flagel, Lex E

    2015-02-01

    As a common cause of reproductive isolation in diverse taxa, hybrid incompatibilities are fundamentally important to speciation. A key question is which evolutionary forces drive the initial substitutions within species that lead to hybrid dysfunction. Previously, we discovered a simple genetic incompatibility that causes nearly complete male sterility and partial female sterility in hybrids between the two closely related yellow monkeyflower species Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. In this report, we fine map the two major incompatibility loci-hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) and hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2)-to small nuclear genomic regions (each <70 kb) that include strong candidate genes. With this improved genetic resolution, we also investigate the evolutionary dynamics of hms1 in a natural population of M. guttatus known to be polymorphic at this locus. Using classical genetic crosses and population genomics, we show that a 320-kb region containing the hms1 incompatibility allele has risen to intermediate frequency in this population by strong natural selection. This finding provides direct evidence that natural selection within plant species can lead to hybrid dysfunction between species. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Selfish evolution of cytonuclear hybrid incompatibility in Mimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Andrea L; Finseth, Findley R; Barr, Camille M; Fishman, Lila

    2016-09-14

    Intraspecific coevolution between selfish elements and suppressors may promote interspecific hybrid incompatibility, but evidence of this process is rare. Here, we use genomic data to test alternative models for the evolution of cytonuclear hybrid male sterility in Mimulus In hybrids between Iron Mountain (IM) Mimulus guttatus × Mimulus nasutus, two tightly linked M. guttatus alleles (Rf1/Rf2) each restore male fertility by suppressing a local mitochondrial male-sterility gene (IM-CMS). Unlike neutral models for the evolution of hybrid incompatibility loci, selfish evolution predicts that the Rf alleles experienced strong selection in the presence of IM-CMS. Using whole-genome sequences, we compared patterns of population-genetic variation in Rf at IM to a neighbouring population that lacks IM-CMS. Consistent with local selection in the presence of IM-CMS, the Rf region shows elevated FST, high local linkage disequilibrium and a distinct haplotype structure at IM, but not at Cone Peak (CP), suggesting a recent sweep in the presence of IM-CMS. In both populations, Rf2 exhibited lower polymorphism than other regions, but the low-diversity outliers were different between CP and IM. Our results confirm theoretical predictions of ubiquitous cytonuclear conflict in plants and provide a population-genetic mechanism for the evolution of a common form of hybrid incompatibility. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Spatial variation in density and size structure indicate habitat selection throughout life stages of two Southwestern Atlantic snappers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Alexandre; Hackradt, Carlos Werner; Ferreira, Beatrice Padovani

    2016-02-01

    The early life history of Lutjanus alexandrei and Lutjanus jocu in Southwestern Atlantic is still largely unknown. Habitat use of different life stages (i.e. size categories and densities) of the Brazilian snapper (L. alexandrei) and dog snapper (L. jocu) was examined in a tropical portion of NE coast of Brazil. Visual surveys were conducted in different shallow habitats (mangroves and reefs). Both snapper species showed higher densities in early life stages in mangrove habitat, with a clear increase in fish size from mangrove to adjacent reefs. Post-settler individuals were exclusively found in mangroves for both species. Juveniles of L. alexandrei were also registered only in mangroves, while sub-adult individuals were associated with both mangrove and reef habitats. Mature individuals of L. alexandrei were only observed in reef habitats. Juvenile and sub-adult individuals of the dog snapper were both associated with mangrove and reef habitats, with high densities registered in mangroves. Mature individuals of L. jocu were not registered in the study area. This pattern suggests preference for mangrove habitat in early life stages for both species. Ontogenetic movement between habitats was also recorded. This pattern denotes habitat selection across different life cycle of both species. Such information highlights the importance of directing management and conservation efforts to these habitats to secure the continuity of contribution to adult populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fatty acid composition indicating diverse habitat use in coral reef fishes in the Malaysian South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaomi Arai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to understand feeding ecology and habitat use of coral reef fish, fatty acid composition was examined in five coral reef fishes, Thalassoma lunare, Lutjanus lutjanus, Abudefduf bengalensis, Scarus rivulatus and Scolopsis affinis collected in the Bidong Island of Malaysian South China Sea. RESULTS: Proportions of saturated fatty acids (SAFA ranged 57.2% 74.2%, with the highest proportions in fatty acids, the second highest was monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA ranged from 21.4% to 39.0% and the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA was the lowest ranged from 2.8% to 14.1%. Each fatty acid composition differed among fishes, suggesting diverse feeding ecology, habitat use and migration during the fishes' life history in the coral reef habitats. CONCLUSIONS: Diets of the coral fish species might vary among species in spite of that each species are living sympatrically. Differences in fatty acid profiles might not just be considered with respect to the diets, but might be based on the habitat and migration.

  9. Monogenea of fishes from the lagoon flats of Palmyra Atoll in the Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel Vidal-Martinez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the monogeneans of fishes from the lagoon flats of Palmyra Atoll detected 16 species already reported from the Indo-West Pacific faunal region. A total of 653 individual fish from 44 species were collected from the sand flats bordering the lagoon of the atoll. Eighteen species of fish were infected with monogeneans. The monogenean species recovered were: Benedenia hawaiiensis on Acanthurus xanthopterus, Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon lunula, Mulloidichthys flavolineatus, Pseudobalistes flavimarginatus and Rhinecanthus aculeatus; Ancyrocephalus ornatus on Arothron hispidus; Euryhaliotrema annulocirrus on Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon lunula; Euryhaliotrema chrysotaeniae on Lutjanus fulvus; Euryhaliotrema grandis on Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon lunula; Haliotrema acanthuri on Acanthurus triostegus; Haliotrema aurigae on Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon lunula; Haliotrema dempsteri on Acanthurus xanthopterus; Haliotrema minutospirale on Mulloidichthys flavolineatus; Haliotrematoides patellacirrus on Lutjanus monostigma; Neohaliotrema bombini on Abudefduf septemfasciatus and Abudefduf sordidus; Acleotrema girellae and Acleotrema parastromatei on Kyphosus cinerascens; Cemocotylella elongata on Caranx ignobilis, Caranx melampygus and Caranx papuensis; Metamicrocotyla macracantha on Crenimugil crenilabris; and Pseudopterinotrema albulae on Albula glossodonta. All these monogenean–host combinations represent new geographical records. The monogenean species composition of the Palmyra Atoll is similar to that of the Hawaiian Islands. However, the number of species recovered was lower compared with other localities within the Indo-West Pacific, perhaps due to the geographical isolation of Palmyra Atoll.

  10. Fatty acid composition indicating diverse habitat use in coral reef fishes in the Malaysian South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takaomi; Amalina, Razikin; Bachok, Zainudin

    2015-02-22

    In order to understand feeding ecology and habitat use of coral reef fish, fatty acid composition was examined in five coral reef fishes, Thalassoma lunare, Lutjanus lutjanus, Abudefduf bengalensis, Scarus rivulatus and Scolopsis affinis collected in the Bidong Island of Malaysian South China Sea. Proportions of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) ranged 57.2% 74.2%, with the highest proportions in fatty acids, the second highest was monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) ranged from 21.4% to 39.0% and the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was the lowest ranged from 2.8% to 14.1%. Each fatty acid composition differed among fishes, suggesting diverse feeding ecology, habitat use and migration during the fishes' life history in the coral reef habitats. Diets of the coral fish species might vary among species in spite of that each species are living sympatrically. Differences in fatty acid profiles might not just be considered with respect to the diets, but might be based on the habitat and migration.

  11. New records of philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off Australia, including description of four new species and erection of Digitiphilometroides gen. n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Barton, Diane P

    2018-04-16

    The following six species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) were recorded from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia in 2015 and 2016: Philometra arafurensis sp. n. and Philometra papillicaudata sp. n. from the ovary and the tissue behind the gills, respectively, of the emperor red snapper Lutjanus sebae (Cuvier); Philometra mawsonae sp. n. and Dentiphilometra malabarici sp. n. from the ovary and the tissue behind the gills, respectively, of the Malabar blood snapper Lutjanus malabaricus (Bloch et Schneider); Philometra sp. from the ovary of the goldbanded jobfish Pristipomoides multidens (Day) (Perciformes: all Lutjanidae); and Digitiphilometroides marinus (Moravec et de Buron, 2009) comb. n. from the body cavity of the cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Rachycentridae). Digitiphilometroides gen. n. is established based on the presence of unique digital cuticular ornamentations on the female body. New gonad-infecting species, P. arafurensis and P. mawsonae, are characterised mainly by the length of spicules (252-264 µm and 351-435 µm, respectively) and the structure of the gubernaculum, whereas P. papillicaudata is characterised mainly by the body length (70 mm) of gravid female, extent of the oesophageal gland, size of caudal projections and the location in the host. Dentiphilometra malabarici differs from congeners mainly in the arrangement of circumoral teeth (in a single row), extent of the oesophageal gland and the absence of sclerotised teeth or protuberances on the oesophageal lobes in the mouth. Digitiphilometroides marinus has not previously been reported from fishes in Australian waters.

  12. Control of parasites in cultured marine finfishes in Southeast Asia--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, L T

    1997-10-01

    Mariculture in Southeast Asia began in the 1970s and expanded rapidly during the 1980s, with the commercial hatchery production of the seabass Lates calcarifer. Other important cultured species were Epinephelus coioides, Epinephelus malabaricus, Lutjanus johni, and Lutjanus argentimaculatus. Intensification in the polyculture of these species and the large-scale international movement of fingerlings or juveniles, as well as the rapid expansion and concentration of fish farms, have caused severe problems resulting from parasitic infections. Infections in maricultured fish are predominantly caused by monoxenous parasites, in particular the capsalid and diplectanid monogeneans. Heteroxenous blood parasites also successfully maintained transmission in the culture system despite their requirement for an intermediate host. Prophylactic chemical treatments helped to reduce parasitic infection but did not eliminate them and once introduced into the floating netcage culture system, these parasites managed to maintain their transmission successfully. Despite the current lack of information regarding the biology of many parasites affecting cultured marine fishes, it nevertheless is possible to develop methodologies to produce an integrated health management system specifically designed to the needs of the mariculture practiced in the Southeast Asian region. This system is important and should include a sequence of prophylaxes, adequate nutrition, sanitation, immunization and an effective system of marketing for farmed fishes.

  13. Transgenerational Effects Alter Plant Defense and Resistance in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchio, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Trichomes, or leaf hairs, are epidermal extensions that take a variety of forms and perform many functions in plants, including herbivore defense. In this study, I document genetically determined variation, within-generation plasticity, and a direct role of trichomes in herbivore defense for Mimulus guttatus. After establishing the relationship between trichomes and herbivory, I test for transgenerational effects of wounding on trichome density and herbivore resistance. Patterns of inter-annual variation in herbivore density and the high cost of plant defense makes plant-herbivore interactions a system in which transgenerational phenotypic plasticity (TPP) is apt to evolve. Here, I demonstrate that parental damage alters offspring trichome density and herbivore resistance in nature. Moreover, this response varies between populations. This is among the first studies to demonstrate that TPP contributes to variation in nature, and also suggests that selection can modify TPP in response to local conditions. PMID:28102915

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16287-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available zed ... 46 0.12 2 ( CK269023 ) EST715101 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Sola... 46 0.12 2 ( U54774 ) Nicotiana tabacu...a... 36 0.26 3 ( DV114899 ) CV03010A1H02.f1 CV03-normalized library Euphorbia... 36 0.26 3 ( BT013106 ) Lycopersicon esculentu...mate decarboxylase isozyme... 58 1e-06 2 ( CK273593 ) EST719671 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Sola... 5... from flowers,8... 62 7e-05 1 ( CV516768 ) 0048P0016Z_H01_SP6 Mimulus guttatus library 1 Mim... 62...e-04 1 ( CK278060 ) EST724138 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Sola... 60 3e-04 1 ( AP009552 ) Microcystis

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01505-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available y1 Gm-c1004 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME... 32 3.7 2 ( DV211690 ) 0089P0160Z_H09_T7 Mimulus guttatus library 2 Mimu...38TG Tetrahymena thermophila EST library str... 38 2.5 2 ( AC177658 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3...6 1.4 1 ( BG041778 ) saa41a04.y1 Gm-c1059 Glycine soja cDNA clone GENO... 46 1.4 1 ( BF645094 ) NF034E10EC1F1082 Elicited cell cultur...e Medicago t... 46 1.4 1 ( BF644741 ) NF014E01EC1F1005 Elicited cell culture Medica...a oleracea var. alboglabra EST, clone AAF... 44 5.4 1 ( CN828044 ) EL2662R Brassica embryo library (EL) Brassic

  16. Fine-scale variation in meiotic recombination in Mimulus inferred from population shotgun sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, Uffe [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Wright, Kevin M. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Jenkins, Jerry [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); HudsonAlpha Inst. of Biotechnology, Huntsville, AL (United States); Shu, Shengqiang [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Yuan, Yao-Wu [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Wessler, Susan R. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Schmutz, Jeremy [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); HudsonAlpha Inst. of Biotechnology, Huntsville, AL (United States); Willis, John H. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Rokhsar, Daniel S. [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-11-13

    Meiotic recombination rates can vary widely across genomes, with hotspots of intense activity interspersed among cold regions. In yeast, hotspots tend to occur in promoter regions of genes, whereas in humans and mice hotspots are largely defined by binding sites of the PRDM9 protein. To investigate the detailed recombination pattern in a flowering plant we use shotgun resequencing of a wild population of the monkeyflower Mimulus guttatus to precisely locate over 400,000 boundaries of historic crossovers or gene conversion tracts. Their distribution defines some 13,000 hotspots of varying strengths, interspersed with cold regions of undetectably low recombination. Average recombination rates peak near starts of genes and fall off sharply, exhibiting polarity. Within genes, recombination tracts are more likely to terminate in exons than in introns. The general pattern is similar to that observed in yeast, as well as in PRDM9-knockout mice, suggesting that recombination initiation described here in Mimulus may reflect ancient and conserved eukaryotic mechanisms

  17. The role of otolith size in hearing – Insights from cichlid fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Schulz-Mirbach

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Otolithic end organs in fishes function as accelerometers and are involved in the senses of balance and hearing (e.g. Popper et al. 2005. Otolith mass and shape are likely decisive factors influencing otolith motion, but while it is largely unknown how different shapes affect otolith movement relative to the sensory epithelium (Popper et al. 2005, greater otolith mass is predicted to result in enhanced stimulation of sensory hair cells and improved hearing (Lychakov and Rebane 2005. What few studies exist on this topic, however, yielded contradicting results in that they did or did not find a correlation between increased otolith mass and enhanced hearing (see Kéver et al. 2014. We investigated the relationship between otolith morphology (including 3D-models of otoliths based on high-resolution microCT imaging and otolith weight and hearing abilities in cichlids while comparing three species (Etroplus maculatus, Hemichromis guttatus, Steatocranus tinanti with different swimbladder morphology and hearing abilities (Schulz-Mirbach et al. 2014. We predicted Etroplus maculatus—the species that displays the best hearing sensitivities—to possess larger/heavier otoliths. As swimbladder extensions in this species are connected to the lagena, we further predicted to find heavier lagenar otoliths. Compared to H. guttatus and S. tinanti, E. maculatus showed the heaviest saccular otoliths, while lagenar otoliths were significantly thinner and lighter than in the former two species, apparently contradicting the hypothesis that the lagena and its otolith are primarily involved in improved hearing abilities. Our results support the idea that there is no ‘simple’ relationship between otolith weight, ancilliary auditory structures and hearing abilities. 3D-models of inner ears and otoliths may be ideally suited for future studies modeling complex otolith motion and thus, may provide a better understanding of how otolith morphology contributes to inner

  18. Hypothalamic expression and moonlight-independent changes of Cry3 and Per4 implicate their roles in lunar clock oscillators of the lunar-responsive Goldlined spinefoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Riko; Okano, Keiko; Takeuchi, Yuki; Yamauchi, Chihiro; Fukushiro, Masato; Takemura, Akihiro; Okano, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Lunar cycle-associated physiology has been found in a wide variety of organisms. Studies suggest the presence of a circalunar clock in some animals, but the location of the lunar clock is unclear. We previously found lunar-associated expression of transcripts for Cryptochrome3 gene (SgCry3) in the brain of a lunar phase-responsive fish, the Goldlined spinefoot (Siganus guttatus). Then we proposed a photoperiodic model for the lunar phase response, in which SgCry3 might function as a phase-specific light response gene and/or an oscillatory factor in unidentified circalunar clock. In this study, we have developed an anti-SgCRY3 antibody to identify SgCRY3-immunoreactive cells in the brain. We found immunoreactions in the subependymal cells located in the mediobasal region of the diencephalon, a crucial site for photoperiodic seasonal responses in birds. For further assessment of the lunar-responding mechanism and the circalunar clock, we investigated mRNA levels of Cry3 as well as those of the other clock(-related) genes, Period (Per2 and Per4), in S. guttatus reared under nocturnal moonlight interruption or natural conditions. Not only SgCry3 but SgPer4 mRNA levels showed lunar phase-dependent variations in the diencephalon without depending on light condition during the night. These results suggest that the expressions of SgCry3 and SgPer4 are not directly regulated by moonlight stimulation but endogenously mediated in the brain, and implicate that circadian clock(-related) genes may be involved in the circalunar clock locating within the mediobasal region of the diencephalon.

  19. Variation in reward quality and pollinator attraction: the consumer does not always get it right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David E; Haber, Ariela I; LeCroy, Kathryn A; Lee, De'Ashia E; Link, Rosabeth I

    2015-04-09

    Nearly all bees rely on pollen as the sole protein source for the development of their larvae. The central importance of pollen for the bee life cycle should exert strong selection on their ability to locate the most rewarding sources of pollen. Despite this importance, very few studies have examined the influence of intraspecific variation in pollen rewards on the foraging decisions of bees. Previous studies have demonstrated that inbreeding reduces viability and hence protein content in Mimulus guttatus (seep monkeyflower) pollen and that bees strongly discriminate against inbred in favour of outbred plants. We examined whether variation in pollen viability could explain this preference using a series of choice tests with living plants, artificial plants and olfactometer tests using the bumble bee Bombus impatiens. We found that B. impatiens preferred to visit artificial plants provisioned with fertile anthers over those provisioned with sterile anthers. They also preferred fertile anthers when provided only olfactory cues. These bumble bees were unable to discriminate among live plants from subpopulations differing dramatically in pollen viability, however. They preferred outbred plants even when those plants were from subpopulations with pollen viability as low as the inbred populations. Their preference for outbred plants was evident even when only olfactory cues were available. Our data showed that bumble bees are able to differentiate between anthers that provide higher rewards when cues are isolated from the rest of the flower. When confronted with cues from the entire flower, their choices are independent of the quality of the pollen reward, suggesting that they are responding more strongly to cues unassociated with rewards than to those correlated with rewards. If so, this suggests that a sensory bias or some level of deception may be involved with advertisement to pollinators in M. guttatus. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of

  20. Selection on plant male function genes identifies candidates for reproductive isolation of yellow monkeyflowers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan E Aagaard

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic basis of reproductive isolation promises insight into speciation and the origins of biological diversity. While progress has been made in identifying genes underlying barriers to reproduction that function after fertilization (post-zygotic isolation, we know much less about earlier acting pre-zygotic barriers. Of particular interest are barriers involved in mating and fertilization that can evolve extremely rapidly under sexual selection, suggesting they may play a prominent role in the initial stages of reproductive isolation. A significant challenge to the field of speciation genetics is developing new approaches for identification of candidate genes underlying these barriers, particularly among non-traditional model systems. We employ powerful proteomic and genomic strategies to study the genetic basis of conspecific pollen precedence, an important component of pre-zygotic reproductive isolation among yellow monkeyflowers (Mimulus spp. resulting from male pollen competition. We use isotopic labeling in combination with shotgun proteomics to identify more than 2,000 male function (pollen tube proteins within maternal reproductive structures (styles of M. guttatus flowers where pollen competition occurs. We then sequence array-captured pollen tube exomes from a large outcrossing population of M. guttatus, and identify those genes with evidence of selective sweeps or balancing selection consistent with their role in pollen competition. We also test for evidence of positive selection on these genes more broadly across yellow monkeyflowers, because a signal of adaptive divergence is a common feature of genes causing reproductive isolation. Together the molecular evolution studies identify 159 pollen tube proteins that are candidate genes for conspecific pollen precedence. Our work demonstrates how powerful proteomic and genomic tools can be readily adapted to non-traditional model systems, allowing for genome-wide screens

  1. A widespread chromosomal inversion polymorphism contributes to a major life-history transition, local adaptation, and reproductive isolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Lowry

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of chromosomal inversions in adaptation and speciation is controversial. Historically, inversions were thought to contribute to these processes either by directly causing hybrid sterility or by facilitating the maintenance of co-adapted gene complexes. Because inversions suppress recombination when heterozygous, a recently proposed local adaptation mechanism predicts that they will spread if they capture alleles at multiple loci involved in divergent adaptation to contrasting environments. Many empirical studies have found inversion polymorphisms linked to putatively adaptive phenotypes or distributed along environmental clines. However, direct involvement of an inversion in local adaptation and consequent ecological reproductive isolation has not to our knowledge been demonstrated in nature. In this study, we discovered that a chromosomal inversion polymorphism is geographically widespread, and we test the extent to which it contributes to adaptation and reproductive isolation under natural field conditions. Replicated crosses between the prezygotically reproductively isolated annual and perennial ecotypes of the yellow monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus, revealed that alternative chromosomal inversion arrangements are associated with life-history divergence over thousands of kilometers across North America. The inversion polymorphism affected adaptive flowering time divergence and other morphological traits in all replicated crosses between four pairs of annual and perennial populations. To determine if the inversion contributes to adaptation and reproductive isolation in natural populations, we conducted a novel reciprocal transplant experiment involving outbred lines, where alternative arrangements of the inversion were reciprocally introgressed into the genetic backgrounds of each ecotype. Our results demonstrate for the first time in nature the contribution of an inversion to adaptation, an annual/perennial life-history shift, and

  2. Hypothalamic expression and moonlight-independent changes of Cry3 and Per4 implicate their roles in lunar clock oscillators of the lunar-responsive Goldlined spinefoot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riko Toda

    Full Text Available Lunar cycle-associated physiology has been found in a wide variety of organisms. Studies suggest the presence of a circalunar clock in some animals, but the location of the lunar clock is unclear. We previously found lunar-associated expression of transcripts for Cryptochrome3 gene (SgCry3 in the brain of a lunar phase-responsive fish, the Goldlined spinefoot (Siganus guttatus. Then we proposed a photoperiodic model for the lunar phase response, in which SgCry3 might function as a phase-specific light response gene and/or an oscillatory factor in unidentified circalunar clock. In this study, we have developed an anti-SgCRY3 antibody to identify SgCRY3-immunoreactive cells in the brain. We found immunoreactions in the subependymal cells located in the mediobasal region of the diencephalon, a crucial site for photoperiodic seasonal responses in birds. For further assessment of the lunar-responding mechanism and the circalunar clock, we investigated mRNA levels of Cry3 as well as those of the other clock(-related genes, Period (Per2 and Per4, in S. guttatus reared under nocturnal moonlight interruption or natural conditions. Not only SgCry3 but SgPer4 mRNA levels showed lunar phase-dependent variations in the diencephalon without depending on light condition during the night. These results suggest that the expressions of SgCry3 and SgPer4 are not directly regulated by moonlight stimulation but endogenously mediated in the brain, and implicate that circadian clock(-related genes may be involved in the circalunar clock locating within the mediobasal region of the diencephalon.

