WorldWideScience

Sample records for lunar prospector mission

  1. First results from the Mojave Volatiles Prospector (MVP) Field Campaign, a Lunar Polar Rover Mission Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, J. L.; Colaprete, A.; Cook, A.; Deans, M. C.; Elphic, R. C.; Lim, D. S. S.; Skok, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Mojave Volatiles Prospector (MVP) project is a science-driven field program with the goal to produce critical knowledge for conducting robotic exploration of the Moon. MVP will feed science, payload, and operational lessons learned to the development of a real-time, short-duration lunar polar volatiles prospecting mission. MVP achieves these goals through a simulated lunar rover mission to investigate the composition and distribution of surface and subsurface volatiles in a natural and a priori unknown environment within the Mojave Desert, improving our understanding of how to find, characterize, and access volatiles on the Moon. The MVP field site is the Mojave Desert, selected for its low, naturally occurring water abundance. The Mojave typically has on the order of 2-6% water, making it a suitable lunar analog for this field test. MVP uses the Near Infrared and Visible Spectrometer Subsystem (NIRVSS), Neutron Spectrometer Subsystem (NSS), and a downward facing GroundCam camera on the KREX-2 rover to investigate the relationship between the distribution of volatiles and soil crust variation. Through this investigation, we mature robotic in situ instruments and concepts of instrument operations, improve ground software tools for real time science, and carry out publishable research on the water cycle and its connection to geomorphology and mineralogy in desert environments. A lunar polar rover mission is unlike prior space missions and requires a new concept of operations. The rover must navigate 3-5 km of terrain and examine multiple sites in in just ~6 days. Operational decisions must be made in real time, requiring constant situational awareness, data analysis and rapid turnaround decision support tools. This presentation will focus on the first science results and operational architecture findings from the MVP field deployment relevant to a lunar polar rover mission.

  2. Lunar polar rover science operations: Lessons learned and mission architecture implications derived from the Mojave Volatiles Prospector (MVP) terrestrial field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.; Lim, Darlene; Deans, Matthew; Cook, Amanda; Roush, Ted; Skok, J. R.; Button, Nicole E.; Karunatillake, S.; Stoker, Carol; Marquez, Jessica J.; Shirley, Mark; Kobayashi, Linda; Lees, David; Bresina, John; Hunt, Rusty

    2016-08-01

    The Mojave Volatiles Prospector (MVP) project is a science-driven field program with the goal of producing critical knowledge for conducting robotic exploration of the Moon. Specifically, MVP focuses on studying a lunar mission analog to characterize the form and distribution of lunar volatiles. Although lunar volatiles are known to be present near the poles of the Moon, the three dimensional distribution and physical characteristics of lunar polar volatiles are largely unknown. A landed mission with the ability to traverse the lunar surface is thus required to characterize the spatial distribution of lunar polar volatiles. NASA's Resource Prospector (RP) mission is a lunar polar rover mission that will operate primarily in sunlit regions near a lunar pole with near-real time operations to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of volatiles. The MVP project was conducted as a field campaign relevant to the RP lunar mission to provide science, payload, and operational lessons learned to the development of a real-time, short-duration lunar polar volatiles prospecting mission. To achieve these goals, the MVP project conducted a simulated lunar rover mission to investigate the composition and distribution of surface and subsurface volatiles in a natural environment with an unknown volatile distribution within the Mojave Desert, improving our understanding of how to find, characterize, and access volatiles on the Moon.

  3. Lunar Prospector Orbit Determination Uncertainties Using the High Resolution Lunar Gravity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Eric; Konopliv, Alex; Ryne, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector (LP) mission began on January 6, 1998, when the LP spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The objectives of the mission were to determine whether water ice exists at the lunar poles, generate a global compositional map of the lunar surface, detect lunar outgassing, and improve knowledge of the lunar magnetic and gravity fields. Orbit determination of LP performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducted as part of the principal science investigation of the lunar gravity field. This paper will describe the JPL effort in support of the LP Gravity Investigation. This support includes high precision orbit determination, gravity model validation, and data editing. A description of the mission and its trajectory will be provided first, followed by a discussion of the orbit determination estimation procedure and models. Accuracies will be examined in terms of orbit-to-orbit solution differences, as a function of oblateness model truncation, and inclination in the plane-of-sky. Long term predictions for several gravity fields will be compared to the reconstructed orbits to demonstrate the accuracy of the orbit determination and oblateness fields developed by the Principal Gravity Investigator.

  4. Critical Robotic Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, J. B.

    2018-04-01

    Perhaps the most critical missions to understanding lunar history are in situ dating and network missions. These would constrain the volcanic and thermal history and interior structure. These data would better constrain lunar evolution models.

  5. Development, Demonstration and Validation of the Deep Space Orbit Determination Software Using Lunar Prospector Tracking Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunji Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The deep space orbit determination software (DSODS is a part of a flight dynamic subsystem (FDS for the Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO, a lunar exploration mission expected to launch after 2018. The DSODS consists of several sub modules, of which the orbit determination (OD module employs a weighted least squares algorithm for estimating the parameters related to the motion and the tracking system of the spacecraft, and subroutines for performance improvement and detailed analysis of the orbit solution. In this research, DSODS is demonstrated and validated at lunar orbit at an altitude of 100 km using actual Lunar Prospector tracking data. A set of a priori states are generated, and the robustness of DSODS to the a priori error is confirmed by the NASA planetary data system (PDS orbit solutions. Furthermore, the accuracy of the orbit solutions is determined by solution comparison and overlap analysis as about tens of meters. Through these analyses, the ability of the DSODS to provide proper orbit solutions for the KPLO are proved.

  6. Prospective Ukrainian lunar orbiter mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkuratov, Y.; Litvinenko, L.; Shulga, V.; Yatskiv, Y.; Kislyuk, V.

    Ukraine has launch vehicles that are able to deliver about 300 kg to the lunar orbit. Future Ukrainian lunar program may propose a polar orbiter. This orbiter should fill principal information gaps in our knowledge about the Moon after Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions and the future missions, like Smart-1, Lunar-A, and Selene. We consider that this can be provided by radar studies of the Moon with supporting optical polarimetric observations from lunar polar orbit. These experiments allow one to better understand global structure of the lunar surface in a wide range of scales, from microns to kilometers. We propose three instruments for the prospective lunar orbiter. They are: a synthetic aperture imaging radar (SAR), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and imaging polarimeter (IP). The main purpose of SAR is to study with high resolution (50 m) the permanently shadowed sites in the lunar polar regions. These sites are cold traps for volatiles, and have a potential of resource utilization. Possible presence of water ice in the regolith in the sites makes them interesting for permanent manned bases on the Moon. Radar imaging and mapping of other interesting regions could be also planned. Multi-frequencies multi-polarization soun d ing of the lunar surface with GPR can provide information about internal structure of the lunar surface from meters to several hundred meters deep. GPR can be used for measuring the megaregolith layer properties, detection of cryptomaria, and studies of internal structure of the largest craters. IP will be a CCD camera with an additional suite of polarizers. Modest spatial resolution (100 m) should provide a total coverage or a large portion of the lunar surface in oblique viewing basically at large phase angles. Polarization degree at large (>90°) phase angles bears information about characteristic size of the regolith particles. Additional radiophysical experiments are considered with the use of the SAR system, e.g., bistatic radar

  7. LAVA Subsystem Integration and Testing for the RESOLVE Payload of the Resource Prospector Mission: Mass Spectrometers and Gas Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, Mary R.; Stewart, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    The Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload is part of Resource Prospector (RP) along with a rover and a lander that are expected to launch in 2020. RP will identify volatile elements that may be combined and collected to be used for fuel, air, and water in order to enable deeper space exploration. The Resource Prospector mission is a key part of In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). The demand for this method of utilizing resources at the site of exploration is increasing due to the cost of resupply missions and deep space exploration goals. The RESOLVE payload includes the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) subsystem. The main instrument used to identify the volatiles evolved from the lunar regolith is the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). LAVA analyzes the volatiles emitted from the Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) Subsystem. The objective of OVEN is to obtain, weigh, heat and transfer evolved gases to LAVA through the connection between the two subsystems called the LOVEN line. This paper highlights the work completed during a ten week internship that involved the integration, testing, data analysis, and procedure documentation of two candidate mass spectrometers for the LAVA subsystem in order to aid in determining which model to use for flight. Additionally, the examination of data from the integrated Resource Prospector '15 (RP' 15) field test will be presented in order to characterize the amount of water detected from water doped regolith samples.

  8. Distribution of iron and titanium on the lunar surface from lunar prospector gamma ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prettyman, T.H.; Feldman, W.C.; Lawrence, David J.; Elphic, R.C.; Gasnault, O.M.; Maurice, S.; Moore, K.R.; Binder, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    Gamma ray pulse height spectra acquired by the Lunar Prospector (LP) Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) contain information on the abundance of major elements in the lunar surface, including O, Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, and Th. With the exception of Th and K, prompt gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with surface materials are used to determine elemental abundance. Most of these gamma rays are produced by inelastic scattering of fast neutrons and by neutron capture. The production of neutron-induced gamma rays reaches a maximum deep below the surface (e.g. ∼140 g/cm 2 for inelastic scattering and ∼50 g/cm 2 for capture). Consequently, gamma rays sense the bulk composition of lunar materials, in contrast to optical methods (e.g. Clementine Spectral Reflectance (CSR)), which only sample the top few microns. Because most of the gamma rays are produced deep beneath the surface, few escape unscattered and the continuum of scattered gamma rays dominates the spectrum. In addition, due to the resolution of the spectrometer, there are few well-isolated peaks and peak fitting algorithms must be used to deconvolve the spectrum in order to determine the contribution of individual elements.

  9. Preliminary Radiation Analysis of the Total Ionizing Dose for the Resource Prospector Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Tylka, Allan J.; Atwell, William

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Resource Prospector (RP) is a collaborative project between multiple centers and institutions to search for volatiles at the polar regions of the Moon as a potential resource for oxygen and propellant production. The mission is rated Class D and will be the first In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) demonstration on the lunar surface and at the lunar poles. Given that this mission is rated Class D, the project is considering using commercial off the shelf (COTS) electronics parts to reduce cost. However, COTS parts can be more susceptible to space radiation than typical aerospace electronic parts and carry some additional risk. Thus, prior to parts selection, having a better understanding of the radiation environment can assist designers in the parts selection process. The focus of this paper is to provide a preliminary analysis of the radiation environment from launch, through landing on the surface, and some surface stay as an initial step in determining worst case mission doses to assist designers in screening out electronic parts that would not meet the potential dose levels experienced on this mission.

  10. Lunar Exploration Missions Since 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S. J. (Editor); Gaddis, L. R.; Joy, K. H.; Petro, N. E.

    2017-01-01

    The announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration in 2004 sparked a resurgence in lunar missions worldwide. Since the publication of the first "New Views of the Moon" volume, as of 2017 there have been 11 science-focused missions to the Moon. Each of these missions explored different aspects of the Moon's geology, environment, and resource potential. The results from this flotilla of missions have revolutionized lunar science, and resulted in a profoundly new emerging understanding of the Moon. The New Views of the Moon II initiative itself, which is designed to engage the large and vibrant lunar science community to integrate the results of these missions into new consensus viewpoints, is a direct outcome of this impressive array of missions. The "Lunar Exploration Missions Since 2006" chapter will "set the stage" for the rest of the volume, introducing the planetary community at large to the diverse array of missions that have explored the Moon in the last decade. Content: This chapter will encompass the following missions: Kaguya; ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun); Chang’e-1; Chandrayaan-1; Moon Impact Probe; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Lunar Crater Observation Sensing Satellite (LCROSS); Chang’e-2; Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL); Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE); Chang’e-3.

  11. Basic radio interferometry for future lunar missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aminaei, Amin; Klein Wolt, Marc; Chen, Linjie; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Pourshaghaghi, Hamid Reza; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Falcke, Heino

    2014-01-01

    In light of presently considered lunar missions, we investigate the feasibility of the basic radio interferometry (RIF) for lunar missions. We discuss the deployment of two-element radio interferometer on the Moon surface. With the first antenna element is envisaged to be placed on the lunar lander,

  12. Apollo Missions to the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Paige V.

    2018-01-01

    Six Apollo missions to the Moon, from 1969-1972, enabled astronauts to collect and bring lunar rocks and materials from the lunar surface to Earth. Apollo lunar samples are curated by NASA Astromaterials at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX. Samples continue to be studied and provide clues about our early Solar System. Learn more and view collected samples at: https://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar.

  13. First Results from ARTEMIS, A New Two-Spacecraft Lunar Mission: Counter-Streaming Plasma Populations in the Lunar Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halekas, J. S.; Angelopoulos, V.; Sibeck, D. G.; Khurana, K. K.; Russell, C. T.; Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.; McFadden, J. P.; Bonnell, J. W.; Larson, D.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present observations from the first passage through the lunar plasma wake by one of two spacecraft comprising ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun), a new lunar mission that re-tasks two of five probes from the THEMIS magnetospheric mission. On Feb 13, 2010, ARTEMIS probe P1 passed through the wake at approximately 3.5 lunar radii downstream from the Moon, in a region between those explored by Wind and the Lunar Prospector, Kaguya, Chandrayaan, and Chang'E missions. ARTEMIS observed interpenetrating proton, alpha particle, and electron populations refilling the wake along magnetic field lines from both flanks. The characteristics of these distributions match expectations from self-similar models of plasma expansion into vacuum, with an asymmetric character likely driven by a combination of a tilted interplanetary magnetic field and an anisotropic incident solar wind electron population. On this flyby, ARTEMIS provided unprecedented measurements of the interpenetrating beams of both electrons and ions naturally produced by the filtration and acceleration effects of electric fields set up during the refilling process. ARTEMIS also measured electrostatic oscillations closely correlated with counter-streaming electron beams in the wake, as previously hypothesized but never before directly measured. These observations demonstrate the capability of the comprehensively instrumented ARTEMIS spacecraft and the potential for new lunar science from this unique two spacecraft constellation.

  14. The Near Side : Regional Lunar Gravity Field Determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the past ten years the Moon has come fully back into focus, resulting in missions such as Clementine and Lunar Prospector. Data from these missions resulted in a boost in lunar gravity field modelling. Until this date, the lunar gravity field has mainly been expressed in a global representation,

  15. Cryogenic propulsion for lunar and Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, Larry

    1988-01-01

    Future missions to the moon and Mars have been investigated with regard to propulsion system selection. The results of this analysis show that near state-of-the-art LO2/LH2 propulsion technology provides a feasible means of performing lunar missions and trans-Mars injections. In other words, existing cryogenic space engines with certain modifications and product improvements would be suitable for these missions. In addition, present day cryogenic system tankage and structural weights appear to scale reasonably when sizing for large payload and high energy missions such as sending men to Mars.

  16. International partnership in lunar missions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    related to space science and Moon missions are being addressed in this conference. .... flight. The studies in India suggest that an 'aerobic' space transportation vehicle can indeed have a ... space from Earth at very, very low cost first before.

  17. Lunar Robotic Precursor Missions Using Electric Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Winski, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    A trade study is carried out for the design of electric propulsion based lunar robotic precursor missions. The focus is to understand the relationships between payload mass delivered, electric propulsion power, and trip time. The results are compared against a baseline system using chemical propulsion with LOX/H2. The major differences between the chemical propulsion based and electric propulsion based systems are presented in terms of the payload mass and trip time. It is shown that solar e...

  18. Lunar mission design using nuclear thermal rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancati, M.L.; Collins, J.T.; Borowski, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The NERVA-class Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR), with performance nearly double that of advanced chemical engines, has long been considered an enabling technology for human missions to Mars. NTR engines address the demanding trip time and payload delivery needs of both cargo-only and piloted flights. But NTR can also reduce the Earth launch requirements for manned lunar missions. First use of NTR for the Moon would be less demanding and would provide a test-bed for early operations experience with this powerful technology. Study of application and design options indicates that NTR propulsion can be integrated with the Space Exploration Initiative scenarios to deliver performance gains while managing controlled, long-term disposal of spent reactors to highly stable orbits

  19. Rover deployment system for lunar landing mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutoh, Masataku; Hoshino, Takeshi; Wakabayashi, Sachiko

    2017-09-01

    For lunar surface exploration, a deployment system is necessary to allow a rover to leave the lander. The system should be as lightweight as possible and stored retracted when launched. In this paper, two types of retractable deployment systems for lunar landing missions, telescopic- and fold-type ramps, are discussed. In the telescopic-type system, a ramp is stored with the sections overlapping and slides out during deployment. In the fold-type system, it is stored folded and unfolds for the deployment. For the development of these ramps, a design concept study and structural analysis were conducted first. Subsequently, ramp deployment and rover release tests were performed using the developed ramp prototypes. Through these tests, the validity of their design concepts and functions have been confirmed. In the rover release test, it was observed that the developed lightweight ramp was sufficiently strong for a 50-kg rover to descend. This result suggests that this ramp system is suitable for the deployment of a 300-kg-class rover on the Moon, where the gravity is about one-sixth that on Earth. The lightweight and sturdy ramp developed in this study will contribute to both safe rover deployment and increase of lander/rover payload.

  20. Lunar Penetrating Radar onboard the Chang'e-3 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guang-You; Zhou, Bin; Ji, Yi-Cai; Zhang, Qun-Ying; Shen, Shao-Xiang; Li, Yu-Xi; Guan, Hong-Fei; Tang, Chuan-Jun; Gao, Yun-Ze; Lu, Wei; Ye, Sheng-Bo; Han, Hai-Dong; Zheng, Jin; Wang, Shu-Zhi

    2014-12-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) is one of the important scientific instruments onboard the Chang'e-3 spacecraft. Its scientific goals are the mapping of lunar regolith and detection of subsurface geologic structures. This paper describes the goals of the mission, as well as the basic principles, design, composition and achievements of the LPR. Finally, experiments on a glacier and the lunar surface are analyzed.

  1. Astronomy from the Moon and International Lunar Observatory Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, S.; Takahashi, Y. D.

    2018-04-01

    Astronomy from the Moon provides a promising new frontier for 21st century astrophysics and related science activity. International Lunar Observatory Association is an enterprise advancing missions to the Moon for observation and communication.

  2. A Dual Launch Robotic and Human Lunar Mission Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David L.; Mulqueen, Jack; Percy, Tom; Griffin, Brand; Smitherman, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive lunar exploration architecture developed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office that features a science-based surface exploration strategy and a transportation architecture that uses two launches of a heavy lift launch vehicle to deliver human and robotic mission systems to the moon. The principal advantage of the dual launch lunar mission strategy is the reduced cost and risk resulting from the development of just one launch vehicle system. The dual launch lunar mission architecture may also enhance opportunities for commercial and international partnerships by using expendable launch vehicle services for robotic missions or development of surface exploration elements. Furthermore, this architecture is particularly suited to the integration of robotic and human exploration to maximize science return. For surface operations, an innovative dual-mode rover is presented that is capable of performing robotic science exploration as well as transporting human crew conducting surface exploration. The dual-mode rover can be deployed to the lunar surface to perform precursor science activities, collect samples, scout potential crew landing sites, and meet the crew at a designated landing site. With this approach, the crew is able to evaluate the robotically collected samples to select the best samples for return to Earth to maximize the scientific value. The rovers can continue robotic exploration after the crew leaves the lunar surface. The transportation system for the dual launch mission architecture uses a lunar-orbit-rendezvous strategy. Two heavy lift launch vehicles depart from Earth within a six hour period to transport the lunar lander and crew elements separately to lunar orbit. In lunar orbit, the crew transfer vehicle docks with the lander and the crew boards the lander for descent to the surface. After the surface mission, the crew returns to the orbiting transfer vehicle for the return to the Earth. This

  3. Review on abort trajectory for manned lunar landing mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Abort trajectory is a passage that ensures the astronauts to return safely to the earth when an emergency occurs. Firstly,the essential elements of mission abort are analyzed entirely based on summarizing the existing studies. Then,abort trajectory requirement and rational selection for different flight phases of typical manned lunar mission are discussed specifically. Considering a trade-off between the two primary constrains of an abort,the return time of flight and energy requirement,a general optimizing method for mission abort is proposed. Finally,some suggestions are given for China’s future manned lunar landing mission.

  4. The Lunar Transit Telescope (LTT) - An early lunar-based science and engineering mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgraw, John T.

    1992-01-01

    The Sentinel, the soft-landed lunar telescope of the LTT project, is described. The Sentinel is a two-meter telescope with virtually no moving parts which accomplishes an imaging survey of the sky over almost five octaves of the electromagnetic spectrum from the ultraviolet into the infrared, with an angular resolution better than 0.1 arsec/pixel. The Sentinel will incorporate innovative techniques of interest for future lunar-based telescopes and will return significant engineering data which can be incorporated into future lunar missions. The discussion covers thermal mapping of the Sentinel, measurement of the cosmic ray flux, lunar dust, micrometeoroid flux, the lunar atmosphere, and lunar regolith stability and seismic activity.

  5. The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riris, H.; Cavanaugh, J.; Sun, X.; Liiva, P.; Rodriguez, M.; Neuman, G.

    2017-11-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument [1-3] on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission, launched on June 18th, 2009, from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, will provide a precise global lunar topographic map using laser altimetry. LOLA will assist in the selection of landing sites on the Moon for future robotic and human exploration missions and will attempt to detect the presence of water ice on or near the surface, which is one of the objectives of NASA's Exploration Program. Our present knowledge of the topography of the Moon is inadequate for determining safe landing areas for NASA's future lunar exploration missions. Only those locations, surveyed by the Apollo missions, are known with enough detail. Knowledge of the position and characteristics of the topographic features on the scale of a lunar lander are crucial for selecting safe landing sites. Our present knowledge of the rest of the lunar surface is at approximately 1 km kilometer level and in many areas, such as the lunar far side, is on the order of many kilometers. LOLA aims to rectify that and provide a precise map of the lunar surface on both the far and near side of the moon. LOLA uses short (6 ns) pulses from a single laser through a Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) to produce a five-beam pattern that illuminates the lunar surface. For each beam, LOLA measures the time of flight (range), pulse spreading (surface roughness), and transmit/return energy (surface reflectance). LOLA will produce a high-resolution global topographic model and global geodetic framework that enables precise targeting, safe landing, and surface mobility to carry out exploratory activities. In addition, it will characterize the polar illumination environment, and image permanently shadowed regions of the lunar surface to identify possible locations of surface ice crystals in shadowed polar craters.

  6. Trajectory Design for the Lunar Polar Hydrogen Mapper Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Dunham, David W.

    2017-01-01

    The presented trajectory was designed for the Lunar Polar Hydrogen Mapper (LunaH-Map) 6U CubeSat, which was awarded a ride on NASAs Space Launch System (SLS) with Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) via NASAs 2015 SIMPLEX proposal call. After deployment from EM-1s upper stage (which is planned to enter heliocentric space via a lunar flyby), the LunaH-Map CubeSat will alter its trajectory via its low-thrust ion engine to target a lunar flyby that yields a Sun-Earth-Moon weak stability boundary transfer to set up a ballistic lunar capture. Finally, the orbit energy is lowered to reach the required quasi-frozen science orbit with periselene above the lunar south pole.

  7. CE-4 Mission and Future Journey to Lunar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yongliao; Wang, Qin; Liu, Xiaoqun

    2016-07-01

    Chang'E-4 mission, being undertaken by phase two of China Lunar Exploration Program, represents China's first attempt to explore farside of lunar surface. Its probe includes a lander, a rover and a telecommunication relay which is scheduled to launch in around 2018. The scientific objectives of CE-4 mission will be implemented to investigate the lunar regional geological characteristics of landing and roving area, and also will make the first radio-astronomy measurements from the most radio-quiet region of near-earth space. The rover will opreate for at least 3 months, the lander for half a year, and the relay for no less than 3 years. Its scinetific instruments includes Cameras, infrared imaging spectrometer, Penetrating Radar onboard the rover in which is the same as the paylads on board the CE-3 rover, and a Dust-analyzer, a Temperature-instrument and a Wide Band Low Frequency Digital Radio Astronomical Station will be installed on board the lander. Our scientific goals of the future lunar exploration will aim at the lunar geology, resources and surface environments. A series of exploraion missions such as robotic exploration and non-manned lunar scientific station is proposed in this paper.

  8. Introduction of JAXA Lunar and Planetary Exploration Data Analysis Group: Landing Site Analysis for Future Lunar Polar Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, H.; Ohtake, M.; Ishihara, Y.; Masuda, K.; Sato, H.; Inoue, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Hoshino, T.; Wakabayashi, S.; Hashimoto, T.

    2018-04-01

    JAXA established JAXA Lunar and Planetary Exploration Data Analysis Group (JLPEDA) at 2016. Our group has been analyzing lunar and planetary data for various missions. Here, we introduce one of our activities.

  9. Kickstarting a New Era of Lunar Industrialization via Campaign of Lunar COTS Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Allison F.; Turner, Mark; Rasky, Daniel; Pittman, Robert B.; Zapata, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    To support the goals of expanding our human presence and current economic sphere beyond LEO, a new plan was constructed for NASA to enter into partnerships with industry to foster and incentivize a new era of lunar industrialization. For NASA to finally be successful in achieving sustainable human exploration missions beyond LEO, lessons learned from our space history have shown that it is essential for current program planning to include affordable and economic development goals as well as address top national priorities to obtain much needed public support. In the last 58 years of NASA's existence, only Apollo's human exploration missions beyond LEO were successful since it was proclaimed to be a top national priority during the 1960's. However, the missions were not sustainable and ended abruptly in 1972 due to lack of funding and insufficient economic gain. Ever since Apollo, there have not been any human missions beyond LEO because none of the proposed program plans were economical or proclaimed a top national priority. The proposed plan outlines a new campaign of low-cost, commercial-enabled lunar COTS (Commercial Orbital Transfer Services) missions which is an update to the Lunar COTS plan previously described. The objectives of this new campaign of missions are to prospect for resources, determine the economic viability of extracting those resources and assess the value proposition of using these resources in future exploration architectures such as Mars. These missions would be accomplished in partnership with commercial industry using the wellproven COTS Program acquisition model. This model proved to be very beneficial to both NASA and its industry partners as NASA saved significantly in development and operational costs, as much as tenfold, while industry partners successfully expanded their market share and demonstrated substantial economic gain. Similar to COTS, the goals for this new initiative are 1) to develop and demonstrate cost-effective, cis-lunar

  10. Critical early mission design considerations for lunar data systems architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Stephens, Elaine

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines recent early mission design activites for a lunar data systems architecture. Each major functional element is shown to be strikingly similar when viewed in a common reference system. While this similarity probably deviates with lower levels of decomposition, the sub-functions can always be arranged into similar and dissimilar categories. Similar functions can be implemented as objects - implemented once and reused several times like today's advanced integrated circuits. This approach to mission data systems, applied to other NASA programs, may result in substantial agency implementation and maintenance savings. In today's zero-sum-game budgetary environment, this approach could help to enable a lunar exploration program in the next decade. Several early mission studies leading to such an object-oriented data systems design are recommended.

  11. ESA strategy for human exploration and the Lunar Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, B.

    As part of ESAs Aurora Exploration programme, the Agency has defined, since 2001, a road map for exploration in which, alongside robotic exploration missions, the International Space Station (ISS) and the Moon play an essential role on the way to other destinations in the Solar System, ultimately to a human mission to Mars in a more distant future. In the frame of the Human Spaceflight programme the first European Lunar Lander Mission, with a launch date on 2018, has been defined, targeting the lunar South Pole region to capitalize on unique illumination conditions and provide the opportunity to carry out scientific investigations in a region of the Moon not explored so far. The Phase B1 industrial study, recently initiated, will consolidate the mission design and prepare the ground for the approval of the full mission development phase at the 2012 ESA Council at Ministerial. This paper describes the mission options which have been investigated in the past Phase A studies and presents the main activities foreseen in the Phase B1 to consolidate the mission design, including a robust bread-boards and technology development programme. In addition, the approach to overcoming the mission's major technical and environmental challenges and the activities to advance the definition of the payload elements will be described.

  12. Robust Exploration and Commercial Missions to the Moon Using LANTR Propulsion and In-Situ Propellants Derived From Lunar Polar Ice (LPI) Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Ryan, Stephen W.; Burke, Laura M.; McCurdy, David R.; Fittje, James E.; Joyner, Claude R.

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1960s, scientists have conjectured that water icecould survive in the cold, permanently shadowed craters located at the Moons poles Clementine (1994), Lunar Prospector (1998),Chandrayaan-1 (2008), and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite(LCROSS) (2009) lunar probes have provided data indicating the existence of large quantities of water ice at the lunar poles The Mini-SAR onboard Chandrayaan-1discovered more than 40 permanently shadowed craters near the lunar north pole that are thought to contain 600 million metric tons of water ice. Using neutron spectrometer data, the Lunar Prospector science team estimated a water ice content (1.5 +-0.8 wt in the regolith) found in the Moons polar cold trap sand estimated the total amount of water at both poles at 2 billion metric tons Using Mini-RF and spectrometry data, the LRO LCROSS science team estimated the water ice content in the regolith in the south polar region to be 5.6 +-2.9 wt. On the basis of the above scientific data, it appears that the water ice content can vary from 1-10 wt and the total quantity of LPI at both poles can range from 600 million to 2 billion metric tons NTP offers significant benefits for lunar missions and can take advantage of the leverage provided from using LDPs when they become available by transitioning to LANTR propulsion. LANTR provides a variablethrust and Isp capability, shortens burn times and extends engine life, and allows bipropellant operation The combination of LANTR and LDP has performance capability equivalent to that of a hypothetical gaseousfuel core NTR (effective Isp 1575 s) and can lead to a robust LTS with unique mission capabilities that include short transit time crewed cargo transports and routine commuter flights to the Moon The biggest challenge to making this vision a reality will be the production of increasing amounts of LDP andthe development of propellant depots in LEO, LLO and LPO. An industry

  13. Closed-Loop Pure Oxygen Static Feed Fuel Cell for Lunar Missions, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In order to address the NASA lunar mission, DESC proposes to develop a proton exchange membrane (PEM) closed-loop pure oxygen fuel cell for application to lunar...

  14. Moon Trek: An Interactive Web Portal for Current and Future Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, B.; Law, E.

    2017-09-01

    NASA's Moon Trek (https://moontrek.jpl.nasa.gov) is the successor to and replacement for NASA's Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP). Released in 2017, Moon Trek features a new interface with improved ways to access, visualize, and analyse data. Moon Trek provides a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable mission planners, lunar scientists, and engineers to access mapped lunar data products from past and current lunar missions.

  15. Dust particles investigation for future Russian lunar missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnikov, Gennady; Horanyi, Mihaly; Esposito, Francesca; Zakharov, Alexander; Popel, Sergey; Afonin, Valeri; Borisov, Nikolay; Seran, Elena; Godefroy, Michel; Shashkova, Inna; Kuznetsov, Ilya; Lyash, Andrey; Vorobyova, Elena; Petrov, Oleg; Lisin, Evgeny

    One of the complicating factors of the future robotic and human lunar landing missions is the influence of the dust. Meteorites bombardment has accompanied by shock-explosive phenomena, disintegration and mix of the lunar soil in depth and on area simultaneously. As a consequence, the lunar soil has undergone melting, physical and chemical transformations. Recently we have the some reemergence for interest of Moon investigation. The prospects in current century declare USA, China, India, and European Union. In Russia also prepare two missions: Luna-Glob and Luna-Resource. Not last part of investigation of Moon surface is reviewing the dust condition near the ground of landers. Studying the properties of lunar dust is important both for scientific purposes to investigation the lunar exosphere component and for the technical safety of lunar robotic and manned missions. The absence of an atmosphere on the Moon's surface is leading to greater compaction and sintering. Properties of regolith and dust particles (density, temperature, composition, etc.) as well as near-surface lunar exosphere depend on solar activity, lunar local time and position of the Moon relative to the Earth's magneto tail. Upper layers of regolith are an insulator, which is charging as a result of solar UV radiation and the constant bombardment of charged particles, creates a charge distribution on the surface of the moon: positive on the illuminated side and negative on the night side. Charge distribution depends on the local lunar time, latitude and the electrical properties of the regolith (the presence of water in the regolith can influence the local distribution of charge). On light side of Moon near surface layer there exists possibility formation dusty plasma system. Altitude of levitation is depending from size of dust particle and Moon latitude. The distribution dust particle by size and altitude has estimated with taking into account photoelectrons, electrons and ions of solar wind, solar

  16. Planned Environmental Microbiology Aspects of Future Lunar and Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. Mark; Castro, Victoria A.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2006-01-01

    With the establishment of the Constellation Program, NASA has initiated efforts designed similar to the Apollo Program to return to the moon and subsequently travel to Mars. Early lunar sorties will take 4 crewmembers to the moon for 4 to 7 days. Later missions will increase in duration up to 6 months as a lunar habitat is constructed. These missions and vehicle designs are the forerunners of further missions destined for human exploration of Mars. Throughout the planning and design process, lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS) and past programs will be implemented toward future exploration goals. The standards and requirements for these missions will vary depending on life support systems, mission duration, crew activities, and payloads. From a microbiological perspective, preventative measures will remain the primary techniques to mitigate microbial risk. Thus, most of the effort will focus on stringent preflight monitoring requirements and engineering controls designed into the vehicle, such as HEPA air filters. Due to volume constraints in the CEV, in-flight monitoring will be limited for short-duration missions to the measurement of biocide concentration for water potability. Once long-duration habitation begins on the lunar surface, a more extensive environmental monitoring plan will be initiated. However, limited in-flight volume constraints and the inability to return samples to Earth will increase the need for crew capabilities in determining the nature of contamination problems and method of remediation. In addition, limited shelf life of current monitoring hardware consumables and limited capabilities to dispose of biohazardous trash will drive flight hardware toward non-culture based methodologies, such as hardware that rapidly distinguishes biotic versus abiotic surface contamination. As missions progress to Mars, environmental systems will depend heavily on regeneration of air and water and biological waste remediation and

  17. Engineering a Successful Mission: Lessons from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, David F.

    2011-01-01

    Schedule pressure is common in the commercial world, where late delivery of a product means delayed income and loss of profit. 12 Research spacecraft developed by NASA, on the other hand, tend to be driven by the high cost of launch vehicles and the public scrutiny of failure-- the primary driver is ensuring proper operation in space for a system that cannot be retrieved for repair. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) development faced both schedule pressure and high visibility. The team had to balance the strong push to meet a launch date against the need to ensure that this first mission for Exploration succeeded. This paper will provide an overview of the mission from concept through its first year of operation and explore some of the challenges the systems engineering team faced taking a mission from preliminary design review to pre-ship review in 3 years.

  18. The lunar atmosphere and dust environment explorer mission (LADEE)

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains five articles describing the mission and its instruments.  The first paper, by the project scientist Richard C. Elphic and his colleagues, describes the mission objectives, the launch vehicle, spacecraft and the mission itself.  This is followed by a description of LADEE’s Neutral Mass Spectrometer by Paul Mahaffy and company.  This paper describes the investigation that directly targets the lunar exosphere, which can also be explored optically in the ultraviolet.  In the following article Anthony Colaprete describes LADEE’s Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer that operated from 230 nm to 810 nm scanning the atmosphere just above the surface.  Not only is there atmosphere but there is also dust that putatively can be levitated above the surface, possibly by electric fields on the Moon’s surface.  Mihaly Horanyi leads this investigation, called the Lunar Dust Experiment, aimed at understanding the purported observations of levitated dust.  This experiment was also very succes...

  19. Environmental Monitoring as Part of Life Support for the Crew Habitat for Lunar and Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Darrell L.

    2010-01-01

    Like other crewed space missions, future missions to the moon and Mars will have requirements for monitoring the chemical and microbial status of the crew habitat. Monitoring the crew habitat becomes more critical in such long term missions. This paper will describe the state of technology development for environmental monitoring of lunar lander and lunar outpost missions, and the state of plans for future missions.

  20. Resource Prospector (RP) - Early Prototyping and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D.; Colaprete, A.; Quinn, J.; Bluethmann, B.; Trimble, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Resource Prospector (RP) is an In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration mission under study by the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate's (HEOMD) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Division. The mission, currently planned to launch in 2020, will demonstrate extraction of oxygen from lunar regolith to validate ISRU capability. The mission will address key Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) for robotic and human exploration to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), and ultimately Mars, as well as meet the strategic goals of the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER), offered by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG). In this roadmap, the use of local resources is specifically addressed relating to human exploration. RP will provide knowledge to inform the selection of future mission destinations, support the development of exploration systems, and reduce the risk associated with human exploration. Expanding human presence beyond low-Earth orbit to asteroids and Mars will require the maximum possible use of local materials, so-called in-situ resources. The moon presents a unique destination to conduct robotic investigations that advance ISRU capabilities, as well as providing significant exploration and science value. Lunar regolith contains useful resources such as oxygen, water, silicon, and light metals, like aluminum and titanium. Oxygen can be separated from the regolith for life support (breathable air), or used to create rocket propellant (oxidizer). Regolith can be used to protect against radiation exposure, be processed into solar cells, or used to manufacture construction materials such as bricks and glass. RP will characterize the constituents and distribution of water and other volatiles at the poles of the Moon, enabling innovative uses of local resources, in addition to validating ISRU capabilities. This capability, as well as a deeper understanding of regolith, will be valuable in the

  1. Exploration Life Support Technology Development for Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Exploration Life Support (ELS) is one of NASA's Exploration Technology Development Projects. ELS plans, coordinates and implements the development of new life support technologies for human exploration missions as outlined in NASA's Vision for Space Exploration. ELS technology development currently supports three major projects of the Constellation Program - the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Altair Lunar Lander and Lunar Surface Systems. ELS content includes Air Revitalization Systems (ARS), Water Recovery Systems (WRS), Waste Management Systems (WMS), Habitation Engineering, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA), and Validation and Testing. The primary goal of the ELS project is to provide different technology options to Constellation which fill gaps or provide substantial improvements over the state-of-the-art in life support systems. Since the Constellation missions are so challenging, mass, power, and volume must be reduced from Space Shuttle and Space Station technologies. Systems engineering analysis also optimizes the overall architecture by considering all interfaces with the life support system and potential for reduction or reuse of resources. For long duration missions, technologies which aid in closure of air and water loops with increased reliability are essential as well as techniques to minimize or deal with waste. The ELS project utilizes in-house efforts at five NASA centers, aerospace industry contracts, Small Business Innovative Research contracts and other means to develop advanced life support technologies. Testing, analysis and reduced gravity flight experiments are also conducted at the NASA field centers. This paper gives a current status of technologies under development by ELS and relates them to the Constellation customers who will eventually use them.

  2. Man-Made Debris In and From Lunar Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    During 1966-1976, as part of the first phase of lunar exploration, 29 manned and robotic missions placed more than 40 objects into lunar orbit. Whereas several vehicles later successfully landed on the Moon and/or returned to Earth, others were either abandoned in orbit or intentionally sent to their destruction on the lunar surface. The former now constitute a small population of lunar orbital debris; the latter, including four Lunar Orbiters and four Lunar Module ascent stages, have contributed to nearly 50 lunar sites of man's refuse. Other lunar satellites are known or suspected of having fallen from orbit. Unlike Earth satellite orbital decays and deorbits, lunar satellites impact the lunar surface unscathed by atmospheric burning or melting. Fragmentations of lunar satellites, which would produce clouds of numerous orbital debris, have not yet been detected. The return to lunar orbit in the 1990's by the Hagoromo, Hiten, Clementine, and Lunar Prospector spacecraft and plans for increased lunar exploration early in the 21st century, raise questions of how best to minimize and to dispose of lunar orbital debris. Some of the lessons learned from more than 40 years of Earth orbit exploitation can be applied to the lunar orbital environment. For the near-term, perhaps the most important of these is postmission passivation. Unique solutions, e.g., lunar equatorial dumps, may also prove attractive. However, as with Earth satellites, debris mitigation measures are most effectively adopted early in the concept and design phase, and prevention is less costly than remediation.

  3. Scientific Objectives of China Chang E 4 CE-4 Lunar Far-side Exploration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Zeng, Xingguo; Chen, Wangli

    2017-10-01

    China has achieved great success in the recently CE-1~CE-3 lunar missions, and in the year of 2018, China Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP) is going to launch the CE-4 mission. CE-4 satellite is the backup satellite of CE-3, so that it also consists of a Lander and a Rover. However, CE-4 is the first mission designed to detect the far side of the Moon in human lunar exploration history. So the biggest difference between CE-4 and CE-3 is that it will be equipped with a relay satellite in Earth-Moon-L2 Point for Earth-Moon Communication. And the scientific payloads carried on the Lander and Rover will also be different. It has been announced by the Chinese government that CE-4 mission will be equipped with some new international cooperated scientific payloads, such as the Low Frequency Radio Detector from Holland, Lunar Neutron and Radiation Dose Detector from Germany, Neutral Atom Detector from Sweden, and Lunar Miniature Optical Imaging Sounder from Saudi Arabia. The main scientific objective of CE-4 is to provide scientific data for lunar far side research, including: 1)general spatial environmental study of lunar far side;2)general research on the surface, shallow layer and deep layer of lunar far side;3)detection of low frequency radio on lunar far side using Low Frequency Radio Detector, which would be the first time of using such frequency band in lunar exploration history .

  4. Trajectory Design for a Cislunar Cubesat Leveraging Dynamical Systems Techniques: The Lunar Icecube Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosanac, Natasha; Cox, Andrew; Howell, Kathleen C.; Folta, David

    2017-01-01

    Lunar IceCube is a 6U CubeSat that is designed to detect and observe lunar volatiles from a highly inclined orbit. This spacecraft, equipped with a low-thrust engine, will be deployed from the upcoming Exploration Mission-1 vehicle in late 2018. However, significant uncertainty in the deployment conditions for secondary payloads impacts both the availability and geometry of transfers that deliver the spacecraft to the lunar vicinity. A framework that leverages dynamical systems techniques is applied to a recently updated set of deployment conditions and spacecraft parameter values for the Lunar IceCube mission, demonstrating the capability for rapid trajectory design.

  5. Guidance system operations plan for manned LM earth orbital and lunar missions using program luminary 1E. Section 2: Data links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, M. H.

    1972-01-01

    Data links for the guidance system of manned lunar module orbital and lunar missions are presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) digital uplink to lunar module, (2) lunar module liftoff time increment, (3) lunar module contiguous block update, (4) lunar module scatter update, (5) lunar module digital downlink, and (6) absolute addresses for update program.

  6. The Lunar Potential Determination Using Apollo-Era Data and Modern Measurements and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Farrell, William M.; Espley, Jared; Webb, Phillip; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Webb, Phillip; Hills, H. Kent; Delory, Greg

    2008-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. More recently, the Lunar Prospector (LP) Electron Reflectometer used electron distributions to infer negative lunar surface potentials, primarily in shadow. We will present initial results from a study to combine lunar surface potential measurements from both SIDE and the LP/Electron Reflectometer to calibrate an advanced model of lunar surface charging which includes effects from the plasma environment, photoemission, secondaries ejected by ion impact onto the lunar surface, and the lunar wake created downstream by the solar wind-lunar interaction.

  7. Simulation of the Chang'E-5 mission contribution in lunar long wavelength gravity field improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jianguo; Yang, Xuan; Ping, Jinsong; Ye, Mao; Liu, Shanhong; Jin, Weitong; Li, Fei; Barriot, Jean-Pierre

    2018-06-01

    The precision of lunar gravity field estimation has improved by means of three to five orders of magnitude since the successful GRAIL lunar mission. There are still discrepancies however, in the low degree coefficients and long wavelength components of the solutions developed by two space research centers (JPL and GSFC). These discrepancies hint at the possibilities for improving the accuracy in the long wavelength part of the lunar gravity field. In the near future, China will launch the Chang'E-5 lunar mission. In this sample-return mission, there will be a chance to do KBRR measurements between an ascending module and an orbiting module. These two modules will fly around lunar at an inclination of ˜49 degrees, with an orbital height of 100 km and an inter-satellite distance of 200 km. In our research, we simulated the contribution of the KBRR tracking mode for different GRAIL orbital geometries. This analysis indicated possible deficiencies in the low degree coefficient solutions for the polar satellite-to-satellite tracking mode at various orbital heights. We also investigated the potential contributions of the KBRR to the Chang'E-5 mission goal of lunar gravity field recovery, especially in the long wavelength component. Potential improvements were assessed using various power spectrums of the lunar gravity field models. In addition, we also investigated possible improvements in solving lunar tidal Love number K2. These results may assist the implementation of the Chang'E-5 mission.

  8. Lunar Penetrating Radar onboard the Chang'e-3 mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Guang-You; Zhou Bin; Ji Yi-Cai; Zhang Qun-Ying; Shen Shao-Xiang; Li Yu-Xi; Guan Hong-Fei; Tang Chuan-Jun; Gao Yun-Ze; Lu Wei; Ye Sheng-Bo; Han Hai-Dong; Zheng Jin; Wang Shu-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) is one of the important scientific instruments onboard the Chang'e-3 spacecraft. Its scientific goals are the mapping of lunar regolith and detection of subsurface geologic structures. This paper describes the goals of the mission, as well as the basic principles, design, composition and achievements of the LPR. Finally, experiments on a glacier and the lunar surface are analyzed

  9. Unmanned Solar Electric Resource Prospector, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a spacecraft that could be used for lunar or asteroid prospecting missions. The mission plan would involve sending the spacecraft to an...

  10. Emblem of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    This is the Official emblem of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission which will be flown by Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E. Evans and Harrison H. Schmitt. The insignia is dominated by the image of Apollo, the Greek sun god. Suspended in space behind the head of Apollo is an American eagle of contemporary design, the red bars of the eagle's wing represent the bars in the U.S. flag; the three white stars symbolize the three astronaut crewmen. The background is deep blue space and within it are the Moon, the planet Saturn and a spiral galaxy or nebula. The Moon is partially overlaid by the eagle's wing suggesting that this is a celestial body that man has visited and in that sense conquered. The thrust of the eagle and the gaze of Apollo to the right and toward Saturn and the galaxy is meant to imply that man's goals in space will someday include the planets and perhaps the stars. The colors of the emblem are red, white and blue, the colors of our flag; with the addition of gold, to

  11. The Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Hodges, R. Richard; Benna, Mehdi; King, Todd; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Bendt, Mirl; Carigan, Daniel; Errigo, Therese; Harpold, Daniel N.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission is designed to measure the composition and variability of the tenuous lunar atmosphere. The NMS complements two other instruments on the LADEE spacecraft designed to secure spectroscopic measurements of lunar composition and in situ measurement of lunar dust over the course of a 100-day mission in order to sample multiple lunation periods. The NMS utilizes a dual ion source designed to measure both surface reactive and inert species and a quadrupole analyzer. The NMS is expected to secure time resolved measurements of helium and argon and determine abundance or upper limits for many other species either sputtered or thermally evolved from the lunar surface.

  12. LunarCube for Deep Space Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co., Inc. and Morehead State University propose to develop a 6U CubeSat capable of reaching a lunar orbit from GEO. The primary objective is to demonstrate...

  13. Real-Time Science Operations to Support a Lunar Polar Volatiles Rover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.; Mattes, Greg; Ennico, Kimberly; Fritzler, Erin; Marinova, Margarita M.; McMurray, Robert; Morse, Stephanie; Roush, Ted L.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Future human exploration of the Moon will likely rely on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) to enable long duration lunar missions. Prior to utilizing ISRU on the Moon, the natural resources (in this case lunar volatiles) must be identified and characterized, and ISRU demonstrated on the lunar surface. To enable future uses of ISRU, NASA and the CSA are developing a lunar rover payload that can (1) locate near subsurface volatiles, (2) excavate and analyze samples of the volatile-bearing regolith, and (3) demonstrate the form, extractability and usefulness of the materials. Such investigations are important both for ISRU purposes and for understanding the scientific nature of these intriguing lunar volatile deposits. Temperature models and orbital data suggest near surface volatile concentrations may exist at briefly lit lunar polar locations outside persistently shadowed regions. A lunar rover could be remotely operated at some of these locations for the approx. 2-14 days of expected sunlight at relatively low cost. Due to the limited operational time available, both science and rover operations decisions must be made in real time, requiring immediate situational awareness, data analysis, and decision support tools. Given these constraints, such a mission requires a new concept of operations. In this paper we outline the results and lessons learned from an analog field campaign in July 2012 which tested operations for a lunar polar rover concept. A rover was operated in the analog environment of Hawaii by an off-site Flight Control Center, a rover navigation center in Canada, a Science Backroom at NASA Ames Research Center in California, and support teams at NASA Johnson Space Center in Texas and NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. We find that this type of mission requires highly efficient, real time, remotely operated rover operations to enable low cost, scientifically relevant exploration of the distribution and nature of lunar polar volatiles. The field

  14. Electron content near the lunar surface using dual-frequency VLBI tracking data in a single lunar orbiter mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Na; Ping, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    In VLBI observations of Vstar, a subsatellite of the Japanese lunar mission SELENE, there were opportunities for lunar grazing occultation when Vstar was very close to the limb of the Moon. This kind of chance made it possible to probe the thin plasma layer above the Moon's surface as a meaningful by-product of VLBI, by using the radio occultation method with coherent radio waves from the S/X bands. The dual-frequency measurements were carried out at Earth-based VLBI stations. In the line-of-sight direction between the satellite and the ground-based tracking station where VLBI measurements were made, the effects of the terrestrial ionosphere, interplanetary plasma and the thin lunar ionosphere mixed together in the combined observables of dual-frequency Doppler shift and phase shift. To separate the variation of the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) near the surface of the Moon from the mixed signal, the influences of the terrestrial ionosphere and interplanetary plasma have been removed by using an extrapolation method based on a short-term trend. The lunar TEC is estimated from the dual-frequency observation for Vstar from UT 22:18 to UT 22:20 on 2008 June 28 at several tracking stations. The TEC results obtained from VLBI sites are identical, however, they are not as remarkable as the result obtained at the Usuda deep space tracking station. (paper)

  15. Launch strategy for Indian lunar mission and precision injection to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    innovations. Further, to reach the target accurately, appropriate initial transfer trajectory charac- teristics must be chosen. A numerical search for the initial .... PSLV mission to the Moon. Vehicle (identical to PSLV C4 metsat mission). : [6S9 + S139] + L40. +S7(H) + L2.5. Launch azimuth. : 102. ° from North. Mission strategy.

  16. Human lunar mission capabilities using SSTO, ISRU and LOX-augmented NTR technologies: A preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1995-10-01

    The feasibility of conducting human missions to the Moon is examined assuming the use of three 'high leverage' technologies: (1) a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle, (2) 'in-situ' resource utilization (ISRU)--specifically 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen (LUNOX), and (3) LOX-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (LANTR) propulsion. Lunar transportation system elements consisting of a LANTR-powered lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a chemical propulsion lunar landing/Earth return vehicle (LERV) are configured to fit within the 'compact' dimensions of the SSTO cargo bay (diameter: 4.6 m/length: 9.0 m) while satisfying an initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) limit of approximately 60 t (3 SSTO launches). Using approximately 8 t of LUNOX to 'reoxidize' the LERV for a 'direct return' flight to Earth reduces its size and mass allowing delivery to LEO on a single 20 t SSTO launch. Similarly, the LANTR engine's ability to operate at any oxygen/ hydrogen mixture ratio from 0 to 7 with high specific impulse (approximately 940 to 515 s) is exploited to reduce hydrogen tank volume, thereby improving packaging of the LANTR LTV's 'propulsion' and 'propellant modules'. Expendable and reusable, piloted and cargo missions and vehicle designs are presented along with estimates of LUNOX production required to support the different mission modes. Concluding remarks address the issue of lunar transportation system costs from the launch vehicle perspective.

  17. Ground Contact Analysis for Korea’s Fictitious Lunar Orbiter Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joo Song

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the ground contact opportunity for the fictitious low lunar orbiter is analyzed to prepare for a future Korean lunar orbiter mission. The ground contact opportunity is basically derived from geometrical relations between the typical ground stations at the Earth, the relative positions of the Earth and Moon, and finally, the lunar orbiter itself. Both the cut-off angle and the orbiter’s Line of Sight (LOS conditions (weather orbiter is located at near or far side of the Moon seen from the Earth are considered to determine the ground contact opportunities. Four KOMPSAT Ground Stations (KGSs are assumed to be Korea’s future Near Earth Networks (NENs to support lunar missions, and world-wide separated Deep Space Networks (DSNs are also included during the contact availability analysis. As a result, it is concluded that about 138 times of contact will be made between the orbiter and the Daejeon station during 27.3 days of prediction time span. If these contact times are converted into contact duration, the duration is found to be about 8.55 days, about 31.31% of 27.3 days. It is discovered that selected four KGSs cannot provide continuous tracking of the lunar orbiter, meaning that international collaboration is necessary to track Korea’s future lunar orbiter effectively. Possible combinations of world-wide separated DSNs are also suggested to compensate for the lack of contact availability with only four KGSs, as with primary and backup station concepts. The provided algorithm can be easily modified to support any type of orbit around the Moon, and therefore, the presented results could aid further progress in the design field of Korea’s lunar orbiter missions.

  18. ESPA for Lunar and Science Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA mission planning in the next decade includes small spacecraft and secondary flight opportunities on Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELVs), specifically...

  19. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, a Planning Tool for Missions to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. W.; Petro, N. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission was conceived as a one year exploration mission to pave the way for a return to the lunar surface, both robotically and by humans. After a year in orbit LRO transitioned to a science mission but has operated in a duel role of science and exploration ever since. Over the years LRO has compiled a wealth of data that can and is being used for planning future missions to the Moon by NASA, other national agencies and by private enterprises. While collecting this unique and unprecedented data set, LRO's science investigations have uncovered new questions that motivate new missions and targets. Examples include: when did volcanism on the Moon cease, motivating a sample return mission from an irregular mare patch such as Ina-D; or, is there significant water ice sequestered near the poles outside of the permanently shaded regions? In this presentation we will review the data products, tools and maps that are available for mission planning, discuss how the operating LRO mission can further enhance future missions, and suggest new targets motivated by LRO's scientific investigations.

  20. On-board image compression for the RAE lunar mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. H.; Lynch, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements, design, implementation, and flight performance of an on-board image compression system for the lunar orbiting Radio Astronomy Explorer-2 (RAE-2) spacecraft are described. The image to be compressed is a panoramic camera view of the long radio astronomy antenna booms used for gravity-gradient stabilization of the spacecraft. A compression ratio of 32 to 1 is obtained by a combination of scan line skipping and adaptive run-length coding. The compressed imagery data are convolutionally encoded for error protection. This image compression system occupies about 1000 cu cm and consumes 0.4 W.

  1. Summary of the results from the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment (LADEE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horanyi, Mihaly

    2016-07-01

    The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission (9/2013 - 4/2014) discovered a permanently present dust cloud engulfing the Moon. The size, velocity, and density distributions of the dust particles are consistent with ejecta clouds generated from the continual bombardment of the lunar surface by sporadic interplanetary dust particles. Intermittent density enhancements were observed during several of the annual meteoroid streams, especially during the Geminids. LDEX found no evidence of the expected density enhancements over the terminators where electrostatic processes were predicted to efficiently loft small grains. LDEX is an impact ionization dust detector, it captures coincident signals and full waveforms to reliably identify dust impacts. LDEX recorded average impact rates of approximately 1 and 0.1 hits/minute of particles with impact charges of q > 0.5 and q > 5 fC, corresponding to particles with radii of a > 0.3 and a> 0.7~μm, respectively. Several of the yearly meteor showers generated sustained elevated levels of impact rates, especially if their radiant direction intersected the lunar surface near the equatorial plane, greatly enhancing the probability of crossing their ejecta plumes. The characteristic velocities of dust particles in the cloud are on the order of ~100 m/s which we neglect compared to the typical spacecraft speeds of 1.6 km/s. Hence, with the knowledge of the spacecraft orbit and attitude, impact rates can be directly turned into particle densities as functions of time and position. LDEX observations are the first to identify the ejecta clouds around the Moon sustained by the continual bombardment of interplanetary dust particles. Most of the dust particles generated in impacts have insufficient energy to escape and follow ballistic orbits, returning to the surface, 'gardening' the regolith. Similar ejecta clouds are expected to engulf all airless planetary objects, including

  2. Trajectory design for a lunar mapping and near-Earth-asteroid flyby mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, David W.; Farquhar, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    In August, 1994, the unusual asteroid (1620) Geographos will pass very close to the Earth. This provides one of the best opportunities for a low-cost asteroid flyby mission that can be achieved with the help of a gravity assist from the Moon during the years 1994 and 1995. A Geographos flyby mission, including a lunar orbiting phase, was recommended to the Startegic Defense Initiative (SDI) Office when they were searching for ideas for a deep-space mission to test small imaging systems and other lightweight technologies. The goals for this mission, called Clementine, were defined to consist of a comprehensive lunar mapping phase before leaving the Earth-Moon system to encounter Geographos. This paper describes how the authors calculated a trajectory that met the mission goals within a reasonable total Delta-V budget. The paper also describes some refinements of the initially computed trajectory and alternative trajectories were investigated. The paper concludes with a list of trajectories to fly by other near-Earth asteroids during the two years following the Geographos opportunity. Some of these could be used if the Geographos schedule can not be met. If the 140 deg phase angle of the Geographos encounter turns out to be too risky, a flyby of (2120) Tantalus in January, 1995, has a much more favorable approach illumination. Tantalus apparently can be reached from the same lunar orbit needed to get to Geographos. However, both the flyby speed and distance from the Earth are much larger for Tantalus than for Geographos.

