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Sample records for lunar mare provinces

  1. Naming Lunar Mare Basalts: Quo Vadimus Redux

    Ryder, G.

    1999-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago, I noted that the nomenclature of lunar mare basalts was inconsistent, complicated, and arcane. I suggested that this reflected both the limitations of our understanding of the basalts, and the piecemeal progression made in lunar science by the nature of the Apollo missions. Although the word "classification" is commonly attached to various schemes of mare basalt nomenclature, there is still no classification of mare basalts that has any fundamental grounding. We remain basically at a classification of the first kind in the terms of Shand; that is, things have names. Quoting John Stuart Mill, Shand discussed classification of the second kind: "The ends of scientific classification are best answered when the objects are formed into groups respecting which a greater number of propositions can be made, and those propositions more important than could be made respecting any other groups into which the same things could be distributed." Here I repeat some of the main contents of my discussion from a decade ago, and add a further discussion based on events of the last decade. A necessary first step of sample studies that aims to understand lunar mare basalt processes is to associate samples with one another as members of the same igneous event, such as a single eruption lava flow, or differentiation event. This has been fairly successful, and discrete suites have been identified at all mare sites, members that are eruptively related to each other but not to members of other suites. These eruptive members have been given site-specific labels, e.g., Luna24 VLT, Apollo 11 hi-K, A12 olivine basalts, and Apollo 15 Green Glass C. This is classification of the first kind, but is not a useful classification of any other kind. At a minimum, a classification is inclusive (all objects have a place) and exclusive (all objects have only one place). The answer to "How should rocks be classified?" is far from trivial, for it demands a fundamental choice about nature

  2. Vertical movement in mare basins: relation to mare emplacement, basin tectonics, and lunar thermal history

    Solomon, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    The spatial and temporal relationships of linear rilles and mare ridges in the Serenitatis basin region of the moon are explained by a combination of lithospheric flexure in response to basin loading by basalt fill and a time-dependent global stress due to the thermal evolution of the lunar interior. The pertinent tectonic observations are the radial distance of basin concentric rilles or graben from the mare center; the location and orientation of mare ridges, interpreted as compressive features; and the restriction of graben formation to times older than 3.6 +- 0.2 b.y. ago, while ridge formation continued after emplacement of the youngest mare basalt unit (approx.3 b.y. ago). The locations of the graben are consistent with the geometry of the mare basalt load expected from the dimensions of multiring basins for values of the thickness of the elastic lithosphere beneath Serenitatis in the range 25--50 km at 3.6--3.8 b.y. ago. The locations and orientations of mare ridges are consistent with the load inferred from surface mapping and subsurface radar reflections for values of the elastic lithosphere thickness near 100 km at 3.0--3.4 b.y. ago. The thickening of the lithosphere beneath a major basin during the evolution of mare volcanism is thus clearly evident in the tectonics. The cessation of rille formation and the prolonged period of ridge formation are attributed to a change in the global horizontal thermal stress from extension to compression as the moon shifted from net expansion to overall cooling and contraction. Severe limits as placed on the range of possible lunar thermal histories. The zone of horizontal extensional stresses peripheral to mare loads favors the edge of mare basins as the preferred sites for mare basalt magma eruption in the later stages of mare fill, although subsidence may lead to accumulation of such young lavas in basin centers

  3. Displacement-length ratios and contractional strains of lunar wrinkle ridges in Mare Serenitatis and Mare Tranquillitatis

    Li, Bo; Ling, Zongcheng; Zhang, Jiang; Chen, Jian; Ni, Yuheng; Liu, Chunli

    2018-04-01

    Wrinkle ridges are complex thrust faults commonly found in lunar mare basalts and caused by compressional stresses from both local basin and global Moon. In this paper, we select 59 single wrinkle ridges in Mare Serenitatis and 39 single wrinkle ridges in Mare Tranquillitatis according to WAC mosaic image. For each wrinkle ridge, several topographic profiles near its midpoint are generated to measure its height and maximum displacement (Dmax) through LOLA DEM data. Then we make 2D plots of displacement-length (L) for ridge population in the two maria. The Dmax-L ratios (γ) are derived by a linear fit method according to the D-L data. The γ value (2.13 × 10-2) of ridges in Mare Tranquillitatis is higher than the γ value (1.73 × 10-2) of ridges in Mare Serenitatis. In the last, the contractional strains (ε) in Mare Serenitatis and Mare Tranquillitatis are estimated to be ∼0.36% and 0.14% (assuming the fault plane dip θ is 25°). The values of the free-air gravity anomalies in Mare Serenitatis range from 78 to 358 mGal higher than those of the gravity anomalies in Mare Tranquillitatis which range from -70 to 120 mGal. The average thickness of basalts in Mare Tranquillitatis is 400 m, while that of basalts in Mare Serenitatis is 798 m. Moreover, the average age for ridge group in Mare Serenitatis is bigger than the wrinkle ridge's age in Mare Tranquillitatis. The formation of ridge group in Mare Serenitatis takes longer time than that in Mare Serenitatis. Therefore, we think the higher value of gravity anomalies, thicker basaltic units and longer formation time for wrinkle ridge in Mare Serenitatis maybe result in the higher value of contractional strain, although the formation of Tranquillitatis basin is earlier than that of Serenitatis basin.

  4. Characteristics in mineral compositions of lunar latest mare volcanism revealed from spectral data

    Kato, S.; Morota, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Otake, H.; Ohtake, M.; Nimura, T.

    2016-12-01

    Lunar mare basalts provide insights into the composition and thermal history of the lunar mantle. According to crater counting analysis with remote sensing data, the ages of mare basalts suggest a first peak of magma activity at 3.2-3.8 Ga and a second peak at 2 Ga. In order to understand the mechanism for causing the second peak and its magma source, we reassess the correlation between the titanium contents and the eruption ages of mare basalt units using the compositional and chronological data updated by SELENE (Kaguya). In the Procellarum KREEP Terrane, where the latest mare basalt units are concentrated, an increase in the mean titanium content is observed in the Eratosthenian Period, as reported by previous studies. We found that, however, a rapid increase in mean titanium content occurred near 2.3 Ga. This result suggests that the magma source of the mare basalts changed at this particular age. Moreover, the high-titanium basaltic eruptions are correlated with the second peak in mare volcanism at 2 Ga. The latest mare volcanism may have been induced by a super-hot plume originating from the core-mantle boundary. In this study, to reveal the difference between the volcanic activities before and after 2.3 Ga, we developed the method to estimate the mineral components and elemental compositions of lunar mare basalts by using the Kaguya Spectral Profiler data. We will introduce the detail of the method and discuss about the difference between the mineral compositions of mare basalts before and after 2.3 Ga based on our preliminary results.

  5. Geologic structure of the eastern mare basins. [lunar basalts

    Dehon, R. A.; Waskom, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The thickness of mare basalts in the eastern maria are estimated and isopachs of the basalts are constructed. Sub-basalt basin floor topography is determined, and correlations of topographic variations of the surface with variations in basalt thickness or basin floor topography are investigated.

  6. Lunar mare TiO2 abundances estimated from UV/Vis reflectance

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Robinson, Mark S.; Lawrence, Samuel J.; Denevi, Brett W.; Hapke, Bruce; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Hiesinger, Harald

    2017-11-01

    The visible (400-700 nm) and near-infrared (700-2800 nm) reflectance of the lunar regolith is dominantly controlled by variations in the abundance of plagioclase, iron-bearing silicate minerals, opaque minerals (e.g., ilmenite), and maturation products (e.g., agglutinate glass, radiation-produced rims on soil grains, and Fe-metal). The same materials control reflectance into the near-UV (250-400 nm) with varying degrees of importance. A key difference is that while ilmenite is spectrally neutral in the visible to near-infrared, it exhibits a diagnostic upturn in reflectance in the near-UV, at wavelengths shorter than about 450 nm. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera (WAC) filters were specifically designed to take advantage of this spectral feature to enable more accurate mapping of ilmenite within mare soils than previously possible. Using the reflectance measured at 321 and 415 nm during 62 months of repeated near-global WAC observations, first we found a linear correlation between the TiO2 contents of the lunar soil samples and the 321/415 nm ratio of each sample return site. We then used the coefficients from the linear regression and the near-global WAC multispectral mosaic to derive a new TiO2 map. The average TiO2 content is 3.9 wt% for the 17 major maria. The highest TiO2 values were found in Mare Tranquillitatis (∼12.6 wt%) and Oceanus Procellarum (∼11.6 wt%). Regions contaminated by highland ejecta, lunar swirls, and the low-TiO2 maria (e.g., Mare Frigoris, the northeastern units of Mare Imbrium) exhibit very low TiO2 values (2.6 Ga), whereas only medium to high TiO2 values (average = 6.8 wt%, minimum = 4.5 wt%) are found for younger mare units (<2.6 Ga).

  7. Moon Diver: A Discovery Mission Concept for Understanding the History of the Mare Basalts Through the Exploration of a Lunar Mare Pit

    Kerber, L.; Nesnas, I.; Keszthelyi, L.; Head, J. W.; Denevi, B.; Hayne, P. O.; Mitchell, K.; Ashley, J. W.; Whitten, J. L.; Stickle, A. M.; Parness, A.; McGarey, P.; Paton, M.; Donaldson-Hanna, K.; Anderson, R. C.; Needham, D.; Isaacson, P.; Jozwiak, L.; Bleacher, J.; Parcheta, C.

    2018-04-01

    Moon Diver is a Discovery-class mission concept designed to explore a lunar mare pit. It would be the first mission to examine an in-place bedrock stratigraphy on the Moon, and the first to venture into the subsurface of another planetary body.

  8. Stratigraphy and structural evolution of southern Mare Serenitatis - A reinterpretation based on Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment data

    Sharpton, V. L.; Head, J. W., III

    1983-01-01

    Two subsurface reflecting horizons have been detected by the Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment (ALSE) in the southern Mare Serenitatis which appear to be regolith layers more than 2 m thick, and are correlated with major stratigraphic boundaries in the southeastern Mare Serenitatis. The present stratigraphic boundaries in the southeastern Mare Serenitatis. The present analysis implies that the lower horizon represents the interface between the earliest mare unit and the modified Serenitatis basin material below. The depth of volcanic fill within Serenitatis is highly variable, with an average thickness of mare basalts under the ALSE ground track of 1.6 km. Comparisons with the Orientale basin topography suggests that a major increaae in load thickness could occur a few km basinward of the innermost extent of the traverse. The history of volcanic infilling of Mare Serenitatis was characterized by three major episodes of volcanism.

  9. Characterization and Distribution of Lunar Mare Basalt Types Using Remote Sensing Techniques. Ph.D. Thesis

    Pieters, C.

    1977-01-01

    The types of basal to be found on the moon were identified using reflectance spectra from a variety of lunar mare surfaces and craters as well as geochemical interpretations of laboratory measurements of reflectance from lunar, terrestrial, and meteoritic samples. Findings indicate that major basaltic units are not represented in lunar sample collections. The existence of late stage high titanium basalts is confirmed. All maria contain lateral variations of compositionally heterogenous basalts; some are vertically inhomogenous with distinctly different subsurface composition. Some basalt types are spectrally gradational, suggesting minor variations in composition. Mineral components of unsampled units can be defined if spectra are obtained with sufficient spectral coverage (.3 to 2.5 micron m) and spatial resolution (approximating .5 km).

  10. Preliminary Regional Analysis of the Kaguya Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) Data through Eastern Mare Imbrium

    Cooper, B.L.; Antonenko, I.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Osinski, G.; Ono, T.; Ku-mamoto, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) experiment on board the Kaguya spacecraft is observing the subsurface structure of the Moon, using ground-penetrating radar operating in the frequency range of 5 MHz [1]. Because LRS data provides in-formation about lunar features below the surface, it allows us to improve our understanding of the processes that formed the Moon, and the post-formation changes that have occurred (such as basin formation and volcanism). We look at a swath of preliminary LRS data, that spans from 7 to 72 N, and from 2 to 10 W, passing through the eastern portion of Mare Imbrium (Figure 1). Using software, designed for the mineral exploration industry, we produce a preliminary, coarse 3D model, showing the regional structure beneath the study area. Future research will involve smaller subsets of the data in regions of interest, where finer structures, such as those identified in [2], can be studied.

  11. Lunar mare volcanism - Stratigraphy, eruption conditions, and the evolution of secondary crusts

    Head, James W., III; Wilson, Lionel

    1992-01-01

    Recent developments in the geological analysis of lunar mare volcanism are reviewed. Analysis of returned samples and photogeological and remote sensing studies shows that mare volcanism began prior to the end of heavy bombardment (the period of cryptomare formation), in pre-Nectarian times, and continued until the Copernical Period, the total duration approaching 3.5-4 Ga. Stratigraphic analysis shows that the flux was not constant, but peaked in early lunar history, during the Imbrian Period. Average volcanic output rate during this period was about 0.01 cu cm/a. Volcanic landforms indicate that many eruptions were of high volume and long duration. Some eruptions associated with sinuous rills may have lasted a year and emplaced 1000 cu km of lava, representing the equivalent in one year of about 70,000 yr at the average flux. The occurrence of farside maria within craters whose diameter is generally near to or less than the thickness of the crust may be accounted for by the difference between local and regional compensation.

  12. GN and C Subsystem Concept for Safe Precision Landing of the Proposed Lunar MARE Robotic Science Mission

    Carson, John M., III; Johnson, Andrew E.; Anderson, F. Scott; Condon, Gerald L.; Nguyen, Louis H.; Olansen, Jon B.; Devolites, Jennifer L.; Harris, William J.; Hines, Glenn D.; Lee, David E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Lunar MARE (Moon Age and Regolith Explorer) Discovery Mission concept targets delivery of a science payload to the lunar surface for sample collection and dating. The mission science is within a 100-meter radius region of smooth lunar maria terrain near Aristarchus crater. The location has several small, sharp craters and rocks that present landing hazards to the spacecraft. For successful delivery of the science payload to the surface, the vehicle Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) subsystem requires safe and precise landing capability, so design infuses the NASA Autonomous precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) and a gimbaled, throttleable LOX/LCH4 main engine. The ALHAT system implemented for Lunar MARE is a specialization of prototype technologies in work within NASA for the past two decades, including a passive optical Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) sensor, a Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) velocity and range sensor, and a Lidar-based Hazard Detection (HD) sensor. The landing descent profile is from a retrograde orbit over lighted terrain with landing near lunar dawn. The GN&C subsystem with ALHAT capabilities will deliver the science payload to the lunar surface within a 20-meter landing ellipse of the target location and at a site having greater than 99% safety probability, which minimizes risk to safe landing and delivery of the MARE science payload to the intended terrain region.

  13. Comparative Mineralogy, Microstructure and Compositional Trends in the Sub-Micron Size Fractions of Mare and Highland Lunar Soils

    Thompson, M. S.; Christoffersen, R.; Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    The morphology, mineralogy, chemical composition and optical properties of lunar soils show distinct correlations as a function of grain size and origin [1,2,3]. In the fraction, there is an increased correlation between lunar surface properties observed through remote sensing techniques and those attributed to space weathering phenomenae [1,2]. Despite the establishment of recognizable trends in lunar grains fraction fraction for both highland and mare derived soils. The properties of these materials provide the focus for many aspects of lunar research including the nature of space weathering on surface properties, electrostatic grain transport [4,5] and dusty plasmas [5]. In this study, we have used analytical transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) to characterize the mineralogy type, microstructure and major element compositions of grains in this important size range in lunar soils.

  14. Remote sensing of potential lunar resources. 2: High spatial resolution mapping of spectral reflectance ratios and implications for nearside mare TiO2 content`

    Melendrez, David E.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Larson, Stephen M.; Singer, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    High spatial resolution maps illustrating variations in spectral reflectance 400/560 nm ratio values have been generated for the following mare regions: (1) the border between southern Mare Serenitatis and northern Mare Tranquillitatis (including the MS-2 standard area and Apollo 17 landing site), (2) central Mare Tranquillitatis, (3) Oceanus Procellarum near Seleucus, and (4) southern Oceanus Procellarum and Flamsteed. We have also obtained 320-1000 nm reflectance spectra of several sites relative to MS-2 to facilitate scaling of the images and provide additional information on surface composition. Inferred TiO2 abundances for these mare regions have been determined using an empirical calibration which relates the weight percent TiO2 in mature mare regolith to the observed 400/560 nm ratio. Mare areas with high TiO2 abundances are probably rich in ilmenite (FeTiO3) a potential lunar resource. The highest potential TiO2 concentrations we have identified in the nearside maria occur in central Mare Tranquillitatis. Inferred TiO2 contents for these areas are greater than 9 wt% and are spatially consistent with the highest-TiO2 regions mapped previously at lower spatial resolution. We note that the morphology of surface units with high 400/560 nm ratio values increases in complexity at higher spatial resolutions. Comparisons have been made with previously published geologic maps, Lunar Orbiter IV, and ground-based images, and some possible morphologic correlatins have been found between our mapped 400/560 nm ratio values and volcanic landforms such as lava flows, mare domes, and collapse pits.

  15. Consortium study of lunar meteorites Yamato-793169 and Asuka-881757: Geochemical evidence of mutual similarity, and dissimilarity versus other mare basalts

    Warren, Paul H.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

    1993-01-01

    Compositions of bulk powders and separated minerals from two meteorites derived from the mare lava plains of the Earth's Moon, Yamato-793169 and Asuka-881757, indicate a remarkable degree of similarity to one another, and clearly favor lunar origin. However, these meteorites are unlike any previously studied lunar rock. In both cases, the bulk-rock TiO2 content is slightly greater than the level separating VLT from low-Ti mare basalt, yet the Sc content is much higher than previously observed except among high-Ti mare basalts. Conceivably, the Sc enrichment in A881757 reflects origin of this rock as a cumulate from a mare magma of 'normal' Sc content, but this seems unlikely. Mineral-separate data suggest that most of the Sc is in pyroxene, and a variety of evidence weighs against the cumulus hypothesis as a major cause for the high Sc. The remarkable similarity between Y793169 and A881757 suggests the possibility that they were derived from a single source crater on the Moon.

  16. Ion microprobe mass analysis of plagioclase from 'non-mare' lunar samples

    Meyer, C., Jr.; Anderson, D. H.; Bradley, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    The ion microprobe was used to measure the composition and distribution of trace elements in lunar plagioclase, and these analyses are used as criteria in determining the possible origins of some nonmare lunar samples. The Apollo 16 samples with metaclastic texture and high-bulk trace-element contents contain plagioclase clasts with extremely low trace-element contents. These plagioclase inclusions represent unequilibrated relicts of anorthositic, noritic, or troctolitic rocks that have been intermixed as a rock flour into the KREEP-rich matrix of these samples. All of the plagioclase-rich inclusions which were analyzed in the KREEP-rich Apollo 14 breccias were found to be rich in trace elements. This does not seem to be consistent with the interpretation that the Apollo 14 samples represent a pre-Imbrium regolith, because such an ancient regolith should have contained many plagioclase clasts with low trace-element contents more typical of plagioclase from the pre-Imbrium crust. Ion-microprobe analyses for Ba and Sr in large plagioclase phenocrysts in 14310 and 68415 are consistent with the bulk compositions of these rocks and with the known distribution coefficients for these elements. The distribution coefficient for Li (basaltic liquid/plagioclase) was measured to be about 2.

  17. Lunar mare deposits associated with the Orientale impact basin: New insights into mineralogy, history, mode of emplacement, and relation to Orientale Basin evolution from Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data from Chandrayaan-1

    Whitten, J.; Head, J.W.; Staid, M.; Pieters, C.M.; Mustard, J.; Clark, R.; Nettles, J.; Klima, R.L.; Taylor, L.

    2011-01-01

    Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) image and spectral reflectance data are combined to analyze mare basalt units in and adjacent to the Orientale multiring impact basin. Models are assessed for the relationships between basin formation and mare basalt emplacement. Mare basalt emplacement on the western nearside limb began prior to the Orientale event as evidenced by the presence of cryptomaria. The earliest post-Orientale-event mare basalt emplacement occurred in the center of the basin (Mare Orientale) and postdated the formation of the Orientale Basin by about 60-100 Ma. Over the next several hundred million years, basalt patches were emplaced first along the base of the Outer Rook ring (Lacus Veris) and then along the base of the Cordillera ring (Lacus Autumni), with some overlap in ages. The latest basalt patches are as young as some of the youngest basalt deposits on the lunar nearside. M3 data show several previously undetected mare patches on the southwestern margins of the basin interior. Regardless, the previously documented increase in mare abundance from the southwest toward the northeast is still prominent. We attribute this to crustal and lithospheric trends moving from the farside to the nearside, with correspondingly shallower density and thermal barriers to basaltic magma ascent and eruption toward the nearside. The wide range of model ages for Orientale mare deposits (3.70-1.66 Ga) mirrors the range of nearside mare ages, indicating that the small amount of mare fill in Orientale is not due to early cessation of mare emplacement but rather to limited volumes of extrusion for each phase during the entire period of nearside mare basalt volcanism. This suggests that nearside and farside source regions may be similar but that other factors, such as thermal and crustal thickness barriers to magma ascent and eruption, may be determining the abundance of surface deposits on the limbs and farside. The sequence, timing, and elevation of mare basalt deposits

  18. Interpretation of lunar heat flow data

    Conel, J.E.; Morton, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    Lunar heat flow observations at the Apollo 15 and 17 sites can be interpreted to imply bulk U concentrations for the Moon of 5 to 8 times those of normal chondrites and 2 to 4 times terrestrial values inferred from the Earth's heat flow and the assumption of thermal steady state between surface heat flow and heat production. A simple model of nearsurface structure that takes into account the large difference in (highly insulating) regolith thickness between mare and highland provinces is considered. This model predicts atypically high local values of heat flow near the margins of mare regions--possibly a factor of 10 or so higher than the global average. A test of the proposed model using multifrequency microwave techniques appears possible wherein heat flow traverse measurements are made across mare-highland contacts. The theoretical considerations discussed here urge caution in attributing global significance to point heat-flow measurements on the Moon

  19. Petrology of lunar rocks and implication to lunar evolution

    Ridley, W. I.

    1976-01-01

    Recent advances in lunar petrology, based on studies of lunar rock samples available through the Apollo program, are reviewed. Samples of bedrock from both maria and terra have been collected where micrometeorite impact penetrated the regolith and brought bedrock to the surface, but no in situ cores have been taken. Lunar petrogenesis and lunar thermal history supported by studies of the rock sample are discussed and a tentative evolutionary scenario is constructed. Mare basalts, terra assemblages of breccias, soils, rocks, and regolith are subjected to elemental analysis, mineralogical analysis, trace content analysis, with studies of texture, ages and isotopic composition. Probable sources of mare basalts are indicated.

  20. Trace element partitioning between ilmenite, armalcolite and anhydrous silicate melt: Implications for the formation of lunar high-Ti mare basalts

    Kan Parker, M. van; Mason, P.R.D.; Westrenen, W. van

    2011-01-01

    We performed a series of experiments at high pressures and temperatures to determine the partitioning of a wide range of trace elements between ilmenite (Ilm), armalcolite (Arm) and anhydrous lunar silicate melt, to constrain geochemical models of the formation of titanium-rich melts in the Moon.

  1. Closer look at lunar volcanism

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry

  2. Determination of the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and evaluation of molecular characterization of Escherichia coli (E-coli separated of them in mares repeat breeder in Yazd province

    Taktaz Hafshejani Taghi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli are known as the most common cause of reproductive tract infection in mare. Due to the progressive process of antibiotics use and increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance, the aim of this study is evaluate the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and antibiotic resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated. In this study, 60 mares were used with infertility background. Diagnosis of endometritis was performed using history and ultrasonography. Cytology, culture, Antibiogram were done of samples and PCR test was used to examine the gene virulence and antibiotic resistance. E-coli bacteria was isolated 48/33 % from sample culture. In PCR test 66/21 % of bacteria had virulence gene. It was determined, the lowest resistance to chloramphenicol about 38/15% and greatest resistance into ampicillin, tetracycline and streptomycin with 23/69 percent, respectively. 93% samples cytology had neutrophil more than two and the agent of 50% showed E. coli. The cause of half of subclinical endometritis in infertile maresis E-coli bacteriaEscherichia coli are known as the most common cause of reproductive tract infection in mare. Due to the progressive process of antibiotics use and increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance, the aim of this study is evaluate the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and antibiotic resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated. In this study, 60 mares were used with infertility background. Diagnosis of endometritis was performed using history and ultrasonography. Cytology, culture, Antibiogram were done of samples and PCR test was used to examine the gene virulence and antibiotic resistance. E-coli bacteria was isolated 48/33 % from sample culture. In PCR test 66/21 % of bacteria had virulence gene. It was determined, the lowest resistance to chloramphenicol about 38/15% and greatest resistance into ampicillin, tetracycline and streptomycin with 23/69 percent, respectively. 93% samples cytology had

  3. Far-Ultraviolet Characteristics of Lunar Swirls

    Hendrix, A. R.; Greathouse, T. K.; Retherford, K. D.; Mandt, K. E.; Gladstone, G. R.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Hurley, D. M.; Feldman, P. D.; Pryor, W. R.; Bullock, M. A.; Stern, S. A.

    2015-10-01

    Lunar swirls are often described as bright sinuous regions of the Moon that appear to be relatively immature -i.e. less space-weathered than surrounding regions. Swirls are mysterious but seem to be linked to the interaction between the solar wind and the lunar magnetic anomalies (e.g., [1]). Commonly-studied swirls include Mare Ingenii (in a mare- highlands boundary region), Reiner Gamma (in a mare region), and Gerasimovich (in a highlands region). Swirls are known to be surface features: they have no expression at radar depths [2], exhibit no topography, and craters on swirls that penetrate the bright surface terrain reveal underlying dark material [3].

  4. Beneficiation of lunar ilmenite

    Ruiz, Joaquin

    1991-01-01

    One of the most important commodities lacking in the moon is free oxygen which is required for life and used extensively for propellent. Free oxygen, however, can be obtained by liberating it from the oxides and silicates that form the lunar rocks and regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO3) is considered one of the leading candidates for production of oxygen because it can be reduced with a reasonable amount of energy and it is an abundant mineral in the lunar regolith and many mare basalts. In order to obtain oxygen from ilmenite, a method must be developed to beneficiate ilmenite from lunar material. Two possible techniques are electrostatic or magnetic methods. Both methods have complications because lunar ilmenite completely lacks Fe(3+). Magnetic methods were tested on eucrite meteorites, which are a good chemical simulant for low Ti mare basalts. The ilmenite yields in the experiments were always very low and the eucrite had to be crushed to xxxx. These data suggest that magnetic separation of ilmenite from fine grain lunar basalts would not be cost effective. Presently, experiments are being performed with electrostatic separators, and lunar regolith is being waited for so that simulants do not have to be employed.

  5. Hadley Rille, lava tubes and mare volcanism at the Apollo 15 site

    Greeley, R.; Spudis, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    Hadley Rille appears to be a collapsed lava tube/channel, whose formation history may be more intimately related to the mare units sampled at 15 than was previously thought. More work is needed relating samples and observations from Apollo 15 to the rille and its geologic evolution. As the only sinuous rille visited during the Apollo missions, Hadley Rille represents a data source that is directly applicable to the deciphering of processes involved in lunar mare volcanism

  6. Investigating the stratigraphy of Mare Imbrium flow emplacement with Earth-based radar

    Morgan, G. A.; Campbell, B. A.; Campbell, D. B.; Hawke, B. R.