  3. The intake of water containing a mix of pollutants at environmentally relevant concentrations leads to defensive response deficit in male C57Bl/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Joyce Moreira; Rabelo, Letícia Martins; de Faria, Denise Braga Gomes; Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Estrela, Fernanda Neves; Chagas, Thales Quintão; de Oliveira Mendes, Bruna; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2018-07-01

    Previous studies have individually confirmed the toxic effects from different pollutants on mammals. However, effects resulting from the exposure of these animals to multi-pollutant mixes have not been studied so far. Thus, the aim of the current study is to assess the effect from the chronic exposure (105days) of C57Bl/6J mice to a mix of pollutants on their response to potential predators. In order to do so, the following groups were formed: "control", "Mix 1× [compounds from 15 pollutants identified in surface waters at environmentally relevant concentration (ERC)]", "Mix 10×" and "Mix 25×" (concentrations 10 and 25 times higher than the ERC). From the 100th experimental day on, the animals were subjected to tests in order to investigate whether they showed locomotor, visual, olfactory and auditory changes, since these abilities are essential to their anti-predatory behavior. Next, the animals' behavior towards potential predators (Felis catus and Pantherophis guttatus) was assessed. The herein collected data did not show defensive response from any of the experimental groups to the predatory stimulus provided by P. guttatus. However, the control animals, only, presented anti-predatory behavior when F. catus was introduced in the apparatus, fact that suggests defensive response deficit resulting from the treatments. Thus, the current study is pioneer in showing that the chronic intake of water containing a mix of pollutants (even at low concentrations) leads to behavioral disorders able to affect the survival and population dynamics of mammalian species at ecological level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rare parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida: Lernanthropidae) from Egyptian Red Sea fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rashidy, Hoda Hassan; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan

    2016-10-01

    Two rare species of parasitic copepods belonging to the genus Lernanthropus de Blainville, 1822 (Siphonostomatoida: Lernanthropidae) are redescribed in detail, based on material collected from Red Sea fishes, caught at El-Tor, near Sharm El-Sheikh on the Red Sea coast of Egypt. Adult females of Lernanthropus sanguineus Song & Chen, 1976 were found on the gills of snapper Lutjanus fulviflamma (Forsskål). This species was known only from its original description based on material from Chinese waters. Adult females of Lernanthropus triangularis Pillai, 1963 were obtained from the gills of mojarra Gerres oyena (Forsskål). Both parasite species are new records for Egyptian Red Sea waters and both host records are new.

  5. [Toxin profiles in fish implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning in Amami and Kakeroma Islands, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogi, Kentaro; Oshiro, Naomasa; Matsuda, Seiko; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Matsuo, Toshiaki; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in Amami Islands, Kagoshima, Japan in 2008 were determined by LC-MS/MS analysis. Ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B), 54-deoxyCTX1B, and 52-epi-54-deoxyCTX1B were detected in Variola louti and Lutjanus monostigma. The toxin profile distinctly differed from that of a CFP-related fish from Miyazaki, which mainly contained ciguatoxin-3C type toxins. Toxin profiles were species-specific, as observed in fish from Okinawa. The LC-MS/MS and mouse bioassay (MBA) methods produced comparable data, though 54-deoxyCTX1B was not taken into consideration owing to the lack of toxicity data. To improve assessment, toxicity data for this compound are needed. A reef fish caught on the same occasion and judged nontoxic by MBA (<0.025 MU/g) was found to contain low levels of CTX, indicating a potential risk for CFP.

  6. Behavioral Response of Reef Fish and Green Sea Turtles to Midfrequency Sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watwood, Stephanie L; Iafrate, Joseph D; Reyier, Eric A; Redfoot, William E

    2016-01-01

    There is growing concern over the potential effects of high-intensity sonar on wild fish populations and commercial fisheries. Acoustic telemetry was employed to measure the movements of free-ranging reef fish and sea turtles in Port Canaveral, FL, in response to routine submarine sonar testing. Twenty-five sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus), 28 gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus), and 29 green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) were tagged, with movements monitored for a period of up to 4 months using an array of passive acoustic receivers. Baseline residency was examined for fish and sea turtles before, during, and after the test event. No mortality of tagged fish or sea turtles was evident from the sonar test event. There was a significant increase in the daily residency index for both sheepshead and gray snapper at the testing wharf subsequent to the event. No broad-scale movement from the study site was observed during or immediately after the test.

  7. Preselección de especies para la piscicultura marina en el Pacífico Sur de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Escárcega Rodríguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dada la diversidad de peces en el Pacífico Sur de México y el deterioro que enfrenta más de 50% de las pesquerías que en él existen, se requiere identificar a las especies con los mayores atributos acuícolas para promover su conservación y el desarrollo regional. Se analizaron 36 especies sobre tres precondiciones básicas: valor comercial, eurihalinidad y talla. Resultaron como especies de primera elección: el robalo prieto (Centropomus nigrescens, el mero (Epinephelus itajara y el guachinango del Pacífico (Lutjanus peru. La pesca constituye la mayor fuente de impacto ecológico en los océanos. La piscicultura marina tropical representa una vertiente productiva a impulsarse en México.

  8. First record of Microsporeans and Myxosporeans (Protozoa) infecting some Arabian Gulf fishes off the coasts of the Emirates and Qatar with a description of Myxobolus Arabicus n. sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardousha, M.; El-Tantawy, S.

    2002-01-01

    During a comprehensive survey carried out on helminth parasites of Arabian Gulf fishes mainly from the coasts of Emirates and Qatar, two microsporeans and three myxosporeans Protozoa were reported and described for the first time. The microsporeans included Nosema sauridae and Glugea stephani. Nosema sauridae was very common among lizard fish Saurida undosquamis which were caught from the Emirati coasts (56%) and also Qatari coasts (28%). Glugea stephani infected Psettodes erumei at the Emirati coasts with a prevalence of 10%. The myxosporideans comprised Myxobolus arabicus n. sp. from the body cavity of Plectorhynchus schotaf (Emirati coasts, 11%), Kudoa sp. from the musculature of Lutjanus fulviflamma (Emirati coasts, 8%) and also the heart wall of Caranx malabricus (Qatari coasts, 11%) and Henneguya sp. from the gills and mouth skin of Epinephelus tauvina (Emirati coasts, 7%). Fresh cysts and spores were described and photographed in situ. (author)

  9. Artificial reefs as a conservation tool: biodiversity assessment and perspectives in SE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Soeth

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs (ARs has been suggested as a possible tool for reef fish restoration and biodiversity rehabilitation. In Brazil, and since 1996, ARs has been implemented in the continental shelf between latitudes of 25.6-25.8 S. Underwater visual censuses (UVC of fishes were conducted from 2010 to 2015 at both artificial (AR and natural rocky (NR reefs to assess similarity at local sites. NR were natural formations with an average depth of 10 meters, and UVC were performed between 6 to 8 meters. Protected AR (PAR were installed between the years 1996 to 2001 at depths ranging from 15 to 18 meters. It consist of a total of 1788 hollow blocks (2.4-3.6 m2 divided into eleven groups. Non protected AR (NPAR have been implemented between the years 2010 and 2012 at depths between 9 to 12 meters. It consist of a total of 2832 rectangular hollow blocks (1.2 m2 distributed in 10 parallel groups near the coastal line. Since 2013, NR and PAR were classified as marine protected areas (MPAs. A total of 69 fish species, distributed in 38 families and 10 orders were recorded during the UVC. PERMANOVA analysis showed a decreasing similarity between the NPAR and PAR (20.3%, NR and PAR (15.9%, and NR and NPAR (10.5%. The density of fish showed a strong correlation with the ARs, probably due to a higher perimeter-to-area ratio. Species richness and Shannon diversity index were correlated with NR, such as taxonomic distinctness was correlated to NPAR. Pielou's evenness index and taxonomic diversity were negatively correlated with PAR. Five threatened species (following IUCN, Epinephelus itajara, Epinephelus marginatus, Hyporthodus niveatus, Lutjanus cyanopterus and Lutjanus analis were recorded, which were noticeably more abundant in PAR, namely the former. The hereby data suggested the importance of the implementation of artificial reefs for conservation purposes, namely within MPAs.

  10. Fish assemblage of the Mamanguape Environmental Protection Area, NE Brazil: abundance, composition and microhabitat availability along the mangrove-reef gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josias Henrique de Amorim Xavier

    Full Text Available Reefs, mangroves and seagrass biotopes often occur in close association, forming a complex and highly productive ecosystem that provide significant ecologic and economic goods and services. Different anthropogenic disturbances are increasingly affecting these tropical coastal habitats leading to growing conservation concern. In this field-based study, we used a visual census technique (belt transects 50 m x 2 m to investigate the interactions between fishes and microhabitats at the Mamanguape Mangrove-Reef system, NE Brazil. Overall, 144 belt transects were performed from October 2007 to September 2008 to assess the structure of the fish assemblage. Fish trophic groups and life stage (juveniles and adults were recorded according to literature, the percent cover of the substrate was estimated using the point contact method. Our results revealed that fish composition gradually changed from the Estuarine to the Reef zone, and that fish assemblage was strongly related to the microhabitat availability, as suggested by the predominance of carnivores at the Estuarine zone and presence of herbivores at the Reef zone. Fish abundance and diversity were higher in the Reef zone and estuary margins, highlighting the importance of structural complexity. A pattern of nursery area utilization, with larger specimens at the Transition and Reef Zone and smaller individuals at the Estuarine zone, was recorded for Abudefduf saxatilis, Anisotremus surinamensis, Lutjanus alexandrei, and Lutjanus jocu. Our findings clearly suggests ecosystem connectivity between mangrove, seagrass and reef biotopes, and highlighted the importance of Mamanguape Mangrove-Reef System as a priority area for conservation and research, whose habitat mosaics should be further studied and protected.

  11. Avaliação da qualidade nutricional em espécies de pescado mais produzidas no Estado da Bahia Quality evaluate nutritional the fisches more consumed in State of Bahia - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciele de Queiroz Andrade

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversos fatores podem contribuir para a variabilidade na composição das diferentes espécies de pescado. Este trabalho teve como objetivo, identificar as espécies de pescado mais produzidas no Estado da Bahia, avaliar seu valor nutricional e realizar um levantamento das empresas beneficiadoras de pescado do Estado. Um questionário foi aplicado às beneficiadoras de pescado para a caracterização das empresas. Segundo a Bahia Pesca (2005, as espécies mais produzidas são: o camarão-rosa (Penaeus brasiliensis, representando 21,8% da produção estadual; a sardinha (Opisthonema oglinum, 10,2%; os vermelhos com as espécies guaiúba (Ocyurus chrysurus e o ariacó (Lutjanus synagris, 6,6%; seguidos pela tainha (Mugil spp., 4,1%. De acordo com o valor nutricional das espécies analisadas, a guaiúba foi considerada melhor para o consumo, por possuir menor teor de lipídios totais (0,82% e gordura saturada (28,74%. A produção de 43% das beneficiadoras de pescado do Estado da Bahia está entre 10 e 50 ton/mês e a principal dificuldade apresentada foi a falta de investimento do governo no setor.Several factors can contribute to the variability in the composition of the different species of fish. The objective of this work was to identify the most frequently consumed fish species in the State of Bahia to evaluate their nutritional value and to compile a list of fish processing companies in the State. A questionnaire was applied to the companies to characterize them. According to Bahia Pesca (2005, the most frequently consumed species are the shrimp-rose (Penaeus brasiliensis, accounting for 21.8% of the state production, the sardine (Opisthonema oglinum,10.2%, and the reds, especially guaiúba (Ocyurus chrysurus and ariacó (Lutjanus synagris, 6.6%, followed by the mullet (Mugil spp., 4.1%, respectively. Considering the nutritional value of the analyzed fish, the guaiúba was considered the best for consumption due to its smaller content of

  12. Kajian awal kadar merkuri (Hg dalam ikan dan kerang di Teluk Kao, Pulau Halmahera

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    Edward Edward

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of Hg  in some species of fish and mussels harvested from Kao Bay . Fish and mussels samples were purchased from fishermen at Kao Bay  in November 2015. The Hg concentration was measured by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS.The results showed that the highest concentration of Hg was found in gurara fish (Nemipterus japonicus  that is 0.98 ppm, followed by suo fish  (Sphyraena jello  0.89 ppm,  tatameri fish (Gazza minuta  0.38 ppm, gaca fish (Lutjanus argentimaculatus 0.31 ppm, totodi fish (Synodus foetens  0.24 ppm,  bubara fish (Caranx sp 0, 19 ppm, ngafi fish (Stolephorus indicus 0.19 ppm and biji nangka fish (Upeneus vittatus 0.15 ppm. In the shelfish meat, the highest concentration of Hg is found in the blood mussels (Anadara granosa, that is 0.42 ppm, and then followed by papaco (Telescopium telescopium 0.05 ppm. The concentration of Hg in all samples of fish and shelfish were below from the threshold value for seafood fish and shellfish of 0.5 ppm and 1.0 ppm, respectively. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kadar Hg dalam beberapa jenis ikan dan kerang yang ada di Teluk Kao dalam kaitannya dengan kesehatan makanan hasil laut. Contoh ikan dan kerang di beli dari nelayan di Teluk Kao pada bulan November 2015. Kadar Hg  diukur dengan menggunakan Spektrofotometer Serapan Atom (AAS. Hasilnya menunjukkan kadar Hg tertinggi dalam ikan dijumpai dalam daging ikan gurara (Nemipterus japonicus yakni 0,98 ppm, selanjutnya diikuti oleh ikan suo (Sphyraena jello 0,89 ppm, ikan tatameri (Gazza minuta 0,38 ppm, ikan gaca (Lutjanus argentimaculatus 0,31 ppm, ikan totodi (Synodus foetens 0,24 ppm, ikan bubara (Caranx sp 0,19 ppm, ikan ngafi (Stolephorus indicus  0,19 ppm, dan ikan biji nangka (Upeneus vittatus 0,15 ppm. Dalam daging kerang kadar Hg tertinggi dijumpai dalam kerang darah (Anadara granosa yakni 0,42 ppm selanjutnya dikuti oleh kerang papaco (Telescopium

  13. The role of cold cues at different life stages on germination and flowering phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Matthew J; Friedman, Jannice

    2018-04-23

    The timing of major phenological transitions is critical to lifetime fitness, and life history theory predicts differences for annual and perennial plants. To correctly time these transitions, many plants rely on environmental cues such as exposure to extended periods of cold, which may occur at different stages throughout their lifetime. We studied the role of cold at different life stages, by jointly exposing seed (stratification) and rosettes (vernalization) to cold. We used 23 populations of Mimulus guttatus, which vary from annuals to perennials, and investigated how cold at one or both stages affected germination, flowering, growth, and biomass. We found that stratification and vernalization interact to affect life cycle transitions, and that cold at either stage could synchronize flowering phenology. For perennials, either stratification or vernalization is necessary for maximum flowering. We also found that germination timing covaried with later traits. Moreover, plants from environments with dissimilar climates displayed different phenological responses to stratification or vernalization. In general, cold is more important for seed germination in annuals and plants from environments with warm temperatures and variable precipitation. In contrast, cold is more important for flowering in perennials: it accelerates flowering in plants from lower precipitation environments, and it increases flowering proportion in plants from cooler, more stable precipitation environments. We discuss our findings in the context of the variable environments plants experience within a population and the variation encountered across the biogeographic native range of the species. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  14. Detection of Cryptosporidium species in feces or gastric contents from snakes and lizards as determined by polymerase chain reaction analysis and partial sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Barbara; Nedorost, Nora; Maderner, Anton; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2011-05-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a well-known gastrointestinal disease of snakes and lizards. In the current study, 672 samples (feces and/or gastric contents or regurgitated food items) of various snakes and lizards were examined for the presence of cryptosporidia by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting a part of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. A consecutive sequencing reaction was used to identify the cryptosporidian species present in PCR-positive samples. Cryptosporidium varanii (saurophilum) was detected in 17 out of 106 (16%) samples from corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) and in 32 out of 462 (7%) samples from leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius). Cryptosporidium serpentis was found in 8 out of 462 (2%) leopard gecko samples, but in no other reptile. The Cryptosporidium sp. "lizard genotype" was present in 1 leopard gecko sample, and 1 sample from a corn snake showed a single nucleotide mismatch to this genotype. Pseudoparasitic cryptosporidian species were identified in 5 out of 174 (3%) ophidian samples, but not in lizards. Other sequences did not show complete similarity to previously published Cryptosporidium sequences. The results stress the importance for diagnostic methods to be specific for Cryptosporidium species especially in snakes and show a relatively high prevalence of C. varanii in leopard geckos and corn snakes. © 2011 The Author(s)

  15. Lunar phase-dependent expression of cryptochrome and a photoperiodic mechanism for lunar phase-recognition in a reef fish, goldlined spinefoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushiro, Masato; Takeuchi, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Yuki; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Sugama, Nozomi; Takemura, Akihiro; Kubo, Yoko; Okano, Keiko; Okano, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Lunar cycle-associated physiology has been found in a wide variety of organisms. Recent study has revealed that mRNA levels of Cryptochrome (Cry), one of the circadian clock genes, were significantly higher on a full moon night than on a new moon night in coral, implying the involvement of a photoreception system in the lunar-synchronized spawning. To better establish the generalities surrounding such a mechanism and explore the underlying molecular mechanism, we focused on the relationship between lunar phase, Cry gene expression, and the spawning behavior in a lunar-synchronized spawner, the goldlined spinefoot (Siganus guttatus), and we identified two kinds of Cry genes in this animal. Their mRNA levels showed lunar cycle-dependent expression in the medial part of the brain (mesencephalon and diencephalon) peaking at the first quarter moon. Since this lunar phase coincided with the reproductive phase of the goldlined spinefoot, Cry gene expression was considered a state variable in the lunar phase recognition system. Based on the expression profiles of SgCrys together with the moonlight's pattern of timing and duration during its nightly lunar cycle, we have further speculated on a model of lunar phase recognition for reproductive control in the goldlined spinefoot, which integrates both moonlight and circadian signals in a manner similar to photoperiodic response.

  16. Heavy metals contamination in fish and shrimp from coastal regions of karachi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    in the present study, the heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn) concentration was determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) in 5 species of fish and 3 species of shrimp commonly taken by locals at the coastal regions of Karachi, Pakistan Concentrations of Cd and Pb studied in tissues of Mushka (Otolithes ruber; 0.120 and 1.018 micro g/ wet weight) and palaemon longirostris shrimp (2.457 and 0.480 micro g/g wet weight) were found near to safe level for human consumption. Mullet, Tarli, Surmai, Dohtar fishes and Blacktiger shrimp were found contaminated by Cd and Pb but still within the limits fit for and human consumption. the distribution of trace metals detected in all fish and shrimp species followed the order of Zn >Pb> Fe>Cu> Cd and Cd> Fe > Zn> Cu>Ph, respectively. Metal concentration exhibited significant species variation and followed the order In fishes as otolithes ruber> Liza vaigiensis>sardinella albella>Scomberomorus guttatus>pomadasys olivaecum and in shrimp as palaemon longirostris>penaeus monodon> penaeus penicillatu. (author)

  17. Novel parvoviruses in reptiles and genome sequence of a lizard parvovirus shed light on Dependoparvovirus genus evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pénzes, Judit J; Pham, Hanh T; Benkö, Mária; Tijssen, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Here, we report the detection and partial genome characterization of two novel reptilian parvoviruses derived from a short-tailed pygmy chameleon (Rampholeon brevicaudatus) and a corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) along with the complete genome analysis of the first lizard parvovirus, obtained from four bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Both homology searches and phylogenetic tree reconstructions demonstrated that all are members of the genus Dependoparvovirus. Even though most dependoparvoviruses replicate efficiently only in co-infections with large DNA viruses, no such agents could be detected in one of the bearded dragon samples, hence the possibility of autonomous replication was explored. The alternative ORF encoding the full assembly activating protein (AAP), typical for the genus, could be obtained from reptilian parvoviruses for the first time, with a structure that appears to be more ancient than that of avian and mammalian parvoviruses. All three viruses were found to harbour short introns as previously observed for snake adeno-associated virus, shorter than that of any non-reptilian dependoparvovirus. According to the phylogenetic calculations based on full non-structural protein (Rep) and AAP sequences, the monophyletic cluster of reptilian parvoviruses seems to be the most basal out of all lineages of genus Dependoparvovirus. The suspected ability for autonomous replication, results of phylogenetic tree reconstruction, intron lengths and the structure of the AAP suggested that a single Squamata origin instead of the earlier assumed diapsid (common avian-reptilian) origin is more likely for the genus Dependoparvovirus of the family Parvoviridae.

  18. Activity evaluation from different native or irradiated with {sup 60} Co gamma rays snake venoms and their inhibitory effect on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis; Avaliacao da atividade de diferentes venenos de serpentes, nativos ou irradiados, com radiacao gama de {sup 60} Co, quanto ao poder inibitorio do crescimento de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenco, Cecilia de Oliveira

    2000-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease, caused by Leishmania parasites, that occurs frequently in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Skin lesions that could results in disfiguring aspect characterize it. The treatment is based on few drugs as antimony salts or pentamidine that are toxic with increasing resistance by the parasite. Alternative forms of disease treatment are in constant search, including natural components as snake venoms. Previous studies demonstrate that some components of snake venoms have an inhibitory effect against those parasites, including Leishmania species. Although snake venoms presented high toxicity, several methods have been described to detoxify most or some of their toxic components, with favorable results by the use of gamma irradiation. In this report we tested several native and irradiated snake venoms for inhibitory effect against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis parasite and LLCMK{sub 2} mammalian cells, with enzymatic tests and electrophoresis. There are significant activity in Acanthophis antarcticus, Agkistrodon bilineatus, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops jararaca, Hoplocephalus stephensi, Naja melanoleuca, Naja mossambica, Pseudechis australis, Pseudechis colletti, Pseudechis guttatus and Pseudechis porphyriacus, venom being inactive Pseudonaja textilis, Notechis ater niger, Notechis scutatus. Oxyuranus microlepidotus and Oxyuranus scutellatus venoms. After 2 KGy of {sup 60}Co irradiation most venom loses significantly their activity. Venoms with antileishmanial activity presented L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO) activity and showed common protein with a molecular weight about 60kDa in SDS-PAGE. These results indicate that L-AO activity in those venoms are probably related with antileishmanial effect. (author)

  19. Overtone-based pitch selection in hermit thrush song: unexpected convergence with scale construction in human music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Emily L; Gingras, Bruno; Endres, Dominik M; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2014-11-18

    Many human musical scales, including the diatonic major scale prevalent in Western music, are built partially or entirely from intervals (ratios between adjacent frequencies) corresponding to small-integer proportions drawn from the harmonic series. Scientists have long debated the extent to which principles of scale generation in human music are biologically or culturally determined. Data from animal "song" may provide new insights into this discussion. Here, by examining pitch relationships using both a simple linear regression model and a Bayesian generative model, we show that most songs of the hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) favor simple frequency ratios derived from the harmonic (or overtone) series. Furthermore, we show that this frequency selection results not from physical constraints governing peripheral production mechanisms but from active selection at a central level. These data provide the most rigorous empirical evidence to date of a bird song that makes use of the same mathematical principles that underlie Western and many non-Western musical scales, demonstrating surprising convergence between human and animal "song cultures." Although there is no evidence that the songs of most bird species follow the overtone series, our findings add to a small but growing body of research showing that a preference for small-integer frequency ratios is not unique to humans. These findings thus have important implications for current debates about the origins of human musical systems and may call for a reevaluation of existing theories of musical consonance based on specific human vocal characteristics.