  3. Dusty plasmas over the Moon: theory research in support of the upcoming lunar missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popel, Sergey; Zelenyi, Lev; Zakharov, Alexander; Izvekova, Yulia; Dolnikov, Gennady; Dubinskii, Andrey; Kopnin, Sergey; Golub, Anatoly

    The future Russian lunar missions Luna 25 and Luna 27 are planned to be equipped with instruments for direct detection of nano- and microscale dust particles and determination of plasma properties over the surface of the Moon. Lunar dust over the Moon is usually considered as a part of a dusty plasma system. Here, we present the main our theory results concerning the lunar dusty plasmas. We start with the description of the observational data on dust particles on and over the surface of the Moon. We show that the size distribution of dust on the lunar surface is in a good agreement with the Kolmogorov distribution, which is the size distribution of particles in the case of multiple crushing. We discuss the role of adhesion which has been identified as a significant force in the dust particle launching process. We evaluate the adhesive force for lunar dust particles with taking into account the roughness and adsorbed molecular layers. We show that dust particle launching can be explained if the dust particles rise at a height of about dozens of nanometers owing to some processes. This is enough for the particles to acquire charges sufficient for the dominance of the electrostatic force over the gravitational and adhesive forces. The reasons for the separation of the dust particles from the surface of the Moon are, in particular, their heating by solar radiation and cooling. We consider migration of free protons in regolith from the viewpoint of the photoemission properties of the lunar soil. Finally, we develop a model of dusty plasma system over the Moon and show that it includes charged dust, photoelectrons, and electrons and ions of the solar wind. We determine the distributions of the photoelectrons and find the characteristics of the dust which rise over the lunar regolith. We show that there are no significant constraints on the Moon landing sites for future lunar missions that will study dusty plasmas in the surface layer of the Moon. We discuss also waves in

  4. Applying Strategic Visualization(Registered Trademark) to Lunar and Planetary Mission Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassanito, John R.; Cooke, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    NASA teams, such as the NASA Exploration Team (NEXT), utilize advanced computational visualization processes to develop mission designs and architectures for lunar and planetary missions. One such process, Strategic Visualization (trademark), is a tool used extensively to help mission designers visualize various design alternatives and present them to other participants of their team. The participants, which may include NASA, industry, and the academic community, are distributed within a virtual network. Consequently, computer animation and other digital techniques provide an efficient means to communicate top-level technical information among team members. Today,Strategic Visualization(trademark) is used extensively both in the mission design process within the technical community, and to communicate the value of space exploration to the general public. Movies and digital images have been generated and shown on nationally broadcast television and the Internet, as well as in magazines and digital media. In our presentation will show excerpts of a computer-generated animation depicting the reference Earth/Moon L1 Libration Point Gateway architecture. The Gateway serves as a staging corridor for human expeditions to the lunar poles and other surface locations. Also shown are crew transfer systems and current reference lunar excursion vehicles as well as the Human and robotic construction of an inflatable telescope array for deployment to the Sun/Earth Libration Point.

  5. Impact of Water Recovery from Wastes on the Lunar Surface Mission Water Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Hogan, John Andrew; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Pace, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Future extended lunar surface missions will require extensive recovery of resources to reduce mission costs and enable self-sufficiency. Water is of particular importance due to its potential use for human consumption and hygiene, general cleaning, clothes washing, radiation shielding, cooling for extravehicular activity suits, and oxygen and hydrogen production. Various water sources are inherently present or are generated in lunar surface missions, and subject to recovery. They include: initial water stores, water contained in food, human and other solid wastes, wastewaters and associated brines, ISRU water, and scavenging from residual propellant in landers. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the contribution of water recovery from life support wastes on the overall water balance for lunar surface missions. Water in human wastes, metabolic activity and survival needs are well characterized and dependable figures are available. A detailed life support waste model was developed that summarizes the composition of life support wastes and their water content. Waste processing technologies were reviewed for their potential to recover that water. The recoverable water in waste is a significant contribution to the overall water balance. The value of this contribution is discussed in the context of the other major sources and loses of water. Combined with other analyses these results provide guidance for research and technology development and down-selection.

  6. Biomedical Aspects of Lunar and Mars Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.

    2006-01-01

    Recent long-range planning for exploration-class missions has emphasized the need for anticipating the medical and human factors aspects of such expeditions. Missions returning Americans to the moon for stays of up to 6 months at a time will provide the opportunity to demonstrate the means to function safely and efficiently on another planet. Details of mission architectures are still under study, but a typical Mars design reference mission comprises a six-month transit from Earth to Mars, eighteen months in residence on Mars, and a six-month transit back to Earth. Physiological stresses will come from environmental factors such as prolonged exposure to radiation, weightlessness en route to Mars and then back to Earth, and low gravity and a toxic atmosphere while on Mars. Psychological stressors will include remoteness from Earth, confinement, and potential interpersonal conflicts, all complicated by circadian alterations. Medical risks including trauma must be considered. The role of such risk-modifying influences as artificial gravity and improved propulsion technologies to shorten round-trip time will also be discussed. Results of planning for assuring human health and performance will be presented.

  7. The Current Status of the Japanese Penetrator Mission: LUNAR-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S.; Shiraishi, H.; Fujimura, A.; Hayakawa, H.

    The scientific objective of the LUNAR-A, Japanese Penetrator Mission, is to explore the lunar interior by seismic and heat-flow experiments. Two penetrators containing two seismometers (horizontal and vertical components) and heat-flow probes will be deployed from a spacecraft onto the lunar surface, one on the nearside and the other on the farside of the moon. The final impact velocity of the penetrator will be about 300m/sec; it will encounter a shock of about 8000 G at impact on the lunar surface. According to numerous experimental impact tests using model penetrators and a lunar regolith analog target, each penetrator is predicted to penetrate to a depth of 1 to 3 m. The data obtained by the penetrators will be transmitted to the earth station via the LUNAR-A mother spacecraft orbiting at an altitude of about 200 km. The penetrator is a missile-shaped instrument carrier, which is about 14cm in diameter, 75cm in length, and about 14kg in weight without attitude control system. It contains a two-component seismometer and heat flow probes together with other supporting instruments such as a tilt meter and an accelerometer. The seismic observations are expected to provide key data on the size of the lunar core, as well as data on deep lunar mantle structure. The heat flow measurements at two penetrator deployment sites will also provide important data on the thermal structure and bulk concentrations of heat-generating elements in the Moon. These data will provide much stronger geophysical constraints on the origin and evolution of the Moon than has been obtained so far. The LUNAR-A spacecraft was supposed to be launched in the summer of 2004, but it was postponed due to the necessity of a replacement of the valves used in the RCS propulsion system of the spacecraft, following a recall issued by the manufacturer who found a malfunction of similar valves. Then, the technological review boards by ISAS and JAXA recommended that both the more robustness of the

  8. A simulation of the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking mode for the Chang'E-5 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Ye, Mao; Yan, Jianguo; Hao, Weifeng; Barriot, Jean-Pierre

    2016-06-01

    The Chang'E-5 mission is the third phase of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program and will collect and return lunar samples. After sampling, the Orbiter and the ascent vehicle will rendezvous and dock, and both spacecraft will require high precision orbit navigation. In this paper, we present a novel tracking mode-Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking that possibly can be employed during the Chang'E-5 mission. The mathematical formulas for the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking mode are given and implemented in our newly-designed lunar spacecraft orbit determination and gravity field recovery software, the LUnar Gravity REcovery and Analysis Software/System (LUGREAS). The simulated observables permit analysis of the potential contribution Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking could make to precision orbit determination for the Orbiter. Our results show that the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter Range Rate has better geometric constraint on the orbit, and is more sensitive than the traditional two-way range rate that only tracks data between the Earth station and lunar Orbiter. After combining the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter Range Rate data with the traditional two-way range rate data and considering the Lander position error and lunar gravity field error, the accuracy of precision orbit determination for the Orbiter in the simulation was improved significantly, with the biggest improvement being one order of magnitude, and the Lander position could be constrained to sub-meter level. This new tracking mode could provide a reference for the Chang'E-5 mission and have enormous potential for the positioning of future lunar farside Lander due to its relay characteristic.

  9. Rock sample brought to earth from the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    A scientist's gloved hand holds one of the numerous rock samples brought back to Earth from the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission. This sample is a highly shattered basaltic rock with a thin black-glass coating on five of its six sides. Glass fills fractures and cements the rock together. The rock appears to have been shattered and thrown out by a meteorite impact explosion and coated with molten rock material before the rock fell to the surface.

  10. A Multi-Decadal Sample Return Campaign Will Advance Lunar and Solar System Science and Exploration by 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C. R.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    There have been 11 missions to the Moon this century, 10 of which have been orbital, from 5 different space agencies. China became the third country to successfully soft-land on the Moon in 2013, and the second to successfully remotely operate a rover on the lunar surface. We now have significant global datasets that, coupled with the 1990s Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions, show that the sample collection is not representative of the lithologies present on the Moon. The M3 data from the Indian Chandrayaan-1 mission have identified lithologies that are not present/under-represented in the sample collection. LRO datasets show that volcanism could be as young as 100 Ma and that significant felsic complexes exist within the lunar crust. A multi-decadal sample return campaign is the next logical step in advancing our understanding of lunar origin and evolution and Solar System processes.

  11. Religion and Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, V.

    1969: The Eagle lands on the Moon. A moment that would not only mark the highest scientific achievement of all times, but would also have significant religious impli- cations. While the island of Bali lodges a protest at the United Nations against the US for desecrating a sacred place, Hopi Indians celebrate the fulfilment of an ancient prophecy that would reveal the "truth of the Sacred Ways". The plaque fastened to the Eagle - "We Came in Peace for All Mankind" would have contained the words "under God" as directed by the US president, if not for an assistant administrator at NASA that did not want to offend any religion. In the same time, Buzz Aldrin takes the Holy Communion on the Moon, and a Bible is left there by another Apollo mission - not long after the crew of Apollo 8 reads a passage from Genesis while circling the Moon. 1998: Navajo Indians lodge a protest with NASA for placing human ashes aboard the Lunar Prospector, as the Moon is a sacred place in their religion. Past, present and fu- ture exploration of the Moon has significant religious and spiritual implications that, while not widely known, are nonetheless important. Is lunar exploration a divine duty, or a sacrilege? This article will feature and thoroughly analyse the examples quoted above, as well as other facts, as for instance the plans of establishing lunar cemeteries - welcomed by some religions, and opposed by others.

  12. Lunar Net—a proposal in response to an ESA M3 call in 2010 for a medium sized mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan; Crawford, I. A.; Gowen, Robert Anthony; Ambrosi, R.; Anand, M.; Banerdt, B.; Bannister, N.; Bowles, N.; Braithwaite, C.; Brown, P.; Chela-Flores, J.; Cholinser, T.; Church, P.; Coates, A. J.; Colaprete, T.; Collins, G.; Collinson, G.; Cook, T.; Elphic, R.; Fraser, G.; Gao, Y.; Gibson, E.; Glotch, T.; Grande, M.; Griffiths, A.; Grygorczuk, J.; Gudipati, M.; Hagermann, A.; Heldmann, J.; Hood, L. L.; Jones, A. P.; Joy, K. H.; Khavroshkin, O. B.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kramer, G.; Lawrence, D.; Marczewski, W.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Miljkovic, K.; Narendranath, S.; Palomba, E.; Phipps, A.; Pike, W. T.; Pullan, D.; Rask, J.; Richard, D. T.; Seweryn, K.; Sheridan, S.; Sims, M.; Sweeting, M.; Swindle, T.; Talboys, D.; Taylor, L.; Teanby, N.; Tong, V.; Ulamec, S.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Wieczorek, M.; Wilson, L.; Wright, I.

    2012-04-01

    Emplacement of four or more kinetic penetrators geographically distributed over the lunar surface can enable a broad range of scientific exploration objectives of high priority and provide significant synergy with planned orbital missions. Whilst past landed missions achieved a great deal, they have not included a far-side lander, or investigation of the lunar interior apart from a very small area on the near side. Though the LCROSS mission detected water from a permanently shadowed polar crater, there remains in-situ confirmation, knowledge of concentration levels, and detailed identification of potential organic chemistry of astrobiology interest. The planned investigations will also address issues relating to the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system and other Solar System planetary bodies. Manned missions would be enhanced with use of water as a potential in-situ resource; knowledge of potential risks from damaging surface Moonquakes, and exploitation of lunar regolith for radiation shielding. LunarNet is an evolution of the 2007 LunarEX proposal to ESA (European Space Agency) which draws on recent significant advances in mission definition and feasibility. In particular, the successful Pendine full-scale impact trials have proved impact survivability for many of the key technology items, and a penetrator system study has greatly improved the definition of descent systems, detailed penetrator designs, and required resources. LunarNet is hereby proposed as an exciting stand-alone mission, though is also well suited in whole or in-part to contribute to the jigsaw of upcoming lunar missions, including that of a significant element to the ILN (International Lunar Network).

  13. Characteristic analysis and design of near moon abort trajectory for manned lunar landing mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The safety of astronauts would be severely threatened if the lunar-landing spacecraft were under an emergency during the near moon phase of flight, which was far from the Earth. For the problem of mission abort caused by the main engine (service propulsion system, SPS) failure during lunar orbit insertion, firstly, the family of trajectories resulted from SPS premature shutdown and corresponding abort trajectories were analyzed; then an algorithm that can be applied to the near moon abort trajectories was proposed using patched-conic technique. The characteristics of the abort trajectory, such as energy consumption and return time of flight, were analyzed and presented. Finally, simulation examples were given to demonstrate various cases of near moon SPS failure. The results of the simulation have validated the approach proposed.

  14. CRaTER: The Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation Experiment on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, H. E.; Case, A. W.; Golightly, M. J.; Heine, T.; Larsen, B. A.; Blake, J. B.; Caranza, P.; Crain, W. R.; George, J.; Lalic, M.; Lin, A.; Looper, M. D.; Mazur, J. E.; Salvaggio, D.; Kasper, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) characterizes the radiation environment to be experienced by humans during future lunar missions. CRaTER measures the effects of ionizing energy loss in matter due to penetrating solar energetic protons (SEP) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR), specifically in silicon solid-state detectors and after interactions with tissue-equivalent plastic (TEP), a synthetic analog of human tissue. The CRaT...

  15. Geoanalyses of Lunokhods' regions for future Lunar missions and data access via Geoportal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachevtseva, Irina; Baskakova, Marina; Gusakova, Eugenia; Kokhanov, Alexander; Kozlova, Natalia; Matveev, Eugeny; Nadezhdina, Irina; Zubarev, Anatoliy; Oberst, Juergen

    2013-04-01

    Introduction: The Soviet rover missions Lunokhod-1 and -2 were launched at the beginning of 70th (Luna-17 in October 1971 and Luna-21 in January 1973 respectively). The main goals of the both missions were to study Moon surface in situ. The history of the Lunokhods' missions came back into focus recently, when the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter obtained high resolutions images. Sources. For our work we used various data: LROC Narrow Angle Camera (LRO NAC) images, 0.3-1 m/pixel [7, 11]; DEMs with different resolution: LRO NAC DEM, 1-5 m/pixel [9]; Kaguya DEM, 7.5 m/pixel [10]; Lunokhods' stereo panoramas and early cartography information [1, 8]. Methodolody: We collected all data as spatial database (Geodatabase) which includes various derived products. Based on methods developed earlier [4, 6], rovers wheel tracks and craters entire study regions were mapped. High resolution DEMs allow calculate of various morphometric parameters of the Lunokhods' regions which provide better understanding processes on lunar surface [2, 5]. Method of detailed morphology analyses developed for study area now used for investigation of the Luna-Glob and Luna-Resource landing missions which are planned to the south pole of the Moon. Data access: We are developing easy access to the planetary data based on web and spatial technology (Geoportal). Geoportal provides the ability to view spatial data in the web-browser, displays different layers in the same area at different scales turns the web. Lunokhods' data point features were created for each station of rover routes where panoramas were been recorded. So GIS project provide an easy access to non-spatial image database and can involve these information in their spatial context. Conclusions: During Lunokhods' missions early topography data of the traverses were accurate for most areas. Modern estimating these results based on the new LRO data provide comparative studies in lunar geology and morphology. We show that these data can be used

  16. International, private-public, multi-mission, next-generation lunar laser retroreflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agnello, Simone

    2017-04-01

    for CNSA's Chang'E-4 mission). INRRI has been embarked on ESA's ExoMars lander "Schiaparelli" and it has been requested by NASA to ASI for the Mars 2020 Rover mission. LLR data are analized/simulated with the Planetary Ephemeris Program developed by CfA. INFN, UMD and MEI signed a private-public partnership, multi-mission agreement to deploy the big and the microreflectors on the Moon. Through existing MoUs between INFN and the Russian Academy of Sciences, international negotiations are also underway to propose the new lunar reflectors and the SCF_Lab services for the next robotic missions of the Russian space program. References: [1] Probing gravity with next-generation lunar la-ser ranging, M. Martini and S. Dell'Agnello, in R. Peron et al. (eds.), Gravity: Where Do We Stand?, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-20224-2_5, Springer Inter-national Publishing, Switzerland (2016). [2] Formation flying, cosmology and general rel-ativity: a tribute to far-reaching dreams of Mino Freund, Currie, D.; Williams, J.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Monache, G.D.; Behr, B. and K. Zacny, in Springer Proceedings in Physics, vol. 150, ISBN-13: 978-3319022062, ISBN-10: 3319022067 (2014). [3] Williams, J. G., Turyshev, S. G., Boggs, D. H., Ratcliff, J. T., Lunar laser ranging science: Grav-itational physics and lunar interior and geodesy, Adv. Space Res. 37(1), 67-71 (2006). [4] Constraining spacetime torsion with Moon and Mercury, R. March, G. Bellettini, R. Taursaso, S. Dell'Agnello, Phys. Rev D 83, 104008 (2011). [5] Constraining nonminimally coupled gravity with laser ranging to the moon, N. Castel-Branco, J. Paramos, R. March and S. Dell'Agnello, in 3rd Euro-pean Lunar Symposium, Frascati, Italy (2014). [6] Creation of the new industry-standard space test of laser retroreflectors for the GNSS and LAGEOS, S. Dell'Agnello et al, Adv. Space Res. 47, 822-842 (2011). [7] Advanced Laser Retroreflectors for Astro-physics and Space Science, Dell'Agnello, S., et al, Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 3

  17. GN and C Subsystem Concept for Safe Precision Landing of the Proposed Lunar MARE Robotic Science Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John M., III; Johnson, Andrew E.; Anderson, F. Scott; Condon, Gerald L.; Nguyen, Louis H.; Olansen, Jon B.; Devolites, Jennifer L.; Harris, William J.; Hines, Glenn D.; Lee, David E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Lunar MARE (Moon Age and Regolith Explorer) Discovery Mission concept targets delivery of a science payload to the lunar surface for sample collection and dating. The mission science is within a 100-meter radius region of smooth lunar maria terrain near Aristarchus crater. The location has several small, sharp craters and rocks that present landing hazards to the spacecraft. For successful delivery of the science payload to the surface, the vehicle Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) subsystem requires safe and precise landing capability, so design infuses the NASA Autonomous precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) and a gimbaled, throttleable LOX/LCH4 main engine. The ALHAT system implemented for Lunar MARE is a specialization of prototype technologies in work within NASA for the past two decades, including a passive optical Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) sensor, a Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) velocity and range sensor, and a Lidar-based Hazard Detection (HD) sensor. The landing descent profile is from a retrograde orbit over lighted terrain with landing near lunar dawn. The GN&C subsystem with ALHAT capabilities will deliver the science payload to the lunar surface within a 20-meter landing ellipse of the target location and at a site having greater than 99% safety probability, which minimizes risk to safe landing and delivery of the MARE science payload to the intended terrain region.

  18. Design and characterization of a low cost CubeSat multi-band optical receiver to map water ice on the lunar surface for the Lunar Flashlight mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinckier, Quentin; Crabtree, Karlton; Paine, Christopher G.; Hayne, Paul O.; Sellar, Glenn R.

    2017-08-01

    Lunar Flashlight is an innovative NASA CubeSat mission dedicated to mapping water ice in the permanently shadowed regions of the Moon, which may act as cold traps for volatiles. To this end, a multi-band reflectometer will be sent to orbit the Moon. This instrument consists of an optical receiver aligned with four lasers, each of which emits sequentially at a different wavelength in the near-infrared between 1 μm and 2 μm. The receiver measures the laser light reflected from the lunar surface; continuum/absorption band ratios are then analyzed to quantify water ice in the illuminated spot. Here, we present the current state of the optical receiver design. To optimize the optical signal-to-noise ratio, we have designed the receiver so as to maximize the laser signal collected, while minimizing the stray light reaching the detector from solarilluminated areas of the lunar surface outside the field-of-view, taking into account the complex lunar topography. Characterization plans are also discussed. This highly mass- and volume-constrained mission will demonstrate several firsts, including being one of the first CubeSats performing science measurements beyond low Earth orbit.

  19. Analysis of landing site attributes for future missions targeting the rim of the lunar South Pole Aitken basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebel, David; Bonerba, Michele; Behrenwaldt, Daniel; Wieser, Matthias; Borowy, Carsten

    2012-11-01

    For the South polar lunar region between -85 and -90° Latitude an updated analyses of the solar illumination and ground station visibility conditions has been performed in the frame of a feasibility study for an ESA Lunar Lander mission. The analyses are based on the refined lunar digital elevation model provided by the Japanese Kaguya/Selene mission, originating from its LASER altimeter instrument. For the South polar region maps of integral solar illumination are presented for a mission epoch in 2016. The analysis modelling was validated with the help of a Kaguya High Definition video. The solar illumination is driving for the power subsystems of any robotic lander craft or manned lunar outpost, in case they rely on conventional photovoltaic power generation with battery buffering of shadowed periods. In addition the visibility of the terrain from a terrestrial ESA ground station was analysed. The results are presented as an integral ground contact duration map, being crucial for the operations of any lunar outpost. Considering these two quality criteria, several possible landing sites for a future lunar mission have been pre-selected. For these sites a detailed analysis of quasi-continuous illumination conditions is presented. This includes magnified maps of the pre-selected areas, showing any location's longest illumination intervals that are allowed to be interrupted by shadows with limited duration only. As a final quality criterion, the terrain topology has been analysed for its impact on the landing trajectory. From a trade-off between the three quality criteria the connecting ridge between the Shackleton and the de Gerlache was determined to provide the most favourable landing site quality. This site is located at 89°28' South, 136°40' West, and 1947 m altitude, and features and integral illumination of 85.7%. With battery energy to sustain shadows of 120 h, total mission duration of 9.37 sidereal months can be guaranteed.

  20. Psychosocial interaction during a 105-day isolated mission in Lunar Palace 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruilin; Wang, Ya

    2015-08-01

    As they are the most important and critical group in space missions, the crewmembers' emotions and interpersonal interactions have gained attention. The crewmembers are confined in an isolated environment, have limited communication with the outside world, and often undergo unpredictable risks, which may lead to the aggravation and acceleration of depression, displacement, and even interpersonal conflicts. These psychological factors could deteriorate the astronauts' effectiveness and safety. Therefore, the aim of the study is to identify the possible patterns over time regarding changes in the emotional states, cohesion and other group dynamics during a 105-day isolation period. The experiment was conducted in an analogue space station at Beihang University, referred to as Lunar Palace 1, which is the first crew made up of all Chinese members. In the experiment, all the crewmembers completed a profile of mood states (POMS) questionnaire every week, along with the group's environment scale (GES) and work environment scale (WES) every two weeks. Following the experiment's isolation period, semi-structured interviews were also conducted as qualitative data. As a result, the following observations were determined: 1) there was no 3rd quarter phenomenon observed during 80 days isolated experiment for Group 3; and the average positive emotions and cohesion of crew were gradually increased with the process. 2) Significant individual differences were identified; and crewmembers possessed different change patterns on psychological state. 3) Crew structure with 1 male and 2 female, less pre-mission team building, and collectivist culture might influence the psychosocial interaction of crew. In summary, the results from Lunar Palace 1 demonstrated that the emotions and climate of Group 3 was in a good state for a successful mission.

  1. Solar Array Disturbances to Spacecraft Pointing During the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), the first spacecraft to support NASA s return to the Moon, launched on June 18, 2009 from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard an Atlas V launch vehicle. It was initially inserted into a direct trans-lunar trajectory to the Moon. After a five day transit to the Moon, LRO was inserted into the Lunar orbit and successfully lowered to a low altitude elliptical polar orbit for spacecraft commissioning. Successful commissioning was completed in October 2009 when LRO was placed in its near circular mission orbit with an approximate altitude of 50km. LRO will spend at least one year orbiting the Moon, collecting lunar environment science and mapping data, utilizing a suite of seven instruments to enable future human exploration. The objective is to provide key science data necessary to facilitate human return to the Moon as well as identification of opportunities for future science missions. LRO's instrument suite will provide the high resolution imaging data with sub-meter accuracy, highly accurate lunar cartographic maps, mineralogy mapping, amongst other science data of interest. LRO employs a 3-axis stabilized attitude control system (ACS) whose primary control mode, the "Observing Mode", provides Lunar nadir, off-nadir, and inertial fine pointing for the science data collection and instrument calibration. This controller combines the capability of fine pointing with on-demand large angle full-sky attitude reorientation. It provides simplicity of spacecraft operation as well as additional flexibility for science data collection. A conventional suite of ACS components is employed in the Observing Mode to meet the pointing and control objectives. Actuation is provided by a set of four reaction wheels developed in-house at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Attitude feedback is provided by a six state Kalman filter which utilizes two SELEX Galileo Star Trackers for attitude updates, and a single Honeywell Miniature

  2. NASA Propulsion Sub-System Concept Studies and Risk Reduction Activities for Resource Prospector Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's exploration roadmap is focused on developing technologies and performing precursor missions to advance the state of the art for eventual human missions to Mars. One of the key components of this roadmap is various robotic missions to Near-Earth Objects, the Moon, and Mars to fill in some of the strategic knowledge gaps. The Resource Prospector (RP) project is one of these robotic precursor activities in the roadmap. RP is a multi-center and multi-institution project to investigate the polar regions of the Moon in search of volatiles. The mission is rated Class D and is approximately 10 days, assuming a five day direct Earth to Moon transfer. Because of the mission cost constraint, a trade study of the propulsion concepts was conducted with a focus on available low-cost hardware for reducing cost in development, while technical risk, system mass, and technology advancement requirements were also taken into consideration. The propulsion system for the lander is composed of a braking stage providing a high thrust to match the lander's velocity with the lunar surface and a lander stage performing the final lunar descent. For the braking stage, liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid methane (LCH4) propulsion systems, derived from the Morpheus experimental lander, and storable bi-propellant systems, including the 4th stage Peacekeeper (PK) propulsion components and Space Shuttle orbital maneuvering engine (OME), and a solid motor were considered for the study. For the lander stage, the trade study included miniaturized Divert Attitude Control System (DACS) thrusters (Missile Defense Agency (MDA) heritage), their enhanced thruster versions, ISE-100 and ISE-5, and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware. The lowest cost configuration of using the solid motor and the PK components while meeting the requirements was selected. The reference concept of the lander is shown in Figure 1. In the current reference configuration, the solid stage is the primary provider of delta

  3. Guidance system operations plan for manned cm earth orbital and lunar missions using program Colossus 3. Section 2: Data links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, M. H.

    1971-01-01

    The data links for use with the guidance system operations plan for manned command module earth orbital and lunar missions using program Colossus 3 are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) digital uplink to CMC, (2) command module contiguous block update, (3) CMC retrofire external data update, (4) CMC digital downlink, and (5) CMC entry update.

  4. Exploring the Limits of High Altitude GPS for Future Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashman, Benjamin W.; Parker, Joel J. K.; Bauer, Frank H.; Esswein, Michael

    2018-01-01

    An increasing number of spacecraft are relying on the Global Positioning System (GPS) for navigation at altitudes near or above the GPS constellation itself - the region known as the Space Service Volume (SSV). While the formal definition of the SSV ends at geostationary altitude, the practical limit of high-altitude space usage is not known, and recent missions have demonstrated that signal availability is sufficient for operational navigation at altitudes halfway to the moon. This paper presents simulation results based on a high-fidelity model of the GPS constellation, calibrated and validated through comparisons of simulated GPS signal availability and strength with flight data from recent high-altitude missions including the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 16 (GOES-16) and the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission. This improved model is applied to the transfer to a lunar near-rectilinear halo orbit (NRHO) of the class being considered for the international Deep Space Gateway concept. The number of GPS signals visible and their received signal strengths are presented as a function of receiver altitude in order to explore the practical upper limit of high-altitude space usage of GPS.

  5. Lunar and Planetary Robotic Exploration Missions in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntress, W. T., Jr.; Moroz, V. I.; Shevalev, I. L.

    2003-07-01

    The prospect of traveling to the planets was science fiction at the beginning of the 20th Century and science fact at its end. The space age was born of the Cold War in the 1950s and throughout most of the remainder of the century it provided not just an adventure in the exploration of space but a suspenseful drama as the US and USSR competed to be first and best. It is a tale of patience to overcome obstacles, courage to try the previously impossible and persistence to overcome failure, a tale of both fantastic accomplishment and debilitating loss. We briefly describe the history of robotic lunar and planetary exploration in the 20th Century, the missions attempted, their goals and their fate. We describe how this enterprise developed and evolved step by step from a politically driven competition to intense scientific investigations and international cooperation.

  6. Investigation of dust particles with future Russian lunar missions: achievements of further development of PmL instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Ilya; Zakharov, Alexander; Afonin, Valeri; Seran, Elena; Godefroy, Michel; Shashkova, Inna; Lyash, Andrey; Dolnikov, Gennady; Popel, Sergey; Lisin, Evgeny

    2016-07-01

    One of the complicating factors of the future robotic and human lunar landing missions is the influence of the dust. Meteorites bombardment has accompanied by shock-explosive phenomena, disintegration and mix of the lunar soil in depth and on area simultaneously. As a consequence, the lunar soil has undergone melting, physical and chemical transformations. Recently we have the some reemergence for interest of Moon investigation. The prospects in current century declare USA, China, India, and European Union. In Russia also prepare two missions: Luna-Glob and Luna-Resource. Not last part of investigation of Moon surface is reviewing the dust condition near the ground of landers. Studying the properties of lunar dust is important both for scientific purposes to investigation the lunar exosphere component and for the technical safety of lunar robotic and manned missions. The absence of an atmosphere on the Moon's surface is leading to greater compaction and sintering. Properties of regolith and dust particles (density, temperature, composition, etc.) as well as near-surface lunar exosphere depend on solar activity, lunar local time and position of the Moon relative to the Earth's magneto tail. Upper layers of regolith are an insulator, which is charging as a result of solar UV radiation and the constant bombardment of charged particles, creates a charge distribution on the surface of the moon: positive on the illuminated side and negative on the night side. Charge distribution depends on the local lunar time, latitude and the electrical properties of the regolith (the presence of water in the regolith can influence the local distribution of charge). On the day side of Moon near surface layer there exists possibility formation dusty plasma system. Altitude of levitation is depending from size of dust particle and Moon latitude. The distribution of dust particles by size and altitude has estimated with taking into account photoelectrons, electrons and ions of solar wind

  7. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James; Niles, Paul; Eppler, Dean; Kennedy, Kriss; Lewis, Ruthan; Sullivan, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting re-search objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will be enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long dura-tion spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fun-damental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support stag-ing of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as

  8. GRGM900C: A Degree 900 Lunar Gravity Model from GRAIL Primary and Extended Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Goossens, Sander; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D.; Bryant, D. Loomis; Chinn, Douglas S.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We have derived a gravity field solution in spherical harmonics to degree and order 900, GRGM900C, from the tracking data of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Primary (1 March to 29 May 2012) and Extended Missions (30 August to 14 December 2012). A power law constraint of 3.6 × 10(exp -4)/l(exp 2) was applied only for degree l greater than 600. The model produces global correlations of gravity, and gravity predicted from lunar topography of greater than or equal to 0.98 through degree 638. The model's degree strength varies from a minimum of 575-675 over the central nearside and farside to 900 over the polar regions. The model fits the Extended Mission Ka-Band Range Rate data through 17 November 2012 at 0.13 micrometers/s RMS, whereas the last month of Ka-Band Range-Rate data obtained from altitudes of 2-10 km fit at 0.98 micrometers/s RMS, indicating that there is still signal inherent in the tracking data beyond degree 900.

  9. Geotectonic evolution of lunar LQ-4 region based on multisource data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sinus Iridum region, the first choice for China's “Lunar Exploration Project” is located at the center of the lunar LQ-4 area and is the site of Chang'e-3 (CE-3's soft landing. To make the scientific exploration of Chang'e-3 more targeted and scientific, and to obtain a better macro-level understanding of the geotectonic environment of the Sinus Iridum region, the tectonic elements in LQ-4 region have been studied and the typical structures were analyzed statistically using data from CE-1, Clementine, LRO and Lunar Prospector missions. Also, the mineral components and periods of mare basalt activities in the study area have been ascertained. The present study divides the tectonic units and establishes the major tectonic events and sequence of evolution in the study area based on morphology, mineral constituents, and tectonic element distribution.

  10. Development of a Deep-Penetrating, Compact Geothermal Heat Flow System for Robotic Lunar Geophysical Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagihara, Seiichi; Zacny, Kris; Hedlund, Magnus; Taylor, Patrick T.

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal heat flow measurements are a high priority for the future lunar geophysical network missions recommended by the latest Decadal Survey of the National Academy. Geothermal heat flow is obtained as a product of two separate measurements of geothermal gradient and thermal conductivity of the regolith/soil interval penetrated by the instrument. The Apollo 15 and 17 astronauts deployed their heat flow probes down to 1.4-m and 2.3-m depths, respectively, using a rotary-percussive drill. However, recent studies show that the heat flow instrument for a lunar mission should be capable of excavating a 3-m deep hole to avoid the effect of potential long-term changes of the surface thermal environment. For a future robotic geophysical mission, a system that utilizes a rotary/percussive drill would far exceed the limited payload and power capacities of the lander/rover. Therefore, we are currently developing a more compact heat flow system that is capable of 3-m penetration. Because the grains of lunar regolith are cohesive and densely packed, the previously proposed lightweight, internal hammering systems (the so-called moles ) are not likely to achieve the desired deep penetration. The excavation system for our new heat flow instrumentation utilizes a stem which winds out of a pneumatically driven reel and pushes its conical tip into the regolith. Simultaneously, gas jets, emitted from the cone tip, loosen and blow away the soil. Lab tests have demonstrated that this proboscis system has much greater excavation capability than a mole-based heat flow system, while it weighs about the same. Thermal sensors are attached along the stem and at the tip of the penetrating cone. Thermal conductivity is measured at the cone tip with a short (1- to 1.5-cm long) needle sensor containing a resistance temperature detector (RTD) and a heater wire. When it is inserted into the soil, the heater is activated. Thermal conductivity of the soil is obtained from the rate of temperature

  11. Biological Production of Methane from Lunar Mission Solid Waste: An Initial Feasibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Richard; Garland, Jay; Janine, Captain

    A preliminary assessment was made of the potential for biological production of methane from solid waste generated during an early planetary base mission to the moon. This analysis includes: 1) estimation of the amount of biodegradable solid waste generated, 2) background on the potential biodegradability of plastics given their significance in solid wastes, and 3) calculation of potential methane production from the estimate of biodegradable waste. The completed analysis will also include the feasibility of biological methane production costs associated with the biological processing of the solid waste. NASA workshops and Advanced Life Support documentation have estimated the projected amount of solid wastes generated for specific space missions. From one workshop, waste estimates were made for a 180 day transit mission to Mars. The amount of plastic packaging material was not specified, but our visual examination of trash returned from stocktickerSTS missions indicated a large percentage would be plastic film. This plastic, which is not biodegradable, would amount to 1.526 kgdw crew-1 d-1 or 6.10 kgdw d-1 for a crew of 4. Over a mission of 10 days this would amount to 61 kgdw of plastics and for an 180 day lunar surface habitation it would be nearly 1100 kgdw . Approx. 24 % of this waste estimate would be biodegradable (human fecal waste, food waste, and paper), but if plastic packaging was replaced with biodegradable plastic, then 91% would be biodegradable. Plastics are man-made long chain polymeric molecules, and can be divided into two main groups; thermoplastics and thermoset plastics. Thermoplastics comprise over 90% of total plastic use in the placecountry-regionUnited States and are derived from polymerization of olefins via breakage of the double bond and subsequent formation of additional carbon to carbon bonds. The resulting sole-carbon chain polymers are highly resistant to biodegradation and hydrolytic cleavage. Common thermoplastics include low

  12. AN INITIATIVE FOR CONSTRUCTION OF NEW-GENERATION LUNAR GLOBAL CONTROL NETWORK USING MULTI-MISSION DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Di

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A lunar global control network provides geodetic datum and control points for mapping of the lunar surface. The widely used Unified Lunar Control Network 2005 (ULCN2005 was built based on a combined photogrammetric solution of Clementine images acquired in 1994 and earlier photographic data. In this research, we propose an initiative for construction of a new-generation lunar global control network using multi-mission data newly acquired in the 21st century, which have much better resolution and precision than the old data acquired in the last century. The new control network will be based on a combined photogrammetric solution of an extended global image and laser altimetry network. The five lunar laser ranging retro-reflectors, which can be identified in LROC NAC images and have cm level 3D position accuracy, will be used as absolute control points in the least squares photogrammetric adjustment. Recently, a new radio total phase ranging method has been developed and used for high-precision positioning of Chang’e-3 lander; this shall offer a new absolute control point. Systematic methods and key techniques will be developed or enhanced, including rigorous and generic geometric modeling of orbital images, multi-scale feature extraction and matching among heterogeneous multi-mission remote sensing data, optimal selection of images at areas of multiple image coverages, and large-scale adjustment computation, etc. Based on the high-resolution new datasets and developed new techniques, the new generation of global control network is expected to have much higher accuracy and point density than the ULCN2005.

  13. NASA Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, B. H.; Law, E.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling Portals provide web-based suites of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable mission planners, planetary scientists, students, and the general public to access mapped lunar data products from past and current missions for the Moon, Mars, and Vesta. New portals for additional planetary bodies are being planned. This presentation will recap significant enhancements to these toolsets during the past year and look forward to the results of the exciting work currently being undertaken. Additional data products and tools continue to be added to the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP). These include both generalized products as well as polar data products specifically targeting potential sites for the Resource Prospector mission. Current development work on LMMP also includes facilitating mission planning and data management for lunar CubeSat missions, and working with the NASA Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office's Lunar Apollo Sample database in order to help better visualize the geographic contexts from which samples were retrieved. A new user interface provides, among other improvements, significantly enhanced 3D visualizations and navigation. Mars Trek, the project's Mars portal, has now been assigned by NASA's Planetary Science Division to support site selection and analysis for the Mars 2020 Rover mission as well as for the Mars Human Landing Exploration Zone Sites. This effort is concentrating on enhancing Mars Trek with data products and analysis tools specifically requested by the proposing teams for the various sites. Also being given very high priority by NASA Headquarters is Mars Trek's use as a means to directly involve the public in these upcoming missions, letting them explore the areas the agency is focusing upon, understand what makes these sites so fascinating, follow the selection process, and get caught up in the excitement of exploring Mars. The portals also serve as

  14. Rover exploration on the lunar surface; a science proposal for SELENE-B mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, S.; Kubota, T.; Akiyama, H.; Hirata, N.; Kunii, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Okada, T.; Otake, M.; Saiki, K.; Sugihara, T.

    LUNARSURFACE:ASCIENCES. Sasaki (1), T. Kubota (2) , H. Akiyama (1) , N. Hirata (3), Y. Kunii (4), K. Matsumoto (5), T. Okada (2), M. Otake (3), K. Saiki (6), T. Sugihara (3) (1) Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Univ. Tokyo, (2) Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences, (3) National Space Development Agency of Japan, (4) Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Chuo Univ., (5) National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan, (6) Research Institute of Materials and Resources, Akita Univ. sho@eps.s.u -tokyo.ac.jp/Fax:+81-3-5841-4569 A new lunar landing mission (SELENE-B) is now in consideration in Japan. Scientific investigation plans using a rover are proposed. To clarify the origin and evolution of the moon, the early crustal formation and later mare volcanic processes are still unveiled. We proposed two geological investigation plans: exploration of a crater central peak to discover subsurface materials and exploration of dome-cone structures on young mare region. We propose multi-band macro/micro camera using AOTF, X-ray spectrometer/diffractometer and gamma ray spectrometer. Since observation of rock fragments in brecciaed rocks is necessary, the rover should have cutting or scraping mechanism of rocks. In our current scenario, landing should be performed about 500m from the main target (foot of a crater central peak or a cone/dome). After the spectral survey by multi-band camera on the lander, the rover should be deployed for geological investigation. The rover should make a short (a few tens meter) round trip at first, then it should perform traverse observation toward the main target. Some technological investigations on SELENE-B project will be also presented.

  15. Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis Subsystem: Pressure Transducer Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Edward Shinuk

    2017-01-01

    In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is a key factor in paving the way for the future of human space exploration. The ability to harvest resources on foreign astronomical objects to produce consumables and propellant offers potential reduction in mission cost and risk. Through previous missions, the existence of water ice at the poles of the moon has been identified, however the feasibility of water extraction for resources remains unanswered. The Resource Prospector (RP) mission is currently in development to provide ground truth, and will enable us to characterize the distribution of water at one of the lunar poles. Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) is the primary payload on RP that will be used in conjunction with a rover. RESOLVE contains multiple instruments for systematically identifying the presence of water. The main process involves the use of two systems within RESOLVE: the Oxygen Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) and Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA). Within the LAVA subsystem, there are multiple calculations that depend on accurate pressure readings. One of the most important instances where pressure transducers (PT) are used is for calculating the number of moles in a gas transfer from the OVEN subsystem. As a critical component of the main process, a mixture of custom and commercial off the shelf (COTS) PTs are currently being tested in the expected operating environment to eventually down select an option for integrated testing in the LAVA engineering test unit (ETU).

  16. Moon Diver: A Discovery Mission Concept for Understanding the History of the Mare Basalts Through the Exploration of a Lunar Mare Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, L.; Nesnas, I.; Keszthelyi, L.; Head, J. W.; Denevi, B.; Hayne, P. O.; Mitchell, K.; Ashley, J. W.; Whitten, J. L.; Stickle, A. M.; Parness, A.; McGarey, P.; Paton, M.; Donaldson-Hanna, K.; Anderson, R. C.; Needham, D.; Isaacson, P.; Jozwiak, L.; Bleacher, J.; Parcheta, C.

    2018-04-01

    Moon Diver is a Discovery-class mission concept designed to explore a lunar mare pit. It would be the first mission to examine an in-place bedrock stratigraphy on the Moon, and the first to venture into the subsurface of another planetary body.

  17. Apollo guidance, navigation and control: Guidance system operations plan for manned CM earth orbital and lunar missions using Program COLOSSUS 3. Section 3: Digital autopilots (revision 14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Digital autopilots for the manned command module earth orbital and lunar missions using program COLOSSUS 3 are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) reaction control system digital autopilot, (2) thrust vector control autopilot, (3) entry autopilot and mission control programs, (4) takeover of Saturn steering, and (5) coasting flight attitude maneuver routine.

  18. Lean Mission Operations Systems Design - Using Agile and Lean Development Principles for Mission Operations Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Jay Phillip

    2014-01-01

    The Resource Prospector Mission seeks to rove the lunar surface with an in-situ resource utilization payload in search of volatiles at a polar region. The mission operations system (MOS) will need to perform the short-duration mission while taking advantage of the near real time control that the short one-way light time to the Moon provides. To maximize our use of limited resources for the design and development of the MOS we are utilizing agile and lean methods derived from our previous experience with applying these methods to software. By using methods such as "say it then sim it" we will spend less time in meetings and more time focused on the one outcome that counts - the effective utilization of our assets on the Moon to meet mission objectives.

  19. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha; Bennett, William

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project conducted an advanced lithium-based battery chemistry feasibility study to determine the best advanced chemistry to develop for the Altair lunar lander and the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) advanced lunar surface spacesuit. These customers require safe, reliable energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy as compared to today's state-of-the-art batteries. Based on customer requirements, the specific energy goals for the development project are 220 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) delivered at the battery level at 0 degrees Celsius (degrees Celcius) at a C/10 discharge rate. Continuous discharge rates between C/5 and C/2, operation over 0 to 30 degrees C, and 200 cycles are targeted. The team, consisting of members from NASA Glenn Research Center, Johnson Space Center, and Jet Propulsion laboratory, surveyed the literature, compiled information on recent materials developments, and consulted with other battery experts in the community to identify advanced battery materials that might be capable of achieving the desired results with further development. A variety of electrode materials were considered, including layered metal oxides, spinel oxides, and olivine-type cathode materials, and lithium metal, lithium alloy, and silicon-based composite anode materials. lithium-sulfur systems were also considered. Hypothetical cell constructs that combined compatible anode and cathode materials with suitable electrolytes, separators, current collectors, headers, and cell enclosures were modeled. While some of these advanced materials are projected to obtain the desired electrical performance, there are risks that also factored into the decision making process. The risks include uncertainties due to issues such as safety of a system containing some of these materials, ease of scaling-up of large batches of raw materials, adaptability of the materials to processing using established

  20. Photometric Lunar Surface Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefian, Ara V.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Morattlo, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Beyer, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate photometric reconstruction of the Lunar surface is important in the context of upcoming NASA robotic missions to the Moon and in giving a more accurate understanding of the Lunar soil composition. This paper describes a novel approach for joint estimation of Lunar albedo, camera exposure time, and photometric parameters that utilizes an accurate Lunar-Lambertian reflectance model and previously derived Lunar topography of the area visualized during the Apollo missions. The method introduced here is used in creating the largest Lunar albedo map (16% of the Lunar surface) at the resolution of 10 meters/pixel.

  1. Lunar Flashlight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar Flashlight (LF) is an innovative cubesat mission sponsored by NASA’s Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division to be launched on the Space Launch System...

  2. Estimation of lunar FeO abundance based on imaging by LRO Diviner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xiao; Zhang, Xue-Wei; Chen, Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Cai, Wei; Wu, Yun-Zhao; Luo, Xiao-Xing; Jiang, Yun; Xu, Ao-Ao; Wang, Zhen-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the abundance and distribution characteristics of FeO on the surface of the Moon is important for investigating its evolution. The current high resolution maps of the global FeO abundance are mostly produced with visible and near infrared reflectance spectra. The Christiansen Feature (CF) in mid-infrared has strong sensitivity to lunar minerals and correlates to major elements composing minerals. This paper investigates the possibility of mapping global FeO abundance using the CF values from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission. A high correlation between the CF values and FeO abundances from the Apollo samples was found. Based on this high correlation, a new global map (±60°) of FeO was produced using the CF map. The results show that the global FeO average is 8.2 wt.%, the highland average is 4.7 wt.%, the global modal abundance is 5.4 wt.% and the lunar mare mode is 15.7 wt.%. These results are close to those derived from data provided by Clementine, the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer (LP-GRS) and the Chang'e-1 Interference Imaging Spectrometer (IIM), demonstrating the feasibility of estimating FeO abundance based on the Diviner CF data. The near global FeO abundance map shows an enrichment of lunar major elements. (paper)

  3. Global Lunar Gravity Field Determination Using Historical and Recent Tracking Data in Preparation for SELENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Namiki, N.; Hanada, H.; Iwata, T.; Tsuruta, S.; Kawano, N.; Sasaki, S.

    2006-12-01

    In the near future, a number of satellite missions are planned to be launched to the Moon. These missions include initiatives by China, India, the USA, as well as the Japanese SELENE mission. These missions will gather a wealth of lunar data which will improve the knowledge of the Moon. One of the main topics to be addressed will be the lunar gravity field. Especially SELENE will contribute to improving the knowledge of the gravity field, by applying 4-way Doppler tracking between the main satellite and a relay satellite, and by applying a separate differential VLBI experiment. These will improve the determination of the global gravity field, especially over the far side and at the lower degrees (mostly for degrees lower than 30), as is shown by extensive simulations of the SELENE mission. This work focuses on the determination of the global lunar gravity field from all available tracking data to this date. In preparation for the SELENE mission, analysis using Lunar Prospector tracking data, as well as Clementine data and historical data from the Apollo and Lunar Orbiter projects is being conducted at NAOJ. Some SMART-1 tracking data are also included. The goal is to combine the good-quality data from the existing lunar missions up to this date with the tracking data from SELENE in order to derive a new lunar gravity field model. The focus therefore currently lies on processing the available data and extracting lunar gravity field information from them. It is shown that the historical tracking data contribute especially to the lower degrees of the global lunar gravity field model. Due to the large gap in tracking data coverage over the far side for the historical data, the higher degrees are almost fully determined by the a priori information in the form of a Kaula rule. The combination with SELENE data is thus expected to improve the estimate for the lower degrees even further, including coverage of the far side. Since historical tracking data are from orbits with

  4. Robotic traverse and sample return strategies for a lunar farside mission to the Schrodinger basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potts, N.J.; Gullikson, A.L.; Curran, N.M.; Dhaliwal, J.K.; Leader, M.K.; Rege, R.N.; Klaus, K.K.; Kring, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the highest priority objectives for lunar science and exploration (e.g.; NRC, 2007) require sample return. Studies of the best places to conduct that work have identified Schrödinger basin as a geologically rich area, able to address a significant number of these scientific concepts. In this

  5. Lunar base mission technology issues and orbital demonstration requirements on space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space Station has been the object of considerable design, redesign, and alteration since it was originally proposed in early 1984. In the intervening years the station has slowly evolved to a specific design that was thoroughly reviewed by a large agency-wide Critical Evaluation Task Force (CETF). As space station designs continue to evolve, studies must be conducted to determine the suitability of the current design for some of the primary purposes for which the station will be used. This paper concentrates on the technology requirements and issues, the on-orbit demonstration and verification program, and the space station focused support required prior to the establishment of a permanently manned lunar base as identified in the National Commission on Space report. Technology issues associated with the on-orbit assembly and processing of the lunar vehicle flight elements are also discussed.

  6. A MATLAB based Distributed Real-time Simulation of Lander-Orbiter-Earth Communication for Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Diptyajit; Angeloski, Aleksandar; Ziah, Haseeb; Buchholz, Hilmar; Landsman, Andre; Gupta, Amitava; Mitra, Tiyasa

    Lunar explorations often involve use of a lunar lander , a rover [1],[2] and an orbiter which rotates around the moon with a fixed radius. The orbiters are usually lunar satellites orbiting along a polar orbit to ensure visibility with respect to the rover and the Earth Station although with varying latency. Communication in such deep space missions is usually done using a specialized protocol like Proximity-1[3]. MATLAB simulation of Proximity-1 have been attempted by some contemporary researchers[4] to simulate all features like transmission control, delay etc. In this paper it is attempted to simulate, in real time, the communication between a tracking station on earth (earth station), a lunar orbiter and a lunar rover using concepts of Distributed Real-time Simulation(DRTS).The objective of the simulation is to simulate, in real-time, the time varying communication delays associated with the communicating elements with a facility to integrate specific simulation modules to study different aspects e.g. response due to a specific control command from the earth station to be executed by the rover. The hardware platform comprises four single board computers operating as stand-alone real time systems (developed by MATLAB xPC target and inter-networked using UDP-IP protocol). A time triggered DRTS approach is adopted. The earth station, the orbiter and the rover are programmed as three standalone real-time processes representing the communicating elements in the system. Communication from one communicating element to another constitutes an event which passes a state message from one element to another, augmenting the state of the latter. These events are handled by an event scheduler which is the fourth real-time process. The event scheduler simulates the delay in space communication taking into consideration the distance between the communicating elements. A unique time synchronization algorithm is developed which takes into account the large latencies in space

  7. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  8. Lunar Flashlight and Other Lunar Cubesats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Water is a human-exploitable resource. Lunar Flashlight is a Cubesat mission to detect and map lunar surface ice in permanently-shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. EM-1 will carry 13 Cubesat-class missions to further smallsat science and exploration capabilities; much room to infuse LEO cubesat methodology, models, and technology. Exploring the value of concurrent measurements to measure dynamical processes of water sources and sinks.

  9. Robust Exploration and Commercial Missions to the Moon Using Nuclear Thermal Rocket Propulsion and Lunar Liquid Oxygen Derived from FeO-Rich Pyroclasitc Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Ryan, Stephen W.; Burke, Laura M.; McCurdy, David R.; Fittje, James E.; Joyner, Claude R.

    2018-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) has frequently been identified as a key space asset required for the human exploration of Mars. This proven technology can also provide the affordable access through cislunar space necessary for commercial development and sustained human presence on the Moon. It is a demonstrated technology capable of generating both high thrust and high specific impulse (I(sub sp) approx. 900 s) twice that of today's best chemical rockets. Nuclear lunar transfer vehicles-consisting of a propulsion stage using three approx. 16.5-klb(sub f) small nuclear rocket engines (SNREs), an in-line propellant tank, plus the payload-are reusable, enabling a variety of lunar missions. These include cargo delivery and crewed lunar landing missions. Even weeklong ''tourism'' missions carrying passengers into lunar orbit for a day of sightseeing and picture taking are possible. The NTR can play an important role in the next phase of lunar exploration and development by providing a robust in-space lunar transportation system (LTS) that can allow initial outposts to evolve into settlements supported by a variety of commercial activities such as in-situ propellant production used to supply strategically located propellant depots and transportation nodes. The use of lunar liquid oxygen (LLO2) derived from iron oxide (FeO)-rich volcanic glass beads, found in numerous pyroclastic deposits on the Moon, can significantly reduce the launch mass requirements from Earth by enabling reusable, surface-based lunar landing vehicles (LLVs)that use liquid oxygen and hydrogen (LO2/LH2) chemical rocket engines. Afterwards, a LO2/LH2 propellant depot can be established in lunar equatorial orbit to supply the LTS. At this point a modified version of the conventional NTR-called the LO2-augmented NTR, or LANTR-is introduced into the LTS allowing bipropellant operation and leveraging the mission benefits of refueling with lunar-derived propellants for Earth return. The bipropellant LANTR

  10. Robust Exploration and Commercial Missions to the Moon Using LANTR Propulsion and Lunar Liquid Oxygen Derived from FeO-Rich Pyroclastic Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Ryan, Stephen W.; Burke, Laura M.; McCurdy, David R.; Fittje, James E.; Joyner, Claude R.

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) has frequently been identified as a key space asset required for the human exploration of Mars. This proven technology can also provide the affordable access through cislunar space necessary for commercial development and sustained human presence on the Moon. It is a demonstrated technology capable of generating both high thrust and high specific impulse (Isp approx.900 s) twice that of todays best chemical rockets. Nuclear lunar transfer vehicles consisting of a propulsion stage using three approx.16.5 klbf Small Nuclear Rocket Engines (SNREs), an in-line propellant tank, plus the payload can enable a variety of reusable lunar missions. These include cargo delivery and crewed lunar landing missions. Even weeklong tourism missions carrying passengers into lunar orbit for a day of sightseeing and picture taking are possible. The NTR can play an important role in the next phase of lunar exploration and development by providing a robust in-space lunar transportation system (LTS) that can allow initial outposts to evolve into settlements supported by a variety of commercial activities such as in-situ propellant production used to supply strategically located propellant depots and transportation nodes. The use of lunar liquid oxygen (LLO2) derived from iron oxide (FeO)-rich volcanic glass beads, found in numerous pyroclastic deposits on the Moon, can significantly reduce the launch mass requirements from Earth by enabling reusable, surface-based lunar landing vehicles (LLVs) using liquid oxygen/hydrogen (LO2/H2) chemical rocket engines. Afterwards, a LO2/H2 propellant depot can be established in lunar equatorial orbit to supply the LTS. At this point a modified version of the conventional NTR called the LOX-augmented NTR, or LANTR is introduced into the LTS allowing bipropellant operation and leveraging the mission benefits of refueling with lunar-derived propellants for Earth return. The bipropellant LANTR engine utilizes the large

  11. Key Success Factors of Innovation in Multinational Agrifood Prospector Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Fortuin, Frances T.J.M.; Batterink, Maarten H.; Omta, S.W.F. (Onno)

    2007-01-01

    The Wageningen Innovation Assessment Tool (WIAT) assesses a company’s drivers and barriers to innovation and benchmarks the critical success and failure factors of its innovation projects with data of agrifood prospector companies around the world. The present paper discusses its application in 12 multinational agrifood prospector companies in the Netherlands and France. It is concluded that WIAT by uncovering the tacit knowledge of the innovation project team creates opportunities for subs...

  12. Lunar Riometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Burns, J. O.; Kasper, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent and its behavior over time, including modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) are based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, in situ, the peak plasma density of the lunar exosphere over time. We describe a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of nanometer- to micron-scale dust. The LUNAR consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

  13. A Lunar L2-Farside Exploration and Science Mission Concept with the ORion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and a Teleoperated Lander/Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jack O.; Kring, David; Norris, Scott; Hopkins, Josh; Lazio, Joseph; Kasper, Justin

    2012-01-01

    A novel concept is presented in this paper for a human mission to the lunar L2 (Lagrange) point that would be a proving ground for future exploration missions to deep space while also overseeing scientifically important investigations. In an L2 halo orbit above the lunar farside, the astronauts would travel 15% farther from Earth than did the Apollo astronauts and spend almost three times longer in deep space. Such missions would validate the Orion MPCV's life support systems, would demonstrate the high-speed re-entry capability needed for return from deep space, and would measure astronauts' radiation dose from cosmic rays and solar flares to verify that Orion would provide sufficient protection, as it is designed to do. On this proposed mission, the astronauts would teleoperate landers and rovers on the unexplored lunar farside, which would obtain samples from the geologically interesting farside and deploy a low radio frequency telescope. Sampling the South Pole-Aitkin basin (one of the oldest impact basins in the solar system) is a key science objective of the 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey. Observations of the Universe's first stars/galaxies at low radio frequencies are a priority of the 2010 Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Such telerobotic oversight would also demonstrate capability for human and robotic cooperation on future, more complex deep space missions.