    2016-08-01

    The lunar maria are the product of extensive basaltic volcanism that flooded widespread portions of the Moon's surface. Constraining mare volcanic history therefore provides a window into the endogenic processes responsible for shaping the Moon. Due to the low magma viscosity and the associated thin nature of lava units, the majority of mare surface structures are masked and subdued by impact regolith. Subtle individual mare flow morphologies, coupled with spatial limitations in the use of crater size distributions to distinguish surface units close in age, restrict our understanding of mare stratigraphy. Earth-based 70 cm wavelength (P band) radar can reveal features beneath the regolith and highlight very subtle changes in the ilmenite content of the flows, providing a unique means to map mare units. Here we map volcanic units in Mare Imbrium using high-resolution (200 m/pixel), Earth-based P band data. Situated within the heat-producing potassium, rare earth element, and phosphorus terrane, Mare Imbrium experienced some of the most long-lived (and recent) lunar volcanism, and its surface exhibits a significant diversity of basaltic chemistry. Our investigation identifies at least four distinct stages of volcanic activity, originating from multiple sources within Imbrium. The most recent of these stages comprises extensive, yet relatively thin volcanic flow units that left remnant kipukas of older mare material distributed across much of the basin. From a future mission perspective, it may be possible to collect samples expressing a wide range in age from small areas of Mare Imbrium. Our map also places important constraints on the interpretation of the Chang'e-3 Lunar Penetrating Radar measurements.

  7. Chronology of early lunar crust

    Dasch, E.J.; Nyquist, L.E.; Ryder, G.

    1988-01-01

    The chronology of lunar rocks is summarized. The oldest pristine (i.e., lacking meteoritic contamination of admixed components) lunar rock, recently dated with Sm-Nd by Lugmair, is a ferroan anorthosite, with an age of 4.44 + 0.02 Ga. Ages of Mg-suite rocks (4.1 to 4.5 Ga) have large uncertainties, so that age differences between lunar plutonic rock suites cannot yet be resolved. Most mare basalts crystallized between 3.1 and 3.9 Ga. The vast bulk of the lunar crust, therefore, formed before the oldest preserved terrestrial rocks. If the Moon accreted at 4.56 Ga, then 120 Ma may have elapsed before lunar crust was formed

  8. Lunar cryptomaria: Physical characteristics, distribution, and implications for ancient volcanism

    Whitten, Jennifer L.; Head, James W.

    2015-02-01

    Cryptomaria, lunar volcanic deposits obscured by crater and basin impact ejecta, can provide important information about the thermal and volcanic history of the Moon. The timing of cryptomare deposition has implications for the duration and flux of mare basalt volcanism. In addition, knowing the distribution of cryptomaria can provide information about mantle convection and lunar magma ocean solidification. Here we use multiple datasets (e.g., M3, LOLA, LROC, Diviner) to undertake a global analysis to identify the general characteristics (e.g., topography, surface roughness, rock abundance, albedo, etc.) of lunar light plains in order to better distinguish between ancient volcanic deposits (cryptomaria) and impact basin and crater ejecta deposits. We find 20 discrete regions of cryptomaria, covering approximately 2% of the Moon, which increase the total area covered by mare volcanism to 18% of the lunar surface. Comparisons of light plains deposits indicate that the two deposit types (volcanic and impact-produced) are best distinguished by mineralogic data. On the basis of cryptomaria locations, the distribution of mare volcanism does not appear to have changed in the time prior to its exposed mare basalt distribution. There are several hypotheses explaining the distribution of mare basalts, which include the influence of crustal thickness, mantle convection patterns, asymmetric distribution of source regions, KREEP distribution, and the influence of a proposed Procellarum impact basin. The paucity of farside mare basalts means that multiple factors, such as crustal thickness variations and mantle convection, are likely to play a role in mare basalt emplacement.

  9. Production of continuous glass fiber using lunar simulant

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Ethridge, Edwin C.; Curreri, Peter A.

    1991-01-01

    The processing parameters and mechanical properties of glass fibers pulled from simulated lunar basalt are tested. The simulant was prepared using a plasma technique. The composition is representative of a low titanium mare basalt (Apollo sample 10084). Lunar gravity experiments are to be performed utilizing parabolic aircraft free-fall maneuvers which yield 30 seconds of 1/6-g per maneuver.

  10. The Thickness and Volume of Young Basalts Within Mare Imbrium

    Chen, Yuan; Li, Chunlai; Ren, Xin; Liu, Jianjun; Wu, Yunzhao; Lu, Yu; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Xunyu

    2018-02-01

    Basaltic volcanism is one of the most important geologic processes of the Moon. Research on the thickness and volume of late-stage basalts of Mare Imbrium helps better understand the source of lunar volcanism and eruption styles. Based on whether apparent flow fronts exist or not, the late-stage basalts within Mare Imbrium were divided into two groups, namely, Upper Eratosthenian basalts (UEm) and Lower Eratosthenian basalts (LEm). Employing the topographic profile analysis method for UEm and the crater excavation technique for LEm, we studied the thickness and distribution of Eratosthenian basalts in Mare Imbrium. For the UEm units, their thicknesses were estimated to be 16-34 (±2) m with several layers of individual lava ( 8-13 m) inside. The estimated thickness of LEm units was 14-45(±1) m, with a trend of reducing thickness from north to south. The measured thickness of late-stage basalts around the Chang'E-3 landing site ( 37 ± 1 m) was quite close to the results acquired by the lunar penetrating radar carried on board the Yutu Rover ( 35 m). The total volume of the late-stage basalts in Mare Imbrium was calculated to be 8,671 (±320) km3, which is 4 times lower than that of Schaber's estimation ( 4 × 104 km3). Our results indicate that the actual volume is much lower than previous estimates of the final stage of the late basaltic eruption of Mare Imbrium. Together, the area flux and transport distance of the lava flows gradually decreased with time. These results suggest that late-stage volcanic evolution of the Moon might be revised.

  11. Pre-mare cratering and early solar system history

    Wetherill, G.W.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the application of the high extra-lunar flux in pre-mare times to more general problems of early solar system history is attempted by combining the results of dynamic studies with lunar chronological data. Dynamical studies permit separate evaluation of the possible sources for both the normal flux during the first 600 m.y. years of lunar history as well as the peak which apparently occurred 4.0 b.y. ago. Dynamical studies have been carried out in order to determine the extent to which a heliocentric flux could be confined to the Moon (and Earth). A Monte Carlo method has been used to calculate the relative impact rates of planet-crossing bodies with the moon and the terrestrial planets. It is concluded that the time-variation of the flux on these planets is closely related to that on the moon

  12. REE Partitioning in Lunar Minerals

    Rapp, J. F.; Lapen, T. J.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are an extremely useful tool in modeling lunar magmatic processes. Here we present the first experimentally derived plagioclase/melt partition coefficients in lunar compositions covering the entire suite of REE. Positive europium anomalies are ubiquitous in the plagioclase-rich rocks of the lunar highlands, and complementary negative Eu anomalies are found in most lunar basalts. These features are taken as evidence of a large-scale differentiation event, with crystallization of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) resulting in a plagioclase flotation crust and a mafic lunar interior from which mare basalts were subsequently derived. However, the extent of the Eu anomaly in lunar rocks is variable. Fagan and Neal [1] reported highly anorthitic plagioclase grains in lunar impact melt rock 60635,19 that displayed negative Eu anomalies as well as the more usual positive anomalies. Indeed some grains in the sample are reported to display both positive and negative anomalies. Judging from cathodoluminescence images, these anomalies do not appear to be associated with crystal overgrowths or zones.

  13. HORMONETHERAPY IN MARE

    A. L. M. Marinho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When compared with other domestic animals the equine species is that present the minors reproductive indices. Besides some parameters of estrous cycle are variable to we consider each mare individually, what hinders the reproductive handling, these females respond the alterations of seasonality, this fact limits in reproduction its potential. Therefore, the uses of innovative reproductive biotechnologies and hormonal protocols have shown indispensable for the producers who wish to increase the reproductive rate of this species. Hormontherapy has shown great efficiency in handling the estrous cycle of these females. Thus, this literature review aimed to perform an update regarding hormonal protocols used in the equine species. Dealt with the main hormones used to control the estrous cycle of mares, as prostaglandin F2a (PGF2α, estrogens, progestogens, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, equine pituitary extract (EPE, the purified equine follicle stimulating hormone (eFSH and oxytocin. It became evident that the knowledge of hormontherapy applied in equine reproduction is of utmost importance, allowing higher profitability by improving the reproductive efficiency of animals of high genetic value, generating benefits for both the professional as to the owner

  14. Two lunar global asymmetries

    Hartung, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The Moon's center of mass is displaced from its center of figure about 2 km in a roughly earthward direction. Most maria are on the side of the Moon which faces the Earth. It is assumed that the Moon was initially spherically symmetric. The emplacement of mare basalts transfers mass which produces most of the observed center of mass displacement toward the Earth. The cause of the asymmetric distribution of lunar maria was examined. The Moon is in a spin orbit coupled relationship with the Earth and the effect of the Earth's gravity on the Moon is asymmetric. The earth-facing side of the Moon is a gravitational favored location for the extrusion of mare basalt magma in the same way that the topographically lower floor of a large impact basin is a gravitationally favored location. This asymmetric effect increases inversely with the fourth power of the Earth Moon distance. The history of the Earth-Moon system includes: formation of the Moon by accretion processes in a heliocentric orbit ner that of the Earth; a gravitational encounter with the Earth about 4 billion years ago resulting in capture of the Moon into a geocentric orbit and heating of the Moon through dissipation of energy related to tides raised during close approaches to the Earth(5) to produce mare basalt magma; and evolution of the Moon's orbit to its present position, slowly at first to accommodate more than 500 million years during which magmas were extruded.

  15. PREGNANCY LOSS IN MARES

    Tibary A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy loss is an important aspect of equine practice due to the economic and emotional loss that it engenders. Pregnancy loss is often divided in two categories: early pregnancy loss (EPL or embryonic death (ED (first 42 days and fetal losses (after 42 days. Diagnosis of the causes of pregnancy loss is often very challenging. Many of the causes of EPL remain poorly documented but studies on embryo development and embryo-uterine interaction have been able to shed some light on predisposing factors. Fetal losses or abortions are dominated by infectious causes and particularly bacterial placentitis. Detailed reviews of pregnancy loss were recently published by the authors (Tibary et al., 2012; Tibary and Pearson, 2012; Tibary et al., 2014. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and prevention of pregnancy loss in the mare.

  16. Hielke Miguel Haak Mares

    Leonardo Romero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El 25 de junio de 2004 falleció el Dr. Hielke Haak, un destacado colega que fue muy considerado no sólo por su trayectoria académica sino además por su calidad personal. Hielke Miguel Haak Mares nació el 21 de mayo de 1948 y luego de seguir sus estudios en nuestra Alma Mater, en 1974 obtuvo el Grado Acadé- mico de Bachiller en Biología, luego en 1975 obtuvo el Título Profesional de Biólogo y en 1976 el Grado Académico de Magíster en Bioquímica, siendo becario de la Fundación Kellogg. Posteriormente en 1989 se graduó de Doctor en Ciencias Biológicas.

  17. Lunar magma transport phenomena

    Spera, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    An outline of magma transport theory relevant to the evolution of a possible Lunar Magma Ocean and the origin and transport history of the later phase of mare basaltic volcanism is presented. A simple model is proposed to evaluate the extent of fractionation as magma traverses the cold lunar lithosphere. If Apollo green glasses are primitive and have not undergone significant fractionation en route to the surface, then mean ascent rates of 10 m/s and cracks of widths greater than 40 m are indicated. Lunar tephra and vesiculated basalts suggest that a volatile component plays a role in eruption dynamics. The predominant vapor species appear to be CO CO2, and COS. Near the lunar surface, the vapor fraction expands enormously and vapor internal energy is converted to mixture kinetic energy with the concomitant high-speed ejection of vapor and pyroclasts to form lunary fire fountain deposits such as the Apollo 17 orange and black glasses and Apollo 15 green glass.

  18. Lunar CATALYST

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown (Lunar CATALYST) is a NASA initiative to encourage the development of U.S. private-sector robotic lunar...

  19. Relationship between the latest activity of mare volcanism and topographic features of the Moon

    Kato, Shinsuke; Morota, Tomokatsu; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Watanabe, Sei-ichiro; Otake, Hisashi; Ohtake, Makiko

    2016-04-01

    Lunar mare basalts provide insights into compositions and thermal history of lunar mantle. According to crater counting analysis with remote sensing data, the model ages of mare basalt units indicate a second peak of magma activity at the end of mare volcanism (~2 Ga), and the latest eruptions were limited in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), which has high abundances of heat-producing elements. In order to understand the mechanism for causing the second peak and its magma source, we examined the correlation between the titanium contents and eruption ages of mare basalt units using compositional and chronological data updated by SELENE/Kaguya. Although no systematic relationship is observed globally, a rapid increase in mean titanium (Ti) content occurred at 2.3 Ga in the PKT, suggesting that the magma source of mare basalts changed at that time. The high-Ti basaltic eruption, which occurred at the late stage of mare volcanism, can be correlated with the second peak of volcanic activity at ~2 Ga. The latest volcanic activity can be explained by a high-Ti hot plume originated from the core-mantle boundary. If the hot plume was occurred, the topographic features formed by the hot plume may be remained. We calculated the difference between topography and selenoid and found the circular feature like a plateau in the center of the PKT, which scale is ~1000 km horizontal and ~500 m vertical. We investigated the timing of ridge formation in the PKT by using stratigraphic relationship between mare basalts and ridges. The ridges were formed before and after the high-Ti basaltic eruptions and seem to be along with the plateau. These results suggest that the plateau formation is connected with the high-Ti basaltic eruptions.

  20. Uterine culture in mares.

    Brook, D

    1984-05-01

    A guarded, sterile swab is used to obtain samples for uterine culture. With the mare in stocks, the tail bandage and the perineum washed, the culture rod is introduced into the vagina with a gloved hand. After the rod is guided through the cervix, the guard cap is dislodged and the swab is rubbed along the endometrium, after which the rod is extracted. Samples for uterine culture should only be obtained during full estrus. Swabs should be directly plated onto agar within 2 hours of collection. Blood agar is appropriate for initial screening, but use of specialized types of agar expedites identification of microbes. Plates are incubated at 37 C and inspected for growth every 12 hours. The type and number of bacterial colonies should be coupled with the history and clinical signs in deciding on the necessity and type of treatment. Pure, heavy bacterial growth is usually accompanied by clinical signs of infection. Interpretation of the significance of moderate bacterial growth may be aided by cytologic examination of endometrial smears, made by rolling the swab onto a glass slide and staining with Diff - Quik . Large numbers of neutrophils indicate the need for antibiotic therapy. Mixed bacterial growth and variable numbers of neutrophils usually indicate faulty sampling technic. Microaerophilic or anaerobic cultures may aid diagnosis in cases of equivocal aerobic culture results.

  1. Mare Risk Analysis monitor

    Fuente Prieto, I.; Alonso, P.; Carretero Fernandino, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Council's requirement that Spanish power plants comply with the requirements of the Maintenance Rule associated with plant risk assessment during power operation, arising from the partial unavailability of systems due to the maintenance activities, has led to need for additional tools to facilitate compliance with said requirements. While the impact on risk produced by individual equipment unavailabilities can easily be evaluated, either qualitatively or quantitatively, the process becomes more complicated when un programmed unavailabilities simultaneously occur in various systems, making it necessary to evaluate their functional impact. It is especially complex in the case of support systems that can affect the functionality of multiple systems. In view of the above, a computer application has been developed that is capable of providing the operator with quick answers based on the specific plant model in order to allow fast risk assessment using the information compiled as part of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis. The paper describes the most important characteristics of this application and the basic design requirements of the MARE Risk Monitor. (Author)

  2. Lunar sample studies

    1977-01-01

    Lunar samples discussed and the nature of their analyses are: (1) an Apollo 15 breccia which is thoroughly analyzed as to the nature of the mature regolith from which it derived and the time and nature of the lithification process, (2) two Apollo 11 and one Apollo 12 basalts analyzed in terms of chemistry, Cross-Iddings-Pirsson-Washington norms, mineralogy, and petrography, (3) eight Apollo 17 mare basalts, also analyzed in terms of chemistry, Cross-Iddings-Pirsson-Washington norms, mineralogy, and petrography. The first seven are shown to be chemically similar although of two main textural groups; the eighth is seen to be distinct in both chemistry and mineralogy, (4) a troctolitic clast from a Fra Mauro breccia, analyzed and contrasted with other high-temperature lunar mineral assemblages. Two basaltic clasts from the same breccia are shown to have affinities with rock 14053, and (5) the uranium-thorium-lead systematics of three Apollo 16 samples are determined; serious terrestrial-lead contamination of the first two samples is attributed to bandsaw cutting in the lunar curatorial facility

  3. Lava flows in mare imbrium: An evaluation of anomalously low earth-based radar reflectivity

    Schaber, G.G.; Thompson, T.W.; Zisk, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    The lunar maria reflect two to five times less Earth-based radar power than the highlands, the spectrally blue maria surfaces returning the lowest power levels. This effect of weakening signal return has been attributed to increased signal absorption related to the electrical and magnetic characteristics of the mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3). The surface of Mare Imbrium contains some of the most distinct red-blue colorimetric boundaries and depolarized 70 cm wavelength reflectivity variations on the near side of the Moon. The weakest levels of both 3.8 cm and 70 cm reflectivity within Imbrium are confined to regional mare surfaces of the blue spectral type that can be recognized as stratigraphically unique flow surfaces. Frequency distributions of the 70 cm polarized and depolarized radar return power for five mare surfaces within the basin indicate that signal absorption, and probably the ilmenite content, increases generally from the beginning of the Imbrian Period to the end of the Eratosthenian Period with slight reversal between the end of the Imbrian and beginning of the Eratosthenian. TiO2 calibrated radar reflectivity curves can be utilized for lunar maria geochemical mapping in the same manner as the TiO2 calibrated spectral reflectivity curves of Charette et al. (1974). The long wavelength radar data may be a sensitive indicator of mare chemical variations as it is unaffected by the normal surface rock clutter that includes ray materials from large impact craters. ?? 1975 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  4. Lunar remote sensing and measurements

    Moore, H.J.; Boyce, J.M.; Schaber, G.G.; Scott, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing and measurements of the Moon from Apollo orbiting spacecraft and Earth form a basis for extrapolation of Apollo surface data to regions of the Moon where manned and unmanned spacecraft have not been and may be used to discover target regions for future lunar exploration which will produce the highest scientific yields. Orbital remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) relative ages and inferred absolute ages, (2) gravity, (3) magnetism, (4) chemical composition, and (5) reflection of radar waves (bistatic). Earth-based remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) reflection of sunlight, (2) reflection and scattering of radar waves, and (3) infrared eclipse temperatures. Photographs from the Apollo missions, Lunar Orbiters, and other sources provide a fundamental source of data on the geology and topography of the Moon and a basis for comparing, correlating, and testing the remote sensing and measurements. Relative ages obtained from crater statistics and then empirically correlated with absolute ages indicate that significant lunar volcanism continued to 2.5 b.y. (billion years) ago-some 600 m.y. (million years) after the youngest volcanic rocks sampled by Apollo-and that intensive bombardment of the Moon occurred in the interval of 3.84 to 3.9 b.y. ago. Estimated fluxes of crater-producing objects during the last 50 m.y. agree fairly well with fluxes measured by the Apollo passive seismic stations. Gravity measurements obtained by observing orbiting spacecraft reveal that mare basins have mass concentrations and that the volume of material ejected from the Orientale basin is near 2 to 5 million km 3 depending on whether there has or has not been isostatic compensation, little or none of which has occurred since 3.84 b.y. ago. Isostatic compensation may have occurred in some of the old large lunar basins, but more data are needed to prove it. Steady fields of remanent magnetism were detected by the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites

  5. Determination of lunar surface ages from crater frequency–size ...

    and the images from Apollo missions have been calibrated from the lunar soil samples from Apollo and Luna landing sites (Head 1976; Neukum et al. 1975). ... Table 1 shows the ages as derived for the craters with errors. Mare Humorum is believed to be made up of six ring structures of 210, 340, 425, 570 and 1195km.

  6. The apollo 15 lunar samples: A preliminary description

    Gast, P.W.; Phinney, W.C.; Duke, M.B.; Silver, L.T.; Hubbard, N.J.; Heiken, G.H.; Butler, P.; McKay, D.S.; Warner, J.L.; Morrison, D.A.; Horz, F.; Head, J.; Lofgren, G.E.; Ridley, W.I.; Reid, A.M.; Wilshire, H.; Lindsay, J.F.; Carrier, W.D.; Jakes, P.; Bass, M.N.; Brett, P.R.; Jackson, E.D.; Rhodes, J.M.; Bansal, B.M.; Wainwright, J.E.; Parker, K.A.; Rodgers, K.V.; Keith, J.E.; Clark, R.S.; Schonfeld, E.; Bennett, L.; Robbins, Martha M.; Portenier, W.; Bogard, D.D.; Hart, W.R.; Hirsch, W.C.; Wilkin, R.B.; Gibson, E.K.; Moore, C.B.; Lewis, C.F.

    1972-01-01

    Samples returned from the Apollo 15 site consist of mare basalts and breccias with a variety of premare igneous rocks. The mare basalts are from at least two different lava flows. The bulk chemical compositions and textures of these rocks confirm the previous conclusion that the lunar maria consist of a series of extrusive volcanic rocks that are rich in iron and poor in sodium. The breccias contain abundant clasts of anorthositic fragments along with clasts of basaltic rocks much richer in plagioclase than the mare basalts. These two rock types also occur as common components in soil samples from this site. The rocks and soils from both the front and mare region exhibit a variety of shock characteristics that can best be ascribed to ray material from the craters Aristillus or Autolycus.

  7. Apollo 15 mare units and their petrogenesis

    Binder, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Samples from 12 different mare sites were identified and classified among the Apollo 15 samples. The genesis of the Apollo 15 mare units is summarized given the general model of mare basalt source regions and of more basalt genesis derived from a synthesis of the major oxide/major mineral, compatible siderophile, and incompatible trace element data and isotopic ratios of the Rb/Sr and Sm/Nd systems

  8. Lunar horticulture.

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  9. Apollo 15 mare volcanism: constraints and problems

    Delano, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Apollo 15 landing site contains more volcanics in the form of crystalline basalts and pristine glasses, which form the framework for all models dealing with the mantle beneath that site. Major issues on the petrology of the mare source regions beneath that portion of Mare Imbrium are summarized

  10. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Moon and Mercury

    2004-01-01

    The session" Moon and Mercury" included the following reports:Helium Production of Prompt Neutrinos on the Moon; Vapor Deposition and Solar Wind Implantation on Lunar Soil-Grain Surfaces as Comparable Processes; A New Lunar Geologic Mapping Program; Physical Backgrounds to Measure Instantaneous Spin Components of Terrestrial Planets from Earth with Arcsecond Accuracy; Preliminary Findings of a Study of the Lunar Global Megaregolith; Maps Characterizing the Lunar Regolith Maturity; Probable Model of Anomalies in the Polar Regions of Mercury; Parameters of the Maximum of Positive Polarization of the Moon; Database Structure Development for Space Surveying Results by Moon -Zond Program; CM2-type Micrometeoritic Lunar Winds During the Late Heavy Bombardment; A Comparison of Textural and Chemical Features of Spinel Within Lunar Mare Basalts; The Reiner Gamma Formation as Characterized by Earth-based Photometry at Large Phase Angles; The Significance of the Geometries of Linear Graben for the Widths of Shallow Dike Intrusions on the Moon; Lunar Prospector Data, Surface Roughness and IR Thermal Emission of the Moon; The Influence of a Magma Ocean on the Lunar Global Stress Field Due to Tidal Interaction Between the Earth and Moon; Variations of the Mercurian Photometric Relief; A Model of Positive Polarization of Regolith; Ground Truth and Lunar Global Thorium Map Calibration: Are We There Yet?;and Space Weathering of Apollo 16 Sample 62255: Lunar Rocks as Witness Plates for Deciphering Regolith Formation Processes.

  11. Lunar Riometry

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Burns, J. O.; Kasper, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent and its behavior over time, including modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) are based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, in situ, the peak plasma density of the lunar exosphere over time. We describe a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of nanometer- to micron-scale dust. The LUNAR consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

  12. Lunar cement

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  13. Petrologic Characteristics of the Lunar Surface.

    Wang, Xianmin; Pedrycz, Witold

    2015-11-27

    Petrologic analysis of the lunar surface is critical for determining lunar formation and evolution. Here, we report the first global petrologic map that includes the five most important lunar lithological units: the Ferroan Anorthositic (FAN) Unit, the Magnesian Suite (MS) Unit, the Alkali Suite (AS) Unit, the KREEP Basalt (KB) Unit and the Mare Basalt (MB) Unit. Based on the petrologic map and focusing on four long-debated and important issues related to lunar formation and evolution, we draw the following conclusions from the new insights into the global distribution of the five petrologic units: (1) there may be no petrogenetic relationship between MS rocks and KB; (2) there may be no petrogenetic link between MS and AS rocks; (3) the exposure of the KREEP component on the lunar surface is likely not a result of MB volcanism but is instead mainly associated with the combined action of plutonic intrusion, KREEP volcanism and celestial collision; (4) the impact size of the South Pole-Aitken basin is constrained, i.e., the basin has been excavated through the whole crust to exhume a vast majority of lower-crustal material and a very limited mantle components to the lunar surface.

  14. Blocky craters: implications about the lunar megaregolith

    Thompson, T.W.; Roberts, W.J.; Hartmann, W.K.; Shorthill, R.W.; Zisk, S.H.

    1979-01-01

    Radar, infrared, and photogeologic properties of lunar craters have been studied to determine whether there is a systematic difference in blocky craters between the maria and terrae and whether this difference may be due to a deep megaregolith of pulverized material forming the terra surface, as opposed to a layer of semi-coherent basalt flows forming the mare surface. Some 1310 craters from about 4 to 100 km diameter have been catalogued as radar and/or infrared anomalies. In addition, a study of Apollo Orbital Photography confirmed that the radar and infrared anomalies are correlated with blocky rubble around the crater. Analysis of the radar and infrared data indicated systematic terra-mare differences. Fresh terra craters smaller than 12 km were less likely to be infrared and radar anomalies than comparable mare craters: but terra and mare craters larger than 12 km had similar infrared and radar signatures. Also, there are many terra craters which are radar bright but not infrared anomalies. The authors interpretation of these data is that while the maria are rock layers (basaltic flow units) where craters eject boulder fields, the terrae are covered by relatively pulverized megaregolith at least 2 km deep, where craters eject less rocky rubble. Blocky rubble, either in the form of actual rocks or partly consolidated blocks, contributes to the radar and infrared signatures of the crater. However, aging by impacts rapidly destroys these effects, possibly through burial by secondary debris or by disintegration of the blocks themselves, especially in terra regions. (Auth.)

  15. Solar Ion Processing of Major Element Surface Compositions of Mature Mare Soils: Insights from Combined XPS and Analytical TEM Observations

    Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C.; Keller, L. P.; Baragiola, R.