  20. Activity evaluation from different native or irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays snake venoms and their inhibitory effect on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenco, Cecilia de Oliveira

    2000-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease, caused by Leishmania parasites, that occurs frequently in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Skin lesions that could results in disfiguring aspect characterize it. The treatment is based on few drugs as antimony salts or pentamidine that are toxic with increasing resistance by the parasite. Alternative forms of disease treatment are in constant search, including natural components as snake venoms. Previous studies demonstrate that some components of snake venoms have an inhibitory effect against those parasites, including Leishmania species. Although snake venoms presented high toxicity, several methods have been described to detoxify most or some of their toxic components, with favorable results by the use of gamma irradiation. In this report we tested several native and irradiated snake venoms for inhibitory effect against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis parasite and LLCMK 2 mammalian cells, with enzymatic tests and electrophoresis. There are significant activity in Acanthophis antarcticus, Agkistrodon bilineatus, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops jararaca, Hoplocephalus stephensi, Naja melanoleuca, Naja mossambica, Pseudechis australis, Pseudechis colletti, Pseudechis guttatus and Pseudechis porphyriacus, venom being inactive Pseudonaja textilis, Notechis ater niger, Notechis scutatus. Oxyuranus microlepidotus and Oxyuranus scutellatus venoms. After 2 KGy of 60 Co irradiation most venom loses significantly their activity. Venoms with antileishmanial activity presented L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO) activity and showed common protein with a molecular weight about 60kDa in SDS-PAGE. These results indicate that L-AO activity in those venoms are probably related with antileishmanial effect. (author)

  1. Hitchhiking to speciation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daven C Presgraves

    Full Text Available The modern evolutionary synthesis codified the idea that species exist as distinct entities because intrinsic reproductive barriers prevent them from merging together. Understanding the origin of species therefore requires understanding the evolution and genetics of reproductive barriers between species. In most cases, speciation is an accident that happens as different populations adapt to different environments and, incidentally, come to differ in ways that render them reproductively incompatible. As with other reproductive barriers, the evolution and genetics of interspecific hybrid sterility and lethality were once also thought to evolve as pleiotripic side effects of adaptation. Recent work on the molecular genetics of speciation has raised an altogether different possibility-the genes that cause hybrid sterility and lethality often come to differ between species not because of adaptation to the external ecological environment but because of internal evolutionary arms races between selfish genetic elements and the genes of the host genome. Arguably one of the best examples supporting a role of ecological adaptation comes from a population of yellow monkey flowers, Mimulus guttatus, in Copperopolis, California, which recently evolved tolerance to soil contaminants from copper mines and simultaneously, as an incidental by-product, hybrid lethality in crosses with some off-mine populations. However, in new work, Wright and colleagues show that hybrid lethality is not a pleiotropic consequence of copper tolerance. Rather, the genetic factor causing hybrid lethality is tightly linked to copper tolerance and spread to fixation in Copperopolis by genetic hitchhiking.

  2. The first description of oarfish Regalecus glesne (Regalecus russellii Cuvier 1816) ageing structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midway, S.R.; Wagner, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    Despite being a large, conspicuous teleost with a worldwide tropical and temperate distribution, the giant oarfish Regalecus spp. remain very rare fish species in terms of scientific sampling. Subsequently, very little biological information is known about Regalecus spp. and almost nothing has been concluded in the field of age and growth (Roberts, 2012). No studies of otoliths or temporal (annual) markings on any hard structures have been reported, and to our knowledge otoliths have never been recovered from any specimens (Tyson Roberts, personal communication),although a few texts do provide illustrations of Regalecus sp. otoliths (Lin and Chang, 2012; Nolf, 2013). Further inferential difficulty comes from the fact that age and growth studies of any Lampridiforme species are rare. Lampris guttatus is perhaps the only Lampridiforme species for which any biological information has been reported(Francis et al., 2004), which stems from the species commercial value. In order to begin understanding any species (for later purposes of management, conservation, etc.), basic biological information is needed. In the present study, we examine not only the first Regalecus russellii otolith, but provide suggestions toward future work that should direct data collection that can be used to generate basic biological information for this species.

  3. Transgenerational effects alter plant defence and resistance in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchio, J

    2017-04-01

    Trichomes, or leaf hairs, are epidermal extensions that take a variety of forms and perform many functions in plants, including herbivore defence. In this study, I document genetically determined variation, within-generation plasticity, and a direct role of trichomes in herbivore defence for Mimulus guttatus. After establishing the relationship between trichomes and herbivory, I test for transgenerational effects of wounding on trichome density and herbivore resistance. Patterns of interannual variation in herbivore density and the high cost of plant defence makes plant-herbivore interactions a system in which transgenerational phenotypic plasticity (TPP) is apt to evolve. Here, I demonstrate that parental damage alters offspring trichome density and herbivore resistance in nature. Moreover, this response varies between populations. This is among the first studies to demonstrate that TPP contributes to variation in nature, and also suggests that selection can modify TPP in response to local conditions. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. IMPACT OF CLIMATE ANOMALY ON CATCH COMPOSITION OF NERITIC TUNA IN SUNDA STRAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Amri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tongkol komo/kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis and tenggiri (Scomberomerus guttatus are commonly caught by mini purseiners operated in Sunda Straits and landed in Labuan, West Java. This species inhabits coastal water and has preference staying in relatively warm water. Oceanography parameters commonly influencing the distribution of Euthynnus affinis are temperature, current, and salinity. The oceanography of Sunda Strait is influenced by water masses coming from the north that mainly originated from the Java Sea and water masses from the south mainly originated from Indian Ocean. The internal oceanography of Sunda Strait is also influenced by upwelling and monsoon as regional climate anomaly (ENSO and Indian Ocean Dipole Mode. This paper describes the influence of Dipole Mode (positive and negative event and ENSO (El- Nino/La-Nina to the catch dynamics of neritic tuna particularly in Sunda Straits waters. The results shown that regional climate anomaly influenced neritic tuna catch and its composition. The catches Euthynnus affinis in phase negative dipole mode or La-Nina were higher and dominated the catch composition of pelagic fishes of Sunda Strait. Similar situation also is showen by Scomberomorus commerson.

  5. The Role and Mechanism of Erythrocyte Invasion by Francisella tularensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna M. Schmitt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is an extremely virulent bacterium that can be transmitted naturally by blood sucking arthropods. During mammalian infection, F. tularensis infects numerous types of host cells, including erythrocytes. As erythrocytes do not undergo phagocytosis or endocytosis, it remains unknown how F. tularensis invades these cells. Furthermore, the consequence of inhabiting the intracellular space of red blood cells (RBCs has not been determined. Here, we provide evidence indicating that residing within an erythrocyte enhances the ability of F. tularensis to colonize ticks following a blood meal. Erythrocyte residence protected F. tularensis from a low pH environment similar to that of gut cells of a feeding tick. Mechanistic studies revealed that the F. tularensis type VI secretion system (T6SS was required for erythrocyte invasion as mutation of mglA (a transcriptional regulator of T6SS genes, dotU, or iglC (two genes encoding T6SS machinery severely diminished bacterial entry into RBCs. Invasion was also inhibited upon treatment of erythrocytes with venom from the Blue-bellied black snake (Pseudechis guttatus, which aggregates spectrin in the cytoskeleton, but not inhibitors of actin polymerization and depolymerization. These data suggest that erythrocyte invasion by F. tularensis is dependent on spectrin utilization which is likely mediated by effectors delivered through the T6SS. Our results begin to elucidate the mechanism of a unique biological process facilitated by F. tularensis to invade erythrocytes, allowing for enhanced colonization of ticks.

  6. Morphology, development, and evolution of fetal membranes and placentation in squamate reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Daniel G; Flemming, Alexander F

    2009-09-15

    Current studies on fetal membranes of reptiles are providing insight into three major historical transformations: evolution of the amniote egg, evolution of viviparity, and evolution of placentotrophy. Squamates (lizards and snakes) are ideal for such studies because their fetal membranes sustain embryos in oviparous species and contribute to placentas in viviparous species. Ultrastructure of the fetal membranes in oviparous corn snakes (Pituophis guttatus) shows that the chorioallantois is specialized for gas exchange and the omphalopleure, for water absorption. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic studies of viviparous thamnophine snakes (Thamnophis, Storeria) have revealed morphological specializations for gas exchange and absorption in the intra-uterine environment that represent modifications of features found in oviparous species. Thus, fetal membranes in oviparous species show morphological differentiation for distinct functions that have been recruited and enhanced under viviparous conditions. The ultimate in specialization of fetal membranes is found in viviparous skinks of South America (Mabuya) and Africa (Trachylepis, Eumecia), in which placentotrophy accounts for nearly all of the nutrients for development. Ongoing research on these lizards has revealed morphological specializations of the chorioallantoic placenta through which nutrient transfer is accomplished. In addition, African Trachylepis show an invasive form of implantation, in which uterine epithelium is replaced by invading chorionic cells. Ongoing analysis of these lizards shows how integration of multiple lines of evidence can provide insight into the evolution of developmental and reproductive specializations once thought to be confined to eutherian mammals.

  7. When can stress facilitate divergence by altering time to flowering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Crispin Y; Ally, Dilara; Hodgins, Kathryn A

    2015-12-01

    Stressors and heterogeneity are ubiquitous features of natural environments, and theory suggests that when environmental qualities alter flowering schedules through phenotypic plasticity, assortative mating can result that promotes evolutionary divergence. Therefore, it is important to determine whether common ecological stressors induce similar changes in flowering time. We review previous studies to determine whether two important stressors, water restriction and herbivory, induce consistent flowering time responses among species; for example, how often do water restriction and herbivory both delay flowering? We focus on the direction of change in flowering time, which affects the potential for divergence in heterogeneous environments. We also tested whether these stressors influenced time to flowering and nonphenology traits using Mimulus guttatus. The literature review suggests that water restriction has variable effects on flowering time, whereas herbivory delays flowering with exceptional consistency. In the Mimulus experiment, low water and herbivory advanced and delayed flowering, respectively. Overall, our results temper theoretical predictions for evolutionary divergence due to habitat-induced changes in flowering time; in particular, we discuss how accounting for variation in the direction of change in flowering time can either increase or decrease the potential for divergence. In addition, we caution against adaptive interpretations of stress-induced phenology shifts.

  8. Paralogous SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) genes differentially regulate leaf initiation and reproductive phase change in petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jill C; Jorgensen, Stacy A; Orozco, Rebecca; Hileman, Lena C

    2016-02-01

    Duplicated petunia clade-VI SPL genes differentially promote the timing of inflorescence and flower development, and leaf initiation rate. The timing of plant reproduction relative to favorable environmental conditions is a critical component of plant fitness, and is often associated with variation in plant architecture and habit. Recent studies have shown that overexpression of the microRNA miR156 in distantly related annual species results in plants with perennial characteristics, including late flowering, weak apical dominance, and abundant leaf production. These phenotypes are largely mediated through the negative regulation of a subset of genes belonging to the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) family of transcription factors. In order to determine how and to what extent paralogous SPL genes have partitioned their roles in plant growth and development, we functionally characterized petunia clade-VI SPL genes under different environmental conditions. Our results demonstrate that PhSBP1and PhSBP2 differentially promote discrete stages of the reproductive transition, and that PhSBP1, and possibly PhCNR, accelerates leaf initiation rate. In contrast to the closest homologs in annual Arabidopsis thaliana and Mimulus guttatus, PhSBP1 and PhSBP2 transcription is not mediated by the gibberellic acid pathway, but is positively correlated with photoperiod and developmental age. The developmental functions of clade-VI SPL genes have, thus, evolved following both gene duplication and speciation within the core eudicots, likely through differential regulation and incomplete sub-functionalization.

  9. First occurrence of Argathona macronema (Bleeker, 1857) (Isopoda: Cirolanidae) on coral reef fishes along the Tuticorin coastal water, Gulf of Mannar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelladurai, Gurusamy; Mohanraj, Jayaraj; Jayanthi, Govinda Rajalu

    2017-03-01

    Isopod Parasites are considered as a major threat to the fishing industry, due to rigorous disease outbreaks. The parasites from the two economically important reef fish family Lutjanidae and Serranidae are analyzed i.e. Epinephelus malabaricus and Lutjanus rivulatus. The samples are obtained from the landings of Trawl net from Gulf of Mannar region of South east coast of India. They are severely infested by the isopod parasite Agrathona macronema in the Pectoral fins and ventral region of the body. This species is found to be the new record in the Gulf of Mannar region and deposited in the Marine laboratory of Kamaraj College. Length and weight of the host and parasites are measured. The parasites infested on 13 specimens of E. malabricus out of 8 and 17 out of 12 species of L. rivulatus . The prevalence of parasite on the grouper and snapper fish (61.53 and 70.58 %) and mean intensity (2.62 and 2.58 %) respectively. The prevalence was maximum in L. rivulatus and minimum in E. malbaricus may be to the host specificity. Further studies are needed to know the life cycle of the parasite, host preference, disease outbreak and its role in the coral reef ecosystem.

  10. Contrasting environmental drivers of adult and juvenile growth in a marine fish: implications for the effects of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Joyce Jia Lin; Rountrey, Adam Nicholas; Meeuwig, Jessica Jane; Newman, Stephen John; Zinke, Jens; Meekan, Mark Gregory

    2015-06-08

    Many marine fishes have life history strategies that involve ontogenetic changes in the use of coastal habitats. Such ontogenetic shifts may place these species at particular risk from climate change, because the successive environments they inhabit can differ in the type, frequency and severity of changes related to global warming. We used a dendrochronology approach to examine the physical and biological drivers of growth of adult and juvenile mangrove jack (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) from tropical north-western Australia. Juveniles of this species inhabit estuarine environments and adults reside on coastal reefs. The Niño-4 index, a measure of the status of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had the highest correlation with adult growth chronologies, with La Niña years (characterised by warmer temperatures and lower salinities) having positive impacts on growth. Atmospheric and oceanographic phenomena operating at ocean-basin scales seem to be important correlates of the processes driving growth in local coastal habitats. Conversely, terrestrial factors influencing precipitation and river runoff were positively correlated with the growth of juveniles in estuaries. Our results show that the impacts of climate change on these two life history stages are likely to be different, with implications for resilience and management of populations.

  11. Bioceramics synthesis of hydroxyapatite from red snapper fish scales biowaste using wet chemical precipitation route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfyana, D.; Anugroho, F.; Sumarlan, S. H.; Wibisono, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Fish scales biowaste contain high collagens and calcium phosphates, therefore have considerable potential as raw material for value-added biomaterial such as hydroxyapatite (HAp). HAp is the main constituent component of hard tissue such as bone and teeth in the human body and is known as bioceramic materials. In this work, wet chemical precipitation method was used to syntesize HAp from Red Snapper Fish (Lutjanus campechanus) Scales. Two variations of calcination temperatures of 600°C (FHAp1) and 800°C (FHAp2) were conducted for 5 hours. The results showed calcium content from biowaste of red snapper fish scale was 83.62%. FTIR result shows that PO4 3-, OH-, and CO3 2- functional groups presence as indicates the formation of HAp. XRD result showed the degree of crystallinity for FHAp1 and FHAp2 were 75.52% and 79.20%, respectively. The degree of crystallinity is in accordance with ISO 13779-2:2000 standard in which the minimum degree of crystallinity of hydroxyapatite used for biomedical materials is 45%. Finally, Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) results show that the particle size distribution is evenly distributed, with the size of micro-scale hydroxyapatite particles, ranging from 5.76 μm to 132.64 μm.

  12. Study of macro and microelements in fish from the Cienfuegos Bay. Relationship with its content in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Icart, M; Rodrigues Pereira-Filho, E; Lopes Fialho, L; Nóbrega, J A; Alonso-Hernández, C; Bolaños-Alvarez, Y; Muñoz-Caravaca, A; Pomares-Alfonso, M S

    2017-09-01

    Thirteen microelements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Ni, Ti, V, and Zn) and four macroelements (Ca, K, Mg, and Na) were determined in the edible muscle tissue of fish in Cienfuegos Bay. Eight species, Albula vulpes, Diapterus rhombeus, Gerres cinereus, Haemulon carbonarium, Haemulon sciurus, Micropogonias furnieri, Kyphosus sectatrix, and Lutjanus cyanopterus were studied. The total concentrations and extracted concentrations using HCl were also determined in sediments. The quality of the analysis was guaranteed by validating the used analytical methods with certified reference materials of fish and sediments. The high content of macroelements confirmed the importance of fish as a valuable source of food for the local population. New information is provided on bioaccumulation of toxic elements As, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Cr in fish of the bay, with concentrations that overcame the local or international maximum allowable levels for human consumption in most samples analyzed. A high correlation between the content of toxic elements As, Cd, Zn, and macroelement K in fish and its concentration extracted from sediments using the HCl extraction method was observed.

  13. Trace elements in muscle of three fish species from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana, Carolina Oliveira; de Jesus, Taíse Bomfim; de Aguiar, William Moura; de Jesus Sant'anna Franca-Rocha, Washington; Soares, Carlos Alberto Caroso

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an analysis was performed on the concentrations of the trace elements Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in muscle of two carnivorous and one planktivorous fish species collected at Todos os Santos Bay (BTS). The accumulation order of the trace elements in Lutjanus analis was Al >Zn >Fe >Cr >Ba >Ni. In Cetengraulis edentulus, the order was Al >Fe >Zn >Cr >Ni >Mn >As. In the species Diapterus rhombeus, the order was Al >Fe >Zn >Cr >Ni >Mn >Cd. To determine the risk related to the consumption of fish, toxicity guidelines were used as standard references. It was observed that the species C. edentulus contained concentrations of As exceeding WHO limits, but these concentrations were acceptable according to the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) guidelines. Cd levels were found only in D. rhombeus and in low concentrations according to the determinations of WHO and ANVISA. Pb levels were not detected in any of the three fish species. The analyzed elements did not differ statistically according to the species and feeding habits. The results point to possible risks of human contamination by As related to the consumption of the fish species C. edentulus from the BTS.

  14. Feeding ecology of juvenile marine fish in a shallow coastal lagoon of southeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Arceo-Carranza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many species of marine fish use coastal lagoons during early stages of their life cycles due to the protection provided by their turbid waters and complex structure of the environment, such as mangroves and mudflats, and the availability of food derived from the high productivity of these sites. In this study, we analyzed the diet of six species of juvenile marine fishes that use a karstic lagoon system in the northwest portion of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Through stomach contents analysis we determined the trophic differences among Caranx latus, Oligoplites saurus, Trachinotus falcatus, Synodus foetens, Lutjanus griseus, and Strongylura notata. C. latus, O. saurus, S. foetens, and S. notate, which are ichthyophagous species (>80% by number. L. griseus feeds mainly on crustaceans (>55% and fish (35%, while T. falcatus feeds on mollusks (>50% bivalves, >35% gastropods. The analysis of similarities (ANOSIM showed differences in the diet of all species. Cluster analysis, based on the Bray-Curtis similarity matrix revealed three groups; one characterized by the ichthyophagous guild (S. notata, S. foetens, C. latus, and O. saurus, other group formed by the crustacean consumers (L. griseus, and the third, composed by the mollusk feeder (T. falcatus. Species of the ichthyophagous guild showed overlap in their diets, which under conditions of low prey abundance may trigger competition, hence affecting juvenile stages of these marine species that use coastal lagoons to feed and grow.

  15. Comparing relative abundance, lengths, and habitat of temperate reef fishes using simultaneous underwater visual census, video, and trap sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Bacheler, NM

    2017-04-28

    Unbiased counts of individuals or species are often impossible given the prevalence of cryptic or mobile species. We used 77 simultaneous multi-gear deployments to make inferences about relative abundance, diversity, length composition, and habitat of the reef fish community along the southeastern US Atlantic coast. In total, 117 taxa were observed by underwater visual census (UVC), stationary video, and chevron fish traps, with more taxa being observed by UVC (100) than video (82) or traps (20). Frequency of occurrence of focal species was similar among all sampling approaches for tomtate Haemulon aurolineatum and black sea bass Centropristis striata, higher for UVC and video compared to traps for red snapper Lutjanus campechanus, vermilion snapper Rhomboplites aurorubens, and gray triggerfish Balistes capriscus, and higher for UVC compared to video or traps for gray snapper L. griseus and lionfish Pterois spp. For 6 of 7 focal species, correlations of relative abundance among gears were strongest between UVC and video, but there was substantial variability among species. The number of recorded species between UVC and video was correlated (ρ = 0.59), but relationships between traps and the other 2 methods were weaker. Lengths of fish visually estimated by UVC were similar to lengths of fish caught in traps, as were habitat characterizations from UVC and video. No gear provided a complete census for any species in our study, suggesting that analytical methods accounting for imperfect detection are necessary to make unbiased inferences about fish abundance.

  16. [First ciguatera outbreak in Germany in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann, Miriam

    2016-12-01

    In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year. Two of them reported further neuropathies over almost three years. This is the first time that long-term persistence of symptoms has been documented in detail. Outbreak cases were allocated to eight clusters in seven German cities. A further cluster was prevented by the successful recall of ciguatoxic fish. Three clusters were confirmed by the detection of ciguatoxin in samples of suspicious and recalled fish. An extrapolation on the basis of ciguatoxic samples revealed twenty prevented cases of ciguatera. Further officially unknown cases should be assumed. During the outbreak investigations, inadvertently falsely labelled fish species and fishing capture areas on import and retail level documents were observed. The ascertainment of cases and the outbreak investigations proved to be difficult due to inconsistent case reports to poisons centers, local health and veterinary authorities. In Germany, many physicians are unaware of the disease pattern of ciguatera and the risks caused by tropical fish. The occurrence of further outbreaks during the following years emphasizes the increasing significance of ciguatera in Germany.

  17. Determination of toxins involved in ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific by LC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogi, Kentaro; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Oshiro, Naomasa; Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Sugiyama, Kiminori; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most extensive and difficult to control of the seafood poisonings. To facilitate monitoring of fish toxicity, toxin profiles were investigated by an LC/MS/MS method using 14 reference toxins on eight representative species of fish collected in four different areas of the Pacific. Snappers and groupers from Okinawa contained ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B) and two deoxy congeners at variable but species-specific ratios, while red snapper, Lutjanus bohar, from Minamitorishima, and amberjack, Seriola dumerili, from Hawaii, contained both CTX1B-type and CTX3C-type toxins. Spotted knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus, from Okinawan waters, contained mainly CTX4A and CTX4B, but the same species caught at Miyazaki was contaminated primarily with the CTX3C-type toxins. Otherwise, the toxin profiles were consistently species-specific in fish collected from various locations around Okinawa over 20 years. The LC/MS/MS and mouse bioassay results agreed well, indicating the LC/MS/MS method is a promising alternative to the mouse bioassay. Pure CTX1B and CTX3C were prepared for use in future LC/MS/MS analysis.

  18. Two clusters of ciguatera fish poisoning in Paris, France, related to tropical fish imported from the French Caribbean by travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, Loïc; Pérignon, Alice; Hossen, Virginie; Vincent, Renaud; Krys, Sophie; Caumes, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a food-borne illness due to the consumption of reef fish containing pathogenic toxins. CFP is endemic to tropical areas and may be described in travelers in non-endemic areas. We describe two clusters of autochthonous cases of CFP in Paris, France. They were related to two fish caught in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) and consumed in Paris after being air-transported in a cooler. In both cases, fish flesh was analyzed and the presence of ciguatoxins by mouse bioassay (MBA) was confirmed. The first cluster involved eight individuals among whom five presented gastrointestinal symptoms and four presented neurological symptoms after consuming barracuda flesh (Sphyraena barracuda). The second cluster involved a couple who consumed a grey snapper (Lutjanus griseus). Most of them consulted at different emergency departments in the region of Paris. CFP may be seen in non-traveler patients outside endemic countries resulting from imported species of fish. Thus, CFP may be undiagnosed as physicians are not aware of this tropical disease outside endemic countries. The detection of ciguatoxins by MBA in the French National Reference Laboratory is useful in the confirmation of the diagnosis. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  19. Survey of ciguatera at Enewetak and Bikini, Marshall Islands, with notes on the systematics and food habits of ciguatoxic fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, J.E.

    1980-04-01

    A total of 551 specimens of 48 species of potentially ciguatoxic fishes from Enewetak and 256 specimens of 23 species from Bikini, Marshall Islands, were tested for ciguatoxin by feeding liver or liver and viscera from these fishes to mongooses at 10% body weight (except for sharks, when only muscle tissue was used). The fishes are representatives of the following families: Orectolobidae, Carcharhinidae, Dasyatidae, Muraenidae, Holocentridae, Sphyraenidae, Mugilidae, Serranidae, Lutjanidae, Lethrinidae, Carangidae, Scombridae, Labridae, Scaridae, Acanthuridae, and Balistidae. The species selected were all ones for which toxicity can be expected, including the worst offenders from reports of ciguatera throughout Oceania; only moderate to large-sized adults were tested. In all, 37.3% of the fishes from Enewetak and 19.7% from Bikini gave a positive reaction for ciguatoxin. Because liver and other viscera are more toxic than muscle, the percentage of positive reactions at the level which might cause illness in humans eating only the flesh of these fishes collectively would drop to 16.2 for Enewetak and 1.4 for Bikini. This level of toxicity is not regarded as high for Pacific islands, in general. Because ciguatoxin is acquired through feeding, the food habits of these fishes were investigated. Most of the highly toxic species, including seven of the eight causing severe illness or death in the test animals (Lycodontis javanicus, Cephalopholis argus, Epinephelus hoedtii, E. microdon, Plectropomus leopardus, Aprion virescens, and Lutjanus bohar) are primarily piscivorous.