  14. Foundations for the post 2030 space economy: Cislunar and lunar infrastructure, Moon Village, Mars and planetary missions as markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, Vid; Dunlop, David; Crisafulli, Jim; Bernard, Foing

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: The International Lunar Decade (ILD)[1] is a framework for international collaboration from 2020 to 2030 to achieve the ultimate goal in space -- to open the space frontier. Key to opening a frontier is the capacity to "live off the land" through in situ resource utilization (ISRU). Activities in space will remain limited to exploration until ISRU becomes possible on an industrial scale. ISRU, the mining and use of resources on the Moon, asteroids, comets and other cosmic bodies will enable the opening of the space frontier for permanent occupancy and settlement. The capacity for ISRU creates the basis for a space economy where products and services are traded for resources, and increasingly sophisticated products can be produced from mined resources to help sustain life indefinitely. Enabling ISRU will require infrastructure - energy, transportation, and communications systems, as well as navigation, storage and other support services. However, regolith or other lunar/asteroid material will remain regolith until converted to a form useful to customers that will enable the development of markets. NASA's Mars journey, various planetary missions, and emerging operations on the lunar surface and at EML1 and EML2 will provide initial markets for ISRU. This paper will explore a scenario explaining how a self-sustaining space economy can be achieved by 2030, what kind of infrastructure will need to be developed, the role of NASA's Mars Journey in the creation of markets for ISRU, and the role of private-public partnership for financing the various building blocks of a self-sustaining space economy. Also dis-cussed will be the potential for a Moon Village to serve as a formative structure for the nucleation of elements of an emerging space economy, including its potential role as a forum for actors to play a role in the development of governance mechanisms that eventually would enable commercial and industrial development of the Moon. References: [1] Beldavs

  15. Electrospun ceramic fibermats for filtration applications in lunar missions for in-habitat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Apratim

    In the absence of atmosphere and hydrosphere, there are few collisions between dust particles in the lunar environment. Further, particles become charged in presence of cosmic rays and similarly charged particles repel each other. Hence particles retain sharp edges and often have high aspect ratios. When exposed to lunar dust, humans show symptoms similar to hay fever. Such particles are also damaging to equipment. Humans and robots, used in operations, can bring such dust particles inside the human habitat making them airborne. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters provide an effective way to trap such particles. But due to environment conditions, polymer based filters are susceptible to mechanical erosion. The presence of high energy radiation, due to the absence of atmosphere and magnetic fields, is also damaging to polymers. Ceramic materials are resistant to abrasion and radiation and hence were chosen as the preferred class of materials for the filtration media. Among all the ceramics, TiO2 was selected for its photocatalytic activity which may play a key role in energy-efficient survival in space or lunar stations. Such fibers are multi-functional with the advantage of self-cleaning property in presence of radiation. However ceramic fibers, including TiO 2 fibers, have a significant disadvantage of their own. They are brittle and were considered too prone to failure to be successfully used as a filtration media when they reach nanometer dimensions. This dissertation describes the advances in fabrication and understanding of fundamentals in overcoming these challenges. In absence of crack initiation sites, amorphous ceramic fibers have near theoretical strength and strain to failure. Amorphous TiO2 -SiO2 fibermats, with lower flaw populations and exceptional surface quality, have been developed. They can be rolled to a radius of curvature of 3.4 mm -- exhibiting flexibility. The fibermats are also mechanically robust and can withstand the stress

  16. Hollow Fiber Space Suit Water Membrane Evaporator Development for Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Trevino, Luis A.; Hanford, Anthony J.; Mitchell, Keith

    2009-01-01

    The Space Suit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) is the baseline heat rejection technology selected for development for the Constellation lunar suit. The Hollow Fiber (HoFi) SWME is being considered for service in the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) to provide cooling to the thermal loop through water evaporation to the vacuum of space. Previous work described the test methodology and planning to compare the test performance of three commercially available hollow fiber materials as alternatives to the sheet membrane prototype for SWME: 1) porous hydrophobic polypropylene, 2) porous hydrophobic polysulfone, and 3) ion exchange through nonporous hydrophilic modified Nafion. Contamination tests were performed to probe for sensitivities of the candidate SWME elements to organics and non-volative inorganics expected to be found in the target feedwater source, i.e., potable water provided by the vehicle. The resulting presence of precipitate in the coolant water could plug pores and tube channels and affect the SWME performance. From this prior work, a commercial porous hydrophobic hollow fiber was selected to satisfy both the sensitivity question and the need to provide 800 W of heat rejection. This paper describes the trade studies, the design methodology, and the hollow fiber test data used to design a full

  17. Evaluation of IEEE 802.11g and 802.16 for Lunar Surface Exploration Missions Using MACHETE Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segui, John; Jennings, Esther; Vyas, Hemali

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the suitability of terrestrial wireless networking technologies for lunar surface exploration missions. Specifically, the scenario we considered consisted of two teams of collaborating astronauts, one base station and one rover, where the base station and the rover have the capability of acting as relays. We focused on the evaluation of IEEE 802.11g and IEEE 802.16 protocols, simulating homogeneous 802.11g network, homogeneous 802.16 network, and heterogeneous network using both 802.11g and 802.16. A mix of traffic flows were simulated, including telemetry, caution and warning, voice, command and file transfer. Each traffic type had its own distribution profile, data volume, and priority. We analyzed the loss and delay trade-offs of these wireless protocols with various link-layer options. We observed that 802.16 network managed the channel better than an 802.11g network due to controlled infrastructure and centralized scheduling. However, due to the centralized scheduling, 802.16 also had a longer delay. The heterogeneous (hybrid) of 802.11/802.16 achieved a better balance of performance in terms of data loss and delay compared to using 802.11 or 802.16 alone.

  18. Advanced extravehicular protective systems for shuttle, space station, lunar base and Mars missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimlich, P. F.; Sutton, J. G.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Advances in extravehicular life support system technology will directly influence future space mission reliability and maintainability considerations. To identify required new technology areas, an appraisal of advanced portable life support system and subsystem concepts was conducted. Emphasis was placed on thermal control and combined CO2 control/O2 supply subsystems for both primary and emergency systems. A description of study methodology, concept evaluation techniques, specification requirements, and selected subsystems and systems are presented. New technology recommendations encompassing thermal control, CO2 control and O2 supply subsystems are also contained herein.

  19. Reconciling Scientific Aspirations and Engineering Constraints for a Lunar Mission via Hyperdimensional Interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbin, Charles R.; Clark, Pamela; Elfes, Alberto; Smith, Jeffrey H.; Mrozinski, Joseph; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Hua, Hook; Shelton, Kacie; Lincoln, William; Silberg, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Virtually every NASA space-exploration mission represents a compromise between the interests of two expert, dedicated, but very different communities: scientists, who want to go quickly to the places that interest them most and spend as much time there as possible conducting sophisticated experiments, and the engineers and designers charged with maximizing the probability that a given mission will be successful and cost-effective. Recent work at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) seeks to enhance communication between these two groups, and to help them reconcile their interests, by developing advanced modeling capabilities with which they can analyze the achievement of science goals and objectives against engineering design and operational constraints. The analyses conducted prior to this study have been point-design driven. Each analysis has been of one hypothetical case which addresses the question: Given a set of constraints, how much science can be done? But the constraints imposed by the architecture team-e.g., rover speed, time allowed for extravehicular activity (EVA), number of sites at which science experiments are to be conducted- are all in early development and carry a great deal of uncertainty. Variations can be incorporated into the analysis, and indeed that has been done in sensitivity studies designed to see which constraint variations have the greatest impact on results. But if a very large number of variations can be analyzed all at once, producing a table that includes virtually the entire trade space under consideration, then we have a tool that enables scientists and mission architects to ask the inverse question: For a given desired level of science (or any other objective), what is the range of constraints that would be needed? With this tool, mission architects could determine, for example, what combinations of rover speed, EVA duration, and other constraints produce the desired results. Further, this tool would help them identify which

  20. Objectives of a prospective Ukrainian orbiter mission to the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkuratov, Yu. G.; Lytvynenko, L. M.; Shulga, V. M.; Yatskiv, Ya. S.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Kislyulk, V. S.

    2003-06-01

    Ukraine has launch vehicles that are able to deliver about 300 kg to lunar orbit. A future Ukrainian lunar program may propose a polar orbiter. This orbiter should fill principal information gaps in our knowledge about the Moon after the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions and future missions like Smart-1, Lunar-A, and Selene. We consider that this can be provided by radar studies of the Moon with supporting optical photopolarimetric observations from lunar polar orbit. These experiments allow one to better understand global structure of the lunar surface at a wide range of scales, from microns to kilometers. We propose three instruments for the prospective lunar orbiter. They are a synthetic aperture imaging radar, ground-penetrating radar, and imaging UV-spectropolarimeter. The main purpose of the synthetic aperture imaging radar experiment is to study with high-resolution (50 m) permanently shadowed sites in the lunar polar regions. These sites are cold traps for volatiles, and have a potential for resource utilization. Possible presence of water ice in the regolith in the sites makes them interesting for long-term manned bases on the Moon. Radar and optical imaging and mapping of other interesting regions could be also planned. Multi-frequency, multi-polarization sounding of the lunar surface with ground-penetrating radar can provide data about internal structure of the lunar surface from meters to several hundred meters deep. The ground-penetrating radar can be used for measuring megaregolith properties, detection of cryptomaria, and studies of internal structure of the largest craters. Modest spatial resolution (50 m) of the imaging UV-spectropolarimeter should provide total coverage (or coverage of a large portion) of the lunar surface in oblique viewing at large phase angles. Polarization degree at large (>90°) phase angles bears information about characteristic size of the regolith particles. Additional experiments could use the synthetic aperture

  1. Identification and characterization of science-rich landing sites for lunar lander missions using integrated remote sensing observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flahaut, J.; Blanchette-Guertin, J.F.; Jilly, C.; Sharma, P.; Souchon, A.; van Westrenen, W.; Kring, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 52 years of lunar exploration, a wide range of first-order scientific questions remain about the Moon's formation, temporal evolution, and current surface and interior properties. Addressing many of these questions requires obtaining new in situ analyses or return of lunar surface

  2. Mission control team structure and operational lessons learned from the 2009 and 2010 NASA desert RATS simulated lunar exploration field tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ernest R.; Badillo, Victor; Coan, David; Johnson, Kieth; Ney, Zane; Rosenbaum, Megan; Smart, Tifanie; Stone, Jeffry; Stueber, Ronald; Welsh, Daren; Guirgis, Peggy; Looper, Chris; McDaniel, Randall

    2013-10-01

    The NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is an annual field test of advanced concepts, prototype hardware, and potential modes of operation to be used on human planetary surface space exploration missions. For the 2009 and 2010 NASA Desert RATS field tests, various engineering concepts and operational exercises were incorporated into mission timelines with the focus of the majority of daily operations being on simulated lunar geological field operations and executed in a manner similar to current Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The field test for 2009 involved a two week lunar exploration simulation utilizing a two-man rover. The 2010 Desert RATS field test took this two week simulation further by incorporating a second two-man rover working in tandem with the 2009 rover, as well as including docked operations with a Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM). Personnel for the field test included the crew, a mission management team, engineering teams, a science team, and the mission operations team. The mission operations team served as the core of the Desert RATS mission control team and included certified NASA Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) flight controllers, former flight controllers, and astronaut personnel. The backgrounds of the flight controllers were in the areas of Extravehicular Activity (EVA), onboard mechanical systems and maintenance, robotics, timeline planning (OpsPlan), and spacecraft communicator (Capcom). With the simulated EVA operations, mechanized operations (the rover), and expectations of replanning, these flight control disciplines were especially well suited for the execution of the 2009 and 2010 Desert RATS field tests. The inclusion of an operations team has provided the added benefit of giving NASA mission operations flight control personnel the opportunity to begin examining operational mission control techniques, team compositions, and mission scenarios. This also gave the mission operations

  3. Free-radical chemistry as a means to evaluate lunar dust health hazard in view of future missions to the moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turci, Francesco; Corazzari, Ingrid; Alberto, Gabriele; Martra, Gianmario; Fubini, Bice

    2015-05-01

    Lunar dust toxicity has to be evaluated in view of future manned missions to the Moon. Previous studies on lunar specimens and simulated dusts have revealed an oxidant activity assigned to HO· release. However, the mechanisms behind the reactivity of lunar dust are still quite unclear at the molecular level. In the present study, a complementary set of tests--including terephthalate (TA) hydroxylation, free radical release as measured by means of the spin-trapping/electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique, and cell-free lipoperoxidation--is proposed to investigate the reactions induced by the fine fraction of a lunar dust analogue (JSC-1A-vf) in biologically relevant experimental environments. Our study proved that JSC-1A-vf is able to hydroxylate TA also in anaerobic conditions, which indicates that molecular oxygen is not involved in such a reaction. Spin-trapping/EPR measures showed that the HO· radical is not the reactive intermediate involved in the oxidative potential of JSC-1A-vf. A surface reactivity implying a redox cycle of phosphate-complexed iron via a Fe(IV) state is proposed. The role of this iron species was investigated by assessing the reactivity of JSC-1A-vf toward hydrogen peroxide (Fenton-like activity), formate ions (homolytic rupture of C-H bond), and linoleic acid (cell-free lipoperoxidation). JSC-1A-vf was active in all tests, confirming that redox centers of transition metal ions on the surface of the dust may be responsible for dust reactivity and that the TA assay may be a useful field probe to monitor the surface oxidative potential of lunar dust.

  4. Near-Infrared Monitoring of Volatiles in Frozen Lunar Simulants While Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, Ted L.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.; Forgione, Joshua; White, Bruce; McMurray, Robert; Cook, Amanda M.; Bielawski, Richard; Fritzler, Erin L.; Thompson, Sarah J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) focuses on using local resources for mission consumables. The approach can reduce mission cost and risk. Lunar polar volatiles, e.g. water ice, have been detected via remote sensing measurements and represent a potential resource for both humans and propellant. The exact nature of the horizontal and depth distribution of the ice remains to be documented in situ. NASA's Resource Prospector mission (RP) is intended to investigate the polar volatiles using a rover, drill, and the RESOLVE science package. RP component level hardware is undergoing testing in relevant lunar conditions (cryovacuum). In March 2015 a series of drilling tests were undertaken using the Honeybee Robotics RP Drill, Near-Infrared Volatile Spectrometer System (NIRVSS), and sample capture mechanisms (SCM) inside a 'dirty' thermal vacuum chamber at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The goal of these tests was to investigate the ability of NIRVSS to monitor volatiles during drilling activities and assess delivery of soil sample transfer to the SCMs in order to elucidate the concept of operations associated with this regolith sampling method.

  5. Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE): Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) Capillary Fluid Dynamic Restriction Effects on Gas Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marianne; Quinn, Jacqueline; Captain, Janine; Santiago-Bond, Josephine; Starr, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    The Resource Prospector (RP) mission with the Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload aims to show the presence of water in lunar regolith, and establish a proving ground for NASAs mission to Mars. One of the analysis is performed by the Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem, which consists of a fluid network that facilitates the transport of volatile samples to a gas chromatograph and mass spectrometer (GC-MS) instrument. The understanding of fluid dynamics directed from the GC to the MS is important due to the influence of flow rates and pressures that affect the accuracy of and prevent the damage to the overall GC-MS instrument. The micro-scale capillary fluid network within the GC alone has various lengths and inner-diameters; therefore, determination of pressure differentials and flow rates are difficult to model computationally, with additional complexity from the vacuum conditions in space and lack of a lunar atmosphere. A series of tests were performed on an experimental set-up of the system where the inner diameters of the GC transfer line connecting to the MS were varied. The effect on chromatography readings were also studied by applying these lines onto a GC instrument. It was found that a smaller inner diameter transfer line resulted in a lower flow rate, as well as a lower pressure differential across the thermal conductivity detector (TCD) unit of the GC and a negligible pressure drop across the mock-up capillary column. The chromatography was affected with longer retention times and broader peak integrations. It was concluded that a 0.050 mm inner diameter line still proved most suitable for the systems flow rate preferences. In addition, it was evident that this small transfer line portrayed some expense to GC signal characteristics and the wait time for steady-state operation.

  6. Lunar and interplanetary trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Biesbroek, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with a clear description of the types of lunar and interplanetary trajectories, and how they influence satellite-system design. The description follows an engineering rather than a mathematical approach and includes many examples of lunar trajectories, based on real missions. It helps readers gain an understanding of the driving subsystems of interplanetary and lunar satellites. The tables and graphs showing features of trajectories make the book easy to understand. .

  7. Lunar Science from and for Planet Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III

    2008-09-01

    anniversary in 2007 over the launch of Sputnik (from the former Soviet Union). The ensuing Apollo (US) and Luna (USSR) programs initiated serious exploration of the Moon. The samples returned from those (now historic!) early missions changed our understanding of our place in the universe forever. They were the first well documented samples from an extraterrestrial body and attracted some of the top scientists in the world to extract the first remarkable pieces of information about Earth's nearest neighbour. And so they did - filling bookcases with profound new discoveries about this airless, waterless, and beautifully mysterious ancient world. The Moon was found to represent pure geology for a silicate planetary body - without all the complicating factors of plate tectonics, climate, and weather that recycle or transform Earth materials repeatedly. And then nothing happened. After the flush of reconnaissance, there was no further exploration of the Moon. For several decades scientists had nothing except the returned samples and a few telescopes with which to further study Earth's neighbour. Lack of new information breeds ignorance and can be stifling. Even though the space age was expanding its horizons to the furthest reaches of the solar system and the universe, lunar science moved slowly if at all and was kept in the doldrums. The drought ended with two small missions to the Moon in the 1990's, Clementine and Lunar Prospector. As summarized in the SSB/NRC report (and more completely in Jolliff et al. Eds. 2006, New Views of the Moon, Rev. Min. & Geochem.), the limited data returned from these small spacecraft set in motion several fundamental paradigm shifts in our understanding of the Moon and re-invigorated an aging science community. We learned that the largest basin in the solar system and oldest on the Moon dominates the southern half of the lunar farside (only seen by spacecraft). The age of this huge basin, if known, would constrain the period of heavy bombardment

  8. LROC Advances in Lunar Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Since entering orbit in 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) has acquired over 700,000 Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images of the Moon. This new image collection is fueling research into the origin and evolution of the Moon. NAC images revealed a volcanic complex 35 x 25 km (60N, 100E), between Compton and Belkovich craters (CB). The CB terrain sports volcanic domes and irregular depressed areas (caldera-like collapses). The volcanic complex corresponds to an area of high-silica content (Diviner) and high Th (Lunar Prospector). A low density of impact craters on the CB complex indicates a relatively young age. The LROC team mapped over 150 volcanic domes and 90 volcanic cones in the Marius Hills (MH), many of which were not previously identified. Morphology and compositional estimates (Diviner) indicate that MH domes are silica poor, and are products of low-effusion mare lavas. Impact melt deposits are observed with Copernican impact craters (>10 km) on exterior ejecta, the rim, inner wall, and crater floors. Preserved impact melt flow deposits are observed around small craters (25 km diam.), and estimated melt volumes exceed predictions. At these diameters the amount of melt predicted is small, and melt that is produced is expected to be ejected from the crater. However, we observe well-defined impact melt deposits on the floor of highland craters down to 200 m diameter. A globally distributed population of previously undetected contractional structures were discovered. Their crisp appearance and associated impact crater populations show that they are young landforms (features place bounds on the amount of global radial contraction and the level of compressional stress in the crust. WAC temporal coverage of the poles allowed quantification of highly illuminated regions, including one site that remains lit for 94% of a year (longest eclipse period of 43 hours). Targeted NAC images provide higher resolution characterization of

  9. Closer look at lunar volcanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry

  10. Lower-Cost, Relocatable Lunar Polar Lander and Lunar Surface Sample Return Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, G. Michael; Garvin, James B.; Burt, I. Joseph; Karpati, Gabe

    2011-01-01

    Key science and exploration objectives of lunar robotic precursor missions can be achieved with the Lunar Explorer (LEx) low-cost, robotic surface mission concept described herein. Selected elements of the LEx concept can also be used to create a lunar surface sample return mission that we have called Boomerang

  11. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Howell, J.

    2002-01-01

    A solar power generation station on a mountaintop near the moon's North or South pole can receive sunlight 708 hours per lunar day, for continuous power generation. Power can be beamed from this station over long distances using a laser-based wireless power transmission system and a photo-voltaic receiver. This beamed energy can provide warmth, electricity, and illumination for a robotic rover to perform scientific experiments in cold, dark craters where no other power source is practical. Radio-frequency power transmission may also be demonstrated in lunar polar applications to locate and recover sub-surface deposits of volatile material, such as water ice. High circular polarization ratios observed in data from Clementine spacecraft and Arecibo radar reflections from the moon's South pole suggest that water ice is indeed present in certain lunar polar craters. Data from the Lunar Prospector spacecraft's epi-thermal neutron spectrometer also indicate that hydrogen is present at the moon's poles. Space Solar Power technology enables investigation of these craters, which may contain a billion-year-old stratigraphic record of tremendous scientific value. Layers of ice, preserved at the moon's poles, could help us determine the sequence and composition of comet impacts on the moon. Such ice deposits may even include distinct strata deposited by secondary ejecta following significant Earth (ocean) impacts, linked to major extinctions of life on Earth. Ice resources at the moon's poles could provide water and air for human exploration and development of space as well as rocket propellant for future space transportation. Technologies demonstrated and matured via lunar polar applications can also be used in other NASA science missions (Valles Marineris. Phobos, Deimos, Mercury's poles, asteroids, etc.) and in future large-scale SSP systems to beam energy from space to Earth. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding to mature the technology for such a near

  12. GLGM-3: A Degree-ISO Lunar Gravity Model from the Historical Tracking Data of NASA Moon Orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, E.; Lemoine, F. G.; Han, Shin-Chan; Smith, D. E.

    2010-01-01

    In preparation for the radio science experiment of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission, we analyzed the available radio tracking data of previous NASA lunar orbiters. Our goal was to use these historical observations in combination with the new low-altitude data to be obtained by LRO. We performed Precision Orbit Determination on trajectory arcs from Lunar Orbiter 1 in 1966 to Lunar Prospector in 1998, using the GEODYN II program developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. We then created a set of normal equations and solved for the coefficients of a spherical harmonics expansion of the lunar gravity potential up to degree and order 150. The GLGM-3 solution obtained with a global Kaula constraint (2.5 x 10(exp -4)/sq l) shows good agreement with model LP150Q from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, especially over the nearside. The levels of data fit with both gravity models are very similar (Doppler RMS of approx.0.2 and approx. 1-2 mm/s in the nominal and extended phases, respectiVely). Orbit overlaps and uncertainties estimated from the covariance matrix also agree well. GLGM-3 shows better correlation with lunar topography and admittance over the nearside at high degrees of expansion (l > 100), particularly near the poles. We also present three companion solutions, obtained with the same data set but using alternate inversion strategies that modify the power law constraint and expectation of the individual spherical harmonics coefficients. We give a detailed discussion of the performance of this family of gravity field solutions in terms of observation fit, orbit quality, and geophysical consistency.

  13. SmallSats, Iodine Propulsion Technology, Applications to Low-Cost Lunar Missions, and the Iodine Satellite (iSAT) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Closing Remarks: ?(1) SmallSats hold significant potential for future low cost high value missions; (2) Propulsion remains a key limiting capability for SmallSats that Iodine can address: High ISP * Density for volume constrained spacecraft; Indefinite quiescence, unpressurized and non-hazardous as a secondary payload; (3) Iodine enables MicroSat and SmallSat maneuverability: Enables transfer into high value orbits, constellation deployment and deorbit; (4) Iodine may enable a new class of planetary and exploration class missions: Enables GTO launched secondary spacecraft to transit to the moon, asteroids, and other interplanetary destinations for approximately 150 million dollars full life cycle cost including the launch; (5) ESPA based OTVs are also volume constrained and a shift from xenon to iodine can significantly increase the transfer vehicle change in volume capability including transfers from GTO to a range of Lunar Orbits; (6) The iSAT project is a fast pace high value iodine Hall technology demonstration mission: Partnership with NASA GRC and NASA MSFC with industry partner - Busek; (7) The iSAT mission is an approved project with PDR in November of 2014 and is targeting a flight opportunity in FY17.

  14. NASA Propulsion Concept Studies and Risk Reduction Activities for Resource Prospector Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Williams, Hunter; Burnside, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The trade study has led to the selection of propulsion concept with the lowest cost and net lowest risk -Government-owned, flight qualified components -Meet mission requirements although the configuration is not optimized. Risk reduction activities have provided an opportunity -Implement design improvements while development with the early-test approach. -Gain knowledge on the operation and identify operation limit -Data to anchor analytical models for future flight designs; The propulsion system cold flow tests series have provided valuable data for future design. -The pressure surge from the system priming and waterhammer within component operation limits. -Enable to optimize the ullage volume to reduce the propellant tank mass; RS-34 hot fire tests have successfully demonstrated of using the engines for the RP mission -No degradation of performance due to extended storage life of the hardware. -Enable to operate the engine for RP flight mission scenarios, outside of the qualification regime. -Provide extended data for the thermal and GNC designs. Significant progress has been made on NASA propulsion concept design and risk reductions for Resource Prospector lander.

  15. Extending the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal - New Capabilities and New Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, B. H.; Law, E.; Arevalo, E.; Bui, B.; Chang, G.; Dodge, K.; Kim, R. M.; Malhotra, S.; Sadaqathullah, S.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP) provides a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable mission planners, lunar scientists, and engineers to access mapped lunar data products from past and current lunar missions (http://lmmp.nasa.gov). During the past year, the capabilities and data served by LMMP have been significantly expanded. New interfaces are providing improved ways to access and visualize data. Many of the recent enhancements to LMMP have been specifically in response to the requirements of NASA's proposed Resource Prospector lunar rover, and as such, provide an excellent example of the application of LMMP to mission planning. At the request of NASA's Science Mission Directorate, LMMP's technology and capabilities are now being extended to additional planetary bodies. New portals for Vesta and Mars are the first of these new products to be released. On March 31, 2015, the LMMP team released Vesta Trek (http://vestatrek.jpl.nasa.gov), a web-based application applying LMMP technology to visualizations of the asteroid Vesta. Data gathered from multiple instruments aboard Dawn have been compiled into Vesta Trek's user-friendly set of tools, enabling users to study the asteroid's features. With an initial release on July 1, 2015, Mars Trek replicates the functionality of Vesta Trek for the surface of Mars. While the entire surface of Mars is covered, higher levels of resolution and greater numbers of data products are provided for special areas of interest. Early releases focus on past, current, and future robotic sites of operation. Future releases will add many new data products and analysis tools as Mars Trek has been selected for use in site selection for the Mars 2020 rover and in identifying potential human landing sites on Mars. Other destinations will follow soon. The user community is invited to provide suggestions and requests as the development team continues to expand the capabilities of LMMP

  16. Impact of Drilling Operations on Lunar Volatiles Capture: Thermal Vacuum Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Paulsen, Gale; Zacny, Kris; Smith, Jim

    2015-01-01

    In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) enables future planetary exploration by using local resources to supply mission consumables. This idea of 'living off the land' has the potential to reduce mission cost and risk. On the moon, water has been identified as a potential resource (for life support or propellant) at the lunar poles, where it exists as ice in the subsurface. However, the depth and content of this resource has yet to be confirmed on the ground; only remote detection data exists. The upcoming Resource Prospector mission (RP) will 'ground-truth' the water using a rover, drill, and the RESOLVE science package. As the 2020 planned mission date nears, component level hardware is being tested in relevant lunar conditions (thermal vacuum). In August 2014 a series of drilling tests were performed using the Honeybee Robotics Lunar Prospecting Drill inside a 'dirty' thermal vacuum chamber at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The drill used a unique auger design to capture and retain the lunar regolith simulant. The goal of these tests was to investigate volatiles (water) loss during drilling and sample transfer to a sample crucible in order to validate this regolith sampling method. Twelve soil samples were captured over the course of two tests at pressures of 10(exp-5) Torr and ambient temperatures between -80C to -20C. Each sample was obtained from a depth of 40 cm to 50 cm within a cryogenically frozen bed of NU-LHT-3M lunar regolith simulant doped with 5 wt% water. Upon acquisition, each sample was transferred and hermetically sealed inside a crucible. The samples were later baked out to determine water wt% and in turn volatile loss by following ASTM standard practices. Of the twelve tests, four sealed properly and lost an average of 30% of their available water during drilling and transfer. The variability in the results correlated well with ambient temperature (lower the temperature lower volatiles loss) and the trend agreed with the sublimation rates for the

  17. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Workshops for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Hessen, K.; Bleacher, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWEs) are a series of weeklong professional development workshops, accompanied by quarterly follow-up sessions, designed to educate and inspire grade 6-12 science teachers, sponsored by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Participants learn about lunar science and exploration, gain tools to help address common student misconceptions about the Moon, find out about the latest research results from LRO scientists, work with data from LRO and other lunar missions, and learn how to bring these data to their students using hands-on activities aligned with grade 6-12 National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks and through authentic research experiences. LWEs are held around the country, primarily in locations underserved with respect to NASA workshops. Where possible, workshops also include tours of science facilities or field trips intended to help participants better understand mission operations or geologic processes relevant to the Moon. Scientist and engineer involvement is a central tenant of the LWEs. LRO scientists and engineers, as well as scientists working on other lunar missions, present their research or activities to the workshop participants and answer questions about lunar science and exploration. This interaction with the scientists and engineers is consistently ranked by the LWE participants as one of the most interesting and inspiring components of the workshops. Evaluation results from the 2010 and 2011 workshops, as well as preliminary analysis of survey responses from 2012 participants, demonstrated an improved understanding of lunar science concepts among LWE participants in post-workshop assessments (as compared to identical pre-assessments) and a greater understanding of how to access and effectively share LRO data with students. Teachers reported increased confidence in helping students conduct research using lunar data, and learned about programs that would allow their students to make authentic

  18. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.

  19. Lunar CATALYST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown (Lunar CATALYST) is a NASA initiative to encourage the development of U.S. private-sector robotic lunar...

  20. Lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The University Space Research Association (USRA) requested the University of Minnesota Spacecraft Design Team to design a lunar transportation infrastructure. This task was a year long design effort culminating in a complete conceptual design and presentation at Johnson Space Center. The mission objective of the design group was to design a system of vehicles to bring a habitation module, cargo, and crew to the lunar surface from LEO and return either or both crew and cargo safely to LEO while emphasizing component commonality, reusability, and cost effectiveness. During the course of the design, the lunar transportation system (LTS) has taken on many forms. The final design of the system is composed of two vehicles, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a lunar excursion vehicle (LEV). The LTV serves as an efficient orbital transfer vehicle between the earth and the moon while the LEV carries crew and cargo to the lunar surface. Presented in the report are the mission analysis, systems layout, orbital mechanics, propulsion systems, structural and thermal analysis, and crew systems, avionics, and power systems for this lunar transportation concept.

  1. Reaksi Pasar atas Pengukuran Kinerja Akuntansi Perusahaan Prospector dan Defender : Analisis Dengan Pendekatan Life Cycle Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Jatmiko Wahyu P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is an empirical study that intends to examine the difference accounting performance measures between prospector and defender strategies. The study also has objective to examine market reaction for both organizational strategies. Variables that implicated by organizational strategy are income growth, sales growth, dividend pay out, and return on investment. Life cycle theory approach is used to analyze the difference accounting performance measures. Four variables are used to explain strategies between prospector and defender firms are price to book value (PBV ratio, sales to employee ratio, capital expenditure to market equity value ratio, and capital expenditure to total assets ratio. The sample are 30 to prospector firms, and 30 to defender firms derived from 60 manufacturing public firms at Jakarta Stock Exchange, tested by Principal Component Analysis. The result show that income and sales growth of prospector firms are greater than defender firms (significant at 0,01 level. Dividend pay out and return on investment of prospector firms are smaller than defender firms (significant at 0,01 level. While, the market reaction of prospector firms are greater than defender firms, the difference significantly at 0,01 level. Multivariate analysis is used to determine the difference level between prospector and defender firms and it relationship with stock price. The result show that there are significantly difference between income growth, sales growth, dividend pay out, and return on investment to abnormal return.

  2. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Moon and Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The session" Moon and Mercury" included the following reports:Helium Production of Prompt Neutrinos on the Moon; Vapor Deposition and Solar Wind Implantation on Lunar Soil-Grain Surfaces as Comparable Processes; A New Lunar Geologic Mapping Program; Physical Backgrounds to Measure Instantaneous Spin Components of Terrestrial Planets from Earth with Arcsecond Accuracy; Preliminary Findings of a Study of the Lunar Global Megaregolith; Maps Characterizing the Lunar Regolith Maturity; Probable Model of Anomalies in the Polar Regions of Mercury; Parameters of the Maximum of Positive Polarization of the Moon; Database Structure Development for Space Surveying Results by Moon -Zond Program; CM2-type Micrometeoritic Lunar Winds During the Late Heavy Bombardment; A Comparison of Textural and Chemical Features of Spinel Within Lunar Mare Basalts; The Reiner Gamma Formation as Characterized by Earth-based Photometry at Large Phase Angles; The Significance of the Geometries of Linear Graben for the Widths of Shallow Dike Intrusions on the Moon; Lunar Prospector Data, Surface Roughness and IR Thermal Emission of the Moon; The Influence of a Magma Ocean on the Lunar Global Stress Field Due to Tidal Interaction Between the Earth and Moon; Variations of the Mercurian Photometric Relief; A Model of Positive Polarization of Regolith; Ground Truth and Lunar Global Thorium Map Calibration: Are We There Yet?;and Space Weathering of Apollo 16 Sample 62255: Lunar Rocks as Witness Plates for Deciphering Regolith Formation Processes.

  3. The Photometric Investigation of V921 Her Using the Lunar-Based Ultraviolet Telescope of Chang’e-3 Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The light curve of V921 Her in ultraviolet band observed by the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT is analyzed by the Wilson-Devinney code. Our solutions conclude that V921 Her is an early type marginal contact binary system with an additional close-in component. The binary system is under poor thermal contact with a temperature difference of nearly 700 K between the two components. The close-in component contributes about 19% of the total luminosity in the triple system. Combining the radial velocity study together with our photometric solutions, the mass of the primary star and secondary one is calculated to be M1=1.784  (±0.055M⊙, M2=0.403  (±0.012M⊙. The evolutionary scenario of V921 Her is discussed. All times of light minimum of V921 Her available in the bibliography are taken into account and the O-C curve is analyzed for the first time. The most probable fitting results are discussed in the paper, which also confirm the existence of a third component (P3=10.2 year around the binary system. The period of V921 Her is also undergoing a continuously rapid increase at a rate of dP/dt=+2.79×10-7  day·year-1, which may be due to mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one.

  4. Lunar Polar Cold Traps: Spatial Distribution and Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, David A.; Siegler, M.; Lawrence, D. J.

    2006-09-01

    We have developed a ray-tracing and radiosity model that can accurately calculate lunar surface and subsurface temperatures for arbitrary topography. Using available digital elevation models for the lunar north and south polar regions derived from Clementine laser altimeter and image data, as well as ground-based radar data, we have calculated lunar surface and subsurface temperatures at 2 km resolution that include full effects of indirect solar and infrared radiation due to topography. We compare our thermal model results with maps of epithermal neutron flux measured by Lunar Prospector. When we use the ray tracing and thermal model to account for the effects of temperature and topography on the neutron measurements, our results show that the majority of the moon's polar cold traps are not filled with water ice.

  5. Key Success Factors of Innovation in Multinational Agri-food Prospector Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Batterink, M.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2007-01-01

    The Wageningen Innovation Assessment Tool (WIAT) compares the self assessment of the drivers and barriers to innovation at the company level and the critical success and failure factors of innovation at the project level with data of agrifood prospector firms around the world. In total 46 innovation projects, 11 successfully concluded and 6 failed projects, as well as 29 running projects in 12 multinational agrifood prospector companies in the Netherlands and France, two innovation consortia ...

  6. Google Moon Lunar Mapping Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A collection of lunar maps and charts. This tool is an exciting new way to explore the story of the Apollo missions, still the only time mankind has set foot on...

  7. Lunar Geologic Mapping: A Preliminary Map of a Portion of the LQ-10 ("Marius") Quadrangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, T. K. P.; Yingst, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the first lunar mapping program ended in the 1970s, new topographical, multispectral, elemental and albedo imaging datasets have become available (e.g., Clementine, Lunar Prospector, Galileo). Lunar science has also advanced within the intervening time period. A new systematic lunar geologic mapping effort endeavors to build on the success of earlier mapping programs by fully integrating the many disparate datasets using GIS software and bringing to bear the most current understanding of lunar geologic history. As part of this program, we report on a 1:2,500,000-scale preliminary map of a subset of Lunar Quadrangle 10 ("LQ-10" or the "Marius Quadrangle," see Figures 1 and 2), and discuss the first-order science results. By generating a geologic map of this region, we can constrain the stratigraphic and geologic relationships between features, revealing information about the Moon s chemical and thermal evolution.

  8. Laser-powered lunar base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costen, R.; Humes, D.H.; Walker, G.H.; Williams, M.D.; Deyoung, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to compare a nuclear reactor-driven Sterling engine lunar base power source to a laser-to-electric converter with orbiting laser power station, each providing 1 MW of electricity to the lunar base. The comparison was made on the basis of total mass required in low-Earth-orbit for each system. This total mass includes transportation mass required to place systems in low-lunar orbit or on the lunar surface. The nuclear reactor with Sterling engines is considered the reference mission for lunar base power and is described first. The details of the laser-to-electric converter and mass are discussed. The next two solar-driven high-power laser concepts, the diode array laser or the iodine laser system, are discussed with associated masses in low-lunar-orbit. Finally, the payoff for laser-power beaming is summarized

  9. The International Lunar Decade Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, V.; Foing, B.; Bland, D.; Crisafulli, J.

    2015-10-01

    The International Lunar Decade Declaration was discussed at the conference held November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space" - http://2014giantleap.aerospacehawaii.info/ and accepted by a core group that forms the International Lunar Decade Working Group (ILDWG) that is seeking to make the proposed global event and decade long process a reality. The Declaration will be updated from time to time by members of the ILDWreflecting new knowledge and fresh perspectives that bear on building a global consortium with a mission to progress from lunar exploration to the transformation of the Moon into a wealth gene rating platform for the expansion of humankind into the solar system. When key organizations have endorsed the idea and joined the effort the text of the Declaration will be considered final. An earlier International Lunar Decade proposal was issued at the 8th ICEUM Conference in 2006 in Beijing together with 13 specific initiatives for lunar exploration[1,2,3]. These initiatives have been largely implemented with coordination among the different space agencies involved provided by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group[2,3]. The Second International Lunar Decade from 2015 reflects current trends towards increasing involvement of commercial firms in space, particularly seeking opportunities beyond low Earth orbit. The central vision of the International Lunar Decade is to build the foundations for a sustainable space economy through international collaboration concurrently addressing Lunar exploration and building a shared knowledge base;Policy development that enables collabo rative research and development leading to lunar mining and industrial and commercial development;Infrastructure on the Moon and in cislunar space (communications, transport, energy systems, way-stations, other) that reduces costs, lowers risks and speeds up the time to profitable operations;Enabling technologies

  10. Lunar Topography: Results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gregory; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Mazarico, Erwan

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been operating nearly continuously since July 2009, accumulating over 6 billion measurements from more than 2 billion in-orbit laser shots. LRO's near-polar orbit results in very high data density in the immediate vicinity of the lunar poles, with full coverage at the equator from more than 12000 orbital tracks averaging less than 1 km in spacing at the equator. LRO has obtained a global geodetic model of the lunar topography with 50-meter horizontal and 1-m radial accuracy in a lunar center-of-mass coordinate system, with profiles of topography at 20-m horizontal resolution, and 0.1-m vertical precision. LOLA also provides measurements of reflectivity and surface roughness down to its 5-m laser spot size. With these data LOLA has measured the shape of all lunar craters 20 km and larger. In the proposed extended mission commencing late in 2012, LOLA will concentrate observations in the Southern Hemisphere, improving the density of the polar coverage to nearly 10-m pixel resolution and accuracy to better than 20 m total position error. Uses for these data include mission planning and targeting, illumination studies, geodetic control of images, as well as lunar geology and geophysics. Further improvements in geodetic accuracy are anticipated from the use of re ned gravity fields after the successful completion of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission in 2012.

  11. Autonomous Utility Connector for Lunar Surface Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar dust has been identified as a significant and present challenge in future exploration missions. The interlocking, angular nature of Lunar dust and its broad...

  12. The Lunar Dust Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Jamey Robert

    Planetary bodies throughout the solar system are continually bombarded by dust particles, largely originating from cometary activities and asteroidal collisions. Surfaces of bodies with thick atmospheres, such as Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan are mostly protected from incoming dust impacts as these particles ablate in their atmospheres as 'shooting stars'. However, the majority of bodies in the solar system have no appreciable atmosphere and their surfaces are directly exposed to the flux of high speed dust grains. Impacts onto solid surfaces in space generate charged and neutral gas clouds, as well as solid secondary ejecta dust particles. Gravitationally bound ejecta clouds forming dust exospheres were recognized by in situ dust instruments around the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and had not yet been observed near bodies with refractory regolith surfaces before NASA's Lunar Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission. In this thesis, we first present the measurements taken by the Lunar Dust Explorer (LDEX), aboard LADEE, which discovered a permanently present, asymmetric dust cloud surrounding the Moon. The global characteristics of the lunar dust cloud are discussed as a function of a variety of variables such as altitude, solar longitude, local time, and lunar phase. These results are compared with models for lunar dust cloud generation. Second, we present an analysis of the groupings of impacts measured by LDEX, which represent detections of dense ejecta plumes above the lunar surface. These measurements are put in the context of understanding the response of the lunar surface to meteoroid bombardment and how to use other airless bodies in the solar system as detectors for their local meteoroid environment. Third, we present the first in-situ dust measurements taken over the lunar sunrise terminator. Having found no excess of small grains in this region, we discuss its implications for the putative population of electrostatically lofted dust.

  13. Guidance system operations plan for manned CSM earth orbital and lunar missions using program COLOSSUS 3. Section 7: Erasable memory programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, M. H.

    1972-01-01

    Erasable-memory programs designed for guidance computers used in command and lunar modules are presented. The purpose, functional description, assumptions, restrictions, and imitations are given for each program.

  14. Perspectives on Lunar Helium-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1999-01-01

    Global demand for energy will likely increase by a factor of six or eight by the mid-point of the 21st Century due to a combination of population increase, new energy intensive technologies, and aspirations for improved standards of living in the less-developed world (1). Lunar helium-3 (3He), with a resource base in the Tranquillitatis titanium-rich lunar maria (2,3) of at least 10,000 tonnes (4), represents one potential energy source to meet this rapidly escalating demand. The energy equivalent value of 3He delivered to operating fusion power plants on Earth would be about 3 billion per tonne relative to today's coal which supplies most of the approximately 90 billion domestic electrical power market (5). These numbers illustrate the magnitude of the business opportunity. The results from the Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (6) suggests that 3He also may be concentrated at the lunar poles along with solar wind hydrogen (7). Mining, extraction, processing, and transportation of helium to Earth requires new innovations in engineering but no known new engineering concepts (1). By-products of lunar 3He extraction, largely hydrogen, oxygen, and water, have large potential markets in space and ultimately will add to the economic attractiveness of this business opportunity (5). Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion technology appears to be the most attractive and least capital intensive approach to terrestrial fusion power plants (8). Heavy lift launch costs comprise the largest cost uncertainty facing initial business planning, however, many factors, particularly long term production contracts, promise to lower these costs into the range of 1-2000 per kilogram versus about 70,000 per kilogram fully burdened for the Apollo Saturn V rocket (1). A private enterprise approach to developing lunar 3He and terrestrial IEC fusion power would be the most expeditious means of realizing this unique opportunity (9). In spite of the large, long-term potential

  15. Low-Energy Ballistic Transfers to Lunar Halo Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Recent lunar missions have begun to take advantage of the benefits of low-energy ballistic transfers between the Earth and the Moon rather than implementing conventional Hohmann-like lunar transfers. Both Artemis and GRAIL plan to implement low-energy lunar transfers in the next few years. This paper explores the characteristics and potential applications of many different families of low-energy ballistic lunar transfers. The transfers presented here begin from a wide variety of different orbits at the Earth and follow several different distinct pathways to the Moon. This paper characterizes these pathways to identify desirable low-energy lunar transfers for future lunar missions.

  16. Kalman filter application to mitigate the errors in the trajectory simulations due to the lunar gravitational model uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, L D; Rocco, E M; De Moraes, R V; Kuga, H K

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to simulate part of the orbital trajectory of Lunar Prospector mission to analyze the relevance of using a Kalman filter to estimate the trajectory. For this study it is considered the disturbance due to the lunar gravitational potential using one of the most recent models, the LP100K model, which is based on spherical harmonics, and considers the maximum degree and order up to the value 100. In order to simplify the expression of the gravitational potential and, consequently, to reduce the computational effort required in the simulation, in some cases, lower values for degree and order are used. Following this aim, it is made an analysis of the inserted error in the simulations when using such values of degree and order to propagate the spacecraft trajectory and control. This analysis was done using the standard deviation that characterizes the uncertainty for each one of the values of the degree and order used in LP100K model for the satellite orbit. With knowledge of the uncertainty of the gravity model adopted, lunar orbital trajectory simulations may be accomplished considering these values of uncertainty. Furthermore, it was also used a Kalman filter, where is considered the sensor's uncertainty that defines the satellite position at each step of the simulation and the uncertainty of the model, by means of the characteristic variance of the truncated gravity model. Thus, this procedure represents an effort to approximate the results obtained using lower values for the degree and order of the spherical harmonics, to the results that would be attained if the maximum accuracy of the model LP100K were adopted. Also a comparison is made between the error in the satellite position in the situation in which the Kalman filter is used and the situation in which the filter is not used. The data for the comparison were obtained from the standard deviation in the velocity increment of the space vehicle. (paper)

  17. Introduction to EGU session "Lunar Science and Exploration Towards Moon Village"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2017-04-01

    The EGU PS2.2 session "Lunar Science and Exploration" Towards Moon Village" will address: - Recent lunar results: geochemistry, geophysics in the context of open planetary science and exploration - Synthesis of results from SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang'e 1, 2 and 3, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS, LADEE, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and, Artemis and GRAIL - Goals and Status of missions under preparation: orbiters, Luna-Glob, Google Lunar X Prize, Luna Resurs polar lander, SLIM, Chandrayaan2, Chang'E 4 & 5, Lunar Resource Prospector, Future landers, Lunar sample return missions - Precursor missions, instruments and investigations for landers, rovers, sample return, and human cis-lunar activities and human lunar surface sorties - Preparation for International Lunar Decade: databases, instruments, missions, terrestrial field campaigns, support studies - ILEWG and Global Exploration roadmaps towards a global robotic/human Moon village - Strategic Knowledge Gaps, and key science Goals relevant to Lunar Global Exploration Lunar science and exploration are developing further with new and exciting missions being developed by China, the US, Japan, India, Russia, Korea and Europe, and with new stakeholders. The Moon Village is an open concept proposed by ESA DG with the goal of a sustainable human and robotic presence on the lunar surface as an ensemble where multiple users can carry out multiple activities. Multiple goals of the Moon Village include planetary science, life sciences, astronomy, fundamental research, resources utilisation, human spaceflight, peaceful cooperation, economical development, inspiration, training and capacity building. ESA director general has revitalized and enhanced the original concept of MoonVillage discussed in the last decade. Space exploration builds on international collaboration. COSPAR and its ILEWG International Lunar Exploration Working Group (created in 1994) have fostered collaboration between lunar missions [4-8]. A flotilla of lunar orbiters has

  18. Lunar horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  19. Key Success Factors of Innovation in Multinational Agri-food Prospector Companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Batterink, M.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2007-01-01

    The Wageningen Innovation Assessment Tool (WIAT) compares the self assessment of the drivers and barriers to innovation at the company level and the critical success and failure factors of innovation at the project level with data of agrifood prospector firms around the world. In total 46 innovation

  20. Naming Lunar Mare Basalts: Quo Vadimus Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, G.

    1999-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago, I noted that the nomenclature of lunar mare basalts was inconsistent, complicated, and arcane. I suggested that this reflected both the limitations of our understanding of the basalts, and the piecemeal progression made in lunar science by the nature of the Apollo missions. Although the word "classification" is commonly attached to various schemes of mare basalt nomenclature, there is still no classification of mare basalts that has any fundamental grounding. We remain basically at a classification of the first kind in the terms of Shand; that is, things have names. Quoting John Stuart Mill, Shand discussed classification of the second kind: "The ends of scientific classification are best answered when the objects are formed into groups respecting which a greater number of propositions can be made, and those propositions more important than could be made respecting any other groups into which the same things could be distributed." Here I repeat some of the main contents of my discussion from a decade ago, and add a further discussion based on events of the last decade. A necessary first step of sample studies that aims to understand lunar mare basalt processes is to associate samples with one another as members of the same igneous event, such as a single eruption lava flow, or differentiation event. This has been fairly successful, and discrete suites have been identified at all mare sites, members that are eruptively related to each other but not to members of other suites. These eruptive members have been given site-specific labels, e.g., Luna24 VLT, Apollo 11 hi-K, A12 olivine basalts, and Apollo 15 Green Glass C. This is classification of the first kind, but is not a useful classification of any other kind. At a minimum, a classification is inclusive (all objects have a place) and exclusive (all objects have only one place). The answer to "How should rocks be classified?" is far from trivial, for it demands a fundamental choice about nature

  1. First lunar outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andino, Aureo F.; Silva, Daniel; Ortiz, Nelson; Alvarez, Omar; Colon, Julio A.; Colon, Myrelle; Diaz, Alicia; Escobar, Xochiquetzal Y.; Garcia, Alberto; Gonzalez, Isabel C.

    1992-01-01

    Design and research efforts at the University of Puerto Rico have focused on the evaluation and refinement of the Habitability Criteria for a prolonged human presence in space during the last four years. Living quarters for a Mars mission and a third generation lunar base concept were proposed. This academic year, 1991-92, work on further refinement of the habitability criteria and design of partial gravity furniture was carried on. During the first semester, design alternatives for furniture necessary in a habitat design optimized for lunar and Martian environments were developed. Designs are based on recent research data from lunar and Mars gravity simulations, and current NASA standards. Artifacts will be submitted to NASA architects to be tested in KC-135 flights. Test findings will be submitted for incorporation in future updates to NASA habitat design standards. Second semester work was aimed at integrating these findings into the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), a mission scenario currently being considered by NASA. The mission consists of a manned return to the moon by crews of four astronauts for periods of 45 days. The major hardware components of the mission are as follows: (1) a Crew Module for the delivery of the crew and their supplies, and (2) the Habitat Module, which will arrive on the Moon unmanned. Our design efforts concentrated on this Habitat Module and on application of habitability criteria. Different geometries for the pressure vessel and their impact on the interior architecture were studied. Upon the selection of a geometry, a more detailed analysis of the interior design was performed, taking into consideration the reduced gravity, and the protection against radiation, micrometeorites, and the extreme temperature variation. A proposal for a FLO was submitted by the students, consisting essentially of a 24-feet (7.3 m.) by 35-feet (10.67 m) high vertical cylinder with work areas, crew quarters, galley, wardroom, leisure facilities, health

  2. NASA Lunar Base Wireless System Propagation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    There have been many radio wave propagation studies using both experimental and theoretical techniques over the recent years. However, most of studies have been in support of commercial cellular phone wireless applications. The signal frequencies are mostly at the commercial cellular and Personal Communications Service bands. The antenna configurations are mostly one on a high tower and one near the ground to simulate communications between a cellular base station and a mobile unit. There are great interests in wireless communication and sensor systems for NASA lunar missions because of the emerging importance of establishing permanent lunar human exploration bases. Because of the specific lunar terrain geometries and RF frequencies of interest to the NASA missions, much of the published literature for the commercial cellular and PCS bands of 900 and 1800 MHz may not be directly applicable to the lunar base wireless system and environment. There are various communication and sensor configurations required to support all elements of a lunar base. For example, the communications between astronauts, between astronauts and the lunar vehicles, between lunar vehicles and satellites on the lunar orbits. There are also various wireless sensor systems among scientific, experimental sensors and data collection ground stations. This presentation illustrates the propagation analysis of the lunar wireless communication and sensor systems taking into account the three dimensional terrain multipath effects. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate the lunar surface material, terrain geometry and antenna location are the important factors affecting the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, surface material and operating frequency. The

  3. RESOLVE: Bridge between early lunar ISRU and science objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G.; Sanders, G.; Larson, W.; Johnson, K.

    2007-08-01

    THE NEED FOR RESOURCES: When mankind returns to the moon, there will be an aspect of the architecture that will totally change how we explore the solar system. We will take the first steps towards breaking our reliance on Earth supplied consumables by extracting resources from planetary bodies. Our first efforts in this area, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), will be to extract the abundant oxygen found in the lunar regolith. But the "holy grail" of lunar ISRU will be finding an exploitable source of lunar hydrogen. If we can find a source of extractable hydrogen, it would provide a foundation for true independence from Earth. With in-situ hydrogen (or water) and oxygen we can produce many of the major consumables needed to operate a lunar outpost. We would have water to drink, oxygen to breath, as well as rocket propellants and fuel cell reagents to enable extended access and operations on the moon. These items make up a huge percentage of the mass launched from the Earth. Producing them in-situ would significantly reduce the cost of operating a lunar outpost while increasing payload availability for science. PROSPECTING: The Lunar Prospector found evidence of elevated hydrogen at the lunar poles, and measurements made at these locations from the Clementine mission bistatic radar have been interpreted as correlating to water/ice concentrations. At the South Pole, there is reasonably strong correlation between the elevated areas of hydrogen and permanently shadowed craters. However, there is considerable debate on the form and concentration of this hydrogen since the orbiting satellites had limited resolution and their data can be interpreted in different ways. The varying interpretations are based on differing opinions and theories of lunar environment, evolution, and cometary bombardment within the lunar Science community. The only way to truly answer this question from both a Science and resource availability perspective is to go to the lunar poles

  4. Lunar cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  5. The Sooner Lunar Schooner: Lunar engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. P.; Hougen, D. F.; Shirley, D.

    2003-06-01

    The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore a small section of the Moon; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by an Apollo mission thirty years earlier; and to perform a selenographic survey of areas that were too distant or considered too dangerous to be done by the Apollo crew. The goal of the Sooner Lunar Schooner Project is to improve the science and engineering educations of the hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students working on the project. The participants, while primarily from engineering and physics, will also include representatives from business, art, journalism, law and education. This project ties together numerous existing research programs at the University, and provides a framework for the creation of many new research proposals. The authors were excited and motivated by the Apollo missions to the Moon. When we asked what we could do to similarly motivate students we realized that nothing is as exciting as going to the Moon. The students seem to agree.

  6. Lunar Quest in Second Life, Lunar Exploration Island, Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireton, F. M.; Day, B. H.; Mitchell, B.; Hsu, B. C.

    2010-12-01

    Linden Lab’s Second Life is a virtual 3D metaverse created by users. At any one time there may be 40,000-50,000 users on line. Users develop a persona and are seen on screen as a human figure or avatar. Avatars move through Second Life by walking, flying, or teleporting. Users form communities or groups of mutual interest such as music, computer graphics, and education. These groups communicate via e-mail, voice, and text within Second Life. Information on downloading the Second Life browser and joining can be found on the Second Life website: www.secondlife.com. This poster details Phase II in the development of Lunar Exploration Island (LEI) located in Second Life. Phase I LEI highlighted NASA’s LRO/LCROSS mission. Avatars enter LEI via teleportation arriving at a hall of flight housing interactive exhibits on the LRO/ LCROSS missions including full size models of the two spacecraft and launch vehicle. Storyboards with information about the missions interpret the exhibits while links to external websites provide further information on the mission, both spacecraft’s instrument suites, and related EPO. Other lunar related activities such as My Moon and NLSI EPO programs. A special exhibit was designed for International Observe the Moon Night activities with links to websites for further information. The sim includes several sites for meetings, a conference stage to host talks, and a screen for viewing NASATV coverage of mission and other televised events. In Phase II exhibits are updated to reflect on-going lunar exploration highlights, discoveries, and future missions. A new section of LEI has been developed to showcase NASA’s Lunar Quest program. A new exhibit hall with Lunar Quest information has been designed and is being populated with Lunar Quest information, spacecraft models (LADEE is in place) and kiosks. A two stage interactive demonstration illustrates lunar phases with static and 3-D stations. As NASA’s Lunar Quest program matures further

  7. Design of guidance laws for lunar pinpoint soft landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.; Han, C.

    2009-01-01

    Future lunar missions ask for the capability to perform precise Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) to the selected landing sites on the lunar surface. This paper studies the guidance issues for the lunar pinpoint soft landing problem. The primary contribution of this paper is the design of

  8. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface siumlation training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Suited Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit, participates in lunar surface simulation training on April 18, 1969, in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he simulates scooping up a lunar surface sample.

  9. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface simulation training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), participates in lunar surface simulation training on April 18, 1969 in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center. Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he is standing on Lunar Module mockup foot pad preparing to ascend steps.

  10. Low temperature thermophysical properties of lunar soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of lunar fines samples from the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 missions, determined at low temperatures as a function of temperature and various densities, are reviewed. It is shown that the thermal conductivity of lunar soil is nearly the same as that of terrestrial basaltic rock under the same temperature and pressure conditions.

  11. Armstrong practices in Lunar Module simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Neil A. Armstrong, Commander for the Apollo 11 Moon-landing mission, practices for the historic event in a Lunar Module simulator in the Flight Crew Training building at KSC. Accompanying Armstrong on the Moon flight will be Command Module Pilot Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin Jr.

  12. Sample Return Mission to the South Pole Aitken Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, M. B.; Clark, B. C.; Gamber, T.; Lucey, P. G.; Ryder, G.; Taylor, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    The South Pole Aitken Basin (SPA) is the largest and oldest observed feature on the Moon. Compositional and topographic data from Galileo, Clementine, and Lunar Prospector have demonstrated that SPA represents a distinctive major lunar terrane, which has not been sampled either by sample return missions (Apollo, Luna) or by lunar meteorites. The floor of SPA is characterized by mafic compositions enriched in Fe, Ti, and Th in comparison to its surroundings. This composition may represent melt rocks from the SPA event, which would be mixtures of the preexisting crust and mantle rocks. However, the Fe content is higher than expected, and the large Apollo basin, within SPA, exposes deeper material with lower iron content. Some of the Fe enrichment may represent mare and cryptomare deposits. No model adequately accounts for all of the characteristics of the SPA and disagreements are fundamental. Is mantle material exposed or contained as fragments in melt rock and breccias? If impact melt is present, did the vast sheet differentiate? Was the initial mantle and crust compositionally different from other regions of the Moon? Was the impact event somehow peculiar, (e.g., a low-velocity impact)? The precise time of formation of the SPA is unknown, being limited only by the initial differentiation of the Moon and the age of the Imbrium event, believed to be 3.9 b.y. The questions raised by the SPA can be addressed only with detailed sample analysis. Analysis of the melt rocks, fragments in breccias, and basalts of SPA can address several highly significant problems for the Moon and the history of the solar system. The time of formation of SPA, based on analysis of melt rocks formed in the event. would put limits on the period of intense bombardment of the Moon, which has been inferred by some to include a "terminal cataclysm." If close to 3.9 Ga, the presumed age of the Imbrium Basin, the SPA date would confirm the lunar cataclysm. This episode, if it occurred, would have

  13. Geochemistry of the lunar highlands as revealed by measurements of thermal neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplowski, Patrick N; Beck, Andrew W; Lawrence, David J

    2016-03-01

    Thermal neutron emissions from the lunar surface provide a direct measure of bulk elemental composition that can be used to constrain the chemical properties of near-surface (depth lunar materials. We present a new calibration of the Lunar Prospector thermal neutron map, providing a direct link between measured count rates and bulk elemental composition. The data are used to examine the chemical and mineralogical composition of the lunar surface, with an emphasis on constraining the plagioclase concentration across the highlands. We observe that the regions of lowest neutron absorption, which correspond to estimated plagioclase concentrations of >85%, are generally associated with large impact basins and are colocated with clusters of nearly pure plagioclase identified with spectral reflectance data.