    2012-01-01

    Solar wind ions are capable of altering the sur-face chemistry of the lunar regolith by a number of mechanisms including preferential sputtering, radiation-enhanced diffusion and sputter erosion of space weathered surfaces containing pre-existing compositional profiles. We have previously reported in-situ ion irradiation experiments supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and analytical TEM that show how solar ions potentially drive Fe and Ti reduction at the monolayer scale as well as the 10-100 nm depth scale in lunar soils [1]. Here we report experimental data on the effect of ion irradiation on the major element surface composition in a mature mare soil.

  16. Inflammation and fertility in the mare

    Christoffersen, Mette; Troedsson, Mats H.T.

    2017-01-01

    -inflammatory factors is required for resolving the breeding-induced inflammation within 24–36 hr in the reproductively healthy mare, whereas a subpopulation of mares is susceptible to development of a persistent infection that can interfere with fertility. The aetiology of persistent endometritis can be either...... bacterial or semen-induced and both scenarios can threaten the establishment of pregnancy. Several factors associated with susceptibility to persistent endometritis have been identified including altered innate immune response in the early inflammatory process, reduced myometrial contractions and impaired......) and bacterial endometritis in the mare....

  17. Lunar magnetism

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  18. Surface chemistry of selected lunar regions

    Bielefeld, M.J.; Reedy, R.C.; Metzger, A.E.; Trombka, J.I.; Arnold, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    A completely new analysis has been carried out on the data from the Apollo 15 and 16 γ ray spectrometer experiments. The components of the continuum background have been estimated. The elements Th, K, Fe and Mg give useful results; results for Ti are significant only for a few high Ti regions. Errors are given, and the results are checked by other methods. Concentrations are reported for about sixty lunar regions; the ground track has been subdivided in various ways. The borders of the maria seem well-defined chemically, while the distribution of KREEP is broad. This wide distribution requires emplacement of KREEP before the era of mare formation. Its high concentration in western mare soils seems to require major vertical mixing

  19. Lunar impact basins and crustal heterogeneity: New western limb and far side data from galileo

    Belton, M.J.S.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C.M.; Greeley, R.; McEwen, A.S.; Neukum, G.; Klaasen, K.P.; Anger, C.D.; Carr, M.H.; Chapman, C.R.; Davies, M.E.; Fanale, F.P.; Gierasch, P.J.; Greenberg, R.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Johnson, T.; Paczkowski, B.; Pilcher, C.B.; Veverka, J.

    1992-01-01

    Multispectral images of the lunar western limb and far side obtained from Galileo reveal the compositional nature of several prominent lunar features and provide new information on lunar evolution. The data reveal that the ejecta from the Orientale impact basin (900 kilometers in diameter) lying outside the Cordillera Mountains was excavated from the crust, not the mantle, and covers pre-Orientale terrain that consisted of both highland materials and relatively large expanses of ancient mare basalts. The inside of the far side South Pole-Aitken basin (>2000 kilometers in diameter) has low albedo, red color, and a relatively high abundance of iron- and magnesium-rich materials. These features suggest that the impact may have penetrated into the deep crust or lunar mantle or that the basin contains ancient mare basalts that were later covered by highlands ejecta.

  20. Lunar Plants

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present an open design for a first plant growth module on the Moon (LPX). The primary science goal of lunar habitat is to investigate germination and initial...

  1. Lunar Flashlight

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar Flashlight (LF) is an innovative cubesat mission sponsored by NASA’s Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division to be launched on the Space Launch System...

  2. Tundetargad meeskonnad on head suhtekorraldajad / Mare Pork

    Pork, Mare

    2003-01-01

    Psühholoogiaprofessor Mare Pork defineerib meeskonna emotsionaalse intelligentsuse mõiste ja kirjeldab kõrge EQ-ga meeskonna tunnuseid. Lisad: Mis arendab meeskonna EQ-d?; Meeskonna emotsionaalne intelligentsus EQ nelja komponendi järgi

  3. Tracey Emin - 20 aastat vabadust / Mare Tralla

    Tralla, Mare, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Edinburghi kunstifestivali "Fringe" raames Šoti moodsa kunsti rahvusgaleriis kuni 9. XI avatud Tracey Emini retrospektiivist "Tracey Emini 20 aastat". Kunstnikust ja tema loomingust. Festivali programmi oli valitud ka Mare Tralla projekt "Kaitstud"

  4. Sotsiaaltöö koolis / Mare Leino

    Leino, Mare, 1961-

    2000-01-01

    Rets. rmt. : Leino, Mare. Õpetaja sotsiaaltöö tegijana : sotsiaalpedagoogika : monograafia = Teacher as a social worker : social pedagogic : a monograph / Mare Leino ; Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikool. Tallinn : Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli Kirjastus, 2000. 146 lk. : ill. - (Acta Universitatis Scientiarum Socialium et Artis Educandi Tallinnensis. A, Humaniora =Proceedings of the Tallinn University of Social and Educational Sciences. A, Humaniora = Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli toimetised. A, Humaniora, 1023-1064 ; 18). Bibliogr. lk. 136-146. Kokkuv. inglise keeles

  5. Mare Risk Analysis monitor; Monitor de analisis de riesgos mare

    Fuente Prieto, I.; Alonso, P.; Carretero Fernandino, J. A. [Empresarios Agrupados, A. I.E. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety Council's requirement that Spanish power plants comply with the requirements of the Maintenance Rule associated with plant risk assessment during power operation, arising from the partial unavailability of systems due to the maintenance activities, has led to need for additional tools to facilitate compliance with said requirements. While the impact on risk produced by individual equipment unavailabilities can easily be evaluated, either qualitatively or quantitatively, the process becomes more complicated when un programmed unavailabilities simultaneously occur in various systems, making it necessary to evaluate their functional impact. It is especially complex in the case of support systems that can affect the functionality of multiple systems. In view of the above, a computer application has been developed that is capable of providing the operator with quick answers based on the specific plant model in order to allow fast risk assessment using the information compiled as part of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis. The paper describes the most important characteristics of this application and the basic design requirements of the MARE Risk Monitor. (Author)

  6. Investigation of lunar crustal structure and isostasy. Final technical report

    Thurber, C.H.

    1987-07-01

    The lunar mascon basins have strongly free air gravity anomalies, generally exceeding 100 milligals at an elevation of 100 km. The source of the anomalies is a combination of mantle uplift beneath the impact basins and subsequent infilling by high-density mare basalts. The relative contribution of these two components is still somewhat uncertain, although it is generally accepted that the amount of mantle uplift greatly exceeds the thickness of the basalts. Extensive studies have been carried out of the crustal structure of mare basins, based on gravity data, and their tectonic evolution, based on compressive and extensional tectonic features. The present study endeavored to develop a unified, self-consistent model of the lunar crust and lithosphere incorporating both gravity and tectonic constraints

  7. Ocular toxicity of authentic lunar dust.

    Meyers, Valerie E; Garcìa, Hector D; Monds, Kathryn; Cooper, Bonnie L; James, John T

    2012-07-20

    Dust exposure is a well-known occupational hazard for terrestrial workers and astronauts alike and will continue to be a concern as humankind pursues exploration and habitation of objects beyond Earth. Humankind's limited exploration experience with the Apollo Program indicates that exposure to dust will be unavoidable. Therefore, NASA must assess potential toxicity and recommend appropriate mitigation measures to ensure that explorers are adequately protected. Visual acuity is critical during exploration activities and operations aboard spacecraft. Therefore, the present research was performed to ascertain the ocular toxicity of authentic lunar dust. Small (mean particle diameter = 2.9 ± 1.0 μm), reactive lunar dust particles were produced by grinding bulk dust under ultrapure nitrogen conditions. Chemical reactivity and cytotoxicity testing were performed using the commercially available EpiOcularTM assay. Subsequent in vivo Draize testing utilized a larger size fraction of unground lunar dust that is more relevant to ocular exposures (particles lunar dust was minimally irritating. Minor irritation of the upper eyelids was noted at the 1-hour observation point, but these effects resolved within 24 hours. In addition, no corneal scratching was observed using fluorescein stain. Low-titanium mare lunar dust is minimally irritating to the eyes and is considered a nuisance dust for ocular exposure. No special precautions are recommended to protect against ocular exposures, but fully shielded goggles may be used if dust becomes a nuisance.

  8. Lunar regolith stratigraphy analysis based on the simulation of lunar penetrating radar signals

    Lai, Jialong; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoping; Tang, Zesheng

    2017-11-01

    The thickness of lunar regolith is an important index of evaluating the quantity of lunar resources such as 3He and relative geologic ages. Lunar penetrating radar (LPR) experiment of Chang'E-3 mission provided an opportunity of in situ lunar subsurface structure measurement in the northern mare imbrium area. However, prior work on analyzing LPR data obtained quite different conclusions of lunar regolith structure mainly because of the missing of clear interface reflectors in radar image. In this paper, we utilized finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and three models of regolith structures with different rock density, number of layers, shapes of interfaces, and etc. to simulate the LPR signals for the interpretation of radar image. The simulation results demonstrate that the scattering signals caused by numerous buried rocks in the regolith can mask the horizontal reflectors, and the die-out of radar echo does not indicate the bottom of lunar regolith layer and data processing such as migration method could recover some of the subsurface information but also result in fake signals. Based on analysis of simulation results, we conclude that LPR results uncover the subsurface layered structure containing the rework zone with multiple ejecta blankets of small crater, the ejecta blanket of Chang'E-3 crater, and the transition zone and estimate the thickness of the detected layer is about 3.25 m.

  9. Persistence and origin of the lunar core dynamo

    Suavet, Clément; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Cassata, William S.; Shuster, David L.; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Chan, Lindsey; Garrick-Bethell, Ian; Head, James W.; Grove, Timothy L.; Fuller, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    The lifetime of the ancient lunar core dynamo has implications for its power source and the mechanism of field generation. Here, we report analyses of two 3.56-Gy-old mare basalts demonstrating that they were magnetized in a stable and surprisingly intense dynamo magnetic field of at least ∼13 μT. These data extend the known lifetime of the lunar dynamo by ∼160 My and indicate that the field was likely continuously active until well after the final large basin-forming impact. This likely excludes impact-driven changes in rotation rate as the source of the dynamo at this time in lunar history. Rather, our results require a persistent power source like precession of the lunar mantle or a compositional convection dynamo. PMID:23650386

  10. Examining spectral variations in localized lunar dark mantle deposits

    Jawin, Erica; Besse, Sebastien; Gaddis, Lisa R.; Sunshine, Jessica; Head, James W.; Mazrouei, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The localized lunar dark mantle deposits (DMDs) in Alphonsus, J. Herschel, and Oppenheimer craters were analyzed using visible-near-infrared spectroscopy data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper. Spectra of these localized DMDs were analyzed for compositional and mineralogical variations within the deposits and were compared with nearby mare basalt units. Spectra of the three localized DMDs exhibited mafic absorption features indicating iron-rich compositions, although the DMDs were spectrally distinct from nearby mare basalts. All of the DMDs contained spectral signatures of glassy materials, suggesting the presence of volcanic glass in varying concentrations across the individual deposits. In addition, the albedo and spectral signatures were variable within the Alphonsus and Oppenheimer crater DMDs, suggesting variable deposit thickness and/or variations in the amount of mixing with the local substrate. Two previously unidentified localized DMDs were discovered to the northeast of Oppenheimer crater. The identification of high concentrations of volcanic glass in multiple localized DMDs in different locations suggests that the distribution of volcanic glass across the lunar surface is much more widespread than has been previously documented. The presence of volcanic glass implies an explosive, vulcanian eruption style for localized DMDs, as this allows volcanic glass to rapidly quench, inhibiting crystallization, compared to the larger hawaiian-style eruptions typical of regional DMD emplacement where black beads indicate a higher degree of crystallization. Improved understanding of the local and global distributions of volcanic glass in lunar DMDs will further constrain lunar degassing and compositional evolution throughout lunar volcanic history.

  11. A Proof of Concept for In-Situ Lunar Dating

    Anderson, F. S.; Whitaker, T.; Levine, J.; Draper, D. S.; Harris, W.; Olansen, J.; Devolites, J.

    2015-12-01

    We have obtained improved 87Rb-87Sr isochrons for the Duluth Gabbro, an analog for lunar KREEP rocks, using a prototype spaceflight laser ablation resonance ionization mass spectrometer (LARIMS). The near-side of the Moon comprises previously un-sampled, KREEP rich, young-lunar basalts critical for calibrating the dating to constrain lunar history. Using a novel normalization approach, and by correcting for matrix-dependent isotope effects, we have been able to obtain a date of 1100 ± 200 Ma (Figure 1), compared to the previously established thermal ionization mass spectrometry measurement of 1096 ± 14 Ma. The precision of LARIMS is sufficient to constrain the current 1 Ga uncertainty of the lunar flux curve, allowing us to reassess the timing of peak lunar volcanism, and constrain lunar thermal evolution. Furthermore, an updated lunar flux curve has implications throughout the solar system. For example, Mars could have undergone a longer epoch of voluminous, shield-forming volcanism and associated mantle evolution, as well as a longer era of abundant volatiles and hence potential habitability. These alternative chronologies could even affect our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth: under the classic chronology, life is thought to have originated after the dwindling of bombardment, but under the alternative chronology, it might have appeared during heavy bombardment. In order to resolve the science questions regarding the history of the Moon, and in light of the Duluth Gabbro results, we recently proposed a Discovery mission called MARE: The Moon Age and Regolith Explorer. MARE would accomplish these goals by landing on a young, nearside lunar basalt flow southwest of Aristarchus that has a crater density corresponding to a highly uncertain absolute age, collecting >10 rock samples, and assessing their radioisotopic age, geochemistry, and mineralogy.

  12. Magnetic Signature of the Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin: Character, Origin, and Age

    Purucker, Michael E.; Head, James W., III; Wilson, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    A new magnetic map of the Moon, based on Lunar Prospector (LP) magnetometer observations, sheds light on the origin of the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA), the largest and oldest of the recognized lunar basins. A set of WNW-trending linear to arcuate magnetic features, evident in both the radial and scalar observations, covers much of a 1000 km wide region centered on the NW portion of SPA. The source bodies are not at the surface because the magnetic features show no first-order correspondence to any surface topographic or structural feature. Patchy mare basalts of possible late Imbrianage are emplaced within SPA and are inferred to have been emplaced through dikes, directly from mantle sources. We infer that the magnetic features represent dike swarms that served as feeders for these mare basalts, as evident from the location of the Thomson/ Mare Ingenii, Van de Graaff, and Leeuwenhoek mare basalts on the two largest magnetic features in the region. Modeling suggests that the dike zone is between 25 and 50 km wide at the surface, and dike magnetization contrasts are in the range of 0.2 A/m. We theorize that the basaltic dikes were emplaced in the lunar crust when a long-lived dynamo was active. Based on pressure, temperature, and stress conditions prevalent in the lunar crust, dikes are expected to be a dominantly subsurface phenomenon, consistent with the observations reported here.

  13. Parameters and structure of lunar regolith in Chang'E-3 landing area from lunar penetrating radar (LPR) data

    Dong, Zehua; Fang, Guangyou; Ji, Yicai; Gao, Yunze; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojuan

    2017-01-01

    Chang'E-3 (CE-3) landed in the northwest Mare Imbrium, a region that has not been explored before. Yutu rover that released by CE-3 lander carried the first lunar surface penetrating radar (LPR) for exploring lunar regolith thickness and subsurface shallow geological structures. In this paper, based on the LPR data and the Panoramic Camera (PC) data, we first calculate the lunar surface regolith parameters in CE-3 landing area including its permittivity, density, conductivity and FeO + TiO2 content. LPR data provides a higher spatial resolution and more accuracy for the lunar regolith parameters comparing to other remote sensing techniques, such as orbit radar sounder and microwave sensing or earth-based powerful radar. We also derived the regolith thickness and its weathered rate with much better accuracy in the landing area. The results indicate that the regolith growth rate is much faster than previous estimation, the regolith parameters are not uniform even in such a small study area and the thickness and growth rate of lunar regolith here are different from other areas in Mare Imbrium. We infer that the main reason should be geological deformation that caused by multiple impacts of meteorites in different sizes.

  14. A young multilayered terrane of the northern Mare Imbrium revealed by Chang’E-3 mission

    Xiao, Long; Zhu, Peimin; Fang, Guangyou; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zou, Yongliao; Zhao, Jiannan; Zhao, Na; Yuan, Yuefeng; Qiao, Le; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Jiang; Huang, Jun; Huang, Qian; He, Qi; Zhou, Bin; Ji, Yicai; Zhang, Qunying; Shen, Shaoxiang; Li, Yuxi; Gao, Yunze

    2015-03-01

    China’s Chang’E-3 (CE-3) spacecraft touched down on the northern Mare Imbrium of the lunar nearside (340.49°E, 44.12°N), a region not directly sampled before. We report preliminary results with data from the CE-3 lander descent camera and from the Yutu rover’s camera and penetrating radar. After the landing at a young 450-meter crater rim, the Yutu rover drove 114 meters on the ejecta blanket and photographed the rough surface and the excavated boulders. The boulder contains a substantial amount of crystals, which are most likely plagioclase and/or other mafic silicate mineral aggregates similar to terrestrial dolerite. The Lunar Penetrating Radar detection and integrated geological interpretation have identified more than nine subsurface layers, suggesting that this region has experienced complex geological processes since the Imbrian and is compositionally distinct from the Apollo and Luna landing sites.

  15. A young multilayered terrane of the northern Mare Imbrium revealed by Chang'E-3 mission.

    Xiao, Long; Zhu, Peimin; Fang, Guangyou; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zou, Yongliao; Zhao, Jiannan; Zhao, Na; Yuan, Yuefeng; Qiao, Le; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Jiang; Huang, Jun; Huang, Qian; He, Qi; Zhou, Bin; Ji, Yicai; Zhang, Qunying; Shen, Shaoxiang; Li, Yuxi; Gao, Yunze

    2015-03-13

    China's Chang'E-3 (CE-3) spacecraft touched down on the northern Mare Imbrium of the lunar nearside (340.49°E, 44.12°N), a region not directly sampled before. We report preliminary results with data from the CE-3 lander descent camera and from the Yutu rover's camera and penetrating radar. After the landing at a young 450-meter crater rim, the Yutu rover drove 114 meters on the ejecta blanket and photographed the rough surface and the excavated boulders. The boulder contains a substantial amount of crystals, which are most likely plagioclase and/or other mafic silicate mineral aggregates similar to terrestrial dolerite. The Lunar Penetrating Radar detection and integrated geological interpretation have identified more than nine subsurface layers, suggesting that this region has experienced complex geological processes since the Imbrian and is compositionally distinct from the Apollo and Luna landing sites. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Multivariate statistical analysis - an application to lunar materials

    Deb, M.

    1978-01-01

    The compositional characteristics of clinopyroxenes and spinels - two minerals considered to be very useful in deciphering lunar history, have been studied using the multivariate statistical method of principal component analysis. The mineral-chemical data used are from certain lunar rocks and fines collected by Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 and Luna 16 and 20 missions, representing mainly the mare basalts and also non-mare basalts, breccia and rock fragments from the highland regions, in which a large number of these minerals have been analyzed. The correlations noted in the mineral compositions, indicating substitutional relationships, have been interpreted on the basis of available crystal-chemical and petrological informations. Compositional trends for individual specimens have been delineated and compared by producing ''principal latent vector diagrams''. The percent variance of the principal components denoted by the eigenvalues, have been evaluated in terms of the crystallization history of the samples. Some of the major petrogenetic implications of this study concern the role of early formed cumulate phases in the near-surface fractionation of mare basalts, mixing of mineral compositions in the highland regolith and the subsolidus reduction trends in lunar spinels. (auth.)

  17. Lunar Magma Ocean Crystallization: Constraints from Fractional Crystallization Experiments

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    The currently accepted paradigm of lunar formation is that of accretion from the ejecta of a giant impact, followed by crystallization of a global scale magma ocean. This model accounts for the formation of the anorthosite highlands crust, which is globally distributed and old, and the formation of the younger mare basalts which are derived from a source region that has experienced plagioclase extraction. Several attempts at modelling the crystallization of such a lunar magma ocean (LMO) have been made, but our ever-increasing knowledge of the lunar samples and surface have raised as many questions as these models have answered. Geodynamic models of lunar accretion suggest that shortly following accretion the bulk of the lunar mass was hot, likely at least above the solidus]. Models of LMO crystallization that assume a deep magma ocean are therefore geodynamically favorable, but they have been difficult to reconcile with a thick plagioclase-rich crust. A refractory element enriched bulk composition, a shallow magma ocean, or a combination of the two have been suggested as a way to produce enough plagioclase to account for the assumed thickness of the crust. Recently however, geophysical data from the GRAIL mission have indicated that the lunar anorthositic crust is not as thick as was initially estimated, which allows for both a deeper magma ocean and a bulk composition more similar to the terrestrial upper mantle. We report on experimental simulations of the fractional crystallization of a deep (approximately 100km) LMO with a terrestrial upper mantle-like (LPUM) bulk composition. Our experimental results will help to define the composition of the lunar crust and mantle cumulates, and allow us to consider important questions such as source regions of the mare basalts and Mg-suite, the role of mantle overturn after magma ocean crystallization and the nature of KREEP

  18. Determination of lunar ilmenite abundances from remotely sensed data

    Larson, Stephen M.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Singer, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    The mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3) was found in abundance in lunar mare soils returned during the Apollo project. Lunar ilmenite often contains greater than 50 weight-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), and is a primary potential resource for oxygen and other raw materials to supply future lunar bases. Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of the returned lunar soils produced an empirical function that relates the spectral reflectance ratio at 400 and 560 nm to the weight percent abundance of TiO2. This allowed mapping of the lunar TiO2 distribution using telescopic vidicon multispectral imaging from the ground; however, the time variant photometric response of the vidicon detectors produced abundance uncertainties of at least 2 to 5 percent. Since that time, solid-state charge-coupled device (CCD) detector technology capable of much improved photometric response has become available. An investigation of the lunar TiO2 distribution was carried out utilizing groundbased telescopic CCD multispectral imagery and spectroscopy. The work was approached in phases to develop optimum technique based upon initial results. The goal is to achieve the best possible TiO2 abundance maps from the ground as a precursor to lunar orbiter and robotic sample return missions, and to produce a better idea of the peak abundances of TiO2 for benefaction studies. These phases and the results are summarized.

  19. Overturn of magma ocean ilmenite cumulate layer: Implications for lunar magmatic evolution and formation of a lunar core

    Hess, P. C.; Parmentier, E. M.

    1993-01-01

    We explore a model for the chemical evolution of the lunar interior that explains the origin and evolution of lunar magmatism and possibly the existence of a lunar core. A magma ocean formed during accretion differentiates into the anorthositic crust and chemically stratified cumulate mantle. The cumulative mantle is gravitationally unstable with dense ilmenite cumulate layers overlying olivine-orthopyroxene cumulates with Fe/Mg that decreases with depth. The dense ilmenite layer sinks to the center of the moon forming the core. The remainder of the gravitationally unstable cumulate pile also overturns. Any remaining primitive lunar mantle rises to its level of neutral buoyancy in the cumulate pile. Perhaps melting of primitive lunar mantle due to this decompression results in early lunar Mg-rich magmatism. Because of its high concentration of incompatible heat producing elements, the ilmenite core heats the overlying orthopyroxene-bearing cumulates. As a conductively thickening thermal boundary layer becomes unstable, the resulting mantle plumes rise, decompress, and partially melt to generate the mare basalts. This model explains both the timing and chemical characteristics of lunar magmatism.

  20. 33 CFR 334.1100 - San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Mare Island Strait in vicinity of U.S. Naval Shipyard, Mare...

    2010-07-01

    ... part of the Navy Yard, Mare Island, south of the causeway between the City of Vallejo and Mare Island... Commander, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, shall navigate, anchor or moor in this area. [26...

  1. Sims Analysis of Water Abundance and Hydrogen Isotope in Lunar Highland Plagioclase

    Hui, Hejiu; Guan, Yunbin; Chen, Yang; Peslier, Anne H.; Zhang, Youxue; Liu, Yang; Rossman, George R.; Eiler, John M.; Neal, Clive R.

    2015-01-01

    The detection of indigenous water in mare basaltic glass beads has challenged the view established since the Apollo era of a "dry" Moon. Since this discovery, measurements of water in lunar apatite, olivine-hosted melt inclusions, agglutinates, and nominally anhydrous minerals have confirmed that lunar igneous materials contain water, implying that some parts of lunar mantle may have as much water as Earth's upper mantle. The interpretation of hydrogen (H) isotopes in lunar samples, however, is controversial. The large variation of H isotope ratios in lunar apatite (delta Deuterium = -202 to +1010 per mille) has been taken as evidence that water in the lunar interior comes from the lunar mantle, solar wind protons, and/or comets. The very low deuterium/H ratios in lunar agglutinates indicate that solar wind protons have contributed to their hydrogen content. Conversely, H isotopes in lunar volcanic glass beads and olivine-hosted melt inclusions being similar to those of common terrestrial igneous rocks, suggest a common origin for water in both Earth and Moon. Lunar water could be inherited from carbonaceous chondrites, consistent with the model of late accretion of chondrite-type materials to the Moon as proposed by. One complication about the sources of lunar water, is that geologic processes (e.g., late accretion and magmatic degassing) may have modified the H isotope signatures of lunar materials. Recent FTIR analyses have shown that plagioclases in lunar ferroan anorthosite contain approximately 6 ppm H2O. So far, ferroan anorthosite is the only available lithology that is believed to be a primary product of the lunar magma ocean (LMO). A possible consequence is that the LMO could have contained up to approximately 320 ppm H2O. Here we examine the possible sources of water in the LMO through measurements of water abundances and H isotopes in plagioclase of two ferroan anorthosites and one troctolite from lunar highlands.

  2. Lunar materials for construction of space manufacturing facilities

    Criswell, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Development of industrial operations in deep space would be prohibitively expensive if most of the construction and expendable masses had to be transported from earth. Use of lunar materials reduces the needed investments by a factor of 15 to 20. It is shown in this paper that judicious selection of lunar materials will allow one to obtain hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, helium and other specific elements critical to the support of life in large space habitats at relatively low costs and lower total investment even further. Necessary selection techniques and extraction schemes are outlined. In addition, tables are presented of the oxide and elemental abundances characteristic of the mare and highland regions of the moon which should be useful in evaluating what can be extracted from the lunar soils.