  20. Fishing top predators indirectly affects condition and reproduction in a reef-fish community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, S M; Hamilton, S L; Ruttenberg, B I; Donovan, M K; Sandin, S A

    2012-03-01

    To examine the indirect effects of fishing on energy allocation in non-target prey species, condition and reproductive potential were measured for five representative species (two-spot red snapper Lutjanus bohar, arc-eye hawkfish Paracirrhites arcatus, blackbar devil Plectroglyphidodon dickii, bicolour chromis Chromis margaritifer and whitecheek surgeonfish Acanthurus nigricans) from three reef-fish communities with different levels of fishing and predator abundance in the northern Line Islands, central Pacific Ocean. Predator abundance differed by five to seven-fold among islands, and despite no clear differences in prey abundance, differences in prey condition and reproductive potential among islands were found. Body condition (mean body mass adjusted for length) was consistently lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the four prey species. Mean liver mass (adjusted for total body mass), an indicator of energy reserves, was also lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the prey species and the predator. Trends in reproductive potential were less clear. Mean gonad mass (adjusted for total body mass) was high where predator abundance was high for only one of the three species in which it was measured. Evidence of consistently low prey body condition and energy reserves in a diverse suite of species at reefs with high predator abundance suggests that fishing may indirectly affect non-target prey-fish populations through changes in predation and predation risk. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Bisphenol A and alkylphenols concentrations in selected mariculture fish species from Pulau Kukup, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nur Afifah Hanun; Wee, Sze Yee; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2018-02-01

    Endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) contamination in food is a global concern. Concerning potential environmental and human health exposed to EDCs via food intake, an experiment was conducted on the selected EDCs concentration in the mariculture fish, Trachinotus blochii (golden pomfret), Lutjanus campechanus (snapper), and Lates calcarifer (sea bass) at Pulau Kukup, Johor. Mariculture activity at Pulau Kukup involves active export of fishes to Singapore and Indonesia. The recovery of BPA (bisphenol A), 4OP (4-octylphenol), and 4NP (4-nonylphenol) were 61.54%-93.00%, 16.79%-17.13%, and 61.24%-71.49%, respectively. Relatively high concentration of BPA was recorded in T. blochii (0.322ng/g), followed by L. calcarifer (0.124ng/g) and L. campechanus (0.023ng/g). Furthermore, 4OP and 4NP were detected only in T. blochii at concentrations of 0.084ng/g and 0.078ng/g, respectively. The results of the present study provide insights on monitoring and managing mariculture activity in relation to environmental protection and food safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative phylogeography of reef fishes from the Gulf of Aden to the Arabian Sea reveals two cryptic lineages

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph; Gaither, Michelle R.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Saenz Agudelo, Pablo; Piatek, Marek J.; Bowen, Brian W.; Rocha, Luiz A.; Howard Choat, J.; McIlwain, Jennifer H.; Priest, Mark; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Berumen, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    The Arabian Sea is a heterogeneous region with high coral cover and warm stable conditions at the western end (Djibouti), in contrast to sparse coral cover, cooler temperatures, and upwelling at the eastern end (southern Oman). We tested for barriers to dispersal across this region (including the Gulf of Aden and Gulf of Oman), using mitochondrial DNA surveys of 11 reef fishes. Study species included seven taxa from six families with broad distributions across the Indo-Pacific and four species restricted to the Arabian Sea (and adjacent areas). Nine species showed no significant genetic partitions, indicating connectivity among contrasting environments spread across 2000 km. One butterflyfish (Chaetodon melannotus) and a snapper (Lutjanus kasmira) showed phylogenetic divergences of d = 0.008 and 0.048, respectively, possibly indicating cryptic species within these broadly distributed taxa. These genetic partitions at the western periphery of the Indo-Pacific reflect similar partitions recently discovered at the eastern periphery of the Indo-Pacific (the Hawaiian and the Marquesan Archipelagos), indicating that these disjunctive habitats at the ends of the range may serve as evolutionary incubators for coral reef organisms.

  3. Integrating multiple fish biomarkers and risk assessment as indicators of metal pollution along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Wael A; Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2014-12-01

    The marine environment of the Red Sea coast of Yemen Republic is subjected to increasing anthropogenic activities. The present field study assesses the impacts of metal pollutants on two common marine fish species; Pomadasys hasta and Lutjanus russellii collected from a reference site in comparison to two polluted sites along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic. Concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in fish vital organs, metal pollution index (MPI), indicative biochemical parameters of liver functions (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) and kidney functions (urea and creatinine) as well as histopathological changes in gills, liver and kidney of both fish species are integrated as biomarkers of metal pollution. These biomarkers showed species-specific and/or site-specific response. The hazard index (HI) was used as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption. The detected low HI values in most cases doesn't neglect the fact that the cumulative risk effects for metals together give an alarming sign and that the health of fish consumers is endangered around polluted sites. The levels of ALT, AST and urea in plasma of both fish species collected from the polluted sites showed significant increase in comparison to those of reference site. Histopathological alterations and evident damage were observed in tissues of fish collected from the polluted sites. The investigated set of biomarkers proved to be efficient and reliable in biomonitoring the pollution status along different pollution gradients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chromosomal stasis in distinct families of marine Percomorpharia from South Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paim, Fabilene Gomes; Almeida, Leandro Aragão da Hora; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Sobrinho-Scudeler, Patrícia Elda; Oliveira, Claudio; Diniz, Débora

    2017-01-01

    The weakness of physical barriers in the marine environment and the dispersal potential of fish populations have been invoked as explanations of the apparent karyotype stasis of marine Percomorpha, but several taxa remain poorly studied cytogenetically. To increase the chromosomal data in this fish group, we analyzed cytogenetically three widespread Atlantic species from distinct families: Chaetodipterus faber Broussonet, 1782 (Ephippidae), Lutjanus synagris Linnaeus, 1758 (Lutjanidae) and Rypticus randalli Courtenay, 1967 (Serranidae). The three species shared a karyotype composed of 2n=48 acrocentric chromosomes, single nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) and reduced amounts of centromeric heterochromatin. A single NOR-bearing pair was identified in all species by physical mapping of 18S rDNA while non-syntenic 5S rRNA genes were located at centromeric region of a single pair. The similar karyotypic macrostructure observed in unrelated groups of Percomorpharia reinforces the conservative karyoevolution of marine teleosteans. Nonetheless, the species could be differentiated based on the pair bearing ribosomal cistrons, revealing the importance of microstructural analyses in species with symmetric and stable karyotypes.

  5. Detailed LC-MS/MS analysis of ciguatoxins revealing distinct regional and species characteristics in fish and causative alga from the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogi, Kentaro; Oshiro, Naomasa; Inafuku, Yasuo; Hirama, Masahiro; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2011-12-01

    Toxin profiles of representative ciguatera species caught at different locations of Japan were investigated in fish flesh by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Identification and quantification of 16 toxins were facilitated by the use of 14 reference toxins prepared by either synthesis or isolation from natural sources and the previous LC-MS data thereof. Sodium adduct ions [M + Na](+) were used as parent and product ions. Distinct regional differences were unveiled: ciguatoxin-1B type toxins were found in snappers and groupers from Okinawa, ciguatoxin-3C type toxins were found in a spotted knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus, from Miyazaki located 730 km north of Okinawa, and both types of toxins were found in a red snapper, Lutjanus bohar, from Minamitorishima (Marcus) Island. Twelve toxins were identified in a dinoflagellate, Gambierdiscus toxicus, collected as the primary toxin source in French Polynesia. Occurrence of M-seco-toxins in fish and oxidized toxins in the dinoflagellate was confirmed for the first time. The present LC-MS/MS method is rapid, specific, and accurate. It not only outperforms the currently employed mouse bioassays but also enables the study of the toxin dynamics during the food chain transmission.

  6. Multiple ciguatoxins present in Indian Ocean reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brett; Hurbungs, Mira; Jones, Alun; Lewis, Richard J

    2002-09-01

    Optimised gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (LC/MS) methods, in combination with a [3H]-brevetoxin binding assay (RLB), revealed multiple ciguatoxins in a partially purified extract of a highly toxic Lutjanus sebae (red emperor) from the Indian Ocean. Two major ciguatoxins of 1140.6 Da (I-CTX-1 and -2) and two minor ciguatoxins of 1156.6 Da (I-CTX-3 and -4) were identified. Accurate mass analysis revealed that I-CTX-1 and -2 and Caribbean C-CTX-1 had indistinguishable masses (1140.6316 Da, at 0.44 ppm resolution). Toxicity estimated from LC/MS/RLB responses indicated that I-CTX-1 and -2 were both approximately 60% the potency of Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1). In contrast to ciguatoxins of the Pacific where the more oxidised ciguatoxins are more potent, I-CTX-3 and -4 were approximately 20% of P-CTX-1 potency. Interconversion in dilute acid or on storage, typical of spiroketal and hemiketal functionality found in P-CTXs and C-CTXs, respectively, was not observed to occur between I-CTX-1 and -2. The ratio of CTX-1 and -2 varied depending on the fish extract being analysed. These results suggest that I-CTX-1 and -2 may arise from separate dinoflagellate precursors that may be oxidatively biotransformed to I-CTX-3 and -4 in fish.

  7. Biooxidation of Ciguatoxins Leads to Species-Specific Toxin Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Kuniyoshi, Kyoko; Oshiro, Naomasa; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2017-06-29

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) contaminate fish worldwide and cause the foodborne illness ciguatera. In the Pacific, these toxins are produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus , which accumulates in fish through the food chain and undergoes oxidative modification, giving rise to numerous analogs. In this study, we examined the oxidation of CTXs in vitro with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis using reference toxins, and found that CTX4A, CTX4B, and CTX3C, which are produced by the alga, are oxidized to the analogs found in fish, namely CTX1B, 52- epi -54-deoxyCTX1B, 54-deoxyCTX1B, 2-hydroxyCTX3C, and 2,3-dihydroxyCTX3C. This oxidation was catalyzed by human CYP3A4, fish liver S9 fractions, and microsomal fractions prepared from representative ciguateric fishes ( Lutjanus bohar , L. monostigumus , and Oplegnathus punctatus ). In addition, fish liver S9 fractions prepared from non-ciguateric fishes ( L. gibbus and L. fulviflamma ) in Okinawa also converted CTX4A and CTX4B to CTX1B, 54-deoxyCTX1B, and 52- epi -54-deoxyCTX1B in vitro. This is the first study to demonstrate the enzymatic oxidation of these toxins, and provides insight into the mechanism underlying the development of species-specific toxin profiles and the fate of these toxins in humans and fish.

  8. Species identification of ciguatoxin-carrying grouper implicated in food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hong; Hwang, Ken-Lin; Lee, Ming-Ming; Lan, Chi-Hsun; Lin, Wen-Feng; Hwang, Deng-Fwu

    2009-11-01

    Food poisoning due to ingestion of an unknown red grouper occurred in southern Taiwan. To identify the species of toxic red grouper implicated in food poisoning, a 475-bp sequence of the cytochrome b gene from six species of fresh red grouper meat was amplified by using a pair of primers (L14735/H15149). This fragment could be amplified when fish meat was treated with different heating processes. After sequencing, it was found that no variation in sequences was detected among individuals within each species. The species of toxic red grouper meat implicated in food poisoning was judged to be Lutjanus bohar based on sequence analysis. In addition, restriction enzyme analysis with HaeIII rapidly distinguished these six species of red grouper and the two samples implicated in food poisoning. No toxicity of viscera in 18 specimens of six red grouper species was detected, but two food poisoning samples were found to be toxic. This study indicated that DNA sequence and restriction enzyme analysis are powerful methods for identifying potentially toxic red grouper species as L. bohar.

  9. Reproduction and community structure of fish from winter catch sites from industrial shrimp bycatch from the northeast and southeast Mexican Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de Jesus Tirado-Ibarra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp fishery is one of the most important fisheries in the world, although the low selectivity from trawling nets has led to the capture of a large number of non-target species. Shrimp-bycatch species include a large number of fish and invertebrate species, of which fish species are the most abundant. The present study aims to determine the community structure as well as the average sizes at first maturity of the fish species from shrimp-bycatch caught from industrial fisheries in the Mexican Pacific from Sinaloa to Guerrero, from January to March 2015. The shrimp-bycatch fish diversity value was found to be 2.22. A total of 37 species of finfish were found, of which five were considered rare. The fish species with the highest Importance Value Index (IVI levels were Pseudupeneus grandisquamis, Paralichthys woolmani, Lutjanus peru and Diapterus peruvianus. The average size at first maturity was calculated for all species. Of the analysed organisms, 90% were in the juvenile stage, including species with riverine and artisanal fisheries. The present study demonstrates the risk within marine populations to different non-target species due to the poor selectivity of shrimp trawls.

  10. Extent of mangrove nursery habitats determines the geographic distribution of a coral reef fish in a South-Pacific archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Paillon

    Full Text Available Understanding the drivers of species' geographic distribution has fundamental implications for the management of biodiversity. For coral reef fishes, mangroves have long been recognized as important nursery habitats sustaining biodiversity in the Western Atlantic but there is still debate about their role in the Indo-Pacific. Here, we combined LA-ICP-MS otolith microchemistry, underwater visual censuses (UVC and mangrove cartography to estimate the importance of mangroves for the Indo-Pacific coral reef fish Lutjanus fulviflamma in the archipelago of New Caledonia. Otolith elemental compositions allowed high discrimination of mangroves and reefs with 83.8% and 98.7% correct classification, respectively. Reefs were characterized by higher concentrations of Rb and Sr and mangroves by higher concentrations of Ba, Cr, Mn and Sn. All adult L. fulviflamma collected on reefs presented a mangrove signature during their juvenile stage with 85% inhabiting mangrove for their entire juvenile life (about 1 year. The analysis of 2942 UVC revealed that the species was absent from isolated islands of the New Caledonian archipelago where mangroves were absent. Furthermore, strong positive correlations existed between the abundance of L. fulviflamma and the area of mangrove (r = 0.84 for occurrence, 0.93 for density and 0.89 for biomass. These results indicate that mangrove forest is an obligatory juvenile habitat for L. fulviflamma in New Caledonia and emphasize the potential importance of mangroves for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes.

  11. Sublethal effects of catch-and-release fishing: measuring capture stress, fish impairment, and predation risk using a condition index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew D.; Patino, Reynaldo; Tolan, J.M.; Strauss, R.E.; Diamond, S.

    2009-01-01

    The sublethal effects of simulated capture of red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) were analysed using physiological responses, condition indexing, and performance variables. Simulated catch-and-release fishing included combinations of depth of capture and thermocline exposure reflective of environmental conditions experienced in the Gulf of Mexico. Frequency of occurrence of barotrauma and lack of reflex response exhibited considerable individual variation. When combined into a single condition or impairment index, individual variation was reduced, and impairment showed significant increases as depth increased and with the addition of thermocline exposure. Performance variables, such as burst swimming speed (BSS) and simulated predator approach distance (AD), were also significantly different by depth. BSSs and predator ADs decreased with increasing depth, were lowest immediately after release, and were affected for up to 15 min, with longer recovery times required as depth increased. The impairment score developed was positively correlated with cortisol concentration and negatively correlated with both BSS and simulated predator AD. The impairment index proved to be an efficient method to estimate the overall impairment of red snapper in the laboratory simulations of capture and shows promise for use in field conditions, to estimate release mortality and vulnerability to predation.

  12. Inter-habitat variation in density and size composition of reef fishes from the Cuban Northwestern shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Consuelo; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Cabrera, Yureidy; Ruiz, Alexei; Curry, R Allen

    2014-06-01

    Movement and exchange of individuals among habitats is critical for the dynamics and success of reef fish populations. Size segregation among habitats could be taken as evidence for habitat connectivity, and this would be a first step to formulate hypotheses about ontogenetic inter-habitat migrations. The primary goal of our research was to find evidence of inter-habitat differences in size distributions and density of reef fish species that can be classified a priori as habitat-shifters in an extensive (-600km2) Caribbean shelf area in NW Cuba. We sampled the fish assemblage of selected species using visual census (stationary and transect methods) in 20 stations (sites) located in mangrove roots, patch reefs, inner zone of the crest and fore reef (12-16m depth). In each site, we performed ten censuses for every habitat type in June and September 2009. A total of 11 507 individuals of 34 species were counted in a total of 400 censuses. We found significant differences in densities and size compositions among reef and mangrove habitats, supporting the species-specific use of coastal habitats. Adults were found in all habitats. Reef habitats, mainly patch reefs, seem to be most important for juvenile fish of most species. Mangroves were especially important for two species of snappers (Lutjanus apodus and L. griseus), providing habitat for juveniles. These species also displayed well defined gradients in length composition across the shelf.

  13. A multi-year study of hepatic biomarkers in coastal fishes from the Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltz, Marci; Rowland-Faux, Laura; Ghiran, Céline; Patterson, William F; Garner, Steven B; Beers, Alan; Mièvre, Quentin; Kane, Andrew S; James, Margaret O

    2017-08-01

    Following the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill, concerns were raised regarding exposure of fish to crude oil components, particularly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This three year study examined hepatic enzymes in post-mitochondrial supernatant fractions from red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and gray triggerfish (Balistes capriscus) collected in the north central Gulf of Mexico between 2011 and 2014. Biomarker activities evaluated included benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase (AHH), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Mean EROD activity was higher in gray triggerfish (12.97 ± 7.15 pmol/min/mg protein [mean ± SD], n = 115) than red snapper (2.75 ± 1.92 pmol/min/mg protein, n = 194), p < 0.0001. In both species, EROD declined over time between 2011 and 2014. Declines in GST and GPx activities were also noted over this time period for both species. Gray triggerfish liver was fatty, and heptane extracts of the liver fat contained fluorescent substances with properties similar to known PAHs, however the origin of these PAHs is unknown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antibiotics in typical marine aquaculture farms surrounding Hailing Island, South China: Occurrence, bioaccumulation and human dietary exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Shan; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Sun, Kai-Feng; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thirty-seven antibiotics were systematically investigated in typical marine aquaculture farms. • Enrofloxacin was widely detected in the feed samples (16.6–31.8 ng/g). • ETM-H 2 O in the adult shrimp samples may pose a potential risk to human safety. • TMP was bioaccumulative in fish muscles. • Antibiotics were weakly bioaccumulated in mollusks. - Abstract: The occurrence, bioaccumulation, and human dietary exposure via seafood consumption of 37 antibiotics in six typical marine aquaculture farms surrounding Hailing Island, South China were investigated in this study. Sulfamethoxazole, salinomycin and trimethoprim were widely detected in the water samples (0.4–36.9 ng/L), while oxytetracycline was the predominant antibiotic in the water samples of shrimp larvae pond. Enrofloxacin was widely detected in the feed samples (16.6–31.8 ng/g) and erythromycin–H 2 O was the most frequently detected antibiotic in the sediment samples (0.8–4.8 ng/g). Erythromycin–H 2 O was the dominant antibiotic in the adult Fenneropenaeus penicillatus with concentrations ranging from 2498 to 15,090 ng/g. In addition, trimethoprim was found to be bioaccumulative in young Lutjanus russelli with a median bioaccumulation factor of 6488 L/kg. Based on daily intake estimation, the erythromycin–H 2 O in adult F. penicillatus presented a potential risk to human safety

  15. Cadmium, Copper, Lead, and Zinc Contents of Fish Marketed in NW Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín G. Frías-Espericueta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess if they were within the safety limits for human consumption, the Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn contents of fish muscles, bought from separate stalls of the fish markets of nine cities of NW Mexico, were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Considering all fish and markets, the mean contents were Zn: 23.23±5.83, Cu: 1.72±0.63, Cd: 0.27 ± 0.07, and Pb: 0.09 ± 0.04 µg/g (dry weight. Cu, Zn, and Pb did not reach levels of concern for human consumption, but the high Cd values determined in Mazatlán (Mugil cephalus: 0.48±0.15; Diapterus spp.: 0.57±0.33; Lutjanus spp.: 0.72±0.12; small shark: 0.87±0.19 µg/g dry weight indicate that this was the only metal of concern for human health because the daily individual consumption of fish muscle to reach the PTDI would be within 0.27 and 0.41 kg.

  16. Larval export from marine reserves and the recruitment benefit for fish and fisheries

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.; Williamson, David H.; Evans, Richard D.; Almany, Glenn R.; Thorrold, Simon R.; Russ, Garry Ronald; Feldheim, Kevin Andrew; Van Herwerden, Lynne Van; Planes, Serge; Srinivasan, Maya; Berumen, Michael L.; Jones, Geoffrey P.

    2012-01-01

    Marine reserves, areas closed to all forms of fishing, continue to be advocated and implemented to supplement fisheries and conserve populations [1-4]. However, although the reproductive potential of important fishery species can dramatically increase inside reserves [5-8], the extent to which larval offspring are exported and the relative contribution of reserves to recruitment in fished and protected populations are unknown [4, 9-11]. Using genetic parentage analyses, we resolve patterns of larval dispersal for two species of exploited coral reef fish within a network of marine reserves on the Great Barrier Reef. In a 1,000 km 2 study area, populations resident in three reserves exported 83% (coral trout, Plectropomus maculatus) and 55% (stripey snapper, Lutjanus carponotatus) of assigned offspring to fished reefs, with the remainder having recruited to natal reserves or other reserves in the region. We estimate that reserves, which account for just 28% of the local reef area, produced approximately half of all juvenile recruitment to both reserve and fished reefs within 30 km. Our results provide compelling evidence that adequately protected reserve networks can make a significant contribution to the replenishment of populations on both reserve and fished reefs at a scale that benefits local stakeholders. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Statistical power to detect change in a mangrove shoreline fish community adjacent to a nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, T E; Lynch, P D; Karazsia, J L; Serafy, J E

    2016-03-01

    An expansion is underway of a nuclear power plant on the shoreline of Biscayne Bay, Florida, USA. While the precise effects of its construction and operation are unknown, impacts on surrounding marine habitats and biota are considered by experts to be likely. The objective of the present study was to determine the adequacy of an ongoing monitoring survey of fish communities associated with mangrove habitats directly adjacent to the power plant to detect fish community changes, should they occur, at three spatial scales. Using seasonally resolved data recorded during 532 fish surveys over an 8-year period, power analyses were performed for four mangrove fish metrics (fish diversity, fish density, and the occurrence of two ecologically important fish species: gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus) and goldspotted killifish (Floridichthys carpio). Results indicated that the monitoring program at current sampling intensity allows for detection of <33% changes in fish density and diversity metrics in both the wet and the dry season in the two larger study areas. Sampling effort was found to be insufficient in either season to detect changes at this level (<33%) in species-specific occurrence metrics for the two fish species examined. The option of supplementing ongoing, biological monitoring programs for improved, focused change detection deserves consideration from both ecological and cost-benefit perspectives.

  18. A new method to reconstruct fish diet and movement patterns from δ 13 C values in otolith amino acids

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton W.

    2011-08-01

    Fish ecologists have used geochemical values in otoliths to examine habitat use, migration, and population connectivity for decades. However, it remains difficult to determine an unambiguous dietary δ 13C signature from bulk analysis of otolith. Studies to date have focused on the aragonite component of otoliths with less attention paid to the organic fraction. We describe the application of compound-specific stable isotope analysis (SIA) to analyze amino acid (AA) δ 13C values from small amounts (<1 mg) of otolith powder. We examined δ 13C values of otolith and muscle AAs from a reef-associated snapper (Lutjanus ehrenbergii (Peters, 1869)) collected along a carbon isotope gradient (isoscape) from seagrass beds to coral reefs. Carbon isotope values in otolith and muscle samples were highly correlated within and among coastal habitats. Moreover, δ 13C values of otolith AAs provided a purely dietary record that avoided dilution from dissolved inorganic carbon. Otolith AAs served as a robust tracer of δ 13C values at the base of the food web, making compound-specific SIA a powerful tool for dietary reconstructions and tracking the movement of fishes across isoscapes.