  14. Precision Lunar Laser Ranging For Lunar and Gravitational Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkowitz, S. M.; Arnold, D.; Dabney, P. W.; Livas, J. C.; McGarry, J. F.; Neumann, G. A.; Zagwodzki, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Laser ranging to retroreflector arrays placed on the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts and the Soviet Lunar missions over the past 39 years have dramatically increased our understanding of gravitational physics along with Earth and Moon geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics. Significant advances in these areas will require placing modern retroreflectors and/or active laser ranging systems at new locations on the lunar surface. Ranging to new locations will enable better measurements of the lunar librations, aiding in our understanding of the interior structure of the moon. More precise range measurements will allow us to study effects that are too small to be observed by the current capabilities as well as enabling more stringent tests of Einstein's theory of General Relativity. Setting up retroreflectors was a key part of the Apollo missions so it is natural to ask if future lunar missions should include them as well. The Apollo retroreflectors are still being used today, and nearly 40 years of ranging data has been invaluable for scientific as well as other studies such as orbital dynamics. However, the available retroreflectors all lie within 26 degrees latitude of the equator, and the most useful ones within 24 degrees longitude of the sub-earth meridian. This clustering weakens their geometrical strength.

  15. Lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  16. New Age for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.; Martel, L. M. V.

    2018-04-01

    Lunar-focused research and plans to return to the lunar surface for science and exploration have reemerged since the Space Policy Directive-1 of December 11, 2017 amended the National Space Policy to include the following, "Lead an innovative and sustainable program of exploration with commercial and international partners to enable human expansion across the solar system and to bring back to Earth new knowledge and opportunities. Beginning with missions beyond low-Earth orbit, the United States will lead the return of humans to the Moon for long-term exploration and utilization, followed by human missions to Mars and other destinations." In response to this revision, NASA proposes a Lunar Exploration and Discovery Program in the U.S. fiscal year 2019 Budget Request. It supports NASA's interests in commercial and international partnerships in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), long-term exploration in Cislunar space beyond LEO, and research and exploration conducted on the Moon to inform future crewed missions, even to destinations beyond the Moon. (Cislunar refers to the volume of space between LEO and the Moon's orbital distance.) The lunar campaign strengthens the integration of human and robotic activities on the lunar surface with NASA's science, technology, and exploration goals.

  17. TRANSIENT LUNAR PHENOMENA: REGULARITY AND REALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crotts, Arlin P. S.

    2009-01-01

    Transient lunar phenomena (TLPs) have been reported for centuries, but their nature is largely unsettled, and even their existence as a coherent phenomenon is controversial. Nonetheless, TLP data show regularities in the observations; a key question is whether this structure is imposed by processes tied to the lunar surface, or by terrestrial atmospheric or human observer effects. I interrogate an extensive catalog of TLPs to gauge how human factors determine the distribution of TLP reports. The sample is grouped according to variables which should produce differing results if determining factors involve humans, and not reflecting phenomena tied to the lunar surface. Features dependent on human factors can then be excluded. Regardless of how the sample is split, the results are similar: ∼50% of reports originate from near Aristarchus, ∼16% from Plato, ∼6% from recent, major impacts (Copernicus, Kepler, Tycho, and Aristarchus), plus several at Grimaldi. Mare Crisium produces a robust signal in some cases (however, Crisium is too large for a 'feature' as defined). TLP count consistency for these features indicates that ∼80% of these may be real. Some commonly reported sites disappear from the robust averages, including Alphonsus, Ross D, and Gassendi. These reports begin almost exclusively after 1955, when TLPs became widely known and many more (and inexperienced) observers searched for TLPs. In a companion paper, we compare the spatial distribution of robust TLP sites to transient outgassing (seen by Apollo and Lunar Prospector instruments). To a high confidence, robust TLP sites and those of lunar outgassing correlate strongly, further arguing for the reality of TLPs.

  18. Lunar Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present an open design for a first plant growth module on the Moon (LPX). The primary science goal of lunar habitat is to investigate germination and initial...

  19. Echo simulation of lunar penetrating radar: based on a model of inhomogeneous multilayer lunar regolith structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Shun; Su Yan; Xiao Yuan; Feng Jian-Qing; Xing Shu-Guo; Ding Chun-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) based on the time domain Ultra-Wideband (UWB) technique onboard China's Chang'e-3 (CE-3) rover, has the goal of investigating the lunar subsurface structure and detecting the depth of lunar regolith. An inhomogeneous multi-layer microwave transfer inverse-model is established. The dielectric constant of the lunar regolith, the velocity of propagation, the reflection, refraction and transmission at interfaces, and the resolution are discussed. The model is further used to numerically simulate and analyze temporal variations in the echo obtained from the LPR attached on CE-3's rover, to reveal the location and structure of lunar regolith. The thickness of the lunar regolith is calculated by a comparison between the simulated radar B-scan images based on the model and the detected result taken from the CE-3 lunar mission. The potential scientific return from LPR echoes taken from the landing region is also discussed

  20. Echo simulation of lunar penetrating radar: based on a model of inhomogeneous multilayer lunar regolith structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shun; Su, Yan; Xiao, Yuan; Feng, Jian-Qing; Xing, Shu-Guo; Ding, Chun-Yu

    2014-12-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) based on the time domain Ultra-Wideband (UWB) technique onboard China's Chang'e-3 (CE-3) rover, has the goal of investigating the lunar subsurface structure and detecting the depth of lunar regolith. An inhomogeneous multi-layer microwave transfer inverse-model is established. The dielectric constant of the lunar regolith, the velocity of propagation, the reflection, refraction and transmission at interfaces, and the resolution are discussed. The model is further used to numerically simulate and analyze temporal variations in the echo obtained from the LPR attached on CE-3's rover, to reveal the location and structure of lunar regolith. The thickness of the lunar regolith is calculated by a comparison between the simulated radar B-scan images based on the model and the detected result taken from the CE-3 lunar mission. The potential scientific return from LPR echoes taken from the landing region is also discussed.

  1. Space station accommodations for lunar base elements: A study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidman, Deene J.; Cirillo, William; Llewellyn, Charles; Kaszubowski, Martin; Kienlen, E. Michael, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study conducted at NASA-LaRC to assess the impact on the space station of accommodating a Manned Lunar Base are documented. Included in the study are assembly activities for all infrastructure components, resupply and operations support for lunar base elements, crew activity requirements, the effect of lunar activities on Cape Kennedy operations, and the effect on space station science missions. Technology needs to prepare for such missions are also defined. Results of the study indicate that the space station can support the manned lunar base missions with the addition of a Fuel Depot Facility and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  2. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald James; Clark, Pamela E.; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can b e considered which have a wide range of transfer duration, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO) geostationary transfer orbits (GTO) and higher energy direct lunar transfer and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.

  3. Optimal Lunar Landing Trajectory Design for Hybrid Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hyun Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lunar landing stage is usually divided into two parts: deorbit burn and powered descent phases. The optimal lunar landing problem is likely to be transformed to the trajectory design problem on the powered descent phase by using continuous thrusters. The optimal lunar landing trajectories in general have variety in shape, and the lunar lander frequently increases its altitude at the initial time to obtain enough time to reduce the horizontal velocity. Due to the increment in the altitude, the lunar lander requires more fuel for lunar landing missions. In this work, a hybrid engine for the lunar landing mission is introduced, and an optimal lunar landing strategy for the hybrid engine is suggested. For this approach, it is assumed that the lunar lander retrofired the impulsive thruster to reduce the horizontal velocity rapidly at the initiated time on the powered descent phase. Then, the lunar lander reduced the total velocity and altitude for the lunar landing by using the continuous thruster. In contradistinction to other formal optimal lunar landing problems, the initial horizontal velocity and mass are not fixed at the start time. The initial free optimal control theory is applied, and the optimal initial value and lunar landing trajectory are obtained by simulation studies.

  4. Lunar Health Monitor (LHM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisy, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    Orbital Research, Inc., has developed a low-profile, wearable sensor suite for monitoring astronaut health in both intravehicular and extravehicular activities. The Lunar Health Monitor measures respiration, body temperature, electrocardiogram (EKG) heart rate, and other cardiac functions. Orbital Research's dry recording electrode is central to the innovation and can be incorporated into garments, eliminating the need for conductive pastes, adhesives, or gels. The patented dry recording electrode has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The LHM is easily worn under flight gear or with civilian clothing, making the system completely versatile for applications where continuous physiological monitoring is needed. During Phase II, Orbital Research developed a second-generation LHM that allows sensor customization for specific monitoring applications and anatomical constraints. Evaluations included graded exercise tests, lunar mission task simulations, functional battery tests, and resting measures. The LHM represents the successful integration of sensors into a wearable platform to capture long-duration and ambulatory physiological markers.

  5. Lunar e-Library: A Research Tool Focused on the Lunar Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Tracy A.; Shea, Charlotte A.; Finckenor, Miria; Ferguson, Dale

    2007-01-01

    As NASA plans and implements the Vision for Space Exploration, managers, engineers, and scientists need lunar environment information that is readily available and easily accessed. For this effort, lunar environment data was compiled from a variety of missions from Apollo to more recent remote sensing missions, such as Clementine. This valuable information comes not only in the form of measurements and images but also from the observations of astronauts who have visited the Moon and people who have designed spacecraft for lunar missions. To provide a research tool that makes the voluminous lunar data more accessible, the Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program, managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL, organized the data into a DVD knowledgebase: the Lunar e-Library. This searchable collection of 1100 electronic (.PDF) documents and abstracts makes it easy to find critical technical data and lessons learned from past lunar missions and exploration studies. The SEE Program began distributing the Lunar e-Library DVD in 2006. This paper describes the Lunar e-Library development process (including a description of the databases and resources used to acquire the documents) and the contents of the DVD product, demonstrates its usefulness with focused searches, and provides information on how to obtain this free resource.

  6. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Workshops for Educators, Year 1 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Bleacher, L.; Shaner, A. J.; Dalton, H.

    2011-12-01

    This past summer, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) sponsored a series of weeklong professional development workshops designed to educate and inspire grade 6-12 science teachers: the Lunar Workshops for Educators. Participants learned about lunar science and exploration, gained tools to help address common student misconceptions about the Moon, heard some of the latest research results from LRO scientists, worked with LRO data, and learned how to bring these data to their students using hands-on activities aligned with grade 6-12 National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks. Where possible, the workshops also included tours of science facilities or field trips intended to help the teachers better understand mission operations or geologic processes relevant to the Moon. The workshops were very successful. Participants demonstrated an improved understanding of lunar science concepts in post-workshop assessments (as compared to identical pre-assessments) and a greater understanding of how to access and productively share data from LRO with their students and provide them with authentic research experiences. Participant feedback on workshop surveys was also enthusiastically positive. 5 additional Lunar Workshops for Educators will be held around the country in the summer of 2012. For more information and to register, visit http://lunar.gsfc.nasa.gov/lwe/index.html.

  7. Observing Ice Sublimation From Water-Doped Lunar Simulant at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, T. L.; Teodoro, L. F. A.; Colaprete, A.; Cook, A. M.; Elphic, R.

    2018-01-01

    NASA's Resource Prospector (RP) mission is intended to characterize the three-dimensional nature of volatiles in lunar polar and permanently shadowed regions. The Near-Infrared Volatile Spectrometer System (NIRVSS) observes while a drill penetrates to a maximum depth of 1 m. Any 10 cm increment of soil identified as containing water ice can be delivered to a heating crucible with the evolved gas delivered to a gas chromatograph / mass spectrometer. NIRVSS consists of two components; a spectrometer box (SB) and bracket assembly (BA), connected by two fiber optic cables. The SB contains separate short- and long-wavelength spectrometers, SW and LW respectively, that collectively span the 1600-3400 nm range. The BA contains an IR emitter (lamp), drill observation camera (DOC, 2048 x 2048 CMOS detector), 8 different wavelength LEDs, and a longwave calibration sensor (LCS) measuring the surface emissivity at four IR wavelengths. Tests of various RP sub-systems have been under-taken in a large cryo-vacuum chamber at Glenn Re-search Center. The chamber accommodates a tube (1.2 m high x 25.4 cm diameter) filled with lunar simulant, NU-LHT-3M, prepared with known abundances of water. Thermocouples are embedded at different depths, and also across the surface of the soil tube. In the chamber the tube is cooled with LN2 as the pressure is reduced to approx. 5-6x10(exp -6) Torr. For the May 2016 tests two soil tubes were prepared with initially 2.5 Wt.% water. The shroud surrounding the soil tube was held at different temperatures for each tube to simulate a warm and cold lunar environment. Table 1 provides a summary of experimental conditions and Figure 1 shows the nominal view of the NIRVSS components, the drill foot, and the top of the soil tube. Once the average soil temperature reached approx. 178 K, drilling commenced. During drilling activities NIRVSS was alternating between obtaining spectra and obtaining images. Here we discuss NIRVSS spectral data obtained during

  8. Lunar Navigation Architecture Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Christopher; Getchius, Joel; Holt, Greg; Moreau, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is aiming to establish a long-term presence on the lunar surface. The Constellation elements (Orion, Altair, Earth Departure Stage, and Ares launch vehicles) will require a lunar navigation architecture for navigation state updates during lunar-class missions. Orion in particular has baselined earth-based ground direct tracking as the primary source for much of its absolute navigation needs. However, due to the uncertainty in the lunar navigation architecture, the Orion program has had to make certain assumptions on the capabilities of such architectures in order to adequately scale the vehicle design trade space. The following paper outlines lunar navigation requirements, the Orion program assumptions, and the impacts of these assumptions to the lunar navigation architecture design. The selection of potential sites was based upon geometric baselines, logistical feasibility, redundancy, and abort support capability. Simulated navigation covariances mapped to entry interface flightpath- angle uncertainties were used to evaluate knowledge errors. A minimum ground station architecture was identified consisting of Goldstone, Madrid, Canberra, Santiago, Hartebeeshoek, Dongora, Hawaii, Guam, and Ascension Island (or the geometric equivalent).

  9. Electrostatic Separation of Lunar Regolith for Size Beneficiation Using Same-Material Tribocharging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The success of future long-term manned lunar missions depends on the development of certain key technologies. One such technology, the utilization of lunar regolith...

  10. Apollo guidance, navigation and control: Guidance system operations plans for manned LM earth orbital and lunar missions using Program COLOSSUS 3. Section 7: Erasable memory programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, M. H.

    1972-01-01

    Erasable-memory programs (EMPs) designed for the guidance computers used in the command (CMC) and lunar modules (LGC) are described. CMC programs are designated COLOSSUS 3, and the associated EMPs are identified by a three-digit number beginning with 5. LGC programs are designated LUMINARY 1E, and the associated EMPs are identified, with one exception, by a three-digit number beginning with 1. The exception is EMP 99. The EMPs vary in complexity from a simple flagbit setting to a long and intricate logical structure. They all, however, cause the computer to behave in a way not intended in the original design of the programs; they accomplish this off-nominal behavior by some alteration of erasable memory to interface with existing fixed-memory programs to effect a desired result.

  11. Robotic Subsurface Analyzer and Sample Handler for Resource Reconnaissance and Preliminary Site Assessment for ISRU Activities at the Lunar Cold Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorevan, S. P.; Wilson, J.; Bartlett, P.; Powderly, J.; Lawrence, D.; Elphic, R.; Mungas, G.; McCullough, E.; Stoker, C.; Cannon, H.

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1960s, claims have been made that water ice deposits should exist in permanently shadowed craters near both lunar poles. Recent interpretations of data from the Lunar Prospector-Neutron Spectrometer (LP- NS) confirm that significant concentrations of hydrogen exist, probably in the form of water ice, in the permanently shadowed polar cold traps. Yet, due to the large spatial resolution (45-60 Ian) of the LP-NS measurements relative to these shadowed craters (approx.5-25 km), these data offer little certainty regarding the precise location, form or distribution of these deposits. Even less is known about how such deposits of water ice might effect lunar regolith physical properties relevant to mining, excavation, water extraction and construction. These uncertainties will need to be addressed in order to validate fundamental lunar In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) precepts by 2011. Given the importance of the in situ utilization of water and other resources to the future of space exploration a need arises for the advanced deployment of a robotic and reconfigurable system for physical properties and resource reconnaissance. Based on a collection of high-TRL. designs, the Subsurface Analyzer and Sample Handler (SASH) addresses these needs, particularly determining the location and form of water ice and the physical properties of regolith. SASH would be capable of: (1) subsurface access via drilling, on the order of 3-10 meters into both competent targets (ice, rock) and regolith, (2) down-hole analysis through drill string embedded instrumentation and sensors (Neutron Spectrometer and Microscopic Imager), enabling water ice identification and physical properties measurements; (3) core and unconsolidated sample acquisition from rock and regolith; (4) sample handling and processing, with minimized contamination, sample containerization and delivery to a modular instrument payload. This system would be designed with three mission enabling goals, including: (1

  12. The ARTEMIS mission

    CERN Document Server

    Angelopoulos, Vassilis

    2014-01-01

    The ARTEMIS mission was initiated by skillfully moving the two outermost Earth-orbiting THEMIS spacecraft into lunar orbit to conduct unprecedented dual spacecraft observations of the lunar environment. ARTEMIS stands for Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun. Indeed, this volume discusses initial findings related to the Moon’s magnetic and plasma environments and the electrical conductivity of the lunar interior. This work is aimed at researchers and graduate students in both heliophysics and planetary physics. Originally published in Space Science Reviews, Vol. 165/1-4, 2011.

  13. Design and Construction of Manned Lunar Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijie

    2016-07-01

    the condition of the same volume it has less weight than rigid module, but based on durable, high hermetic, low density and elastic modulus advanced materials. 3.The construction habitation has high expansibility and various configurations by using in situ resources as construction materials, but this technique is difficult to implement since it involves deep exploitation of lunar resources. Aiming at different missions' objects and development periods, three different patterns talked above can be chosen as the scheme of lunar base habitation establishments. But each of them is too simple to adapt high-level lunar base during a long period. Thereby, based on the design of rigid module and flexible module, this paper brings out an assumed scheme of an integrated lunar base, and the exterior part of lunar base is built by using construction technique. The design of lunar base follows the principle of crew-robot coordinated exploration, which functions automatically in a long period and short period with attention by astronauts. The technique characteristics are as follows: life period ≥ 8 years; 6 astronauts; single lunar surface mission period ≥ 3 months. The inner main body of integrated manned lunar base consists of habitation module, laboratory module and support module. In order to afford security and comfortableness, the habitation module provides astronauts kitchen, bedroom, gymnasium, toilet, and so on. The laboratory module is used for science experiments, which involves plant cultivation devices and animal cultivation devices of bioregenerative life support system. The communication system, main computer, central control system and backup powers are arranged in the support module. For convenience of outside working and emergency rescue, every module with two exports is connected with other modules or lunar rovers. In order to solve the problems of waste treatment, atmosphere/water regeneration and food supply, this paper designed a bioregenerative life

  14. Burn Delay Analysis of the Lunar Orbit Insertion for Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jonghee; Song, Young-Joo; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Bangyeop

    2017-12-01

    The first Korea lunar orbiter, Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO), has been in development since 2016. After launch, the KPLO will execute several maneuvers to enter into the lunar mission orbit, and will then perform lunar science missions for one year. Among these maneuvers, the lunar orbit insertion (LOI) is the most critical maneuver because the KPLO will experience an extreme velocity change in the presence of the Moon’s gravitational pull. However, the lunar orbiter may have a delayed LOI burn during operation due to hardware limitations and telemetry delays. This delayed burn could occur in different captured lunar orbits; in the worst case, the KPLO could fly away from the Moon. Therefore, in this study, the burn delay for the first LOI maneuver is analyzed to successfully enter the desired lunar orbit. Numerical simulations are performed to evaluate the difference between the desired and delayed lunar orbits due to a burn delay in the LOI maneuver. Based on this analysis, critical factors in the LOI maneuver, the periselene altitude and orbit period, are significantly changed and an additional delta-V in the second LOI maneuver is required as the delay burn interval increases to 10 min from the planned maneuver epoch.

  15. Summary of the results from the lunar orbiter laser altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Lemoine, Frank G.; Head, James W., III; Lucey, Paul G.; Aharonson, Oded; Robinson, Mark S.; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H.; Barker, Michael K.; Oberst, Juergen; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Mao, Dandan; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Jha, Kopal; Rowlands, David D.; Goossens, Sander; Baker, David; Bauer, Sven; Gläser, Philipp; Lemelin, Myriam; Rosenburg, Margaret; Sori, Michael M.; Whitten, Jennifer; Mcclanahan, Timothy

    2017-02-01

    In June 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft was launched to the Moon. The payload consists of 7 science instruments selected to characterize sites for future robotic and human missions. Among them, the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) was designed to obtain altimetry, surface roughness, and reflectance measurements. The primary phase of lunar exploration lasted one year, following a 3-month commissioning phase. On completion of its exploration objectives, the LRO mission transitioned to a science mission. After 7 years in lunar orbit, the LOLA instrument continues to map the lunar surface. The LOLA dataset is one of the foundational datasets acquired by the various LRO instruments. LOLA provided a high-accuracy global geodetic reference frame to which past, present and future lunar observations can be referenced. It also obtained high-resolution and accurate global topography that were used to determine regions in permanent shadow at the lunar poles. LOLA further contributed to the study of polar volatiles through its unique measurement of surface brightness at zero phase, which revealed anomalies in several polar craters that may indicate the presence of water ice. In this paper, we describe the many LOLA accomplishments to date and its contribution to lunar and planetary science.

  16. Summary of the Results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter after Seven Years in Lunar Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Lemoine, Frank G.; Head, James W., III; Lucey, Paul G.; Aharonson, Oded; Robinson, Mark S.; Sun, Xiaoli; hide

    2016-01-01

    In June 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft was launched to the Moon. The payload consists of 7 science instruments selected to characterize sites for future robotic and human missions. Among them, the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) was designed to obtain altimetry, surface roughness, and reflectance measurements. The primary phase of lunar exploration lasted one year, following a 3-month commissioning phase. On completion of its exploration objectives, the LRO mission transitioned to a science mission. After 7 years in lunar orbit, the LOLA instrument continues to map the lunar surface. The LOLA dataset is one of the foundational datasets acquired by the various LRO instruments. LOLA provided a high-accuracy global geodetic reference frame to which past, present and future lunar observations can be referenced. It also obtained high-resolution and accurate global topography that were used to determine regions in permanent shadow at the lunar poles. LOLA further contributed to the study of polar volatiles through its unique measurement of surface brightness at zero phase, which revealed anomalies in several polar craters that may indicate the presence of water ice. In this paper, we describe the many LOLA accomplishments to date and its contribution to lunar and planetary science.

  17. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  18. APOLLO 10 ASTRONAUT ENTERS LUNAR MODULE SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 10 lunar module pilot Eugene A. Cernan prepares to enter the lunar module simulator at the Flight Crew Training Building at the NASA Spaceport. Cernan, Apollo 10 commander Thomas P. Stafford and John W. Young, command module pilot, are to be launched May 18 on the Apollo 10 mission, a dress rehearsal for a lunar landing later this summer. Cernan and Stafford are to detach the lunar module and drop to within 10 miles of the moon's surface before rejoining Young in the command/service module. Looking on as Cernan puts on his soft helmet is Snoopy, the lovable cartoon mutt whose name will be the lunar module code name during the Apollo 10 flight. The command/service module is to bear the code name Charlie Brown.

  19. Lunar soil as shielding against space radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 83R0101, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: miller@lbl.gov; Taylor, L. [Planetary Geosciences Institute, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Zeitlin, C. [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Heilbronn, L. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Guetersloh, S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); DiGiuseppe, M. [Northrop Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, NY 11714 (United States); Iwata, Y.; Murakami, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    We have measured the radiation transport and dose reduction properties of lunar soil with respect to selected heavy ion beams with charges and energies comparable to some components of the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), using soil samples returned by the Apollo missions and several types of synthetic soil glasses and lunar soil simulants. The suitability for shielding studies of synthetic soil and soil simulants as surrogates for lunar soil was established, and the energy deposition as a function of depth for a particular heavy ion beam passing through a new type of lunar highland simulant was measured. A fragmentation and energy loss model was used to extend the results over a range of heavy ion charges and energies, including protons at solar particle event (SPE) energies. The measurements and model calculations indicate that a modest amount of lunar soil affords substantial protection against primary GCR nuclei and SPE, with only modest residual dose from surviving charged fragments of the heavy beams.

  20. Lunar Industry & Research Base Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, J.; Kaliapin, M.; Osinovyy, G.

    2017-09-01

    Currently, all main space industry players, such as Europe, USA, Russia, China, etc., are looking back again at the idea of Moon exploration building there a manned lunar base. Alongside with other world spacefaring nations, Yuzhnoye State Design Office with its long-time development experience, technological and intellectual potential, organized its own conceptual work on development of the Lunar Industry & Research Base. In the frames of conceptual project "Lunar Industrial & Research Base" were formed its appearance, preliminary configuration and infrastructure at different stages of operation, trajectory and flight scheme to the Moon, as well as terms of the project's realization, and main technical characteristics of the systems under development, such as space transportation system for crew and cargo delivery to lunar surface and return to Earth, standardized designs of lunar modules, lunar surface vehicles, etc. The "Lunar Industrial & Research Base" project's preliminary risk assessment has shown a high value of its overall risk due to the lack of reliable information about the Moon, technical risks, long-term development of its elements, very high financial costs and dependence on state support. This points to the fact that it is reasonable to create such a global project in cooperation with other countries. International cooperation will expand the capabilities of any nation, reduce risks and increase the success probability of automated or manned space missions. It is necessary to create and bring into operation practical mechanisms for long-term space exploration on a global scale. One of the ways to do this is to create a multinational agency which would include both state enterprises and private companies.

  1. Lunar feldspathic meteorites: Constraints on the geology of the lunar highlands, and the origin of the lunar crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Juliane; Treiman, Allan H.; Mercer, Celestine N.

    2014-02-01

    The composition of the lunar crust provides clues about the processes that formed it and hence contains information on the origin and evolution of the Moon. Current understanding of lunar evolution is built on the Lunar Magma Ocean hypothesis that early in its history, the Moon was wholly or mostly molten. This hypothesis is based on analyses of Apollo samples of ferroan anorthosites (>90% plagioclase; molar Mg/(Mg+Fe)=Mg#Moon's surface, and remote sensing data, show that ferroan anorthosites are not globally distributed and that the Apollo highland samples, used as a basis for the model, are influenced by ejecta from the Imbrium basin. In this study we evaluate anorthosites from all currently available adequately described lunar highland meteorites, representing a more widespread sampling of the lunar highlands than Apollo samples alone, and find that ∼80% of them are significantly more magnesian than Apollo ferroan anorthosites. Interestingly, Luna mission anorthosites, collected outside the continuous Imbrium ejecta, are also highly magnesian. If the lunar highland crust consists dominantly of magnesian anorthosites, as suggested by their abundance in samples sourced outside Imbrium ejecta, a reevaluation of the Lunar Magma Ocean model is a sensible step forward in the endeavor to understand lunar evolution. Our results demonstrate that lunar anorthosites are more similar in their chemical trends and mineral abundance to terrestrial massif anorthosites than to anorthosites predicted in a Lunar Magma Ocean. This analysis does not invalidate the idea of a Lunar Magma Ocean, which seems a necessity under the giant impact hypothesis for the origin of the moon. However, it does indicate that most rocks now seen at the Moon's surface are not primary products of a magma ocean alone, but are products of more complex crustal processes.

  2. Lunar Dust and Lunar Simulant Activation, Monitoring, Solution and Cellular Toxicity Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William; Jeevarajan, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, many undesirable situations were encountered that must be mitigated prior to returning humans to the moon. Lunar dust (that part of the lunar regolith less than 20 microns in diameter) was found to produce several problems with mechanical equipment and could have conceivably produced harmful physiological effects for the astronauts. For instance, the abrasive nature of the dust was found to cause malfunctions of various joints and seals of the spacecraft and suits. Additionally, though efforts were made to exclude lunar dust from the cabin of the lunar module, a significant amount of material nonetheless found its way inside. With the loss of gravity correlated with ascent from the lunar surface, much of the finer fraction of this dust began to float and was inhaled by the astronauts. The short visits tothe Moon during Apollo lessened exposure to the dust, but the plan for future lunar stays of up to six months demands that methods be developed to minimize the risk of dust inhalation. The guidelines for what constitutes "safe" exposure will guide the development of engineering controls aimed at preventing the presence of dust in the lunar habitat. This work has shown the effects of grinding on the activation level of lunar dust, the changes in dissolution properties of lunar simulant, and the production of cytokines by cellular systems. Grinding of lunar dust leads to the production of radicals in solution and increased dissolution of lunar simulant in buffers of different pH. Additionally, ground lunar simulant has been shown to promote the production of IL-6 and IL-8, pro-inflammatory cytokines, by alveolar epithelial cells. These results provide evidence of the need for further studies on these materials prior to returning to the lunar surface.

  3. Cis-Lunar Base Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond G.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, John D., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, when mounting expeditions into uncharted territories, explorers have established strategically positioned base camps to pre-position required equipment and consumables. These base camps are secure, safe positions from which expeditions can depart when conditions are favorable, at which technology and operations can be tested and validated, and facilitate timely access to more robust facilities in the event of an emergency. For human exploration missions into deep space, cis-lunar space is well suited to serve as such a base camp. The outer regions of cis-lunar space, such as the Earth-Moon Lagrange points, lie near the edge of Earth s gravity well, allowing equipment and consumables to be aggregated with easy access to deep space and to the lunar surface, as well as more distant destinations, such as near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Mars and its moons. Several approaches to utilizing a cis-lunar base camp for sustainable human exploration, as well as some possible future applications are identified. The primary objective of the analysis presented in this paper is to identify options, show the macro trends, and provide information that can be used as a basis for more detailed mission development. Compared within are the high-level performance and cost of 15 preliminary cis-lunar exploration campaigns that establish the capability to conduct crewed missions of up to one year in duration, and then aggregate mass in cis-lunar space to facilitate an expedition from Cis-Lunar Base Camp. Launch vehicles, chemical propulsion stages, and electric propulsion stages are discussed and parametric sizing values are used to create architectures of in-space transportation elements that extend the existing in-space supply chain to cis-lunar space. The transportation options to cis-lunar space assessed vary in efficiency by almost 50%; from 0.16 to 0.68 kg of cargo in cis-lunar space for every kilogram of mass in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). For the 15 cases, 5-year campaign

  4. Lunar Module 5 ascent stage being moved for mating with adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Interior view of the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Manned Spacecraft Operations Building showing Lunar Module 5 being moved from workstand for mating with its Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA). LM-5 is scheduled to be flown on the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

  5. Characterization of Volatiles Loss from Soil Samples at Lunar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Smith, Jim; Roush, Ted; Colaprete, Anthony; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale; Wang, Alex; Paz, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Resource Prospector Integrated Thermal Vacuum Test Program A series of ground based dirty thermal vacuum tests are being conducted to better understand the subsurface sampling operations for RP Volatiles loss during sampling operations Hardware performance Sample removal and transfer Concept of operationsInstrumentation5 test campaigns over 5 years have been conducted with RP hardware with advancing hardware designs and additional RP subsystems Volatiles sampling 4 years Using flight-forward regolith sampling hardware, empirically determine volatile retention at lunar-relevant conditions Use data to improve theoretical predictions Determine driving variables for retention Bound water loss potential to define measurement uncertainties. The main goal of this talk is to introduce you to our approach to characterizing volatiles loss for RP. Introduce the facility and its capabilities Overview of the RP hardware used in integrated testing (most recent iteration) Summarize the test variables used thus farReview a sample of the results.

  6. Integration of Apollo Lunar Sample Data into Google Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Melissa D.; Todd, Nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project is a continuation of the Apollo 15 Google Moon Add-On project, which provides a scientific and educational tool for the study of the Moon and its geologic features. The main goal of this project is to provide a user-friendly interface for an interactive and educational outreach and learning tool for the Apollo missions. Specifically, this project?s focus is the dissemination of information about the lunar samples collected during the Apollo missions by providing any additional information needed to enhance the Apollo mission data on Google Moon. Apollo missions 15 and 16 were chosen to be completed first due to the availability of digitized lunar sample photographs and the amount of media associated with these missions. The user will be able to learn about the lunar samples collected in these Apollo missions, as well as see videos, pictures, and 360 degree panoramas of the lunar surface depicting the lunar samples in their natural state, following collection and during processing at NASA. Once completed, these interactive data layers will be submitted for inclusion into the Apollo 15 and 16 missions on Google Moon.

  7. Visibility of lunar surface features - Apollo 14 orbital observations and lunar landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziedman, K.

    1972-01-01

    Description of an in-flight visibility test conducted during the Apollo 14 mission for the purpose of validating and extending the mathematical visibility models used previously in the course of the Apollo program to examine the constraints on descent operations imposed by lunar visibility limitations. Following a background review of the effects on mission planning of the visibility limitations due to downsun lunar surface detail 'washout' and a discussion of the visibility prediction techniques previously used for studying lunar visibility problems, the visibility test rationale and procedures are defined and the test results presented. The results appear to confirm the validity of the visibility prediction techniques employed in lunar visibility problem studies. These results provide also a basis for improving the accuracy of the prediction techniques by appropriate modifications.

  8. Multi-state autonomous drilling for lunar exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chongbin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of information of subsurface lunar regolith stratification which varies along depth, the drilling device may encounter lunar soil and lunar rock randomly in the drilling process. To meet the load safety requirements of unmanned sampling mission under limited orbital resources, the control strategy of autonomous drilling should adapt to the indeterminable lunar environments. Based on the analysis of two types of typical drilling media (i.e., lunar soil and lunar rock, this paper proposes a multi-state control strategy for autonomous lunar drilling. To represent the working circumstances in the lunar subsurface and reduce the complexity of the control algorithm, lunar drilling process was categorized into three drilling states: the interface detection, initiation of drilling parameters for recognition and drilling medium recognition. Support vector machine (SVM and continuous wavelet transform were employed for the online recognition of drilling media and interface, respectively. Finite state machine was utilized to control the transition among different drilling states. To verify the effectiveness of the multi-state control strategy, drilling experiments were implemented with multi-layered drilling media constructed by lunar soil simulant and lunar rock simulant. The results reveal that the multi-state control method is capable of detecting drilling state variation and adjusting drilling parameters timely under vibration interferences. The multi-state control method provides a feasible reference for the control of extraterrestrial autonomous drilling.

  9. Lunar and Planetary Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, Alexander T.

    2018-05-01

    Lunar and planetary geology can be described using examples such as the geology of Earth (as the reference case) and geologies of the Earth's satellite the Moon; the planets Mercury, Mars and Venus; the satellite of Saturn Enceladus; the small stony asteroid Eros; and the nucleus of the comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Each body considered is illustrated by its global view, with information given as to its position in the solar system, size, surface, environment including gravity acceleration and properties of its atmosphere if it is present, typical landforms and processes forming them, materials composing these landforms, information on internal structure of the body, stages of its geologic evolution in the form of stratigraphic scale, and estimates of the absolute ages of the stratigraphic units. Information about one body may be applied to another body and this, in particular, has led to the discovery of the existence of heavy "meteoritic" bombardment in the early history of the solar system, which should also significantly affect Earth. It has been shown that volcanism and large-scale tectonics may have not only been an internal source of energy in the form of radiogenic decay of potassium, uranium and thorium, but also an external source in the form of gravity tugging caused by attractions of the neighboring bodies. The knowledge gained by lunar and planetary geology is important for planning and managing space missions and for the practical exploration of other bodies of the solar system and establishing manned outposts on them.

  10. SELENE - Self-Forming Extensible Lunar EVA Network, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar EVA network will exhibit a wide range of connectivity levels due to the challenging communications environment and mission dynamics. Disruption-Tolerant...

  11. Autonomous Utility Connector for Lunar Surface Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar dust has been identified as a significant and present challenge in future exploration missions. Significant development is called for in the area of devices...

  12. High-Fidelity Lunar Dust Simulant, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The severity of the lunar dust problems encountered during the Apollo missions were consistently underestimated by ground tests, illustrating the need to develop...

  13. High-Fidelity Lunar Dust Simulant, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The severity of the lunar dust problems encountered during the Apollo missions were consistently underestimated by ground tests, illustrating the need to develop...

  14. Extreme Access & Lunar Ice Mining in Permanently Shadowed Craters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Results from the recent NASA Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite, or LCROSS, mission in 2010, indicate that water (H2O), ice and other useful volatiles...

  15. The simulation of lunar gravity field recovery from D-VLBI of Chang’E-1 and SELENE lunar orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jianguo; Ping, Jingsong; Matsumoto, K.; Li, Fei

    2008-07-01

    The lunar gravity field is a foundation to study the lunar interior structure, and to recover the evolution history of the Moon. It is still an open and key topic for lunar science. For above mentioned reasons, it becomes one of the important scientific objectives of recent lunar missions, such as KAGUYA (SELENE) the Japanese lunar mission and Chang’E-1, the Chinese lunar mission. The Chang’E-1 and the SELENE were successfully launched in 2007. It is estimated that these two missions can fly around the Moon longer than 6 months simultaneously. In these two missions, the Chinese new VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) network will be applied for precise orbit determination (POD) by using a differential VLBI (D-VLBI) method during the mission period. The same-beam D-VLBI technique will contribute to recover the lunar gravity field together with other conventional observables, i.e. R&RR (Range and Range Rate) and multi-way Doppler. Taking VLBI tracking conditions into consideration and using the GEODYNII/SOVLE software of GSFC/NASA/USA [Rowlands, D.D., Marshall, J.A., Mccarthy, J., et al. GEODYN II System Description, vols. 1 5. Contractor Report, Hughes STX Corp. Greenbelt, MD, 1997; Ullman, R.E. SOLVE program: mathematical formulation and guide to user input, Hughes/STX Contractor Report, Contract NAS5-31760. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 1994], we simulated the lunar gravity field recovering ability with and without D-VLBI between the Chang’E-1 and SELENE main satellite. The cases of overlapped flying and tracking period of 30 days, 60 days and 90 days have been analyzed, respectively. The results show that D-VLBI tracking between two lunar satellites can improve the gravity field recovery remarkably. The results and methods introduced in this paper will benefit the actual missions.

  16. The ESA Lunar Lander and the search for Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Waltham, N. R.; Waugh, L. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2011-10-01

    Following the Apollo era the moon was considered a volatile poor body. Samples collected from the Apollo missions contained only ppm levels of water formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the lunar regolith [1]. However more recent orbiter observations have indicated that water may exist as water ice in cold polar regions buried within craters at concentrations of a few wt. % [2]. Infrared images from M3 on Chandrayaan-1 have been interpreted as showing the presence of hydrated surface minerals with the ongoing hydroxyl/water process feeding cold polar traps. This has been supported by observation of ephemeral features termed "space dew" [3]. Meanwhile laboratory studies indicate that water could be present in appreciable quantities in lunar rocks [4] and could also have a cometary source [5]. The presence of sufficient quantities of volatiles could provide a resource which would simplify logistics for long term lunar missions. The European Space Agency (ESA's Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations) have provisionally scheduled a robotic mission to demonstrate key technologies to enable later human exploration. Planned for launch in 2018, the primary aim is for precise automated landing, with hazard avoidance, in zones which are almost constantly illuminated (e.g. at the edge of the Shackleton crater at the lunar south pole). These regions would enable the solar powered Lander to survive for long periods > 6 months, but require accurate navigation to within 200m. Although landing in an illuminated area, these regions are close to permanently shadowed volatile rich regions and the analysis of volatiles is a major science objective of the mission. The straw man payload includes provision for a Lunar Volatile and Resources Analysis Package (LVRAP). The authors have been commissioned by ESA to conduct an evaluation of possible technologies to be included in L-VRAP which can be included within the Lander payload. Scientific aims are to demonstrate the

  17. Building an Economical and Sustainable Lunar Infrastructure to Enable Lunar Industrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Allison F.; Turner, Mark; Rasky, Daniel; Loucks, Mike; Carrico, John; Policastri, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    delivery and surface power generation, in partnership with industry; 2) incentivize industry to establish economical and sustainable lunar infrastructure services to support NASA missions and initiate lunar commerce; and 3) encourage creation of new space markets for economic growth and benefit. A phased-development approach was also studied to allow for incremental development and demonstration of capabilities needed to build a lunar infrastructure. This paper will describe the Lunar COTS concept goals, objectives and approach for building an economical and sustainable lunar infrastructure. It will also describe the technical challenges and advantages of developing and operating each infrastructure element. It will also describe the potential benefits and progress that can be accomplished in the initial phase of this Lunar COTS approach. Finally, the paper will also look forward to the potential of a robust lunar industrialization environment and its potential effect on the next 50 years of space exploration.

  18. Influence of the Choice of Lunar Gravity Model on Orbit Determination for Lunar Orbiters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Rok Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the influence of the lunar gravity model on the orbit determination (OD of a lunar orbiter operating in a 100 km high, lunar polar orbit. Doppler and sequential range measurements by three Deep Space Network antennas and one Korea Deep Space Antenna were used. For measurement simulation and OD analysis, STK11 and ODTK6 were utilized. GLGM2, LP100K, LP150Q, GRAIL420A, and GRAIL660B were used for investigation of lunar gravity model selection effect. OD results were assessed by position and velocity uncertainties with error covariance and an external orbit comparison using simulated true orbit. The effect of the lunar gravity models on the long-term OD, degree and order level, measurement-acquisition condition, and lunar altitude was investigated. For efficiency verification, computational times for the five lunar gravity models were compared. Results showed that significant improvements to OD accuracy are observed by applying a GRAIL-based model; however, applying a full order and degree gravity modeling is not always the best strategy, owing to the computational burden. Consequently, we consider that OD using GRAIL660B with 70 × 70 degree and order is the most efficient strategy for mission preanalysis. This study provides useful guideline for KPLO OD analysis during nominal mission operation.

  19. Lunar Dust Separation for Toxicology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.; McKay, D. S.; Riofrio, L. M.; Taylor, L. A.; Gonzalex, C. P.

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, crewmembers were briefly exposed to dust in the lunar module, brought in after extravehicular activity. When the lunar ascent module returned to micro-gravity, the dust that had settled on the floor now floated into the air, causing eye discomfort and occasional respiratory symptoms. Because our goal is to set an exposure standard for 6 months of episodic exposure to lunar dust for crew on the lunar surface, these brief exposures of a few days are not conclusive. Based on experience with industrial minerals such as sandblasting quartz, an exposure of several months may cause serious damage, while a short exposure may cause none. The detailed characteristics of sub-micrometer lunar dust are only poorly known, and this is the size range of particles that are of greatest concern. We have developed a method for extracting respirable dust (<2.5 micron) from Apollo lunar soils. This method meets stringent requirements that the soil must be kept dry, exposed only to pure nitrogen, and must conserve and recover the maximum amount of both respirable dust and coarser soil. In addition, we have developed a method for grinding coarser lunar soil to produce sufficient respirable soil for animal toxicity testing while preserving the freshly exposed grain surfaces in a pristine state.

  20. Lunar Soil Erosion Physics for Landing Rockets on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Ryan N.; Metzger, Philip T.; Huff, Stephen; Roberson, Luke B.

    2008-01-01

    To develop a lunar outpost, we must understand the blowing of soil during launch and landing of the new Altair Lander. For example, the Apollo 12 Lunar Module landed approximately 165 meters from the deactivated Surveyor Ill spacecraft, scouring its surfaces and creating numerous tiny pits. Based on simulations and video analysis from the Apollo missions, blowing lunar soil particles have velocities up to 2000 m/s at low ejection angles relative to the horizon, reach an apogee higher than the orbiting Command and Service Module, and travel nearly the circumference of the Moon [1-3]. The low ejection angle and high velocity are concerns for the lunar outpost.

  1. Life Sciences Implications of Lunar Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document preliminary, predicted, life sciences implications of expected operational concepts for lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). Algorithms developed through simulation and testing in lunar analog environments were used to predict crew metabolic rates and ground reaction forces experienced during lunar EVA. Subsequently, the total metabolic energy consumption, the daily bone load stimulus, total oxygen needed, and other variables were calculated and provided to Human Research Program and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate stakeholders. To provide context to the modeling, the report includes an overview of some scenarios that have been considered. Concise descriptions of the analog testing and development of the algorithms are also provided. This document may be updated to remain current with evolving lunar or other planetary surface operations, assumptions and concepts, and to provide additional data and analyses collected during the ongoing analog research program.

  2. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Kilian A

    2005-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required delta v, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo. c2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Kilian A.

    2005-07-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator-launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required Δv, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo.

  4. Apollo Lunar Sample Integration into Google Moon: A New Approach to Digitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Melissa D.; Todd, nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project is part of a larger, LASER-funded 4-year lunar rock photo restoration project by NASA s Acquisition and Curation Office [1]. The objective of this project is to enhance the Apollo mission data already available on Google Moon with information about the lunar samples collected during the Apollo missions. To this end, we have combined rock sample data from various sources, including Curation databases, mission documentation and lunar sample catalogs, with newly available digital photography of rock samples to create a user-friendly, interactive tool for learning about the Apollo Moon samples

  5. Electrostatic Power Generation from Negatively Charged, Simulated Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; King, Glen C.; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Yeonjoon

    2010-01-01

    Research was conducted to develop an electrostatic power generator for future lunar missions that facilitate the utilization of lunar resources. The lunar surface is known to be negatively charged from the constant bombardment of electrons and protons from the solar wind. The resulting negative electrostatic charge on the dust particles, in the lunar vacuum, causes them to repel each other minimizing the potential. The result is a layer of suspended dust about one meter above the lunar surface. This phenomenon was observed by both Clementine and Surveyor spacecrafts. During the Apollo 17 lunar landing, the charged dust was a major hindrance, as it was attracted to the astronauts' spacesuits, equipment, and the lunar buggies. The dust accumulated on the spacesuits caused reduced visibility for the astronauts, and was unavoidably transported inside the spacecraft where it caused breathing irritation [1]. In the lunar vacuum, the maximum charge on the particles can be extremely high. An article in the journal "Nature", titled "Moon too static for astronauts?" (Feb 2, 2007) estimates that the lunar surface is charged with up to several thousand volts [2]. The electrostatic power generator was devised to alleviate the hazardous effects of negatively charged lunar soil by neutralizing the charged particles through capacitive coupling and thereby simultaneously harnessing power through electric charging [3]. The amount of power generated or collected is dependent on the areal coverage of the device and hovering speed over the lunar soil surface. A thin-film array of capacitors can be continuously charged and sequentially discharged using a time-differentiated trigger discharge process to produce a pulse train of discharge for DC mode output. By controlling the pulse interval, the DC mode power can be modulated for powering devices and equipment. In conjunction with a power storage system, the electrostatic power generator can be a power source for a lunar rover or other

  6. Mechanical properties of lunar regolith and lunar soil simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Through the Surveyor 3 and 7, and Apollo 11-17 missions a knowledge of the mechanical properties of Lunar regolith were gained. These properties, including material cohesion, friction, in-situ density, grain-size distribution and shape, and porosity, were determined by indirect means of trenching, penetration, and vane shear testing. Several of these properties were shown to be significantly different from those of terrestrial soils, such as an interlocking cohesion and tensile strength formed in the absence of moisture and particle cementation. To characterize the strength and deformation properties of Lunar regolith experiments have been conducted on a lunar soil simulant at various initial densities, fabric arrangements, and composition. These experiments included conventional triaxial compression and extension, direct tension, and combined tension-shear. Experiments have been conducted at low levels of effective confining stress. External conditions such as membrane induced confining stresses, end platten friction and material self weight have been shown to have a dramatic effect on the strength properties at low levels of confining stress. The solution has been to treat these external conditions and the specimen as a full-fledged boundary value problem rather than the idealized elemental cube of mechanics. Centrifuge modeling allows for the study of Lunar soil-structure interaction problems. In recent years centrifuge modeling has become an important tool for modeling processes that are dominated by gravity and for verifying analysis procedures and studying deformation and failure modes. Centrifuge modeling is well established for terrestrial enginering and applies equally as well to Lunar engineering. A brief review of the experiments is presented in graphic and outline form.

  7. Respiratory Toxicity of Lunar Highland Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Wallace, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar dust exposures occurred during the Apollo missions while the crew was on the lunar surface and especially when microgravity conditions were attained during rendezvous in lunar orbit. Crews reported that the dust was irritating to the eyes and in some cases respiratory symptoms were elicited. NASA s vision for lunar exploration includes stays of 6 months on the lunar surface hence the health effects of periodic exposure to lunar dust need to be assessed. NASA has performed this assessment with a series of in vitro and in vivo tests on authentic lunar dust. Our approach is to "calibrate" the intrinsic toxicity of lunar dust by comparison to a nontoxic dust (TiO2) and a highly toxic dust (quartz) using intratrachael instillation of the dusts in mice. A battery of indices of toxicity is assessed at various time points after the instillations. Cultures of selected cells are exposed to test dusts to assess the adverse effects on the cells. Finally, chemical systems are used to assess the nature of the reactivity of various dusts and to determine the persistence of reactivity under various environmental conditions that are relevant to a space habitat. Similar systems are used to assess the dissolution of the dust. From these studies we will be able to set a defensible inhalation exposure standard for aged dust and predict whether we need a separate standard for reactive dust. Presently-available data suggest that aged lunar highland dust is slightly toxic, that it can adversely affect cultured cells, and that the surface reactivity induced by grinding the dust persists for a few hours after activation.

  8. Lunar plant biology--a review of the Apollo era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert J; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2010-04-01

    Recent plans for human return to the Moon have significantly elevated scientific interest in the lunar environment with emphasis on the science to be done in preparation for the return and while on the lunar surface. Since the return to the Moon is envisioned as a dedicated and potentially longer-term commitment to lunar exploration, questions of the lunar environment and particularly its impact on biology and biological systems have become a significant part of the lunar science discussion. Plants are integral to the discussion of biology on the Moon. Plants are envisioned as important components of advanced habitats and fundamental components of advanced life-support systems. Moreover, plants are sophisticated multicellular eukaryotic life-forms with highly orchestrated developmental processes, well-characterized signal transduction pathways, and exceedingly fine-tuned responses to their environments. Therefore, plants represent key test organisms for understanding the biological impact of the lunar environment on terrestrial life-forms. Indeed, plants were among the initial and primary organisms that were exposed to returned lunar regolith from the Apollo lunar missions. This review discusses the original experiments involving plants in association with the Apollo samples, with the intent of understanding those studies within the context of the first lunar exploration program and drawing from those experiments the data to inform the studies critical within the next lunar exploration science agenda.

  9. Portrait of Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander of Apollo 11 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 Lunar Landing mission in his space suit, with his helmet on the table in front of him. Behind him is a large photograph of the lunar surface.

  10. LADEE LUNAR DUST EXPERIMENT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This archive bundle includes data taken by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft....

  11. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Boyce, J. W.; Burney, D.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Klima, R. L.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Steenstra, E.; Tartèse, R.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.

    2018-04-01

    This abstract discusses numerous outstanding questions on the topic of endogenous lunar volatiles that will need to be addressed in the coming years. Although substantial insights into endogenous lunar volatiles have been gained, more work remains.

  12. Feasibility of lunar Helium-3 mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschneider, Andreas; Van Overstraeten, Dmitry; Van der Reijnst, Roy; Van Hoorn, Niels; Lamers, Marvin; Hubert, Laurent; Dijk, Bert; Blangé, Joey; Hogeveen, Joel; De Boer, Lennaert; Noomen, Ron

    With fossil fuels running out and global energy demand increasing, the need for alternative energy sources is apparent. Nuclear fusion using Helium-3 may be a solution. Helium-3 is a rare isotope on Earth, but it is abundant on the Moon. Throughout the space community lunar Helium-3 is often cited as a major reason to return to the Moon. Despite the potential of lunar Helium-3 mining, little research has been conducted on a full end-to-end mission. This abstract presents the results of a feasibility study conducted by students from Delft University of Technology. The goal of the study was to assess whether a continuous end-to-end mission to mine Helium-3 on the Moon and return it to Earth is a viable option for the future energy market. The set requirements for the representative end-to-end mission were to provide 10% of the global energy demand in the year 2040. The mission elements have been selected with multiple trade-offs among both conservative and novel concepts. A mission architecture with multiple decoupled elements for each transportation segment (LEO, transfer, lunar surface) was found to be the best option. It was found that the most critical element is the lunar mining operation itself. To supply 10% of the global energy demand in 2040, 200 tons of Helium-3 would be required per year. The resulting regolith mining rate would be 630 tons per second, based on an optimistic concentration of 20 ppb Helium-3 in lunar regolith. Between 1,700 to 2,000 Helium-3 mining vehicles would be required, if using University of Wisconsin’s Mark III miner. The required heating power, if mining both day and night, would add up to 39 GW. The resulting power system mass for the lunar operations would be in the order of 60,000 to 200,000 tons. A fleet of three lunar ascent/descent vehicles and 22 continuous-thrust vehicles for orbit transfer would be required. The costs of the mission elements have been spread out over expected lifetimes. The resulting profits from Helium

  13. Lunar Atmosphere Probe Station: A Proof-of-Concept Instrument Package for Monitoring the Lunar Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Stewart, K. P.; Burns, J. O.; Farrell, W. M.; Giersch, L.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Hicks, B. C.; Polisensky, E. J.; Hartman, J. M.; Nesnas, I.; Weiler, K.; Kasper, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent, the extent of contributions from volatile outgassing from the Moon, and its behavior over time, including response to the solar wind and modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) are based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, *in situ*, the vertical extent of the lunar exosphere over time. We provide an update on a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report or commercial ventures. The instrument concept is simple, consisting of an antenna implemented as a metal deposited on polyimide film and receiver. We illustrate various deployment mechanisms and performance of a prototype in increasing lunar analog conditions. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of dust impactors. The Lunar University Network for Astrophysical Research consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. Artist's impression of the Lunar Atmosphere Probe Station.

  14. Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada Mining Matters: A Model of Effective Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymers, L.; Heenan, S.

    2009-05-01

    Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada Mining Matters is a charitable organization whose mandate is to bring the wonders of Canada's geology and mineral resources to students, educators and industry. The organization provides current information about rocks, minerals, metals, and mining and offers exceptional educational resources, developed by teachers and for teachers that meet Junior, Intermediate and Senior Provincial Earth Science and Geography curriculum expectations. Since 1994, Mining Matters has reached more than 400,000 educators, students, industry representatives, and Aboriginal Youth through Earth Science resources. At the time of the program's inception, members of the Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) realized that their mining and mineral industry expertise could be of help to teachers and students. Consulting experts in education, government, and business, and the PDAC worked together to develop the first Mining Matters Earth Science curriculum kit for Grades 6 and 7 teachers in Ontario. PDAC Mining Matters became the official educational arm of the Association and a charitable organization in 1997. Since then, the organization has partnered with government, industry, and educators to develop bilingual Earth science teaching units for Grades 4 and 7, and senior High School. The teaching units consist of kits that contain curriculum correlated lesson plans, inform bulletins, genuine data sets, rock and mineral samples, equipment and additional instructional resources. Mining Matters offers instructional development workshops for the purposes of training pre-service and in- service educators to use our teaching units in the classroom. The workshops are meant to provide teachers with the knowledge and confidence they need to successfully employ the units in the classroom. Formal mechanisms for resource and workshop evaluations are in place. Overwhelmingly teacher feedback is positive, describing the excellence

  15. Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Kenneth; Frampton, Jeffrey; Honaker, David; McClure, Kerry; Zeinali, Mazyar; Bhardwaj, Manoj; Bulsara, Vatsal; Kokan, David; Shariff, Shaun; Svarverud, Eric

    The objective of this project was to design a manned pressurized lunar rover (PLR) for long-range transportation and for exploration of the lunar surface. The vehicle must be capable of operating on a 14-day mission, traveling within a radius of 500 km during a lunar day or within a 50-km radius during a lunar night. The vehicle must accommodate a nominal crew of four, support two 28-hour EVA's, and in case of emergency, support a crew of six when near the lunar base. A nominal speed of ten km/hr and capability of towing a trailer with a mass of two mt are required. Two preliminary designs have been developed by two independent student teams. The PLR 1 design proposes a seven meter long cylindrical main vehicle and a trailer which houses the power and heat rejection systems. The main vehicle carries the astronauts, life support systems, navigation and communication systems, lighting, robotic arms, tools, and equipment for exploratory experiments. The rover uses a simple mobility system with six wheels on the main vehicle and two on the trailer. The nonpressurized trailer contains a modular radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) supplying 6.5 kW continuous power. A secondary energy storage for short-term peak power needs is provided by a bank of lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries. The life support system is partly a regenerative system with air and hygiene water being recycled. A layer of water inside the composite shell surrounds the command center allowing the center to be used as a safe haven during solar flares. The PLR 1 has a total mass of 6197 kg. It has a top speed of 18 km/hr and is capable of towing three metric tons, in addition to the RTG trailer. The PLR 2 configuration consists of two four-meter diameter, cylindrical hulls which are passively connected by a flexible passageway, resulting in the overall vehicle length of 11 m. The vehicle is driven by eight independently suspended wheels. The dual-cylinder concept allows articulated as well as double

  16. Landing Site Selection and Surface Traverse Planning using the Lunar Mapping & Modeling Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Chang, G.; Bui, B.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Kim, R.; Dodge, K.; Malhotra, S.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP), is a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools for users to access mapped lunar data products (including image mosaics, digital elevation models, etc.) from past and current lunar missions (e.g., Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Apollo, etc.), and to perform in-depth analyses to support lunar surface mission planning and system design for future lunar exploration and science missions. It has been widely used by many scientists mission planners, as well as educators and public outreach (e.g., Google Lunar XPRICE teams, RESOLVE project, museums etc.) This year, LMMP was used by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI)'s Lunar Exploration internship program to perform lighting analysis and local hazard assessments, such as, slope, surface roughness and crater/boulder distribution to research landing sites and surface pathfinding and traversal. Our talk will include an overview of LMMP, a demonstration of the tools as well as a summary of the LPI Lunar Exploration summer interns' experience in using those tools.

  17. Launch of Apollo 8 lunar orbit mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    The Apollo 8 (Spacecraft 103/Saturn 503) space vehicle launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center, at 7:51 a.m., December 21, 1968. In this view there is water in the foreground and seagulls.