  3. 2007 Lunar Regolith Simulant Workshop Overview

    McLemore, Carole A.; Fikes, John C.; Howell, Joe T.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) vision has as a cornerstone, the establishment of an Outpost on the Moon. This Lunar Outpost will eventually provide the necessary planning, technology development, and training for a manned mission to Mars in the future. As part of the overall activity, NASA is conducting Earth-based research and advancing technologies to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6 maturity under the Exploration Technology Development Program that will be incorporated into the Constellation Project as well as other projects. All aspects of the Lunar environment, including the Lunar regolith and its properties, are important in understanding the long-term impacts to hardware, scientific instruments, and humans prior to returning to the Moon and living on the Moon. With the goal of reducing risk to humans and hardware and increasing mission success on the Lunar surface, it is vital that terrestrial investigations including both development and verification testing have access to Lunar-like environments. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is supporting this endeavor by developing, characterizing, and producing Lunar simulants in addition to analyzing existing simulants for appropriate applications. A Lunar Regolith Simulant Workshop was conducted by MSFC in Huntsville, Alabama, in October 2007. The purpose of the Workshop was to bring together simulant developers, simulant users, and program and project managers from ETDP and Constellation with the goals of understanding users' simulant needs and their applications. A status of current simulant developments such as the JSC-1A (Mare Type Simulant) and the NASA/U.S. Geological Survey Lunar Highlands-Type Pilot Simulant (NU-LHT-1 M) was provided. The method for evaluating simulants, performed via Figures of Merit (FoMs) algorithms, was presented and a demonstration was provided. The four FoM properties currently being assessed are: size, shape, density, and composition. Some of the

  4. Remote compositional mapping of lunar titanium and surface maturity

    Johnson, J. R.; Larson, S. M.; Singer, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    Lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) is a potential resource capable of providing oxygen for life support and spacecraft propellant for future lunar bases. Estimates of TiO2 content in mature mare soils can be made using an empirical relation between the 400/500 nm reflectance ratio and TiO2 wt percent. A TiO2 abundance map was constructed for the entire near-side lunar maria accurate to + or - 2 wt percent TiO2 using CCD images obtained at the Tumamoc Hill 0.5 m telescope in Tucson, employing bandpass filters centered at 400 and 560 nm. Highest TiO2 regions in the maria are located in western Mare Tranquillitatis. Greater contrast differences between regions on the lunar surface can be obtained using 400/730 nm ratio images. The relation might well be refined to accommodate this possibly more sensitive indicator of TiO2 content. Another potential lunar resource is solar wind-implanted He-3 which may be used as a fuel for fusion reactors. Relative soil maturity, as determined by agglutinate content, can be estimated from 950/560 nm ration images. Immature soils appear darker in this ratio since such soils contain abundant pyroxene grains which cause strong absorption centered near 950 nm due Fe(2+) crystal field transitions. A positive correlation exists between the amount of He-3 and TiO2 content in lunar soils, suggesting that regions high in TiO2 should also be high in He-3. Reflectance spectrophotometry in the region 320 to 870 nm was also obtained for several regions. Below about 340 nm, these spectra show variations in relative reflectance that are caused by as yet unassigned near-UV absorptions due to compositional differences.

  5. Photometric Lunar Surface Reconstruction

    Nefian, Ara V.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Morattlo, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Beyer, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate photometric reconstruction of the Lunar surface is important in the context of upcoming NASA robotic missions to the Moon and in giving a more accurate understanding of the Lunar soil composition. This paper describes a novel approach for joint estimation of Lunar albedo, camera exposure time, and photometric parameters that utilizes an accurate Lunar-Lambertian reflectance model and previously derived Lunar topography of the area visualized during the Apollo missions. The method introduced here is used in creating the largest Lunar albedo map (16% of the Lunar surface) at the resolution of 10 meters/pixel.

  6. Characterization of previously unidentified lunar pyroclastic deposits using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) data

    Gustafson, J. Olaf; Bell, James F.; Gaddis, Lisa R.R.; Hawke, B. Ray Ray; Giguere, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    We used a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) global monochrome Wide-angle Camera (WAC) mosaic to conduct a survey of the Moon to search for previously unidentified pyroclastic deposits. Promising locations were examined in detail using LROC multispectral WAC mosaics, high-resolution LROC Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images, and Clementine multispectral (ultraviolet-visible or UVVIS) data. Out of 47 potential deposits chosen for closer examination, 12 were selected as probable newly identified pyroclastic deposits. Potential pyroclastic deposits were generally found in settings similar to previously identified deposits, including areas within or near mare deposits adjacent to highlands, within floor-fractured craters, and along fissures in mare deposits. However, a significant new finding is the discovery of localized pyroclastic deposits within floor-fractured craters Anderson E and F on the lunar farside, isolated from other known similar deposits. Our search confirms that most major regional and localized low-albedo pyroclastic deposits have been identified on the Moon down to ~100 m/pix resolution, and that additional newly identified deposits are likely to be either isolated small deposits or additional portions of discontinuous, patchy deposits.

  7. TRANSIENT LUNAR PHENOMENA: REGULARITY AND REALITY

    Crotts, Arlin P. S.

    2009-01-01

    Transient lunar phenomena (TLPs) have been reported for centuries, but their nature is largely unsettled, and even their existence as a coherent phenomenon is controversial. Nonetheless, TLP data show regularities in the observations; a key question is whether this structure is imposed by processes tied to the lunar surface, or by terrestrial atmospheric or human observer effects. I interrogate an extensive catalog of TLPs to gauge how human factors determine the distribution of TLP reports. The sample is grouped according to variables which should produce differing results if determining factors involve humans, and not reflecting phenomena tied to the lunar surface. Features dependent on human factors can then be excluded. Regardless of how the sample is split, the results are similar: ∼50% of reports originate from near Aristarchus, ∼16% from Plato, ∼6% from recent, major impacts (Copernicus, Kepler, Tycho, and Aristarchus), plus several at Grimaldi. Mare Crisium produces a robust signal in some cases (however, Crisium is too large for a 'feature' as defined). TLP count consistency for these features indicates that ∼80% of these may be real. Some commonly reported sites disappear from the robust averages, including Alphonsus, Ross D, and Gassendi. These reports begin almost exclusively after 1955, when TLPs became widely known and many more (and inexperienced) observers searched for TLPs. In a companion paper, we compare the spatial distribution of robust TLP sites to transient outgassing (seen by Apollo and Lunar Prospector instruments). To a high confidence, robust TLP sites and those of lunar outgassing correlate strongly, further arguing for the reality of TLPs.

  8. When did the lunar core dynamo cease?

    Tikoo, S. M.; Weiss, B. P.; Shuster, D. L.; Fuller, M.

    2013-12-01

    Remanent magnetization in the lunar crust and in returned Apollo samples has long suggested that the Moon formed a metallic core and an ancient dynamo magnetic field. Recent paleomagnetic investigations of lunar samples demonstrate that the Moon had a core dynamo which produced ~30-110 μT surface fields between at least 4.2 and 3.56 billion years ago (Ga). Tikoo et al. (1) recently found that the field declined to below several μT by 3.19 Ga. However, given that even values of a few μT are at the upper end of the intensities predicted by dynamo theory for this late in lunar history, it remains uncertain when the lunar dynamo actually ceased completely. Determining this requires a young lunar rock with extraordinarily high magnetic recording fidelity. With this goal, we are conducting a new analysis of young regolith breccia 15498. Although the breccia's age is currently uncertain, the presence of Apollo 15-type mare basalt clasts provides an upper limit constraint of ~3.3 Ga, while trapped Ar data suggest a lithification age of ~1.3 Ga. In stark contrast to the multidomain character of virtually all lunar crystalline rocks, the magnetic carriers in 15498 are on average pseudo-single domain to superparamagnetic, indicating that the sample should provide high-fidelity paleointensity records. A previous alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetization study of 15498 by Gose et al. (2) observed that the sample carries stable remanent magnetization which persists to unblocking temperatures of at least 650°C. Using a modified Thellier technique, they reported a paleointensity of 2 μT. Although this value may have been influenced by spurious remanence acquired during pretreatment with AF demagnetization, our results confirm the presence of an extremely stable (blocked to coercivities >290 mT) magnetization in the glassy matrix. We also found that this magnetization is largely unidirectional across mutually oriented subsamples. The cooling timescale of this rock (~1

  9. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles: Insights into the Abundances of Volatiles in the Moon from Lunar Apatite

    McCubbin, Francis

    2016-01-01

    At the time of publication of New Views of the Moon, it was thought that the Moon was bone dry with less than about 1 ppb H2O. However in 2007, initial reports at the 38th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference speculated that H-species were present in both apatites and pyroclastic volcanic lunar glasses. These early reports were later confirmed through peer-review, which motivated many subsequent studies on magmatic volatiles in and on the Moon within the last decade. Some of these studies have cast into question the post-Apollo view of lunar formation, the distribution and sources of volatiles in the Earth-Moon system, and the thermal and magmatic evolution of the Moon. The mineral apatite has been one of the pillars of this new field of study, and it will be the primary focus of this abstract. Although apatite has been used both to understand the abundances of volatiles in lunar systems as well as the isotopic compositions of those volatiles, the focus here will be on the abundances of F, Cl, and H2O. This work demonstrates the utility of apatite in advancing our understanding of lunar volatiles, hence apatite should be among the topics covered in the endogenous lunar volatile chapter in NVM II. Truncated ternary plot of apatite X-site occupancy (mol%) from highlands apatite and mare basalt apatite plotted on the relative volatile abundance diagram from. The solid black lines delineate fields of relative abundances of F, Cl, and H2O (on a weight basis) in the melt from which the apatite crystallized. The diagram was constructed using available apatite/melt partitioning data for fluorine, chlorine, and hydroxyl.

  10. Effect of intrauterine autoplasma application on mare fertility

    ŠTĚRBOVÁ, Hana

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of intrauterine plasma infusion on conceiving rate in selected group of mares during the breeding seasons 2008 and 2009. The fresh sperm insemination was followed by the infusion of self-plasma and subsequently the successivity of the insemination was compared with the control group of mares. Next, there were observed following factors which could influence the effectiveness of conceiving: age of the mares, number of insemination doses, s...

  11. Moon - 'Ghost' craters formed during Mare filling.

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Hartmann, W. K.; Wood, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    This paper discusses formation of 'pathological' cases of crater morphology due to interaction of craters with molten lavas. Terrestrial observations of such a process are discussed. In lunar maria, a number of small impact craters (D less than 10 km) may have been covered by thin layers of fluid lavas, or formed in molten lava. Some specific lunar examples are discussed, including unusual shallow rings resembling experimental craters deformed by isostatic filling.

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of foal rejection in Arabian mares.

    Juarbe-Díaz, S V; Houpt, K A; Kusunose, R

    1998-09-01

    Separate surveys of Thoroughbred, Paint, and Arabian mare owners revealed a higher than expected rate of foal rejection in Arabian mares. A behavioural history form was submitted by owners of foal rejecting and nonrejecting Arabian mares, and maternal behaviour and management practices compared. Four generation pedigrees of rejecting and nonrejecting Arabian mares were also examined. Foal rejecting mares were more likely to avoid, threaten, squeal at, chase, bite, and kick their foals post partum than nonrejecting mares. Nonrejecting mares were more likely to lick, nicker and defend their foals post partum than rejecting mares. No statistically significant relationship was found between foal rejection and the type of breeding method (natural vs. artificial insemination), the presence of people at birth, the presence of nearby horses at birth, or assistance of the first nursing bout. The presence at least once of 1 of 2 related sires was statistically higher in the pedigrees of rejecting vs. nonrejecting mares. Inherited and learned or environmental factors are likely to affect the expression of foal rejection behaviour.

  13. Compositional studies of Mare Moscoviense: New perspectives from Chandrayaan-1 VIS-NIR data

    Bhatt, Megha; Wöhler, Christian; Dhingra, Deepak; Thangjam, Guneshwar; Rommel, Daniela; Mall, Urs; Bhardwaj, Anil; Grumpe, Arne

    2018-03-01

    Moscoviense is one of the prominent mare-filled basin on the lunar far side holding key insights about volcanic activity on the far side. Here, we present spectral and elemental maps of mare Moscoviense, using the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) and Infrared Spectrometer-2 (SIR-2) data-sets. The different mare units are mapped based on their spectral properties analyzing both quantitatively (band center, band depth) and qualitatively (Integrated Band Depth composite images), and also using their elemental compositions. We find a total of five distinct spectral units from the basin floor based on the spectral properties. Our analysis suggests that the northern part which was mapped as Iltm unit (Imbrian low Ti, low Fe) by earlier researchers is actually a distinct unit, which is different in composition and age, named as Ivltm unit (Imbrian very low Ti and very low Fe). We obtain the absolute model age of 3.2 Ga with uncertainties of +0.2/ -0.5 Ga for the unit Ivltm. The newly identified basalt unit Ivltm is compositionally intermediate to the units Im and Iltm in FeO and TiO2 abundances. We find a total of five distinct spectral units from the basin floor based on the spectral properties. The units Im (Imbrian very low Ti) from southern and northern regions of the basin floor are spectrally distinct in terms of band center position and corresponding band depths but considered a single unit based on the elemental abundance analysis. The units Ivltm and Im are consistent with a high-Al basalt composition. Our detailed analysis of the entire Moscoviense basin indicates that the concentrations of orthopyroxene, olivine, and Mg-rich spinel, named as OOS rock family are widespread and dominant at the western and southern side of the middle ring of the basin with one isolated area found on the northern side of the peak ring.

  14. Lunar Flashlight and Other Lunar Cubesats

    Cohen, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Water is a human-exploitable resource. Lunar Flashlight is a Cubesat mission to detect and map lunar surface ice in permanently-shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. EM-1 will carry 13 Cubesat-class missions to further smallsat science and exploration capabilities; much room to infuse LEO cubesat methodology, models, and technology. Exploring the value of concurrent measurements to measure dynamical processes of water sources and sinks.

  15. Global survey of lunar wrinkle ridge formation times

    Yue, Z.; Michael, G. G.; Di, K.; Liu, J.

    2017-11-01

    Wrinkle ridges are a common feature of the lunar maria and record subsequent contraction of mare infill. Constraining the timing of wrinkle ridge formation from crater counts is challenging because they have limited areal extent and it is difficult to determine whether superposed craters post-date ridge formation or have alternatively been uplifted by the deformation. Some wrinkle ridges do allow determination to be made. This is possible where a ridge shows a sufficiently steep boundary or scarp that can be identified as deforming an intersecting crater or the crater obliterates the relief of the ridge. Such boundaries constitute only a small fraction of lunar wrinkle ridge structures yet they are sufficiently numerous to enable us to obtain statistically significant crater counts over systems of structurally related wrinkle ridges. We carried out a global mapping of mare wrinkle ridges, identifying appropriate boundaries for crater identification, and mapping superposed craters. Selected groups of ridges were analyzed using the buffered crater counting method. We found that, except for the ridges in mare Tranquilitatis, the ridge groups formed with average ages between 3.5 and 3.1 Ga ago, or 100-650 Ma after the oldest observable erupted basalts where they are located. We interpret these results to suggest that local stresses from loading by basalt fill are the principal agent responsible for the formation of lunar wrinkle ridges, as others have proposed. We find a markedly longer interval before wrinkle ridge formation in Tranquilitatis which likely indicates a different mechanism of stress accumulation at this site.

  16. Mare Pork: emotsionaalsed kangid on kõige tõhusamad / Mare Pork

    Pork, Mare, 1950-

    2010-01-01

    Kliinilise psühholoogia professor Mare Pork tutvustab vestluses raamatut: Neale, Stephen; Spencer-Arnell, Lisa; Wilson, Liz. Emotsionaalse intelligentsuse treening : kuidas tõsta tippjuhi, arengutreeneri ja iseendaga tehtava töö tulemuslikkust. [Tallinn] : Äripäev, 2009

  17. Mare Pork : Koolitus olgu puhkus ja pingutus / Mare Pork ; interv. Urve Vilk

    Pork, Mare

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 12. märts lk. 16-17. Koolitaja Mare Pork leiab, et töös võiks olla rohkem lõbu ja loovust ning koolitus võiks olla nii korralik pingutus kui ka korralik puhkus täis-ümberlülitusega

  18. Villa Rocca al Mares = Villa in Rocca al Mare / Raul Vaiksoo ; intervjueerinud Margit Mutso

    Vaiksoo, Raul, 1955-

    2011-01-01

    Tallinnas Loigu t. 3 asuva villa arhitektuursest lahendusest. Majas on kasutatud palju klaasi, konstruktsioonid on avatud. Arhitekt Raul Vaiksoo, kaasautor Kristo Vaiksoo, sisearhitektid Raul Vaiksoo ja Krista Aren (Raul Vaiksoo Arhitektuuribüroo). Raul Vaiksoo pälvis Rocca al Mare villa eest EK arhitektuuri sihtkapitali 2010. a. arhitektuuripreemia

  19. Rock spatial densities on the rims of the Tycho secondary craters in Mare Nectaris

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Michael, G. G.; Kozlova, N. A.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work is to check whether the technique of estimation of age of small lunar craters based on spatial density of rock boulders on their rims described in Basilevsky et al. (2013, 2015b) and Li et al. (2017) for the craters rock counts on the rims of four craters having diameters 1000, 1100, 1240 and 1400 m located in Mare Nectaris. These craters are secondaries of the primary crater Tycho, whose age was found to be 109 ± 4 Ma (Stoffler and Ryder, 2001) so this may be taken as the age of the four craters, too. Using the dependence of the rock spatial densities at the crater rims on the crater age for the case of mare craters (Li et al., 2017) our measured rock densities correspond to ages from ∼100 to 130 Ma. These estimates are reasonably close to the given age of the primary crater Tycho. This, in turn, suggests that this technique of crater age estimation is applicable to craters up to ∼1.5 km in diameter. For the four considered craters we also measured their depth/diameter ratios and the maximum angles of the crater inner slopes. For the considered craters it was found that with increasing crater diameter, the depth/diameter ratios and maximum angles of internal slopes increase, but the values of these parameters for specific craters may deviate significantly from the general trends. The deviations probably result from some dissimilarities in the primary crater geometries, that may be due to crater to crater differences in characteristics of impactors (e.g., in their bulk densities) and/or differences in the mechanical properties of the target. It may be possible to find secondaries of crater Tycho in the South pole area and, if so, they may be studied to check the specifics and rates of the rock boulder degradation in the lunar polar environment.

  20. Apollo 15 yellow-brown volcanic glass: Chemistry and petrogenetic relations to green volcanic glass and olivine-normative mare basalts

    Hughes, S.S.; Schmitt, R.A.; (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA)); Delano, J.W. (State Univ. of New York, Albany (USA))

    1988-10-01

    Apollo 15 yellow-brown glass is one of twenty-five, high Mg, primary magmas emplaced on the lunar surface in pyroclastic eruptions. Forty spherules of this glass were individually analyzed by electron microprobe and INAA for major- and trace-elements. The abundances demonstrate that this primary magma was produced by partial melting of differentiated cumulates in the lunar mantle. Models are developed to explain the possible source-regions of several Apollo 15 and Apollo 12 low-Ti mare magmas as being products of hybridization involving three ancient differentiated components of a primordial lunar magma ocean: (a) early olivine {plus minus} orthopyroxene cumulates; (b) late-stage clinopyroxene + pigeonite + ilmenite + plagioclase cumulates; and (c) late-stage inter-cumulus liquid.

  1. The chlorine isotope fingerprint of the lunar magma ocean.

    Boyce, Jeremy W; Treiman, Allan H; Guan, Yunbin; Ma, Chi; Eiler, John M; Gross, Juliane; Greenwood, James P; Stolper, Edward M

    2015-09-01

    The Moon contains chlorine that is isotopically unlike that of any other body yet studied in the Solar System, an observation that has been interpreted to support traditional models of the formation of a nominally hydrogen-free ("dry") Moon. We have analyzed abundances and isotopic compositions of Cl and H in lunar mare basalts, and find little evidence that anhydrous lava outgassing was important in generating chlorine isotope anomalies, because (37)Cl/(35)Cl ratios are not related to Cl abundance, H abundance, or D/H ratios in a manner consistent with the lava-outgassing hypothesis. Instead, (37)Cl/(35)Cl correlates positively with Cl abundance in apatite, as well as with whole-rock Th abundances and La/Lu ratios, suggesting that the high (37)Cl/(35)Cl in lunar basalts is inherited from urKREEP, the last dregs of the lunar magma ocean. These new data suggest that the high chlorine isotope ratios of lunar basalts result not from the degassing of their lavas but from degassing of the lunar magma ocean early in the Moon's history. Chlorine isotope variability is therefore an indicator of planetary magma ocean degassing, an important stage in the formation of terrestrial planets.

  2. LADEE LUNAR DUST EXPERIMENT

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This archive bundle includes data taken by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft....

  3. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Boyce, J. W.; Burney, D.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Klima, R. L.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Steenstra, E.; Tartèse, R.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.

    2018-04-01

    This abstract discusses numerous outstanding questions on the topic of endogenous lunar volatiles that will need to be addressed in the coming years. Although substantial insights into endogenous lunar volatiles have been gained, more work remains.

  4. Critical Robotic Lunar Missions

    Plescia, J. B.

    2018-04-01

    Perhaps the most critical missions to understanding lunar history are in situ dating and network missions. These would constrain the volcanic and thermal history and interior structure. These data would better constrain lunar evolution models.

  5. The 3-D geological model around Chang'E-3 landing site based on lunar penetrating radar Channel 1 data

    Yuan, Yuefeng; Zhu, Peimin; Zhao, Na; Xiao, Long; Garnero, Edward; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zhao, Jiannan; Qiao, Le

    2017-07-01

    High-frequency lunar penetrating radar (LPR) data from an instrument on the lunar rover Yutu, from the Chang'E-3 (CE-3) robotic lander, were used to build a three-dimensional (3-D) geological model of the lunar subsurface structure. The CE-3 landing site is in the northern Mare Imbrium. More than five significant reflection horizons are evident in the LPR profile, which we interpret as different period lava flow sequences deposited on the lunar surface. The most probable directions of these flows were inferred from layer depths, thicknesses, and other geological information. Moreover, the apparent Imbrian paleoregolith homogeneity in the profile supports the suggestion of a quiescent period of lunar surface evolution. Similar subsurface structures are found at the NASA Apollo landing sites, indicating that the cause and time of formation of the imaged phenomena may be similar between the two distant regions.

  6. Lunar Science Conference, 5th, Houston, Tex., March 18-22, 1974, Proceedings. Volume 1 - Mineralogy and petrology. Volume 2 Chemical and isotope analyses. Organic chemistry. Volume 3 - Physical properties

    Gose, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    Numerous studies on the properties of the moon based on Apollo findings and samples are presented. Topics treated include ages of the lunar nearside light plains and maria, orange material in the Sulpicius Gallus formation at the southwestern edge of Mare Serenitatis, impact-induced fractionation in the lunar highlands, igneous rocks from Apollo 16 rake samples, experimental liquid line of descent and liquid immiscibility for basalt 70017, ion microprobe mass analysis of plagioclase from 'non-mare' lunar samples, grain size and the evolution of lunar soils, chemical composition of rocks and soils at Taurus-Littrow, the geochemical evolution of the moon, U-Th-Pb systematics of some Apollo 17 lunar samples and implications for a lunar basin excavation chronology, volatile-element systematics and green glass in Apollo 15 lunar soils, solar wind nitrogen and indigenous nitrogen in Apollo 17 lunar samples, lunar trapped xenon, solar flare and lunar surface process characterization at the Apollo 17 site, and the permanent and induced magnetic dipole moment of the moon. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  7. Subsurface structures in the northern Mare Imbrium measured by Chang'E-3 and SELENE

    Kumamoto, A.; Ishiyama, K.; Feng, J.

    2016-12-01

    Subsurface structures in the northern Mare Imbrium measured by Chang'E-3 and SELENE have been compared. In Chang'E-3 mission, subsurface radar sounding at (19.51W, 44.12N) was performed by Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) onboard the Yutu rover. The LPR was pulse radar operated at two frequencies: 60 MHz and 500 MHz. During its operation period from December 2013 to January 2014, the LPR observed subsurface echoes along the rover's track with total distance of 114 m. From the observation in 60 MHz, the subsurface echoes from buried regolith layers at depths of 35, 50, 140, 240, and 360 m were reported (Xiao et al., 2015). In SELENE mission, global subsurface radar sounding of the moon was performed by Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) onboard the SELENE (Kaguya) spacecraft from the polar orbit with an altitude of 100 km. The LRS was chirp radar operated in a frequency range from 4-6 MHz. So the range resolution of LRS was 75 m in vacuum. During operation period from December 2007 to September 2008, subsurface echoes from all areas of the Moon was observed with a lateral resolution of 76 m. From the global observation, the subsurface echoes from the buried regolith layers in the neraside maria including Mare Imbrium at depths of several hundred meters were reported (Ono et al., 2009).In the present study, we focus on SELENE/LRS data obtained at (19.50W, 44.12N) which is the nearest to the Chang'E-3 landing site. While clear and large-scale subsurface reflectors, as found in Ono et al. (2009), are not found in it, we can identify some echo components from the depths of 140 ( 2000 ns), 240 ( 4000 ns), and 360 m ( 6000 ns). Further analyses utilizing high-resolution data from Chang'E-3/LPR and large-scale data from SELENE/LRS, we will be able to determine the thickness and large-scale structures of the buried regolith layers found by the both radars, and discuss their formation processes in volcanic history of Mare Imbrium.

  8. Effect of terrestrial radiation on brightness temperature at lunar nearside: Based on theoretical calculation and data analysis

    Wei, Guangfei; Li, Xiongyao; Wang, Shijie

    2015-02-01

    Terrestrial radiation is another possible source of heat in lunar thermal environment at its nearside besides the solar illumination. On the basis of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data products, the effect of terrestrial radiation on the brightness temperature (TBe) of the lunar nearside has been theoretically calculated. It shows that the mafic lunar mare with high TBe is more sensitive to terrestrial radiation than the feldspathic highland with low TBe value. According to the synchronous rotation of the Moon, we extract TBe on lunar nearside using the microwave radiometer data from the first Chinese lunar probe Chang'E-1 (CE-1). Consistently, the average TBe at Mare Serenitatis is about 1.2 K while the highland around the Geber crater (19.4°S, 13.9°E) is relatively small at ∼0.4 K. Our results indicate that there is no significant effect of terrestrial radiation on TBe at the lunar nearside. However, to extract TBe accurately, effects of heat flow, rock abundance and subsurface rock fragments which are more significant should be considered in the future work.

  9. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy

    Rohwer, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    "Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy" supports a vision of people moving freely and economically between the earth and the Moon in an expansive space and lunar economy. It makes the economic case for the creation of a lunar space economy and projects the business plan that will make the venture an economic success. In addition, this paper argues that this vision can be created and sustained only by private enterprise and the legal right of private property in space and on the Moon. Finally, this paper advocates the use of lunar land grants as the key to unleashing the needed capital and the economic power of private enterprise in the creation of a 21st century lunar space economy. It is clear that the history of our United States economic system proves the value of private property rights in the creation of any new economy. It also teaches us that the successful development of new frontiers-those that provide economic opportunity for freedom-loving people-are frontiers that encourage, respect and protect the possession of private property and the fruits of labor and industry. Any new 21st century space and lunar economy should therefore be founded on this same principle.

  10. Yoghurt fermentation trials utilizing mare milk: comparison with cow milk

    R. Giangiacomo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mare milk shows a very interesting nutritional composition, similar to human milk. Whey protein fraction represents about 50% of total proteins, with a good amount of essential amino acids, and high lysozyme concentration (Jauregui-Adell, 1975. Mare milk contains essential fatty acids, progenitors of ω3 and ω6, higher than cow milk (Csapò et al., 1995; Curadi et al., 2002. In east european countries mare milk is utilized in dietetics and therapeutics for gastroenteric and cardiac pathologies (Sharmanov et al., 1982; Mirrakimov et al., 1986, or as a drink obtained from lactic and alcoholic fermentation (Koumiss...