  19. A new method to reconstruct fish diet and movement patterns from δ 13 C values in otolith amino acids

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton W.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Johnson, Beverly J.; Houghton, Leah A.; Thorrold, Simon R.; Gillanders, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Fish ecologists have used geochemical values in otoliths to examine habitat use, migration, and population connectivity for decades. However, it remains difficult to determine an unambiguous dietary δ 13C signature from bulk analysis of otolith. Studies to date have focused on the aragonite component of otoliths with less attention paid to the organic fraction. We describe the application of compound-specific stable isotope analysis (SIA) to analyze amino acid (AA) δ 13C values from small amounts (<1 mg) of otolith powder. We examined δ 13C values of otolith and muscle AAs from a reef-associated snapper (Lutjanus ehrenbergii (Peters, 1869)) collected along a carbon isotope gradient (isoscape) from seagrass beds to coral reefs. Carbon isotope values in otolith and muscle samples were highly correlated within and among coastal habitats. Moreover, δ 13C values of otolith AAs provided a purely dietary record that avoided dilution from dissolved inorganic carbon. Otolith AAs served as a robust tracer of δ 13C values at the base of the food web, making compound-specific SIA a powerful tool for dietary reconstructions and tracking the movement of fishes across isoscapes.

  20. Predator effects on reef fish settlement depend on predator origin and recruit density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkwitt, Cassandra E

    2017-04-01

    During major life-history transitions, animals often experience high mortality rates due to predation, making predator avoidance particularly advantageous during these times. There is mixed evidence from a limited number of studies, however, regarding how predator presence influences settlement of coral-reef fishes and it is unknown how other potentially mediating factors, including predator origin (native vs. nonnative) or interactions among conspecific recruits, mediate the non-consumptive effects of predators on reef fish settlement. During a field experiment in the Caribbean, approximately 52% fewer mahogany snapper (Lutjanus mahogoni) recruited to reefs with a native predator (graysby grouper, Cephalopholis cruentata) than to predator-free control reefs and reefs with an invasive predator (red lionfish, Pterois volitans) regardless of predator diet. These results suggest that snapper recruits do not recognize nonnative lionfish as a threat. However, these effects depended on the density of conspecific recruits, with evidence that competition may limit the response of snapper to even native predators at the highest recruit densities. In contrast, there was no effect of predator presence or conspecific density on the recruitment of bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus). These context-dependent responses of coral-reef fishes to predators during settlement may influence individual survival and shape subsequent population and community dynamics. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  1. Larval export from marine reserves and the recruitment benefit for fish and fisheries

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.

    2012-06-01

    Marine reserves, areas closed to all forms of fishing, continue to be advocated and implemented to supplement fisheries and conserve populations [1-4]. However, although the reproductive potential of important fishery species can dramatically increase inside reserves [5-8], the extent to which larval offspring are exported and the relative contribution of reserves to recruitment in fished and protected populations are unknown [4, 9-11]. Using genetic parentage analyses, we resolve patterns of larval dispersal for two species of exploited coral reef fish within a network of marine reserves on the Great Barrier Reef. In a 1,000 km 2 study area, populations resident in three reserves exported 83% (coral trout, Plectropomus maculatus) and 55% (stripey snapper, Lutjanus carponotatus) of assigned offspring to fished reefs, with the remainder having recruited to natal reserves or other reserves in the region. We estimate that reserves, which account for just 28% of the local reef area, produced approximately half of all juvenile recruitment to both reserve and fished reefs within 30 km. Our results provide compelling evidence that adequately protected reserve networks can make a significant contribution to the replenishment of populations on both reserve and fished reefs at a scale that benefits local stakeholders. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Comparative phylogeography of reef fishes from the Gulf of Aden to the Arabian Sea reveals two cryptic lineages

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    The Arabian Sea is a heterogeneous region with high coral cover and warm stable conditions at the western end (Djibouti), in contrast to sparse coral cover, cooler temperatures, and upwelling at the eastern end (southern Oman). We tested for barriers to dispersal across this region (including the Gulf of Aden and Gulf of Oman), using mitochondrial DNA surveys of 11 reef fishes. Study species included seven taxa from six families with broad distributions across the Indo-Pacific and four species restricted to the Arabian Sea (and adjacent areas). Nine species showed no significant genetic partitions, indicating connectivity among contrasting environments spread across 2000 km. One butterflyfish (Chaetodon melannotus) and a snapper (Lutjanus kasmira) showed phylogenetic divergences of d = 0.008 and 0.048, respectively, possibly indicating cryptic species within these broadly distributed taxa. These genetic partitions at the western periphery of the Indo-Pacific reflect similar partitions recently discovered at the eastern periphery of the Indo-Pacific (the Hawaiian and the Marquesan Archipelagos), indicating that these disjunctive habitats at the ends of the range may serve as evolutionary incubators for coral reef organisms.

  3. Uptake, absorption efficiency and elimination of DDT in marine phytoplankton, copepods and fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinhong; Wang Wenxiong

    2005-01-01

    Uptake, absorption efficiency and elimination of DDT were measured in marine phytoplankton, copepods (Acartia erythraea) and fish (mangrove snappers Lutjanus argentimaculatus). The uptake rate constant of DDT from water decreased with increasing trophic level. The dietary absorption efficiency (AE) of DDT was 10-29% in copepods and 72-99% in fish. Food concentration did not significantly affect the AEs of DDT, but the AEs varied considerably among the different food diets. The elimination rate constants of DDT by the copepods were comparable following uptake from the diet and from the water. Elimination of DDT from the fish was exceedingly low. Both aqueous and dietary uptake are equally important for DDT accumulation in the copepods. In fish, dissolved exposure is a more significant route than intake from the diet. The predicted trophic transfer factors in the copepods and the fish are consistent with the field measurements in marine zooplankton and fish. -Biomagnification and exposure of DDT in a marine food chain is demonstrated by measurements of uptake and elimination rates and kinetic modeling

  4. FLUKTUASI DAN KOMPOSISI HASIL TANGKAPAN TUNA NERITIK TERTANGKAP JARING INSANG DI PERAIRAN LAUT CINA SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Wujdi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini tuna neritik merupakan komoditas penting perikanan di Indonesia, namun ketersediaan data dan informasi hasil tangkapan jenis tuna ini masih tergolong kurang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh informasi mengenai sebaran daerah penangkapan, fluktuasi hasil tangkapan tuna neritik yang tertangkap jaring insang yang beroperasi di Laut Cina Selatan. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui program enumerasi monitoring hasil tangkapan harian di Pemangkat pada tahun 2011-2012. Hasil menunjukkan daerah penangkapan tersebar di perairan Laut Cina Selatan pada koordinat 01°03’ LS-04°57’ LU; dan 104°65’-110°00’ BT. Hasil tangkapan jenis tuna neritik menunjukan variasi yang cenderung sama dimana puncak hasil tangkapan terjadi pada bulan Oktober dan November. Pola CPUE berfluktuasi dan cenderung mengalami peningkatan dan puncaknya terjadi pada bulan November 2011 dan 2012, yaitu 402,85 dan 444,57 kg/hari/trip. Secara statistik hasil tangkapan pada periode 2011-2012 tidak berbeda nyata (p<0,05. Komposisi hasil tangkapan bulanan jenis tuna neritik bervariasi berdasarkan atas spesies yang didominasi oleh Euthynnus affinis (49,7% diikuti dengan Thunnus tonggol (33,4%; Scomberomorus commerson (15,9%; dan Scomberomorus guttatus (1%. Kelimpahan Euthynnus affinis terjadi pada musim timur hingga musim peralihan 2 (Juni- November, sedangkan kelimpahan Thunnus tonggol terjadi pada musim barat (Januari-Februari. Nowadays, neritic tuna just become an important commodity Indonesia. However, the information about catch of tuna neritic species in Indonesia still quite lacks. This This study aims to obtain information about catch fluctuation, monthly catch per unit of effort, and catch composition of neritic tuna species caught by gill net operated in the South China Sea. Data was collected by daily catch monitoring program by enumerator in Pemangkat during period 2011-2012. The result showed that gillnetter fishing ground is scattered between 01°03

  5. The king of snakes: performance and morphology of intraguild predators (Lampropeltis) and their prey (Pantherophis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, David A; Moon, Brad R

    2017-03-15

    Across ecosystems and trophic levels, predators are usually larger than their prey, and when trophic morphology converges, predators typically avoid predation on intraguild competitors unless the prey is notably smaller in size. However, a currently unexplained exception occurs in kingsnakes in the genus Lampropeltis Kingsnakes are able to capture, constrict and consume other snakes that are not only larger than themselves but that are also powerful constrictors (such as ratsnakes in the genus Pantherophis ). Their mechanisms of success as intraguild predators on other constrictors remain unknown. To begin addressing these mechanisms, we studied the scaling of muscle cross-sectional area, pulling force and constriction pressure across the ontogeny of six species of snakes ( Lampropeltis californiae , L. getula , L. holbrooki , Pantherophis alleghaniensis , P. guttatus and P. obsoletus ). Muscle cross-sectional area is an indicator of potential force production, pulling force is an indicator of escape performance, and constriction pressure is a measure of prey-handling performance. Muscle cross-sectional area scaled similarly for all snakes, and there was no significant difference in maximum pulling force among species. However, kingsnakes exerted significantly higher pressures on their prey than ratsnakes. The similar escape performance among species indicates that kingsnakes win in predatory encounters because of their superior constriction performance, not because ratsnakes have inferior escape performance. The superior constriction performance by kingsnakes results from their consistent and distinctive coil posture and perhaps from additional aspects of muscle structure and function that need to be tested in future research. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Development of the hearts of lizards and snakes and perspectives to cardiac evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarke Jensen

    Full Text Available Birds and mammals both developed high performance hearts from a heart that must have been reptile-like and the hearts of extant reptiles have an unmatched variability in design. Yet, studies on cardiac development in reptiles are largely old and further studies are much needed as reptiles are starting to become used in molecular studies. We studied the growth of cardiac compartments and changes in morphology principally in the model organism corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus, but also in the genotyped anole (Anolis carolinenis and A. sagrei and the Philippine sailfin lizard (Hydrosaurus pustulatus. Structures and chambers of the formed heart were traced back in development and annotated in interactive 3D pdfs. In the corn snake, we found that the ventricle and atria grow exponentially, whereas the myocardial volumes of the atrioventricular canal and the muscular outflow tract are stable. Ventricular development occurs, as in other amniotes, by an early growth at the outer curvature and later, and in parallel, by incorporation of the muscular outflow tract. With the exception of the late completion of the atrial septum, the adult design of the squamate heart is essentially reached halfway through development. This design strongly resembles the developing hearts of human, mouse and chicken around the time of initial ventricular septation. Subsequent to this stage, and in contrast to the squamates, hearts of endothermic vertebrates completely septate their ventricles, develop an insulating atrioventricular plane, shift and expand their atrioventricular canal toward the right and incorporate the systemic and pulmonary venous myocardium into the atria.

  7. Impacts of moonlight on fish reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Taro; Takeuchi, Yuki; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Takemura, Akihiro

    2014-04-01

    The waxing and waning cycle of the moon is repeated at approximately 1-month intervals, and concomitant changes occur in the levels of moonlight and cueing signals detected by organisms on the earth. In the goldlined spinefoot Siganus guttatus, a spawner lunar-synchronized around the first quarter moon, periodic changes in moonlight are used to cue gonadal development and gamete release. Rearing of mature fish under artificial constant full moon and new moon conditions during the spawning season leads to disruption or delay of synchronous spawning around the predicted moon phase. Melatonin, an endogenous transducer of the environmental light/dark cycle, increases in the blood and in the pineal gland around the new moon period and decreases around the full moon period. In synchrony with melatonin fluctuation, melatonin receptor(s) mRNA abundance is higher during the new moon period than during the full moon. The melatonin/melatonin receptor system is likely affected by moonlight. Measurements of the expression patterns of clock genes in neural tissues demonstrate that Cryptochrome (Cry1 and Cry3) and Period (Per2) fluctuate with lunar periodicity, the former peaking in the medial part of the brain around the first quarter moon period, and the latter peaking in the pineal gland around the full moon. Some clock genes may respond to periodic changes in moon phase and appear to be involved in the generation of lunar-related rhythmicity in lunar spawners. Thus, some fish use moonlight-related periodicities as reliable information for synchronizing the timing of reproductive events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Novel Pattern of Yolk Processing in Developing Snake Eggs (Colubridae: Lampropeltini) and its Functional and Evolutionary Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kathryn G; Blackburn, Daniel G

    2017-07-01

    Early amniotic vertebrates evolved large-yolked eggs that permitted production of well-developed, terrestrial hatchlings. This reproductive pattern required new mechanisms for cellularizing the yolk and mobilizing it for embryonic use. In birds, cells that line the yolk sac cavity phagocytose and digest the yolk material, a pattern that is commonly assumed to be universal among oviparous amniotes. However, recent evidence challenges the assumption that all squamate reptiles conform to the avian developmental pattern. In this paper, scanning electron microscopy and histology were used to study mechanisms of yolk processing in two colubrid snakes, the kingsnake Lampropeltis getula and the milksnake L. triangulum. Endodermal cells from the yolk sac splanchnopleure proliferate massively as they invade the yolk sac cavity, forming elaborate chains of interlinked cells. These cells grow in size as they phagocytose yolk material. Subsequently, vitelline capillaries invade the masses of yolk-laden cells and become coated with the endodermal cells, forming an elaborate meshwork of cell-coated strands. The close association of cells, yolk, and blood vessels allows yolk material to be cellularized, digested, and transported for embryonic use. The overall pattern is like that of the corn snake Pantherophis guttatus, but contrasts markedly with that of birds. Given recent evidence that this developmental pattern may also occur in certain lizards, we postulate that it is ancestral for squamates. Studies of lizards, crocodilians, and turtles are needed to clarify the evolutionary history of this pattern and its implications for the evolution of the amniotic (terrestrial) vertebrate egg. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Spatio-temporal segregation of calling behavior at a multispecies fish spawning site in Little Cayman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, K. C.; Sirovic, A.; Jaffe, J. S.; Semmens, B.; Pattengill-Semmens, C.; Gibb, J.

    2016-02-01

    Fish spawning aggregation (FSA) sites are extremely vulnerable to over-exploitation. Accurate understanding of the spatial and temporal use of such sites is necessary for effective species management. The size of FSAs can be on the order of kilometers and peak spawning often occurs at night, posing challenges to visual observation. Passive acoustics are an alternative method for dealing with these challenges. An array of passive acoustic recorders and GoPro cameras were deployed during Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus) spawning from February 7th to 12th, 2015 at a multispecies spawning aggregation site in Little Cayman, Cayman Islands. In addition to Nassau grouper, at least 10 other species are known to spawn at this location including tiger grouper (Mycteroperca tigris), red hind (Epinephelus guttatus), black grouper (Mycteroperca bonaci), and yellowfin grouper (Mycteroperca venenosa). During 5 days of continuous recordings, over 21,000 fish calls were detected. These calls were classified into 15 common types. Species identification and behavioral context of unknown common call types were determined by coupling video recordings collected during this time with call localizations. There are distinct temporal patterns in call production of different species. For example, red hind and yellowfin grouper call predominately at night with yellowfin call rates increasing after midnight, and black grouper call primarily during dusk and dawn. In addition, localization methods were used to reveal how the FSA area was divided among species. These findings facilitate a better understanding of the behavior of these important reef fish species allowing policymakers to more effectively manage and protect them.

  10. Experimental infection of snakes with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola causes pathological changes that typify snake fungal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Lankton, Julia S.; Werner, Katrien; Falendysz, Elizabeth A.; McCurley, Kevin; Blehert, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging skin infection of wild snakes in eastern North America. The fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola is frequently associated with the skin lesions that are characteristic of SFD, but a causal relationship between the fungus and the disease has not been established. We experimentally infected captive-bred corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) in the laboratory with pure cultures of O. ophiodiicola. All snakes in the infected group (n = 8) developed gross and microscopic lesions identical to those observed in wild snakes with SFD; snakes in the control group (n = 7) did not develop skin infections. Furthermore, the same strain of O. ophiodiicola used to inoculate snakes was recovered from lesions of all animals in the infected group, but no fungi were isolated from individuals in the control group. Monitoring progression of lesions throughout the experiment captured a range of presentations of SFD that have been described in wild snakes. The host response to the infection included marked recruitment of granulocytes to sites of fungal invasion, increased frequency of molting, and abnormal behaviors, such as anorexia and resting in conspicuous areas of enclosures. While these responses may help snakes to fight infection, they could also impact host fitness and may contribute to mortality in wild snakes with chronic O. ophiodiicola infection. This work provides a basis for understanding the pathogenicity of O. ophiodiicola and the ecology of SFD by using a model system that incorporates a host species that is easy to procure and maintain in the laboratory.

  11. Larval assemblages of large and medium-sized pelagic species in the Straits of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David E.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Cowen, Robert K.

    2010-07-01

    Critical gaps in our understanding of the distributions, interactions, life histories and preferred habitats of large and medium-size pelagic fishes severely constrain the implementation of ecosystem-based, spatially structured fisheries management approaches. In particular, spawning distributions and the environmental characteristics associated with the early life stages are poorly documented. In this study, we consider the diversity, assemblages, and associated habitat of the larvae of large and medium-sized pelagic species collected during 2 years of monthly surveys across the Straits of Florida. In total, 36 taxa and 14,295 individuals were collected, with the highest diversity occurring during the summer and in the western, frontal region of the Florida Current. Only a few species (e.g. Thunnus obesus, T. alalunga, Tetrapturus pfluegeri) considered for this study were absent. Small scombrids (e.g. T. atlanticus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Auxis spp.) and gempylids dominated the catch and were orders of magnitude more abundant than many of the rare species (e.g. Thunnus thynnus,Kajikia albida). Both constrained (CCA) and unconstrained (NMDS) multivariate analyses revealed a number of species groupings including: (1) a summer Florida edge assemblage (e.g. Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleterattus, Istiophorus platypterus); (2) a summer offshore assemblage (e.g. Makaira nigricans, T. atlanticus, Ruvettus pretiosus, Lampris guttatus); (3) an ubiquitous assemblage (e.g. K. pelamis, Coryphaena hippurus, Xiphias gladius); and (4) a spring/winter assemblage that was widely dispersed in space (e.g. trachipterids). The primary environmental factors associated with these assemblages were sea-surface temperature (highest in summer-early fall), day length (highest in early summer), thermocline depth (shallowest on the Florida side) and fluorescence (highest on the Florida side). Overall, the results of this study provide insights into how a remarkable diversity of pelagic species

  12. Parvalbumin--the major tropical fish allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dawn Li-Chern; Neo, Keng Hwee; Yi, Fong Cheng; Chua, Kaw Yan; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Giam, Yoke Chin; Van Bever, Hugo P S; Lee, Bee Wah

    2008-08-01

    Fish allergy is common in countries where consumption is high. Asian nations are amongst the world's largest consumers of fish but the allergen profiles of tropical fish are unknown. This study sought to evaluate the allergenicity of four commonly consumed tropical fish, the threadfin (Polynemus indicus), Indian anchovy (Stolephorus indicus), pomfret (Pampus chinensis) and tengirri (Scomberomorus guttatus). Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity with parvalbumin of cod fish (Gad c 1), the major fish allergen, was also studied. Detection of tropical fish and cod specific-IgE was performed by UniCap assay, and skin prick tests were also carried out. The IgE-binding components of tropical fish were identified using IgE immunoblot techniques, and cross-reactivity with Gad c 1 was assessed by ELISA inhibition and IgE immunoblot inhibition. Clinically, nine of 10 patients studied were allergic to multiple fish. All patients exhibited detectable specific-IgE to cod fish (10 of 10 skin prick test positive, eight of 10 UniCap assay positive) despite lack of previous exposure. The major allergen of the four tropical fish was the 12-kDa parvalbumin. IgE cross-reactivity of these allergens to Gad c 1 was observed to be moderate to high in the tropical fish studied. Parvalbumins are the major allergens in commonly consumed tropical fish. They are cross-reactive with each other as well as with Gad c 1. Commercial tests for cod fish appear to be sufficient for the detection of tropical fish specific-IgE.

  13. Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants: 3. Uptake and accumulation of ten trace elements by twelve plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, J.H.; Zayed, A.; Zhu, Y.L.; Yu, M.; Terry, N.

    1999-10-01

    Interest is increasing in using wetland plants in constructed wetlands to remove toxic elements from polluted wastewater. To identify those wetland plants that hyperaccumulate trace elements, 12 plant species were tested for their efficiency to bioconcentrate 10 potentially toxic trace elements including As, b, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Se. Individual plants were grown under carefully controlled conditions and supplied with 1 mg L{sup {minus}1} of each trace element individually for 10 d. Except B, all elements accumulated to much higher concentrations in roots than in shoots. Highest shoot tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW) of the various trace elements were attained by the following species: umbrella plant (Cyperus alternifolius L.) for Mn (198) and Cr (44); water zinnia (Wedelia trilobata Hitchc.) for Cd (148) and Ni (80); smartweed (Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.) for Cu (95) and Pb (64); water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) for Hg (92), As (34), and Se (39); and mare's tail (hippuris vulgaris L.) for B (1132). Whereas, the following species attained the highest root tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW); stripped rush (Baumia rubiginosa) for Mn (1683); parrot's feather (Myriophyllum brasiliense Camb.) for Cd (1426) and Ni (1077); water lettuce for Cu (1038), Hg (1217), and As (177); smartweed for Cr (2980) and Pb (1882); mare's tail for B (1277); and monkey flower (Mimulus guttatus Fisch.) for Se (384). From a phytoremediation perspective, smartweed was probably the best plant species for trace element removal from wastewater due to its faster growth and higher plant density.