  18. Moon 101: Introducing Students to Lunar Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Moon 101 is designed with the purpose of familiarizing students with lunar geology and exploration. Armed with guiding questions, students read articles covering various lunar science topics and browse images from past and current lunar missions to familiarize themselves with available lunar data sets. Moon 101 was originally created for high school students preparing to conduct open-inquiry, lunar research. Most high school students' knowledge of lunar science is limited to lunar phases and tides, and their knowledge of lunar exploration is close to non-existent. Moon 101 provides a summary of the state of knowledge of the Moon's formation and evolution, and the exploration that has helped inform the lunar science community. Though designed for high school students, Moon 101 is highly appropriate for the undergraduate classroom, especially at the introductory level where resources for teaching lunar science are scarce. Moon 101 is comprised of two sections covering lunar science (formation and geologic evolution of the Moon) and one section covering lunar exploration. Students read information on the formation and geologic evolution of the Moon from sources such as the Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) website and the USGS professional paper A Geologic History of the Moon by Wilhelms. While these resources are not peer-reviewed journals, the information is presented at a level more advanced than articles from newspapers and popular science magazines. This ensures that the language is accessible to students who do not have a strong lunar/planetary science background, or a strong science background in general. Formation readings include information on older and current formation hypotheses, including the Giant Impact Hypothesis, the Magma Ocean hypothesis, and the age of the lunar crust. Lunar evolution articles describe ideas such as the Late Heavy Bombardment and geologic processes such as volcanism and impact cratering. After reading the articles

  19. Human Lunar Destiny: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, David

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers conceptual strategy and rationale for returning astronauts to the moon. NASA's historic Apollo program enabled humans to make the first expeditionary voyages to the moon and to gather and return samples back to the earth for further study. To continue exploration of the moon within the next ten to fifteen years, one possible mission concept for returning astronauts using existing launch vehicle infrastructure is presented. During these early lunar missions, expeditionary trips are made to geographical destinations and permanent outposts are established at the lunar south pole. As these missions continue, mining operations begin in an effort to learn how to live off the land. Over time, a burgeoning economy based on mining and scientific activity emerges with the formation of more accommodating settlements and surface infrastructure assets. As lunar activity advances, surface infrastructure assets grow and become more complex, lunar settlements and outposts are established across the globe, travel to and from the moon becomes common place, and commerce between earth and the moon develops and flourishes. Colonization and development of the moon is completed with the construction of underground cities and the establishment of a full range of political, religious, educational, and recreational institutions with a diverse population from all nations of the world. Finally, rationale for diversifying concentrations of humanity throughout earth's neighborhood and the greater solar system is presented.

  20. Erosive Wear Characterization of Materials for Lunar Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpagazehe, Jeremiah N.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Delgado, Irebert R.; Higgs, C. Fred, III

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Apollo missions revealed that exhaust from the retrorockets of landing spacecraft may act to significantly accelerate lunar dust on the surface of the Moon. A recent study by Immer et al. (C. Immer, P.T. Metzger, P.E. Hintze, A. Nick, and R. Horan, Apollo 12 Lunar Module exhaust plume impingement on Lunar Surveyor III, Icarus, Vol. 211, pp. 1089-1102, 2011) investigated coupons returned to Earth from the Surveyor III lunar probe which were subjected to lunar dust impingement by the Apollo 12 Lunar Module landing. Their study revealed that even with indirect impingement, the spacecraft sustained erosive damage from the fast-moving lunar dust particles. In this work, results are presented from a series of erosive wear experiments performed on 6061 Aluminum using the JSC-1AF lunar dust simulant. Optical profilometry was used to investigate the surface after the erosion process. It was found that even short durations of lunar dust simulant impacting at low velocities produced substantial changes in the surface.

  1. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    "Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy" supports a vision of people moving freely and economically between the earth and the Moon in an expansive space and lunar economy. It makes the economic case for the creation of a lunar space economy and projects the business plan that will make the venture an economic success. In addition, this paper argues that this vision can be created and sustained only by private enterprise and the legal right of private property in space and on the Moon. Finally, this paper advocates the use of lunar land grants as the key to unleashing the needed capital and the economic power of private enterprise in the creation of a 21st century lunar space economy. It is clear that the history of our United States economic system proves the value of private property rights in the creation of any new economy. It also teaches us that the successful development of new frontiers-those that provide economic opportunity for freedom-loving people-are frontiers that encourage, respect and protect the possession of private property and the fruits of labor and industry. Any new 21st century space and lunar economy should therefore be founded on this same principle.

  2. Human exploration mission studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Exploration has established a process whereby all NASA field centers and other NASA Headquarters offices participate in the formulation and analysis of a wide range of mission strategies. These strategies were manifested into specific scenarios or candidate case studies. The case studies provided a systematic approach into analyzing each mission element. First, each case study must address several major themes and rationale including: national pride and international prestige, advancement of scientific knowledge, a catalyst for technology, economic benefits, space enterprise, international cooperation, and education and excellence. Second, the set of candidate case studies are formulated to encompass the technology requirement limits in the life sciences, launch capabilities, space transfer, automation, and robotics in space operations, power, and propulsion. The first set of reference case studies identify three major strategies: human expeditions, science outposts, and evolutionary expansion. During the past year, four case studies were examined to explore these strategies. The expeditionary missions include the Human Expedition to Phobos and Human Expedition to Mars case studies. The Lunar Observatory and Lunar Outpost to Early Mars Evolution case studies examined the later two strategies. This set of case studies established the framework to perform detailed mission analysis and system engineering to define a host of concepts and requirements for various space systems and advanced technologies. The details of each mission are described and, specifically, the results affecting the advanced technologies required to accomplish each mission scenario are presented.

  3. ''Fast track'' lunar NTR systems assessment for NASA's first lunar outpost and its evolvability to Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowski, S.K.; Alexander, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    Integrated systems and missions studies are presented for an evolutionary lunar-to-Mars space transportion system (STS) based on nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) technology. A ''standardized'' set of engine and stage components are identified and used in a ''building block'' fashion to configure a variety of piloted and cargo, lunar and Mars vehicles. The reference NTR characteristics include a thrust of 50 thousand pounds force (klbf), specific impulse (I sp ) of 900 seconds, and an engine thrust-to-weight ratio of 4.3. For the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) First Lunar Outpost (FLO) mission, an expendable NTR stage powered by two such engines can deliver ∼96 metric tonnes (t) to trans-lunar injection (TLI) conditions for an initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) of ∼198 t compared to 250 t for a cryogenic chemical system. The stage liquid hydrogen (LH 2 ) tank has a diameter, length, and capacity of 10 m, 14.5 m and 66 t, respectively. By extending the stage length and LH 2 capacity to ∼20 m and 96 t, a single launch Mars cargo vehicle could deliver to an elliptical Mars parking orbit a 63 t Mars excursion vehicle (MEV) with a 45 t surface payload. Three 50 klbf engines and the two standardized LH 2 tanks developed for the lunar and Mars cargo vehicles are used to configure the vehicles supporting piloted Mars missions as early as 2010. The ''modular'' NTR vehicle approach forms the basis for an efficient STS able to handle the needs of a wide spectrum of lunar and Mars missions

  4. Energy for lunar resource exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1992-02-01

    Humanity stands at the threshold of exploiting the known lunar resources that have opened up with the access to space. America's role in the future exploitation of space, and specifically of lunar resources, may well determine the level of achievement in technology development and global economic competition. Space activities during the coming decades will significantly influence the events on Earth. The 'shifting of history's tectonic plates' is a process that will be hastened by the increasingly insistent demands for higher living standards of the exponentially growing global population. Key to the achievement of a peaceful world in the 21st century, will be the development of a mix of energy resources at a societally acceptable and affordable cost within a realistic planning horizon. This must be the theme for the globally applicable energy sources that are compatible with the Earth's ecology. It is in this context that lunar resources development should be a primary goal for science missions to the Moon, and for establishing an expanding human presence. The economic viability and commercial business potential of mining, extracting, manufacturing, and transporting lunar resource based materials to Earth, Earth orbits, and to undertake macroengineering projects on the Moon remains to be demonstrated. These extensive activities will be supportive of the realization of the potential of space energy sources for use on Earth. These may include generating electricity for use on Earth based on beaming power from Earth orbits and from the Moon to the Earth, and for the production of helium 3 as a fuel for advanced fusion reactors.

  5. Lunar remote sensing and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H.J.; Boyce, J.M.; Schaber, G.G.; Scott, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing and measurements of the Moon from Apollo orbiting spacecraft and Earth form a basis for extrapolation of Apollo surface data to regions of the Moon where manned and unmanned spacecraft have not been and may be used to discover target regions for future lunar exploration which will produce the highest scientific yields. Orbital remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) relative ages and inferred absolute ages, (2) gravity, (3) magnetism, (4) chemical composition, and (5) reflection of radar waves (bistatic). Earth-based remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) reflection of sunlight, (2) reflection and scattering of radar waves, and (3) infrared eclipse temperatures. Photographs from the Apollo missions, Lunar Orbiters, and other sources provide a fundamental source of data on the geology and topography of the Moon and a basis for comparing, correlating, and testing the remote sensing and measurements. Relative ages obtained from crater statistics and then empirically correlated with absolute ages indicate that significant lunar volcanism continued to 2.5 b.y. (billion years) ago-some 600 m.y. (million years) after the youngest volcanic rocks sampled by Apollo-and that intensive bombardment of the Moon occurred in the interval of 3.84 to 3.9 b.y. ago. Estimated fluxes of crater-producing objects during the last 50 m.y. agree fairly well with fluxes measured by the Apollo passive seismic stations. Gravity measurements obtained by observing orbiting spacecraft reveal that mare basins have mass concentrations and that the volume of material ejected from the Orientale basin is near 2 to 5 million km 3 depending on whether there has or has not been isostatic compensation, little or none of which has occurred since 3.84 b.y. ago. Isostatic compensation may have occurred in some of the old large lunar basins, but more data are needed to prove it. Steady fields of remanent magnetism were detected by the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites

  6. Educating the Next Generation of Lunar Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) and NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC), is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI). In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and outreach. In support of NASA’s and NLSI’s objective to train the next generation of scientists, CLSE’s High School Lunar Research Project is a conduit through which high school students can actively participate in lunar science and learn about pathways into scientific careers. The High School Lunar Research Project engages teams of high school students in authentic lunar research that envelopes them in the process of science and supports the science goals of the CLSE. Most high school students’ lack of scientific research experience leaves them without an understanding of science as a process. Because of this, each team is paired with a lunar scientist mentor responsible for guiding students through the process of conducting a scientific investigation. Before beginning their research, students undertake “Moon 101,” designed to familiarize them with lunar geology and exploration. Students read articles covering various lunar geology topics and analyze images from past and current lunar missions to become familiar with available lunar data sets. At the end of “Moon 101”, students present a characterization of the geology and chronology of features surrounding the Apollo 11 landing site. To begin their research, teams choose a research subject from a pool of topics compiled by the CLSE staff. After choosing a topic, student teams ask their own research questions, within the context of the larger question, and design their own research approach to direct their investigation. At the conclusion of their research, teams present their results and, after receiving feedback, create and present a conference style poster to a panel of

  7. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) instrument overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M.S.; Brylow, S.M.; Tschimmel, M.; Humm, D.; Lawrence, S.J.; Thomas, P.C.; Denevi, B.W.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Zerr, J.; Ravine, M.A.; Caplinger, M.A.; Ghaemi, F.T.; Schaffner, J.A.; Malin, M.C.; Mahanti, P.; Bartels, A.; Anderson, J.; Tran, T.N.; Eliason, E.M.; McEwen, A.S.; Turtle, E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Hiesinger, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) are on the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The WAC is a 7-color push-frame camera (100 and 400 m/pixel visible and UV, respectively), while the two NACs are monochrome narrow-angle linescan imagers (0.5 m/pixel). The primary mission of LRO is to obtain measurements of the Moon that will enable future lunar human exploration. The overarching goals of the LROC investigation include landing site identification and certification, mapping of permanently polar shadowed and sunlit regions, meter-scale mapping of polar regions, global multispectral imaging, a global morphology base map, characterization of regolith properties, and determination of current impact hazards.

  8. Deployable structures for a human lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Petra; Häuplik, Sandra; Imhof, Barbara; Özdemir, Kürsad; Waclavicek, Rene; Perino, Maria Antoinetta

    2007-06-01

    The study Lunar exploration architecture—deployable structures for a lunar base was performed within the Alcatel Alenia Space “Lunar Exploration Architecture” study for the European Space Agency. The purpose of the study was to investigate bionic concepts applicable to deployable structures and to interpret the findings for possible implementation concepts. The study aimed at finding innovative solutions for deployment possibilities. Translating folding/unfolding principles from nature, candidate geometries were developed and researched using models, drawings and visualisations. The use of materials, joints between structural elements and construction details were investigated for these conceptual approaches. Reference scenarios were used to identify the technical and environmental conditions, which served as design drivers. Mechanical issues and the investigation of deployment processes narrowed the selection down to six chosen concepts. Their applicability was evaluated at a conceptual stage in relation to the timescale of the mission.

  9. Lunar Soil Erosion Physics for Landing Rockets on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Ryan; Metzger, Philip; Roberson, Luke; Stephen, Huff

    2010-03-01

    To develop a lunar outpost, we must understand the blowing of soil during launch and landing of the new Altair Lander. For example, the Apollo 12 Lunar Module landed approximately 165 meters from the deactivated Surveyor III spacecraft, scouring its surfaces and creating numerous tiny pits. Based on simulations and video analysis from the Apollo missions, blowing lunar soil particles have velocities up to 2000 m/s at low ejection angles relative to the horizon, reach an apogee higher than the orbiting Command and Service Module, and travel nearly the circumference of the Moon. The low ejection angle and high velocity are concerns for the lunar outpost. As a first step in investigating this concern, we have performed a series of low-velocity impact experiments in a modified sandblasting hood using lunar soil simulant impacted upon various materials that are commonly used in spaceflight hardware. It was seen that considerable damage is inevitable and protective barriers need to be designed.

  10. Lunar Meteorites Sayh Al Uhaymir 449 and Dhofar 925, 960, and 961: Windows into South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ryan A.; Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, three lunar meteorites were collected in close proximity to each other in the Dhofar region of Oman: Dhofar 925 (49 g), Dhofar 960 (35 g), and Dhofar 961 (22 g). In 2006, lunar meteorite Sayh al Uhaymir (SaU) 449 (16.5 g) was found about 100 km to the NE. Despite significant differences in the bulk composition of Dhofar 961 relative to Dhofar 925/960 and SaU 449 (which are identical to each other), these four meteorites are postulated to be paired based on their find locations, bulk composition, and detailed petrographic analysis. Hereafter, they will collectively be referred to as the Dhofar 961 clan. Comparison of meteorite and component bulk compositions to Lunar Prospector 5-degree gamma-ray data suggest the most likely provenance of this meteorite group is within the South Pole-Aitken Basin. As the oldest, largest, and deepest recognizable basin on the Moon, the composition of the material within the SPA basin is of particular importance to lunar science. Here we review and expand upon the geochemistry and petrography of the Dhofar 961 clan and assess the likelihood that these meteorites come from within the SPA basin based on their bulk compositions and the compositions and characteristics of the major lithologic components found within the breccia.

  11. Magnetic Signature of the Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin: Character, Origin, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purucker, Michael E.; Head, James W., III; Wilson, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    A new magnetic map of the Moon, based on Lunar Prospector (LP) magnetometer observations, sheds light on the origin of the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA), the largest and oldest of the recognized lunar basins. A set of WNW-trending linear to arcuate magnetic features, evident in both the radial and scalar observations, covers much of a 1000 km wide region centered on the NW portion of SPA. The source bodies are not at the surface because the magnetic features show no first-order correspondence to any surface topographic or structural feature. Patchy mare basalts of possible late Imbrianage are emplaced within SPA and are inferred to have been emplaced through dikes, directly from mantle sources. We infer that the magnetic features represent dike swarms that served as feeders for these mare basalts, as evident from the location of the Thomson/ Mare Ingenii, Van de Graaff, and Leeuwenhoek mare basalts on the two largest magnetic features in the region. Modeling suggests that the dike zone is between 25 and 50 km wide at the surface, and dike magnetization contrasts are in the range of 0.2 A/m. We theorize that the basaltic dikes were emplaced in the lunar crust when a long-lived dynamo was active. Based on pressure, temperature, and stress conditions prevalent in the lunar crust, dikes are expected to be a dominantly subsurface phenomenon, consistent with the observations reported here.

  12. 2007 Lunar Regolith Simulant Workshop Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLemore, Carole A.; Fikes, John C.; Howell, Joe T.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) vision has as a cornerstone, the establishment of an Outpost on the Moon. This Lunar Outpost will eventually provide the necessary planning, technology development, and training for a manned mission to Mars in the future. As part of the overall activity, NASA is conducting Earth-based research and advancing technologies to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6 maturity under the Exploration Technology Development Program that will be incorporated into the Constellation Project as well as other projects. All aspects of the Lunar environment, including the Lunar regolith and its properties, are important in understanding the long-term impacts to hardware, scientific instruments, and humans prior to returning to the Moon and living on the Moon. With the goal of reducing risk to humans and hardware and increasing mission success on the Lunar surface, it is vital that terrestrial investigations including both development and verification testing have access to Lunar-like environments. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is supporting this endeavor by developing, characterizing, and producing Lunar simulants in addition to analyzing existing simulants for appropriate applications. A Lunar Regolith Simulant Workshop was conducted by MSFC in Huntsville, Alabama, in October 2007. The purpose of the Workshop was to bring together simulant developers, simulant users, and program and project managers from ETDP and Constellation with the goals of understanding users' simulant needs and their applications. A status of current simulant developments such as the JSC-1A (Mare Type Simulant) and the NASA/U.S. Geological Survey Lunar Highlands-Type Pilot Simulant (NU-LHT-1 M) was provided. The method for evaluating simulants, performed via Figures of Merit (FoMs) algorithms, was presented and a demonstration was provided. The four FoM properties currently being assessed are: size, shape, density, and composition. Some of the

  13. Lunar Global Heat Flow: Predictions and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, M.; Williams, J. P.; Paige, D. A.; Feng, J.

    2017-12-01

    The global thermal state of the Moon provides fundamental information on its bulk composition and interior evolution. The Moon is known to have a highly asymmetric surface composition [e.g. Lawrence et al., 2003] and crustal thickness [Wieczorek et al.,2012], which is suspected to result from interior asymmetries [Wieczorek and Phillips, 2000; Laneuville et al., 2013]. This is likely to cause a highly asymmetric surface heat flux, both past and present. Our understanding the thermal evolution and composition of the bulk moon therefore requires a global picture of the present lunar thermal state, well beyond our two-point Apollo era measurement. As on the on the Earth, heat flow measurements need to be taken in carefully selected locations to truly characterize the state of the planet's interior. Future surface heat flux and seismic observations will be affected by the presence of interior temperature and crustal radiogenic anomalies, so placement of such instruments is critically important for understanding the lunar interior. The unfortunate coincidence that Apollo geophysical measurements lie areas within or directly abutting the highly radiogenic, anomalously thin-crusted Procellarum region highlights the importance of location for in situ geophysical study [e.g. Siegler and Smrekar, 2014]. Here we present the results of new models of global lunar geothermal heat flux. We synthesize data from several recent missions to constrain lunar crustal composition, thickness and density to provide global predictions of the surface heat flux of the Moon. We also discuss implications from new surface heat flux constraints from the LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment and Chang'E 2 Microwave Radiometer. We will identify areas with the highest uncertainty to provide insight on the placement of future landed geophysical missions, such as the proposed Lunar Geophysical Network, to better aim our future exploration of the Moon.

  14. Robotic Lunar Lander Development Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Benjamin; Cohen, Barbara A.; McGee, Timothy; Reed, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory have developed several mission concepts to place scientific and exploration payloads ranging from 10 kg to more than 200 kg on the surface of the moon. The mission concepts all use a small versatile lander that is capable of precision landing. The results to date of the lunar lander development risk reduction activities including high pressure propulsion system testing, structure and mechanism development and testing, and long cycle time battery testing will be addressed. The most visible elements of the risk reduction program are two fully autonomous lander flight test vehicles. The first utilized a high pressure cold gas system (Cold Gas Test Article) with limited flight durations while the subsequent test vehicle, known as the Warm Gas Test Article, utilizes hydrogen peroxide propellant resulting in significantly longer flight times and the ability to more fully exercise flight sensors and algorithms. The development of the Warm Gas Test Article is a system demonstration and was designed with similarity to an actual lunar lander including energy absorbing landing legs, pulsing thrusters, and flight-like software implementation. A set of outdoor flight tests to demonstrate the initial objectives of the WGTA program was completed in Nov. 2011, and will be discussed.

  15. Lunar dusty plasma: A result of interaction of the solar wind flux and ultraviolet radiation with the lunar surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisin, E A; Tarakanov, V P; Petrov, O F; Popel, S I

    2015-01-01

    One of the main problems of future missions to the Moon is associated with lunar dust. Solar wind flux and ultraviolet radiation interact with the lunar surface. As a result, there is a substantial surface change and a near-surface plasma sheath. Dust particles from the lunar regolith, which turned in this plasma because of any mechanical processes, can levitate above the surface, forming dust clouds. In preparing of the space experiments “Luna-Glob” and “Luna-Resource” particle-in-cell calculations of the near-surface plasma sheath parameters are carried out. Here we present some new results of particle-in-cell simulation of the plasma sheath formed near the surface of the moon as a result of interaction of the solar wind and ultraviolet radiation with the lunar surface. The conditions of charging and stable levitation of dust particles in plasma above the lunar surface are also considered. (paper)

  16. Orbital studies of lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, M. G.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Limitations of present lunar magnetic maps are considered. Optimal processing of satellite derived magnetic anomaly data is also considered. Studies of coastal and core geomagnetism are discussed. Lunar remanent and induced lunar magnetization are included.

  17. Manned in Situ Confirmation of Lunar Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerené, S. P. B.; Hummeling, R. W. J.; Ockels, W. J.

    A study is performed to investigate the feasibility of a manned expedition to the Moon using the European Ariane-5 launcher. The primary objective of this lunar mission is to confirm the presence of water at the South-Pole craters. It is believed that these permanently shadowed craters contain water in the form of ice. Secondary objective is to perform lunar surface science and making a first step towards a lunar outpost. Early results show that a minimum of two Ariane-5 launches is required. In this `two Ariane' scenario the first launch will bring a Lunar Landing Vehicle (LLV) into low lunar orbit. The second will launch two astronauts in a Crew Transfer Vehicle into a rendez- vous trajectory with the LLV. Arrived at the Moon, the astronauts will enter the LLV, undock from the CTV and land at the designated site located near the rim of the South-Pole Shackleton crater. The transfer strategy for both spacecraft will be the so-called direct transfer, taking about four days. At arrival the LLV will start mapping the landing site at a ground resolution of one meter. As a consequence of the polar orbit, the CTV has to arrive fourteen days later and surface operations can take about twelve days, accumulating in a total mission-duration of 36 days. 32 days for the CTV and 22 days for the LLV. In case a `two Ariane' flight does not posses sufficient capabilities also a `three Ariane' scenario is developed, in which the LLV is split-up into two stages and launched separately. These two will dock at the Moon forming a descent stage and an ascent stage. The third launch will be a CTV. During surface operations, astronauts will set up a solar power unit, install the sample retrieval system and carry out surface science. Samples of the crater floor will be retrieved by means of a probe or robot guided along a cable suspended over the crater rim. Also, this paper shows the way in which European astronauts can be brought to the Moon for other future missions, like the

  18. Lunar resource base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulley, John; Wise, Todd K.; Roy, Claude; Richter, Phil

    A lunar base that exploits local resources to enhance the productivity of a total SEI scenario is discussed. The goals were to emphasize lunar science and to land men on Mars in 2016 using significant amounts of lunar resources. It was assumed that propulsion was chemical and the surface power was non-nuclear. Three phases of the base build-up are outlined, the robotic emplacement of the first elements is detailed and a discussion of future options is included.

  19. Lunar and Lagrangian Point L1 L2 CubeSat Communication and Navigation Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaire, Scott; Wong, Yen F.; Altunc, Serhat; Bussey, George; Shelton, Marta; Folta, Dave; Gramling, Cheryl; Celeste, Peter; Anderson, Mile; Perrotto, Trish; hide

    2017-01-01

    CubeSats have grown in sophistication to the point that relatively low-cost mission solutions could be undertaken for planetary exploration. There are unique considerations for lunar and L1/L2 CubeSat communication and navigation compared with low earth orbit CubeSats. This paper explores those considerations as they relate to the Lunar IceCube Mission. The Lunar IceCube is a CubeSat mission led by Morehead State University with participation from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Busek Company and Vermont Tech. It will search for surface water ice and other resources from a high inclination lunar orbit. Lunar IceCube is one of a select group of CubeSats designed to explore beyond low-earth orbit that will fly on NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) as secondary payloads for Exploration Mission (EM) 1. Lunar IceCube and the EM-1 CubeSats will lay the groundwork for future lunar and L1/L2 CubeSat missions. This paper discusses communication and navigation needs for the Lunar IceCube mission and navigation and radiation tolerance requirements related to lunar and L1/L2 orbits. Potential CubeSat radios and antennas for such missions are investigated and compared. Ground station coverage, link analysis, and ground station solutions are also discussed. This paper will describe modifications in process for the Morehead ground station, as well as further enhancements of the Morehead ground station and NASA Near Earth Network (NEN) that are being considered. The potential NEN enhancements include upgrading current NEN Cortex receiver with Forward Error Correction (FEC) Turbo Code, providing X-band uplink capability, and adding ranging options. The benefits of ground station enhancements for CubeSats flown on NASA Exploration Missions (EM) are presented. This paper also describes how the NEN may support lunar and L1/L2 CubeSats without any enhancements. In addition, NEN is studying other initiatives to better support the CubeSat community

  20. Lunar surface exploration using mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Shin-Ichiro; Wakabayashi, Sachiko

    2012-06-01

    A lunar exploration architecture study is being carried out by space agencies. JAXA is carrying out research and development of a mobile robot (rover) to be deployed on the lunar surface for exploration and outpost construction. The main target areas for outpost construction and lunar exploration are mountainous zones. The moon's surface is covered by regolith. Achieving a steady traversal of such irregular terrain constitutes the major technical problem for rovers. A newly developed lightweight crawler mechanism can effectively traverse such irregular terrain because of its low contact force with the ground. This fact was determined on the basis of the mass and expected payload of the rover. This paper describes a plan for Japanese lunar surface exploration using mobile robots, and presents the results of testing and analysis needed in their development. This paper also gives an overview of the lunar exploration robot to be deployed in the SELENE follow-on mission, and the composition of its mobility, navigation, and control systems.

  1. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong During Lunar Rock Collection Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong uses a geologist's hammer in selecting rock specimens during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas. Armstrong, alongside astronaut Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, practiced gathering rock specimens using special lunar geological tools in preparation for the first Lunar landing. Mission was accomplished in July of the same year. Aboard the Marshall Space Fight center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle, the Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Armstrong, commander; Aldrin, Lunar Module pilot; and a third astronaut Michael Collins, Command Module pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin, while Collins remained in lunar orbit. The crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. The lunar surface exploration was concluded in 2½ hours.

  2. Lunar regolith stratigraphy analysis based on the simulation of lunar penetrating radar signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jialong; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoping; Tang, Zesheng

    2017-11-01

    The thickness of lunar regolith is an important index of evaluating the quantity of lunar resources such as 3He and relative geologic ages. Lunar penetrating radar (LPR) experiment of Chang'E-3 mission provided an opportunity of in situ lunar subsurface structure measurement in the northern mare imbrium area. However, prior work on analyzing LPR data obtained quite different conclusions of lunar regolith structure mainly because of the missing of clear interface reflectors in radar image. In this paper, we utilized finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and three models of regolith structures with different rock density, number of layers, shapes of interfaces, and etc. to simulate the LPR signals for the interpretation of radar image. The simulation results demonstrate that the scattering signals caused by numerous buried rocks in the regolith can mask the horizontal reflectors, and the die-out of radar echo does not indicate the bottom of lunar regolith layer and data processing such as migration method could recover some of the subsurface information but also result in fake signals. Based on analysis of simulation results, we conclude that LPR results uncover the subsurface layered structure containing the rework zone with multiple ejecta blankets of small crater, the ejecta blanket of Chang'E-3 crater, and the transition zone and estimate the thickness of the detected layer is about 3.25 m.

  3. Effect of lunar materials on plant tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.; Venketeswaran, S.; Baur, P. S.; Croley, T. E.; Scholes, V. E.; Weete, J. D.; Halliwell, R. S.; Hall, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Lunar material collected during the Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 missions has been used to treat 12 species of higher plant tissue cultures. Biochemical and morphological studies have been conducted on several of these species. Tobacco tissue cultures treated with 0.22 g of lunar material exhibited increased greening more complex chloroplasts, less cytoplasmic vacuolation and greater vesiculation. Pine tissue cultures reacted to treatment by an increased deposition of tannin-like materials. The percentage of dry weight and soluble protein was increased in cultures treated with either lunar or terrestrial rock materials.

  4. Use of a Lunar Outpost for Developing Space Settlement Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2008-01-01

    The type of polar lunar outpost being considered in the NASA Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) can effectively support the development of technologies that will not only significantly enhance lunar exploration, but also enable long term crewed space missions, including space settlement. The critical technologies are: artificial gravity, radiation protection, Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). These enhance lunar exploration by extending the time an astronaut can remain on the moon and reducing the need for supplies from Earth, and they seem required for space settlement. A polar lunar outpost provides a location to perform the research and testing required to develop these technologies, as well as to determine if there are viable countermeasures that can reduce the need for Earth-surface-equivalent gravity and radiation protection on long human space missions. The types of spinning space vehicles or stations envisioned to provide artificial gravity can be implemented and tested on the lunar surface, where they can create any level of effective gravity above the 1/6 Earth gravity that naturally exists on the lunar surface. Likewise, varying degrees of radiation protection can provide a natural radiation environment on the lunar surface less than or equal to 1/2 that of open space at 1 AU. Lunar ISRU has the potential of providing most of the material needed for radiation protection, the centrifuge that provides artificial gravity; and the atmosphere, water and soil for a CELSS. Lunar ISRU both saves the cost of transporting these materials from Earth and helps define the requirements for ISRU on other planetary bodies. Biosphere II provides a reference point for estimating what is required for an initial habitat with a CELSS. Previous studies provide initial estimates of what would be required to provide such a lunar habitat with the gravity and radiation environment of the Earth s surface. While much preparatory

  5. Lunar base thermoelectric power station study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, G.; Brooks, Michael D.; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) program, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing and the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as the lunar base power station where kilowatts of power are required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this mission. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed and well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the unit to assess its technical problems and technology

  6. Methane Lunar Surface Thermal Control Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, David W.; Sutherlin, Steven G.; Johnson, Wesley L.; Feller, Jeffrey R.; Jurns, John M.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is considering propulsion system concepts for future missions including human return to the lunar surface. Studies have identified cryogenic methane (LCH4) and oxygen (LO2) as a desirable propellant combination for the lunar surface ascent propulsion system, and they point to a surface stay requirement of 180 days. To meet this requirement, a test article was prepared with state-of-the-art insulation and tested in simulated lunar mission environments at NASA GRC. The primary goals were to validate design and models of the key thermal control technologies to store unvented methane for long durations, with a low-density high-performing Multi-layer Insulation (MLI) system to protect the propellant tanks from the environmental heat of low Earth orbit (LEO), Earth to Moon transit, lunar surface, and with the LCH4 initially densified. The data and accompanying analysis shows this storage design would have fallen well short of the unvented 180 day storage requirement, due to the MLI density being much higher than intended, its substructure collapse, and blanket separation during depressurization. Despite the performance issue, insight into analytical models and MLI construction was gained. Such modeling is important for the effective design of flight vehicle concepts, such as in-space cryogenic depots or in-space cryogenic propulsion stages.

  7. Observation of the lunar surface by GRS in KAGUYA (SELENE). To solve mystery of moon and manned landing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Shingo

    2009-01-01

    The researches, resources and environment of the moon are reported. The main results such as the magma ocean hypothesis by the Apollo program, the lunar map by Clementine probe and the concentration of Th in the moon by Lunar Prospector probe are explained. B.L. Jolliff et al. proposed the moon consisted of three areas such as the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), South-Pole Aitken Terrane (SPAT) and Feldspathic Highland Terrane (FHT). The radiations on the lunar surface contain the galactic cosmic ray, solar particle event, second particles produced by interaction between the high energy particles and the materials on the lunar surface, and natural radioactivity from U, Th and K. The gamma ray spectrum on the lunar surface observed by Kaguya gamma ray spectrometer (KGRS) showed the very sharp spectrum of O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, K, Ti, Fe, Th and U. The distribution of Th in PKT, SPAT and FHT was shown. The outline of KGRS, the energy resolutions of many kinds of gamma ray spectrometers, and the gamma ray energies of main elements are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  8. Discoveries from Revisiting Apollo Direct Active Measurements of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Brian

    2010-05-01

    New missions to the moon being developed by China, Japan, India, USA, Russia and Europe and possibilities of human missions about 2020 face the reality that 6 Apollo expeditions did not totally manage or mitigate effects of easily-mobilised and very "sticky" lunar dust on humans and hardware. Laboratory and theoretical modelling cannot reliably simulate the complex lunar environments that affect dynamical movements of lunar dust. The only direct active measurements of lunar dust during Apollo were made by matchbox-sized minimalist Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) deployed to transmit some 30 million digital measurements from Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15. These were misplaced or relatively ignored until 2009, when a self-funded suite of discoveries (O'Brien Geophys. Research Letters FIX 6 May 2099) revealed unexpected properties of lunar dust, such as the adhesive force being stronger as illumination increased. We give the first reports of contrasting effects, contamination or cleansing, from rocket exhausts of Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 Lunar Modules leaving the moon. We further strengthen the importance of collateral dust inadvertently splashed on Apollo hardware by human activities. Dust management designs and mission plans require optimum use of such in situ measurements, extended by laboratory simulations and theoretical modelling.

  9. Temporal Variability of Lunar Exospheric Helium During January 2012 from LRO/LAMP

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Paul D.; Hurley, Dana M.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Stern, S. Alan; Pryor, Wayne; Parker, Joel Wm.; Kaufmann, David E.; Davis, Michael W.; Versteeg, Maarten; team, LAMP

    2012-01-01

    We report observations of the lunar helium exosphere made between December 29, 2011, and January 26, 2012, with the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) ultraviolet spectrograph on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission (LRO). The observations were made of resonantly scattered He I 584 from illuminated atmosphere against the dark lunar surface on the dawn side of the terminator. We find no or little variation of the derived surface He density with latitude but day-to-day variations that li...

  10. Lunar-A

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    penetrators will be transmitted to the earth station via the Lunar-A mother spacecraft orbiting at an altitude of about .... to save the power consumption of the Lunar-A penetrator .... and an origin-time versus tidal-phases correlation. (Toksoz et al ...

  11. Restoration of Apollo Data by the Lunar Data Project/PDS Lunar Data Node: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Taylor, Patrick T.; Grayzeck, Edwin J.; Guinness, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The Apollo 11, 12, and 14 through 17 missions orbited and landed on the Moon, carrying scientific instruments that returned data from all phases of the missions, included long-lived Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEPs) deployed by the astronauts on the lunar surface. Much of these data were never archived, and some of the archived data were on media and in formats that are outmoded, or were deposited with little or no useful documentation to aid outside users. This is particularly true of the ALSEP data returned autonomously for many years after the Apollo missions ended. The purpose of the Lunar Data Project and the Planetary Data System (PDS) Lunar Data Node is to take data collections already archived at the NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive (NSSDCA) and prepare them for archiving through PDS, and to locate lunar data that were never archived, bring them into NSSDCA, and then archive them through PDS. Preparing these data for archiving involves reading the data from the original media, be it magnetic tape, microfilm, microfiche, or hard-copy document, converting the outmoded, often binary, formats when necessary, putting them into a standard digital form accepted by PDS, collecting the necessary ancillary data and documentation (metadata) to ensure that the data are usable and well-described, summarizing the metadata in documentation to be included in the data set, adding other information such as references, mission and instrument descriptions, contact information, and related documentation, and packaging the results in a PDS-compliant data set. The data set is then validated and reviewed by a group of external scientists as part of the PDS final archive process. We present a status report on some of the data sets that we are processing.

  12. The Lunar Scout Program: An international program to survey the Moon from orbit for geochemistry, mineralogy, imagery, geodesy, and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Donald A. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The Lunar Scout Program was one of a series of attempts by NASA to develop and fly an orbiting mission to the moon to collect geochemical, geological, and gravity data. Predecessors included the Lunar Observer, the Lunar Geochemical Orbiter, and the Lunar Polar Orbiter - missions studied under the auspices of the Office of Space Science. The Lunar Scout Program, however, was an initiative of the Office of Exploration. It was begun in late 1991 and was transferred to the Office of Space Science after the Office of Exploration was disbanded in 1993. Most of the work was done by a small group of civil servants at the Johnson Space Center; other groups also responsible for mission planning included personnel from the Charles Stark Draper Laboratories, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Boeing, and Martin Marietta. The Lunar Scout Program failed to achieve new start funding in FY 93 and FY 94 as a result of budget downturns, the de-emphasis of the Space Exploration Initiative, and the fact that lunar science did not rate as high a priority as other planned planetary missions, and was cancelled. The work done on the Lunar Scout Program and other lunar orbiter studies, however, represents assets that will be useful in developing new approaches to lunar orbit science.

  13. The Dust Management Project: Characterizing Lunar Environments and Dust, Developing Regolith Mitigation Technology and Simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Straka, Sharon A.

    2010-01-01

    A return to the Moon to extend human presence, pursue scientific activities, use the Moon to prepare for future human missions to Mars, and expand Earth?s economic sphere, will require investment in developing new technologies and capabilities to achieve affordable and sustainable human exploration. From the operational experience gained and lessons learned during the Apollo missions, conducting long-term operations in the lunar environment will be a particular challenge, given the difficulties presented by the unique physical properties and other characteristics of lunar regolith, including dust. The Apollo missions and other lunar explorations have identified significant lunar dust-related problems that will challenge future mission success. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it?s potentially harmful effects on exploration systems and human explorers. The Dust Management Project (DMP) is tasked with the evaluation of lunar dust effects, assessment of the resulting risks, and development of mitigation and management strategies and technologies related to Exploration Systems architectures. To this end, the DMP supports the overall goal of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) of addressing the relevant high priority technology needs of multiple elements within the Constellation Program (CxP) and sister ETDP projects. Project scope, plans, and accomplishments will be presented.

  14. Extracting lunar dust parameters from image charge signals produced by the Lunar Dust Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, J.; Kempf, S.; Horanyi, M.; Szalay, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is an impact ionization dust detector used to characterize the lunar dust exosphere generated by the impacts of large interplanetary particles and meteor streams (Horanyi et al., 2015). In addition to the mass and speed of these lofted particles, LDEX is sensitive to their charge. The resulting signatures of impact events therefore provide valuable information about not only the ambient plasma environment, but also the speed vectors of these dust grains. Here, impact events produced from LDEX's calibration at the Dust Accelerator Laboratory are analyzed using an image charge model derived from the electrostatic simulation program, Coulomb. We show that parameters such as dust grain speed, size, charge, and position of entry into LDEX can be recovered and applied to data collected during LADEE's seven-month mission.

  15. Lunar neutron source function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornblum, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    The search for a quantitative neutron source function for the lunar surface region is justified because it contributes to our understanding of the history of the lunar surface and of nuclear process occurring on the moon since its formation. A knowledge of the neutron source function and neutron flux distribution is important for the interpretation of many experimental measurements. This dissertation uses the available pertinent experimental measurements together with theoretical calculations to obtain an estimate of the lunar neutron source function below 15 MeV. Based upon reasonable assumptions a lunar neutron source function having adjustable parameters is assumed for neutrons below 15 MeV. The lunar neutron source function is composed of several components resulting from the action of cosmic rays with lunar material. A comparison with previous neutron calculations is made and significant differences are discussed. Application of the results to the problem of lunar soil histories is examined using the statistical model for soil development proposed by Fireman. The conclusion is drawn that the moon is losing mass

  16. Mineralogy and Iron Content of the Lunar Polar Regions Using the Kaguya Spectral Profiler and the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemelin, M.; Lucey, P. G.; Trang, D.; Jha, K.

    2016-12-01

    The lunar polar regions are of high scientific interest, but the extreme lighting conditions have made quantitative analyses using reflectance spectra difficult; some regions are in permanent shadow, and flat surfaces are difficult to correct photometrically due to the extreme grazing incidence and low signal available. Thus, most mineral maps derived from visible and near infrared reflectance spectra have been constrained to within 50° in latitude. The mineralogy of the polar regions, or 44% of the lunar surface, is almost entirely unknown. A few studies have provided compositional analysis based on the spectral shape (where strong absorption bands were present) of lithologies dominated by one or two minerals. In this study, we take a novel approach and use strong signal and well-calibrated reflectance acquired by two different instruments, the Kaguya Spectra Profiler (SP) and the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), in order to derive the first FeO and mineral maps of the polar regions at a spatial resolution of 1 km per pixel. We use reflectance ratios from SP and calibrated reflectance data from LOLA to derive the first polar maps of FeO, which are within 2 wt.% of the FeO measured by the Lunar Prospector Gamma-Ray spectrometer up to 85° in latitude. We then use the reflectance data from SP and Hapke radiative transfer model to compute the abundance of olivine, low-calcium pyroxene, high-calcium pyroxene and plagioclase, using FeO as a constraint. The radiative transfer model yields an error in mineral abundances of 9 wt.%. We use the mineral maps to study the composition of 27 central peaks and 5 basin rings in the polar regions, and relate their composition to their depth of origin in the lunar crust. We find that the central peaks and basin rings in Feldspathic Highlands Terrane are mostly anorthositic in composition, with modal plagioclase content ranging between 66 and 92 wt.%. The central peaks and basin rings in the South Pole-Aitken basin are noritic

  17. Dust-Tolerant Reusable Connection Mechanisms for Lunar Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dust, especially lunar dust, has been identified as a significant and present challenge in future exploration missions. In addition to posing contamination and...

  18. Automation of Health Management, Troubleshooting and Recovery in Lunar Outpost, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Lunar and other future extraterrestrial outposts will be built for long duration missions that are likely to experience significant number of faults and...

  19. Development of a Lunar Surface Architecture Using the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, A. M.; Kitmanyen, V. A.; Prakash, A.

    2018-02-01

    Prior to sending crews to Mars, the ability to perform activities intended for martian missions must first be thoroughly tested and successfully demonstrated in a similar environment. This paper outlines a lunar surface architecture to meet this goal.

  20. CNT-Based Smart Electrostatic Filters for Capturing Nanoparticulate Lunar Regolith, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The abrasive, reactive, and ubiquitous nature of lunar regolith created significant and serious problems during the Apollo moon missions. In this Phase I, Agave...

  1. A radiation analysis of lunar surface habitats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, G.; Wilson, J.W.; Tripathi, R.K.; Clowdsley, M.S.; Nealy, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    An analysis is performed on the radiation environment found on the surface of the Moon, and applied to different possible lunar base mission scenarios. An optimization technique has been used to minimize the astronaut radiation exposure and at the same time control the effect of shielding, in terms of mass addition and material choice, as a mission cost driver. The optimization process performs minimization of mass along all phases of a mission scenario, considered in terms of time frame, equipment, location, crew characteristics and performance required, radiation exposure annual and career limit constraints (those proposed in NCRP 132), and implementation of the ALARA principle. In the lunar environment manned habitats are to host future crews involved in the construction and/or in the utilization of moon based infrastructure. Three different kinds of lunar missions are considered in the analysis, Moon Base Construction Phase, during which astronauts are on the surface just to build an outpost for future resident crews, Moon Base Outpost Phase, during which astronaut crews are resident but continuing exploration and installation activities, and Moon Base Routine Phase, with shifting resident crews. In each scenario various kinds of habitats, from very simple shelters to more complex bases, are considered in detail (e.g. shape, thickness, materials, etc) with considerations of various shielding strategies. The results for all scenarios clearly showed that the direct exposure to the space environment like in transfers and EVAs phases gives the most of the dose, with the proposed shielded habitats and shelters giving quite a good protection from radiation. Operational constraints on hardware and scenarios have all been considered by the optimization techniques. Within the limits of this preliminary analysis, the three Moon Base related mission scenarios are perfectly feasible from the astronaut radiation safety point of view with the currently adopted and proposed

  2. Fusion power from lunar resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulcinski, G.L.; Schmitt, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the moon contains an enormous energy source in 3 He deposited by the solar wind. Fusion of only 100 kg of 3 He with deuterium in thermonuclear fusion power plants can produce > 1000 MW (electric) of electrical energy, and the lunar resource base is estimated at 1 x 10 9 kg of 3 He. This fuel can supply >1000 yr of terrestrial electrical energy demand. The methods for extracting this fuel and the other solar wind volatiles are described. Alternate uses of D- 3 He fusion in direct thrust rockets will enable more ambitious deep-space missions to be conducted. The capability of extracting hydrogen, water, nitrogen, and other carbon-containing molecules will open up the moon to a much greater level of human settlement than previously thought

  3. Determination of lunar ilmenite abundances from remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Stephen M.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Singer, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    The mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3) was found in abundance in lunar mare soils returned during the Apollo project. Lunar ilmenite often contains greater than 50 weight-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), and is a primary potential resource for oxygen and other raw materials to supply future lunar bases. Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of the returned lunar soils produced an empirical function that relates the spectral reflectance ratio at 400 and 560 nm to the weight percent abundance of TiO2. This allowed mapping of the lunar TiO2 distribution using telescopic vidicon multispectral imaging from the ground; however, the time variant photometric response of the vidicon detectors produced abundance uncertainties of at least 2 to 5 percent. Since that time, solid-state charge-coupled device (CCD) detector technology capable of much improved photometric response has become available. An investigation of the lunar TiO2 distribution was carried out utilizing groundbased telescopic CCD multispectral imagery and spectroscopy. The work was approached in phases to develop optimum technique based upon initial results. The goal is to achieve the best possible TiO2 abundance maps from the ground as a precursor to lunar orbiter and robotic sample return missions, and to produce a better idea of the peak abundances of TiO2 for benefaction studies. These phases and the results are summarized.

  4. Lunar South Pole Illumination: Review, Reassessment, and Power System Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincannon, James

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews past analyses and research related to lunar south pole illumination and presents results of independent illumination analyses using an analytical tool and a radar digital elevation model. The analysis tool enables assessment at most locations near the lunar poles for any time and any year. Average illumination fraction, energy storage duration, solar/horizon terrain elevation profiles and illumination fraction profiles are presented for various highly illuminated sites which have been identified for manned or unmanned operations. The format of the data can be used by power system designers to develop mass optimized solar and energy storage systems. Data are presented for the worse case lunar day (a critical power planning bottleneck) as well as three lunar days during lunar south pole winter. The main site under consideration by present lunar mission planners (on the Crater Shackleton rim) is shown to have, for the worse case lunar day, a 0.71 average illumination fraction and 73 to 117 hours required for energy storage (depending on power system type). Linking other sites and including towers at either site are shown to not completely eliminate the need for energy storage.

  5. Specific heats of lunar surface materials from 90 to 350 degrees Kelvin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.; Wilson, W.H.

    1970-01-01

    The specific heats of lunar samples 10057 and 10084 returned by the Apollo 11 mission have been measured between 90 and 350 degrees Kelvin by use of an adiabatic calorimeter. The samples are representative of type A vesicular basalt-like rocks and of finely divided lunar soil. The specific heat of these materials changes smoothly from about 0.06 calorie per gram per degree at 90 degrees Kelvin to about 0.2 calorie per gram per degree at 350 degrees Kelvin. The thermal parameter ??=(k??C)-1/2 for the lunar surface will accordingly vary by a factor of about 2 between lunar noon and midnight.

  6. Pulmonary and Systemic Immune Response to Chronic Lunar Dust Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Quiriarte, Heather; Nelman, Mayra; Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.; Sams, Clarence

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to millennia of meteorite impact with virtually no erosive effects, the surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of ultra-fine, reactive Lunar dust. Very little is known regarding the toxicity of Lunar dust on human physiology. Given the size and electrostatic characteristics of Lunar dust, countermeasures to ensure non-exposure of astronauts will be difficult. To ensure astronaut safety during any future prolonged Lunar missions, it is necessary to establish the effect of chronic pulmonary Lunar dust exposure on all physiological systems. Methods: This study assessed the toxicity of airborne lunar dust exposure in rats on pulmonary and system immune system parameters. Rats were exposed to 0, 20.8, or 60.8 mg/m3 of lunar dust (6h/d; 5d/wk) for up to 13 weeks. Sacrifices occurred after exposure durations of 1day, 7 days, 4 weeks and 13 weeks post-exposure, when both blood and lung lavage fluid were collected for analysis. Lavage and blood assays included leukocyte distribution by flow cytometry, electron/fluorescent microscopy, and cytokine concentration. Cytokine production profiles following mitogenic stimulation were performed on whole blood only. Results: Untreated lavage fluid was comprised primarily of pulmonary macrophages. Lunar dust inhalation resulted in an influx of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Although the percentage of lymphocytes increased, the T cell CD4:CD8 ratio was unchanged. Cytokine analysis of the lavage fluid showed increased levels of IL-1b and TNFa. These alterations generally persisted through the 13 week sampling. Blood analysis showed few systemic effects from the lunar dust inhalation. By week 4, the peripheral granulocyte percentage was elevated in the treated rats. Plasma cytokine levels were unchanged in all treated rats compared to controls. Peripheral blood analysis showed an increased granulocyte percentage and altered cytokine production profiles consisting of increased in IL-1b and IL-6, and decreased IL-2

  7. Compact, Deep-Penetrating Geothermal Heat Flow Instrumentation for Lunar Landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagihara, S.; Zacny, K.; Hedlund, M.; Taylor, P. T.

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal heat flow is obtained as a product of the two separate measurements of geothermal gradient in, and thermal conductivity of, the vertical soi/rock/regolith interval penetrated by the instrument. Heat flow measurements are a high priority for the geophysical network missions to the Moon recommended by the latest Decadal Survey [I] and previously the International Lunar Network [2]. The two lunar-landing missions planned later this decade by JAXA [3] and ESA [4] also consider geothermal measurements a priority.

  8. Lunar Map Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps; zone...

  9. Consolidated Lunar Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Consolidated Lunar Atlas is a collection of the best photographic images of the moon, including low-oblique photography, full-moon photography, and tabular and...

  10. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf' vacuum cleaner will be used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques in order to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating particulate removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, optical microscopy was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner testing that has

  11. Beneficiation of lunar ilmenite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Joaquin

    1991-01-01

    One of the most important commodities lacking in the moon is free oxygen which is required for life and used extensively for propellent. Free oxygen, however, can be obtained by liberating it from the oxides and silicates that form the lunar rocks and regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO3) is considered one of the leading candidates for production of oxygen because it can be reduced with a reasonable amount of energy and it is an abundant mineral in the lunar regolith and many mare basalts. In order to obtain oxygen from ilmenite, a method must be developed to beneficiate ilmenite from lunar material. Two possible techniques are electrostatic or magnetic methods. Both methods have complications because lunar ilmenite completely lacks Fe(3+). Magnetic methods were tested on eucrite meteorites, which are a good chemical simulant for low Ti mare basalts. The ilmenite yields in the experiments were always very low and the eucrite had to be crushed to xxxx. These data suggest that magnetic separation of ilmenite from fine grain lunar basalts would not be cost effective. Presently, experiments are being performed with electrostatic separators, and lunar regolith is being waited for so that simulants do not have to be employed.

  12. Lunar Sample Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium will be to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon. This Compendium will be organized rock by rock in the manor of a catalog, but will not be as comprehensive, nor as complete, as the various lunar sample catalogs that are available. Likewise, this Compendium will not duplicate the various excellent books and reviews on the subject of lunar samples (Cadogen 1981, Heiken et al. 1991, Papike et al. 1998, Warren 2003, Eugster 2003). However, it is thought that an online Compendium, such as this, will prove useful to scientists proposing to study individual lunar samples and should help provide backup information for lunar sample displays. This Compendium will allow easy access to the scientific literature by briefly summarizing the significant findings of each rock along with the documentation of where the detailed scientific data are to be found. In general, discussion and interpretation of the results is left to the formal reviews found in the scientific literature. An advantage of this Compendium will be that it can be updated, expanded and corrected as need be.

  13. The Role of Cis-Lunar Space in Future Global Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobskill, Marianne R.; Lupisella, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Cis-lunar space offers affordable near-term opportunities to help pave the way for future global human exploration of deep space, acting as a bridge between present missions and future deep space missions. While missions in cis-lunar space have value unto themselves, they can also play an important role in enabling and reducing risk for future human missions to the Moon, Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs), Mars, and other deep space destinations. The Cis-Lunar Destination Team of NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has been analyzing cis-lunar destination activities and developing notional missions (or "destination Design Reference Missions" [DRMs]) for cis-lunar locations to inform roadmap and architecture development, transportation and destination elements definition, operations, and strategic knowledge gaps. The cis-lunar domain is defined as that area of deep space under the gravitational influence of the earth-moon system. This includes a set of earth-centered orbital locations in low earth orbit (LEO), geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), highly elliptical and high earth orbits (HEO), earth-moon libration or "Lagrange" points (E-ML1 through E-ML5, and in particular, E-ML1 and E-ML2), and low lunar orbit (LLO). To help explore this large possibility space, we developed a set of high level cis-lunar mission concepts in the form of a large mission tree, defined primarily by mission duration, pre-deployment, type of mission, and location. The mission tree has provided an overall analytical context and has helped in developing more detailed design reference missions that are then intended to inform capabilities, operations, and architectures. With the mission tree as context, we will describe two destination DRMs to LEO and GEO, based on present human space exploration architectural considerations, as well as our recent work on defining mission activities that could be conducted with an EML1 or EML2 facility, the latter of which will be an emphasis of this

  14. Space Solar Power Technology for Lunar Polar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Mark W.; Howell, Joe T.

    2004-01-01

    The technology for Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transistor (Laser-PV WPT) is being developed for lunar polar applications by Boeing and NASA Marshall Space Center. A lunar polar mission could demonstrate and validate Laser-PV WPT and other SSP technologies, while enabling access to cold, permanently shadowed craters that are believed to contain ice. Crater may hold frozen water and other volatiles deposited over billion of years, recording prior impact event on the moon (and Earth). A photo-voltaic-powered rover could use sunlight, when available, and laser light, when required, to explore a wide range of lunar terrain. The National Research Council recently found that a mission to the moon's south pole-Aitkir basin has priority for space science

  15. Lunar lander stage requirements based on the Civil Needs Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueen, John A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the lunar lander stages that will be necessary for the future exploration and development of the Moon. Lunar lander stage sizing is discussed based on the projected lunar payloads listed in the Civil Needs Data Base. Factors that will influence the lander stage design are identified and discussed. Some of these factors are (1) lunar orbiting and lunar surface lander bases; (2) implications of direct landing trajectories and landing from a parking orbit; (3) implications of landing site and parking orbit; (4) implications of landing site and parking orbit selection; (5) the use of expendable and reusable lander stages; and (6) the descent/ascent trajectories. Data relating the lunar lander stage design requirements to each of the above factors and others are presented in parametric form. These data will provide useful design data that will be applicable to future mission model modifications and design studies.

  16. Battery and Fuel Cell Development Goals for the Lunar Surface and Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is planning a return to the moon and requires advances in energy storage technology for its planned lunar lander and lunar outpost. This presentation describes NASA s overall mission goals and technical goals for batteries and fuel cells to support the mission. Goals are given for secondary batteries for the lander s ascent stage and suits for extravehicular activity on the lunar surface, and for fuel cells for the lander s descent stage and regenerative fuel cells for outpost power. An overall approach to meeting these goals is also presented.

  17. Lunar Riometry: Proof-of-Concept Instrument Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Stewart, K.; Giersch, L.; Burns, J. O.; Farrell, W. M.; Kasper, J. C.; O'Dwyer, I.; Hartman, J.

    2012-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent, the extent of contributions from volatile outgassing from the Moon, and its behavior over time, including response to the solar wind and modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) is based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, in situ, the vertical extent of the lunar exosphere over time. We describe a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report. The instrument concept is simple, consisting of an antenna implemented as a metal deposited on polyimide film and receiver. We illustrate various deployment mechanisms and performance of a prototype in increasing lunar analog conditions. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of dust impactors. The Lunar University Network for Astrophysical Research consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

  18. Contingency Trajectory Design for a Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver Failure by the Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Loucks, Michael; Carrico, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this extended abstract is to present results from a failed lunar-orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver contingency analysis for the Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission, managed and operated by NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, CA. The LADEE spacecrafts nominal trajectory implemented multiple sub-lunar phasing orbits centered at Earth before eventually reaching the Moon (Fig. 1) where a critical LOI maneuver was to be performed [1,2,3]. If this LOI was missed, the LADEE spacecraft would be on an Earth-escape trajectory, bound for heliocentric space. Although a partial mission recovery is possible from a heliocentric orbit (to be discussed in the full paper), it was found that an escape-prevention maneuver could be performed several days after a hypothetical LOI-miss, allowing a return to the desired science orbit around the Moon without leaving the Earths sphere-of-influence (SOI).

  19. Remanent magnetization stratigraphy of lunar cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S. K.; Gingrich, D.; Marvin, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Depth dependent fluctuations have been observed in the natural remanent magnetizations (NRM) of drive cores and drill strings from Apollo 16 and 17 missions. Partial demagnetization of unstable secondary magnetizations and identification of characteristic error signals from a core which is known to have been recently disturbed allow us to identify and isolate the stable NRM stratigraphy in double drive core 60010/60009 and drill strings 60002-60004. The observed magnetization fluctuations persist after normalization to take into account depth dependent variations in the carriers of stable NRM. We tentatively ascribe the stable NRM stratigraphy to instantaneous records of past magnetic fields at the lunar surface and suggest that the stable NRM stratigraphy technique could develop as a new relative time-stratigraphic tool, to be used with other physical measurements such as relative intensity of ferromagnetic resonance and charged particle track density to study the evolution of the lunar regolith.

  20. Determination of lunar surface ages from crater frequency–size ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the images from Apollo missions have been calibrated from the lunar soil samples from Apollo and Luna landing sites (Head 1976; Neukum et al. 1975). ... Table 1 shows the ages as derived for the craters with errors. Mare Humorum is believed to be made up of six ring structures of 210, 340, 425, 570 and 1195km.

  1. Application of Apollo cosmic radiation dosimetry to lunar colonization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, R.A.; Bailey, J.V.; Brown, R.D.

    1972-01-01

    The radiation data gathered from the lunar landing missions of Apollo 11 through Apollo 15 are presented. These data have been analyzed to provide dosimetry evaluation of the ambient radiation and radiation from potential solar particle events for the planning of safe, long-term stays of relatively large numbers of individuals upon the moon. (U.S.)

  2. Global Launcher Trajectory Optimization for Lunar Base Settlement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagano, A.; Mooij, E.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of a mission to the Moon to set a permanent outpost can be tackled by dividing the journey into three phases: the Earth ascent, the Earth-Moon transfer and the lunar landing. In this paper we present an optimization analysis of Earth ascent trajectories of existing launch vehicles

  3. The Lunar Source Disk: Old Lunar Datasets on a New CD-ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiesinger, H.