  11. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 7

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Lunar Geologic Mapping: Preliminary Mapping of Copernicus Quad High-Resolution Topography of Layers in the Valles Marineris Via Thermoclinometry ; The Critical Importance of Data Reduction Calibrations in the Interpretability of S-type Asteroid Spectra; (sup 238)U-(sup 206)Pb Age and Uranium-Lead Isotope Systematics of Mare Basalt 10017; Morphological Investigations of Martian Spherules, Comparisons to Collected Terrestrial Counterparts; The Vapor Pressure of Palladium at Temperatures up to 1973K; Areas of Favorable Illumination at the Lunar Poles Calculated from Topography; An Indigenous Origin for the South Pole-Aitken Basin Thorium Anomaly; Ar-Ar Ages of Nakhlites Y000593, NWA998, and Nakhla and CRE Ages of NWA998; Experiments on the Acoustic Properties of Titan-like Atmospheres; Analysis of Downstream Transitions in Morphology and Structure of Lava Channels on Mars; Structure and Bonding of Carbon in Clays from CI Carbonaceous Chondrites; Comparison of Three Hydrogen Distributions at the Equator of Mars; An Impact Origin for the Foliation of Ordinary Chondrites; A New Micrometeorite Collection from Antarctica and Its Preliminary Characterization by Microobservation, Microanalysis and Magnetic Methods; Volcanic Plumes and Plume Deposits on Io; Results of the Alpha-Particle-X-Ray Spectrometer on Board of the Mars Exploration Rovers; Effects of Oceans on Atmospheric Loss During the Stage of Giant Impacts; and Identification of Predominant Ferric Signatures in Association to the Martian Sulfate Deposits

  12. Verdes Mares: The Ideology of the Siren

    Bruno Marinoni Marinoni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The television channel number 10 of Fortaleza (current TV Verdes Mares, during the 1960 decade, passed through the ideological filter of the Military Dictatorship, when the channel was taken from its owner and given to the businessman Edson Queiroz. The filter had consequences in the next decade with the channel affiliation to the biggest network broadcasting of the country, the Rede Globo, which was also protected by the Military Regime. Based on those two facts, it is intended to discuss some aspects of the exploration models of communication that occurs in the country since the specified period, emphasizing the ideology transmitted by the TV channel which has the biggest audience ratings in Ceará.

  13. Time-of-day-dependent global distribution of lunar surficial water/hydroxyl.

    Wöhler, Christian; Grumpe, Arne; Berezhnoy, Alexey A; Shevchenko, Vladislav V

    2017-09-01

    A new set of time-of-day-dependent global maps of the lunar near-infrared water/hydroxyl (H 2 O/OH) absorption band strength near 2.8 to 3.0 μm constructed on the basis of Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M 3 ) data is presented. The analyzed absorption band near 2.8 to 3.0 μm indicates the presence of surficial H 2 O/OH. To remove the thermal emission component from the M 3 reflectance spectra, a reliable and physically realistic mapping method has been developed. Our maps show that lunar highlands at high latitudes show a stronger H 2 O/OH absorption band in the lunar morning and evening than at midday. The amplitude of these time-of-day-dependent variations decreases with decreasing latitude of the highland regions, where below about 30°, absorption strength becomes nearly constant during the lunar day at a similar level as in the high-latitude highlands at midday. The lunar maria exhibit weaker H 2 O/OH absorption than the highlands at all, but showing a smaller difference from highlands absorption levels in the morning and evening than at midday. The level around midday is generally higher for low-Ti than for high-Ti mare surfaces, where it reaches near-zero values. Our observations contrast with previous studies that indicate a significant concentration of surficial H 2 O/OH at high latitudes only. Furthermore, although our results generally support the commonly accepted mechanism of H 2 O/OH formation by adsorption of solar wind protons, they suggest the presence of a more strongly bounded surficial H 2 O/OH component in the lunar highlands and parts of the mare regions, which is not removed by processes such as diffusion/thermal evaporation and photolysis in the course of the lunar day.

  14. Lunar photometric modelling with SMART-1/AMIE imaging data

    Wilkman, O.; Muinonen, K.; Videen, G.; Josset, J.-L.; Souchon, A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the light-scattering properties of the lunar mare areas. A large photometric dataset was extracted from images taken by the AMIE camera on board the SMART-1 spacecraft. Inter-particle shadowing effects in the regolith are modelled using ray-tracing simulations, and then a phase function is fit to the data using Bayesian techniques and Markov chain Monte Carlo. Additionally, the data are fit with phase functions computed from radiative-transfer coherent-backscatter (RT-CB) simulations. The results indicate that the lunar photometry, including both the opposition effect and azimuthal effects, can be explained well with a combination of inter-particle shadowing and coherent backscattering. Our results produce loose constraints on the mare physical properties. The RT-CB results indicate that the scattering volume element is optically thick. In both the Bayesian analysis and the RT-CB fit, models with lower packing density and/or higher surface roughness always produce better fits to the data than densely packed, smoother ones

  15. Orbital studies of lunar magnetism

    Mcleod, M. G.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Limitations of present lunar magnetic maps are considered. Optimal processing of satellite derived magnetic anomaly data is also considered. Studies of coastal and core geomagnetism are discussed. Lunar remanent and induced lunar magnetization are included.

  16. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Isotopic Studies of Lunar Green and Orange Glasses

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Lunar volcanic glassy beads have been considered as quenched basaltic magmas derived directly from deep lunar mantle during fire-fountaining eruptions [1]. Since these sub-mm size glassy melt droplets were cooled in a hot gaseous medium during free flight [2], they have not been subject to mineral fractionations. Thus, they represent primary magmas and are the best samples for the investigation of the lunar mantle. Previously, we presented preliminary Rb- Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic results for green and orange glassy samples from green glass clod 15426,63 and orange soil 74220,44, respectively [3]. Using these isotopic data, initial Sr-87/Sr-86 and Nd ratios for these pristine mare glass sources can be calculated from their respective crystallization ages previously determined by other age-dating techniques. These isotopic data were used to evaluate the mineralogy of the mantle sources. In this report, we analyzed additional glassy samples in order to further characterize isotopic signatures of their source regions. Also, we'll postulate a relationship between these two major mare basalt source mineralogies in the context of lunar magma ocean dynamics.

  17. Lunar resource base

    Pulley, John; Wise, Todd K.; Roy, Claude; Richter, Phil

    A lunar base that exploits local resources to enhance the productivity of a total SEI scenario is discussed. The goals were to emphasize lunar science and to land men on Mars in 2016 using significant amounts of lunar resources. It was assumed that propulsion was chemical and the surface power was non-nuclear. Three phases of the base build-up are outlined, the robotic emplacement of the first elements is detailed and a discussion of future options is included.

  18. Lunar and interplanetary trajectories

    Biesbroek, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with a clear description of the types of lunar and interplanetary trajectories, and how they influence satellite-system design. The description follows an engineering rather than a mathematical approach and includes many examples of lunar trajectories, based on real missions. It helps readers gain an understanding of the driving subsystems of interplanetary and lunar satellites. The tables and graphs showing features of trajectories make the book easy to understand. .

  19. LROC Advances in Lunar Science

    Robinson, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Since entering orbit in 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) has acquired over 700,000 Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images of the Moon. This new image collection is fueling research into the origin and evolution of the Moon. NAC images revealed a volcanic complex 35 x 25 km (60N, 100E), between Compton and Belkovich craters (CB). The CB terrain sports volcanic domes and irregular depressed areas (caldera-like collapses). The volcanic complex corresponds to an area of high-silica content (Diviner) and high Th (Lunar Prospector). A low density of impact craters on the CB complex indicates a relatively young age. The LROC team mapped over 150 volcanic domes and 90 volcanic cones in the Marius Hills (MH), many of which were not previously identified. Morphology and compositional estimates (Diviner) indicate that MH domes are silica poor, and are products of low-effusion mare lavas. Impact melt deposits are observed with Copernican impact craters (>10 km) on exterior ejecta, the rim, inner wall, and crater floors. Preserved impact melt flow deposits are observed around small craters (25 km diam.), and estimated melt volumes exceed predictions. At these diameters the amount of melt predicted is small, and melt that is produced is expected to be ejected from the crater. However, we observe well-defined impact melt deposits on the floor of highland craters down to 200 m diameter. A globally distributed population of previously undetected contractional structures were discovered. Their crisp appearance and associated impact crater populations show that they are young landforms (features place bounds on the amount of global radial contraction and the level of compressional stress in the crust. WAC temporal coverage of the poles allowed quantification of highly illuminated regions, including one site that remains lit for 94% of a year (longest eclipse period of 43 hours). Targeted NAC images provide higher resolution characterization of

  20. On a lunar space elevator

    Lemke, E. H.

    We consider a space elevator system for lunar surface access that consists of a space station in circumlunar orbit, a cable reaching down to some meters above the surface and a magnetically levitated vehicle driven by a linear motor. It accelerates the load to be lifted to the speed of the cable end. Loads to be delivered are either put on the vehicle and slowed down by it or they are slowed down by a sand braking technique in a mare terrain. It is technically possible to operate this transport system nearly without fuel supply from Earth. We calculate various steel cable dimensions for a static stress maximum of 1/5th of the tensile strength. The process of takeover is considered in detail. Five ways of eliminating the adverse large cable elongation due to the load are described. The touchdown process and behaviour of the cable after disconnection are analysed. The positive difference between the speed of the load at takeover and cable end can excite a large inplane swing motion. We propose to damp it by a dissipative pulley that hangs in a loop of wire leading to the ends of two beams mounted on the space station tangentially to the orbit, the pulley's core being connected with the load. Roll librations are damped by energy losses in the elastic beams; damping can be reinforced by viscous beam elements and/or controlled out-of-plane motions of the beams. We argue in favour of the possibility of fast deployment. The problems of vehicle vibrations and agglutination at sand braking blades are underlined and their combined experimental investigation is suggested.

  1. Magmatic intrusions in the lunar crust

    Michaut, C.; Thorey, C.

    2015-10-01

    The lunar highlands are very old, with ages covering a timespan between 4.5 to 4.2 Gyr, and probably formed by flotation of light plagioclase minerals on top of the lunar magma ocean. The lunar crust provides thus an invaluable evidence of the geological and magmatic processes occurring in the first times of the terrestrial planets history. According to the last estimates from the GRAIL mission, the lunar primary crust is particularly light and relatively thick [1] This low-density crust acted as a barrier for the dense primary mantle melts. This is particularly evident in the fact that subsequent mare basalts erupted primarily within large impact basin: at least part of the crust must have been removed for the magma to reach the surface. However, the trajectory of the magma from the mantle to the surface is unknown. Using a model of magma emplacement below an elastic overlying layer with a flexural wavelength Λ, we characterize the surface deformations induced by the presence of shallow magmatic intrusions. We demonstrate that, depending on its size, the intrusion can show two different shapes: a bell shape when its radius is smaller than 4 times Λ or a flat top with small bended edges if its radius is larger than 4 times Λ[2]. These characteristic shapes for the intrusion result in characteristic deformations at the surface that also depend on the topography of the layer overlying the intrusion [3].Using this model we provide evidence of the presence of intrusions within the crust of the Moon as surface deformations in the form of low-slope lunar domes and floor-fractured craters. All these geological features have morphologies consistent with models of magma spreading at depth and deforming an overlying elastic layer. Further more,at floor-fractured craters, the deformation is contained within the crater interior, suggesting that the overpressure at the origin of magma ascent and intrusion was less than the pressure due to the weight of the crust removed by

  2. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites crystallized between 4.3-3.8 Ga from relatively wet melts that degassed upon crystallization. The formation of these granites likely removed significant amounts of water from some mantle source regions, e.g. later mare basalts predicting derivation from a

  3. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Workshops for Educators

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Hessen, K.; Bleacher, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWEs) are a series of weeklong professional development workshops, accompanied by quarterly follow-up sessions, designed to educate and inspire grade 6-12 science teachers, sponsored by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Participants learn about lunar science and exploration, gain tools to help address common student misconceptions about the Moon, find out about the latest research results from LRO scientists, work with data from LRO and other lunar missions, and learn how to bring these data to their students using hands-on activities aligned with grade 6-12 National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks and through authentic research experiences. LWEs are held around the country, primarily in locations underserved with respect to NASA workshops. Where possible, workshops also include tours of science facilities or field trips intended to help participants better understand mission operations or geologic processes relevant to the Moon. Scientist and engineer involvement is a central tenant of the LWEs. LRO scientists and engineers, as well as scientists working on other lunar missions, present their research or activities to the workshop participants and answer questions about lunar science and exploration. This interaction with the scientists and engineers is consistently ranked by the LWE participants as one of the most interesting and inspiring components of the workshops. Evaluation results from the 2010 and 2011 workshops, as well as preliminary analysis of survey responses from 2012 participants, demonstrated an improved understanding of lunar science concepts among LWE participants in post-workshop assessments (as compared to identical pre-assessments) and a greater understanding of how to access and effectively share LRO data with students. Teachers reported increased confidence in helping students conduct research using lunar data, and learned about programs that would allow their students to make authentic

  4. Geotectonic evolution of lunar LQ-4 region based on multisource data

    Jianping Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sinus Iridum region, the first choice for China's “Lunar Exploration Project” is located at the center of the lunar LQ-4 area and is the site of Chang'e-3 (CE-3's soft landing. To make the scientific exploration of Chang'e-3 more targeted and scientific, and to obtain a better macro-level understanding of the geotectonic environment of the Sinus Iridum region, the tectonic elements in LQ-4 region have been studied and the typical structures were analyzed statistically using data from CE-1, Clementine, LRO and Lunar Prospector missions. Also, the mineral components and periods of mare basalt activities in the study area have been ascertained. The present study divides the tectonic units and establishes the major tectonic events and sequence of evolution in the study area based on morphology, mineral constituents, and tectonic element distribution.

  5. Data processing and initial results of Chang'e-3 lunar penetrating radar

    Su, Yan; Fang, Guang-You; Feng, Jian-Qing; Xing, Shu-Guo; Ji, Yi-Cai; Zhou, Bin; Gao, Yun-Ze; Li, Han; Dai, Shun; Xiao, Yuan; Li, Chun-Lai

    2014-12-01

    To improve our understanding of the formation and evolution of the Moon, one of the payloads onboard the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) rover is Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR). This investigation is the first attempt to explore the lunar subsurface structure by using ground penetrating radar with high resolution. We have probed the subsurface to a depth of several hundred meters using LPR. In-orbit testing, data processing and the preliminary results are presented. These observations have revealed the configuration of regolith where the thickness of regolith varies from about 4 m to 6 m. In addition, one layer of lunar rock, which is about 330 m deep and might have been accumulated during the depositional hiatus of mare basalts, was detected.

  6. Data processing and initial results of Chang'e-3 lunar penetrating radar

    Su Yan; Feng Jian-Qing; Xing Shu-Guo; Li Han; Dai Shun; Xiao Yuan; Li Chun-Lai; Fang Guang-You; Ji Yi-Cai; Zhou Bin; Gao Yun-Ze

    2014-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the formation and evolution of the Moon, one of the payloads onboard the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) rover is Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR). This investigation is the first attempt to explore the lunar subsurface structure by using ground penetrating radar with high resolution. We have probed the subsurface to a depth of several hundred meters using LPR. In-orbit testing, data processing and the preliminary results are presented. These observations have revealed the configuration of regolith where the thickness of regolith varies from about 4 m to 6 m. In addition, one layer of lunar rock, which is about 330 m deep and might have been accumulated during the depositional hiatus of mare basalts, was detected

  7. Structural Analysis of Lunar Subsurface with Chang'E 3 Lunar Penetrating Radar

    Xu, Yi; Lai, Jialong; Tang, Zesheng

    2015-04-01

    Geological structure of the subsurface of the Moon provides valuable information for our understanding of lunar evolution. Recently, Chang'E 3 has utilized lunar penetrating radar (LPR), which is equipped on the lunar rover named as Yutu, to detect the lunar geological structure in Northern Imbrium (44.1260N, 19.5014W) for the first time. As an in-situ detector, Chang'E 3 LPR has higher horizontal and vertical resolution and less clutter impact compared to spaceborne radars such as Chandrayaan-1 and Kaguya. In this work, we analyze the LPR data at 500 MHz transmission frequency to obtain the shallow subsurface structure of the landing area of Chang'E 3 in Mare Imbrium. First, filter method and amplitude recover algorithms are introduced for data processing to alleviate the adverse effects of environment and system noises and compensate the amplitude losses during signal propagation. Next, based on the processed LPR data, we present the methods to determine the interfaces between layers. A three-layered structure of the shallow surface of the Moon has been observed. The corresponding real part of relative dielectric constant is inverted with deconvolution method. The average dielectric constants of the surface, second and third layer is 2.8, 3.2 and 3.6, respectively. The phenomenon that the average dielectric constant increases with the depth is consistent with prior art. With the obtained dielectric constants, the thickness of each layer can be calculated. One possible geological picture of the observed three-layered structure is presented as follows. The top layer is lunar regolith with its thickness ranging from 0.59 m to 0.9 m. The second layer is the ejecta blanket of the nearby impact crater, and the corresponding thickness is between 3.6m to 3.9m, which is in good agreement with the model of ejecta blanket thickness (height) as a function of distance from the crater center proposed by Melosh in 1989. The third layer is regarded as early lunar regolith with 4

  8. Lunar-A

    penetrators will be transmitted to the earth station via the Lunar-A mother spacecraft orbiting at an altitude of about .... to save the power consumption of the Lunar-A penetrator .... and an origin-time versus tidal-phases correlation. (Toksoz et al ...

  9. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 4

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: High-Resolution Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS) Using a Monochromated TEM/STEM. Dynamical Evolution of Planets in Open Clusters. Experimental Petrology of the Basaltic Shergottite Yamato 980459: Implications for the Thermal Structure of the Martian Mantle. Cryogenic Reflectance Spectroscopy of Highly Hydrated Sulfur-bearing Salts. Implications for Core Formation of the Earth from High Pressure-Temperature Au Partitioning Experiments. Uranium-Thorium Cosmochronology. Protracted Core Differentiation in Asteroids from 182Hf-182W Systematics in the Eagle Station Pallasite. Maximizing Mission Science Return Through Use of Spacecraft Autonomy: Active Volcanism and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment. Classification of Volcanic Eruptions on Io and Earth Using Low-Resolution Remote Sensing Data. Isotopic Mass Fractionation Laws and the Initial Solar System (sup26)Al/(sup27)Al Ratio. Catastrophic Disruption of Porous and Solid Ice Bodies (sup187)Re-(sup187)Os Isotope Disturbance in LaPaz Mare Basalt Meteorites. Comparative Petrology and Geochemistry of the LaPaz Mare Basalt Meteorites. A Comparison of the Structure and Bonding of Carbon in Apex Chert Kerogenous Material and Fischer-Tropsch-Type Carbons. Broad Spectrum Characterization of Returned Samples: Orientation Constraints of Small Samples on X-Ray and Other Spectroscopies. Apollo 14 High-Ti Picritic Glass: Oxidation/Reduction by Condensation of Alkali Metals. New Lunar Meteorites from Oman: Dhofar 925, 960 and 961. The First Six Months of Iapetus Observations by the Cassini ISS Camera. First Imaging Results from the Iapetus B/C Flyby of the Cassini Spacecraft. Radiative Transfer Calculations for the Atmosphere of Mars in the 200-900 nm Range. Geomorphologic Map of the Atlantis Basin, Terra Sirenum, Mars. The Meaning of Iron 60: A Nearby Supernova Injected Short-lived Radionuclides into Our Protoplanetary Disk.

  10. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.

  11. Volcanic history of the Imbrium basin: A close-up view from the lunar rover Yutu.

    Zhang, Jinhai; Yang, Wei; Hu, Sen; Lin, Yangting; Fang, Guangyou; Li, Chunlai; Peng, Wenxi; Zhu, Sanyuan; He, Zhiping; Zhou, Bin; Lin, Hongyu; Yang, Jianfeng; Liu, Enhai; Xu, Yuchen; Wang, Jianyu; Yao, Zhenxing; Zou, Yongliao; Yan, Jun; Ouyang, Ziyuan

    2015-04-28

    We report the surface exploration by the lunar rover Yutu that landed on the young lava flow in the northeastern part of the Mare Imbrium, which is the largest basin on the nearside of the Moon and is filled with several basalt units estimated to date from 3.5 to 2.0 Ga. The onboard lunar penetrating radar conducted a 114-m-long profile, which measured a thickness of ∼5 m of the lunar regolith layer and detected three underlying basalt units at depths of 195, 215, and 345 m. The radar measurements suggest underestimation of the global lunar regolith thickness by other methods and reveal a vast volume of the last volcano eruption. The in situ spectral reflectance and elemental analysis of the lunar soil at the landing site suggest that the young basalt could be derived from an ilmenite-rich mantle reservoir and then assimilated by 10-20% of the last residual melt of the lunar magma ocean.

  12. Estimation of lunar FeO abundance based on imaging by LRO Diviner

    Tang, Xiao; Zhang, Xue-Wei; Chen, Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Cai, Wei; Wu, Yun-Zhao; Luo, Xiao-Xing; Jiang, Yun; Xu, Ao-Ao; Wang, Zhen-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the abundance and distribution characteristics of FeO on the surface of the Moon is important for investigating its evolution. The current high resolution maps of the global FeO abundance are mostly produced with visible and near infrared reflectance spectra. The Christiansen Feature (CF) in mid-infrared has strong sensitivity to lunar minerals and correlates to major elements composing minerals. This paper investigates the possibility of mapping global FeO abundance using the CF values from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission. A high correlation between the CF values and FeO abundances from the Apollo samples was found. Based on this high correlation, a new global map (±60°) of FeO was produced using the CF map. The results show that the global FeO average is 8.2 wt.%, the highland average is 4.7 wt.%, the global modal abundance is 5.4 wt.% and the lunar mare mode is 15.7 wt.%. These results are close to those derived from data provided by Clementine, the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer (LP-GRS) and the Chang'e-1 Interference Imaging Spectrometer (IIM), demonstrating the feasibility of estimating FeO abundance based on the Diviner CF data. The near global FeO abundance map shows an enrichment of lunar major elements. (paper)

  13. The Lunar Magma Ocean: Sharpening the Focus on Process and Composition

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    The currently accepted model for the formation of the lunar anorthositic crust is by flotation from a crystallizing lunar magma ocean (LMO) shortly following lunar accretion. Anorthositic crust is globally distributed and old, whereas the mare basalts are younger and derived from a source region that has experienced plagioclase extraction. Several attempts at modelling such a crystallization sequence have been made [e.g. 1, 2], but our ever-increasing knowledge of the lunar samples and surface have raised as many questions as these models have answered. This abstract presents results from our ongoing ex-periments simulating LMO crystallization and address-ing a range of variables. We investigate two bulk com-positions, which span most of the range of suggested lunar bulk compositions, from the refractory element enriched Taylor Whole Moon (TWM) [3] to the more Earth-like Lunar Primitive Upper Mantle (LPUM) [4]. We also investigate two potential crystallization mod-els: Fully fractional, where crystallizing phases are separated from the magma as they form and sink (or float in the case of plagioclase) throughout magma ocean solidification; and a two-step process suggested by [1, 5] with an initial stage of equilibrium crystalliza-tion, where crystals remain entrained in the magma before the crystal burden increases viscosity enough that convection slows and the crystals settle, followed by fractional crystallization. Here we consider the frac-tional crystallization part of this process; the equilibri-um cumulates having been determined by [6].

  14. Mass dependent fractionation of stable chromium isotopes in mare basalts: Implications for the formation and the differentiation of the Moon

    Bonnand, Pierre; Parkinson, Ian J.; Anand, Mahesh

    2016-02-01

    We present the first stable chromium isotopic data from mare basalts in order to investigate the similarity between the Moon and the Earth's mantle. A double spike technique coupled with MC-ICP-MS measurements was used to analyse 19 mare basalts, comprising high-Ti, low-Ti and KREEP-rich varieties. Chromium isotope ratios (δ53Cr) for mare basalts are positively correlated with indices of magmatic differentiation such as Mg# and Cr concentration which suggests that Cr isotopes were fractionated during magmatic differentiation. Modelling of the results provides evidence that spinel and pyroxene are the main phases controlling the Cr isotopic composition during fractional crystallisation. The most evolved samples have the lightest isotopic compositions, complemented by cumulates that are isotopically heavy. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this fractionation: (i) equilibrium fractionation where heavy isotopes are preferentially incorporated into the spinel lattice and (ii) a difference in isotopic composition between Cr2+ and Cr3+ in the melt. However, both processes require magmatic temperatures below 1200 °C for appreciable Cr3+ to be present at the low oxygen fugacities found in the Moon (IW -1 to -2 log units). There is no isotopic difference between the most primitive high-Ti, low-Ti and KREEP basalts, which suggest that the sources of these basalts were homogeneous in terms of stable Cr isotopes. The least differentiated sample in our sample set is the low-Ti basalt 12016, characterised by a Cr isotopic composition of -0.222 ± 0.025‰, which is within error of the current BSE value (-0.124 ± 0.101‰). The similarity between the mantles of the Moon and Earth is consistent with a terrestrial origin for a major fraction of the lunar Cr. This similarity also suggests that Cr isotopes were not fractionated by core formation on the Moon.

  15. Miks tuli "Kevade" läinud aastal teisiti / Mare Müürsepp

    Müürsepp, Mare

    2008-01-01

    "Aasta rosina" auhinna võitnud Oskar Lutsu "Kevade" kommenteeritud kooliväljaandest "Kui Arno isaga koolimajja jõudis..." (Tallinn : Ilo, 2007), mille koostasid Aili Kalavus ja Mare Müürsepp ning illustreeris Mare Hunt

  16. Lunar true polar wander inferred from polar hydrogen.

    Siegler, M A; Miller, R S; Keane, J T; Laneuville, M; Paige, D A; Matsuyama, I; Lawrence, D J; Crotts, A; Poston, M J

    2016-03-24

    The earliest dynamic and thermal history of the Moon is not well understood. The hydrogen content of deposits near the lunar poles may yield insight into this history, because these deposits (which are probably composed of water ice) survive only if they remain in permanent shadow. If the orientation of the Moon has changed, then the locations of the shadowed regions will also have changed. The polar hydrogen deposits have been mapped by orbiting neutron spectrometers, and their observed spatial distribution does not match the expected distribution of water ice inferred from present-day lunar temperatures. This finding is in contrast to the distribution of volatiles observed in similar thermal environments at Mercury's poles. Here we show that polar hydrogen preserves evidence that the spin axis of the Moon has shifted: the hydrogen deposits are antipodal and displaced equally from each pole along opposite longitudes. From the direction and magnitude of the inferred reorientation, and from analysis of the moments of inertia of the Moon, we hypothesize that this change in the spin axis, known as true polar wander, was caused by a low-density thermal anomaly beneath the Procellarum region. Radiogenic heating within this region resulted in the bulk of lunar mare volcanism and altered the density structure of the Moon, changing its moments of inertia. This resulted in true polar wander consistent with the observed remnant polar hydrogen. This thermal anomaly still exists and, in part, controls the current orientation of the Moon. The Procellarum region was most geologically active early in lunar history, which implies that polar wander initiated billions of years ago and that a large portion of the measured polar hydrogen is ancient, recording early delivery of water to the inner Solar System. Our hypothesis provides an explanation for the antipodal distribution of lunar polar hydrogen, and connects polar volatiles to the geologic and geophysical evolution of the Moon

  17. Lunar neutron source function

    Kornblum, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    The search for a quantitative neutron source function for the lunar surface region is justified because it contributes to our understanding of the history of the lunar surface and of nuclear process occurring on the moon since its formation. A knowledge of the neutron source function and neutron flux distribution is important for the interpretation of many experimental measurements. This dissertation uses the available pertinent experimental measurements together with theoretical calculations to obtain an estimate of the lunar neutron source function below 15 MeV. Based upon reasonable assumptions a lunar neutron source function having adjustable parameters is assumed for neutrons below 15 MeV. The lunar neutron source function is composed of several components resulting from the action of cosmic rays with lunar material. A comparison with previous neutron calculations is made and significant differences are discussed. Application of the results to the problem of lunar soil histories is examined using the statistical model for soil development proposed by Fireman. The conclusion is drawn that the moon is losing mass

  18. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  19. Lunar transportation system

    1993-07-01

    The University Space Research Association (USRA) requested the University of Minnesota Spacecraft Design Team to design a lunar transportation infrastructure. This task was a year long design effort culminating in a complete conceptual design and presentation at Johnson Space Center. The mission objective of the design group was to design a system of vehicles to bring a habitation module, cargo, and crew to the lunar surface from LEO and return either or both crew and cargo safely to LEO while emphasizing component commonality, reusability, and cost effectiveness. During the course of the design, the lunar transportation system (LTS) has taken on many forms. The final design of the system is composed of two vehicles, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a lunar excursion vehicle (LEV). The LTV serves as an efficient orbital transfer vehicle between the earth and the moon while the LEV carries crew and cargo to the lunar surface. Presented in the report are the mission analysis, systems layout, orbital mechanics, propulsion systems, structural and thermal analysis, and crew systems, avionics, and power systems for this lunar transportation concept.