  14. Teor de colesterol e composição centesimal de algumas espécies de peixes do estado do Ceará Cholesterol content and proximate composition of some fish species from the Ceará state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Charles Barros Caula

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivo determinar o teor de colesterol total em amostras de pescado de água marinha e doce. As amostras analisadas foram o pargo marinho, Lutjanus purpureus, e os seguintes peixes de água doce: tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, curimatã, Prochilodus cearensis e a sardinha, Triportheus angulatus, adquiridas em pontos comerciais (frigoríficos, feira de pescado da praia de Mucuripe e feira-livre suburbana de Fortaleza - Ceará. Além da determinação do teor de colesterol, também foram avaliados a composição química centesimal e o valor calórico das amostras. O teor médio de colesterol (mg.100 g-1 apresentado foi 33,5 para o pargo, 28,4 para a tilápia, 93,8 para o curimatã e 61,2 para a sardinha. Em relação à composição centesimal, os seguintes teores médios foram obtidos, respectivamente, para pargo, tilápia, curimatã e sardinha: 80,7; 80,2; 76,4 e 77,2% de umidade; 18,4; 17,7; 18,7 e 17,6% de proteína total; 1,0; 1,2; 3,2 e 4,6% de lipídio total; 0,7; 0,8; 0,8 e 1,0% de cinza, e 0,5; 0,6; 2,0 e 0,3% de carboidratos. O valor energético médio (kcal.100 g-1 foi de 83,6 para o pargo, 83,7 para a tilápia, 108,4 para o curimatã e de 111,8 para a sardinha.The purpose of this work is to determine the total cholesterol content and proximate composition of the commercial fish from the Ceará State, Brazil. The species were the marine bream fish Lutjanus purpureus and three freshwater fish, tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, "curimatã", Prochilodus cearensis, and sardine, Triportheus angulatus, from the open market (Mucuripe and around the city and from a supermarket in Fortaleza. The content of cholesterol, proximate composition, and the caloric value of the samples were determined. The average value of cholesterol (mg.100 g-1 was 33.5 in the red sea bream; 28,4 in the common tilápia; 93.8 in the "curimatã" and 61.2 in the sardine. Regarding the proximate composition, the following average

  15. Evidence of market-driven size-selective fishing and the mediating effects of biological and institutional factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sheila M. W.; Wentz, Allison; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Maxey, Martin; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Leslie, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    Market demand is often ignored or assumed to lead uniformly to the decline of resources. Yet little is known about how market demand influences natural resources in particular contexts, or the mediating effects of biological or institutional factors. Here, we investigate this problem by examining the Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) fishery around La Paz, Mexico, where medium or “plate-sized” fish are sold to restaurants at a premium price. If higher demand for plate-sized fish increases the relative abundance of the smallest (recruit size class) and largest (most fecund) fish, this may be a market mechanism to increase stocks and fishermen’s revenues. We tested this hypothesis by estimating the effect of prices on the distribution of catch across size classes using daily records of prices and catch. We linked predictions from this economic choice model to a staged-based model of the fishery to estimate the effects on the stock and revenues from harvest. We found that the supply of plate-sized fish increased by 6%, while the supply of large fish decreased by 4% as a result of a 13% price premium for plate-sized fish. This market-driven size selection increased revenues (14%) but decreased total fish biomass (−3%). However, when market-driven size selection was combined with limited institutional constraints, both fish biomass (28%) and fishermen’s revenue (22%) increased. These results show that the direction and magnitude of the effects of market demand on biological populations and human behavior can depend on both biological attributes and institutional constraints. Fisheries management may capitalize on these conditional effects by implementing size-based regulations when economic and institutional incentives will enhance compliance, as in the case we describe here, or by creating compliance enhancing conditions for existing regulations. PMID:23865225

  16. Connectivity of the Longfin Grouper (Epinephelus Quoyanus) in a marine reserve in the Great Keppel Island Group

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Salamah, Manalle

    2014-12-01

    With a dramatic decrease of biodiversity as a result of the increase in exploitation of marine ecosystems, the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) serves as an important means of protecting those resources. Although there is support for the effectiveness of these MPAs and MPA networks, there is room for improvement in terms of MPA management and design. For example, a better understanding of the dispersal dynamics of targeted species across these MPAs will serve as a more accurate means of reserve as well as fisheries management. While there have been many methods used to determine the larval dispersal of a certain species, parentage analysis is becoming the most robust. In this thesis, I attempt to determine the patterns of self-recruitment and larval dispersal of the Longfin Grouper (Epinephelus quoyanus) in one focal marine reserve within the Great Keppel Island group through the method of parentage. For this, I developed 14 microsatellite markers and with those, genotyped 610 adults as well as 478 juveniles from the study site. These genotypes allowed me to assign offspring to their potential parents, which then allowed me to measure the self-recruitment, local retention as well as larval dispersal percentages of this species from and within the reserve. My results indicate that there is 32% local retention to the reserve while 68% of the assigned juveniles were dispersed to other areas (4% of which dispersed to another reserve). Previous studies conducted in the same area showed higher reserve self-recruitment rates for both Plectropomus maculatus (~30%) and Lutjanus carponotatus (64%) despite their similar life history traits. The results from this study add to the growing evidence that dispersal patterns cannot be generalized across marine systems or even between species within a single system.

  17. Tracing carbon flow through coral reef food webs using a compound-specific stable isotope approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kelton W; Thorrold, Simon R; Houghton, Leah A; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Coral reefs support spectacularly productive and diverse communities in tropical and sub-tropical waters throughout the world's oceans. Debate continues, however, on the degree to which reef biomass is supported by new water column production, benthic primary production, and recycled detrital carbon (C). We coupled compound-specific stable C isotope ratio (δ(13)C) analyses with Bayesian mixing models to quantify C flow from primary producers to coral reef fishes across multiple feeding guilds and trophic positions in the Red Sea. Analyses of reef fishes with putative diets composed primarily of zooplankton (Amblyglyphidodon indicus), benthic macroalgae (Stegastes nigricans), reef-associated detritus (Ctenochaetus striatus), and coral tissue (Chaetodon trifascialis) confirmed that δ(13)C values of essential amino acids from all baseline C sources were both isotopically diagnostic and accurately recorded in consumer tissues. While all four source end-members contributed to the production of coral reef fishes in our study, a single-source end-member often dominated dietary C assimilation of a given species, even for highly mobile, generalist top predators. Microbially reworked detritus was an important secondary C source for most species. Seascape configuration played an important role in structuring resource utilization patterns. For instance, Lutjanus ehrenbergii showed a significant shift from a benthic macroalgal food web on shelf reefs (71 ± 13 % of dietary C) to a phytoplankton-based food web (72 ± 11 %) on oceanic reefs. Our work provides insights into the roles that diverse C sources play in the structure and function of coral reef ecosystems and illustrates a powerful fingerprinting method to develop and test nutritional frameworks for understanding resource utilization.

  18. Analysis of biogenic carbonates by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Flow injection on-line solid-phase preconcentration for trace element determination in fish otoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Z; Paulson, A J

    2002-04-01

    The aragonite deposits within the ear bones (otoliths) of teleost fish retain a chemical signal reflecting the life history of fish (similar to rings of trees) and the nature of fish habitats. Otoliths dissolved in acid solutions contain high concentrations of calcium and a variety of proteins. Elimination of matrix salts and organic interferences during preconcentration is essential for accurate determination of trace elements in otolith solutions by inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry. An iminodiacetate-based chelating resin (Toyopearl AF-Chelate 650 M) has been used for on-line preconcentration and matrix separation for the determination of 31 transition and rare elements. Successful preconcentration of the elements was achieved at pH 5 by on-line buffering, except Mn which required pH 8.8. Sample solutions were loaded on to the column for 1 min at 3.2 mL min(-1), and then eluted directly into the mass spectrometer with 4% v/v nitric acid. This procedure enabled up to 25-fold preconcentration with successful removal of the calcium matrix. The effect of heat-assisted oxidation with concentrated nitric acid was investigated to eliminate the organic matrix. It was found that heating to dryness after dissolution and further mineralization with the acid significantly improved the retention of the transition elements. The method was validated by analysis of a certified reference material produced from saggittal otoliths of emperor snapper ( Lutjanus sebae), and then applied to the determination of trace metal concentrations in juvenile bluefin tuna ( Thunnus thynnus) from the Western Pacific Ocean.

  19. The effects of mariculture on heavy metal distribution in sediments and cultured fish around the Pearl River Delta region, south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peng; Wu, Sheng-Chun; Zhang, Jin; Cao, Yucheng; Yu, Shen; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Thirty-six sediment samples were collected from six mariculture sites and corresponding reference sites (approximately 200-300 m away from each mariculture site) to study the effects of mariculture on heavy metal: copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) distribution in sediments and cultured fish around the Pearl River Delta region, south China. The mean concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb in all mariculture sediment samples were 109, 273, 99 and 33 mg/kg, compared with 63, 209, 56 and 23 mg/kg for reference sediment samples, respectively. The Pollution Load Index of sediment for each site was over 1, implying substantial heavy metal pollution. The results of principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis indicate that marine aquaculture activities have enriched the surface sediments underneath mariculture rafts with Cu, Zn and Pb, possibly due to the accumulation of unconsumed fish feeds, fish excreta and antifouling paints (except Cr). Two kinds of fish feeds, feed pellets and trash fish commonly used in Hong Kong were analyzed. The concentrations of Zn and Cu contained in feed pellets were significantly higher (p trash fish due to addition of these elements as growth promoters during pellet production. However, the Pb content in trash fish (due to contamination) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in feed pellets. Three cultured fish species, namely red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) and snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii), were collected from each mariculture site for metal analysis. Lead concentrations in 21 fish samples exceeded the Chinese safety guideline (0.5 mg/kg, GB18406.4-2001), indicating that Pb contamination in cultured fish would be a public health concern. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Role of mariculture in the loading and speciation of mercury at the coast of the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peng; Gao, Xuefei; You, Qiongzhi; Zhang, Jin; Cao, Yucheng; Zhang, Chan; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wu, Sheng-Chun

    2016-11-01

    The effects of mariculture on mercury (Hg) contamination and speciation in water, sediment and cultured fish in a typical mariculture zone located in Xiangshan bay, Zhejiang province, east China, were studied. Water, sediment and fish samples were collected from mariculture sites (MS) and from corresponding reference sites (RS) 2500 m away from the MS. The THg concentration in overlying water in Xiangshan bay reached as high as 16.6 ± 19.5 ng L -1 , indicating that anthropogenic sources in this bay may contribution on Hg contamination in overlying water. Mariculture activities resulted in an increase in THg concentration in water from surface and bottom layers, which may be attributed to the discharge of domestic sewage and the accumulation of unconsumed fish feed and fish excreta in the benthic environment. Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in the bottom layer of overlying water and top surface layer of porewater underneath MS were higher than at RS, implying that mariculture activities promote Hg methylation in the interface between sediments and water. In addition, the concentrations of MeHg in sediment and porewater were significantly higher in summer than winter. It was observed that THg and MeHg contents in the muscle of blackhead seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii) (fed by the trash fish) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than those in red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) or perch (Perca fluviatilis) (fed by pellet fish feed). The THg and MeHg concentrations in the fish meat were closely related to the feeding mode, which indicate that fish feed rather than environmental media is the major pathway for Hg accumulation in fish muscle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Total mercury, cadmium and lead levels in main export fish of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the muscle of four commercialised exported fish species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Xiphias gladius (swordfish), Makaira indica (black marlin) and Lutjanus sp (red snapper) collected from the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, during July 2009-March 2010 and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that swordfish (n = 176) contained the highest total Hg (0.90 ± 0.51 mg/kg) and Cd (0.09 ± 0.13 mg/kg) levels, whereas yellowfin tuna (n = 140) contained the highest Pb levels (0.11 ± 0.16 mg/kg). The lowest total Hg (0.16 ± 0.11 mg/kg), Cd (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.04 ± 0.04 mg/kg) levels were found in red snapper (n = 28). Black marlin (n = 24) contained moderate levels of total Hg (0.49 ± 0.37), Cd (0.02 ± 0.02) and Pb (0.05 ± 0.05). Even though there are some concerns during certain months of the year, this study demonstrates the safety of main export fish varieties in terms of total Hg, Cd and Pb.

  2. Importance of Mangroves, Seagrass Beds and the Shallow Coral Reef as a Nursery for Important Coral Reef Fishes, Using a Visual Census Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerken, I.; van der Velde, G.; Gorissen, M. W.; Meijer, G. J.; Van't Hof, T.; den Hartog, C.

    2000-07-01

    The nursery function of various biotopes for coral reef fishes was investigated on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Length and abundance of 16 commercially important reef fish species were determined by means of visual censuses during the day in six different biotopes: mangrove prop-roots ( Rhizophora mangle) and seagrass beds ( Thalassia testudinum) in Lac Bay, and four depth zones on the coral reef (0 to 3 m, 3 to 5 m, 10 to 15 m and 15 to 20 m). The mangroves, seagrass beds and shallow coral reef (0 to 3 m) appeared to be the main nursery biotopes for the juveniles of the selected species. Mutual comparison between biotopes showed that the seagrass beds were the most important nursery biotope for juvenile Haemulon flavolineatum, H. sciurus, Ocyurus chrysurus, Acanthurus chirurgus and Sparisoma viride, the mangroves for juvenile Lutjanus apodus, L. griseus, Sphyraena barracuda and Chaetodon capistratus, and the shallow coral reef for juvenile H. chrysargyreum, L. mahogoni , A. bahianus and Abudefduf saxatilis. Juvenile Acanthurus coeruleus utilized all six biotopes, while juvenile H. carbonarium and Anisotremus surinamensis were not observed in any of the six biotopes. Although fishes showed a clear preference for a specific nursery biotope, most fish species utilized multiple nursery biotopes simultaneously. The almost complete absence of juveniles on the deeper reef zones indicates the high dependence of juveniles on the shallow water biotopes as a nursery. For most fish species an (partial) ontogenetic shift was observed at a particular life stage from their (shallow) nursery biotopes to the (deeper) coral reef. Cluster analyses showed that closely related species within the families Haemulidae, Lutjanidae and Acanthuridae, and the different size classes within species in most cases had a spatial separation in biotope utilization.

  3. Spatial Distribution of Reef Fish Species along the Southeast US Atlantic Coast Inferred from Underwater Video Survey Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan M Bacheler

    Full Text Available Marine fish abundance and distribution often varies across spatial scales for a variety of reasons, and this variability has significant ecological and management consequences. We quantified the distribution of reef-associated fish species along the southeast United States Atlantic coast using underwater video survey samples (N = 4,855 in 2011-2014 to elucidate variability within species across space, depths, and habitats, as well as describe broad-scale patterns in species richness. Thirty-two species were seen at least 10 times on video, and the most commonly observed species were red porgy (Pagrus pagrus; 41.4% of videos, gray triggerfish (Balistes capriscus; 31.0%, black sea bass (Centropristis striata; 29.1%, vermilion snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens; 27.7%, and red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus; 22.6%. Using generalized additive models, we found that most species were non-randomly distributed across space, depths, and habitats. Most rare species were observed along the continental shelf break, except for goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara, which was found on the continental shelf in Florida and Georgia. We also observed higher numbers of species in shelf-break habitats from southern North Carolina to Georgia, and fewer in shallower water and at the northern and southern ends of the southeast United States Atlantic coast. Our study provides the first broad-scale description of the spatial distribution of reef fish in the region to be based on fishery-independent data, reinforces the utility of underwater video to survey reef fish, and can help improve the management of reef fish in the SEUS, for example, by improving indices of abundance.

  4. Timing and locations of reef fish spawning off the southeastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Farmer

    Full Text Available Managed reef fish in the Atlantic Ocean of the southeastern United States (SEUS support a multi-billion dollar industry. There is a broad interest in locating and protecting spawning fish from harvest, to enhance productivity and reduce the potential for overfishing. We assessed spatiotemporal cues for spawning for six species from four reef fish families, using data on individual spawning condition collected by over three decades of regional fishery-independent reef fish surveys, combined with a series of predictors derived from bathymetric features. We quantified the size of spawning areas used by reef fish across many years and identified several multispecies spawning locations. We quantitatively identified cues for peak spawning and generated predictive maps for Gray Triggerfish (Balistes capriscus, White Grunt (Haemulon plumierii, Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus, Vermilion Snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens, Black Sea Bass (Centropristis striata, and Scamp (Mycteroperca phenax. For example, Red Snapper peak spawning was predicted in 24.7-29.0°C water prior to the new moon at locations with high curvature in the 24-30 m depth range off northeast Florida during June and July. External validation using scientific and fishery-dependent data collections strongly supported the predictive utility of our models. We identified locations where reconfiguration or expansion of existing marine protected areas would protect spawning reef fish. We recommend increased sampling off southern Florida (south of 27° N, during winter months, and in high-relief, high current habitats to improve our understanding of timing and location of reef fish spawning off the southeastern United States.

  5. Patterns of Coral-Reef Finfish Species Disappearances Inferred from Fishers' Knowledge in Global Epicentre of Marine Shorefish Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita N Lavides

    Full Text Available In the Philippines, very high fishing pressure coincides with the globally greatest number of shorefish species, yet no long-term fisheries data are available to explore species-level changes that may have occurred widely in the most species rich and vulnerable marine ecosystem, namely coral reefs. Through 2655 face-to-face interviews conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, we used fishers' recall of past catch rates of reef-associated finfish to infer species disappearances from catches in five marine key biodiversity areas (Lanuza Bay, Danajon Bank, Verde Island Passage, Polillo Islands and Honda Bay. We modeled temporal trends in perceived catch per unit effort (CPUE based on fishers' reports of typical good days' catches using Generalized Linear Mixed Modelling. Fifty-nine different finfish disappeared from catches between the 1950s and 2014; 42 fish were identified to species level, two to genus, seven to family and eight to local name only. Five species occurring at all sites with the greatest number of fishers reporting zero catches were the green bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum, humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus, African pompano (Alectis ciliaris, giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus. Between the 1950s and 2014, the mean perceived CPUE of bumphead parrotfish declined by 88%, that of humphead wrasse by 82%, African pompano by 66%, giant grouper by 74% and mangrove red snapper by 64%. These declines were mainly associated with excess and uncontrolled fishing, fish life-history traits like maximum body size and socio-economic factors like access to market infrastructure and services, and overpopulation. The fishers' knowledge is indicative of extirpations where evidence for these losses was otherwise lacking. Our models provide information as basis for area-based conservation and regional resource management particularly for the more vulnerable, once common, large

  6. The mangrove nursery paradigm revisited: otolith stable isotopes support nursery-to-reef movements by Indo-Pacific fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimirei, Ismael A; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Mgaya, Yunus D; Huijbers, Chantal M

    2013-01-01

    Mangroves and seagrass beds have long been perceived as important nurseries for many fish species. While there is growing evidence from the Western Atlantic that mangrove habitats are intricately connected to coral reefs through ontogenetic fish migrations, there is an ongoing debate of the value of these coastal ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific. The present study used natural tags, viz. otolith stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, to investigate for the first time the degree to which multiple tropical juvenile habitats subsidize coral reef fish populations in the Indo Pacific (Tanzania). Otoliths of three reef fish species (Lethrinus harak, L. lentjan and Lutjanus fulviflamma) were collected in mangrove, seagrass and coral reef habitats and analyzed for stable isotope ratios in the juvenile and adult otolith zones. δ(13)C signatures were significantly depleted in the juvenile compared to the adult zones, indicative of different habitat use through ontogeny. Maximum likelihood analysis identified that 82% of adult reef L. harak had resided in either mangrove (29%) or seagrass (53%) or reef (18%) habitats as juveniles. Of adult L. fulviflamma caught from offshore reefs, 99% had passed through mangroves habitats as juveniles. In contrast, L. lentjan adults originated predominantly from coral reefs (65-72%) as opposed to inshore vegetated habitats (28-35%). This study presents conclusive evidence for a nursery role of Indo-Pacific mangrove habitats for reef fish populations. It shows that intertidal habitats that are only temporarily available can form an important juvenile habitat for some species, and that reef fish populations are often replenished by multiple coastal habitats. Maintaining connectivity between inshore vegetated habitats and coral reefs, and conserving habitat mosaics rather than single nursery habitats, is a major priority for the sustainability of various Indo Pacific fish populations.

  7. The mangrove nursery paradigm revisited: otolith stable isotopes support nursery-to-reef movements by Indo-Pacific fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael A Kimirei

    Full Text Available Mangroves and seagrass beds have long been perceived as important nurseries for many fish species. While there is growing evidence from the Western Atlantic that mangrove habitats are intricately connected to coral reefs through ontogenetic fish migrations, there is an ongoing debate of the value of these coastal ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific. The present study used natural tags, viz. otolith stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, to investigate for the first time the degree to which multiple tropical juvenile habitats subsidize coral reef fish populations in the Indo Pacific (Tanzania. Otoliths of three reef fish species (Lethrinus harak, L. lentjan and Lutjanus fulviflamma were collected in mangrove, seagrass and coral reef habitats and analyzed for stable isotope ratios in the juvenile and adult otolith zones. δ(13C signatures were significantly depleted in the juvenile compared to the adult zones, indicative of different habitat use through ontogeny. Maximum likelihood analysis identified that 82% of adult reef L. harak had resided in either mangrove (29% or seagrass (53% or reef (18% habitats as juveniles. Of adult L. fulviflamma caught from offshore reefs, 99% had passed through mangroves habitats as juveniles. In contrast, L. lentjan adults originated predominantly from coral reefs (65-72% as opposed to inshore vegetated habitats (28-35%. This study presents conclusive evidence for a nursery role of Indo-Pacific mangrove habitats for reef fish populations. It shows that intertidal habitats that are only temporarily available can form an important juvenile habitat for some species, and that reef fish populations are often replenished by multiple coastal habitats. Maintaining connectivity between inshore vegetated habitats and coral reefs, and conserving habitat mosaics rather than single nursery habitats, is a major priority for the sustainability of various Indo Pacific fish populations.

  8. Effects of Pile Driving on the Residency and Movement of Tagged Reef Fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D Iafrate

    Full Text Available The potential effects of pile driving on fish populations and commercial fisheries have received significant attention given the prevalence of pile driving occurring in coastal habitats throughout the world. Behavioral impacts of sound generated from these activities on fish typically have a greater area of influence than physical injury, and may therefore adversely affect a greater portion of the local population. This study used acoustic telemetry to assess the movement, residency, and survival of 15 sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus and 10 grey snapper (Lutjanus griseus in Port Canaveral, Florida, USA, in response to 35 days of pile driving at a wharf complex. No obvious signs of mortality or injury to tagged fish were evident from the data. Received sound pressure levels from pile strikes on the interior of the wharf, where reef fish primarily occur, were on average 152-157 dB re 1 μPa (peak. No significant decrease in sheepshead daytime residency was observed during pile driving within the central portion of the wharf and area of highest sound exposure, and no major indicators of displacement from the exposure wharf with the onset of pile driving were observed. There was evidence of potential displacement from the exposure wharf that coincided with the start of pile driving observed for 2 out of 4 grey snapper, along with a decrease in daytime residency for a subset of this species with high site fidelity prior to the event. Results indicate that snapper may be more likely to depart an area of pile driving disturbance more readily than sheepshead, but were less at risk for behavioral impact given the lower site fidelity of this species.

  9. The paraty artisanal fishery (southeastern Brazilian coast: ethnoecology and management of a social-ecological system (SES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begossi Alpina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study intends to give recommendations to the management of Paraty fishery in Brazil through an interplay of local and scientific knowledge. In particular, the objectives are the following: 1 to describe the Paraty fishery; 2 to compare the fishermen’s local ecological knowledge with recorded fish landings and previous studies in Paraty; 3 to combine the data on local fishing and on local/Caiçara livelihoods with the SES (social-ecological systems Model. The methods include a systematic survey of fishing in Tarituba and Praia Grande, which are located in the northern end and the central part of the Paraty municipality, respectively. For four days each month, systematic data on catches at landing points were collected, as well as macroscopic gonad analysis data for the fishes Centropomus parallelus and C. undecimalis (snook, robalo, Epinephelus marginatus (grouper, garoupa, Scomberomorus cavalla (King mackerel, cavala, and Lutjanus synagris (Lane snapper, vermelho. Spring and summer are important seasons during which some species reproduce, and the integration of fishing periods for some target species could assist in fishing management through the use of closed seasons. Fishermen could obtain complementary earnings from tourism and from the “defeso system” (closed season including a salary payment to conserve fishing stocks. The SES model facilitates an understanding of the historical context of fishing, its economic importance for local livelihoods, the constraints from conservation measures that affect fishermen, and the management processes that already exist, such as the defeso. If used to integrate fishing with complementary activities (tourism, such a system could improve the responsibility of fishermen regarding the conservation of fish stocks.

  10. Tracing carbon flow through coral reef food webs using a compound-specific stable isotope approach

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton

    2015-11-21

    Coral reefs support spectacularly productive and diverse communities in tropical and sub-tropical waters throughout the world’s oceans. Debate continues, however, on the degree to which reef biomass is supported by new water column production, benthic primary production, and recycled detrital carbon (C). We coupled compound-specific stable C isotope ratio (δ13C) analyses with Bayesian mixing models to quantify C flow from primary producers to coral reef fishes across multiple feeding guilds and trophic positions in the Red Sea. Analyses of reef fishes with putative diets composed primarily of zooplankton (Amblyglyphidodon indicus), benthic macroalgae (Stegastes nigricans), reef-associated detritus (Ctenochaetus striatus), and coral tissue (Chaetodon trifascialis) confirmed that δ13C values of essential amino acids from all baseline C sources were both isotopically diagnostic and accurately recorded in consumer tissues. While all four source end-members contributed to the production of coral reef fishes in our study, a single-source end-member often dominated dietary C assimilation of a given species, even for highly mobile, generalist top predators. Microbially reworked detritus was an important secondary C source for most species. Seascape configuration played an important role in structuring resource utilization patterns. For instance, Lutjanus ehrenbergii showed a significant shift from a benthic macroalgal food web on shelf reefs (71 ± 13 % of dietary C) to a phytoplankton-based food web (72 ± 11 %) on oceanic reefs. Our work provides insights into the roles that diverse C sources play in the structure and function of coral reef ecosystems and illustrates a powerful fingerprinting method to develop and test nutritional frameworks for understanding resource utilization.