    1998-01-01

    A compilation of previously published datasets on CD-ROM is presented. This Lunar Source Disk is intended to be a first step in the improvement/expansion of the Lunar Consortium Disk, in order to create an "image-cube"-like data pool that can be easily accessed and might be useful for a variety of future lunar investigations. All datasets were transformed to a standard map projection that allows direct comparison of different types of information on a pixel-by pixel basis. Lunar observations have a long history and have been important to mankind for centuries, notably since the work of Plutarch and Galileo. As a consequence of centuries of lunar investigations, knowledge of the characteristics and properties of the Moon has accumulated over time. However, a side effect of this accumulation is that it has become more and more complicated for scientists to review all the datasets obtained through different techniques, to interpret them properly, to recognize their weaknesses and strengths in detail, and to combine them synoptically in geologic interpretations. Such synoptic geologic interpretations are crucial for the study of planetary bodies through remote-sensing data in order to avoid misinterpretation. In addition, many of the modem datasets, derived from Earth-based telescopes as well as from spacecraft missions, are acquired at different geometric and radiometric conditions. These differences make it challenging to compare or combine datasets directly or to extract information from different datasets on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Also, as there is no convention for the presentation of lunar datasets, different authors choose different map projections, depending on the location of the investigated areas and their personal interests. Insufficient or incomplete information on the map parameters used by different authors further complicates the reprojection of these datasets to a standard geometry. The goal of our efforts was to transfer previously published lunar

  4. Business analysis: The commercial mission of the International Asteroid Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mission of the International Asteroid Mission (IAM) is providing asteroidal resources to support activities in space. The short term goal is to initiate IAM by mining a near-Earth, hydrous carbonaceous chondrite asteroid to service the nearer-term market of providing cryogenic rocket fuel in low lunar orbit (LLO). The IAM will develop and contract for the building of the transportation vehicles and equipment necessary for this undertaking. The long-term goal is to expand operations by exploiting asteroids in other manners, as these options become commercially viable. The primary business issues are what revenue can be generated from the baseline mission, how much will the mission cost, and how funding for this mission can be raised. These issues are addressed.

  5. Lunar scout: A Project Artemis proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of a student project to design a lunar lander in the context of a specifically defined mission are presented. The Lunar Scout will be launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida onboard a Delta II launch vehicle. The Delta II will carry the lander and its payload to a 1367 km orbit. Once it reaches that altitude, a STAR 48A solid rocket motor will kick the spacecraft into a lunar trajectory. After burnout of the lunar insertion motor, it will be jettisoned from the spacecraft. The flight from the earth to the moon will take approximately 106.4 hours. During this time the battery, which was fully charged prior to launch, will provide all power to the spacecraft. Every hour, the spacecraft will use its sun sensors and star trackers to update its position, maintain some stabilization and relay it back to earth using the dipole antennas. At the start of its lunar trajectory, the spacecraft will fire one of its 1.5 N thrusters to spin in at a very small rate. The main reason for this is to prevent one side of the spacecraft from overheating in the sun. When the spacecraft nears the moon, it will orient itself for the main retro burn. At an altitude of 200 km, a 4400 N bipropellant liquid thruster will ignite to slow the spacecraft. During the burn, the radar altimeter will be turned on to guide the spacecraft. The main retro rocket will slow the lander to 10 m/s at an approximate altitude of 40 km above the moon. From there, the space craft will use four 4.5 N hydrazine vertical thrusters and 1.5 N horizontal thrusters to guide the spacecraft to a soft landing. Once on the ground, the lander will shutoff the radar and attitude control systems. After the debris from the impact has settled, the six solar panels will be deployed to begin recharging the batteries and to power up the payload. The feedhorn antenna will then rotate to fix itself on the earth.

  6. Lunar geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Dickey, J. O.

    2002-01-01

    Experience with the dynamics and data analyses for earth and moon reveals both similarities and differences. Analysis of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) data provides information on the lunar orbit, rotation, solid-body tides, and retroreflector locations.

  7. The Future Lunar Flora Colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, E. G.; Guven, U. G.

    2017-10-01

    A constructional design for the primary establishment for a lunar colony using the micrometeorite rich soil is proposed. It highlights the potential of lunar regolith combined with Earth technology for water and oxygen for human outposts on the Moon.

  8. Lunar and Vesta Web Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; JPL Luna Mapping; Modeling Project Team

    2015-06-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project offers Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (http://lmmp.nasa.gov) and Vesta Trek Portal (http://vestatrek.jpl.nasa.gov) providing interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable users to access mapped Lunar and Vesta data products.

  9. LADEE UVS Observations of Atoms and Dust in the Lunar Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Colaprete, Anthony; Cook, Amanda M.; Shirley, Mark H.; Vargo, Kara E.; Elphic, Richard C.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Glenar, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) was a lunar orbiter launched in September 2013 that investigated the composition and temporal variation of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment. A major goal of the mission was to characterize the dust exosphere prior to future lunar exploration activities, which may alter the lunar environment. The Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) onboard LADEE addresses this goal, utilizing two sets of optics: a limbviewing telescope, and a solar-viewing telescope. We report on spectroscopic (approximately 280 - 820 nm) observations viewing down the lunar wake or along the 'lunar tail' from lunar orbit. Prior groundbased studies have observed the emission from neutral sodium atoms extended along the lunar tail, so often this region is referred to as the lunar sodium tail. UVS measurements were made on the dark side of the moon, with the UVS limb-viewing telescope pointed outward in the direction of the Moon's wake (almost anti-sun), during different lunar phases. These UVS observation activities sample a long column and allow the characterization of scattered light from dust and emission lines from atoms in the lunar tail. Observations in this UVS configuration show the largest excess of scattered blue light in our data set, indicative of the presence of small dust grains in the tail. Once lofted, nanoparticles may become charged and picked up by the solar wind, similar to the phenomena witnessed above Enceladus's northern hemisphere or by the STEREO/WAVES instrument while close to Earth's orbit. The UVS data show that small dust grains as well as atoms become entrained in the lunar tail.

  10. Lunar Surface Potential Increases during Terrestrial Bow Shock Traversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Hills, H. Kent; Halekas, Jasper; Farrell, William M.; Delory, Greg T.; Espley, Jared; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard R.; Kasper, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. We present an analysis of Apollo 14 SIDE "resonance" events that indicate the lunar surface potential increases when the Moon traverses the dawn bow shock. By analyzing Wind spacecraft crossings of the terrestrial bow shock at approximately this location and employing current balancing models of the lunar surface, we suggest causes for the increasing potential. Determining the origin of this phenomenon will improve our ability to predict the lunar surface potential in support of human exploration as well as provide models for the behavior of other airless bodies when they traverse similar features such as interplanetary shocks, both of which are goals of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's Dynamic Response of the Environment At the Moon (DREAM) team.

  11. Elemental Mercury Diffusion Processes and Concentration at the Lunar Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Frederick; Killen, Rosemary M.; Hurley, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) spectrograph onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft made the first detection of element mercury (Hg) vapor in the lunar exosphere after the Lunar Crater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Centaur rocket impacted into the Cabeus crater in the southern polar region of the Moon. The lunar regolith core samples from the Apollo missions determined that Hg had a devolatilized pattern with a concentration gradient increasing with depth, in addition to a layered pattern suggesting multiple episodes of burial and volatile loss. Hg migration on the lunar surface resulted in cold trapping at the poles. We have modeled the rate at which indigenous Hg is lost from the regolith through diffusion out of lunar grains. We secondly modeled the migration of Hg vapor in the exosphere and estimated the rate of cold-trapping at the poles using a Monte Carlo technique. The Hg vapor may be lost from the exosphere via ionization, Jeans escape, or re-impact into the surface causing reabsorption.

  12. Costs and benefits of lunar oxygen: Engineering, operations, and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent; Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen is the most commonly discussed lunar resource. It will certainly not be the easiest to retrieve, but oxygen's fundamental place in propulsion and life support guarantees it continued attention as a prime candidate for early in situ resource utilization (ISRU). The findings are reviewed of recent investigation, sponsored by NASA-Ames, into the kinds of technologies, equipment, and scenarios (the engineering and operations costs) that will be required even to initiate lunar oxygen production. The infrastructure necessary to surround and support a viable oxygen-processing operation is explained. Selected details are used to illustrate the depth of technology challenges, extent of operations burdens, and complexity of decision linkages. Basic assumptions, and resulting timelines and mass manifests, are listed. These findings are combined with state-of-the-art knowledge of lunar and Mars propulsion options in simple economic input/output and internal-rate-of-return models, to compare production costs with performance benefits. Implications for three realistic scales of exploration architecture - expeditionary, aggressive science, and industrialization/settlement - are discussed. Conclusions are reached regarding the contextual conditions within which production of lunar oxygen (LLOX) is a reasonable activity. LLOX appears less useful for Mars missions than previously hoped. Its economical use in low Earth orbit hinges on production of lunar hydrogen as well. LLOX shows promise for lunar ascent/descent use, but that depends strongly on the plant mass required.

  13. Geochemistry of Lunar Highland Meteorites Mil, 090034, 090036 AND 090070

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, N.aoki; Ebihara, M.; Sekimoto, S.; Yamaguchi, A.; Nyquist, L.; Shih, C.-Y.; Park, J.; Nagao, K.

    2012-01-01

    Apollo and Luna samples were collected from a restricted area on the near side of the Moon, while the source craters of the lunar meteorites are randomly distributed. For example, Takeda et al. [1] and Yamaguchi et al. [2] found a variety of lithic clasts in Dho 489 and Y 86032 which were not represented by Apollo samples, and some of these clasts have lower rare earth elements (REE) and FeO abundances than Apollo anorthosites, respectively. Takeda et al. [1] and Yamaguchi et al. [2] concluded that Dho 489 and Y 86032 originated from the lunar farside. Therefore, lunar meteorites provide an opportunity to study lunar surface rocks from areas not sampled by Apollo and Luna missions. Three lunar anorthitic breccias (MIL 090034, 090036 and 090070) were found on the Miller Range Ice Field in Antarctica during the 2009-2010 ANSMET season [3]. In this study, we determined elemental abudnances for MIL 090034, 090036 and 090070 by using INAA and aimed to characterize these meteorites in chemical compositions in comparison with those for other lunar meteorites and Apollo samples.

  14. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-09-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  15. CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture Design Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R.; Kennedy, K.; Howard, R.; Whitmore, M.; Martin, C.; Garate, J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In preparation for human exploration to Mars, there is a need to define the development and test program that will validate deep space operations and systems. In that context, a Proving Grounds CisLunar habitat spacecraft is being defined as the next step towards this goal. This spacecraft will operate differently from the ISS or other spacecraft in human history. The performance envelope of this spacecraft (mass, volume, power, specifications, etc.) is being defined by the Future Capabilities Study Team. This team has recognized the need for a human-centered approach for the internal architecture of this spacecraft and has commissioned a CisLunar Phase-1 Habitat Internal Architecture Study Team to develop a NASA reference configuration, providing the Agency with a "smart buyer" approach for future acquisition. THE CISLUNAR HABITAT INTERNAL ARCHITECTURE STUDY: Overall, the CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture study will address the most significant questions and risks in the current CisLunar architecture, habitation, and operations concept development. This effort is achieved through definition of design criteria, evaluation criteria and process, design of the CisLunar Habitat Phase-1 internal architecture, and the development and fabrication of internal architecture concepts combined with rigorous and methodical Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) evaluations and testing of the conceptual innovations in a controlled test environment. The vision of the CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture Study is to design, build, and test a CisLunar Phase-1 Habitat Internal Architecture that will be used for habitation (e.g. habitability and human factors) evaluations. The evaluations will mature CisLunar habitat evaluation tools, guidelines, and standards, and will interface with other projects such as the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program integrated Power, Avionics, Software (iPAS), and Logistics for integrated human-in-the-loop testing. The mission of the CisLunar

  16. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Tartese, R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The chapter will begin with an introduction that defines magmatic volatiles (e.g., H, F, Cl, S) versus geochemical volatiles (e.g., K, Rb, Zn). We will discuss our approach of understanding both types of volatiles in lunar samples and lay the ground work for how we will determine the overall volatile budget of the Moon. We will then discuss the importance of endogenous volatiles in shaping the "Newer Views of the Moon", specifically how endogenous volatiles feed forward into processes such as the origin of the Moon, magmatic differentiation, volcanism, and secondary processes during surface and crustal interactions. After the introduction, we will include a re-view/synthesis on the current state of 1) apatite compositions (volatile abundances and isotopic compositions); 2) nominally anhydrous mineral phases (moderately to highly volatile); 3) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar pyroclastic glass beads; 4) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar basalts; 5) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of melt inclusions; and finally 6) experimental constraints on mineral-melt partitioning of moderately to highly volatile elements under lunar conditions. We anticipate that each section will summarize results since 2007 and focus on new results published since the 2015 Am Min review paper on lunar volatiles [9]. The next section will discuss how to use sample abundances of volatiles to understand the source region and potential caveats in estimating source abundances of volatiles. The following section will include our best estimates of volatile abundances and isotopic compositions (where permitted by available data) for each volatile element of interest in a number of important lunar reservoirs, including the crust, mantle, KREEP, and bulk Moon. The final section of the chapter will focus upon future work, outstanding questions

  17. A Proof of Concept for In-Situ Lunar Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, F. S.; Whitaker, T.; Levine, J.; Draper, D. S.; Harris, W.; Olansen, J.; Devolites, J.

    2015-12-01

    We have obtained improved 87Rb-87Sr isochrons for the Duluth Gabbro, an analog for lunar KREEP rocks, using a prototype spaceflight laser ablation resonance ionization mass spectrometer (LARIMS). The near-side of the Moon comprises previously un-sampled, KREEP rich, young-lunar basalts critical for calibrating the dating to constrain lunar history. Using a novel normalization approach, and by correcting for matrix-dependent isotope effects, we have been able to obtain a date of 1100 ± 200 Ma (Figure 1), compared to the previously established thermal ionization mass spectrometry measurement of 1096 ± 14 Ma. The precision of LARIMS is sufficient to constrain the current 1 Ga uncertainty of the lunar flux curve, allowing us to reassess the timing of peak lunar volcanism, and constrain lunar thermal evolution. Furthermore, an updated lunar flux curve has implications throughout the solar system. For example, Mars could have undergone a longer epoch of voluminous, shield-forming volcanism and associated mantle evolution, as well as a longer era of abundant volatiles and hence potential habitability. These alternative chronologies could even affect our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth: under the classic chronology, life is thought to have originated after the dwindling of bombardment, but under the alternative chronology, it might have appeared during heavy bombardment. In order to resolve the science questions regarding the history of the Moon, and in light of the Duluth Gabbro results, we recently proposed a Discovery mission called MARE: The Moon Age and Regolith Explorer. MARE would accomplish these goals by landing on a young, nearside lunar basalt flow southwest of Aristarchus that has a crater density corresponding to a highly uncertain absolute age, collecting >10 rock samples, and assessing their radioisotopic age, geochemistry, and mineralogy.

  18. Electrical Power System Architectures for In-House NASA/GSFC Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Diane D.

    2006-01-01

    This power point presentation reviews the electrical power system (EPS) architecture used for a few NASA GSFC's missions both current and planned. Included in the presentation are reviews of electric power systems for the Space Technology 5 (ST5) mission, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission, and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). There is a slide that compares the three missions' electrical supply systems.

  19. Fostering Outreach, Education and Exploration of the Moon Using the Lunar Mapping & Modeling Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, K.; Law, E.; Malhotra, S.; Chang, G.; Kim, R. M.; Bui, B.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Day, B. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP)[1], is a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools for users to access mapped lunar data products (including image mosaics, digital elevation models, etc.) from past and current lunar missions (e.g., Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Apollo, etc.). Originally designed as a mission planning tool for the Constellation Program, LMMP has grown into a generalized suite of tools facilitating a wide range of activities in support of lunar exploration including public outreach, education, lunar mission planning and scientific research. LMMP fosters outreach, education, and exploration of the Moon by educators, students, amateur astronomers, and the general public. These efforts are enhanced by Moon Tours, LMMP's mobile application, which makes LMMP's information accessible to people of all ages, putting opportunities for real lunar exploration in the palms of their hands. Our talk will include an overview of LMMP and a demonstration of its technologies (web portals, mobile apps), to show how it serves NASA data as commodities for use by advanced visualization facilities (e.g., planetariums) and how it contributes to improving teaching and learning, increasing scientific literacy of the general public, and enriching STEM efforts. References:[1] http://www.lmmp.nasa.gov

  20. Drilling Automation Tests At A Lunar/Mars Analog Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, B.; Cannon, H.; Hanagud, S.; Lee, P.; Paulsen, G.

    2006-01-01

    Future in-situ lunar/martian resource utilization and characterization, as well as the scientific search for life on Mars, will require access to the subsurface and hence drilling. Drilling on Earth is hard - an art form more than an engineering discipline. The limited mass, energy and manpower in planetary drilling situations makes application of terrestrial drilling techniques problematic. The Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project is developing drilling automation and robotics for projected use in missions to the Moon and Mars in the 2011-15 period. This has been tested recently, drilling in permafrost at a lunar/martian analog site (Haughton Crater, Devon Island, Canada).

  1. Lunar electrostatic effects and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yongwei; Yuan, Qingyun; Xiong, Jiuliang

    2013-01-01

    The space environment and features on the moon surface are factors in strong electrostatic electrification. Static electricity will be produced in upon friction between lunar soil and detectors or astronauts on the lunar surface. Lunar electrostatic environment effects from lunar exploration equipment are very harmful. Lunar dust with electrostatic charge may enter the equipment or even cover the instruments. It can affect the normal performance of moon detectors. Owing to the huge environmental differences between the moon and the earth, the electrostatic protection technology on the earth can not be applied. In this paper, we review the electrostatic characteristics of lunar dust, its effects on aerospace equipment and moon static elimination technologies. It was concluded that the effect of charged lunar dust on detectors and astronauts should be completely researched as soon as possible.

  2. Toxicity of lunar dust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnarsson, D.; Carpenter, J.; Fubini, B.; Gerde, P.; Loftus, D.; Prisk, K.; Staufer, U.; Tranfield, E.; van Westrenen, W.

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of

  3. Lunar Phases Planisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawl, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a lunar phases planisphere with which a user can answer questions about the rising and setting times of the Moon as well as questions about where the Moon will be at a given phase and time. The article contains figures that can be photocopied to make the planisphere. (Contains 2 figures.)

  4. Lunar magma transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    An outline of magma transport theory relevant to the evolution of a possible Lunar Magma Ocean and the origin and transport history of the later phase of mare basaltic volcanism is presented. A simple model is proposed to evaluate the extent of fractionation as magma traverses the cold lunar lithosphere. If Apollo green glasses are primitive and have not undergone significant fractionation en route to the surface, then mean ascent rates of 10 m/s and cracks of widths greater than 40 m are indicated. Lunar tephra and vesiculated basalts suggest that a volatile component plays a role in eruption dynamics. The predominant vapor species appear to be CO CO2, and COS. Near the lunar surface, the vapor fraction expands enormously and vapor internal energy is converted to mixture kinetic energy with the concomitant high-speed ejection of vapor and pyroclasts to form lunary fire fountain deposits such as the Apollo 17 orange and black glasses and Apollo 15 green glass.

  5. Late Bombardment of the Lunar Highlands Recorded in MIL 090034, MIL 090036 and MIL 090070 Lunar Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Herzog, G. F.; Yamaguchi, A.; Shirai, N.; Ebihara, M.; Lindsay, F. N.; Delaney, J.; Turrin, B.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Kaguya mission detected small but widespread outcrops of nearly pure ferroan anorthosite in and around large impact basins on the Moon. Along with certain lunar rocks, highly feldspathic lunar meteorites such as MIL 090034 (M34), 090036 (M36), and 090070 (M70) may provide samples of this material. We have measured the Ar-40/Ar-39 release patterns and cosmogenic Ar-38 concentrations of several small (<200 microg) samples separated from M34,36, and 70. From petrographic observations concluded that "some of the clasts and grains experienced generations of modifications," a conclusion that we examine in light of our data.

  6. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary

  7. MoonMars Astronaut and CapCom Protocols: ESTEC and LunAres PMAS Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authier, L.; Blanc, A.; Foing, B. H.; Lillo, A.; Evellin, P.; Kołodziejczyk, A.; Heinicke, C.; Harasymczuk, M.; Chahla, C.; Tomic, A.; Hettrich, S.; PMAS Astronauts

    2017-10-01

    ILEWG developed since 2008 a Mobile Laboratory Habitat (ExoHab) at ESTEC which was tested during a short simulation in July. It was a foretaste of the PMAS mission on 31 July-14 August in LunAres base at Pila, with mission control in Torun, Poland.

  8. Yet Another Lunar Surface Geologic Exploration Architecture Concept (What, Again?): A Senior Field Geologist's Integrated View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, D. B.

    2015-01-01

    Lunar surface geological exploration should be founded on a number of key elements that are seemingly disparate, but which can form an integrated operational concept when properly conceived and deployed. If lunar surface geological exploration is to be useful, this integration of key elements needs to be undertaken throughout the development of both mission hardware, training and operational concepts. These elements include the concept of mission class, crew makeup and training, surface mobility assets that are matched with mission class, and field tools and IT assets that make data collection, sharing and archiving transparent to the surface crew.

  9. KOREAN LUNAR LANDER – CONCEPT STUDY FOR LANDING-SITE SELECTION FOR LUNAR RESOURCE EXPLORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the national space promotion plan and presidential national agendas South Korea’s institutes and agencies under the auspices of the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technology and Future Planning (MSIP are currently developing a lunar mission package expected to reach Moon in 2020. While the officially approved Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO is aimed at demonstrating technologies and monitoring the lunar environment from orbit, a lander – currently in pre-phase A – is being designed to explore the local geology with a particular focus on the detection and characterization of mineral resources. In addition to scientific and potential resource potentials, the selection of the landing-site will be partly constrained by engineering constraints imposed by payload and spacecraft layout. Given today’s accumulated volume and quality of available data returned from the Moon’s surface and from orbital observations, an identification of landing sites of potential interest and assessment of potential hazards can be more readily accomplished by generating synoptic snapshots through data integration. In order to achieve such a view on potential landing sites, higher level processing and derivation of data are required, which integrates their spatial context, with detailed topographic and geologic characterizations. We are currently assessing the possibility of using fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms as a way to perform (semi- automated terrain characterizations of interest. This paper provides information and background on the national lunar lander program, reviews existing approaches – including methods and tools – for landing site analysis and hazard assessment, and discusses concepts to detect and investigate elemental abundances from orbit and the surface. This is achieved by making use of manual, semi-automated as well as fully-automated remote-sensing methods to demonstrate the applicability of

  10. Scientific return of a lunar elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, T. M.; Radley, C. F.

    2016-11-01

    The concept of a space elevator dates back to Tsilokovsky, but they are not commonly considered in near-term plans for space exploration, perhaps because a terrestrial elevator would not be possible without considerable improvements in tether material. A Lunar Space Elevator (LSE), however, can be built with current technology using commercially available tether polymers. This paper considers missions leading to infrastructure capable of shortening the time, lowering the cost and enhancing the capabilities of robotic and human explorers. These missions use planetary scale tethers, strings many thousands of kilometers long stabilized either by rotation or by gravitational gradients. These systems promise major reduction in transport costs versus chemical rockets, in a rapid timeframe, for a modest investment. Science will thus benefit as well as commercial activities.

  11. Radiation Shielding of Lunar Regolith/Polyethylene Composites and Lunar Regolith/Water Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Quincy F.; Gersey, Brad; Wilkins, Richard; Zhou, Jianren

    2011-01-01

    Space radiation is a complex mixed field of ionizing radiation that can pose hazardous risks to sophisticated electronics and humans. Mission planning for lunar exploration and long duration habitat construction will face tremendous challenges of shielding against various types of space radiation in an attempt to minimize the detrimental effects it may have on materials, electronics, and humans. In late 2009, the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) discovered that water content in lunar regolith found in certain areas on the moon can be up to 5.6 +/-2.8 weight percent (wt%) [A. Colaprete, et. al., Science, Vol. 330, 463 (2010). ]. In this work, shielding studies were performed utilizing ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and aluminum, both being standard space shielding materials, simulated lunar regolith/ polyethylene composites, and simulated lunar regolith mixed with UHMWPE particles and water. Based on the LCROSS findings, radiation shielding experiments were conducted to test for shielding efficiency of regolith/UHMWPE/water mixtures with various percentages of water to compare relative shielding characteristics of these materials. One set of radiation studies were performed using the proton synchrotron at the Loma Linda Medical University where high energy protons similar to those found on the surface of the moon can be generated. A similar experimental protocol was also used at a high energy spalation neutron source at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). These experiments studied the shielding efficiency against secondary neutrons, another major component of space radiation field. In both the proton and neutron studies, shielding efficiency was determined by utilizing a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) behind various thicknesses of shielding composite panels or mixture materials. Preliminary results from these studies indicated that adding 2 wt% water to regolith particles could increase shielding of

  12. Exploration of the Moon to Enable Lunar and Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Moon represents an enabling Solar System exploration asset because of its proximity, resources, and size. Its location has facilitated robotic missions from 5 different space agencies this century. The proximity of the Moon has stimulated commercial space activity, which is critical for sustainable space exploration. Since 2000, a new view of the Moon is coming into focus, which is very different from that of the 20th century. The documented presence of volatiles on the lunar surface, coupled with mature ilmenite-rich regolith locations, represent known resources that could be used for life support on the lunar surface for extended human stays, as well as fuel for robotic and human exploration deeper into the Solar System. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to explore the terrestrial planets and Solar System processes. For example, it is an end-member in terrestrial planetary body differentiation. Ever since the return of the first lunar samples by Apollo 11, the magma ocean concept was developed and has been applied to both Earth and Mars. Because of the small size of the Moon, planetary differentiation was halted at an early (primary?) stage. However, we still know very little about the lunar interior, despite the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments, and to understand the structure of the Moon will require establishing a global lunar geophysical network, something Apollo did not achieve. Also, constraining the impact chronology of the Moon allows the surfaces of other terrestrial planets to be dated and the cratering history of the inner Solar System to be constrained. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to study space weathering of airless bodies. It is apparent, then, that human and robotic missions to the Moon will enable both science and exploration. For example, the next step in resource exploration is prospecting on the surface those deposits identified from orbit to understand the yield that can be expected. Such prospecting will also

  13. Baseline Design and Performance Analysis of Laser Altimeter for Korean Lunar Orbiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Chul Lim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Korea’s lunar exploration project includes the launching of an orbiter, a lander (including a rover, and an experimental orbiter (referred to as a lunar pathfinder. Laser altimeters have played an important scientific role in lunar, planetary, and asteroid exploration missions since their first use in 1971 onboard the Apollo 15 mission to the Moon. In this study, a laser altimeter was proposed as a scientific instrument for the Korean lunar orbiter, which will be launched by 2020, to study the global topography of the surface of the Moon and its gravitational field and to support other payloads such as a terrain mapping camera or spectral imager. This study presents the baseline design and performance model for the proposed laser altimeter. Additionally, the study discusses the expected performance based on numerical simulation results. The simulation results indicate that the design of system parameters satisfies performance requirements with respect to detection probability and range error even under unfavorable conditions.

  14. Petrology of lunar rocks and implication to lunar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, W. I.

    1976-01-01

    Recent advances in lunar petrology, based on studies of lunar rock samples available through the Apollo program, are reviewed. Samples of bedrock from both maria and terra have been collected where micrometeorite impact penetrated the regolith and brought bedrock to the surface, but no in situ cores have been taken. Lunar petrogenesis and lunar thermal history supported by studies of the rock sample are discussed and a tentative evolutionary scenario is constructed. Mare basalts, terra assemblages of breccias, soils, rocks, and regolith are subjected to elemental analysis, mineralogical analysis, trace content analysis, with studies of texture, ages and isotopic composition. Probable sources of mare basalts are indicated.

  15. Future NASA mission applications of space nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.L.; Mankins, J.; McConnell, D.G.; Reck, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies sponsored by NASA show a continuing need for space nuclear power. A recently completed study considered missions such as a Jovian grand tour, a Uranus or Neptune orbiter and probe, and a Pluto flyby that can only be done with nuclear power. There are studies for missions beyond the outer boundaries of the solar system at distances of 100 to 1000 astronomical units. The NASA 90-day study on the space exploration initiative identified a need for nuclear reactors to power lunar surface bases and radioisotope power sources for use in lunar or Martian rovers, as well as considering options for advanced, nuclear propulsion systems for human missions to Mars

  16. Apollo 16 astronauts in Apollo Command Module Mission Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, participates in extravehicular activity (EVA) training in bldg 5 at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). In the right background is Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. They are inside the Apollo Command Module Mission Simulator (31046); Mattingly (right foreground) and Duke (right backgroung) in the Apollo Command Module Mission Simulator for EVA simulation and training. Astronaut John W. Young, commander, can be seen in the left background (31047).

  17. Targeting Low-Energy Ballistic Lunar Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous low-energy ballistic transfers exist between the Earth and Moon that require less fuel than conventional transfers, but require three or more months of transfer time. An entirely ballistic lunar transfer departs the Earth from a particular declination at some time in order to arrive at the Moon at a given time along a desirable approach. Maneuvers may be added to the trajectory in order to adjust the Earth departure to meet mission requirements. In this paper, we characterize the (Delta)V cost required to adjust a low-energy ballistic lunar transfer such that a spacecraft may depart the Earth at a desirable declination, e.g., 28.5(white bullet), on a designated date. This study identifies the optimal locations to place one or two maneuvers along a transfer to minimize the (Delta)V cost of the transfer. One practical application of this study is to characterize the launch period for a mission that aims to launch from a particular launch site, such as Cape Canaveral, Florida, and arrive at a particular orbit at the Moon on a given date using a three-month low-energy transfer.

  18. Toward an International Lunar Polar Volatiles Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, J. E.; Suzuki, N. H.; Carpenter, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen international space agencies are participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG), working together to advance a long-range human space exploration strategy. The ISECG is a voluntary, non-binding international coordination mechanism through which individual agencies may exchange information regarding interests, objectives, and plans in space exploration with the goal of strengthening both individual exploration programs as well as the collective effort. The ISECG has developed a Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) that reflects the coordinated international dialog and continued preparation for exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - beginning with the Moon and cis-lunar space, and continuing to near-Earth asteroids, and Mars. Space agencies agree that human space exploration will be most successful as an international endeavor, given the challenges of these missions. The roadmap demonstrates how initial capabilities can enable a variety of missions in the lunar vicinity, responding to individual and common goals and objectives, while contributing to building partnerships required for sustainable human space exploration that delivers value to the public.

  19. Lunar ash flows - Isothermal approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Suggestion of the ash flow mechanism as one of the major processes required to account for some features of lunar soil. First the observational background and the gardening hypothesis are reviewed, and the shortcomings of the gardening hypothesis are shown. Then a general description of the lunar ash flow is given, and a simple mathematical model of the isothermal lunar ash flow is worked out with numerical examples to show the differences between the lunar and the terrestrial ash flow. The important parameters of the ash flow process are isolated and analyzed. It appears that the lunar surface layer in the maria is not a residual mantle rock (regolith) but a series of ash flows due, at least in part, to great meteorite impacts. The possibility of a volcanic contribution is not excluded. Some further analytic research on lunar ash flows is recommended.

  20. Toxicity of lunar dust assessed in inhalation-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chiu-wing; Scully, Robert R; Zhang, Ye; Renne, Roger A; Hunter, Robert L; McCluskey, Richard A; Chen, Bean T; Castranova, Vincent; Driscoll, Kevin E; Gardner, Donald E; McClellan, Roger O; Cooper, Bonnie L; McKay, David S; Marshall, Linda; James, John T

    2013-10-01

    Humans will again set foot on the moon. The moon is covered by a layer of fine dust, which can pose a respiratory hazard. We investigated the pulmonary toxicity of lunar dust in rats exposed to 0, 2.1, 6.8, 20.8 and 60.6 mg/m(3) of respirable-size lunar dust for 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week); the aerosols in the nose-only exposure chambers were generated from a jet-mill ground preparation of a lunar soil collected during the Apollo 14 mission. After 4 weeks of exposure to air or lunar dust, groups of five rats were euthanized 1 day, 1 week, 4 weeks or 13 weeks after the last exposure for assessment of pulmonary toxicity. Biomarkers of toxicity assessed in bronchoalveolar fluids showed concentration-dependent changes; biomarkers that showed treatment effects were total cell and neutrophil counts, total protein concentrations and cellular enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, glutamyl transferase and aspartate transaminase). No statistically significant differences in these biomarkers were detected between rats exposed to air and those exposed to the two low concentrations of lunar dust. Dose-dependent histopathology, including inflammation, septal thickening, fibrosis and granulomas, in the lung was observed at the two higher exposure concentrations. No lesions were detected in rats exposed to ≤6.8 mg/m(3). This 4-week exposure study in rats showed that 6.8 mg/m(3) was the highest no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL). These results will be useful for assessing the health risk to humans of exposure to lunar dust, establishing human exposure limits and guiding the design of dust mitigation systems in lunar landers or habitats.

  1. Lunar Magma Ocean Crystallization: Constraints from Fractional Crystallization Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    The currently accepted paradigm of lunar formation is that of accretion from the ejecta of a giant impact, followed by crystallization of a global scale magma ocean. This model accounts for the formation of the anorthosite highlands crust, which is globally distributed and old, and the formation of the younger mare basalts which are derived from a source region that has experienced plagioclase extraction. Several attempts at modelling the crystallization of such a lunar magma ocean (LMO) have been made, but our ever-increasing knowledge of the lunar samples and surface have raised as many questions as these models have answered. Geodynamic models of lunar accretion suggest that shortly following accretion the bulk of the lunar mass was hot, likely at least above the solidus]. Models of LMO crystallization that assume a deep magma ocean are therefore geodynamically favorable, but they have been difficult to reconcile with a thick plagioclase-rich crust. A refractory element enriched bulk composition, a shallow magma ocean, or a combination of the two have been suggested as a way to produce enough plagioclase to account for the assumed thickness of the crust. Recently however, geophysical data from the GRAIL mission have indicated that the lunar anorthositic crust is not as thick as was initially estimated, which allows for both a deeper magma ocean and a bulk composition more similar to the terrestrial upper mantle. We report on experimental simulations of the fractional crystallization of a deep (approximately 100km) LMO with a terrestrial upper mantle-like (LPUM) bulk composition. Our experimental results will help to define the composition of the lunar crust and mantle cumulates, and allow us to consider important questions such as source regions of the mare basalts and Mg-suite, the role of mantle overturn after magma ocean crystallization and the nature of KREEP

  2. International Lunar Decade Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, VZ; Crisafulli, J.; Dunlop, D.; Foing, B.

    2017-09-01

    The International Lunar Decade is a global decadal event designed to provide a framework for strategically directed international cooperation for permanent return to the Moon. To be launched July 20, 2019, the 50th anniversary of the giant leap for mankind marked by Neil Armstrong's first step on the Moon, the ILD launch will include events around the world to celebrate space exploration, science, and the expansion of humanity into the Solar System. The ILD framework links lunar exploration and space sciences with the development of enabling technologies, infrastructure, means of financing, laws and policies aimed at lowering the costs and risks of venturing into space. Dramatically reduced costs will broaden the range of opportunities available in space and widen access to space for more states, companies and people worldwide. The ILD is intended to bring about the efflorescence of commercial business based on space resources from the Moon, asteroids, comets and other bodies in the Solar System.

  3. Lunar Core and Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2,3,4] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening, which in the past has been marginal but improving [3,4,5], now seems significant. Direct detection of the core moment has not yet been achieved.

  4. The Lunar Sample Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of the data obtained from 40 years of study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic petrographic, chemical and age information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. The LSC can be found online using Google. The initial allocation of lunar samples was done sparingly, because it was realized that scientific techniques would improve over the years and new questions would be formulated. The LSC is important because it enables scientists to select samples within the context of the work that has already been done and facilitates better review of proposed allocations. It also provides back up material for public displays, captures information found only in abstracts, grey literature and curatorial databases and serves as a ready access to the now-vast scientific literature.

  5. Lunar concrete for construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingford, Hatice S.; Keller, M. Dean

    1988-01-01

    Feasibility of using concrete for lunar-base construction has been discussed recently without relevant data for the effects of vacuum on concrete. Experimental studies performed earlier at Los Alamos have shown that concrete is stable in vacuum with no deterioration of its quality as measured by the compressive strength. Various considerations of using concrete successfully on the moon are provided in this paper along with specific conclusions from the existing data base.

  6. Creating Methane from Plastics: Recycling at a Lunar Outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captain, Janine; Santiago, Eddie; Wheeler, Ray; Strayer, RIchard; Garland, Jay; Parrish, Clyde

    2010-01-01

    The high cost of re-supply from Earth demands resources to be utilized to the fullest extent for exploration missions. Recycling is a key technology that maximizes the available resources by converting waste products into useful commodities. One example of this is to convert crew member waste such as plastic packaging, food scraps, and human waste, into fuel. The ability to refuel on the lunar surface would reduce the vehicle mass during launch and provide excess payload capability. The goal of this project is to determine the feasibility of recycling waste into methane on the lunar outpost by performing engineering assessments and lab demonstrations of the technology. The first goal of the project was to determine how recycling could influence lunar exploration. Table I shows an estimation of the typical dried waste stream generated each day for a crew of four. Packaging waste accounts for nearly 86% of the dry waste stream and is a significant source of carbon on the lunar surface. This is important because methane (CH4) can be used as fuel and no other source of carbon is available on the lunar surface. With the initial assessment indicating there is sufficient resources in the waste stream to provide refueling capabilities, the project was designed to examine the conversion of plastics into methane.

  7. Regolith Formation Rates and Evolution from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, P. O.; Ghent, R. R.; Bandfield, J. L.; Vasavada, A. R.; Williams, J. P.; Siegler, M. A.; Lucey, P. G.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Elder, C. M.; Paige, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Fragmentation and overturn of lunar surface materials produces a layer of regolith, which increases in thickness through time. Experiments on the lunar surface during the Apollo era, combined with remote sensing, found that the upper 10's of cm of regolith exhibit a rapid increase in density and thermal conductivity with depth. This is interpreted to be the signature of impact gardening, which operates most rapidly in the uppermost layers. Gravity data from the GRAIL mission showed that impacts have also extensively fractured the deeper crust. The breakdown and mixing of crustal materials is therefore a central process to lunar evolution and must be understood in order to interpret compositional information from remote sensing and sample analysis. Recently, thermal infrared data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner radiometer were used to provide the first remote observational constraints on the rate of ejecta breakdown around craters L., Campbell, B. A., Allen, C. C., Carter, L. M., & Paige, D. A. (2014). Constraints on the recent rate of lunar ejecta breakdown and implications for crater ages. Geology, 42(12), 1059-1062.

  8. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, K; Iijima, Y; Sakatani, N; Otake, H; Tanaka, S

    2014-03-01

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime -200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a "regolith mound". Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system.

  9. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, K.; Iijima, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Sakatani, N.; Otake, H.

    2014-01-01

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime −200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a “regolith mound”. Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system

  10. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, K., E-mail: ogawa@astrobio.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Complexity Science and Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Iijima, Y.; Tanaka, S. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Sakatani, N. [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa (Japan); Otake, H. [JAXA Space Exploration Center, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime −200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a “regolith mound”. Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system.

  11. The lunar moho and the internal structure of the Moon: A geophysical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, A.; Pommier, A.; Neumann, G. A.

    2013-01-01

    gravity and topography data that have and continue to be collected with a series of recent lunar orbiter missions. Many of these also carry onboard multi-spectral imaging equipment that is able to map out major-element concentration and surface mineralogy to high precision. These results coupled...... that the Earth and Moon are compositionally distinct. Continued analysis of ground-based laser ranging data and recent discovery of possible core reflected phases in the Apollo lunar seismic data strengthens the case for a small dense lunar core with a radius of

  12. Spacecraft Conceptual Design Compared to the Apollo Lunar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C.; Bowie, J.; Rust, R.; Lenius, J.; Anderson, M.; Connolly, J.

    2011-01-01

    Future human exploration of the Moon will require an optimized spacecraft design with each sub-system achieving the required minimum capability and maintaining high reliability. The objective of this study was to trade capability with reliability and minimize mass for the lunar lander spacecraft. The NASA parametric concept for a 3-person vehicle to the lunar surface with a 30% mass margin totaled was considerably heavier than the Apollo 15 Lunar Module "as flown" mass of 16.4 metric tons. The additional mass was attributed to mission requirements and system design choices that were made to meet the realities of modern spaceflight. The parametric tool used to size the current concept, Envision, accounts for primary and secondary mass requirements. For example, adding an astronaut increases the mass requirements for suits, water, food, oxygen, as well as, the increase in volume. The environmental control sub-systems becomes heavier with the increased requirements and more structure was needed to support the additional mass. There was also an increase in propellant usage. For comparison, an "Apollo-like" vehicle was created by removing these additional requirements. Utilizing the Envision parametric mass calculation tool and a quantitative reliability estimation tool designed by Valador Inc., it was determined that with today?s current technology a Lunar Module (LM) with Apollo capability could be built with less mass and similar reliability. The reliability of this new lander was compared to Apollo Lunar Module utilizing the same methodology, adjusting for mission timeline changes as well as component differences. Interestingly, the parametric concept's overall estimated risk for loss of mission (LOM) and loss of crew (LOC) did not significantly improve when compared to Apollo.

  13. Lunar sample studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Lunar samples discussed and the nature of their analyses are: (1) an Apollo 15 breccia which is thoroughly analyzed as to the nature of the mature regolith from which it derived and the time and nature of the lithification process, (2) two Apollo 11 and one Apollo 12 basalts analyzed in terms of chemistry, Cross-Iddings-Pirsson-Washington norms, mineralogy, and petrography, (3) eight Apollo 17 mare basalts, also analyzed in terms of chemistry, Cross-Iddings-Pirsson-Washington norms, mineralogy, and petrography. The first seven are shown to be chemically similar although of two main textural groups; the eighth is seen to be distinct in both chemistry and mineralogy, (4) a troctolitic clast from a Fra Mauro breccia, analyzed and contrasted with other high-temperature lunar mineral assemblages. Two basaltic clasts from the same breccia are shown to have affinities with rock 14053, and (5) the uranium-thorium-lead systematics of three Apollo 16 samples are determined; serious terrestrial-lead contamination of the first two samples is attributed to bandsaw cutting in the lunar curatorial facility

  14. Modeling lunar volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housley, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    Simple physical arguments are used to show that basaltic volcanos on different planetary bodies would fountain to the same height if the mole fraction of gas in the magma scaled with the acceleration of gravity. It is suggested that the actual eruption velocities and fountain heights are controlled by the velocities of sound in the two phase gas/liquid flows. These velocities are in turn determined by the gas contents in the magma. Predicted characteristics of Hawaiian volcanos are in excellent accord with observations. Assuming that the only gas in lunar volcano is the CO which would be produced if the observed Fe metal in lunar basalts resulted from graphite reduction, lunar volcanos would fountain vigorously, but not as spectacularly as their terrestrial counterparts. The volatile trace metals, halogens, and sulfur released would be transported over the entire moon by the transient atmosphere. Orange and black glass type pyroclastic materials would be transported in sufficient amounts to produce the observed dark mantle deposits.

  15. The Apollo lunar samples collection analysis and results

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the specific mission planning for lunar sample collection, the equipment used, and the analysis and findings concerning the samples at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Texas. Anthony Young documents the collection of Apollo samples for the first time for readers of all backgrounds, and includes interviews with many of those involved in planning and analyzing the samples. NASA contracted with the U.S. Geologic Survey to perform classroom and field training of the Apollo astronauts. NASA’s Geology Group within the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, helped to establish the goals of sample collection, as well as the design of sample collection tools, bags, and storage containers. In this book, detailed descriptions are given on the design of the lunar sampling tools, the Modular Experiment Transporter used on Apollo 14, and the specific areas of the Lunar Rover vehicle used for the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions, which carried the sampling tools, bags, and other related equipment ...

  16. Lunar Impact Basins: Stratigraphy, Sequence and Ages from Superposed Impact Crater Populations Measured from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Kadish, S. J.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Impact basin formation is a fundamental process in the evolution of the Moon and records the history of impactors in the early solar system. In order to assess the stratigraphy, sequence, and ages of impact basins and the impactor population as a function of time, we have used topography from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to measure the superposed impact crater size-frequency distributions for 30 lunar basins (D = 300 km). These data generally support the widely used Wilhelms sequence of lunar basins, although we find significantly higher densities of superposed craters on many lunar basins than derived by Wilhelms (50% higher densities). Our data also provide new insight into the timing of the transition between distinct crater populations characteristic of ancient and young lunar terrains. The transition from a lunar impact flux dominated by Population 1 to Population 2 occurred before the mid-Nectarian. This is before the end of the period of rapid cratering, and potentially before the end of the hypothesized Late Heavy Bombardment. LOLA-derived crater densities also suggest that many Pre-Nectarian basins, such as South Pole-Aitken, have been cratered to saturation equilibrium. Finally, both crater counts and stratigraphic observations based on LOLA data are applicable to specific basin stratigraphic problems of interest; for example, using these data, we suggest that Serenitatis is older than Nectaris, and Humboldtianum is younger than Crisium. Sample return missions to specific basins can anchor these measurements to a Pre-Imbrian absolute chronology.

  17. Options for Staging Orbits in Cis-Lunar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Roland; Whitley, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    NASA has been studying options to conduct missions beyond Low Earth Orbit, but within the Earth-Moon system, in preparation for deep space exploration including human missions to Mars. Referred to as the Proving Ground, this arena of exploration activities will enable the development of human spaceflight systems and operations to satisfy future exploration objectives beyond the cis-lunar environment. One option being considered includes the deployment of a habitable element or elements, which could be used as a central location for aggregation of supplies and resources for human missions in cis-lunar space and beyond. Characterizing candidate orbit locations for this asset and the impacts on system design and mission operations is important in the overall assessment of the options being considered. The orbits described in this paper were initially selected by taking advantage of previous studies conducted by NASA and the work of other authors. In this paper orbits are assessed for their relative attractiveness based on various factors. A set of constraints related to the capability of the combined Orion and SLS system to deliver humans and cargo to and from the orbit are evaluated. Deployed assets intended to spend multiple years in the Proving Ground would ideally require minimal station keeping costs to reduce the mass budget allocated to this function. Additional mission design drivers include eclipse frequency, potential for uninterrupted communication with deployed assets, thermal, attitude control, communications, and other operational implications. Also the ability to support potential lunar surface activities and excursion missions beyond Earth-Moon space is considered. The results of the characterization and evaluation of the selected orbits indicate a Near Rectilinear Orbit (NRO) is an attractive candidate as an aggregation point or staging location for operations. In this paper, the NRO is further described in terms which balance a number of key

  18. Lunar Limb Observatory: An Incremental Plan for the Utilization, Exploration, and Settlement of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Paul. D., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive incremental program, Lunar Limb Observatory (LLO), for a return to the Moon, beginning with robotic missions and ending with a permanent lunar settlement. Several recent technological developments make such a program both affordable and scientifically valuable: robotic telescopes, the Internet, light-weight telescopes, shared- autonomy/predictive graphics telerobotic devices, and optical interferometry systems. Reasons for focussing new NASA programs on the Moon include public interest, Moon-based astronomy, renewed lunar exploration, lunar resources (especially helium-3), technological stimulus, accessibility of the Moon (compared to any planet), and dispersal of the human species to counter predictable natural catastrophes, asteroidal or cometary impacts in particular. The proposed Lunar Limb Observatory would be located in the crater Riccioli, with auxiliary robotic telescopes in M. Smythii and at the North and South Poles. The first phase of the program, after site certification, would be a series of 5 Delta-launched telerobotic missions to Riccioli (or Grimaldi if Riccioli proves unsuitable), emplacing robotic telescopes and carrying out surface exploration. The next phase would be 7 Delta-launched telerobotic missions to M. Smythii (2 missions), the South Pole (3 missions), and the North Pole (2 missions), emplacing robotic telescopes to provide continuous all-sky coverage. Lunar base establishment would begin with two unmanned Shuttle/Fitan-Centaur missions to Riccioli, for shelter emplacement, followed by the first manned return, also using the Shuttle/Fitan-Centaur mode. The main LLO at Riccioli would then be permanently or periodically inhabited, for surface exploration, telerobotic rover and telescope operation and maintenance, and support of Earth-based student projects. The LLO would evolve into a permanent human settlement, serving, among other functions, as a test area and staging base for the exploration

  19. Experimental reduction of simulated lunar glass by carbon and hydrogen and implications for lunar base oxygen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mckay, D.S.; Morris, R.V.; Jurewicz, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The most abundant element in lunar rocks and soils is oxygen which makes up approximately 45 percent by weight of the typical lunar samples returned during the Apollo missions. This oxygen is not present as a gas but is tightly bound to other elements in mineral or glass. When people return to the Moon to explore and live, the extraction of this oxygen at a lunar outpost may be a major goal during the early years of operation. Among the most studied processes for oxygen extraction is the reduction of ilmenite by hydrogen gas to form metallic iron, titanium oxide, and oxygen. A related process is proposed which overcomes some of the disadvantages of ilmenite reduction. It is proposed that oxygen can be extracted by direct reduction of native lunar pyroclactic glass using either carbon, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen. In order to evaluate the feasibility of this proposed process a series of experiments on synthetic lunar glass are presented. The results and a discussion of the experiments are presented

  20. Understanding the origin and evolution of water in the Moon through lunar sample studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Mahesh; Tartèse, Romain; Barnes, Jessica J

    2014-09-13

    A paradigm shift has recently occurred in our knowledge and understanding of water in the lunar interior. This has transpired principally through continued analysis of returned lunar samples using modern analytical instrumentation. While these recent studies have undoubtedly measured indigenous water in lunar samples they have also highlighted our current limitations and some future challenges that need to be overcome in order to fully understand the origin, distribution and evolution of water in the lunar interior. Another exciting recent development in the field of lunar science has been the unambiguous detection of water or water ice on the surface of the Moon through instruments flown on a number of orbiting spacecraft missions. Considered together, sample-based studies and those from orbit strongly suggest that the Moon is not an anhydrous planetary body, as previously believed. New observations and measurements support the possibility of a wet lunar interior and the presence of distinct reservoirs of water on the lunar surface. Furthermore, an approach combining measurements of water abundance in lunar samples and its hydrogen isotopic composition has proved to be of vital importance to fingerprint and elucidate processes and source(s) involved in giving rise to the lunar water inventory. A number of sources are likely to have contributed to the water inventory of the Moon ranging from primordial water to meteorite-derived water ice through to the water formed during the reaction of solar wind hydrogen with the lunar soil. Perhaps two of the most striking findings from these recent studies are the revelation that at least some portions of the lunar interior are as water-rich as some Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt source regions on Earth and that the water in the Earth and the Moon probably share a common origin. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Gas mission; Mission gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This preliminary report analyses the desirable evolutions of gas transport tariffing and examines some questions relative to the opening of competition on the French gas market. The report is made of two documents: a synthesis of the previous report with some recommendations about the tariffing of gas transport, about the modalities of network access to third parties, and about the dissociation between transport and trade book-keeping activities. The second document is the progress report about the opening of the French gas market. The first part presents the European problem of competition in the gas supply and its consequences on the opening and operation of the French gas market. The second part presents some partial syntheses about each topic of the mission letter of the Ministry of Economics, Finances and Industry: future evolution of network access tariffs, critical analysis of contractual documents for gas transport and delivery, examination of auxiliary services linked with the access to the network (modulation, balancing, conversion), consideration about the processing of network congestions and denied accesses, analysis of the metering dissociation between the integrated activities of gas operators. Some documents are attached in appendixes: the mission letter from July 9, 2001, the detailed analysis of the new temporary tariffs of GdF and CFM, the offer of methane terminals access to third parties, the compatibility of a nodal tariffing with the presence of three transport operators (GdF, CFM and GSO), the contract-type for GdF supply, and the contract-type for GdF connection. (J.S.)

  2. Lunar imaging and ionospheric calibration for the Lunar Cherenkov technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McFadden, R.; Scholten, O.; Mevius, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Cherenkov technique is a promising method for UHE neutrino and cosmic ray detection which aims to detect nanosecond radio pulses produced during particle interactions in the Lunar regolith. For low frequency experiments, such as NuMoon, the frequency dependent dispersive effect of the

  3. Results of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) Gap Review: Specific Action Team (SAT), Examination of Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) for Human Exploration of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, C. K.; Eppler, D.; Farrell, W.; Gruener, J.; Lawrence, S.; Pellis, N.; Spudis, P. D.; Stopar, J.; Zeigler, R.; Neal, C; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) was tasked by the Human Exploration Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) to establish a Specific Action Team (SAT) to review lunar Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) within the context of new lunar data and some specific human mission scenarios. Within this review, the SAT was to identify the SKGs that have been fully or partially retired, identify new SKGs resulting from new data and observations, and review quantitative descriptions of measurements that are required to fill knowledge gaps, the fidelity of the measurements needed, and if relevant, provide examples of existing instruments or potential missions capable of filling the SKGs.

  4. Stennis engineer part of LCROSS moon mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Karma Snyder, a project manager at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, was a senior design engineer on the RL10 liquid rocket engine that powered the Centaur, the upper stage of the rocket used in NASA's Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission in October 2009. Part of the LCROSS mission was to search for water on the moon by striking the lunar surface with a rocket stage, creating a plume of debris that could be analyzed for water ice and vapor. Snyder's work on the RL10 took place from 1995 to 2001 when she was a senior design engineer with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne. Years later, she sees the project as one of her biggest accomplishments in light of the LCROSS mission. 'It's wonderful to see it come into full service,' she said. 'As one of my co-workers said, the original dream was to get that engine to the moon, and we're finally realizing that dream.'

  5. Interplanetary and lunar surface SP-100 nuclear power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josloff, A.T.; Shepard, N.F.; Smith, M.; Stephen, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes how the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) can be tailored to meet the specific requirements for a lunar surface power system to meet the needs of the consolidation and utilization phases outlined in the 90-day NASA SEI study report. This same basic power system can also be configured to obtain the low specific masses needed to enable robotic interplanetary science missions employing Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). In both cases it is shown that the SP-100 SRPS can meet the specific requirements. For interplanetary NEP missions, performance upgrades currently being developed in the area of light weight radiators and improved thermoelectric material are assumed to be technology ready in the year 2000 time frame. For lunar applications, some system rearrangement and enclosure of critical components are necessary modifications to the present baseline design

  6. Magmatic intrusions in the lunar crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaut, C.; Thorey, C.

    2015-10-01

    The lunar highlands are very old, with ages covering a timespan between 4.5 to 4.2 Gyr, and probably formed by flotation of light plagioclase minerals on top of the lunar magma ocean. The lunar crust provides thus an invaluable evidence of the geological and magmatic processes occurring in the first times of the terrestrial planets history. According to the last estimates from the GRAIL mission, the lunar primary crust is particularly light and relatively thick [1] This low-density crust acted as a barrier for the dense primary mantle melts. This is particularly evident in the fact that subsequent mare basalts erupted primarily within large impact basin: at least part of the crust must have been removed for the magma to reach the surface. However, the trajectory of the magma from the mantle to the surface is unknown. Using a model of magma emplacement below an elastic overlying layer with a flexural wavelength Λ, we characterize the surface deformations induced by the presence of shallow magmatic intrusions. We demonstrate that, depending on its size, the intrusion can show two different shapes: a bell shape when its radius is smaller than 4 times Λ or a flat top with small bended edges if its radius is larger than 4 times Λ[2]. These characteristic shapes for the intrusion result in characteristic deformations at the surface that also depend on the topography of the layer overlying the intrusion [3].Using this model we provide evidence of the presence of intrusions within the crust of the Moon as surface deformations in the form of low-slope lunar domes and floor-fractured craters. All these geological features have morphologies consistent with models of magma spreading at depth and deforming an overlying elastic layer. Further more,at floor-fractured craters, the deformation is contained within the crater interior, suggesting that the overpressure at the origin of magma ascent and intrusion was less than the pressure due to the weight of the crust removed by

  7. LP MOON MERGED TELEMETRY DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Prospector merged telemetry data set is a result of comparing the two Lunar Prospector telemetry data streams and selecting one of them. The Lunar...

  8. Chandrayaan-2: India's First Soft-landing Mission to Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylswamy, Annadurai; Krishnan, A.; Alex, T. K.; Rama Murali, G. K.

    2012-07-01

    The first Indian planetary mission to moon, Chandrayaan-1, launched on 22nd October, 2008 with a suite of Indian and International payloads on board, collected very significant data over its mission duration of close to one year. Important new findings from this mission include, discovery of hydroxyl and water molecule in sunlit lunar surface region around the poles, exposure of large anorthositic blocks confirming the global lunar magma hypothesis, signature of sub surface ice layers in permanently shadowed regions near the lunar north pole, evidence for a new refractory rock type, mapping of reflected lunar neutral atoms and identification of mini-magnetosphere, possible signature of water molecule in lunar exosphere, preserved lava tube that may provide site for future human habitation and radiation dose en-route and around the moon. Chandrayaan-2:, The success of Chandrayaan-1 orbiter mission provided impetus to implement the second approved Indian mission to moon, Chandrayaan-2, with an Orbiter-Lander-Rover configuration. The enhanced capabilities will enable addressing some of the questions raised by the results obtained from the Chandrayaan-1 and other recent lunar missions and also to enhance our understanding of origin and evolution of the moon. The orbiter that will carry payloads to further probe the morphological, mineralogical and chemical properties of the lunar surface material through remote sensing observations in X-ray, visible, infra-red and microwave regions. The Lander-Rover system will enable in-depth studies of a specific lunar location and probe various physical properties of the moon. The Chandrayaan-2 mission will be collaboration between Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and the Federal Space Agency of Russia. ISRO will be responsible for the Launch Vehicle, the Orbiter and the Rover while the Lander will be provided by Russia. Initial work to realize the different elements of the mission is currently in progress in both countries

  9. Subsurface structures of buried features in the lunar Procellarum region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenrui; Heki, Kosuke

    2017-07-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission unraveled numbers of features showing strong gravity anomalies without prominent topographic signatures in the lunar Procellarum region. These features, located in different geologic units, are considered to have complex subsurface structures reflecting different evolution processes. By using the GRAIL level-1 data, we estimated the free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies in several selected regions including such intriguing features. With the three-dimensional inversion technique, we recovered subsurface density structures in these regions.