  20. Reproductive Performance of Arabian and Thoroughbred Mares under Subtropical Conditions of Pakistan.

    Warriach, H M; Memon, M A; Ahmad, N; Norman, S T; Ghafar, A; Arif, M

    2014-07-01

    Breeding records of 57 Arabian and 66 Thoroughbred mares were analysed to assess their reproductive performance under the subtropical conditions of Pakistan. The Arabian mares showed significantly higher conception rates (p500±32 days) was significantly (psummer (June to August) months. Age of mares affected the conception rates, as mares at ages 3 to 7 and 8 to 12 years of ages had significantly higher conception rates (psummer months.

  1. Structural analysis of lunar subsurface with Chang'E-3 lunar penetrating radar

    Lai, Jialong; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoping; Tang, Zesheng

    2016-01-01

    Geological structure of the subsurface of the Moon provides valuable information on lunar evolution. Recently, Chang'E-3 has utilized lunar penetrating radar (LPR), which is equipped on the lunar rover named as Yutu, to detect the lunar geological structure in Northern Imbrium (44.1260N, 19.5014W) for the first time. As an in situ detector, Chang'E-3 LPR has relative higher horizontal and vertical resolution and less clutter impact compared to spaceborne radars and earth-based radars. In this work, we analyze the LPR data at 500 MHz transmission frequency to obtain the shallow subsurface structure of the landing area of Chang'E-3 in Mare Imbrium. Filter method and amplitude recovery algorithms are utilized to alleviate the adverse effects of environment and system noises and compensate the amplitude losses during signal propagation. Based on the processed radar image, we observe numerous diffraction hyperbolae, which may be caused by discrete reflectors beneath the lunar surface. Hyperbolae fitting method is utilized to reverse the average dielectric constant to certain depth (ε bar). Overall, the estimated ε bar increases with the depth and ε bar could be classified into three categories. Average ε bar of each category is 2.47, 3.40 and 6.16, respectively. Because of the large gap between the values of ε bar of neighboring categories, we speculate a three-layered structure of the shallow surface of LPR exploration region. One possible geological picture of the speculated three-layered structure is presented as follows. The top layer is weathered layer of ejecta blanket with its average thickness and bound on error is 0.95±0.02 m. The second layer is the ejecta blanket of the nearby impact crater, and the corresponding average thickness is about 2.30±0.07 m, which is in good agreement with the two primary models of ejecta blanket thickness as a function of distance from the crater center. The third layer is regarded as a mixture of stones and soil. The

  2. Reproductive performance of Friesian mares after retained placenta and manual removal of the placenta

    Sevinga, M; Hesselink, JW; Barkema, H.W.

    2002-01-01

    Because the incidence of retained placenta in Friesian mares is estimated to be high, and no reports have been published on the reproductive performance of Friesian mares after retained placenta, we studied postpartum reproductive performance in Friesian brood mares with (n = 54) and without (n =

  3. SOME SERUM BIOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF MARES DURING DIFFERENT PHASES OF REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE

    F. Ali, L. A. Lodhi, Z. I. Qureshi, H. A. Samad and R. U. Shahid1.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Serum glucose, total proteins, calcium and inorganic phosphorus were determined in estrual, pregnant, infertile and regular breeder mares, each group comprising of 10 animals. The mares were grouped on the basis of rectal examination, history and records. There was a significant (P0.05 difference in the serum phosphorus levels among all the groups of mares.

  4. MARES: Navigation, Control and On-board Software

    Aníbal Matos; Nuno Cruz

    2009-01-01

    MARES, or Modular Autonomous Robot for Environment Sampling, is a 1.5m long AUV, designed and built by the Ocean Systems Group. The vehicle can be programmed to follow predefined trajectories, while collecting relevant data with the onboard sensors. MARES can dive up to 100m deep, and unlike similar-sized systems, has vertical thrusters to allow for purely vertical motion in the water column. Forward velocity can be independently defined, from 0 to 2 m/s. Major application areas include pollu...

  5. Thermal Demagnetization of Mare Basalts 10017 and 10020

    Suavet, C. R.; Weiss, B. P.; Grove, T. L.

    2012-12-01

    Paleomagnetic studies of lunar rocks 76535 (Garrick-Bethell et al., 2009), 10020 (Shea et al., 2012) and 10017 (Suavet et al., 2012) have shown that the Moon had an active dynamo field at 4.2 Ga, 3.7 Ga, and 3.6 Ga, respectively. These studies were carried out using alternating field (AF) demagnetization, which has the advantage to avoid sample alteration by heating, but the paleointensity is only constrained within a factor of 3-5 due to uncertainties on the calibration factor between thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) and anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM). Thermal demagnetization is expected to give better estimates of the paleofields. Thellier-Thellier paleointensity experiments on 10017 under reducing atmosphere (Sugiura et al., 1978) and in vacuum (Hoffman et al., 1979) were attempted in the past. Almost full demagnetization was observed after heating from 200 to 300°C, which was interpreted as alteration of magnetic carriers, or interaction effects between troilite and kamacite (Pearce et al., 1976). For both experiments, the oxygen fugacity was poorly constrained due to methodological flaws: no oxygen was introduced in the system and further reduction of the rocks could not be mitigated. We designed a controlled atmosphere apparatus to conduct thermal demagnetization in a mixture of H2 and CO2. Gas mixtures were calibrated by exploring the stability of iron, magnetite, and wustite at temperatures in the range of 300-800°C. We thermally demagnetized the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) of subsamples of 10017 and 10020 in a gas mixture with an oxygen fugacity ~1 log unit below the iron-wustite buffer (Sato et al., 1973). After heating from 200 to 250°C, the magnetization was reduced to 10% of the NRM for 10017, and 20% of the NRM for 10020, and the magnetization directions became unstable. A subsample of 10020 was given a 0.1 mT ARM, and thermally demagnetized up to 250°C: the magnetization was reduced to 38% of the ARM and the direction became

  6. Lunar Map Catalog

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps; zone...

  7. Consolidated Lunar Atlas

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Consolidated Lunar Atlas is a collection of the best photographic images of the moon, including low-oblique photography, full-moon photography, and tabular and...

  8. The Lunar Dust Environment

    Szalay, Jamey Robert

    Planetary bodies throughout the solar system are continually bombarded by dust particles, largely originating from cometary activities and asteroidal collisions. Surfaces of bodies with thick atmospheres, such as Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan are mostly protected from incoming dust impacts as these particles ablate in their atmospheres as 'shooting stars'. However, the majority of bodies in the solar system have no appreciable atmosphere and their surfaces are directly exposed to the flux of high speed dust grains. Impacts onto solid surfaces in space generate charged and neutral gas clouds, as well as solid secondary ejecta dust particles. Gravitationally bound ejecta clouds forming dust exospheres were recognized by in situ dust instruments around the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and had not yet been observed near bodies with refractory regolith surfaces before NASA's Lunar Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission. In this thesis, we first present the measurements taken by the Lunar Dust Explorer (LDEX), aboard LADEE, which discovered a permanently present, asymmetric dust cloud surrounding the Moon. The global characteristics of the lunar dust cloud are discussed as a function of a variety of variables such as altitude, solar longitude, local time, and lunar phase. These results are compared with models for lunar dust cloud generation. Second, we present an analysis of the groupings of impacts measured by LDEX, which represent detections of dense ejecta plumes above the lunar surface. These measurements are put in the context of understanding the response of the lunar surface to meteoroid bombardment and how to use other airless bodies in the solar system as detectors for their local meteoroid environment. Third, we present the first in-situ dust measurements taken over the lunar sunrise terminator. Having found no excess of small grains in this region, we discuss its implications for the putative population of electrostatically lofted dust.

  9. Lunar Sample Compendium

    Meyer, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium will be to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon. This Compendium will be organized rock by rock in the manor of a catalog, but will not be as comprehensive, nor as complete, as the various lunar sample catalogs that are available. Likewise, this Compendium will not duplicate the various excellent books and reviews on the subject of lunar samples (Cadogen 1981, Heiken et al. 1991, Papike et al. 1998, Warren 2003, Eugster 2003). However, it is thought that an online Compendium, such as this, will prove useful to scientists proposing to study individual lunar samples and should help provide backup information for lunar sample displays. This Compendium will allow easy access to the scientific literature by briefly summarizing the significant findings of each rock along with the documentation of where the detailed scientific data are to be found. In general, discussion and interpretation of the results is left to the formal reviews found in the scientific literature. An advantage of this Compendium will be that it can be updated, expanded and corrected as need be.

  10. Klõsheiko, Mare Vint, effid / Harry Liivrand

    Liivrand, Harry, 1961-

    2005-01-01

    Tallinna Kinomajas esilinastusid 28. okt. kolm uut dokumentaalfilmi eesti kunstnikest : "F.F.F.F. läheb laiali" (Kuukulgur Film 2005, rezh. Marko Raat, "Mare Vint" (Exitfilm 2005, rezh. Anri Rulkov) ja "Jaan Klõsheiko" (Estonia Film 2005, rezh.-d Eve Ester, Igor Ruus)

  11. Juhid otsustavad saatuste üle / Mare Pork

    Pork, Mare

    2001-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Spekter, nr. 1, 2002, lk. 25-26. Psühholoogiaprofessor ja juhtimiskonsultant Mare Pork sellest, et tunded mõjutavad juhte rohkem, kui nad seda tajuvad ning, et juhid mõjutavad omakorda inimsaatusi. Erinevatest meetoditest juhtide hindamiseks, 360o tagasiside meetod

  12. The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. III. Ovarian and uterine changes during the anovulatory, transitional and ovulatory periods in the non-pregnant mare

    F.E. Van Niekerk

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available In the main experiment the total daily protein intake and quality (essential amino-acids was varied in 4 groups of mares. The incidence of oestrus in mares during the transitional period was unaffected by protein nutrition. Ovarian activity, as evaluated by follicular development and size of the ovaries, was affected. Mares that received low-quality protein (Groups 1 and 2 had a higher number of smaller follicles (<10 mm that developed during the transitional period compared to mares on a high-quality protein intake (Groups 3 and 4. The mares that received the high quality protein ovulated 2-3 weeks earlier in the breeding season in a synchronised period of 4-5 weeks compared to a period of 6-8 weeks in Groups 1 and 2. The duration of the subsequent oestrous cycles was not affected. There was no difference in the diameter of the largest follicle of mares between groups on the day before ovulation. In a separate experiment, 5 maiden Anglo-Arab mares, 4-5 years of age, were slaughtered at different stages during the anovulatory, transitional and ovulatory periods of the breeding cycle. The morphology of the ovaries and uteri of these mares was described and photographed for use as guidelines when comparing ovarian changes and follicular activity of mares.

  13. Moonage Daydream: Reassessing the Simple Model for Lunar Magma Ocean Crystallization

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    Details of the differentiation of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) remain enigmatic, as the Moon is not simply composed of highlands anorthosite and a suite of mare basalts as inferred from early studies. Results from recent orbital missions, and the increasingly detailed study of lunar samples, have revealed a much larger range of lithologies, from relatively MgO-rich and "purest anorthosite" discovered on the lunar far side by the M3 instrument on Chandraayan-1 to more exotic lithologies such as Si-rich domes and spinel-rich clasts distributed globally. To understand this increasingly complex geology, we must understand the initial formation and evolution of the LMO, and the composition of the cumulates this differentiation could have produced. Several attempts at modelling such a crystallization sequence have been made, and have raised as many questions as they have answered. We present results from our ongoing experimental simulations of magma ocean crystallization, investigating two end-member bulk compositions (TWM and LPUM) under fully fractional crystallization conditions. These simulations represent melting of the entire silicate portion of the Moon, as an end-member starting point from which to begin assessing the evolution of the lunar interior and formation of the lunar crust.

  14. Detection and characterization of buried lunar craters with GRAIL data

    Sood, Rohan; Chappaz, Loic; Melosh, Henry J.; Howell, Kathleen C.; Milbury, Colleen; Blair, David M.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2017-06-01

    We used gravity mapping observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) to detect, characterize and validate the presence of large impact craters buried beneath the lunar maria. In this paper we focus on two prominent anomalies detected in the GRAIL data using the gravity gradiometry technique. Our detection strategy is applied to both free-air and Bouguer gravity field observations to identify gravitational signatures that are similar to those observed over buried craters. The presence of buried craters is further supported by individual analysis of regional free-air gravity anomalies, Bouguer gravity anomaly maps, and forward modeling. Our best candidate, for which we propose the informal name of Earhart Crater, is approximately 200 km in diameter and forms part of the northwestern rim of Lacus Somniorum, The other candidate, for which we propose the informal name of Ashoka Anomaly, is approximately 160 km in diameter and lies completely buried beneath Mare Tranquillitatis. Other large, still unrecognized, craters undoubtedly underlie other portions of the Moon's vast mare lavas.

  15. Cross-calibration of Medium Resolution Earth Observing Satellites by Using EO-1 Hyperion-derived Spectral Surface Reflectance from "Lunar Cal Sites"

    Ungar, S.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past 3 years, the Earth Observing-one (EO-1) Hyperion imaging spectrometer was used to slowly scan the lunar surface at a rate which results in up to 32X oversampling to effectively increase the SNR. Several strategies, including comparison against the USGS RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) mode,l are being employed to estimate the absolute and relative accuracy of the measurement set. There is an existing need to resolve discrepancies as high as 10% between ROLO and solar based calibration of current NASA EOS assets. Although the EO-1 mission was decommissioned at the end of March 2017, the development of a well-characterized exoatmospheric spectral radiometric database, for a range of lunar phase angles surrounding the fully illuminated moon, continues. Initial studies include a comprehensive analysis of the existing 17-year collection of more than 200 monthly lunar acquisitions. Specific lunar surface areas, such as a lunar mare, are being characterized as potential "lunar calibration sites" in terms of their radiometric stability in the presence of lunar nutation and libration. Site specific Hyperion-derived lunar spectral reflectance are being compared against spectrographic measurements made during the Apollo program. Techniques developed through this activity can be employed by future high-quality orbiting imaging spectrometers (such as HyspIRI and EnMap) to further refine calibration accuracies. These techniques will enable the consistent cross calibration of existing and future earth observing systems (spectral and multi-spectral) including those that do not have lunar viewing capability. When direct lunar viewing is not an option for an earth observing asset, orbiting imaging spectrometers can serve as transfer radiometers relating that asset's sensor response to lunar values through near contemporaneous observations of well characterized stable CEOS test sites. Analysis of this dataset will lead to the development of strategies to ensure more

  16. The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. II. Growth of foals, body mass of mares and serum protein concentration of mares during the anovulatory, transitional and pregnant periods

    F.E. Van Niekerk

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 4 different diets, in terms of protein quantity and quality, on total serum protein (TSP, albumin and globulin was investigated. Non-pregnant mares that were not lactating (n = 36, pregnant mares that had foaled (n = 24 and their foals (n = 24 were used in this study. Daily total protein intake had no effect on blood protein concentrations in the mares. Total protein intake and quality (available essential amino-acids did affect the body mass of mares during lactation. When mares were fed the minimum recommended (National Research Council 1989 total daily protein, foal mass decreased by approximately 25 % at weaning compared to the foals whose dams were on a higher level of protein intake. The TSP concentrations of foals at birth were on average 10 g/ℓ lower than those of the mares. Albumin concentrations of foals during the first 60 days of life were on average 2-3 g/ℓ lower than those of the mares. Globulin concentrations of foals were approximately 5 g/ℓ lower than those of mares at weaning.

  17. Lunar geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics

    Williams, J. G.; Dickey, J. O.

    2002-01-01

    Experience with the dynamics and data analyses for earth and moon reveals both similarities and differences. Analysis of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) data provides information on the lunar orbit, rotation, solid-body tides, and retroreflector locations.

  18. The Future Lunar Flora Colony

    Goel, E. G.; Guven, U. G.

    2017-10-01

    A constructional design for the primary establishment for a lunar colony using the micrometeorite rich soil is proposed. It highlights the potential of lunar regolith combined with Earth technology for water and oxygen for human outposts on the Moon.

  19. Lunar terrain mapping and relative-roughness analysis

    Rowan, Lawrence C.; McCauley, John F.; Holm, Esther A.

    1971-01-01

    Terrain maps of the equatorial zone (long 70° E.-70° W. and lat 10° N-10° S.) were prepared at scales of 1:2,000,000 and 1:1,000,000 to classify lunar terrain with respect to roughness and to provide a basis for selecting sites for Surveyor and Apollo landings as well as for Ranger and Lunar Orbiter photographs. The techniques that were developed as a result of this effort can be applied to future planetary exploration. By using the best available earth-based observational data and photographs 1:1,000,000-scale and U.S. Geological Survey lunar geologic maps and U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Chart and Information Center LAC charts, lunar terrain was described by qualitative and quantitative methods and divided into four fundamental classes: maria, terrae, craters, and linear features. Some 35 subdivisions were defined and mapped throughout the equatorial zone, and, in addition, most of the map units were illustrated by photographs. The terrain types were analyzed quantitatively to characterize and order their relative-roughness characteristics. Approximately 150,000 east-west slope measurements made by a photometric technique (photoclinometry) in 51 sample areas indicate that algebraic slope-frequency distributions are Gaussian, and so arithmetic means and standard deviations accurately describe the distribution functions. The algebraic slope-component frequency distributions are particularly useful for rapidly determining relative roughness of terrain. The statistical parameters that best describe relative roughness are the absolute arithmetic mean, the algebraic standard deviation, and the percentage of slope reversal. Statistically derived relative-relief parameters are desirable supplementary measures of relative roughness in the terrae. Extrapolation of relative roughness for the maria was demonstrated using Ranger VII slope-component data and regional maria slope data, as well as the data reported here. It appears that, for some morphologically homogeneous

  20. Lunar and Vesta Web Portals

    Law, E.; JPL Luna Mapping; Modeling Project Team

    2015-06-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project offers Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (http://lmmp.nasa.gov) and Vesta Trek Portal (http://vestatrek.jpl.nasa.gov) providing interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable users to access mapped Lunar and Vesta data products.

  1. A lunar polar expedition

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-09-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  2. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Tartese, R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The chapter will begin with an introduction that defines magmatic volatiles (e.g., H, F, Cl, S) versus geochemical volatiles (e.g., K, Rb, Zn). We will discuss our approach of understanding both types of volatiles in lunar samples and lay the ground work for how we will determine the overall volatile budget of the Moon. We will then discuss the importance of endogenous volatiles in shaping the "Newer Views of the Moon", specifically how endogenous volatiles feed forward into processes such as the origin of the Moon, magmatic differentiation, volcanism, and secondary processes during surface and crustal interactions. After the introduction, we will include a re-view/synthesis on the current state of 1) apatite compositions (volatile abundances and isotopic compositions); 2) nominally anhydrous mineral phases (moderately to highly volatile); 3) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar pyroclastic glass beads; 4) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar basalts; 5) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of melt inclusions; and finally 6) experimental constraints on mineral-melt partitioning of moderately to highly volatile elements under lunar conditions. We anticipate that each section will summarize results since 2007 and focus on new results published since the 2015 Am Min review paper on lunar volatiles [9]. The next section will discuss how to use sample abundances of volatiles to understand the source region and potential caveats in estimating source abundances of volatiles. The following section will include our best estimates of volatile abundances and isotopic compositions (where permitted by available data) for each volatile element of interest in a number of important lunar reservoirs, including the crust, mantle, KREEP, and bulk Moon. The final section of the chapter will focus upon future work, outstanding questions

  3. Creatinine concentrations of accumulated intrauterine fluid to confirm the clinical diagnosis of urometra in mares.

    Schnobrich, M R; Gordon, D L; Scoggin, C F; Bradecamp, E A; Canisso, I F

    2017-03-25

    Urine pooling, as a persistent condition, is a cause of infertility in mares due to endometrial inflammation and sperm toxicity. Identification of urometra can be challenging in mares presenting with the condition intermittently, or when urine flows into the uterus but is undetectable in the vagina. Currently, there are no reported objective methods to confirm the clinical diagnosis of urine contamination in intrauterine-fluid accumulations. Since creatinine is present in high concentrations in urine and does not diffuse across cell membranes, creatinine concentration should be increased in mares with urometra, but negligible in normal and mares with intrauterine fluid accumulation (non-urometra cases). To test this hypothesis, creatinine concentrations of intrauterine fluid were measured in mares with a clinical diagnosis of urine accumulation (n=9) or intrauterine fluid containing no urine (n=10). Results showed that creatinine concentrations (mg/dl) were significantly higher in mares that had a clinical diagnosis of urometra (42.8±12.6, range 4.1-109.2) compared with those that did not (0.38±0.1, range 0-0.9). Also, two mares after urethral extension surgery demonstrated a remarkable reduction in creatinine concentrations. This study highlights an undocumented approach to confirm a clinical diagnosis of urometra in mares; the authors anticipate that testing for creatinine in the uterine fluid of mares may become a standard tool for identifying urometra in mares and confirming the success of urogenital surgeries. British Veterinary Association.

  4. Lunar electrostatic effects and protection

    Sun, Yongwei; Yuan, Qingyun; Xiong, Jiuliang

    2013-01-01

    The space environment and features on the moon surface are factors in strong electrostatic electrification. Static electricity will be produced in upon friction between lunar soil and detectors or astronauts on the lunar surface. Lunar electrostatic environment effects from lunar exploration equipment are very harmful. Lunar dust with electrostatic charge may enter the equipment or even cover the instruments. It can affect the normal performance of moon detectors. Owing to the huge environmental differences between the moon and the earth, the electrostatic protection technology on the earth can not be applied. In this paper, we review the electrostatic characteristics of lunar dust, its effects on aerospace equipment and moon static elimination technologies. It was concluded that the effect of charged lunar dust on detectors and astronauts should be completely researched as soon as possible.

  5. The Sooner Lunar Schooner: Lunar engineering education

    Miller, D. P.; Hougen, D. F.; Shirley, D.

    2003-06-01

    The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore a small section of the Moon; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by an Apollo mission thirty years earlier; and to perform a selenographic survey of areas that were too distant or considered too dangerous to be done by the Apollo crew. The goal of the Sooner Lunar Schooner Project is to improve the science and engineering educations of the hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students working on the project. The participants, while primarily from engineering and physics, will also include representatives from business, art, journalism, law and education. This project ties together numerous existing research programs at the University, and provides a framework for the creation of many new research proposals. The authors were excited and motivated by the Apollo missions to the Moon. When we asked what we could do to similarly motivate students we realized that nothing is as exciting as going to the Moon. The students seem to agree.

  6. Long-wavelength Radar Studies of the Lunar Maria

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Hawke, B. Ray; Thompson, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Radar measurements at 70 cm and 7.5 m wavelengths provide insight into the structure and chemical properties of the upper 5-100 m of the lunar regolith and crust. Past work has identified a number of anomalous regions and changes in echo strength, some attributed to differences in titanium content. There has been little opportunity, however, to compare calibrated long-wavelength backscatter among different units or to theoretical model results. We combine recent high-resolution (3-5 km) 70-cm radar data for the nearside with earlier calibrated full-disk observations to provide a reasonable estimate of the true lunar backscatter coefficient. These data are tested against models for quasi-specular scattering from the surface, echoes from a buried substrate, and Mie scattering from surface and buried rocks. We find that 70 cm echoes likely arise from Mie scattering by distributed rocks within the soil, consistent with earlier hypotheses. Returns from a buried substrate would provide a plausible fit to the observations only if the regolith depth were 3 m or less and varied little across the maria. Depolarized echoes are due to some combination of single and multiple scattering events, but it appears that single scattering alone could account for the observed echo power, based on comparisons with terrestrial rocky surfaces. Backscatter strength from the regolith is most strongly affected by the loss tangent, whose variation with mineral content is still poorly defined. We compared the backscatter values for the mare deposits to the oxide contents inferred from spectral ratio methods, and found that in general the unit boundaries evident in radar images closely follow those seen in color difference images. The 70-cm data are not well correlated with TiO2 values found using the Charette relationship nor with Fe abundances derived from Clementine observations. The lack of a relationship between radar echo and Fe content is reasonable given the distribution of iron among

  7. Toxicity of lunar dust

    Linnarsson, D.; Carpenter, J.; Fubini, B.; Gerde, P.; Loftus, D.; Prisk, K.; Staufer, U.; Tranfield, E.; van Westrenen, W.

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of

  8. Lunar Phases Planisphere

    Shawl, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a lunar phases planisphere with which a user can answer questions about the rising and setting times of the Moon as well as questions about where the Moon will be at a given phase and time. The article contains figures that can be photocopied to make the planisphere. (Contains 2 figures.)

  9. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary

  10. Mare Crisium - Regional stratigraphy and geologic history. [from spectral reflectivities of Lunik 24 samples

    Adams, J. B.; Head, J. W., III; Mccord, T. B.; Pieters, C.; Zisk, S.

    1978-01-01

    Spectral reflectance measurements of five Luna 24 samples and new telescopic reflectance spectra of 10-20 km areas of seven sites in Mare Crisium have been used to calibrate multispectral images of mare units. Based on these data, three major mare units are defined in the Crisium basin and their stratigraphy is interpreted. The oldest mare unit is exposed in the ejecta of the craters Picard and Peirce and along the outer edge of the southeastern part of the basin. The next younger unit includes the Luna 24 site and generally follows a topographic annulus along the basin margin. The youngest mare unit occupies the central part of the basin. It is concluded that subsidence occurred throughout the emplacement of mare units, including extensive warping and downfaulting of the inner part of the Crisium basin.