  11. Forecasting lionfish sources and sinks in the Atlantic: are Gulf of Mexico reef fisheries at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Matthew W.; Bernard, Andrea M.; Shivji, Mahmood S.

    2017-03-01

    Invasive lionfish ( Pterois volitans/miles complex) now permeate the entire tropical western Atlantic, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico, but lionfish abundance has been measured only in select locations in the field. Despite its rapid range expansion, a comprehensive meta-population analysis of lionfish `sources' and `sinks' and consequentially the invader's potential abundance and impacts on economically important, sympatric reef fishes have not been assessed. These data are urgently needed to spatially direct control efforts and to plan for and perhaps mitigate lionfish-caused damage. Here, we use a biophysical computer model to: (1) forecast larval lionfish sources and sinks that are also delineated as low to high lionfish `density zones' throughout their invaded range, and (2) assess the potential vulnerability of five grouper and snapper species— Epinephelus morio, Mycteroperca microlepis, Epinephelus flavolimbatus, Lutjanus campechanus, and Rhomboplites aurorubens—to lionfish within these density zones in the Gulf of Mexico. Our results suggest that the west Florida shelf and nearshore waters of Texas, USA, and Guyana, South America, function both as lionfish sources and sinks and should be a high priority for targeted lionfish control. Furthermore, of the five groupers and snappers studied, the high fishery value E. morio (red grouper) is the Gulf of Mexico species most at risk from lionfish. Lacking a comprehensive lionfish control policy, these risk exposure data inform managers where removals should be focused and demonstrate the risk to five sympatric native groupers and snappers in the Gulf of Mexico that may be susceptible to dense lionfish aggregations, should control efforts fail.

  12. ESTRATÉGIAS REPRODUTIVAS DE SETE ESPÉCIES DE PEIXES DAS ÁGUAS COSTEIRAS DO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Rocha de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho verificou as estratégias reprodutivas de sete espécies de peixes marinhos da região costeira do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Traços da história de vida dos peixes em ambientes relativamente estáveis sugerem um modelo de três estratégias reprodutivas: (1 estrategistas oportunistas, são peixes de pequeno tamanho corporal com primeira maturação precoce, período de vida curto com baixa fecundidade; (2 estrategistas sazonais, são peixes de tamanho corporal intermediário, primeira maturação intermediária e fecundidade intermediária a alta; e (3 estrategistas de equilíbrio, são peixes de tamanho corporal grande, primeira maturação tardia com longo período de vida, além de alta fecundidade. Os aspectos reprodutivos de Hirundichythys affinis, Hemiramphus brasiliensis, Pomadasys corvinaeformis, Oligoplites palometa, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, Lutjanus synagris e Mugil curema foram verificados, considerando-se o tamanho do corpo, proporção sexual, comprimento de primeira maturação sexual, aspectos do desenvolvimento das gônadas, fecundidade, tipo de desova e período reprodutivo dos peixes. Os resultados indicam que H. affinis, H. brasiliensis, P. corvinaeformis e O. palometa podem ser considerados como estrategistas oportunistas. Entretanto, S. brasiliensis, L. synagris e M. curema podem ser considerados como estrategistas de equilíbrio. Este estudo fornece informações sobre os aspectos reprodutivos dos peixes dos estoques pesqueiros das águas costeiras do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil.

  13. Historical Population Estimates For Several Fish Species At Offshore Oil and Gas Structures in the US Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitschlag, G.

    2016-02-01

    Population estimates were calculated for four fish species occurring at offshore oil and gas structures in water depths of 14-32 m off the Louisiana and upper Texas coasts in the US Gulf of Mexico. From 1993-1999 sampling was conducted at eight offshore platforms in conjunction with explosive salvage of the structures. To estimate fish population size prior to detonation of explosives, a fish mark-recapture study was conducted. Fish were captured on rod and reel using assorted hook sizes. Traps were occasionally used to supplement catches. Fish were tagged below the dorsal fin with plastic t-bar tags using tagging guns. Only fish that were alive and in good condition were released. Recapture sampling was conducted after explosives were detonated during salvage operations. Personnel operating from inflatable boats used dip nets to collect all dead fish that floated to the surface. Divers collected representative samples of dead fish that sank to the sea floor. Data provided estimates for red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), Atlantic spadefish (Chaetodipterus faber), gray triggerfish (Balistes capriscus), and blue runner (Caranx crysos) at one or more of the eight platforms studied. At seven platforms, population size for red snapper was calculated at 503-1,943 with a 95% CI of 478. Abundance estimates for Atlantic spadefish at three platforms ranged from 1,432-1,782 with a 95% CI of 473. At three platforms, population size of gray triggerfish was 63-129 with a 95% CI of 82. Blue runner abundance at one platform was 558. Unlike the other three species which occur close to the platforms, blue runner range widely and recapture of this species was dependent on fish schools being in close proximity to the platform at the time explosives were detonated. Tag recapture was as high as 73% for red snapper at one structure studied.

  14. Characterization of chitin extracted from fish scales of marine fish species purchased from local markets in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumengan, I. F. M.; Suptijah, P.; Wullur, S.; Talumepa, A.

    2017-10-01

    Chitin is a biodegradable biopolymer with a variety of commercial applications, including in the food food-supplement industries as a marine-derived nutraceutical. The purpose of this study was to characterize the molecular structure of chitin extracted from fish scales of important marine fish purchased from local markets in North Sulawesi. Chitin compound material was obtained from a specific fish scale, and then sequentially carrying out a boiling treatment to separate it from a complex with collagen. From the scales of two fish species, parrotfish (Chlorurus sordidus) and red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus), the rendemen of chitin obtained were 45 % and 33%, respectively. Structural characteristics of the chitin were discussed by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) analysis data. FTIR analysis was done using infrared spectroscopy, which is the resulting spectrum represents the molecular absorption and transmission, creating a molecular fingerprint of the sample. The molecular structure of chitin, C18H26N2O10, where the hydroxyl group on the second carbon replaced by acetyl amide, was shown by the infrared spectra. In the infrared spectra, chitin from parrot fish scales indicated the amide band at 1627.13 cm-1, and chitin from red snapper fish scales the amide band at 1648.09 cm-1 which are a typical one for marine chitin. The hydroxyl and amino bands at the ranged spectra up to 3500 cm-1. The yields of chitin isolated from fish scale were relatively huge. Some treatments are necessary to confirm the molecular conformation and deacetylation behavior. All products from the extraction of fish scales could be more accessible for structural modifications to develop biocompatible materials for pharmaceutical purposes.

  15. Patterns of Coral-Reef Finfish Species Disappearances Inferred from Fishers' Knowledge in Global Epicentre of Marine Shorefish Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavides, Margarita N; Molina, Erina Pauline V; de la Rosa, Gregorio E; Mill, Aileen C; Rushton, Stephen P; Stead, Selina M; Polunin, Nicholas V C

    2016-01-01

    In the Philippines, very high fishing pressure coincides with the globally greatest number of shorefish species, yet no long-term fisheries data are available to explore species-level changes that may have occurred widely in the most species rich and vulnerable marine ecosystem, namely coral reefs. Through 2655 face-to-face interviews conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, we used fishers' recall of past catch rates of reef-associated finfish to infer species disappearances from catches in five marine key biodiversity areas (Lanuza Bay, Danajon Bank, Verde Island Passage, Polillo Islands and Honda Bay). We modeled temporal trends in perceived catch per unit effort (CPUE) based on fishers' reports of typical good days' catches using Generalized Linear Mixed Modelling. Fifty-nine different finfish disappeared from catches between the 1950s and 2014; 42 fish were identified to species level, two to genus, seven to family and eight to local name only. Five species occurring at all sites with the greatest number of fishers reporting zero catches were the green bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum), humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), African pompano (Alectis ciliaris), giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Between the 1950s and 2014, the mean perceived CPUE of bumphead parrotfish declined by 88%, that of humphead wrasse by 82%, African pompano by 66%, giant grouper by 74% and mangrove red snapper by 64%. These declines were mainly associated with excess and uncontrolled fishing, fish life-history traits like maximum body size and socio-economic factors like access to market infrastructure and services, and overpopulation. The fishers' knowledge is indicative of extirpations where evidence for these losses was otherwise lacking. Our models provide information as basis for area-based conservation and regional resource management particularly for the more vulnerable, once common, large, yet wide

  16. Concentration activities of natural radionuclides in three fish species in Brazilian coast and their contributions to the absorbed doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A.; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2009-01-01

    Activity concentrations of U-238, Ra-226, Pb-210, Th-232 e Ra-228 were analysed in three fish species at the Brasilian Coast. The fish 'Cubera snapper' (Lutjanus cyanopterus, Cuvier, 1828), in the region of Ceara and 'Whitemouth croaker' (Micropogonias furnieri, Desmarest, 1823) and 'Lebranche mullet' (Mugil liza, Valenciennes, 1836) in the region of Rio de Janeiro. These concentrations were transformed in absorbed dose rate using a dose conversion factor in unit of gray per year (μGy y -1 ), per becquerel per kilogram (Bq kg -1 ). Only the absorbed dose due to intake of radionuclides was examined, and the contributions due to radionuclides present in water and sediment were disregarded. The radionuclides were considered to be uniformly distributed in the fish body. The limit of the dose rate used, proposed by the Department of Energy of the USA, is equal to 3.65 10 03 mGy y -1 . The average dose rate due to the studied radionuclides is equal to 6.09 10 00 μGy y -1 , a value minor than 0.1% than the limits indicated by DOE, and quite similar to that found in the literature for 'benthic' fish. The most important radionuclides were the alpha emitters Ra-226 having 61 % of absorbed dose rate. U-238 and Th-232, each contributes with approximately 20 % of the absorbed dose rate. These three radionuclides are responsible for almost 100% of the dose rate received by the studied organisms. The beta emitters Ra-228 and Pb-210 account for approximately 1 % of the absorbed dose rate. (author)

  17. Evidence of market-driven size-selective fishing and the mediating effects of biological and institutional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sheila M W; Wentz, Allison; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Maxey, Martin; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Leslie, Heather M

    2013-06-01

    Market demand is often ignored or assumed to lead uniformly to the decline of resources. Yet little is known about how market demand influences natural resources in particular contexts, or the mediating effects of biological or institutional factors. Here, we investigate this problem by examining the Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) fishery around La Paz, Mexico, where medium or "plate-sized" fish are sold to restaurants at a premium price. If higher demand for plate-sized fish increases the relative abundance of the smallest (recruit size class) and largest (most fecund) fish, this may be a market mechanism to increase stocks and fishermen's revenues. We tested this hypothesis by estimating the effect of prices on the distribution of catch across size classes using daily records of prices and catch. We linked predictions from this economic choice model to a staged-based model of the fishery to estimate the effects on the stock and revenues from harvest. We found that the supply of plate-sized fish increased by 6%, while the supply of large fish decreased by 4% as a result of a 13% price premium for plate-sized fish. This market-driven size selection increased revenues (14%) but decreased total fish biomass (-3%). However, when market-driven size selection was combined with limited institutional constraints, both fish biomass (28%) and fishermen's revenue (22%) increased. These results show that the direction and magnitude of the effects of market demand on biological populations and human behavior can depend on both biological attributes and institutional constraints. Fisheries management may capitalize on these conditional effects by implementing size-based regulations when economic and institutional incentives will enhance compliance, as in the case we describe here, or by creating compliance enhancing conditions for existing regulations.

  18. Four additional hepatozoon species (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) from north Florida ratsnakes, genus Pantherophis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Sam R; Moler, Paul E; Butler, Jerry F

    2012-09-01

    Records from a colubrid host are reported for Hepatozoon horridus, described originally from a viperid snake. Hepatozoon horridus in Pantherophis guttatus (Colubridae) has gamonts 14-18.0 by 4.0-5.5 microm, with length by width (LW) 60-99 microm2, and L/W ratio 2.5-3.9. Spherical to elongate, usually ovoid oocysts with L/W ratio 1.0-3.7 contain 16-160 spherical to usually ovoid sporocysts 15-31 by 14-26 microm, with L/W ratio 1.0-1.4, that contain 5-24 sporozoites. Two additional Hepatozoon species are described from ratsnakes in north Florida. Hepatozoon quadrivittata n. sp. from Pantherophis obsoletus quadrivittatus has gamonts 12-17 by 4-6 microm, LW 56-102 microm2, and L/W ratio 2.6-3.8. Nearly spherical oocysts with L/W 1.0-1.1 contain 5-227 spherical to slightly ovoid sporocysts 20-48 by 19-45 microm, with L/W ratio 1.0-1.4, that contain 13-48 sporozoites. Hepatozoon spiloides n. sp. from Pantherophis obsoletus spiloides forms gamonts 12-15 by 4-5 microm with LW 48-75 microm2 and L/W ratio 2.6-3.5. Occasionally rounded but usually elongate oocysts, with L/W ratio 1.0-2.7, contain 5-21 spherical to elongate sporocysts 28-43 by 18-35 microm, L/W ratio 2.5-3.9. In the distinctive Hepatozoon sp. present in Pantherophis obsoletus spiloides, gamonts are 13-17 by 5-10 microm, with LW 75-140 microm2 and L/W ratio 1.4-3.0. Infected erythrocytes are always distorted and enlarged on average 2.5 times the size of uninfected cells, with nuclei enlarged by one-third and broadly elongated. Gamonts often stained deep blue, and cytoplasm of erythrocytes infected with mature gamonts was always dehemoglobinized. Sporogony could not be obtained in three feedings by hundreds of Aedes aegypti, which usually died within the first 24-48 hr.

  19. Experimental Infection of Snakes with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola Causes Pathological Changes That Typify Snake Fungal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Lankton, Julia; Werner, Katrien; Falendysz, Elizabeth A; McCurley, Kevin; Blehert, David S

    2015-11-17

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging skin infection of wild snakes in eastern North America. The fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola is frequently associated with the skin lesions that are characteristic of SFD, but a causal relationship between the fungus and the disease has not been established. We experimentally infected captive-bred corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) in the laboratory with pure cultures of O. ophiodiicola. All snakes in the infected group (n = 8) developed gross and microscopic lesions identical to those observed in wild snakes with SFD; snakes in the control group (n = 7) did not develop skin infections. Furthermore, the same strain of O. ophiodiicola used to inoculate snakes was recovered from lesions of all animals in the infected group, but no fungi were isolated from individuals in the control group. Monitoring progression of lesions throughout the experiment captured a range of presentations of SFD that have been described in wild snakes. The host response to the infection included marked recruitment of granulocytes to sites of fungal invasion, increased frequency of molting, and abnormal behaviors, such as anorexia and resting in conspicuous areas of enclosures. While these responses may help snakes to fight infection, they could also impact host fitness and may contribute to mortality in wild snakes with chronic O. ophiodiicola infection. This work provides a basis for understanding the pathogenicity of O. ophiodiicola and the ecology of SFD by using a model system that incorporates a host species that is easy to procure and maintain in the laboratory. Skin infections in snakes, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), have been reported with increasing frequency in wild snakes in the eastern United States. While most of these infections are associated with the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, there has been no conclusive evidence to implicate this fungus as a primary pathogen. Furthermore, it is not understood why the

  20. Gönen Çayı (Balıkesir, Çanakkale-Türkiye'nda yaşayan sucul Coleoptera ve sucul ve yarısucul Heteroptera faunası üzerine bir çalışma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat Tarık Topkara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gönen Çayı’nın sucul Coleoptera ve sucul-yarısucul Heteroptera faunasını belirlemek amacıyla gerçekleştirilen bu çalışmada, Gönen çayı ve kollarına 2010-2012 yılları arasında 8 arazi çalışması düzenlenmiştir. Bu arazi çalışmalarında 15 istasyonda örnekleme çalışması yürütülmüştür. Sucul böcek örnekleri 500 µm göz açıklığındaki el kepçesi ile toplanmıştır. Laboratuvarda yapılan incelemeler sonucunda Coleoptera ordosuna ait Gyrinidae familyasından 3 takson, Noteridae familyasından 1 tür, Dytiscidae familyasından 11 tür 1 alttür, Hydrophilidae familyasından 13 tür 1 alttür, Spercheidae familyasından 1 tür, Hydraenidae familyasından 4 tür tespit edilmiştir. Heteroptera ordosuna ait Gerridae familyasından 1 tür, Corixidae familyasından 3 tür 3 alttür, Notonectidae familyasından 2 tür tespit edilmiştir. Bu taksonlardan Gyrinus caspius, Gyrinus distinctus, Gyrinus substriatus, Agabus bipustulatus, Agabus guttatus, Hydaticus leander, Hydroporus pubescens, Laccophilus hyalinus, Laccophilus poecilus, Platambus lunulatus, Ranthus suturalis, Scarodytes halensis halensis, Boreonectes griseostriatus, Anacaena rufipes, Berosus byzantinus, Helochares lividus, Notonecta viridis, Notonecta maculata, Sigara striata, Sigara nigrolineata nigrolineata, Sigara lateralis Gönen Çayı’nın Balıkesir ili sınırları içerisindeki istasyonlardan; Laccophilus minutus, Spercheus emarginatus, Sigara limitata limitata Gönen Çayı’nın Çanakkale ili sınırları içerisindeki istasyonlardan; Enochrus bicolor, Micronecta scholtzi, Micronecta anatolica anatolica, Gerris thorasicus Çanakkale ve Balıkesir il sınırları içerisindeki istasyonlarından ilk kez tespit edilmiştir

  1. Functional connectivity of coral reef fishes in a tropical seascape assessed by compound-specific stable isotope analyses

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton W.

    2011-01-01

    The ecological integrity of tropical habitats, including mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs, is coming under increasing pressure from human activities. Many coral reef fish species are thought to use mangroves and seagrass beds as juvenile nurseries before migrating to coral reefs as adults. Identifying essential habitats and preserving functional linkages among these habitats is likely necessary to promote ecosystem health and sustainable fisheries on coral reefs. This necessitates quantitative assessment of functional connectivity among essential habitats at the seascape level. This thesis presents the development and first application of a method for tracking fish migration using amino acid (AA) δ13C analysis in otoliths. In a controlled feeding experiment with fish reared on isotopically distinct diets, we showed that essential AAs exhibited minimal trophic fractionation between consumer and diet, providing a δ13C record of the baseline isoscape. We explored the potential for geochemical signatures in otoliths of snapper to act as natural tags of residency in seagrass beds, mangroves and coral reefs in the Red Sea, Caribbean Sea and Eastern Pacific Ocean. The δ13C values of otolith essential AAs varied as a function of habitat type and provided a better tracer of residence in juvenile nursery habitats than conventional bulk stable isotope analyses (SIA). Using our otolith AA SIA approach, we quantified the relative contribution of coastal wetlands and reef habitats to Lutjanus ehrenbergii populations on coastal, shelf and oceanic coral reefs in the Red Sea. L. ehrenbergii made significant ontogenetic migrations, traveling more than 30 km from juvenile nurseries to coral reefs and across deep open water. Coastal wetlands were important nurseries for L. ehrenbergii; however, there was significant plasticity in L. ehrenbergii juvenile habitat requirements. Seascape configuration played an important role in determining the functional connectivity of L

  2. Ciguatera fish toxicity in French Polynesia: size does not always matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaboriau, Matthias; Ponton, Dominique; Darius, H Taiana; Chinain, Mireille

    2014-06-01

    Accumulation of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in tropical reef fish tissues during their life is responsible of the most prevalent human seafood intoxication in the South Pacific called Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP). It has been assumed for a long time that CTXs are transferred and accumulated along the trophic food chain, and consequently that smaller individuals within a given fish species are safer to eat than larger ones. However, the relationship between toxicity and fish size has been studied for a limited number of species only and the conclusions are often contradictory. The toxicity of 856 fishes from 59 different species sampled in six islands in French Polynesia between 2003 and 2011 was assessed by Receptor Binding Assay. Among them, 45 species × island and 32 families × island for which the number of individuals was ≥6 allowed testing the relationship between toxicity and size. Except for six specimens of Lutjanus bohar caught in Fakarava (P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.854), the 44 remaining species × island showed no significant increase of CTXs concentration with fish total length (TL). Moreover, the proportion of toxic individuals decreased significantly for Epinephelus polyphekadion from Fakarava (n = 24; P < 0.05) and Kyphosus cinerascens from Raivavae (n = 29; P < 0.05), while no significant variation was detected for the other 43 species × island. At the family level, only three positive and three negative relationships between size and CTXs concentration were observed among the 32 family × island analyzed. No relationship between the proportion of toxic fish within a family and the relative total length of individuals were observed. The lack of relationship between toxicity and size observed for most of the species and families from the six islands suggests that fish size cannot be used as an efficient predictor of fish toxicity in French Polynesia. These results highlight the need for improving our knowledge about metabolic processes

  3. Beyond the transect: An alternative microchemical imaging method for fine scale analysis of trace elements in fish otoliths during early life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, Nicole; Fowler, Ashley M.; Parkinson, Kerryn; Bishop, David P.; Ganio, Katherine; Doble, Philip A.; Booth, David J.; Hare, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    Microchemical analysis of otolith (calcified ‘ear stones’ used for balance and orientation) of fishes is an important tool for studying their environmental history and management. However, the spatial resolution achieved is often too coarse to examine short-term events occurring in early life. Current methods rely on single points or transects across the otolith surface, which may provide a limited view of elemental distributions, a matter that has not previously been investigated. Imaging by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) permits microchemical analyses of short-term events in early life with high (< 10 μm) resolution, two-dimensional (2D) visualization of elemental distributions. To demonstrate the potential of this method, we mapped the concentrations of Sr and Ba, two key trace elements, in a small number of juvenile otoliths of neon damselfish (Pomacentrus coelestis) using an 8 μm beam diameter (laser fluence of 13.8 ± 3.5 J cm −2 ). Quantification was performed using the established method by Longerich et al. (1996), which is applied to 2D imaging of a biological matrix here for the first time. Accuracy of > 97% was achieved using a multi-point non matrix-matched calibration of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 610 and 612 (trace elements in glass) using Longerich's calculation method against the matrix-matched standard FEBS-1 (powdered red snapper [Lutjanus campechanus] otolith). The spatial resolution achieved in the otolith corresponded to a time period of 2 ± 1 days during the larval phase, and 4 ± 1 days during the post-settlement juvenile phase. This method has the potential to improve interpretations of early life-history events at scales corresponding to specific events. While the images showed gradients in Sr and Ba across the larval settlement zone more clearly than single transects, the method proved sample homogeneity throughout the structure; demonstrating that 2D

  4. [Species and size composition of fishes in Barra de Navidad lagoon, Mexican central Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sansón, Gaspar; Aguilar-Betancourt, Consuelo; Kosonoy-Aceves, Daniel; Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; Flores-Ortega, Juan Ramón; Hinojosa-Larios, Angel; de Asís Silva-Bátiz, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    Coastal lagoons are considered important nursery areas for many coastal fishes. Barra de Navidad coastal lagoon (3.76km2) is important for local economy as it supports tourism development and artisanal fisheries. However, the role of this lagoon in the dynamics of coastal fish populations is scarcely known. Thus, the objectives of this research were: to characterize the water of the lagoon and related weather conditions, to develop a systematic list of the ichthyofauna, and to estimate the proportion of juveniles in the total number of individuals captured of most abundant species. Water and fish samples were collected between March 2011 and February 2012. Physical and chemical variables were measured in rainy and dry seasons. Several fishing gears were used including a cast net, beach purse seine and gillnets of four different mesh sizes. Our results showed that the lagoon is most of the time euhaline (salinity 30-40ups), although it can be mixopolyhaline (salinity 18-30ups) during short periods. Chlorophyll and nutrients concentrations suggested eutrophication in the lagoon. Mean water temperature changed seasonally from 24.9 degrees C (April, high tide) to 31.4 degrees C (October, low tide). Considering ichthyofauna species, a total of 36 448 individuals of 92 species were collected, 31 of them adding up to 95% of the total of individuals caught. Dominant species were Anchoa spp. (44.6%), Diapterus peruvianus (10.5%), Eucinostomus currani (8.1%), Cetengraulis mysticetus (7.8%), Mugil curema (5.2%) and Opisthonema libertate (4.5%). The lagoon is an important juvenile habitat for 22 of the 31 most abundant species. These included several species of commercial importance such as snappers (Lutjanus argentiventris, L. colorado and L. novemfasciatus), snook (Centropomus nigrescens) and white mullet (Mugil curema). Other four species seem to use the lagoon mainly as adults. This paper is the first contribution on the composition of estuarine ichthyofauna in Jalisco