  10. The Chang'e 3 Mission Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlai; Liu, Jianjun; Ren, Xin; Zuo, Wei; Tan, Xu; Wen, Weibin; Li, Han; Mu, Lingli; Su, Yan; Zhang, Hongbo; Yan, Jun; Ouyang, Ziyuan

    2015-07-01

    The Chang'e 3 (CE-3) mission was implemented as the first lander/rover mission of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP). After its successful launch at 01:30 local time on December 2, 2013, CE-3 was inserted into an eccentric polar lunar orbit on December 6, and landed to the east of a 430 m crater in northwestern Mare Imbrium (19.51°W, 44.12°N) at 21:11 on December 14, 2013. The Yutu rover separated from the lander at 04:35, December 15, and traversed for a total of 0.114 km. Acquisition of science data began during the descent of the lander and will continue for 12 months during the nominal mission. The CE-3 lander and rover each carry four science instruments. Instruments on the lander are: Landing Camera (LCAM), Terrain Camera (TCAM), Extreme Ultraviolet Camera (EUVC), and Moon-based Ultraviolet Telescope (MUVT). The four instruments on the rover are: Panoramic Camera (PCAM), VIS-NIR Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS), Active Particle induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS), and Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR). The science objectives of the CE-3 mission include: (1) investigation of the morphological features and geological structures of and near the landing area; (2) integrated in-situ analysis of mineral and chemical composition of and near the landing area; and (3) exploration of the terrestrial-lunar space environment and lunar-based astronomical observations. This paper describes the CE-3 objectives and measurements that address the science objectives outlined by the Comprehensive Demonstration Report of Phase II of CLEP. The CE-3 team has archived the initial science data, and we describe data accessibility by the science community.

  11. REE Partitioning in Lunar Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Lapen, T. J.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are an extremely useful tool in modeling lunar magmatic processes. Here we present the first experimentally derived plagioclase/melt partition coefficients in lunar compositions covering the entire suite of REE. Positive europium anomalies are ubiquitous in the plagioclase-rich rocks of the lunar highlands, and complementary negative Eu anomalies are found in most lunar basalts. These features are taken as evidence of a large-scale differentiation event, with crystallization of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) resulting in a plagioclase flotation crust and a mafic lunar interior from which mare basalts were subsequently derived. However, the extent of the Eu anomaly in lunar rocks is variable. Fagan and Neal [1] reported highly anorthitic plagioclase grains in lunar impact melt rock 60635,19 that displayed negative Eu anomalies as well as the more usual positive anomalies. Indeed some grains in the sample are reported to display both positive and negative anomalies. Judging from cathodoluminescence images, these anomalies do not appear to be associated with crystal overgrowths or zones.

  12. Chronology of early lunar crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasch, E.J.; Nyquist, L.E.; Ryder, G.

    1988-01-01

    The chronology of lunar rocks is summarized. The oldest pristine (i.e., lacking meteoritic contamination of admixed components) lunar rock, recently dated with Sm-Nd by Lugmair, is a ferroan anorthosite, with an age of 4.44 + 0.02 Ga. Ages of Mg-suite rocks (4.1 to 4.5 Ga) have large uncertainties, so that age differences between lunar plutonic rock suites cannot yet be resolved. Most mare basalts crystallized between 3.1 and 3.9 Ga. The vast bulk of the lunar crust, therefore, formed before the oldest preserved terrestrial rocks. If the Moon accreted at 4.56 Ga, then 120 Ma may have elapsed before lunar crust was formed

  13. Lunar Regolith Particle Shape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekhaefer, Rebecca; Hardy, Sandra; Rickman, Douglas; Edmunson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Future engineering of structures and equipment on the lunar surface requires significant understanding of particle characteristics of the lunar regolith. Nearly all sediment characteristics are influenced by particle shape; therefore a method of quantifying particle shape is useful both in lunar and terrestrial applications. We have created a method to quantify particle shape, specifically for lunar regolith, using image processing. Photomicrographs of thin sections of lunar core material were obtained under reflected light. Three photomicrographs were analyzed using ImageJ and MATLAB. From the image analysis measurements for area, perimeter, Feret diameter, orthogonal Feret diameter, Heywood factor, aspect ratio, sieve diameter, and sieve number were recorded. Probability distribution functions were created from the measurements of Heywood factor and aspect ratio.

  14. Lunar Flight Study Series: Volume 8. Earth-Moon Transit Studies Based on Ephemeris Data and Using Best Available Computer Program. Part 3: Analysis of Some Lunar Landing Site Problems Utilizing Two Fundamental Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, W. B.; Hooper, H. L.

    1963-01-01

    This report presents two fundamental properties of lunar trajectories and makes use of these properties to solve various lunar landing site problems. Not only are various problems treated and solved but the properties and methods are established for use in the solution of other problems. This report presents an analysis of lunar landing site problems utilizing the direct mission mode as well as the orbital mission mode. A particular landing site is then specified and different flight profiles are analyzed for getting an exploration vehicle to that landing site. Rendezvous compatible lunar orbits for various stay-times at the landing site are treated. Launch opportunities are discussed for establishing rendezvous compatible lunar orbits without powered plane changes. Then, the minimum required plane changes for rendezvous in the lunar orbit are discussed for launching from earth on any day. On days that afford rendezvous compatible opportunities, there are no powered plane change requirements in the operations from launch at AMR through the rendezvous in lunar orbit, after the stay at the lunar site.

  15. Ex Luna Scientia: The Lunar Occultation Explorer (LOX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar Occultation Explorer (LOX) is a next-generation mission concept that provides new capabilities for time-domain astrophysics and established the Moon as a platform for nuclear astrophysics. Performance requirements are driven by Type-Ia supernova (SNeIa) science goals that seek to revel details of these profoundly radioactive objects, including their diversity. Primary science objectives include, but are not limited to, probing the fundamental thermonuclear physics processes, performing a census of progenitors and their explosion mechanisms, and evaluating the environmental conditions and intrinsic systematics of these enigmatic objects. LOX provides new capabilities for all-sky, continuous monitoring in the MeV regime (0.1-10 MeV) by leveraging the Lunar Occultation Technique (LOT). Key benefits of the LOX/LOT approach include maximizing the ratio of sensitive-to-total deployed mass, low implementation risk, and demonstrated operational simplicity that leverages extensive experience with planetary orbital geochemistry investigations; LOX also enables long-term monitoring of MeV gamma-ray sources, a critical capability for SNeIa science. Proof-of-principle efforts validated all aspects of the mission using previously deployed lunar science assets, and led to the first high-energy gamma-ray source detected at the Moon. LOX mission performance, development progress, and expectations for science investigations will be presented.

  16. Trajectory optimization for lunar soft landing with complex constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Huiping; Ma, Lin; Wang, Kexin; Shao, Zhijiang; Song, Zhengyu

    2017-11-01

    A unified trajectory optimization framework with initialization strategies is proposed in this paper for lunar soft landing for various missions with specific requirements. Two main missions of interest are Apollo-like Landing from low lunar orbit and Vertical Takeoff Vertical Landing (a promising mobility method) on the lunar surface. The trajectory optimization is characterized by difficulties arising from discontinuous thrust, multi-phase connections, jump of attitude angle, and obstacles avoidance. Here R-function is applied to deal with the discontinuities of thrust, checkpoint constraints are introduced to connect multiple landing phases, attitude angular rate is designed to get rid of radical changes, and safeguards are imposed to avoid collision with obstacles. The resulting dynamic problems are generally with complex constraints. The unified framework based on Gauss Pseudospectral Method (GPM) and Nonlinear Programming (NLP) solver are designed to solve the problems efficiently. Advanced initialization strategies are developed to enhance both the convergence and computation efficiency. Numerical results demonstrate the adaptability of the framework for various landing missions, and the performance of successful solution of difficult dynamic problems.

  17. Lunar Circular Structure Classification from Chang 'e 2 High Resolution Lunar Images with Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X. G.; Liu, J. J.; Zuo, W.; Chen, W. L.; Liu, Y. X.

    2018-04-01

    Circular structures are widely distributed around the lunar surface. The most typical of them could be lunar impact crater, lunar dome, et.al. In this approach, we are trying to use the Convolutional Neural Network to classify the lunar circular structures from the lunar images.

  18. Measurements of Photoelectric Yield and Physical Properties of Individual Lunar Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; LeClair, A.; West, F. A.; Taylor, L.; Hoover, R.

    2005-01-01

    Micron size dust grains levitated and transported on the lunar surface constitute a major problem for the robotic and human habitat missions for the Moon. It is well known since the Apollo missions that the lunar surface is covered with a thick layer of micron/sub-micron size dust grains. Transient dust clouds over the lunar horizon were observed by experiments during the Apollo 17 mission. Theoretical models suggest that the dust grains on the lunar surface are charged by the solar UV radiation as well as the solar wind. Even without any physical activity, the dust grains are levitated by electrostatic fields and transported away from the surface in the near vacuum environment of the Moon. The current dust charging and the levitation models, however, do not fully explain the observed phenomena. Since the abundance of dust on the Moon's surface with its observed adhesive characteristics is believed to have a severe impact on the human habitat and the lifetime and operations of a variety of equipment, it is necessary to investigate the phenomena and the charging properties of the lunar dust in order to develop appropriate mitigating strategies. We will present results of some recent laboratory experiments on individual micro/sub-micron size dust grains levitated in electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. The experiments involve photoelectric emission measurements of individual micron size lunar dust grains illuminated with UV radiation in the 120-160 nm wavelength range. The photoelectric yields are required to determine the charging properties of lunar dust illuminated by solar UV radiation. We will present some recent results of laboratory measurement of the photoelectric yields and the physical properties of individual micron size dust grains from the Apollo and Luna-24 sample returns as well as the JSC-1 lunar simulants.

  19. NASA Lunar Impact Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Robert M.; Moser, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    The MSFC lunar impact monitoring program began in 2006 in support of environment definition for the Constellation (return to Moon) program. Work continued by the Meteoroid Environment Office after Constellation cancellation. Over 330 impacts have been recorded. A paper published in Icarus reported on the first 5 years of observations and 126 calibrated flashes. Icarus: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103514002243; ArXiv: http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.6458 A NASA Technical Memorandum on flash locations is in press

  20. Lunar architecture and urbanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

  1. [The mission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Moreno, J; Blanch Mon, A

    2000-01-01

    After having made a historical review of the concept of mission statement, of evaluating its importance (See Part I), of describing the bases to create a mission statement from a strategic perspective and of analyzing the advantages of this concept, probably more important as a business policy (See Parts I and II), the authors proceed to analyze the mission statement in health organizations. Due to the fact that a mission statement is lacking in the majority of health organizations, the strategy of health organizations are not exactly favored; as a consequence, neither are its competitive advantage nor the development of its essential competencies. After presenting a series of mission statements corresponding to Anglo-Saxon health organizations, the authors highlight two mission statements corresponding to our social context. The article finishes by suggesting an adequate sequence for developing a mission statement in those health organizations having a strategic sense.

  2. Astronaut John Young during final suiting operations for Apollo 10 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    A technician attaches hose from test stand to spacesuit of Astronaut John W. Young, Apollo 10 command module pilot, during final suiting operations for the Apollo 10 lunar orbit mission. Another technician makes adjustment behind Young.

  3. Candidate Mission from Planet Earth control and data delivery system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Phillip; Weinstein, Frank C.; Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Todd, Jacqueline

    1992-01-01

    Using a structured, experienced-based approach, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has assessed the generic functional requirements for a lunar mission control and data delivery (CDD) system. This analysis was based on lunar mission requirements outlined in GSFC-developed user traffic models. The CDD system will facilitate data transportation among user elements, element operations, and user teams by providing functions such as data management, fault isolation, fault correction, and link acquisition. The CDD system for the lunar missions must not only satisfy lunar requirements but also facilitate and provide early development of data system technologies for Mars. Reuse and evolution of existing data systems can help to maximize system reliability and minimize cost. This paper presents a set of existing and currently planned NASA data systems that provide the basic functionality. Reuse of such systems can have an impact on mission design and significantly reduce CDD and other system development costs.

  4. Hydrogen Distribution in the Lunar Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Bakhtin, B. N.; Bodnarik, J. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Harshmann, K.; Fedosov, F.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present a method of conversion of the lunar neutron counting rate measured by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) instrument collimated neutron detectors, to water equivalent hydrogen (WEH) in the top approximately 1 m layer of lunar regolith. Polar maps of the Moon’s inferred hydrogen abundance are presented and discussed.

  5. Active Solid State Dosimetry for Lunar EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Chen, Liang-Yu.

    2006-01-01

    The primary threat to astronauts from space radiation is high-energy charged particles, such as electrons, protons, alpha and heavier particles, originating from galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle events (SPEs) and trapped radiation belts in Earth orbit. There is also the added threat of secondary neutrons generated as the space radiation interacts with atmosphere, soil and structural materials.[1] For Lunar exploration missions, the habitats and transfer vehicles are expected to provide shielding from standard background radiation. Unfortunately, the Lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suit is not expected to afford such shielding. Astronauts need to be aware of potentially hazardous conditions in their immediate area on EVA before a health and hardware risk arises. These conditions would include fluctuations of the local radiation field due to changes in the space radiation field and unknown variations in the local surface composition. Should undue exposure occur, knowledge of the dynamic intensity conditions during the exposure will allow more precise diagnostic assessment of the potential health risk to the exposed individual.[2

  6. Analysis of Water Extraction From Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, U.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Gokoglu, S.

    2012-01-01

    Distribution of water concentration on the Moon is currently an area of active research. Recent studies suggest the presence of ice particles, and perhaps even ice blocks and ice-cemented regolith on the Moon. Thermal extraction of the in-situ water is an attractive means of sa tisfying water requirements for a lunar mission. In this paper, a model is presented to analyze the processes occurring during the heat-up of icy regolith and extraction of the evolved water vapor. The wet regolith is assumed to be present in an initially evacuated and sealed cell which is subsequently heated. The first step of the analysis invol ves calculating the gradual increase of vapor pressure in the closed cell as the temperature is raised. Then, in the second step, the cell is evacuated to low pressure (e.g., vacuum), allowing the water vapor to leave the cell and be captured. The parameters affecting water vap or pressure build-up and evacuation for the purpose of extracting water from lunar regolith are discussed in the paper. Some comparisons wi th available experimental measurements are also made.

  7. Proceedings of the 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference included sessions on: Phoenix: Exploration of the Martian Arctic; Origin and Early Evolution of the Moon; Comet Wild 2: Mineralogy and More; Astrobiology: Meteorites, Microbes, Hydrous Habitats, and Irradiated Ices; Phoenix: Soil, Chemistry, and Habitability; Planetary Differentiation; Presolar Grains: Structures and Origins; SPECIAL SESSION: Venus Atmosphere: Venus Express and Future Missions; Mars Polar Caps: Past and Present; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part I; 5 Early Nebula Processes and Models; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Cosmic Gymnasts; Mars: Ground Ice and Climate Change; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part II; Chondrite Parent-Body Processes; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Salubrious Surfaces; SNC Meteorites; Ancient Martian Crust: Primary Mineralogy and Aqueous Alteration; SPECIAL SESSION: Messenger at Mercury: A Global Perspective on the Innermost Planet; CAIs and Chondrules: Records of Early Solar System Processes; Small Bodies: Shapes of Things to Come; Sulfur on Mars: Rocks, Soils, and Cycling Processes; Mercury: Evolution and Tectonics; Venus Geology, Volcanism, Tectonics, and Resurfacing; Asteroid-Meteorite Connections; Impacts I: Models and Experiments; Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation; Mars: Aqueous Processes; Magmatic Volatiles and Eruptive Conditions of Lunar Basalts; Comparative Planetology; Interstellar Matter: Origins and Relationships; Impacts II: Craters and Ejecta Mars: Tectonics and Dynamics; Mars Analogs I: Geological; Exploring the Diversity of Lunar Lithologies with Sample Analyses and Remote Sensing; Chondrite Accretion and Early History; Science Instruments for the Mars Science Lander; . Martian Gullies: Morphology and Origins; Mars: Dunes, Dust, and Wind; Mars: Volcanism; Early Solar System Chronology

  8. Beijing Lunar Declaration 2010: B) Technology and Resources; Infrastructures and Human Aspects; Moon, Space and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R.; Foing, B. H.; Plescial, J.; Cohen, B.; Blamont, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the Beijing Lunar Declaration endorsed by the delegates of the Global Lunar Conference/11th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, held at Beijing on 30 May- 3 June 2010. Specifically we focus on Part B:Technologies and resources; Infrastructures and human aspects; Moon, Space, Society and Young Explorers. We recommend continued and enhanced development and implementation of sessions about lunar exploration, manned and robotic, at key scientific and engineering meetings. A number of robotic missions to the Moon are now undertaken independently by various nations, with a degree of exchange of information and coordination. That should increase towards real cooperation, still allowing areas of competition for keeping the process active, cost-effective and faster. - Lunar landers, pressurized lunar rover projects as presented from Europe, Asia and America are important steps that can create opportunities for international collaboration, within a coordinated village of robotic precursors and assistants to crew missions. - We have to think about development, modernization of existing navigation capabilities, and provision of lunar positioning, navigation and data relay assets to support future robotic and human exploration. New concepts and new methods for transportation have attracted much attention and are of great potential.

  9. [Myanmar mission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfandari, B; Persichetti, P; Pelissier, P; Martin, D; Baudet, J

    2004-06-01

    The authors report the accomplishment of humanitarian missions in plastic surgery performed by a small team in town practice in Yangon, about their 3 years experience in Myanmar with 300 consultations and 120 surgery cases. They underline the interest of this type of mission and provide us their reflexion about team training, the type of relation with the country where the mission is conducted and the type of right team.

  10. Tests of the lunar hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The concept that the Moon was fissioned from the Earth after core separation is the most readily testable hypothesis of lunar origin, since direct comparisons of lunar and terrestrial compositions can be made. Differences found in such comparisons introduce so many ad hoc adjustments to the fission hypothesis that it becomes untestable. Further constraints may be obtained from attempting to date the volatile-refractory element fractionation. The combination of chemical and isotopic problems suggests that the fission hypothesis is no longer viable, and separate terrestrial and lunar accretion from a population of fractionated precursor planetesimals provides a more reasonable explanation.

  11. Development of a lunar infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of building an infrastructure on the moon is discussed, assuming that earth-to-moon and moon-to-earth transport will be available. The sequence of events which would occur in the process of building an infrastructure is examined. The human needs which must be met on a lunar base are discussed, including minimal life support, quality of life, and growth stages. The technology available to meet these needs is reviewed and further research in fields related to a lunar base, such as the study of the moon's polar regions and the limits of lunar agriculture, is recommended.

  12. Year 3 LUNAR Annual Report to the NASA Lunar Science Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, Jack; Lazio, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar University Network for Astrophysics Research (LUNAR) is a team of researchers and students at leading universities, NASA centers, and federal research laboratories undertaking investigations aimed at using the Moon as a platform for space science. LUNAR research includes Lunar Interior Physics & Gravitation using Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), Low Frequency Cosmology and Astrophysics (LFCA), Planetary Science and the Lunar Ionosphere, Radio Heliophysics, and Exploration Science. The LUN...

  13. Stable orbits for lunar landing assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condoleo, Ennio; Cinelli, Marco; Ortore, Emiliano; Circi, Christian

    2017-10-01

    To improve lunar landing performances in terms of mission costs, trajectory determination and visibility the use of a single probe located over an assistance orbit around the Moon has been taken into consideration. To this end, the properties of two quasi-circular orbits characterised by a stable behaviour of semi-major axis, eccentricity and inclination have been investigated. The analysis has demonstrated the possibility of using an assistance probe, located over one of these orbits, as a relay satellite between lander and Earth, even in the case of landings on the far side of the Moon. A comparison about the accuracy in retrieving the lander's state with respect to the use of a probe located in the Lagrangian point L2 of the Earth-Moon system has also been carried out.

  14. Sample Curation at a Lunar Outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Lofgren, Gary E.; Treiman, A. H.; Lindstrom, Marilyn L.

    2007-01-01

    The six Apollo surface missions returned 2,196 individual rock and soil samples, with a total mass of 381.6 kg. Samples were collected based on visual examination by the astronauts and consultation with geologists in the science back room in Houston. The samples were photographed during collection, packaged in uniquely-identified containers, and transported to the Lunar Module. All samples collected on the Moon were returned to Earth. NASA's upcoming return to the Moon will be different. Astronauts will have extended stays at an out-post and will collect more samples than they will return. They will need curation and analysis facilities on the Moon in order to carefully select samples for return to Earth.

  15. Charged-particle track analysis, thermoluminescence and microcratering studies of lunar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies of lunar samples (from both Apollo and Luna missions) have been carried out, using track analysis and thermoluminescence (t.l.) techniques, with a view to shedding light on the radiation and temperature histories of the Moon. In addition, microcraters in lunar glasses have been studied in order to elucidate the cosmic-dust impact history of the lunar regolith. In tracks studies, the topics discussed include the stabilizing effect of the thermal annealing of fossil tracks due to the lunar temperature cycle; the 'radiation annealing' of fresh heavy-ion tracks by large doses of protons (to simulate the effect of lunar radiation-damage on track registration); and correction factors for the anisotropic etching of crystals which are required in reconstructing the exposure history of lunar grains. An abundance ratio of ca. (1.1 + 0.3) x 10 -3 has been obtained, by the differential annealing technique, for the nuclei beyond the iron group to those within that group in the cosmic rays incident on the Moon. The natural t.l. of lunar samples has been used to estimate their effective storage temperature and mean depth below the surface. The results of the study of natural and artificially produced microcraters have been studied. (author)

  16. Analysis of Solar-Heated Thermal Wadis to Support Extended-Duration Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Wegeng, R. S.; Gokoglu, S. A.; Suzuki, N. H.; Sacksteder, K. R.

    2010-01-01

    The realization of the renewed exploration of the Moon presents many technical challenges; among them is the survival of lunar surface assets during periods of darkness when the lunar environment is very cold. Thermal wadis are engineered sources of stored solar energy using modified lunar regolith as a thermal storage mass that can enable the operation of lightweight robotic rovers or other assets in cold, dark environments without incurring potential mass, cost, and risk penalties associated with various onboard sources of thermal energy. Thermal wadi-assisted lunar rovers can conduct a variety of long-duration missions including exploration site surveys; teleoperated, crew-directed, or autonomous scientific expeditions; and logistics support for crewed exploration. This paper describes a thermal analysis of thermal wadi performance based on the known solar illumination of the moon and estimates of producible thermal properties of modified lunar regolith. Analysis was performed for the lunar equatorial region and for a potential Outpost location near the lunar south pole. The results are presented in some detail in the paper and indicate that thermal wadis can provide the desired thermal energy reserve, with significant margin, for the survival of rovers or other equipment during periods of darkness.

  17. Lunar-based optical telescopes: Planning astronomical tools of the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilchey, J. D.; Nein, M. E.

    1995-02-01

    A succession of optical telescopes, ranging in aperture from 1 to 16 m or more, can be deployed and operated on the lunar surface over the next half-century. These candidates to succeed NASA's Great Observatories would capitalize on the unique observational advantages offered by the Moon. The Lunar Telescope Working Group and the LUTE Task Team of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have assessed the feasibility of developing and deploying these facilities. Studies include the 16-m Large Lunar Telescope (LLT); the Lunar Cluster Telescope Experiment (LCTE), a 4-m precursor to the LLT; the 2-m Lunar Transit Telescope (LTT); and its precursor, the 1-m Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE). The feasibility of developing and deploying each telescope was assessed and system requirements and options for supporting technologies, subsystems, transportation, and operations were detailed. Influences of lunar environment factors and site selection on telescope design and operation were evaluated, and design approaches and key tradeoffs were established. This paper provides an overview of the study results. Design concepts and brief system descriptions are provided, including subsystem and mission options selected for the concepts.

  18. Spacesuit Integrated Carbon Nanotube Dust Mitigation System for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyapu, Kavya Kamal

    Lunar dust proved to be troublesome during the Apollo missions. The lunar dust comprises of fine particles, with electric charges imparted by solar winds and ultraviolet radiation. As such, it adheres readily, and easily penetrates through smallest crevices into mechanisms. During Apollo missions, the powdery dust substantially degraded the performance of spacesuits by abrading suit fabric and clogging seals. Dust also degraded other critical equipment such as rovers, thermal control and optical surfaces, solar arrays, and was thus shown to be a major issue for surface operations. Even inside the lunar module, Apollo astronauts were exposed to this dust when they removed their dust coated spacesuits. This historical evidence from the Apollo missions has compelled NASA to identify dust mitigation as a critical path. This important environmental challenge must be overcome prior to sending humans back to the lunar surface and potentially to other surfaces such as Mars and asteroids with dusty environments. Several concepts were successfully investigated by the international research community for preventing deposition of lunar dust on rigid surfaces (ex: solar cells, thermal radiators). However, applying these technologies for flexible surfaces and specifically to spacesuits has remained an open challenge, due to the complexity of the suit design, geometry, and dynamics. The research presented in this dissertation brings original contribution through the development and demonstration of the SPacesuit Integrated Carbon nanotube Dust Ejection/Removal (SPIcDER) system to protect spacesuits and other flexible surfaces from lunar dust. SPIcDER leverages the Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS) concept developed at NASA for use on solar cells. For the SPIcDER research, the EDS concept is customized for application on spacesuits and flexible surfaces utilizing novel materials and specialized design techniques. Furthermore, the performance of the active SPIcDER system is enhanced

  19. MOONLIGHT: A NEW LUNAR LASER RANGING RETROREFLECTOR AND THE LUNAR GEODETIC PRECESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martini

    2013-12-01

    temperature distribution of retroreflector payloads under thermal conditions produced with a close-match solar simulator. The apparatus includes infrared cameras for non-invasive thermometry, thermal control and real-time payload movement to simulate satellite orientation on orbit with respect to solar illumination and laser interrogation beams. These capabilities provide: unique pre-launch performance validation of the space segment of LLR/SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging; retroreflector design optimization to maximize ranging efficiency and signal-to-noise conditions in daylight. Results of the SCF-Test of our CCR payload will be presented. Negotiations are underway to propose our payload and SCF-Test services for precision gravity and lunar science measurements with next robotic lunar landing missions. In particular, a scientific collaboration agreement was signed on Jan. 30, 2012, by D. Currie, S. Dell’Agnello and the Japanese PI team of the LLR instrument of the proposed SELENE-2 mission by JAXA (Registered with INFN Protocol n. 0000242-03/Feb/2012. The agreement foresees that, under no exchange of funds, the Japanese single, large, hollow LLR reflector will be SCF-Tested and that MoonLIGHT will be considered as backup instrument.

  20. Surface Support Systems for Co-Operative and Integrated Human/Robotic Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    Human and robotic partnerships to realize space goals can enhance space missions and provide increases in human productivity while decreasing the hazards that the humans are exposed to. For lunar exploration, the harsh environment of the moon and the repetitive nature of the tasks involved with lunar outpost construction, maintenance and operation as well as production tasks associated with in-situ resource utilization, make it highly desirable to use robotic systems in co-operation with human activity. A human lunar outpost is functionally examined and concepts for selected human/robotic tasks are discussed in the context of a lunar outpost which will enable the presence of humans on the moon for extended periods of time.

  1. Analysis of the influence of orbital disturbances applied to an artificial lunar satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, L D; Rocco, E M; De Moraes, R V

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of the orbital disturbance forces in the trajectory of lunar satellites. The following gravitational and non-gravitational orbital disturbances are considered: the non-homogeneity of the lunar gravitational field; the gravitational attraction due to the third body, considering the Earth and the Sun; the lunar albedo; the solar radiation pressure. Numerical models were developed and implemented in an orbital trajectory simulator aiming to understand the dynamics of the orbital motion of an artificial satellite in lunar orbit when considering the simultaneous effect of all disturbances. Different orbits were simulated in order to characterize the major and the minor influence of each disturbing force as function of the inclination and the right ascension of the ascending node. This study can be very useful in the space mission analysis and in the selection of orbits less affected by environmental disturbances. (paper)

  2. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  3. Researches on hazard avoidance cameras calibration of Lunar Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Wang, Li; Lu, Xin; Chen, Jihua; Fan, Shenghong

    2017-11-01

    Lunar Lander and Rover of China will be launched in 2013. It will finish the mission targets of lunar soft landing and patrol exploration. Lunar Rover has forward facing stereo camera pair (Hazcams) for hazard avoidance. Hazcams calibration is essential for stereo vision. The Hazcam optics are f-theta fish-eye lenses with a 120°×120° horizontal/vertical field of view (FOV) and a 170° diagonal FOV. They introduce significant distortion in images and the acquired images are quite warped, which makes conventional camera calibration algorithms no longer work well. A photogrammetric calibration method of geometric model for the type of optical fish-eye constructions is investigated in this paper. In the method, Hazcams model is represented by collinearity equations with interior orientation and exterior orientation parameters [1] [2]. For high-precision applications, the accurate calibration model is formulated with the radial symmetric distortion and the decentering distortion as well as parameters to model affinity and shear based on the fisheye deformation model [3] [4]. The proposed method has been applied to the stereo camera calibration system for Lunar Rover.

  4. Automation and robotics considerations for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Nancy E.; Harrison, F. Wallace, Jr.; Soloway, Donald I.; Mckinney, William S., Jr.; Cornils, Karin; Doggett, William R.; Cooper, Eric G.; Alberts, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    An envisioned lunar outpost shares with other NASA missions many of the same criteria that have prompted the development of intelligent automation techniques with NASA. Because of increased radiation hazards, crew surface activities will probably be even more restricted than current extravehicular activity in low Earth orbit. Crew availability for routine and repetitive tasks will be at least as limited as that envisioned for the space station, particularly in the early phases of lunar development. Certain tasks are better suited to the untiring watchfulness of computers, such as the monitoring and diagnosis of multiple complex systems, and the perception and analysis of slowly developing faults in such systems. In addition, mounting costs and constrained budgets require that human resource requirements for ground control be minimized. This paper provides a glimpse of certain lunar base tasks as seen through the lens of automation and robotic (A&R) considerations. This can allow a more efficient focusing of research and development not only in A&R, but also in those technologies that will depend on A&R in the lunar environment.

  5. Thorium abundances of basalt ponds in South Pole-Aitken basin: Insights into the composition and evolution of the far side lunar mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, Justin J.; Lawrence, D.J.; Hawke, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Imbrian-aged basalt ponds, located on the floor of South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin, are used to provide constraints on the composition and evolution of the far side lunar mantle. We use forward modeling of the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer thorium data, to suggest that at least five different and distinct portions of the far side lunar mantle contain little or no thorium as of the Imbrian Period. We also use spatial correlations between local thorium enhancements and nonmare material on top of the basalt ponds to support previous assertions that lower crustal materials exposed in SPA basin have elevated thorium abundances, consistent with noritic to gabbronoritic lithologies. We suggest that the lower crust on the far side of the Moon experienced multiple intrusions of thorium-rich basaltic magmas, prior to the formation of SPA basin. The fact that many of the ponds on the lunar far side have elevated titanium abundances indicates that the far side of the Moon experienced extensive fractional crystallization that likely led to the formation of a KREEP-like component. However, because the Imbrian-aged basalts contain no signs of elevated thorium, we propose that the SPA impact event triggered the transport of a KREEP-like component from the lunar far side and concentrated it on the nearside of the Moon. Because of the correlation between basaltic ponds and basins within SPA, we suggest that Imbrian-aged basaltic volcanism on the far side of the Moon was driven by basin-induced decompressional melting.

  6. Applications for special-purpose minerals at a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W.

    1992-01-01

    catalysts, as media for nuclear and hazardous waste disposal, as exchange media for waste-water treatment, and in other potential applications. Special-purpose minerals synthesized at a lunar base may also have important applications at a space station and for other planetary missions. New technologies will be required at a lunar base to develop life support systems that are self-sufficient, and the use of special-purpose minerals may help achieve this self-sufficiency.

  7. Early lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S. K.; Mellema, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    A new method (Shaw, 1974) for investigating paleointensity (the ancient magnetic field) was applied to three subsamples of a single, 1-m homogeneous clast from a recrystallized boulder of lunar breccia. Several dating methods established 4 billion years as the age of boulder assembly. Results indicate that the strength of the ambient magnetic field at the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon was about 0.4 oersted at 4 billion years ago. Values as high as 1.2 oersted have been reported (Collison et al., 1973). The required fields are approximately 10,000 times greater than present interplanetary or solar flare fields. It is suggested that this large field could have arisen from a pre-main sequence T-Tauri sun.

  8. Electrochemistry of lunar rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Haskin, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Electrolysis of silicate melts has been shown to be an effective means of producing metals from common silicate materials. No fluxing agents need be added to the melts. From solution in melts of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) composition, the elements Si, Ti, Ni, and Fe have been reduced to their metallic states. Platinum is a satisfactory anode material, but other cathode materials are needed. Electrolysis of compositional analogs of lunar rocks initially produces iron metal at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Utilizing mainly heat and electricity which are readily available from sunlight, direct electrolysis is capable of producing useful metals from common feedstocks without the need for expendable chemicals. This simple process and the products obtained from it deserve further study for use in materials processing in space.

  9. First oxygen from lunar basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, M. A.; Knudsen, C. W.; Brueneman, D. J.; Kanamori, H.; Ness, R. O.; Sharp, L. L.; Brekke, D. W.; Allen, C. C.; Morris, R. V.; Keller, L. P.

    1993-01-01

    The Carbotek/Shimizu process to produce oxygen from lunar soils has been successfully demonstrated on actual lunar samples in laboratory facilities at Carbotek with Shimizu funding and support. Apollo sample 70035 containing approximately 25 percent ilmenite (FeTiO3) was used in seven separate reactions with hydrogen varying temperature and pressure: FeTiO3 + H2 yields Fe + TiO2 + H2O. The experiments gave extremely encouraging results as all ilmenite was reduced in every experiment. The lunar ilmenite was found to be about twice as reactive as terrestrial ilmenite samples. Analytical techniques of the lunar and terrestrial ilmenite experiments performed by NASA Johnson Space Center include iron Mossbauer spectroscopy (FeMS), optical microscopy, SEM, TEM, and XRD. The Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota performed three SEM techniques (point count method, morphology determination, elemental mapping), XRD, and optical microscopy.

  10. Thermodynamics of lunar ilmenite reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenberg, B. H.; Franklin, H. A.; Jones, C. H.

    1993-01-01

    With the prospect of returning to the moon, the development of a lunar occupation would fulfill one of the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) of the late 1980's. Processing lunar resources into useful products, such as liquid oxygen for fuel and life support, would be one of many aspects of an active lunar base. ilmenite (FeTiO3) is found on the lunar surface and can be used as a feed stock to produce oxygen. Understanding the various ilmenite-reduction reactions elucidates many processing options. Defining the thermodynamic chemical behavior at equilibrium under various conditions of temperature and pressures can be helpful in specifying optimal operating conditions. Differences between a previous theoretical analysis and experimentally determined results has sparked interest in trying to understand the effect of operating pressure on the hydrogen-reduction-of-ilmenite reaction. Various aspects of this reduction reaction are discussed.

  11. The enigma of lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.

    1981-01-01

    Current understandings of the nature and probable origin of lunar magnetism are surveyed. Results of examinations of returned lunar samples are discussed which reveal the main carrier of the observed natural remanent magnetization to be iron, occasionally alloyed with nickel and cobalt, but do not distinguish between thermoremanent and shock remanent origins, and surface magnetometer data is presented, which indicates small-scale magnetic fields with a wide range of field intensities implying localized, near-surface sources. A detailed examination is presented of orbital magnetometer and charged particle data concerning the geologic nature and origin of magnetic anomaly sources and the directional properties of the magnetization, which exhibit a random distribution except for a depletion in the north-south direction. A lunar magnetization survey with global coverage provided by a polar orbiting satellite is suggested as a means of placing stronger constraints on the origin of lunar crustal magnetization.

  12. Lunar Health Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the Phase II Lunar Health Monitor program, Orbital Research will develop a second generation wearable sensor suite for astronaut physiologic monitoring. The...

  13. "First Convention of Lunar Explorers" - Invitation to the media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    The first LUNEX Convention will bring together lunar explorers from all backgrounds, including professionals, amateur space enthusiasts and interested visitors from the public. During the Convention numerous oral presentations will prompt detailed discussions on all aspects of future lunar exploration: the Moon as a geology laboratory or an astronomical platform; the knowledge of lunar geography needed to land and move on the surface; the implications of finding water-ice on the Moon and whether this might be detected by forthcoming missions; the architecture of lunar habitats; what would be needed in the future for the Moon to support life; cultural and social aspects; and the scientific motivation for returning to the Moon. The Convention will also be the main public event in 2001 at which SMART-1 is presented. SMART-1, due to be launched in 2002 will test solar electric propulsion and other innovative approaches for future deep space probes. It is the first European satellite to be sent towards the Moon. Visitors to the Palais de la Découverte will be able to view a model of SMART-1. On 9 March, at 09:00, the media is invited to hear about the LUNEX objectives and activities and to learn about the European Space Agency’s SMART-1 mission within the broader context of ESA’s Planetary Exploration Programme. Background information on LUNEX The Lunar Explorers Society (LUNEX) is an international organization created by 200 founder members in July 2000. LUNEX was founded at the end of the 4th Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon (ICEUM4), organised by ESA and the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG). Its aim is to promote the exploration of the Moon for the benefit of humanity, bridging the gap between space agencies and the general public to promote planetary exploration and space. The Lunar Explorers Society invites all interested individuals to become members. Background information on SMART-1 SMART-1 is the first of ESA

  14. Overview of Mission Design for NASA Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Nathan; Landau, Damon; McElrath, Timothy; Lantoine, Gregory; Lam, Try; McGuire, Melissa; Burke, Laura; Martini, Michael; Dankanich, John

    2013-01-01

    Part of NASA's new asteroid initiative would be a robotic mission to capture a roughly four to ten meter asteroid and redirect its orbit to place it in translunar space. Once in a stable storage orbit at the Moon, astronauts would then visit the asteroid for science investigations, to test in space resource extraction, and to develop experience with human deep space missions. This paper discusses the mission design techniques that would enable the redirection of a 100-1000 metric ton asteroid into lunar orbit with a 40-50 kW Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) system.

  15. SMART-1 technology, scientific results and heritage for future space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.; Racca, G.; Marini, A.; Koschny, D.; Frew, D.; Grieger, B.; Camino-Ramos, O.; Josset, J. L.; Grande, M.; Smart-1 Science; Technology Working Team

    2018-02-01

    ESA's SMART-1 mission to the Moon achieved record firsts such as: 1) first Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology; with spacecraft built and integrated in 2.5 years and launched 3.5 years after mission approval; 2) first mission leaving the Earth orbit using solar power alone; 3) most fuel effective mission (60 L of Xenon) and longest travel (13 months) to the Moon!; 4) first ESA mission reaching the Moon and first European views of lunar poles; 5) first European demonstration of a wide range of new technologies: Li-Ion modular battery, deep-space communications in X- and Ka-bands, and autonomous positioning for navigation; 6) first lunar demonstration of an infrared spectrometer and of a Swept Charge Detector Lunar X-ray fluorescence spectrometer; 7) first ESA mission with opportunity for lunar science, elemental geochemistry, surface mineralogy mapping, surface geology and precursor studies for exploration; 8) first controlled impact landing on the Moon with real time observations campaign; 9) first mission supporting goals of the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) in technical and scientific exchange, international collaboration, public and youth engagement; 10) first mission preparing the ground for ESA collaboration in Chandrayaan-1, Chang' E1 and future international lunar exploration. We review SMART-1 highlights and new results that are relevant to the preparation for future lunar exploration. The technology and methods had impact on space research and applications. Recent SMART-1 results are relevant to topics on: 1) the study of properties of the lunar dust, 2) impact craters and ejecta, 3) the study of illumination, 4) radio observations and science from the Moon, 5) support to future missions, 6) identifying and characterising sites for exploration and exploitation. On these respective topics, we discuss recent SMART-1 results and challenges. We also discuss the use of SMART-1 publications library. The SMART-1 archive

  16. Dielectric properties of lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkova, O. V.; Kibardina, I. N.

    2017-03-01

    Measurements of the dielectric characteristics of lunar soil samples are analyzed in the context of dielectric theory. It has been shown that the real component of the dielectric permittivity and the loss tangent of rocks greatly depend on the frequency of the interacting electromagnetic field and the soil temperature. It follows from the analysis that one should take into account diurnal variations in the lunar surface temperature when interpreting the radar-sounding results, especially for the gigahertz radio range.

  17. 3D PIC SIMULATIONS OF COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS AT LUNAR MAGNETIC ANOMALIES AND THEIR ROLE IN FORMING LUNAR SWIRLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamford, R. A.; Kellett, B. J. [RAL Space, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Alves, E. P.; Cruz, F.; Silva, L. O [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Fonseca, R. A. [DCTI/ISCTE—Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, 1649-026 Lisbon (Portugal); Trines, R. M. G. M. [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Halekas, J. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 414 Van Allen Hall, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Kramer, G. [The Lunar and Planetary Institute, USRA, 3600 Bay Area Blvd, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Harnett, E. [Department of Earth and Space Science, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1310 (United States); Cairns, R. A. [University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Bingham, R., E-mail: Ruth.Bamford@stfc.ac.uk [SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, 4G 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-20

    Investigation of the lunar crustal magnetic anomalies offers a comprehensive long-term data set of observations of small-scale magnetic fields and their interaction with the solar wind. In this paper a review of the observations of lunar mini-magnetospheres is compared quantifiably with theoretical kinetic-scale plasma physics and 3D particle-in-cell simulations. The aim of this paper is to provide a complete picture of all the aspects of the phenomena and to show how the observations from all the different and international missions interrelate. The analysis shows that the simulations are consistent with the formation of miniature (smaller than the ion Larmor orbit) collisionless shocks and miniature magnetospheric cavities, which has not been demonstrated previously. The simulations reproduce the finesse and form of the differential proton patterns that are believed to be responsible for the creation of both the “lunar swirls” and “dark lanes.” Using a mature plasma physics code like OSIRIS allows us, for the first time, to make a side-by-side comparison between model and space observations. This is shown for all of the key plasma parameters observed to date by spacecraft, including the spectral imaging data of the lunar swirls. The analysis of miniature magnetic structures offers insight into multi-scale mechanisms and kinetic-scale aspects of planetary magnetospheres.

  18. International lunar observatory / power station: from Hawaii to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, S.

    Astronomy's great advantages from the Moon are well known - stable surface, diffuse atmosphere, long cool nights (14 days), low gravity, far side radio frequency silence. A large variety of astronomical instruments and observations are possible - radio, optical and infrared telescopes and interferometers; interferometry for ultra- violet to sub -millimeter wavelengths and for very long baselines, including Earth- Moon VLBI; X-ray, gamma-ray, cosmic ray and neutrino detection; very low frequency radio observation; and more. Unparalleled advantages of lunar observatories for SETI, as well as for local surveillance, Earth observation, and detection of Earth approaching objects add significant utility to lunar astronomy's superlatives. At least nine major conferences in the USA since 1984 and many elsewhere, as well as ILEWG, IAF, IAA, LEDA and other organizations' astronomy-from-the-Moon research indicate a lunar observatory / power station, robotic at first, will be one of the first mission elements for a permanent lunar base. An international lunar observatory will be a transcending enterprise, highly principled, indispensable, soundly and broadly based, and far- seeing. Via Astra - From Hawaii to the Moon: The astronomy and scie nce communities, national space agencies and aerospace consortia, commercial travel and tourist enterprises and those aspiring to advance humanity's best qualities, such as Aloha, will recognize Hawaii in the 21st century as a new major support area and pan- Pacific port of embarkation to space, the Moon and beyond. Astronomical conditions and facilities on Hawaii's Mauna Kea provide experience for construction and operation of observatories on the Moon. Remote and centrally isolated, with diffuse atmosphere, sub-zero temperature and limited working mobility, the Mauna Kea complex atop the 4,206 meter summit of the largest mountain on the planet hosts the greatest collection of large astronomical telescopes on Earth. Lunar, extraterrestrial

  19. Strategy for the International Lunar Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, V.; Dunlop, D.; Foing, B.

    2015-10-01

    LD is a global event and process for international collaboration in space initiated by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG), the National Space Society and the National Science Centre FOTONIKA-LV of the University of Latvia. ILD is planned for launch in 2017, the 60th anniversary of the International Geophysical Year that marked the dawn of the space age with the launch of Sputnik. ILD is envisioned as a decade long process of international collaboration with lunar exploration concurrent with development of policies, key enabling technologies and infrastructures on the Moon and in cislunar space leading towards an eventual goal of industrial development of the Moon and economic activity beyond Earth orbit[1]. This second International Lunar Decade will build on the foundations of the ILD first proposed in by the Planetary Society in 2006 at International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon (ICEUM), was endorsed by ICEUM participants[3], and then by ILEWG, COSPAR and other organizations. Starting in 2007, the work plan included a series of recommendations for lunar exploration missions coordinated through the ILEWG agencies and COSPAR. Advances in technology such as CubeSats and 3D printing and fundamental changes in mind-set marked by initiatives such as the Google Lunar-X prize and asteroid mining ventures have made industrial development of the Moon a thinkable proposition. The ILD to be launched in 2017 is intended to set the stage for the Moon to become a wealth generating platform for human expansion into the solar system.ILD is being organized to engage existing organizations involved in space collaboration such as COSPAR, COPUOS, ISECG, technical and scientific organizations and others that address space policy, space law, space security, governance and related concerns. Additional organizations will be involved that deal with structures, ecosystems, financing, economic development and health and life support and

  20. Performance evaluation of lunar penetrating radar onboard the rover of CE-3 probe based on results from ground experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Bo; Zheng, Lei; Su, Yan; Fang, Guang-You; Zhou, Bin; Feng, Jian-Qing; Xing, Shu-Guo; Dai, Shun; Li, Jun-Duo; Ji, Yi-Cai; Gao, Yun-Ze; Xiao, Yuan; Li, Chun-Lai

    2014-12-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) onboard the rover that is part of the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) mission was firstly utilized to obtain in situ measurements about geological structure on the lunar surface and the thickness of the lunar regolith, which are key elements for studying the evolutional history of lunar crust. Because penetration depth and resolution of LPR are related to the scientific objectives of this mission, a series of ground-based experiments using LPR was carried out, and results of the experimental data were obtained in a glacial area located in the northwest region of China. The results show that the penetration depth of the first channel antenna used for LPR is over 79 m with a resolution of 2.8 m, and that for the second channel antenna is over 50.8 m with a resolution of 17.1 cm.

  1. Performance evaluation of lunar penetrating radar onboard the rover of CE-3 probe based on results from ground experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong-Bo; Zheng Lei; Su Yan; Feng Jian-Qing; Xing Shu-Guo; Dai Shun; Li Jun-Duo; Xiao Yuan; Li Chun-Lai; Fang Guang-You; Zhou Bin; Ji Yi-Cai; Gao Yun-Ze

    2014-01-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) onboard the rover that is part of the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) mission was firstly utilized to obtain in situ measurements about geological structure on the lunar surface and the thickness of the lunar regolith, which are key elements for studying the evolutional history of lunar crust. Because penetration depth and resolution of LPR are related to the scientific objectives of this mission, a series of ground-based experiments using LPR was carried out, and results of the experimental data were obtained in a glacial area located in the northwest region of China. The results show that the penetration depth of the first channel antenna used for LPR is over 79 m with a resolution of 2.8 m, and that for the second channel antenna is over 50.8 m with a resolution of 17.1 cm

  2. Reference reactor module for NASA's lunar surface fission power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, David I.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.; Werner, James; Qualls, Louis; Radel, Ross

    2009-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. The AFSPS concept is now being further developed within the Fission Surface Power (FSP) Project, which is a near-term technology program to demonstrate system-level TRL-6 by 2013. This paper describes the reference FSP reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based. UO 2 -fueled, pumped-NaK fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a 'workhorse' power system that NASA can utilize in near-term and future Lunar and Martian mission architectures, with the eventual capability to evolve to very high power, low mass systems, for either surface, deep space, and/or orbital missions.

  3. PDS Lunar Data Node Restoration of Apollo In-Situ Surface Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Guinness, Edward A.; Lowman, Paul D.; Taylor, Patrick T.

    2010-01-01

    The Apollo missions between 1969 and 1972 deployed scientific instruments on the Moon's surface which made in-situ measurements of the lunar environment. Apollo II had the short-term Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP) and Apollos 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 each set up an Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). Each ALSEP package contained a different suite of instruments which took measurements and radioed the results back to Earth over periods from 5 to 7 years until they were turned off on 30 September 1977. To this day the ALSEP data remain the only long-term in-situ information on the Moon's surface environment. The Lunar Data Node (LDN) has been formed under the auspices of the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node to put relevant, scientifically important Apollo data into accessible digital form for use by researchers and mission planners. We will report on progress made since last year and plans for future data restorations.

  4. The Moon is a Planet Too: Lunar Science and Robotic Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of what is known about the moon, and draws parallels between the moon and any other terrestrial planet. The Moon is a cornerstone for all rocky planets The Moon is a terrestrial body, formed and evolved similarly to Earth, Mars, Mercury, Venus, and large asteroids The Moon is a differentiated body, with a layered internal structure (crust, mantle, and core) The Moon is a cratered body, preserving a record of bombardment history in the inner solar system The Moon is an active body, experiencing moonquakes, releasing primordial heat, conducting electricity, sustaining bombardment, and trapping volatile molecules Lunar robotic missions provide early science return to obtain important science and engineering objectives, rebuild a lunar science community, and keep our eyes on the Moon. These lunar missions, both past and future are reviewed.

  5. Application of Solar-Electric Propulsion to Robotic and Human Missions in Near-Earth Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.; Dankanich, John

    2011-01-01

    Interest in applications of solar electric propulsion (SEP) is increasing. Application of SEP technology is favored when: (1) the mission is compatible with low-thrust propulsion, (2) the mission needs high total delta V such that chemical propulsion is disadvantaged; and (3) performance enhancement is needed. If all such opportunities for future missions are considered, many uses of SEP are likely. Representative missions are surveyed and several SEP applications selected for analysis, including orbit raising, lunar science, lunar exploration, lunar exploitation, planetary science, and planetary exploration. These missions span SEP power range from 10s of kWe to several MWe. Modes of use and benefits are described, and potential SEP evolution is discussed.

  6. Monte Carlo Analysis as a Trajectory Design Driver for the TESS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Craig; Lebois, Ryan; Lutz, Stephen; Dichmann, Donald; Parker, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will be injected into a highly eccentric Earth orbit and fly 3.5 phasing loops followed by a lunar flyby to enter a mission orbit with lunar 2:1 resonance. Through the phasing loops and mission orbit, the trajectory is significantly affected by lunar and solar gravity. We have developed a trajectory design to achieve the mission orbit and meet mission constraints, including eclipse avoidance and a 30-year geostationary orbit avoidance requirement. A parallelized Monte Carlo simulation was performed to validate the trajectory after injecting common perturbations, including launch dispersions, orbit determination errors, and maneuver execution errors. The Monte Carlo analysis helped identify mission risks and is used in the trajectory selection process.

  7. Monte Carlo Analysis as a Trajectory Design Driver for the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Craig; Parker, Joel; Dichmann, Don; Lebois, Ryan; Lutz, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will be injected into a highly eccentric Earth orbit and fly 3.5 phasing loops followed by a lunar flyby to enter a mission orbit with lunar 2:1 resonance. Through the phasing loops and mission orbit, the trajectory is significantly affected by lunar and solar gravity. We have developed a trajectory design to achieve the mission orbit and meet mission constraints, including eclipse avoidance and a 30-year geostationary orbit avoidance requirement. A parallelized Monte Carlo simulation was performed to validate the trajectory after injecting common perturbations, including launch dispersions, orbit determination errors, and maneuver execution errors. The Monte Carlo analysis helped identify mission risks and is used in the trajectory selection process.

  8. Advances in lunar science from the Clementine mission: A decadal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    e-mail: robinson@earth.northwestern.edu. The Clementine spacecraft orbited the Moon and acquired science data for 10 weeks in the Spring .... parameters to better fit the sample data result- ing in improved fits (Gillis et al 2004). Camp ..... magnetics is protecting the affected area from the solar wind, and that solar wind is a ...

  9. Lunar Flashlight: Exploration and Science at the Moon with a 6U Cubesat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.; Hayne, P. O.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Paige, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water and other volatiles associated with lunar permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG) for Human Exploration. These polar volatile deposits are also scientifically interesting, having the potential to reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth-Moon system. In order to address NASA's SKGs, the Lunar Flashlight mission was selected as a secondary payload on the first test flight (EM1) of the Space Launch System (SLS), currently scheduled for 2018. Recent reflectance data from LRO instruments suggest volatiles may be present on the surface, though the detection is not yet definitive. The goal of Lunar Flashlight is to determine the presence or absence of exposed water ice and map its concentration at the 1-2 kilometer scale within the PSRs. After being ejected in cislunar space by SLS, Lunar Flashlight maneuvers into a low-energy transfer to lunar orbit and then an elliptical polar orbit, spiraling down to a perilune of 10-30 km above the south pole for data collection. Lunar Flashlight will illuminate permanently shadowed regions, measuring surface albedo with point spectrometer at 1.1, 1.5 1.9, and 2.0 mm. Water ice will be distinguished from dry regolith in two ways: 1) spatial variations in absolute reflectance (water ice is much brighter in the continuum channels), and 2) reflectance ratios between absorption and continuum channels. Derived reflectance and water ice band depths will be mapped onto the lunar surface in order to distinguish the composition of the PSRs from that of the sunlit terrain, and to compare with lunar datasets such as LRO and Moon Mineralogy Mapper. Lunar Flashlight enables a low-cost path to science and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) by identifying ice deposits (if there are any), which would be a game-changing result for expanded human exploration.

  10. Low Cost Precision Lander for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. N.; Gardner, T. G.; Hoppa, G. V.; Seybold, K. G.

    2004-12-01

    For 60 years the US Defense Department has invested heavily in producing small, low mass, precision guided vehicles. The technologies matured under these programs include terrain-aided navigation, closed loop terminal guidance algorithms, robust autopilots, high thrust-to-weight propulsion, autonomous mission management software, sensors, and data fusion. These technologies will aid NASA in addressing New Millennium Science and Technology goals as well as the requirements flowing from the Vision articulated in January 2004. Establishing and resupplying a long term lunar presence will require automated landing precision not yet demonstrated. Precision landing will increase safety and assure mission success. In the DOD world, such technologies are used routinely and reliably. Hence, it is timely to generate a point design for a precise planetary lander useful for lunar exploration. In this design science instruments amount to 10 kg, 16% of the lander vehicle mass. This compares favorably with 7% for Mars Pathfinder and less than 15% for Surveyor. The mission design flies the lander in an inert configuration to the moon, relying on a cruise stage for navigation and TCMs. The lander activates about a minute before impact. A solid booster reduces the vehicle speed to 300-450 m/s. The lander is now about 2 minutes from touchdown and has 600 to 700 m/s delta-v capability, allowing for about 10 km of vehicle divert during terminal descent. This concept of operations is chosen because it closely mimics missile operational timelines used for decades: the vehicle remains inert in a challenging environment, then must execute its mission flawlessly on a moment's notice. The vehicle design consists of a re-plumbed propulsion system, using propellant tanks and thrusters from exoatmospheric programs. A redesigned truss provides hard points for landing gear, electronics, power supply, and science instruments. A radar altimeter and a Digital Scene Matching Area Correlator (DSMAC

  11. Lunar Rocks: Available for Year of the Solar System Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    NASA is actively exploring the moon with our Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the Grail Discovery Mission will launch next year, and each year there is an International Observe the Moon Night providing many events and lunar science focus opportunities to share rocks from the moon with students and the public. In our laboratories, we have Apollo rocks and soil from six different places on the moon, and their continued study provides incredibly valuable ground truth to complement space exploration missions. Extensive information and actual lunar samples are available for public display and education. The Johnson Space Center (JSC) has the unique responsibility to curate NASA's extraterrestrial samples from past and future missions. Curation includes documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach. The lunar rocks and soils continue to be studied intensively by scientists around the world. Descriptions of the samples, research results, thousands of photographs, and information on how to request research samples are on the JSC Curation website: http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/ NASA is eager for scientists and the public to have access to these exciting Apollo samples through our various loan procedures. NASA provides a limited number of Moon rock samples for either short-term or long-term displays at museums, planetariums, expositions, and professional events that are open to the public. The JSC Public Affairs Office handles requests for such display samples. Requestors should apply in writing to Mr. Louis Parker, JSC Exhibits Manager. Mr. Parker will advise successful applicants regarding provisions for receipt, display, and return of the samples. All loans will be preceded by a signed loan agreement executed between NASA and the requestor's organization. Email address: louis.a.parker@nasa.gov Sets of twelve thin sections of Apollo lunar samples are available for short-term loan from JSC Curation. The thin

  12. Integrated Human-Robotic Missions to the Moon and Mars: Mission Operations Design Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young; Korth, David; LeBlanc, Troy

    2007-01-01

    For most of the history of space exploration, human and robotic programs have been independent, and have responded to distinct requirements. The NASA Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of humans to the Moon, and the eventual human exploration of Mars; the complexity of this range of missions will require an unprecedented use of automation and robotics in support of human crews. The challenges of human Mars missions, including roundtrip communications time delays of 6 to 40 minutes, interplanetary transit times of many months, and the need to manage lifecycle costs, will require the evolution of a new mission operations paradigm far less dependent on real-time monitoring and response by an Earthbound operations team. Robotic systems and automation will augment human capability, increase human safety by providing means to perform many tasks without requiring immediate human presence, and enable the transfer of traditional mission control tasks from the ground to crews. Developing and validating the new paradigm and its associated infrastructure may place requirements on operations design for nearer-term lunar missions. The authors, representing both the human and robotic mission operations communities, assess human lunar and Mars mission challenges, and consider how human-robot operations may be integrated to enable efficient joint operations, with the eventual emergence of a unified exploration operations culture.

  13. Report from International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) to COSPAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We refer to COSPAR and ILEWG ICEUM and lunar conferences and declarations [1-18]. We discuss how lunar missions SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang'E1&2, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS, LRO, GRAIL, LADEE, Chang'E3 and upcoming missions contribute to lunar exploration objectives & roadmap. We present the GLUC/ICEUM11 declaration and give a report on ongoing relevant ILEWG community activities, with focus on: “1. Science and exploration - World-wide access to raw and derived (geophysical units) data products using consistent formats and coordinate systems will maximize return on investment. We call to develop and implement plans for generation, validation, and release of these data products. Data should be made available for scientific analysis and supporting the development and planning of future missions - There are still Outstanding Questions: Structure and composition of crust, mantle, and core and implications for the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system; Timing, origin, and consequences of late heavy bombardment; Impact processes and regolith evolution; Nature and origin of volatile emplacement; Implications for resource utilization. These questions require international cooperation and sharing of results in order to be answered in a cost-effective manner - Ground truth information on the lunar far side is missing and needed to address many important scientific questions, e.g. with a sample return from South Pole-Aitken Basin - Knowledge of the interior is poor relative to the surface, and is needed to address a number of key questions, e.g. with International Lunar Network for seismometry and other geophysical measurements - Lunar missions will be driven by exploration, resource utilization, and science; we should consider minimum science payload for every mission, e.g., landers and rovers should carry instruments to determine surface composition and mineralogy - It is felt important to have a shared database about previous missions available for free, so as to provide

  14. Long-Term Lunar Radiation Degradation Effects on Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; ORourke, Mary Jane; Koontz, Steve; Alred, John; Hill, Charles; Devivar, Rodrigo; Morera-Felix, Shakira; Atwell, William; Nutt, Steve; Sabbann, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is focused on developing technologies for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit. These technologies are to advance the state-of-the-art and provide for longer duration missions outside the protection of Earth's magnetosphere. One technology of great interest for large structures is advanced composite materials, due to their weight and cost savings, enhanced radiation protection for the crew, and potential for performance improvements when compared with existing metals. However, these materials have not been characterized for the interplanetary space environment, and particularly the effects of high energy radiation, which is known to cause damage to polymeric materials. Therefore, a study focusing on a lunar habitation element was undertaken to investigate the integrity of potential structural composite materials after exposure to a long-term lunar radiation environment. An overview of the study results are presented, along with a discussion of recommended future work.