  11. Hemoperitoneum secondary to cecocolic dilation in a pregnant mare

    Alejandro R. Palomar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemoperitoneum is known as the abnormal accumulation of blood within the abdominal cavity, most commonly caused by gastrointestinal bleeding, abdominal abscesses, liver tumors, migration of parasitic larvae (Strongylus vulgaris, direct trauma and blood clotting disorders. Lethargy, anorexia, weakness, muscle twitching, sweating, hyperthermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, and the accumulation of free fluid in the abdomen were the most commonly recorded signs. In this report, a pregnant mare was diagnosed with hemoperitoneum secondary to cecocolic dilatation, due to corn ingestion. The protocol for clinical treatment and tests varies in similar reported cases. Due to this, the present report discusses the outcome of a clinical case and suggests a medical protocol -based on evidence – for treatment in a pregnant mare. The treatment was aimed to stop the bleeding, while normalize or maintain a stable blood pressure and provide supportive therapy. The mare presented colic pains due to fermentation of the corn, which were solved in few hours. The final abdominal ultrasonogram showed intra-abdominal hypoechoic fluid and living fetus.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM SUMBAWA MARE MILK

    Nengah Sujaya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to isolate and characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB from the Sumbawa mares milk The Isolation of LAB was conducted in Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS agar. The isolates were characterized by standard methods, such as Gram staining, cell morphology study and fermentation activities. The ability of the isolates to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria was studied by dual culture assay. Isolates showing the widest spectrum of inhibiting pathogenic bacteria were further identified using API 50 CHL. The results showed that Sumbawa mare milk was dominated by lactobacilli and weisella/leuconostoc. As many as 26 out 36 isolates belong to homofermentative lactobacilli and another 10 isolates belong to both heterofermentative lactobacilli and weissella or leuconostoc. Twenty four isolates inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli 25922, Shigela flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus 29213. Two promising isolates with the widest spectrum of inhibiting pathogenic bacteria, Lactobacillus sp. SKG34 and Lactobacillus sp. SKG49, were identified respectively as Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG34 and Lactobacillus ramnosus SKG49. These two isolates were specific strains of the sumbawa mare milk and are very potential to be developed as probiotic for human.

  13. [Evaluation of immunoglobulin G concentration in colostrum of mares by ELISA, refractometry and colostrometry].

    Venner, Monica; Markus, R G; Strutzberg-Minder, K; Nogai, K; Beyerbach, M; Klug, E

    2008-01-01

    In 360 samples of colostrum and 36 samples of blood of warmblood mares, the concentration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) was evaluated in the post partal period with an ELISA and the results were compared to values obtained with 2 field methods--refractometry and colostrometry. A significant correlation (p refractometry (r = +0.93). So both field-methods seem suitable for evaluation of the colostral IgG-concentration in mares. Further the kinetic of the IgG concentration in colostrum, the volume of colostrum and the total amount of IgG was measured in the 12 hours post partum (p.p.) in each half udder of 36 mares of different parity. Immediately p.p. primiparous mares have a greater mean concentration of IgG (68 mg/ml) than multiparous mares (51 mg/ml). However, multiparous mares have a mean colostral volume of 1020 ml whereas, in primiparous mares, a mean volume of 527 ml was determined within the first three hours p.p. As a result of this the total amount of IgG was lower in primiparous (31.5 g) than in multiparous mares (48.5 g). A significant decrease of IgG concentration was measured in multiparous mares in the 1.5 hours following partum versus 3 hours in primiparous mares. The mean IgG concentration in the blood serum of the 36 mares immediately p.p. was 13.4 +/- 3.6 mg/ml. No significant correlation was observed between values of IgG concentration in the blood and in the colostrum of the mares.

  14. The International Lunar Decade Declaration

    Beldavs, V.; Foing, B.; Bland, D.; Crisafulli, J.

    2015-10-01

    The International Lunar Decade Declaration was discussed at the conference held November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space" - http://2014giantleap.aerospacehawaii.info/ and accepted by a core group that forms the International Lunar Decade Working Group (ILDWG) that is seeking to make the proposed global event and decade long process a reality. The Declaration will be updated from time to time by members of the ILDWreflecting new knowledge and fresh perspectives that bear on building a global consortium with a mission to progress from lunar exploration to the transformation of the Moon into a wealth gene rating platform for the expansion of humankind into the solar system. When key organizations have endorsed the idea and joined the effort the text of the Declaration will be considered final. An earlier International Lunar Decade proposal was issued at the 8th ICEUM Conference in 2006 in Beijing together with 13 specific initiatives for lunar exploration[1,2,3]. These initiatives have been largely implemented with coordination among the different space agencies involved provided by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group[2,3]. The Second International Lunar Decade from 2015 reflects current trends towards increasing involvement of commercial firms in space, particularly seeking opportunities beyond low Earth orbit. The central vision of the International Lunar Decade is to build the foundations for a sustainable space economy through international collaboration concurrently addressing Lunar exploration and building a shared knowledge base;Policy development that enables collabo rative research and development leading to lunar mining and industrial and commercial development;Infrastructure on the Moon and in cislunar space (communications, transport, energy systems, way-stations, other) that reduces costs, lowers risks and speeds up the time to profitable operations;Enabling technologies

  15. The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. VI. Serum progestagen concentrations during pregnancy

    F.E. Van Niekerk

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-four Thoroughbred and Anglo-Arab mares aged 6-12 years were used, of which 40 were non-lactating and 24 lactating. Foals from these 24 mares were weaned at the age of 6 months. Non-lactating and lactating mares were divided into 4 dietary groups each. The total daily protein intake and the protein quality (essential amino-acid content differed in the 4 groups of non-lactating and 4 groups of lactating mares. The mares were covered and the effect of the quantity and quality of dietary protein on serum progestagen concentrations during pregnancy was studied. A sharp decline in serum progestagen concentrations was recorded in all dietary groups from Days 18 to 40 of pregnancy, with some individual mares reaching values of less than 4 ng/mℓ. Serum progestagen concentrations recorded in some of the non-lactating mares on the low-quality protein diet increased to higher values (p<0.05 than those of mares in the other 3 dietary groups at 35-140 days of pregnancy. A similar trend was observed for the lactating mares on a low-quality protein diet at 30-84 days of pregnancy. No such trends were observed in any of the other dietary groups. High-quality protein supplementation increased serum progestagen concentrations during the 1st 30 days of pregnancy. Lactation depressed serum progestagen concentrations until after the foals were weaned.

  16. [A case of 63,X/64,XX mosaicism in a subfertile pony mare].

    Pieńkowska-Schelling, A; Handler, J; Neuhauser, S; Schelling, C

    2016-04-01

    The present case report describes a 6-year old subfertile pony mare, which became pregnant after the eleventh artificial insemination. The examination of the ovaries and the uterus did not reveal any abnormal clinical findings and the mare showed a regular oestrous cycle. Based on cytogenetic and molecular genetic analyses it became possible to elucidate the observed subfertility. The mosaic karyotype of the mare consisted of 63,X (20%) and 64,XX (80%) cells. A PCR analysis failed to amplify sequences from the equine SRY gene. The observed classic 63,X/64,XX mosaicism is a plausible explanation for the subfertility of the mare.

  17. Effect of ovarian hormones on the phagocytic response of ovariectomized mares.

    Ganjam, V K; McLeod, C; Klesius, P H; Washburn, S M; Kwapien, R; Brown, B; Fazeli, M H

    1982-01-01

    The reaction between ovarian hormones and experimental uterine infection (Streptococcus zooepidemicus) was investigated in 3 groups, each containing 6 ovariectomized mares. Group 1 served as controls ('anoestrus'), Group 2 mares were injected with oestrogen ('oestrus') and Group 3 with progesterone ('dioestrus') over a period of 5 weeks. All mares received an intrauterine inoculation of the bacteria 1 week after the start of hormonal treatment, and the results of the challenge were examined by endometrial biopsy and swabs once weekly. At the end of Week 1 no bacteria were recovered from the mares in Group 2. Group 1 mares were free of bacteria at the end of Week 2 but all Group 3 mares remained infected at least for the total period examined. Streptococcal phagocytosis was quantitated by chemiluminescence. Before the challenge-inoculation, phagocytosis was not significantly different in the 3 groups of mares. Bacterial cultures were negative for all three groups. However, within 48 h after infection, there was a significant increase (P less than 0.01) in phagocytosis in Group 2 and a significant suppression (P less than 0.05) in Group 3 mares. Patterns of streptococcal clearance from the uterus closely paralleled the changes in the magnitude of chemiluminescence response. The results suggest that ovarian hormonal status can modulate the phagocytic response in episodes of streptococcal-induced endometritus in mares.

  18. Volcanic glass signatures in spectroscopic survey of newly proposed lunar pyroclastic deposits

    Besse, S.; Sunshine, J.M.; Gaddis, L.R.

    2014-01-01

    Moon Mineralogy Mapper spectroscopic observations are used to assess the mineralogy of five sites that have recently been proposed to include lunar dark mantle deposits (DMDs). Volcanic glasses have, for the first time, clearly been identified at the location of three of the proposed pyroclastic deposits. This is the first time that volcanic glasses have been identified at such a small scale on the lunar surface from remote sensing observations. Deposits at Birt E, Schluter, and Walther A appear to be glassy DMDs. Deposits at Birt E and Schluter show (1) morphological evidence suggesting a likely vent and (2) mineralogical evidence indicative of the presence of volcanic glasses. The Walther A deposits, although they show no morphological evidence of vents, have the spectroscopic characteristics diagnostic of volcanic glasses. The deposits of the Freundlich-Sharonov basin are separated in two areas: (1) the Buys-Ballot deposits lack mineralogical and morphological evidence and thus are found to be associated with mare volcanism not with DMDs and (2) the Anderson crater deposits, which do not exhibit glassy DMD signatures, but they appear to be associated with possible vent structures and so may be classifiable as DMDs. Finally, dark deposits near the crater Kopff are found to be associated with likely mare volcanism and not associated with DMDs. The spectral identification of volcanic glass seen in many of the potential DMDs is a strong indicator of their pyroclastic origin.

  19. Indigenous abundances of siderophile elements in the lunar highlands: implications for the origin of the Moon

    Delano, J.W.; Ringwood, A.E.

    1978-01-01

    Substantial indigeneous abundances of siderophile elements have been found to be present in the lunar highlands. The abundances of 13 siderophile elements in the parental magma were estimated by using a simple model. It is shown that metal/silicate fractionation within the Moon cannot have been the cause of the siderophile element abundances in the parental highlands magma and primitive, low-Ti mare basalts. The relative abundances of the indigenous siderophile elements in highlands and mare samples seem, instead, to be the result of complex processes which operated prior to the Moon's accretion. The abundances of the relatively involatile, siderophile elements in the parental highlands magma are strikingly similar to the abundances observed in terrestrial oceanic tholeiites. Furthermore, the abundances of the relatively volatile, siderophile elements in the parental highlands magma are also systematically related to the corresponding abundances in terrestrial oceanic tholeiites. In fact, the parental magma of the lunar highlands can be essentially regarded as having been a volatile-depleted terrestrial oceanic tholeite. The origin of the moon is discussed in the context of the results. The probability that depletion of siderophile elements occurred in an earlier generation of differentiated planetesimals similar to those which formed the basaltic achondrites, stony-irons, and irons is examined but can be dismissed on several grounds. It seems that the uniquely terrestrial 'siderophile signature' within the Moon can be explained only if the Moon was derived from the Earth's mantle subsequent to core-formation. (Auth.)

  20. Lunar evolution: is there a global radioactive crust on the moon

    Murthy, V.R.

    1977-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic analyses of various grainsize fractions of lunar soils show the presence of an 'exotic component' in practically all lunar soils. The patterns of enrichments in the grain-size fractions and the Sr-isotopic data show that the regolith evolution displays the combined effects of comminution of local rock types and addition of the exotic component. The chemical characteristics of this exotic component as deduced from the chemical and isotopic data in soils from Apollo 11, 12, 15 and 16 uniformly point to compositions similar to the material from Fra Mauro region collected in the Apollo 14 mission. There is a strong correlation between the amount of exotic component in a soil and its distance from the Fra Mauro region. It is suggested that the exotic component represents trace element enriched material from the Imbrium-Procellarum region, which was surficially deposited during Imbrium excavation and re-exposed from under the mare-lavas in subsequent cratering events. Surficial transport processes have distributed these materials widely over the lunar surface. There appears no need to invoke a global radioactive crust on the Moon nor of 'hot spots' distributed over the entire surface of the Moon to explain the ubiquitous presence of this component in lunar regolith, nor is there a compelling reason at present to postulate a global melting process for the generation of highly differentiated materials such as 'kreep' and the exotic component. (author)

  1. Lunar bulk chemical composition: a post-Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory reassessment.

    Taylor, G Jeffrey; Wieczorek, Mark A

    2014-09-13

    New estimates of the thickness of the lunar highlands crust based on data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory mission, allow us to reassess the abundances of refractory elements in the Moon. Previous estimates of the Moon fall into two distinct groups: earthlike and a 50% enrichment in the Moon compared with the Earth. Revised crustal thicknesses and compositional information from remote sensing and lunar samples indicate that the crust contributes 1.13-1.85 wt% Al2O3 to the bulk Moon abundance. Mare basalt Al2O3 concentrations (8-10 wt%) and Al2O3 partitioning behaviour between melt and pyroxene during partial melting indicate mantle Al2O3 concentration in the range 1.3-3.1 wt%, depending on the relative amounts of pyroxene and olivine. Using crustal and mantle mass fractions, we show that that the Moon and the Earth most likely have the same (within 20%) concentrations of refractory elements. This allows us to use correlations between pairs of refractory and volatile elements to confirm that lunar abundances of moderately volatile elements such as K, Rb and Cs are depleted by 75% in the Moon compared with the Earth and that highly volatile elements, such as Tl and Cd, are depleted by 99%. The earthlike refractory abundances and depleted volatile abundances are strong constraints on lunar formation processes. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Diversity of basaltic lunar volcanism associated with buried impact structures: Implications for intrusive and extrusive events

    Zhang, F.; Zhu, M.-H.; Bugiolacchi, R.; Huang, Q.; Osinski, G. R.; Xiao, L.; Zou, Y. L.

    2018-06-01

    Relatively denser basalt infilling and the upward displacement of the crust-mantle interface are thought to be contributing factors for the quasi-circular mass anomalies for buried impact craters in the lunar maria. Imagery and gravity observations from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and dual Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) missions have identified 10 partially or fully buried impact structures where diversity of observable basaltic mare volcanism exists. With a detailed investigation of the characteristics of associated volcanic landforms, we describe their spatial distribution relationship with respect to the subsurface tectonic structure of complex impact craters and propose possible models for the igneous processes which may take advantage of crater-related zones of weakness and enable magmas to reach the surface. We conclude that the lunar crust, having been fractured and reworked extensively by cratering, facilitates substance and energy exchange between different lunar systems, an effect modulated by tectonic activities both at global and regional scales. In addition, we propose that the intrusion-caused contribution to gravity anomalies should be considered in future studies, although this is commonly obscured by other physical factors such as mantle uplift and basalt load.

  3. Surface erosion and sedimentation caused by ejecta from the lunar crater Tycho

    Shkuratov, Y.; Basilevsky, A.; Kaydash, V.; Ivanov, B.; Korokhin, V.; Videen, G.

    2018-02-01

    We use Kaguya MI images acquired at wavelengths 415, 750, and 950 nm to map TiO2 and FeO content and the parameter of optical maturity OMAT in lunar regions Lubiniezky E and Taurus-Littrow with a spatial resolution of 20 m using the Lucey method [Lucey et al., JGR 2000, 105. 20,297]. We show that some ejecta from large craters, such as Tycho and Copernicus may cause lunar surface erosion, transportation of the eroded material and its sedimentation. The traces of the erosion resemble wind tails observed on Earth, Mars, and Venus, although the Moon has no atmosphere. The highland material of the local topographic prominences could be mobilized by Tycho's granolometrically fine ejecta and caused by its transportation along the ejecta way to adjacent mare areas and subsequent deposition. The tails of mobilized material reveal lower abundances of Ti and Fe than the surrounding mare surface. We have concluded that high-Ti streaks also seen in the Lubiniezky E site, which show unusual combinations of the TiO2 and FeO content on the correlation diagram, could be the result of erosion by Tycho's ejecta too. In these locations, Tycho's material did not form a consolidated deposit, but resulted in erosion of the mare surface material that became intermixed, consequently, diluting the ejecta. The Taurus-Littrow did provide evidence of the mechanical effect of Tycho's ejecta on the local landforms (landslide, secondary craters) and do not show the compositional signature of Tycho's ejecta probably due to intermixing with local materials and dilution.

  4. Laser-powered lunar base

    Costen, R.; Humes, D.H.; Walker, G.H.; Williams, M.D.; Deyoung, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to compare a nuclear reactor-driven Sterling engine lunar base power source to a laser-to-electric converter with orbiting laser power station, each providing 1 MW of electricity to the lunar base. The comparison was made on the basis of total mass required in low-Earth-orbit for each system. This total mass includes transportation mass required to place systems in low-lunar orbit or on the lunar surface. The nuclear reactor with Sterling engines is considered the reference mission for lunar base power and is described first. The details of the laser-to-electric converter and mass are discussed. The next two solar-driven high-power laser concepts, the diode array laser or the iodine laser system, are discussed with associated masses in low-lunar-orbit. Finally, the payoff for laser-power beaming is summarized

  5. Lunar ash flows - Isothermal approximation.

    Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Suggestion of the ash flow mechanism as one of the major processes required to account for some features of lunar soil. First the observational background and the gardening hypothesis are reviewed, and the shortcomings of the gardening hypothesis are shown. Then a general description of the lunar ash flow is given, and a simple mathematical model of the isothermal lunar ash flow is worked out with numerical examples to show the differences between the lunar and the terrestrial ash flow. The important parameters of the ash flow process are isolated and analyzed. It appears that the lunar surface layer in the maria is not a residual mantle rock (regolith) but a series of ash flows due, at least in part, to great meteorite impacts. The possibility of a volcanic contribution is not excluded. Some further analytic research on lunar ash flows is recommended.

  6. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  7. International Lunar Decade Status

    Beldavs, VZ; Crisafulli, J.; Dunlop, D.; Foing, B.

    2017-09-01

    The International Lunar Decade is a global decadal event designed to provide a framework for strategically directed international cooperation for permanent return to the Moon. To be launched July 20, 2019, the 50th anniversary of the giant leap for mankind marked by Neil Armstrong's first step on the Moon, the ILD launch will include events around the world to celebrate space exploration, science, and the expansion of humanity into the Solar System. The ILD framework links lunar exploration and space sciences with the development of enabling technologies, infrastructure, means of financing, laws and policies aimed at lowering the costs and risks of venturing into space. Dramatically reduced costs will broaden the range of opportunities available in space and widen access to space for more states, companies and people worldwide. The ILD is intended to bring about the efflorescence of commercial business based on space resources from the Moon, asteroids, comets and other bodies in the Solar System.

  8. Lunar Core and Tides

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2,3,4] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening, which in the past has been marginal but improving [3,4,5], now seems significant. Direct detection of the core moment has not yet been achieved.

  9. Lunar Health Monitor (LHM)

    Lisy, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    Orbital Research, Inc., has developed a low-profile, wearable sensor suite for monitoring astronaut health in both intravehicular and extravehicular activities. The Lunar Health Monitor measures respiration, body temperature, electrocardiogram (EKG) heart rate, and other cardiac functions. Orbital Research's dry recording electrode is central to the innovation and can be incorporated into garments, eliminating the need for conductive pastes, adhesives, or gels. The patented dry recording electrode has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The LHM is easily worn under flight gear or with civilian clothing, making the system completely versatile for applications where continuous physiological monitoring is needed. During Phase II, Orbital Research developed a second-generation LHM that allows sensor customization for specific monitoring applications and anatomical constraints. Evaluations included graded exercise tests, lunar mission task simulations, functional battery tests, and resting measures. The LHM represents the successful integration of sensors into a wearable platform to capture long-duration and ambulatory physiological markers.

  10. The Lunar Sample Compendium

    Meyer, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of the data obtained from 40 years of study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic petrographic, chemical and age information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. The LSC can be found online using Google. The initial allocation of lunar samples was done sparingly, because it was realized that scientific techniques would improve over the years and new questions would be formulated. The LSC is important because it enables scientists to select samples within the context of the work that has already been done and facilitates better review of proposed allocations. It also provides back up material for public displays, captures information found only in abstracts, grey literature and curatorial databases and serves as a ready access to the now-vast scientific literature.

  11. Lunar concrete for construction

    Cullingford, Hatice S.; Keller, M. Dean

    1988-01-01

    Feasibility of using concrete for lunar-base construction has been discussed recently without relevant data for the effects of vacuum on concrete. Experimental studies performed earlier at Los Alamos have shown that concrete is stable in vacuum with no deterioration of its quality as measured by the compressive strength. Various considerations of using concrete successfully on the moon are provided in this paper along with specific conclusions from the existing data base.

  12. First lunar outpost

    Andino, Aureo F.; Silva, Daniel; Ortiz, Nelson; Alvarez, Omar; Colon, Julio A.; Colon, Myrelle; Diaz, Alicia; Escobar, Xochiquetzal Y.; Garcia, Alberto; Gonzalez, Isabel C.

    1992-01-01

    Design and research efforts at the University of Puerto Rico have focused on the evaluation and refinement of the Habitability Criteria for a prolonged human presence in space during the last four years. Living quarters for a Mars mission and a third generation lunar base concept were proposed. This academic year, 1991-92, work on further refinement of the habitability criteria and design of partial gravity furniture was carried on. During the first semester, design alternatives for furniture necessary in a habitat design optimized for lunar and Martian environments were developed. Designs are based on recent research data from lunar and Mars gravity simulations, and current NASA standards. Artifacts will be submitted to NASA architects to be tested in KC-135 flights. Test findings will be submitted for incorporation in future updates to NASA habitat design standards. Second semester work was aimed at integrating these findings into the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), a mission scenario currently being considered by NASA. The mission consists of a manned return to the moon by crews of four astronauts for periods of 45 days. The major hardware components of the mission are as follows: (1) a Crew Module for the delivery of the crew and their supplies, and (2) the Habitat Module, which will arrive on the Moon unmanned. Our design efforts concentrated on this Habitat Module and on application of habitability criteria. Different geometries for the pressure vessel and their impact on the interior architecture were studied. Upon the selection of a geometry, a more detailed analysis of the interior design was performed, taking into consideration the reduced gravity, and the protection against radiation, micrometeorites, and the extreme temperature variation. A proposal for a FLO was submitted by the students, consisting essentially of a 24-feet (7.3 m.) by 35-feet (10.67 m) high vertical cylinder with work areas, crew quarters, galley, wardroom, leisure facilities, health

  13. Magnetic Sorting of the Regolith on the Moon: Lunar Swirls

    Pieters, C. M.; Garrick-Bethell, I.; Hemingway, D.

    2014-12-01

    All of the mysterious albedo features on the Moon called "lunar swirls" are associated with magnetic anomalies, but not all magnetic anomalies are associated with lunar swirls [1]. It is often hypothesized that the albedo markings are tied to immature regolith on the surface, perhaps due to magnetic shielding of the solar wind and prevention of normal space weathering of the soil. Although interaction of the solar wind with the surface at swirls is indeed affected by the local magnetic field [2], this does not appear to result in immature soils on the surface. Calibrated spectra from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper [M3] (in image format) demonstrate that the high albedo markings for swirls are simply not consistent with immature regolith as is now understood from detailed analyses of lunar samples [eg 3]. However, M3 data show that the high albedo features of swirls are distinct and quite different from normal soils (in both the highlands and the mare). They allexhibit a flatter continuum across the near-infrared, but the actual band strength of ferrous minerals shows little (if any) deviation [4]. Recent analyses of magnetic field direction at swirls [5] mimic the observed albedo patterns (horizontal surface fields in bright areas, vertical surface fields in dark lanes). When coupled with the optical properties of magnetic separates of lunar soils [6] and our knowledge that the magnetic component of the soil results from space weathering [3,6], we propose a new and very simple explanation for these enigmatic albedo markings: the lunar swirls result from magnetic sorting of a well developed regolith. With time, normal gardening of the soil over a magnetic anomaly causes some of the dark magnetic component of the soil to be gradually removed from regions (high albedo areas) and accumulated in others (dark lanes). We are modeling predicted sorting rates using realistic rates of dust production. If this mechanism is tenable, only the origin of these magnetic anomalies

  14. Religion and Lunar Exploration

    Pop, V.

    1969: The Eagle lands on the Moon. A moment that would not only mark the highest scientific achievement of all times, but would also have significant religious impli- cations. While the island of Bali lodges a protest at the United Nations against the US for desecrating a sacred place, Hopi Indians celebrate the fulfilment of an ancient prophecy that would reveal the "truth of the Sacred Ways". The plaque fastened to the Eagle - "We Came in Peace for All Mankind" would have contained the words "under God" as directed by the US president, if not for an assistant administrator at NASA that did not want to offend any religion. In the same time, Buzz Aldrin takes the Holy Communion on the Moon, and a Bible is left there by another Apollo mission - not long after the crew of Apollo 8 reads a passage from Genesis while circling the Moon. 1998: Navajo Indians lodge a protest with NASA for placing human ashes aboard the Lunar Prospector, as the Moon is a sacred place in their religion. Past, present and fu- ture exploration of the Moon has significant religious and spiritual implications that, while not widely known, are nonetheless important. Is lunar exploration a divine duty, or a sacrilege? This article will feature and thoroughly analyse the examples quoted above, as well as other facts, as for instance the plans of establishing lunar cemeteries - welcomed by some religions, and opposed by others.

  15. Modeling lunar volcanic eruptions

    Housley, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    Simple physical arguments are used to show that basaltic volcanos on different planetary bodies would fountain to the same height if the mole fraction of gas in the magma scaled with the acceleration of gravity. It is suggested that the actual eruption velocities and fountain heights are controlled by the velocities of sound in the two phase gas/liquid flows. These velocities are in turn determined by the gas contents in the magma. Predicted characteristics of Hawaiian volcanos are in excellent accord with observations. Assuming that the only gas in lunar volcano is the CO which would be produced if the observed Fe metal in lunar basalts resulted from graphite reduction, lunar volcanos would fountain vigorously, but not as spectacularly as their terrestrial counterparts. The volatile trace metals, halogens, and sulfur released would be transported over the entire moon by the transient atmosphere. Orange and black glass type pyroclastic materials would be transported in sufficient amounts to produce the observed dark mantle deposits.

  16. Possible Mafic Patches in Scott Crater Highlight the Need for Resource Exploration on the Lunar South Polar Region

    Cooper, Bonnie L.

    2007-01-01

    Possible areas of mafic material on the rim and floor of Scott crater (82.1 deg S, 48.5 deg E) are suggested by analysis of shadow-masked Clementine false-color-ratio images. Mafic materials common in mare and pyroclastic materials can produce more oxygen than can highlands materials, and mafic materials close to the south pole may be important for propellant production for a future lunar mission. If the dark patches are confirmed as mafic materials, this finding would suggest that other mafic patches may exist, even closer to the poles, which were originally mapped as purely anorthositic.

  17. Lunar imaging and ionospheric calibration for the Lunar Cherenkov technique

    McFadden, R.; Scholten, O.; Mevius, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Cherenkov technique is a promising method for UHE neutrino and cosmic ray detection which aims to detect nanosecond radio pulses produced during particle interactions in the Lunar regolith. For low frequency experiments, such as NuMoon, the frequency dependent dispersive effect of the

  18. Mare Orientale: Widely Accepted Large Impact or a Regular Tectonic Depression?

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2018-04-01

    Mare Orientale is one of the critical features on Moon surface explaining its tectonics. The impact origin of it is widely accepted, but an attentive examination shows that this large Mare is a part of endogenous tectonic structure, not a random impact.