  5. Effects of preservation methods of muscle tissue from upper-trophic level reef fishes on stable isotope values (δ (13)C and δ (15)N).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Christopher D; Nelson, James A; Rozar, Katherine L; Adams, Charles S; Wall, Kara R; Switzer, Theodore S; Winner, Brent L; Hollander, David J

    2015-01-01

    Research that uses stable isotope analysis often involves a delay between sample collection in the field and laboratory processing, therefore requiring preservation to prevent or reduce tissue degradation and associated isotopic compositions. Although there is a growing literature describing the effects of various preservation techniques, the results are often contextual, unpredictable and vary among taxa, suggesting the need to treat each species individually. We conducted a controlled experiment to test the effects of four preservation methods of muscle tissue from four species of upper trophic-level reef fish collected from the eastern Gulf of Mexico (Red Grouper Epinephelus morio, Gag Mycteroperca microlepis, Scamp Mycteroperca phenax, and Red Snapper Lutjanus campechanus). We used a paired design to measure the effects on isotopic values for carbon and nitrogen after storage using ice, 95% ethanol, and sodium chloride (table salt), against that in a liquid nitrogen control. Mean offsets for both δ (13)C and δ (15)N values from controls were lowest for samples preserved on ice, intermediate for those preserved with salt, and highest with ethanol. Within species, both salt and ethanol significantly enriched the δ (15)N values in nearly all comparisons. Ethanol also had strong effects on the δ (13)C values in all three groupers. Conversely, for samples preserved on ice, we did not detect a significant offset in either isotopic ratio for any of the focal species. Previous studies have addressed preservation-induced offsets in isotope values using a mass balance correction that accounts for changes in the isotope value to that in the C/N ratio. We tested the application of standard mass balance corrections for isotope values that were significantly affected by the preservation methods and found generally poor agreement between corrected and control values. The poor performance by the correction may have been due to preferential loss of lighter isotopes and

  6. Effects of replacing fishmeal with animal by-products meal supplementation in diets on the growth and nutrient utilization of mangrove red snapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Khalid; Abbas, Ghulam; Akhtar, Rukhsana; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing

    2007-07-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 75 d to evaluate the nutritive value of a mixture of animal by-products (MAB) as a possible protein source in diets for juvenile mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (mean initial body weight, 30 g). Fish were fed one of five isonitrogenous diets (40% crude protein) replacing 0, 25% (MAB25), 50% (MAB50), 75% (MAB75) and 100% (MAB100) of fish meal protein with similar percentages of MAB. The MAB consisted of 25% cow liver meal, 20% leather meal, 20% meat and bone meal, 15% blood meal, 10% APC (poultry feather meal), 8% poultry manure dried, 1.5% choline and 0.5% chromic oxide. After 75 d of feeding, fish fed with diets MAB50, MAB75 and MAB100 exhibited significantly lower growth performance than that of fish fed with control and MAB25 diets. The optimum level of MAB was estimated to be 23%. Replacement of fish meal by MAB23% showed the following performance: maximum weight gain, 510%; SGR, 2.39% and FCE, 2.83%. The MAB substitution up to 75% of fish meal protein in diets did not show differences in apparent protein digestibility (83.6% for MAB25, 79.2% for MAB50, 78.7% for MAB75) compared with control (83.4%), whereas in MAB100 group digestibility (65.3%) was significantly lower than in other groups. The apparent phosphorus absorption of test diet groups was significantly higher (37.1% for MAB25, 28.5% for MAB50, 55.6% for MAB75 and 54.5% for MAB100) than that of control (11.2%). The levels of protein and ash in the whole body, carcass and viscera increased as MAB substitution in diets increased, whereas lipids and moisture remained consistent among all treatment groups. These results showed that approximately 23% of fish meal protein could be replaced by a mixture of animal by-products for juvenile snapper growing from 30 g to 167 g in 75 d without compromising growth performance and feed efficiency.

  7. Beyond the transect: An alternative microchemical imaging method for fine scale analysis of trace elements in fish otoliths during early life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Nicole [Elemental Bio-imaging Facility, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); CCFS ARC Centre of Excellence, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney (Australia); Fowler, Ashley M.; Parkinson, Kerryn [Fish Ecology Laboratory, School of the Environment, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Bishop, David P. [Elemental Bio-imaging Facility, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Ganio, Katherine [Florey Department of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Doble, Philip A. [Elemental Bio-imaging Facility, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Booth, David J. [Fish Ecology Laboratory, School of the Environment, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Hare, Dominic J., E-mail: dominic.hare@uts.edu.au [Elemental Bio-imaging Facility, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Florey Department of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2014-10-01

    Microchemical analysis of otolith (calcified ‘ear stones’ used for balance and orientation) of fishes is an important tool for studying their environmental history and management. However, the spatial resolution achieved is often too coarse to examine short-term events occurring in early life. Current methods rely on single points or transects across the otolith surface, which may provide a limited view of elemental distributions, a matter that has not previously been investigated. Imaging by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) permits microchemical analyses of short-term events in early life with high (< 10 μm) resolution, two-dimensional (2D) visualization of elemental distributions. To demonstrate the potential of this method, we mapped the concentrations of Sr and Ba, two key trace elements, in a small number of juvenile otoliths of neon damselfish (Pomacentrus coelestis) using an 8 μm beam diameter (laser fluence of 13.8 ± 3.5 J cm{sup −2}). Quantification was performed using the established method by Longerich et al. (1996), which is applied to 2D imaging of a biological matrix here for the first time. Accuracy of > 97% was achieved using a multi-point non matrix-matched calibration of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 610 and 612 (trace elements in glass) using Longerich's calculation method against the matrix-matched standard FEBS-1 (powdered red snapper [Lutjanus campechanus] otolith). The spatial resolution achieved in the otolith corresponded to a time period of 2 ± 1 days during the larval phase, and 4 ± 1 days during the post-settlement juvenile phase. This method has the potential to improve interpretations of early life-history events at scales corresponding to specific events. While the images showed gradients in Sr and Ba across the larval settlement zone more clearly than single transects, the method proved sample homogeneity throughout the structure; demonstrating that 2D

  8. Coastal rocky reef fishes of Santa Catarina's northern islands, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnatas Adelir Alves

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The coast of the state of Santa Catarina only has non-biogenic reefs, i.e. rocky and artificial reefs, and is considered the geographic south limit for many reef fish species. At present the diversity of organisms associated with reef environments is threatened. This study aimed to record the number of families and species of reef fish fauna of the north coast of the state of Santa Catarina. The data were collected through underwater visual census performed on Graças archipelago (26°12'S /48º29'W, Tamboretes archipelago (26°22'S/48°31'W and Barra do Sul islands (26°27'S/48º35'W. A total of 166 species was observed (6 elasmobranchii and 160 actinopterygii belonging to 66 families. The families with more species richness were Carangidae (16, Epinephelidae (9, Blenidae (8, Serranidae (7, Haemulidae (6, Sparidae (6 Tetraodontidae (6, Labridae-Scarini (5, Labrisomidae (5 Pomacentridae (5, Lutjanidae (5 and Muraenidae (5. This study add to the current published list, new 115 species, including new occurrences (e.g. Chromis limbata, and some endemic (e.g. Sparisoma amplum, exotic (e.g. Omobranchus punctatus, endangered (e.g. Hippocampus erectus and overexploited (e.g. Lutjanus analis species. Twenty one species are present in the IUCN’s list, twelve in the IBAMA’s list and four in the local list. All elasmobranchii recorded here are considered threatened species, like the brazilian guitarfish (Rhinobatos horkelii, which appears in three red lists, and it is considered critically endangered. All species of Epinephelidae are mentioned in the list of risk categories of the IUCN and five are cited as overexploited or threatened with overexploitation by IBAMA. Among Epinephelidae, the goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara, is present in all red lists and has specific protection rules in Brazil. The gathered information will allow to take appropriate conservation measures, such as the establishment of marine protected areas, monitoring of fishing

  9. Pembentukan Formaldehid Alami pada Beberapa Jenis Ikan Laut selama Penyimpanan dalam Es Curai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovita Tri Murtini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian kadar formaldehid alami pada beberapa jenis ikan laut selama penyimpanan dalam es curai telah dilakukan untuk mengetahui intensitas pembentukan formaldehid alami oleh ikan setelah mati. Hasil penelitian ini diharapkan dapat menjadi acuan untuk menduga kemungkinan dilakukannya penyalahgunaan formalin pada ikan. Penelitian dilakukan terhadap ikan laut hidup yang terdiri dari 6 jenis ikan yaitu bawal bintang (Trachinotus blochii, kakap putih (Lates calcarifer, bloch., cobia (Rachycentron canadum, bandeng (Chanos chanos, kerapu cantrang Epinephelus fuscoguttatus-lanceolatus, dan kakap merah/jenaha (Lutjanus johnii. Pengambilan sampel di lapangan dilakukan secara bertahap dan setiap pengambilan terdiri dari dua jenis ikan. Ikan tersebut dibawa ke laboratorium Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pengolahan Produk dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan (BBP4BKP dalam keadaan hidup, kemudian ikan dimatikan dengan cara hipotermal (dimasukkan dalam air es dengan suhu 0–4oC selama 30 menit. Setelah mati ikan dibagi menjadi 3 kelompok dan disimpan dalam peti insulasi yang berisi es dengan perbandingan ikan : es adalah 1 : 3. Pengamatan dilakukan setiap 3 hari selama 18 hari. Parameter yang diamati adalah kadar formaldehid, trimethil amin (TMA, trimethil amin oksida (TMAO dan kadar total volatile base (TVB serta komposisi proksimat pada hari pertama. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kandungan formaldehid alami pada hari ke 12 penyimpanan pada bawal bintang, kakap putih, cobia, bandeng, kakap merah, dan kerapu cantrang berturut-turut adalah 0.954; 1.572; 0.964; 0,715; 1.381; dan 1.303 ppm. Pada saat itu kondisi ikan masih segar dengan kandungan TVB di bawah 20 mN% kecuali ikan cobia (28,94 mgN%. Kandungan TMA berkisar 6,09–11,81 mgN% dan TMAO 3,22–11,3 mgN% dan selama penyimpanan cenderung meningkat.

  10. Molecular genetic diversity of Vibrio harveyi%哈维氏弧菌的分子遗传多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芝亮; 吴灶和; 简纪常; 黄郁葱

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi is known to be a major pathogen in mariculture animal systems. Disease outbreaks attributed to V. harveyi have been reported in main mariculture animal farm production. In recent years,mass mortalities of many cultured kinds of maricultured fishes, such as Litopenaeus vannamei, Pseudosciaena crocea, and Lutjanus sanguineus have occurred frequently infected by V. harveyi. In this article the 101 isolates of V. harveyi were subjected to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR and BOX-PCR analysis to investigate the genetic variability among V. harveyi strains. A total of 10 RAPD primers were designed for their specificity in detecting V. harveyi, and only the primer PM2 was highly reproducible and found suitable to use in RAPD-PCR. The genetic diversity among V. harveyi isolates assessed by RAPD-PCR by PM2 primer yielded 15 different RAPD patterns which clustered the isolates into 18 groups at 65% similarity level. Similarly, BOX-PCR clustered the 20 patterns into 15 groups at 40% similarity. However, with RAPD-PCR and BOX-PCR, 101 V. harveyi could be divided into 18 groups at 50% similarity. We could obtain the accurate results of molecular genetic diversity by both RAPD-PCR and BOX-PCR.%运用RAPD分型和BOX分型分子方法研究患病的海水鱼类体内和海水环境的101株哈维氏弧菌的分子遗传多样性.结果显示,从10个RAPD引物中发现只有PM2引物的分辨率和重复性较好,出现15条不同RAPD条带,在相似度65%下,101株哈维氏弧菌可以分为18种不同型;BOX分型出现20条不同的条带,在相似度为40%的情况下,可以把101株哈维式弧菌分15种不同的型;综合RAPD PM2和BOX分型,发现在相似度50%下,101株哈维氏弧菌可分18种型.综合RAPD和BOX分型数据可以很好地克服各自的缺点,得到更加准确的分型结果.

  11. Use of PIT tag and underwater video recording in assessing estuarine fish movement in a high intertidal mangrove and salt marsh creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynecke, Jan-Olaf; Poole, Geoffrey C.; Werry, Jonathan; Lee, Shing Yip

    2008-08-01

    We assessed movement patterns in relation to habitat availability (reflected by the extent of tidal flooding) for several commercially and recreationally important species in and out of a small mangrove creek within the subtropical Burrum River estuary (25°10'S 152°37'E) in Queensland, Australia. Movement patterns of Acanthopagrus australis, Pomadasys kaakan, Lutjanus russelli and Mugil cephalus were examined between December 2006 and April 2007 using a stationary passive integrated transponder (PIT) system adapted for saline environments (30-38 ppt) and underwater digital video cameras (DVCs). This is the second known application of a stationary PIT tag system to studying fish movement in estuarine environments. The transponder system was set in place for 104 days and recorded >5000 detections. Overall 'recapture' rate of tagged fish by the transponder system was >40%. We used PIT tags implanted in a total of 75 fish from a tidal creek connected to the main channel of the estuary. We also developed a high-resolution digital elevation (2.5 m cell size) model of the estuary derived from airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and aerial imagery to estimate inundation dynamics within the tidal creek, and related the timing of inundation in various habitats to the timing of fish immigration to and emigration from the creek. Over 50% of all tagged fish were moving in and out of the creek at a threshold level when 50% of the mangrove forest became flooded. Individuals of all four species moved into and out of the tidal creek repeatedly at different times depending on species and size, indicating strong residential behaviour within the estuary. The main activity of fishes was at night time. Manual interpretation of video from >700 fish sightings at three different mangrove sites confirmed the findings of the stationary PIT system, that the function of shelter vs food in mangrove habitat may be size dependent. Our established techniques assess the spatial ecology

  12. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (July 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. DAILIANIS

    2016-07-01

    . Lebanon: an array of records of 5 alien and one native Mediterranean species is reported by citizen-scientists; the Pacific jellyfish Phyllorhiza punctata and the Indo-Pacific teleosteans Tylerius spinosissimus, Ostracion cubicus, and Lutjanus argentimaculatus are reported from the Lebanese coast, the latter notably being the second record for the species in the Mediterranean Sea since 1977; the native sand snake-eel Ophisurus serpens, rare in the eastern Mediterranean, is reported for the first time from Lebanon, this being its easternmost distribution range; finally, a substantial number of sightings of the lionfish Pterois miles further confirm the current establishment of this lessepsian species in the Levantine.

  13. Biogeography of tropical Indo-West Pacific parasites: a cryptic species of Transversotrema and evidence for rarity of Transversotrematidae (Trematoda) in French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Thomas H; Adlard, Robert D; Bray, Rodney A; Sasal, Pierre; Cutmore, Scott C

    2014-04-01

    We sought transversotrematid trematodes from French Polynesian fishes by examining 304 individual scaled fishes of 53 species from seven families known to harbour the family elsewhere. A single species was found at two locations in the Tuamotus Archipelago on two species of Chaetodontidae (Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon ephippium) and one species of Lutjanidae (Lutjanus gibbus). The species closely resembles Transversotrema borboleta Hunter & Cribb, 2012 from chaetodontids and lutjanids of the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) but differs from it consistently in 8 base positions of ITS2 rDNA. This level of variation exceeds that between some clearly morphologically distinct pairs of species of Transversotrema and the form from French Polynesia is thus interpreted as a distinct, though cryptic, species and named Transversotrema polynesiae n. sp. The new species forms part of a complex of species, here characterised as the T. borboleta complex, associated with chaetodontids and lutjanids in the tropical Indo-West Pacific. Most of the putative species within this complex are yet to be described. Comparison of identical numbers of matched samples of fishes from French Polynesia, Heron Island (southern GBR) and Lizard Island (northern GBR) revealed 1, 4 and 10 species of Transversotrema respectively suggesting that the French Polynesian fauna is depauperate for this family. In addition to those species apparently missing from suitable hosts in French Polynesia, several species from further west infect fishes (especially Nemipteridae) that are themselves absent from French Polynesia. This dramatic east-west decline in richness contrasts strongly with what is known for monogeneans, which appear to maintain their richness over the same scale, and is more precipitate than is known for other groups of trematodes. The decline might be explained in part by the absence of the as yet unknown first intermediate hosts in French Polynesia. However, we predict that it is explained

  14. Ichthyofauna in an estuary of the Mataripe area, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Ferraz Dias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The community structure and dynamics as well as some biological parameters of selected species of the ichthyofauna of the Mataripe estuarine region affected by the Landulfo Alves Oil Refinery (RLAM were analyzed. Twenty stations were sampled with a gillnet in five different periods: August and December 2003, March and July/August 2004 and January 2005. Thirty-five actinopterygian species and one elasmobranch species were recorded, Oligoplites saurus, Diapterus rhombeus, Lutjanus synagris and Scomberomorus brasiliensis among them, on all the campaigns. A total of 1368 specimens, weighing 36.10 kg, were caught. The ichthyofauna total biomass was greater, in weight, on the eastern side of the study region, especially at the stations close to the shoals/reefs and the rocky bottom. A similar pattern was also observed for the diversity values. In general, low evenness and diversity were observed in the area studied, possibly as a result of the fishing gear used. D. rhombeus juveniles dominated in all but one of the samplings (July 2004, in which latter Cyclichthys spinosus was dominant. Carangids and species associated with consolidated bottoms were observed, although in small numbers, throughout the study period. In spite of the limitations imposed by the gear used for sampling, the estuarine area influenced by the RLAM was seen to play a role as a growth area for the great majority of species, especially the mojarra (D. rhombeus, but it offers no fishing potential due to the prevalence of young and small individuals. Evidence of imminent spawning was recorded for Pomadasys corvinaeformis in August 2003, and recent spawning in March 2004 for Oligoplites saurus. Further, mature individuals occurred in insufficient numbers to permit population level evaluation.A estrutura e dinâmica da ictiofauna amostrada na região estuarina de Mataripe sob a influência da Refinaria Landulpho Alves-Mataripe (RLAM foi analisada. Vinte estações foram amostradas com

  15. La pesca artesanal en las islas de Providencia y Santa Catalina (Caribe Colombiano: distribución espacial y temporal de los recursos capturados con línea de mano

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    Jairo Humberto Medina Calderón

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis para evaluar la pesca artesanal de las islas de Providencia y Santa Catalina, caribe colombiano, y establecer la dinámica de la pesquería con énfasis en aspectos ecológicos de la comunidad íctica que se extrae con el método de línea de mano. En ocho sitios de desembarco de productos pesqueros en las islas: Mountain, Santa Catalina, Free Town, Old Town, Lazy Hill, South West, Bottom House, y Rocky Point y mediante una serie de formatos se registró entre otros: la actividad diaria por método de pesca, la composición por especie de los desembarcos, sitios de pesca. A partir de esta información se cuantificaron 51 UEPS y se estimó un año pesquero de 303 días (promedio mensual 25 días, el esfuerzo anual como total de faenas fue de 2.888, de las cuales el 57% fueron realizadas utilizando línea de mano, buceo 40% y nasas 3%. Se muestreo el 23% (673 de las faenas estimadas en el 2001 (19% de buceo, 27% de línea de mano y 22% nasas. Se identificaron 96 especies correspondientes a 54 géneros, 28 familias, cuatro clases, tres Phylla. La captura total estimada para el año 2001 fue de 67.888 kg, de los cuales el 66% correspondió a línea de mano, seguido del buceo 26% y las nasas 8%. La composición de las especies capturadas mediante línea de mano arrojó que los demersales, 36 especies de peces, representaran el 47% (21.269 kg de la CT estimada, siendo las especies con mayor captura estimada el brim Etelis oculatus (6.482 kg, el "yellow eye" Lutjanus vivanus (2.435 kg y el satin Pristipomoides macrophthalmus (1.395 kg; el 37% (1.6467 kg fueron recursos pelágicos -15 especies-, siendo aquellas con mayor captura estimada el bonito Thunnus atlanticus (5.839 kg, la barra Sphyraena barracuda (4.240 kg y el king fish Acanthocybium solandri (4.138 kg; el 16% (7.119 kg lo constituyeron recursos demerso-pelágicos, 11 especies, las de mayor captura estimada fueron el "yellow tail" Ocyurus chrysurus (4.236 kg y el

  16. Composición por especies y tallas de los peces en la laguna Barra de Navidad, Pacífico central mexicano

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    Gaspar González-Sansón

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Las lagunas costeras son consideradas áreas de crianza importantes para muchas especies de peces costeros. La laguna costera Barra de Navidad (3.76km² es importante para la economía local y soporta un desarrollo turístico y pesquerías artesanales. Sin embargo, el rol de esta laguna en la dinámica de las poblaciones de peces costeros es poco conocido. Los objetivos de la investigación fueron: caracterizar el agua de la laguna y las condiciones climáticas relacionadas, elaborar el elenco sistemático de la ictiofauna y estimar la proporción de juveniles en el total de individuos capturados de las especies más abundantes. Las operaciones de recolecta de peces se realizaron entre marzo 2011 y febrero 2012. Se utilizaron varios artes de pesca diferentes que incluyeron atarraya, chinchorro playero y redes de agalla con cuatro tamaños de malla diferentes. Se midieron las variables físicas y químicas en épocas de lluvias y de secas. La laguna es euhalina (salinidad 30-40 ups la mayor parte del tiempo, aunque en determinados periodos cortos puede tener características mixopolihalinas (salinidad 18-30 ups. Las concentraciones de clorofila y nutrientes indican que la laguna está eutrofizada. La temperatura media del agua varió estacionalmente de 24.9°C (abril, pleamar a 31.4°C (octubre, bajamar. Se recolectaron en total 36 448 individuos, pertenecientes a 92 especies, de las cuales 31 tienen una relevancia ecológica con base en el número de individuos capturados. Las especies dominantes fueron: Anchoa spp. (44.6%, Diapterus peruvianus (10.5%, Eucinostomus currani (8.1%, Cetengraulis mysticetus (7.8%, Mugil curema (5.2% y Opisthonema libertate (4.5%. La laguna es un hábitat de juveniles importante para 22 de las 31 especies más abundantes. Estas incluyeron algunas especies de importancia comercial como los pargos (Lutjanus argentiventris, L. colorado y L. novemfasciatus, el robalo (Centropomus nigrescens y la lisa (Mugil curema. Otras

  17. Reproducción y alimentación del tiburón enano Mustelus dorsalis (Pisces: Triakidae en el Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica: Elementos para un manejo sostenible

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    José Rodrigo Rojas M

    2006-09-01

    , respectively. All samples collected were mature and the minimum length to first maturity observed is 500 and 541 mm for females and males, respectively. From September to March individuals were mature, while samples caught during April and August were immature. A total of 1 259 embryos were analyzed. Number of embryos per liter ranged from two to six, the total length is from 130 to 205 mm and the weight from 6 to 35 g. This shark is a polyphagous opportunistic carnivore that preys on crustaceans (Squilla hancocki, S. parva, Litopenaeus sp., fishes (Anchoa sp., Caranx sp., Lutjanus sp., Engraulis sp. and mollusks (Loligo sp. and Octopus sp.. Main prey item was S. hancocki. The presence of mature sharks of both sexes along the year and the consumption of food items associated to shallow coastal rocky waters suggest that this sector of Nicoya Gulf is a nursery ground and an essential habitat. Based on these results the establishment of an integral management plan is proposed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 861-871. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.