  15. Hyper-Spectral Imager in visible and near-infrared band for lunar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India's first lunar mission, Chandrayaan-1, will have a Hyper-Spectral Imager in the visible and near-infrared spectral ... mapping of the Moon's crust in a large number of spectral channels. The planned .... In-flight verification may be done.

  16. Moon4You : a combined Raman/LIBS instrument for lunar exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E.C.; Ahlers, B.; Westrenen, W.V.; Heiligers, J.; Wielders, A.

    2009-01-01

    Moon4You is a project led by the Dutch Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, with partners from industry and universities in the Netherlands that aims to provide a combined Raman/LIBS instrument as scientific payload for lunar exploration missions. It is the first time that Raman

  17. Moon4You: A combined Raman / LIBS instrument for lunar exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E.C.; Ahlers, B.; van Westrenen, W.; Heiligers, J.; Wielders, A.

    2009-01-01

    Moon4You is a project led by the Dutch Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, with partners from industry and universities in the Netherlands that aims to provide a combined Raman/LIBS instrument as scientific payload for lunar exploration missions. It is the first time that Raman

  18. International Lunar Observatory Association Advancing 21st Century Astronomy from the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, Steve

    2015-08-01

    Long considered a prime location to conduct astronomical observations, the Moon is beginning to prove its value in 21st Century astronomy through the Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope aboard China’s Chang’e-3 Moon lander and through the developing missions of the International Lunar Observatory Association (ILOA). With 24 hours / Earth day of potential operability facilitating long-duration observations, the stable platform of the lunar surface and extremely thin exosphere guaranteeing superior observation conditions, zones of radio-quiet for radio astronomy, and the resources and thermal stability at the lunar South Pole, the Moon provides several pioneering advantages for astronomy. ILOA, through MOUs with NAOC and CNSA, has been collaborating with China to make historic Galaxy observations with the Chang’e-3 LUT, including imaging Galaxy M101 in December 2014. LUT has an aperture of 150mm, covers a wavelength range of 245 to 340 nanometers and is capable of detecting objects at a brightness down to 14 mag. The success of China’s mission has provided support and momentum for ILOA’s mission to place a 2-meter dish, multifunctional observatory at the South Pole of the Moon NET 2017. ILOA also has plans to send a precursor observatory instrument (ILO-X) on the inaugural mission of GLXP contestant Moon Express. Advancing astronomy and astrophysics from the Moon through public-private and International partnerships will provide many valuable research opportunities while also helping to secure humanity’s position as multi world species.

  19. Lunar Meteorites: A Global Geochemical Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Joy, K. H.; Arai, T.; Gross, J.; Korotev, R. L.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2017-01-01

    To date, the world's meteorite collections contain over 260 lunar meteorite stones representing at least 120 different lunar meteorites. Additionally, there are 20-30 as yet unnamed stones currently in the process of being classified. Collectively these lunar meteorites likely represent 40-50 distinct sampling locations from random locations on the Moon. Although the exact provenance of each individual lunar meteorite is unknown, collectively the lunar meteorites represent the best global average of the lunar crust. The Apollo sites are all within or near the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), thus lithologies from the PKT are overrepresented in the Apollo sample suite. Nearly all of the lithologies present in the Apollo sample suite are found within the lunar meteorites (high-Ti basalts are a notable exception), and the lunar meteorites contain several lithologies not present in the Apollo sample suite (e.g., magnesian anorthosite). This chapter will not be a sample-by-sample summary of each individual lunar meteorite. Rather, the chapter will summarize the different types of lunar meteorites and their relative abundances, comparing and contrasting the lunar meteorite sample suite with the Apollo sample suite. This chapter will act as one of the introductory chapters to the volume, introducing lunar samples in general and setting the stage for more detailed discussions in later more specialized chapters. The chapter will begin with a description of how lunar meteorites are ejected from the Moon, how deep samples are being excavated from, what the likely pairing relationships are among the lunar meteorite samples, and how the lunar meteorites can help to constrain the impactor flux in the inner solar system. There will be a discussion of the biases inherent to the lunar meteorite sample suite in terms of underrepresented lithologies or regions of the Moon, and an examination of the contamination and limitations of lunar meteorites due to terrestrial weathering. The

  20. Development of a Compact, Deep-Penetrating Heat Flow Instrument for Lunar Landers: In-Situ Thermal Conductivity System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagihara, S.; Zacny, K.; Hedlund, M.; Taylor, P. T.

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal heat flow is obtained as a product of the geothermal gradient and the thermal conductivity of the vertical soil/rock/regolith interval penetrated by the instrument. Heat flow measurements are a high priority for the geophysical network missions to the Moon recommended by the latest Decadal Survey and previously the International Lunar Network. One of the difficulties associated with lunar heat flow measurement on a robotic mission is that it requires excavation of a relatively deep (approx 3 m) hole in order to avoid the long-term temporal changes in lunar surface thermal environment affecting the subsurface temperature measurements. Such changes may be due to the 18.6-year-cylcle lunar precession, or may be initiated by presence of the lander itself. Therefore, a key science requirement for heat flow instruments for future lunar missions is to penetrate 3 m into the regolith and to measure both thermal gradient and thermal conductivity. Engineering requirements are that the instrument itself has minimal impact on the subsurface thermal regime and that it must be a low-mass and low-power system like any other science instrumentation on planetary landers. It would be very difficult to meet the engineering requirements, if the instrument utilizes a long (> 3 m) probe driven into the ground by a rotary or percussive drill. Here we report progress in our efforts to develop a new, compact lunar heat flow instrumentation that meets all of these science and engineering requirements.

  1. A Lunar Surface System Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Taleghani, barmac K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the establishment of a Supportability Technology Development Roadmap as a guide for developing capabilities intended to allow NASA s Constellation program to enable a supportable, sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon and Mars. Presented is a discussion of supportability, in terms of space facility maintenance, repair and related logistics and a comparison of how lunar outpost supportability differs from the International Space Station. Supportability lessons learned from NASA and Department of Defense experience and their impact on a future lunar outpost is discussed. A supportability concept for future missions to the Moon and Mars that involves a transition from a highly logistics dependent to a logistically independent operation is discussed. Lunar outpost supportability capability needs are summarized and a supportability technology development strategy is established. The resulting Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Strategy defines general criteria that will be used to select technologies that will enable future flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. This strategy also introduces the concept of exploiting flight hardware as a supportability resource. The technology roadmap involves development of three mutually supporting technology categories, Diagnostics Test and Verification, Maintenance and Repair, and Scavenging and Recycling. The technology roadmap establishes two distinct technology types, "Embedded" and "Process" technologies, with different implementation and thus different criteria and development approaches. The supportability technology roadmap addresses the technology readiness level, and estimated development schedule for technology groups that includes down-selection decision gates that correlate with the lunar program milestones. The resulting supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop a set

  2. View of the Lunar Module 'Orion' and Lunar Roving Vehicle during first EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A view of the Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' and Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), as photographed by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Descates landing site. Astronaut John W. Young, commander, can be seen directly behind the LRV. The lunar surface feature in the left background is Stone Mountain.

  3. NASA Lunar Mining and Construction Activities and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    2009-01-01

    The Space Exploration Policy enacted by the US Congress in 2005 calls for the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond; Extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the Moon by the year 2020, in preparation for human exploration of Mars and other destinations; Develop the innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures both to explore and to support decisions about the destinations for human exploration; and Promote international and commercial participation in exploration to further U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests. In 2006, NASA released the Lunar Architecture Study, which proposed establishing a lunar Outpost on the Moon with international participation to extend human presence beyond Earth's orbit, pursue scientific activities, use the Moon to prepare for future human missions to Mars, and expand Earth s economic sphere. The establishment of sustained human presence on the Moon for science and exploration combines the design, integration, and operation challenges experienced from both the short Apollo lunar missions and the build-up and sustained crew operations of the International Space Station (ISS). Apollo experience reminds developers and mission planners that hardware must operate under extremely harsh environmental and abrasive conditions and every kilogram of mass and payload must be critical to achieve the mission s objectives due to the difficulty and cost of reaching the lunar surface. Experience from the ISS reminds developers and mission planners that integration of all hardware must be designed and planned from the start of the program, operations and evolution of capabilities on a continuous basis are important, and long-term life-cycle costs and logistical needs are equally or more important than minimizing early development and test costs. Overarching all of this is

  4. Topography of the Lunar Poles and Application to Geodesy with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Rowlands, David D.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) [1] onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) [2] has been operating continuously since July 2009 [3], accumulating approx.5.4 billion measurements from 2 billion on-orbit laser shots. LRO s near-polar orbit results in very high data density in the immediate vicinity of the lunar poles, which are each sampled every 2h. With more than 10,000 orbits, high-resolution maps can be constructed [4] and studied [5]. However, this requires careful processing of the raw data, as subtle errors in the spacecraft position and pointing can lead to visible artifacts in the final map. In other locations on the Moon, ground tracks are subparallel and longitudinal separations are typically a few hundred meters. Near the poles, the track intersection angles can be large and the inter-track spacing is small (above 80 latitude, the effective resolution is better than 50m). Precision Orbit Determination (POD) of the LRO spacecraft [6] was performed to satisfy the LOLA and LRO mission requirements, which lead to a significant improvement in the orbit position knowledge over the short-release navigation products. However, with pixel resolutions of 10 to 25 meters, artifacts due to orbit reconstruction still exist. Here, we show how the complete LOLA dataset at both poles can be adjusted geometrically to produce a high-accuracy, high-resolution maps with minimal track artifacts. We also describe how those maps can then feedback to the POD work, by providing topographic base maps with which individual LOLA altimetric measurements can be contributing to orbit changes. These direct altimetry constraints improve accuracy and can be used more simply than the altimetric crossovers [6].

  5. Two lunar global asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The Moon's center of mass is displaced from its center of figure about 2 km in a roughly earthward direction. Most maria are on the side of the Moon which faces the Earth. It is assumed that the Moon was initially spherically symmetric. The emplacement of mare basalts transfers mass which produces most of the observed center of mass displacement toward the Earth. The cause of the asymmetric distribution of lunar maria was examined. The Moon is in a spin orbit coupled relationship with the Earth and the effect of the Earth's gravity on the Moon is asymmetric. The earth-facing side of the Moon is a gravitational favored location for the extrusion of mare basalt magma in the same way that the topographically lower floor of a large impact basin is a gravitationally favored location. This asymmetric effect increases inversely with the fourth power of the Earth Moon distance. The history of the Earth-Moon system includes: formation of the Moon by accretion processes in a heliocentric orbit ner that of the Earth; a gravitational encounter with the Earth about 4 billion years ago resulting in capture of the Moon into a geocentric orbit and heating of the Moon through dissipation of energy related to tides raised during close approaches to the Earth(5) to produce mare basalt magma; and evolution of the Moon's orbit to its present position, slowly at first to accommodate more than 500 million years during which magmas were extruded.

  6. Deriving Physical Properties from Broadband Photometry with Prospector: Description of the Model and a Demonstration of its Accuracy Using 129 Galaxies in the Local Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leja, Joel; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Conroy, Charlie [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dokkum, Pieter G. van [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Byler, Nell [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98185 (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Broadband photometry of galaxies measures an unresolved mix of complex stellar populations, gas, and dust. Interpreting these data is a challenge for models: many studies have shown that properties derived from modeling galaxy photometry are uncertain by a factor of two or more, and yet answering key questions in the field now requires higher accuracy than this. Here, we present a new model framework specifically designed for these complexities. Our model, Prospector- α , includes dust attenuation and re-radiation, a flexible attenuation curve, nebular emission, stellar metallicity, and a six-component nonparametric star formation history. The flexibility and range of the parameter space, coupled with Monte Carlo Markov chain sampling within the Prospector inference framework, is designed to provide unbiased parameters and realistic error bars. We assess the accuracy of the model with aperture-matched optical spectroscopy, which was excluded from the fits. We compare spectral features predicted solely from fits to the broadband photometry to the observed spectral features. Our model predicts H α luminosities with a scatter of ∼0.18 dex and an offset of ∼0.1 dex across a wide range of morphological types and stellar masses. This agreement is remarkable, as the H α luminosity is dependent on accurate star formation rates, dust attenuation, and stellar metallicities. The model also accurately predicts dust-sensitive Balmer decrements, spectroscopic stellar metallicities, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mass fractions, and the age- and metallicity-sensitive features D{sub n}4000 and H δ . Although the model passes all these tests, we caution that we have not yet assessed its performance at higher redshift or the accuracy of recovered stellar masses.

  7. Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project is to extend current ground-based HRA risk prediction techniques to a long-duration, space-based tool. Ground-based HRA methodology has been shown to be a reasonable tool for short-duration space missions, such as Space Shuttle and lunar fly-bys. However, longer-duration deep-space missions, such as asteroid and Mars missions, will require the crew to be in space for as long as 400 to 900 day missions with periods of extended autonomy and self-sufficiency. Current indications show higher risk due to fatigue, physiological effects due to extended low gravity environments, and others, may impact HRA predictions. For this project, Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) will work with Human Health & Performance (HH&P) to establish what is currently used to assess human reliabiilty for human space programs, identify human performance factors that may be sensitive to long duration space flight, collect available historical data, and update current tools to account for performance shaping factors believed to be important to such missions. This effort will also contribute data to the Human Performance Data Repository and influence the Space Human Factors Engineering research risks and gaps (part of the HRP Program). An accurate risk predictor mitigates Loss of Crew (LOC) and Loss of Mission (LOM).The end result will be an updated HRA model that can effectively predict risk on long-duration missions.

  8. The Stratigraphy and Evolution of the Lunar Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, I. Stewart

    1998-01-01

    Reconstruction of stratigraphic relationships in the ancient lunar crust has proved to be a formidable task. The intense bombardment during the first 700 m.y. of lunar history has severely perturbed the original stratigraphy and destroyed the primary textures of all but a few nonmare rocks. However, a knowledge of the crustal stratigraphy as it existed prior to the cataclysmic bombardment about 3.9 Ga is essential to test the major models proposed for crustal origin, i.e., crystal fractionation in a global magmasphere or serial magmatism in a large number of smaller bodies. Despite the large difference in scale implicit in these two models, both require an efficient separation of plagioclase and mafic minerals to form the anorthositic crust and the mafic mantle. Despite the havoc wreaked by the large body impactors, these same impact processes have brought to the lunar surface crystalline samples derived from at least the upper half of the lunar crust, thereby providing an opportunity to reconstruct the stratigraphy in areas sampled by the Apollo missions. As noted, ejecta from the large multiring basins are dominantly, or even exclusively, of crustal origin. Given the most recent determinations of crustal thicknesses, this implies an upper limit to the depth of excavation of about 60 km. Of all the lunar samples studied, a small set has been recognized as "pristine", and within this pristine group, a small fraction have retained some vestiges of primary features formed during the earliest stages of crystallization or recrystallization prior to 4.0 Ga. We have examined a number of these samples that have retained some record of primary crystallization to deduce thermal histories from an analysis of structural, textural, and compositional features in minerals from these samples. Specifically, by quantitative modeling of (1) the growth rate and development of compositional profiles of exsolution lamellae in pyroxenes and (2) the rate of Fe-Mg ordering in

  9. Lunar surface engineering properties experiment definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Goodman, R. E.; Hurlbut, F. C.; Houston, W. N.; Willis, D. R.; Witherspoon, P. A.; Hovland, H. J.

    1971-01-01

    Research on the mechanics of lunar soils and on developing probes to determine the properties of lunar surface materials is summarized. The areas of investigation include the following: soil simulation, soil property determination using an impact penetrometer, soil stabilization using urethane foam or phenolic resin, effects of rolling boulders down lunar slopes, design of borehole jack and its use in determining failure mechanisms and properties of rocks, and development of a permeability probe for measuring fluid flow through porous lunar surface materials.

  10. Lunar power systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The findings of a study on the feasibility of several methods of providing electrical power for a permanently manned lunar base are provided. Two fundamentally different methods for lunar electrical power generation are considered. One is the use of a small nuclear reactor and the other is the conversion of solar energy to electricity. The baseline goal was to initially provide 300 kW of power with growth capability to one megawatt and eventually to 10 megawatts. A detailed, day by day scenario for the establishment, build-up, and operational activity of the lunar base is presented. Also presented is a conceptual approach to a supporting transportation system which identifies the number, type, and deployment of transportation vehicles required to support the base. An approach to the use of solar cells in the lunar environment was developed. There are a number of heat engines which are applicable to solar/electric conversions, and these are examined. Several approaches to energy storage which were used by the electric power utilities were examined and those which could be used at a lunar base were identified

  11. MyMoon: Engaging the “Missing Link” in Lunar Science Exploration through New Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A.; Shupla, C.; Shipp, S. S.; Eriksson, A.

    2009-12-01

    NASA’s new scientific exploration of the Moon, coupled with the public’s interest in the Moon and innovative social networking approaches, is being leveraged to engage a fresh adult audience in lunar science and exploration. In July 2009 the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) launched a lunar education new media portal, MyMoon. LPI is collaborating with lunar scientists, educators, artists - and the public - to populate the site with science content, diverse media exhibits, events, and opportunities for involvement. Through MyMoon, the general public interacts with lunar content that informs them about lunar science research and missions, and engages them in future plans for lunar exploration and eventual habitation. MyMoon’s objectives are to: 1) develop a dynamic, new media learning portal that will enable the general public, with a focus on adults ages 18-35; 2) host a growing, active audience that becomes further involved in NASA’s lunar exploration by sharing their ideas about lunar topics, creating their own materials, and participating in events and experiences; 3) build a community of enthusiasts through social networking media; 4) create a model for online engagement of audiences 18 to 35, and provide detailed evaluation data on best practices and strategies for success. Immersive new media technologies are changing the way that people interact, work, learn, and teach. These provide potentially high-impact opportunities for reaching an audience of young adults, age 18 to 35, that largely is not accessed by, or accessing, NASA (Dittmar, 2004). MyMoon strives to engage - and involve - this audience to build a community of enthusiasts for lunar scientific exploration through social networks and current and emerging new media platforms, including posting videos on YouTube, photo contests on Flickr, and sharing events and challenges on Facebook and Twitter. MyMoon features interactive exhibits that are audience driven and added on a quarterly basis

  12. Status and Future of Lunar Geoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986

    A review of the status, progress, and future direction of lunar research is presented in this report from the lunar geoscience working group of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Information is synthesized and presented in four major sections. These include: (1) an introduction (stating the reasons for lunar study and identifying…

  13. Nanophase Fe0 in lunar soils

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    globules that occur in the rinds of many soil grains and in the ... tinitic glass is a quenched product of silicate melts, also produced by micrometeorite impacts on lunar soils ..... stand impact processes and their products. ... cules at night; the earth's atmosphere by con- .... deep lunar interior from an inversion of lunar free oscil-.

  14. Lunar Gene Bank for Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Ramakrushna

    2016-07-01

    tissues may allow future cloning to restore biodiversity. Furthermore, there would be no scientific extinction. Location: After a thorough search, it has been concluded that the gene bank containing container should be buried under the regolith of the PSR of the base of Shoemaker Crater located near the Lunar South Pole, centered at 88.1 S, 45E. It provides diameter of 20-51km with an immense 100m ^{2} of PSR. The physical properties of the floor material can be modeled. This floor is known to be flat, providing simple geometry for understanding impact dynamics and the Ejecta plume in case required. In addition, about half of the crater floor is invisible from earth but access from polar lunar orbiter is good because a spacecraft would pass overhead every two hours. Hence, it enables easy storage, surveillance and prolonged retention of the proposed gene bank. Conclusion: Cryoconservation can add an important ethical component to the space programme and help raising public support. Conversely, the permanent safety of the genetic material can also make cryoconservation itself more attractive and fundable. Many nations may wish to participate to secure the genetic heritage of their unique biota and ethnic groups. It is highly advisable that developed countries associate with biologically rich countries to collect as many as genetic samples possible which they can include in their future lunar missions to secure the future of the living world. Until habitat losses are controlled, cryoconservation may provide the best chance to secure and eventually revive many endangered species. For this purpose, space-based depositories can provide precise conservation ,the most cost-effective and secure means for permanent storage of irreplaceable genetic materials with a single one time expenditure for ages instead of the prevalent ineffective conservation programs.

  15. Space nuclear tug mission applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, J.R.; Rauen, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    An initial assessment indicates that the NEBA-1 and NEBA-3 bimodal reactor designs can be integrated into a reusable tug which is capable of supporting many missions including GSO delivery, GSO retrieval, lunar trajectory deliveries, interplanetary deliveries, and a variety of satellite servicing. The tug close-quote s nuclear thermal propulsion provides timely transport and payload delivery, with GSO deliveries on the order of 3 endash 7 days. In general, the tug may provide a number of potential benefits to users. The tug may, for example, extend the life of an existing on-orbit spacecraft, boost spacecraft which were not delivered to their operational orbit, offer increased payload capability, or possibly allow payloads to launch on smaller less expensive launch vehicles. Reusing the tug for 5 or 10 missions requires total reactor burn times of 50 and 100 hours, respectively. Shielding, boom structure, and radiator requirements were identified as key factors in the configuration layout. Economic feasibility is still under evaluation, but preliminary estimates indicate that average flight costs may range from $32 M to $34 M for a 10-mission vehicle and from $39 M to $42 M for a 5-mission vehicle. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  16. Lunar Rotation, Orientation and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Ratcliff, J. T.; Boggs, D. H.

    2004-12-01

    The Moon is the most familiar example of the many satellites that exhibit synchronous rotation. For the Moon there is Lunar Laser Ranging measurements of tides and three-dimensional rotation variations plus supporting theoretical understanding of both effects. Compared to uniform rotation and precession the lunar rotational variations are up to 1 km, while tidal variations are about 0.1 m. Analysis of the lunar variations in pole direction and rotation about the pole gives moment of inertia differences, third-degree gravity harmonics, tidal Love number k2, tidal dissipation Q vs. frequency, dissipation at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and emerging evidence for an oblate boundary. The last two indicate a fluid core, but a solid inner core is not ruled out. Four retroreflectors provide very accurate positions on the Moon. The experience with the Moon is a starting point for exploring the tides, rotation and orientation of the other synchronous bodies of the solar system.

  17. Lunar heat-flow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langseth, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    The principal components of the experiment were probes, each with twelve thermometers of exceptional accuracy and stability, that recorded temperature variations at the surface and in the regolith down to 2.5 m. The Apollo 15 experiment and the Apollo 17 probes recorded lunar surface and subsurface temperatures. These data provided a unique and valuable history of the interaction of solar energy with lunar surface and the effects of heat flowing from the deep interior out through the surface of the moon. The interpretation of these data resulted in a clearer definition of the thermal and mechanical properties of the upper two meters of lunar regolith, direct measurements of the gradient in mean temperature due to heat flow from the interior and a determination of the heat flow at the Apollo 15 and Apollo 17 sites.

  18. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  19. Lunar geodesy and cartography: a new era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, Thomas; Smith, David; Robinson, Mark; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory; Danton, Jacob; Oberst, Juergen; Archinal, Brent; Glaeser, Philipp

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) ushers in a new era in precision lunar geodesy and cartography. LRO was launched in June, 2009, completed its Commissioning Phase in Septem-ber 2009 and is now in its Primary Mission Phase on its way to collecting high precision, global topographic and imaging data. Aboard LRO are the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA -Smith, et al., 2009) and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC -Robinson, et al., ). LOLA is a derivative of the successful MOLA at Mars that produced the global reference surface being used for all precision cartographic products. LOLA produces 5 altimetry spots having footprints of 5 m at a frequency of 28 Hz, significantly bettering MOLA that produced 1 spot having a footprint of 150 m at a frequency of 10 Hz. LROC has twin narrow angle cameras having pixel resolutions of 0.5 meters from a 50 km orbit and a wide-angle camera having a pixel resolution of 75 m and in up to 7 color bands. One of the two NACs looks to the right of nadir and the other looks to the left with a few hundred pixel overlap in the nadir direction. LOLA is mounted on the LRO spacecraft to look nadir, in the overlap region of the NACs. The LRO spacecraft has the ability to look nadir and build up global coverage as well as looking off-nadir to provide stereo coverage and fill in data gaps. The LROC wide-angle camera builds up global stereo coverage naturally from its large field-of-view overlap from orbit to orbit during nadir viewing. To date, the LROC WAC has already produced global stereo coverage of the lunar surface. This report focuses on the registration of LOLA altimetry to the LROC NAC images. LOLA has a dynamic range of tens of km while producing elevation data at sub-meter precision. LOLA also has good return in off-nadir attitudes. Over the LRO mission, multiple LOLA tracks will be in each of the NAC images at the lunar equator and even more tracks in the NAC images nearer the poles. The registration of LOLA

  20. Lunar Prospecting With Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Observations of the bright side of the Moon with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have detected oxygen, magnesium, aluminum and silicon over a large area of the lunar surface. The abundance and distribution of those elements will help to determine how the Moon was formed. "We see X-rays from these elements directly, independent of assumptions about the mineralogy and other complications," said Jeremy Drake of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., at a press conference at the "Four Years with Chandra" symposium in Huntsville, Alabama. "We have Moon samples from the six widely-space Apollo landing sites, but remote sensing with Chandra can cover a much wider area," continued Drake. "It's the next best thing to being there, and it's very fast and cost-effective." The lunar X-rays are caused by fluorescence, a process similar to the way that light is produced in fluorescent lamps. Solar X-rays bombard the surface of the Moon, knock electrons out of the inner parts of the atoms, putting them in a highly unstable state. Almost immediately, other electrons rush to fill the gaps, and in the process convert their energy into the fluorescent X-rays seen by Chandra. According to the currently popular "giant impact" theory for the formation of the Moon, a body about the size of Mars collided with the Earth about 4.5 billion years ago. This impact flung molten debris from the mantle of both the Earth and the impactor into orbit around the Earth. Over the course of tens of millions of years, the debris stuck together to form the Moon. By measuring the amounts of aluminum and other elements over a wide area of the Moon and comparing them to the Earth's mantle, Drake and his colleagues plan to help test the giant impact hypothesis. "One early result," quipped Drake, "is that there is no evidence for large amounts of calcium, so cheese is not a major constituent of the Moon." Illustration of Earth's Geocorona Illustration of Earth's Geocorona The same

  1. Uses for lunar crawler transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaden, Richard A.

    This article discusses state-of-the-art crawler transporters and expresses the need for additional research and development for lunar crawlers. The thrust of the paper illustrates how the basic crawler technology has progressed to a point where extremely large modules can be shop fabricated and move to some distant location at a considerable savings. Also, extremely heavy loads may be lifted by large crawler cranes and placed in designed locations. The Transi-Lift Crawler crane with its traveling counterweight is an attractive concept for lunar construction.

  2. Building lunar roads - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Bennett

    The problems involved in constructing lunar roads are explored. The main challenges are airlessness, low gravity, and solar effects, especially temperature extremes. Also involved are the expense of delivering equipment and material to the job site (especially for bridges and other structures), obtaining skilled labor, and providing maintenance. The lunar road will most likely be gravel, but with the size of the material closer to cobblestone to reduce scattering. They will probably be very winding, even on the flats, and feature numerous bridges and some cuts. This traffic will be mostly automatic or teleoperated cargo carriers with a handful of shirtsleeve-pressurized 'passenger cars' large enough to live in for several days.

  3. NASA Lunar Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo rocks and regolith soils first hand. Lunar samples embedded in plastic are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks has revealed the early history of our Earth-Moon system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet as well as connections to the basic lunar surface processes - impact and volcanism. With these samples educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by missions to Moon. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections of the rocks to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the violent impact history of the Moon. The disks also include two regolith soils and

  4. Estimate of safe human exposure levels for lunar dust based on comparative benchmark dose modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Santana, Patricia A; Scully, Robert R

    2013-04-01

    Brief exposures of Apollo astronauts to lunar dust occasionally elicited upper respiratory irritation; however, no limits were ever set for prolonged exposure to lunar dust. The United States and other space faring nations intend to return to the moon for extensive exploration within a few decades. In the meantime, habitats for that exploration, whether mobile or fixed, must be designed to limit human exposure to lunar dust to safe levels. Herein we estimate safe exposure limits for lunar dust collected during the Apollo 14 mission. We instilled three respirable-sized (∼2 μ mass median diameter) lunar dusts (two ground and one unground) and two standard dusts of widely different toxicities (quartz and TiO₂) into the respiratory system of rats. Rats in groups of six were given 0, 1, 2.5 or 7.5 mg of the test dust in a saline-Survanta® vehicle, and biochemical and cellular biomarkers of toxicity in lung lavage fluid were assayed 1 week and one month after instillation. By comparing the dose--response curves of sensitive biomarkers, we estimated safe exposure levels for astronauts and concluded that unground lunar dust and dust ground by two different methods were not toxicologically distinguishable. The safe exposure estimates were 1.3 ± 0.4 mg/m³ (jet-milled dust), 1.0 ± 0.5 mg/m³ (ball-milled dust) and 0.9 ± 0.3 mg/m³ (unground, natural dust). We estimate that 0.5-1 mg/m³ of lunar dust is safe for periodic human exposures during long stays in habitats on the lunar surface.

  5. Lunar phases and crisis center telephone calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J E; Tobacyk, J J

    1990-02-01

    The lunar hypothesis, that is, the notion that lunar phases can directly affect human behavior, was tested by time-series analysis of 4,575 crisis center telephone calls (all calls recorded for a 6-month interval). As expected, the lunar hypothesis was not supported. The 28-day lunar cycle accounted for less than 1% of the variance of the frequency of crisis center calls. Also, as hypothesized from an attribution theory framework, crisis center workers reported significantly greater belief in lunar effects than a non-crisis-center-worker comparison group.

  6. What is a lunar standstill III?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Duke Sims

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prehistoric monument alignments on lunar standstills are currently understood for horizon range, perturbation event, crossover event, eclipse prediction, solstice full Moon and the solarisation of the dark Moon. The first five models are found to fail the criteria of archaeoastronomy field methods. The final model of lunar-solar conflation draws upon all the observed components of lunar standstills – solarised reverse phased sidereal Moons culminating in solstice dark Moons in a roughly nine-year alternating cycle between major and minor standstills. This lunar-solar conflation model is a syncretic overlay upon an antecedent Palaeolithic template for lunar scheduled rituals and amenable to transformation.

  7. LRO-LAMP Observations of the Lunar Exosphere Coordinated with LADEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grava, C.; Retherford, K. D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Gladstone, R.; Hurley, D.; Cook, J. C.; Stern, S. A.; Feldman, P. D.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Miles, P. F.; Pryor, W. R.; Halekas, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    The polar orbiting Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) carried out an atmospheric campaign during the month of December 2013, at the same time the Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission was sampling the lunar exosphere in a retrograde equatorial orbit. Observations of the lunar exosphere were performed by LAMP during a solar "beta-90" geometry, i.e. riding along the lunar terminator. During this geometry, the LAMP nadir-pointed line of sight to the nightside surface also includes illuminated columns of foreground emissions from exospheric species, which is invaluable in the study of the tenuous lunar exosphere. Other types of maneuvers to probe the lunar exosphere were also performed by LAMP/LRO during this campaign. During backward pitch slews, the LRO spacecraft was pitched to look opposite its direction of motion to a point just inside the limb in the nightside region around the polar terminator. Forward pitch slews were also obtained, and the angles of 63 deg or 77 deg from nadir were set depending on the polar region observed. Finally, during lateral roll slews, LRO rotated by ~60 deg towards the nightside limb, maximizing the amount of illuminated atmosphere in the foreground probed by the LAMP field of view. We extract day to day density variations on helium and/or upper limits for numerous other species that were accessible to both LAMP and LADEE (e.g., Ar, Ne, O, and H2). Moreover, constraints on helium density will complement measurements of solar wind alpha particles (He++) from the ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, & Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun) mission. This comparison will provide a comprehensive picture of composition, abundance, and spatial and temporal variations of volatiles of the lunar exosphere, combining equatorial (LADEE) and polar (LAMP) measurements for the first time. Volatiles in the lunar exosphere, especially water, are of paramount

  8. Extreme Access & Lunar Ice Mining in Permanently Shadowed Craters Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Results from the recent LCROSS mission in 2010, indicate that H2O ice and other useful volatiles such as CO, He, and N are present in the permanently shadowed craters at the poles of the moon. However, the extreme topography and steep slopes of the crater walls make access a significant challenge. In addition temperatures have been measured at 40K (-233 C) so quick access and exit is desirable before the mining robot cold soaks. The Global Exploration Roadmap lists extreme access as a necessary technology for Lunar Exploration.

  9. NASA's Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Day, B. H.; Kim, R. M.; Bui, B.; Malhotra, S.; Chang, G.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Arevalo, E.; Vu, Q. A.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling Program produces a suite of online visualization and analysis tools. Originally designed for mission planning and science, these portals offer great benefits for education and public outreach (EPO), providing access to data from a wide range of instruments aboard a variety of past and current missions. As a component of NASA's Science EPO Infrastructure, they are available as resources for NASA STEM EPO programs, and to the greater EPO community. As new missions are planned to a variety of planetary bodies, these tools are facilitating the public's understanding of the missions and engaging the public in the process of identifying and selecting where these missions will land. There are currently three web portals in the program: the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal or LMMP (http://lmmp.nasa.gov), Vesta Trek (http://vestatrek.jpl.nasa.gov), and Mars Trek (http://marstrek.jpl.nasa.gov). Portals for additional planetary bodies are planned. As web-based toolsets, the portals do not require users to purchase or install any software beyond current web browsers. The portals provide analysis tools for measurement and study of planetary terrain. They allow data to be layered and adjusted to optimize visualization. Visualizations are easily stored and shared. The portals provide 3D visualization and give users the ability to mark terrain for generation of STL files that can be directed to 3D printers. Such 3D prints are valuable tools in museums, public exhibits, and classrooms - especially for the visually impaired. Along with the web portals, the program supports additional clients, web services, and APIs that facilitate dissemination of planetary data to a range of external applications and venues. NASA challenges and hackathons are also providing members of the software development community opportunities to participate in tool development and leverage data from the portals.

  10. The Design of Two Nano-Rovers for Lunar Surface Exploration in the Context of the Google Lunar X Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, E.; Honfi Camilo, L.; Kuystermans, P.; Maas, A. S. B. B.; Buutfeld, B. A. M.; van der Pols, R. H.

    2008-09-01

    This paper summarizes a study performed by ten students at the Delft University of Technology on a lunar exploration vehicle suited for competing in the Google Lunar X Prize1. The design philosophy aimed at a quick and simple design process, to comply with the mission constraints. This is achieved by using conventional technology and performing the mission with two identical rovers, increasing reliability and simplicity of systems. Both rovers are however capable of operating independently. The required subsystems have been designed for survival and operation on the lunar surface for an estimated mission lifetime of five days. This preliminary study shows that it is possible for two nano-rovers to perform the basic exploration tasks. The mission has been devised such that after launch the rovers endure a 160 hour voyage to the Moon after which they will land on Sinus Medii with a dedicated lunar transfer/lander vehicle. The mission outline itself has the two nano-rovers travelling in the same direction, moving simultaneously. This mission characteristic allows a quick take-over of the required tasks by the second rover in case of one rover breakdown. The main structure of the rovers will consist of Aluminium 2219 T851, due to its good thermal properties and high hardness. Because of the small dimensions of the rovers, the vehicles will use rigid caterpillar tracks as locomotion system. The track systems are sealed from lunar dust using closed track to prevent interference with the mechanisms. This also prevents any damage to the electronics inside the tracks. For the movement speed a velocity of 0.055 m/s has been determined. This is about 90% of the maximum rover velocity, allowing direct control from Earth. The rovers are operated by a direct control loop, involving the mission control center. In order to direct the rovers safely, a continuous video link with the Earth is necessary to assess its immediate surroundings. Two forward pointing navigational cameras

  11. A celestial assisted INS initialization method for lunar explorers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xiaolin; Wang, Longhua; Wu, Weiren; Fang, Jiancheng

    2011-01-01

    The second and third phases of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP) are planning to achieve Moon landing, surface exploration and automated sample return. In these missions, the inertial navigation system (INS) and celestial navigation system (CNS) are two indispensable autonomous navigation systems which can compensate for limitations in the ground based navigation system. The accurate initialization of the INS and the precise calibration of the CNS are needed in order to achieve high navigation accuracy. Neither the INS nor the CNS can solve the above problems using the ground controllers or by themselves on the lunar surface. However, since they are complementary to each other, these problems can be solved by combining them together. A new celestial assisted INS initialization method is presented, in which the initial position and attitude of the explorer as well as the inertial sensors' biases are estimated by aiding the INS with celestial measurements. Furthermore, the systematic error of the CNS is also corrected by the help of INS measurements. Simulations show that the maximum error in position is 300 m and in attitude 40″, which demonstrates this method is a promising and attractive scheme for explorers on the lunar surface.

  12. A Celestial Assisted INS Initialization Method for Lunar Explorers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Fang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The second and third phases of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP are planning to achieve Moon landing, surface exploration and automated sample return. In these missions, the inertial navigation system (INS and celestial navigation system (CNS are two indispensable autonomous navigation systems which can compensate for limitations in the ground based navigation system. The accurate initialization of the INS and the precise calibration of the CNS are needed in order to achieve high navigation accuracy. Neither the INS nor the CNS can solve the above problems using the ground controllers or by themselves on the lunar surface. However, since they are complementary to each other, these problems can be solved by combining them together. A new celestial assisted INS initialization method is presented, in which the initial position and attitude of the explorer as well as the inertial sensors’ biases are estimated by aiding the INS with celestial measurements. Furthermore, the systematic error of the CNS is also corrected by the help of INS measurements. Simulations show that the maximum error in position is 300 m and in attitude 40″, which demonstrates this method is a promising and attractive scheme for explorers on the lunar surface.

  13. The Origin of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; McLain, Hannah L.; Noble, Sarah K.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the amino acid content of seven lunar regolith samples returned by the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 missions and stored under NASA curation since collection using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Consistent with results from initial analyses shortly after collection in the 1970s, we observed amino acids at low concentrations in all of the curated samples, ranging from 0.2 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 42.7 ppb in hot-water extracts and 14.5 ppb to 651.1 ppb in 6M HCl acid-vapor-hydrolyzed, hot-water extracts. Amino acids identified in the Apollo soil extracts include glycine, D- and L-alanine, D- and L-aspartic acid, D- and L-glutamic acid, D- and L-serine, L-threonine, and L-valine, all of which had previously been detected in lunar samples, as well as several compounds not previously identified in lunar regoliths: -aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), D-and L-amino-n-butyric acid (-ABA), DL-amino-n-butyric acid, -amino-n-butyric acid, -alanine, and -amino-n-caproic acid. We observed an excess of the L enantiomer in most of the detected proteinogenic amino acids, but racemic alanine and racemic -ABA were present in some samples.

  14. SP-100 power system conceptual design for lunar base applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, L.S.; Bloomfield, H.S.; Hainley, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented for a nuclear power system utilizing an SP-100 reactor and multiple Stirling cycle engines for operation on the lunar surface. Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that this power plant could be a viable option for an evolutionary lunar base. The design concept consists of a 2500 kWt (kilowatt thermal) SP-100 reactor coupled to eight free-piston Stirling engines. Two of the engines are held in reserve to provide conversion system redundancy. The remaining engines operate at 91.7 percent of their rated capacity of 150 kWe. The design power level for this system is 825 kWe. Each engine has a pumped heat-rejection loop connected to a heat pipe radiator. Power system performance, sizing, layout configurations, shielding options, and transmission line characteristics are described. System components and integration options are compared for safety, high performance, low mass, and ease of assembly. The power plant was integrated with a proposed human lunar base concept to ensure mission compatibility. This study should be considered a preliminary investigation; further studies are planned to investigate the effect of different technologies on this baseline design

  15. A cislunar transportation system fuelled by lunar resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, G. F.

    2016-11-01

    A transportation system for a self sustaining economy in cislunar space is discussed. The system is based on liquid oxygen (LO2), liquid hydrogen (LH2) propulsion whose fuels are derived from ice mined at the polar regions of the Moon. The elements of the transportation system consist of the Advanced Cryogenic Evolved Stage (ACES) and the XEUS lander, both being developed by United Launch Alliance (ULA). The main propulsion elements and structures are common between ACES and XEUS. Both stages are fully reusable with refueling of their LO2/LH2 propellants. Utilization of lunar sourced propellants has the potential to dramatically lower the cost of transportation within the cislunar environs. These lower costs dramatically lower the barriers to entry of a number of promising cislunar based activities including space solar power. One early application of the architecture is providing lunar sourced propellant to refuel ACES for traditional spacecraft deployment missions. The business case for this application provides an economic framework for a potential lunar water mining operation.

  16. RESOLVE (Regolith & Environmental Science Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ray; Coan, Mary; Captain, Janine; Cryderman, Kate; Quinn, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The RESOLVE Project is a lunar prospecting mission whose primary goal is to characterize water and other volatiles in lunar regolith. The Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem is comprised of a fluid subsystem that transports flow to the gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MS) instruments that characterize volatiles and the Water Droplet Demonstration (WDD) that will capture and display water condensation in the gas stream. The LAVA Engineering Test Unit (ETU) is undergoing risk reduction testing this summer and fall within a vacuum chamber to understand and characterize component and integrated system performance. Testing of line heaters, printed circuit heaters, pressure transducers, temperature sensors, regulators, and valves in atmospheric and vacuum environments was done. Test procedures were developed to guide experimental tests and test reports to analyze and draw conclusions from the data. In addition, knowledge and experience was gained with preparing a vacuum chamber with fluid and electrical connections. Further testing will include integrated testing of the fluid subsystem with the gas supply system, near-infrared spectrometer for the Surge Tank (NIRST), WDD, Sample Delivery System, and GC-MS in the vacuum chamber. Since LAVA is a scientific subsystem, the near infrared spectrometer and GC-MS instruments will be tested during the ETU testing phase.

  17. Multivariate statistical analysis - an application to lunar materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, M.

    1978-01-01

    The compositional characteristics of clinopyroxenes and spinels - two minerals considered to be very useful in deciphering lunar history, have been studied using the multivariate statistical method of principal component analysis. The mineral-chemical data used are from certain lunar rocks and fines collected by Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 and Luna 16 and 20 missions, representing mainly the mare basalts and also non-mare basalts, breccia and rock fragments from the highland regions, in which a large number of these minerals have been analyzed. The correlations noted in the mineral compositions, indicating substitutional relationships, have been interpreted on the basis of available crystal-chemical and petrological informations. Compositional trends for individual specimens have been delineated and compared by producing ''principal latent vector diagrams''. The percent variance of the principal components denoted by the eigenvalues, have been evaluated in terms of the crystallization history of the samples. Some of the major petrogenetic implications of this study concern the role of early formed cumulate phases in the near-surface fractionation of mare basalts, mixing of mineral compositions in the highland regolith and the subsolidus reduction trends in lunar spinels. (auth.)

  18. Concept of Lunar Energy Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niino, Masayuki; Kisara, Katsuto; Chen, Lidong

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents a new concept of energy supply system named Lunar Energy Park (LEP) as one of the next-generation clean energy sources. In this concept, electricity is generated by nuclear power plants built on the moon and then transmitted to receiving stations on the earth by laser beam through transporting systems situated in geostationary orbit. The lunar nuclear power plants use a high-efficiency composite energy conversion system consisting of thermionic and thermoelectric generators to change nuclear thermal energy into electricity directly. The nuclear resources are considered to be available from the moon, and nuclear fuel transport from earth to moon is not necessary. Because direct energy conversion systems are employed, the lunar nuclear plants can be operated and controlled by robots and are maintenance-free, and so will cause no pollution to humans. The key technologies for LEP include improvements of conversion efficiency of both thermionic and thermoelectric converters, and developments of laser-beam power transmission technology as well. The details, including the construction of lunar nuclear plants, energy conversion and energy transmission systems, as well as the research plan strategies for this concept are reviewed.

  19. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXII

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM publication contains the extended abstracts that were accepted for presentation at the 32nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference held at Houston, TX, March 12-16, 2001. The papers are presented in PDF format and are indexed by author, keyword, meteorite, program and samples for quick reference.

  20. Predicting the Blast of Lunar Soil Under a Rocket's Exhaust Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Carlos J. Sanchez

    2007-01-01

    The blast of lunar soil represents a problem for the future missions planned for the moon. When the lander approached the ground during the Apollo missions, huge showers of dust particles were sent in all directions at extremely high velocities - including upwards towards the landing spacecraft. This represents a clear danger to the lander because the loss of visibility and the damage that can be produced to the vehicle itself. If there had been equipment on the ground, these showers of particles would have created a sand blasting effect over the equipment, possibly damaging optics and contaminating the equipment and depending on the size and velocity of the particles maybe even more extensive damage as the particles penetrated the outer surface of the equipment. Since the there is no air on the moon to slow down the particles, they can travel large distances at high speeds, in fact in some instances they can reach near escape velocity and go into an orbit around the moon and come all the way back to almost the same point where they were at the beginning; meaning that some of the lunar dust that came up during landing will shower back over the site. Once on the surface, the extremely fine dust had a habit of getting itself everywhere. During the Apollo missions it not only covered the astronauts' suits, but managed to work its way inside, damaging airtight joints and scratching up glass visors. The dust found its way inside the spacecraft, contaminating the floor and electronic systems inside, clogging air filters in the process. This is due to the fact that the lunar soil is extremely cohesive. The Lunar soil causes all of the same problems as sand does on Earth but unlike sand particles on Earth, which have smooth spherical shapes, the dust on the Moon is more like small particles of glass with sharper edges since there is no erosion on the lunar surface. During the Apollo missions the dust problem did not cause a big problem due to the fact of the length of

  1. An Evidence-based Approach to Developing a Management Strategy for Medical Contingencies on the Lunar Surface: The NASA/Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) 2006 Lunar Medical Contingency Simulation at Devon Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, R. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lee, P.; Comtois, J. M.; Chappell, S.; Rafiq, A.; Braham, S.; Hodgson, E.; Sullivan, P.; Wilkinson, N.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The lunar architecture for future sortie and outpost missions will require humans to serve on the lunar surface considerably longer than the Apollo moon missions. Although the Apollo crewmembers sustained few injuries during their brief lunar surface activity, injuries did occur and are a concern for the longer lunar stays. Interestingly, lunar medical contingency plans were not developed during Apollo. In order to develop an evidence-base for handling a medical contingency on the lunar surface, a simulation using the moon-Mars analog environment at Devon Island, Nunavut, high Canadian Arctic was conducted. Objectives of this study included developing an effective management strategy for dealing with an incapacitated crewmember on the lunar surface, establishing audio/visual and biomedical data connectivity to multiple centers, testing rescue/extraction hardware and procedures, and evaluating in suit increased oxygen consumption. Methods: A review of the Apollo lunar surface activities and personal communications with Apollo lunar crewmembers provided the knowledge base of plausible scenarios that could potentially injure an astronaut during a lunar extravehicular activity (EVA). Objectives were established to demonstrate stabilization and transfer of an injured crewmember and communication with ground controllers at multiple mission control centers. Results: The project objectives were successfully achieved during the simulation. Among these objectives were extraction from a sloped terrain by a two-member crew in a 1 g analog environment, establishing real-time communication to multiple centers, providing biomedical data to flight controllers and crewmembers, and establishing a medical diagnosis and treatment plan from a remote site. Discussion: The simulation provided evidence for the types of equipment and methods for performing extraction of an injured crewmember from a sloped terrain. Additionally, the necessary communications infrastructure to connect

  2. Integrated lunar materials manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Michael A. (Inventor); Knudsen, Christian W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A manufacturing plant and process for production of oxygen on the moon uses lunar minerals as feed and a minimum of earth-imported, process materials. Lunar feed stocks are hydrogen-reducible minerals, ilmenite and lunar agglutinates occurring in numerous, explored locations mixed with other minerals in the pulverized surface layer of lunar soil known as regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO.sub.3) and agglutinates contain ferrous (Fe.sup.+2) iron reducible by hydrogen to yield H.sub.2 O and metallic Fe at about 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. The H.sub.2 O is electrolyzed in gas phase to yield H.sub.2 for recycle and O.sub.2 for storage and use. Hydrogen losses to lunar vacuum are minimized, with no net hydrogen (or any other earth-derived reagent) consumption except for small leaks. Feed minerals are surface-mined by front shovels and transported in trucks to the processing area. The machines are manned or robotic. Ilmenite and agglutinates occur mixed with silicate minerals which are not hydrogen-reducible at 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. and consequently are separated and concentrated before feeding to the oxygen generation process. Solids rejected from the separation step and reduced solids from the oxygen process are returned to the mine area. The plant is powered by nuclear or solar power generators. Vapor-phase water electrolysis, a staged, countercurrent, fluidized bed reduction reactor and a radio-frequency-driven ceramic gas heater are used to improve thermal efficiency.

  3. Discussion of thermal extraction chamber concepts for Lunar ISRU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Matthias; Hager, Philipp; Parzinger, Stephan; Dirlich, Thomas; Spinnler, Markus; Sattelmayer, Thomas; Walter, Ulrich

    The Exploration group of the Institute of Astronautics (LRT) of the Technische Universitüt a München focuses on long-term scenarios and sustainable human presence in space. One of the enabling technologies in this long-term perspective is in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). When dealing with the prospect of future manned missions to Moon and Mars the use of ISRU seems useful and intended. The activities presented in this paper focus on Lunar ISRU. This basically incorporates both the exploitation of Lunar oxygen from natural rock and the extraction of solar wind implanted particles (SWIP) from regolith dust. Presently the group at the LRT is examining possibilities for the extraction of SWIPs, which may provide several gaseous components (such as H2 and N2) valuable to a human presence on the Moon. As a major stepping stone in the near future a Lunar demonstrator/ verification experiment payload is being designed. This experiment, LUISE (LUnar ISru Experiment), will comprise a thermal process chamber for heating regolith dust (grain size below 500m), a solar thermal power supply, a sample distribution unit and a trace gas analysis. The first project stage includes the detailed design and analysis of the extraction chamber concepts and the thermal process involved in the removal of SWIP from Lunar Regolith dust. The technique of extracting Solar Wind volatiles from Regolith has been outlined by several sources. Heating the material to a threshold value seems to be the most reasonable approach. The present paper will give an overview over concepts for thermal extraction chambers to be used in the LUISE project and evaluate in detail the pros and cons of each concept. The special boundary conditions set by solar thermal heating of the chambers as well as the material properties of Regolith in a Lunar environment will be discussed. Both greatly influence the design of the extraction chamber. The performance of the chamber concepts is discussed with respect to the

  4. Cross-calibration of Medium Resolution Earth Observing Satellites by Using EO-1 Hyperion-derived Spectral Surface Reflectance from "Lunar Cal Sites"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, S.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past 3 years, the Earth Observing-one (EO-1) Hyperion imaging spectrometer was used to slowly scan the lunar surface at a rate which results in up to 32X oversampling to effectively increase the SNR. Several strategies, including comparison against the USGS RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) mode,l are being employed to estimate the absolute and relative accuracy of the measurement set. There is an existing need to resolve discrepancies as high as 10% between ROLO and solar based calibration of current NASA EOS assets. Although the EO-1 mission was decommissioned at the end of March 2017, the development of a well-characterized exoatmospheric spectral radiometric database, for a range of lunar phase angles surrounding the fully illuminated moon, continues. Initial studies include a comprehensive analysis of the existing 17-year collection of more than 200 monthly lunar acquisitions. Specific lunar surface areas, such as a lunar mare, are being characterized as potential "lunar calibration sites" in terms of their radiometric stability in the presence of lunar nutation and libration. Site specific Hyperion-derived lunar spectral reflectance are being compared against spectrographic measurements made during the Apollo program. Techniques developed through this activity can be employed by future high-quality orbiting imaging spectrometers (such as HyspIRI and EnMap) to further refine calibration accuracies. These techniques will enable the consistent cross calibration of existing and future earth observing systems (spectral and multi-spectral) including those that do not have lunar viewing capability. When direct lunar viewing is not an option for an earth observing asset, orbiting imaging spectrometers can serve as transfer radiometers relating that asset's sensor response to lunar values through near contemporaneous observations of well characterized stable CEOS test sites. Analysis of this dataset will lead to the development of strategies to ensure more

  5. Diagnostic Imaging in the Medical Support of the Future Missions to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a course that reviews the diagnostic imaging techniques available for medical support on the future moon missions. The educational objectives of the course are to: 1) Update the audience on the curreultrasound imaging in space flight; 2) Discuss the unique aspects of conducting ultrasound imaging on ISS, interplanetary transit, ultrasound imaging on ISS, interplanetary transit, and lunar surface operations; and 3) Review preliminary data obtained in simulations of medical imaging in lunar surface operations.

  6. Application of Solar-Electric Propulsion to Robotic Missions in Near-Earth Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.; Dankanich, John

    2007-01-01

    Interest in applications of solar electric propulsion (SEP) is increasing. Application of SEP technology is favored when: (1) the mission is compatible with low-thrust propulsion, (2) the mission needs high total delta V such that chemical propulsion is disadvantaged; and (3) performance enhancement is needed. If all such opportunities for future missions are considered, many uses of SEP are likely. Representative missions are surveyed and several SEP applications selected for analysis, including orbit raising, lunar science and robotic exploration, and planetary science. These missions span SEP power range from 10 kWe to about 100 kWe. A SEP design compatible with small inexpensive launch vehicles, and capable of lunar science missions, is presented. Modes of use and benefits are described, and potential SEP evolution is discussed.

  7. Contingency Trajectory Design for a Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver Failure by the LADEE Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from a contingency trajectory analysis performed for the Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission in the event of a missed lunar-orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver by the LADEE spacecraft. The effects of varying solar perturbations in the vicinity of the weak stability boundary (WSB) in the Sun-Earth system on the trajectory design are analyzed and discussed. It is shown that geocentric recovery trajectory options existed for the LADEE spacecraft, depending on the spacecraft's recovery time to perform an Earth escape-prevention maneuver after the hypothetical LOI maneuver failure and subsequent path traveled through the Sun-Earth WSB. If Earth-escape occurred, a heliocentric recovery option existed, but with reduced science capacapability for the spacecraft in an eccentric, not circular near-equatorial retrograde lunar orbit.

  8. Lunar orbiter photographic atlas of the near side of the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Charles

    2005-01-01

    In 1967, Lunar Orbiter Mission 4 sent back to Earth a superb series of photographs of the surface of the Moon. Using 21st century computer techniques, Charles Byrne - previously System Engineer of the Apollo Program for Lunar Orbiter Photography - has removed the scanning artifacts and transmission imperfections to produce a most comprehensive and beautifully detailed set of images of the lunar surface. To help practical astronomers, all the photographs are systematically related to an Earth-based view. The book has been organized to make it easy for astronomers to use, enabling ground-based images and views to be compared with the Orbiter photographs. Every astronomer - amateur and professional - who is interested in the Moon will want this book in his library!.

  9. Proposed gravity-gradient dynamics experiments in lunar orbit using the RAE-B spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, D. L.; Walden, H.

    1973-01-01

    A series of seven gravity-gradient dynamics experiments is proposed utilizing the Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE-B) spacecraft in lunar orbit. It is believed that none of the experiments will impair the spacecraft structure or adversely affect the continuation of the scientific mission of the satellite. The first experiment is designed to investigate the spacecraft dynamical behavior in the absence of libration damper action and inertia. It requires stable gravity-gradient capture of the spacecraft in lunar orbit with small amplitude attitude librations as a prerequisite. Four subsequent experiments involve partial retraction, ultimately followed by full redeployment, of one or two of the 230-meter booms forming the lunar-directed Vee-antenna. These boom length change operations will induce moderate amplitude angular librations of the spacecraft.

  10. Restoration of APOLLO Data by the NSSDC and PDS Lunar Data Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Guinness, Edward A.; Taylor, Patrick T.; McBride, Marie J.

    2012-01-01

    The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Packages (ALSEPs), suites of instruments deployed by the Apollo 12. 14, 15, 16 and 17 astronauts on the lunar surface, still represent the only in-situ measurements of the Moon's environment taken over long time periods, Much of these data are housed at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at Goddard Space Flight Center but are in forms that are not readily usable, such as microfilm, hardcopy, and magnetic tapes with older, obsolete formats. The Lunar Data Node (LDN) has been formed under the auspices of the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node to put relevant, scientifically important Apollo data into accessible digital form for use by researchers and mission planners. The LDN has prioritized the restoration of these data based on their scientific and engineering value and the level of effort required. We will report on progress made and plans for future data restorations.

  11. Early Phase Contingency Trajectory Design for the Failure of the First Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver: Direct Recovery Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Joo; Bae, Jonghee; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Bang-Yeop

    2017-12-01

    To ensure the successful launch of the Korea pathfinder lunar orbiter (KPLO) mission, the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) is now performing extensive trajectory design and analysis studies. From the trajectory design perspective, it is crucial to prepare contingency trajectory options for the failure of the first lunar brake or the failure of the first lunar orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver. As part of the early phase trajectory design and analysis activities, the required time of flight (TOF) and associated delta-V magnitudes for each recovery maneuver (RM) to recover the KPLO mission trajectory are analyzed. There are two typical trajectory recovery options, direct recovery and low energy recovery. The current work is focused on the direct recovery option. Results indicate that a quicker execution of the first RM after the failure of the first LOI plays a significant role in saving the magnitudes of the RMs. Under the conditions of the extremely tight delta-V budget that is currently allocated for the KPLO mission, it is found that the recovery of the KPLO without altering the originally planned mission orbit (a 100 km circular orbit) cannot be achieved via direct recovery options. However, feasible recovery options are suggested within the boundaries of the currently planned delta-V budget. By changing the shape and orientation of the recovered final mission orbit, it is expected that the KPLO mission may partially pursue its scientific mission after successful recovery, though it will be limited.

  12. The Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) Paradigm Versus the Realities of Lunar Anorthosites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.; Gross, J.

    2018-05-01

    The paradigm of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) is inconsistent with much chemical and compositional data on lunar anorthosites. The paradigm of serial anorthosite diapirism is more consistent, though not a panacea.

  13. Understanding