  19. Toonart Rääski ja Aivar Riisalu firma ostab Rocca al Mare Suurhalli / Kristina Traks

    Traks, Kristina, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 22. okt. lk. 7. Rocca al Mare Suurhalli aktsionärid otsustasid müüa suurhalli hotelliärimehe Toonart Rääski ja meelelahutusettevõtja Aivar Riisaluga seotud firmale Neckman Group. Diagramm: Lemminkäinen Eesti, Neckman Groupi, Eesti riigi ja Tallinna linna osalused Rocca al Mare Suurhallis

  20. Soome Citycon ostis Eesti omanikelt Rocca al Mare kaubanduskeskuse / Kadri Masing

    Masing, Kadri

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 27. juuli lk. 4. Rocca al Mare kaubanduskeskuse soomlastest uued omanikud hakkavad laiendama sealset kaubanduspinda, mille arendamiseks on ette nähtud 3 aastat ning sellest peaks saama Eesti üks suurimaid müügikeskusi. Vt. samas: Konkurendid rõõmustavad. Lisa: Uus omanik tahab muuta Rocca al Mare suurimaks

  1. Male, female and management risk factors for non-return to service in Dutch mares.

    Buiten, van A.; Westers, P.; Colenbrander, B.

    2003-01-01

    The "effect" of stallion, mare and management-related factors on the odds of pregnancy per cycle in the horse were identified and quantified from the breeding records of Dutch Warmblood (n=4491), Friesian (n=1467) and Shetland-pony mares (n=3267) mated either naturally or by artificial insemination

  2. Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) with Raman Imaging Applied to Lunar Meteorites.

    Smith, Joseph P; Smith, Frank C; Booksh, Karl S

    2018-03-01

    Lunar meteorites provide a more random sampling of the surface of the Moon than do the returned lunar samples, and they provide valuable information to help estimate the chemical composition of the lunar crust, the lunar mantle, and the bulk Moon. As of July 2014, ∼96 lunar meteorites had been documented and ten of these are unbrecciated mare basalts. Using Raman imaging with multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS), we investigated portions of polished thin sections of paired, unbrecciated, mare-basalt lunar meteorites that had been collected from the LaPaz Icefield (LAP) of Antarctica-LAP 02205 and LAP 04841. Polarized light microscopy displays that both meteorites are heterogeneous and consist of polydispersed sized and shaped particles of varying chemical composition. For two distinct probed areas within each meteorite, the individual chemical species and associated chemical maps were elucidated using MCR-ALS applied to Raman hyperspectral images. For LAP 02205, spatially and spectrally resolved clinopyroxene, ilmenite, substrate-adhesive epoxy, and diamond polish were observed within the probed areas. Similarly, for LAP 04841, spatially resolved chemical images with corresponding resolved Raman spectra of clinopyroxene, troilite, a high-temperature polymorph of anorthite, substrate-adhesive epoxy, and diamond polish were generated. In both LAP 02205 and LAP 04841, substrate-adhesive epoxy and diamond polish were more readily observed within fractures/veinlet features. Spectrally diverse clinopyroxenes were resolved in LAP 04841. Factors that allow these resolved clinopyroxenes to be differentiated include crystal orientation, spatially distinct chemical zoning of pyroxene crystals, and/or chemical and molecular composition. The minerals identified using this analytical methodology-clinopyroxene, anorthite, ilmenite, and troilite-are consistent with the results of previous studies of the two meteorites using electron microprobe

  3. NASA Lunar Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers and Libraries

    Allen, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo rocks and regolith soils first hand. Lunar samples embedded in plastic are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks has revealed the early history of our Earth-Moon system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet as well as connections to the basic lunar surface processes - impact and volcanism. With these samples educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by missions to Moon. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections of the rocks to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the violent impact history of the Moon. The disks also include two regolith soils and

  4. Retained placenta in Friesian mares : reproductive performance after foal heat breeding versus breeding in a subsequent heat

    Sevinga, M; Hesselink, JW; Barkema, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    Postpartum reproductive performance was studied in 54 Friesian brood mares with and 50 without retained placenta. Retained placenta was defined as failure to expel all fetal membranes within 3 hours after the delivery of the foal. The group of mares with retained placenta was subdivided into mares

  5. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    2010-07-01

    ... practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. 334.1160 Section 334.1160 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a..., Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, will conduct target practice in the area at intervals...

  6. Melt rock components in KREEPy breccia 15205: Petrography and mineral chemistry of KREEP basalts and quartz-normative mare basalts

    Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

    1993-05-01

    Many current models for the origin of lunar highland rocks feature as an essential component the assimilation of KREEPy material by primitive magmas parental to the Mg-rich suite and alkali suite plutonic rocks. Similar models have also been proposed for the origin of various mare basalt suites. However, any model which considers assimilation of KREEP an important petrologic process must sooner-or-later deal with the question: what is KREEP? Because pristine KREEP basalts are rare, and most known samples are small (e.g., 15382/15386), the geochemical variability of KREEP basalts is poorly known. Other KREEP compositions which are commonly used in these models include the hypothetical 'high-K KREEP' component of Warren and Wasson, which is derived from Apollo 14 soil data, and the 'superKREEP' quartz-monzodiorite 15405. Lunar breccia 15205 is a polymict regolith breccia that consists of approximately 20% KREEP basalt clasts and 20% quartz-normative basalt clasts in a KREEP-rich matrix. Bulk rock mixing calculations show that this sample comprises about 84% KREEP. The clasts range up to 1 cm in size, but most are considerably smaller. The primary aim is to characterize pristine KREEP basalts petrographically, to establish the range in chemical compositions of KREEP basalts, and to test models that were proposed for their origin. In addition, we may be able to extend the compositional range recognized in the quartz-normative basalt suite and cast some light on its origin as well. Preliminary whole rock geochemical data on the KREEP basalts are presented in a companion paper by M.M. Lindstrom and co-workers. Concentration is on petrography and mineral chemistry of these clasts, and the implications these data have for the origin of the different melt rock suites.

  7. Influence of stage of lactation and year season on composition of mares' colostrum and milk and method and time of storage on vitamin C content in mares' milk.

    Markiewicz-Kęszycka, Maria; Czyżak-Runowska, Grażyna; Wójtowski, Jacek; Jóźwik, Artur; Pankiewicz, Radosław; Łęska, Bogusława; Krzyżewski, Józef; Strzałkowska, Nina; Marchewka, Joanna; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2015-08-30

    Mares' milk is becoming increasingly popular in Western Europe. This study was thus aimed at investigating the impact of stage of lactation and season on chemical composition, somatic cell count and some physicochemical parameters of mares' colostrum and milk, and at developing a method for the determination of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in mares' milk and to determine its content in fresh and stored milk. The analysis conducted showed an effect of the stage of lactation on contents of selected chemical components and physicochemical parameters of mares' milk. In successive lactation periods levels of fat, cholesterol, energy value, citric acid and titratable acidity decreased, whereas levels of lactose and vitamin C, as well as the freezing point, increased. Analysis showed that milk produced in autumn (September, October, November) had a higher freezing point and lower concentrations of total solids, protein, fat, cholesterol, citric acid and energy value in comparison to milk produced in summer (June, July, August). Mares' milk was characterised by low somatic cell count throughout lactation. In terms of vitamin C stability the most advantageous method of milk storage was 6-month storage of lyophilised milk. In general, the results confirmed that mares' milk is a raw material with a unique chemical composition different from that produced by other farm animals. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Lunar Regolith Particle Shape Analysis

    Kiekhaefer, Rebecca; Hardy, Sandra; Rickman, Douglas; Edmunson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Future engineering of structures and equipment on the lunar surface requires significant understanding of particle characteristics of the lunar regolith. Nearly all sediment characteristics are influenced by particle shape; therefore a method of quantifying particle shape is useful both in lunar and terrestrial applications. We have created a method to quantify particle shape, specifically for lunar regolith, using image processing. Photomicrographs of thin sections of lunar core material were obtained under reflected light. Three photomicrographs were analyzed using ImageJ and MATLAB. From the image analysis measurements for area, perimeter, Feret diameter, orthogonal Feret diameter, Heywood factor, aspect ratio, sieve diameter, and sieve number were recorded. Probability distribution functions were created from the measurements of Heywood factor and aspect ratio.

  9. Lunar Circular Structure Classification from Chang 'e 2 High Resolution Lunar Images with Convolutional Neural Network

    Zeng, X. G.; Liu, J. J.; Zuo, W.; Chen, W. L.; Liu, Y. X.

    2018-04-01

    Circular structures are widely distributed around the lunar surface. The most typical of them could be lunar impact crater, lunar dome, et.al. In this approach, we are trying to use the Convolutional Neural Network to classify the lunar circular structures from the lunar images.

  10. Parental magmas of Mare Fecunditatis - Evidence from pristine glasses

    Jin, Y.; Taylor, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on the petrography and electron microprobe analyses of 14 discrete glass beads from the Luna 16 core sample (21036,15) from Mare Fecunditatis regolith, that were previously characterized as representing pristine glasses. Compared to Apollo pristine glasses analyzed by Delano (1986), the Luna 16 pristine glasses have higher CaO and Al2O3 contents but lower MgO and Ni. On the basis of their contents of MgO, FeO, Al2O3, and CaO, these pristine glasses could be divided into two groups, A and B. It is suggested that at least two parental magmas are needed to explain the chemical variations among these glasses. The Group B glasses appear to represent primitive parental magma that evolved by olivine fractionation to the compositions of the Luna 16 aluminous mare basalts, whereas the Group A volcanic glasses may represent an unusual new basalt magma type that contains a high plagioclase component. 14 refs

  11. NASA Lunar Impact Monitoring

    Suggs, Robert M.; Moser, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    The MSFC lunar impact monitoring program began in 2006 in support of environment definition for the Constellation (return to Moon) program. Work continued by the Meteoroid Environment Office after Constellation cancellation. Over 330 impacts have been recorded. A paper published in Icarus reported on the first 5 years of observations and 126 calibrated flashes. Icarus: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103514002243; ArXiv: http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.6458 A NASA Technical Memorandum on flash locations is in press

  12. Lunar architecture and urbanism

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

  13. Aberrations in uterine contractile patterns in mares with delayed uterine clearance after administration of detomidine and oxytocin.

    von Reitzenstein, Marcela; Callahan, Megan A; Hansen, Peter J; LeBlanc, Michelle M

    2002-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether the uterotonic effects of oxytocin, a drug used to treat mares that have a delay in uterine clearance were affected by the sedative detomidine (an alpha2-agonist), a drug used to treat fractious mares. An additional objective was to identify propagation patterns of uterine contractions and determine whether these patterns differed between normal mares and mares with delayed uterine clearance (DUC). Intrauterine pressure was measured in five reproductively normal mares and four mares with DUC during estrus using an 8-F Milar catheter with two discrete pressure sensors. Mares received one of three treatments in random order: detomidine (0.001 mg/kg; i.v.); detomidine followed in 10 min by oxytocin (10 IU; i.v.); and saline (0.9% NaCl 0.5 ml; i.v.) followed in 10 min by oxytocin. All treatments induced waves of contractions; however, only three mares with DUC exhibited contractions after administration of detomidine. Normal mares experienced more uterine contractions (P detomidine before oxytocin increased the number of contractions (P Detomidine had no effect in mares with delayed clearance. All mares had more propagating than non-propagating uterine contractions (74 +/- 8 versus 25 +/- 8%, respectively). Normal mares exhibited a normal propagation pattern more frequently (P detomidine increased the number (P detomidine augmented the uterotonic effect of oxytocin in normal mares but not in mares with DUC. Data suggest that mares with DUC have a defect in myoelectrical signaling and a decrease in the contractile strength of the uterine muscle.

  14. Hydrogen Distribution in the Lunar Polar Regions

    Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Bakhtin, B. N.; Bodnarik, J. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Harshmann, K.; Fedosov, F.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present a method of conversion of the lunar neutron counting rate measured by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) instrument collimated neutron detectors, to water equivalent hydrogen (WEH) in the top approximately 1 m layer of lunar regolith. Polar maps of the Moon’s inferred hydrogen abundance are presented and discussed.

  15. Lunar Topography: Results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    Neumann, Gregory; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Mazarico, Erwan

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been operating nearly continuously since July 2009, accumulating over 6 billion measurements from more than 2 billion in-orbit laser shots. LRO's near-polar orbit results in very high data density in the immediate vicinity of the lunar poles, with full coverage at the equator from more than 12000 orbital tracks averaging less than 1 km in spacing at the equator. LRO has obtained a global geodetic model of the lunar topography with 50-meter horizontal and 1-m radial accuracy in a lunar center-of-mass coordinate system, with profiles of topography at 20-m horizontal resolution, and 0.1-m vertical precision. LOLA also provides measurements of reflectivity and surface roughness down to its 5-m laser spot size. With these data LOLA has measured the shape of all lunar craters 20 km and larger. In the proposed extended mission commencing late in 2012, LOLA will concentrate observations in the Southern Hemisphere, improving the density of the polar coverage to nearly 10-m pixel resolution and accuracy to better than 20 m total position error. Uses for these data include mission planning and targeting, illumination studies, geodetic control of images, as well as lunar geology and geophysics. Further improvements in geodetic accuracy are anticipated from the use of re ned gravity fields after the successful completion of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission in 2012.

  16. Experimental exposure of pregnant mares to the asinine-94 strain of equine arteritis virus

    J.T. Paweska

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical, virological and serological responses were evaluated in 10 pregnant mares after different challenge exposures to the asinine-94 strain of equine arteritis virus (EAV. The outcome of maternal infection on the progeny was also investigated. Mares were inoculated intranasally (n = 4, intramuscularly (n = 2, intravenously (n = 1, or contact-exposed (n = 3. All inoculated mares developed pyrexia, 5 showed mild clinical signs related to EAV infection and 2 remained asymptomatic. Viraemia was detected in all the inoculated animals and shedding of virus from the respiratory tract occurred in 6. Five mares were re-challenged intranasally 7 and 15 weeks after inoculation. Clinical signs of the disease in these mares were limited to mild conjunctivitis. After re-challenge, virus was recovered from buffy coat cultures of 2 mares 2-6 days after re-infection. EAV was not recovered from colostrum and milk samples during the 1st week post partum. All inoculated mares seroconverted to EAV 8-12 days post inoculation and also seroconverted after re-challenge. No clinical signs of EAV infection were observed in the 3 mares kept in close contact during the post-inoculation and re-challenge periods. Serum neutralising antibody to the virus was detected in 1 in-contact mare only, while a detectable concentration of specific IgG was found by ELISA in the colostrum of 1 of the other in-contact mares. Eight of the mares gave birth to clinically normal foals, although 1 was born prematurely. Shortly after birth, 7 foals developed fever and variable clinical signs; 5 foals became septicaemic and 3 of them died 2-5 days after birth, while the remaining 2 were euthanased at 1 month of age. EAV was not recovered from the placenta, from buffy coat fractions of blood collected from foals immediately after birth and 1-3 days later, or from a range of tissues taken from the 3 foals that died and 2 that were euthanased. Virus was not isolated from tissues collected from

  17. Lunar and Planetary Geology

    Basilevsky, Alexander T.

    2018-05-01

    Lunar and planetary geology can be described using examples such as the geology of Earth (as the reference case) and geologies of the Earth's satellite the Moon; the planets Mercury, Mars and Venus; the satellite of Saturn Enceladus; the small stony asteroid Eros; and the nucleus of the comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Each body considered is illustrated by its global view, with information given as to its position in the solar system, size, surface, environment including gravity acceleration and properties of its atmosphere if it is present, typical landforms and processes forming them, materials composing these landforms, information on internal structure of the body, stages of its geologic evolution in the form of stratigraphic scale, and estimates of the absolute ages of the stratigraphic units. Information about one body may be applied to another body and this, in particular, has led to the discovery of the existence of heavy "meteoritic" bombardment in the early history of the solar system, which should also significantly affect Earth. It has been shown that volcanism and large-scale tectonics may have not only been an internal source of energy in the form of radiogenic decay of potassium, uranium and thorium, but also an external source in the form of gravity tugging caused by attractions of the neighboring bodies. The knowledge gained by lunar and planetary geology is important for planning and managing space missions and for the practical exploration of other bodies of the solar system and establishing manned outposts on them.

  18. Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR)

    Creel, Kenneth; Frampton, Jeffrey; Honaker, David; McClure, Kerry; Zeinali, Mazyar; Bhardwaj, Manoj; Bulsara, Vatsal; Kokan, David; Shariff, Shaun; Svarverud, Eric

    The objective of this project was to design a manned pressurized lunar rover (PLR) for long-range transportation and for exploration of the lunar surface. The vehicle must be capable of operating on a 14-day mission, traveling within a radius of 500 km during a lunar day or within a 50-km radius during a lunar night. The vehicle must accommodate a nominal crew of four, support two 28-hour EVA's, and in case of emergency, support a crew of six when near the lunar base. A nominal speed of ten km/hr and capability of towing a trailer with a mass of two mt are required. Two preliminary designs have been developed by two independent student teams. The PLR 1 design proposes a seven meter long cylindrical main vehicle and a trailer which houses the power and heat rejection systems. The main vehicle carries the astronauts, life support systems, navigation and communication systems, lighting, robotic arms, tools, and equipment for exploratory experiments. The rover uses a simple mobility system with six wheels on the main vehicle and two on the trailer. The nonpressurized trailer contains a modular radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) supplying 6.5 kW continuous power. A secondary energy storage for short-term peak power needs is provided by a bank of lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries. The life support system is partly a regenerative system with air and hygiene water being recycled. A layer of water inside the composite shell surrounds the command center allowing the center to be used as a safe haven during solar flares. The PLR 1 has a total mass of 6197 kg. It has a top speed of 18 km/hr and is capable of towing three metric tons, in addition to the RTG trailer. The PLR 2 configuration consists of two four-meter diameter, cylindrical hulls which are passively connected by a flexible passageway, resulting in the overall vehicle length of 11 m. The vehicle is driven by eight independently suspended wheels. The dual-cylinder concept allows articulated as well as double

  19. Data Processing and Primary results of Lunar Penetrating Radar on Board the Chinese Yutu Rover

    Su, Yan; Xing, Shuguo; Feng, Jianqing; Dai, Shun; Ding, Chunyu; Xiao, Yuan; Zhang, Hongbo; Zhao, Shu; Xue, Xiping; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Bin; Yao, Meijuan; Li, Chunlai

    2015-04-01

    Radar is an attractive and powerful technique to observe the Moon. Radar mapping of the Moon's topography was first done by the Arecibo telescope at a wave- length of 70 cm in 1964 (Thompson & Dyce 1966). Chang'e-3 (CE-3) was successfully launched on 2013 December 2, and the landing place is in Mare Imbrium, about 40km south of the 6km diameter Laplace F crater, at 44.1214ON, 19.5116OW. The Lunar ground-Penetrating Radar (LPR) is one of scientific payloads of the Yutu rover, aiming to achieve the first direct measurements and explore the lunar subsurface structure. Compared with ALSE and LRS, LPR works at higher frequencies of 60 MHz and 500 MHz. Thus it can probe regions with shallower depth including the regolith and lunar crust at higher range resolution. The LPR uses one transmitting and one receiving dipole antenna for 60 MHz which are installed at the back of the rover. For 500 MHz, one transmitting and two bow-tie receiving antennas are attached to the bottom of the rover. It transmits a pulsed signal and receives the radar echo signal along the path that the Yutu rover traverses. The free space range resolutions are ~ 50 cm and ~ 25 m for 60 MHz and 500 MHz respectively. The radar data stop being sampled and are sent back to Earth when Yutu is stationary. Observations are simultaneously carried out at frequencies of 60 MHz and 500 MHz. Since the Yutu rover had severe problems during its second lunar day, it is pity that the Yutu rover only transversed a limited distance of 114.8m. In total, 566 MB of data were obtained. The scientific data are archived and distributed by National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Data processing has been done in order to eliminate the effect of the instrument. To obtain clear radar images, more data processing need to be applied such as coordinate transformation, data editing, background removal, the operations of smoothing and gain resetting. The radar signal could detect hundreds of meters deep at

  20. Lunar Exploration Missions Since 2006

    Lawrence, S. J. (Editor); Gaddis, L. R.; Joy, K. H.; Petro, N. E.

    2017-01-01

    The announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration in 2004 sparked a resurgence in lunar missions worldwide. Since the publication of the first "New Views of the Moon" volume, as of 2017 there have been 11 science-focused missions to the Moon. Each of these missions explored different aspects of the Moon's geology, environment, and resource potential. The results from this flotilla of missions have revolutionized lunar science, and resulted in a profoundly new emerging understanding of the Moon. The New Views of the Moon II initiative itself, which is designed to engage the large and vibrant lunar science community to integrate the results of these missions into new consensus viewpoints, is a direct outcome of this impressive array of missions. The "Lunar Exploration Missions Since 2006" chapter will "set the stage" for the rest of the volume, introducing the planetary community at large to the diverse array of missions that have explored the Moon in the last decade. Content: This chapter will encompass the following missions: Kaguya; ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun); Chang’e-1; Chandrayaan-1; Moon Impact Probe; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Lunar Crater Observation Sensing Satellite (LCROSS); Chang’e-2; Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL); Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE); Chang’e-3.

  1. Determinants of gestation length in Thoroughbred mares on German stud farms.

    Ewert, Mareike; Lüders, Imke; Böröcz, Jozsef; Uphaus, Hubert; Distl, Ottmar; Sieme, Harald

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of stallion and mare, their ages, and maternal lineage on the gestation length (GL) in Thoroughbreds. In addition, additive genetic effects of the dam, stallion and fetus were analyzed. Data were taken from 1993 through 2009, and included 16,226 pregnancies from 5959 Th oroughbred mares mated with 290 different stallions. All analyses were performed using linear mixed models. The GL ranged from 306 to 390 days, with a mean length of 347.0 ± 14.4 days. Mating of mares with stallions aged 17 years and older resulted in a significantly longer GL compared to younger stallions. Furthermore, the GL significantly increased with the increasing age of the mares, and the GL was longer with male foals. The month and year of breeding, as well as the mare´s breeding history (parity and reproductive status) also affected GL. The mare and stallion themselves explained 18% and 4% of the variance in GL. Coefficients of inbreeding of mares and foals had no significant effect on GL. The heritability for the GL was 0.17 for the dam and 0.006 for the fetus, whereas an additive genetic paternal effect was not estimable. The relative proportions among the additive genetic and permanent environmental contributions of the dam were 76.5% and 23.5%. A maternal lineage effect was not obvious. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Histological features of the placenta and their relation to the gross and data from Thoroughbred mares

    Fernanda M. Pazinato

    Full Text Available Abstract: The placenta is a transitory organ that originates from maternal and fetal tissues, the function of which is transporting nutrients from the mother to the fetus. The aim of this study was describe the histological features of placentas in healthy Thoroughbred mares at foaling and evaluate their relation with the gross placental and data of these mares. For this study 188 Thoroughbred mares were used. It was performed clinical observation for signs of placentitis during daily health checks and ultrasonic examination monthly to assess the fetus and placenta. All of the mares that exhibited clinical signs of placentitis were treated during gestation. The parturition was assisted, the placentas were grossly evaluated and samples were collected immediately after expulsion. The following data were considered for each mare: age, gestational age, number of parturition, time for placental expulsion, umbilical-cord length, placental weight and clinical signs of placentitis. Histological evaluation of the placentas revealed extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization of the epithelial areolar cells, presence of inflammatory infiltrates and hypoplasia-atrophy of the microcotyledons. Most of the gross placental findings were consistent with the histological results. In conclusion the mares with a vacuolated placental chorionic epithelium were older and had experienced a larger number of births. Great part of the mares with inflammatory infiltrates did not showed any clinical signs of placentitis during gestation.

  3. Temporal feeding pattern may influence reproduction efficiency, the example of breeding mares.

    Haifa Benhajali

    Full Text Available Discomfort in farm animals may be induced by inappropriate types or timing of food supplies. Thus, time restriction of meals and lack of roughage have been shown to be one source of emergence of oral stereotypies and abnormal behaviour in horses which have evolved to eat high-fibre diets in small amounts over long periods of time. This feeding pattern is often altered in domestic environment where horses are often fed low fibre meals that can be rapidly consumed. This study aimed at determining the effect of the temporal pattern of feeding on reproductive efficiency of breeding mares, One hundred Arab breeding mares were divided into two groups that differed only in the temporal pattern of roughage availability: only at night for the standard feeding pattern group (SFP mares, night and day for the "continuous feeding" group (CF mares. The total amount of roughage provided was the same as the CF mares received half of the hay during the day while in paddock (haynets. Mares were tested for oestrus detection by teasing with one stallion and were then examined clinically by rectal palpations and ultrasound before being mated naturally or inseminated by fresh or frozen semen. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse data. The treatment affected significantly the reproductive efficiency of the mares with fewer oestrus abnormalities (p = 0.0002 and more fertility (p = 0.024 in CF mares (conception rate = 81% versus 55% in SFP mares. Ensuring semi-continous feeding by providing roughage may be a way of fulfilling the basic physiological needs of the horses' digestive system, reducing stress and associated inhibitors of reproduction. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of an impact of temporal feeding patterns on reproductive success in a Mammal. Temporal patterns of feeding may be a major and underestimated factor in breeding.

  4. Clinical Trials during Late Pregnancy in Mares: Prevention of Abortion

    Kirill PLEMYASHOV

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper observed the influence of the integrated treatment of abortion in mares with the supplement Haemobalans® to replace high-turnover vitamins, amino acids and minerals; and probiotics BF-15® which contains Bifidobacterium bifidum. The aims of this study were to prove the application of Haemobalans and BF-15 as adaptogens during late gestation. We examined 60 healthy adult Thoroughbred mares that were divided into four equal groups (n=15 on the 270 - 300th days of gestation. Test animals received the following treatment: 1 intramuscular injection of Haemobalans in 3 days, in a dose of 1 ml per 45 kg of body weight. BF-15 was also given for 10 days: 20 ml of the oral solution with oats two times per day. Reflex-1 group was treated with the same dose of Haemobalans. Reflex-2 group was treated with the same dose of BF-15. Control animals were also examined. Blood samples were taken before the treatment and two weeks after it. First examination showed the basic level of investigated sources, the last one showed the result of the treatment. The difference between the data (which were obtained before and after treatment was compared in each group. In case of significant differences between the data of the test group relative to the other three groups, we talked about the reliability of the outcomes. Tissue of placentae were taken after delivery, fixed with neutral formalin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Zones of pathological changes were identified. Database of categorical data was created in placental study. Number of cases for markers of placental insufficiency (PI was determined. In the personal database of one animal the presence of a pathological case was marked (1 and the absence was marked (0. The objective excess of (1 was regarded as PI. The concentrations of glucose, total protein, creatinine, hemoglobin, vitamin B12, ESR, count of lymphocyte and MCHC in the test group were significantly higher: 16.4%; 10.78%; 17.87%; 11

  5. Tests of the lunar hypothesis

    Taylor, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The concept that the Moon was fissioned from the Earth after core separation is the most readily testable hypothesis of lunar origin, since direct comparisons of lunar and terrestrial compositions can be made. Differences found in such comparisons introduce so many ad hoc adjustments to the fission hypothesis that it becomes untestable. Further constraints may be obtained from attempting to date the volatile-refractory element fractionation. The combination of chemical and isotopic problems suggests that the fission hypothesis is no longer viable, and separate terrestrial and lunar accretion from a population of fractionated precursor planetesimals provides a more reasonable explanation.

  6. Development of a lunar infrastructure

    Burke, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of building an infrastructure on the moon is discussed, assuming that earth-to-moon and moon-to-earth transport will be available. The sequence of events which would occur in the process of building an infrastructure is examined. The human needs which must be met on a lunar base are discussed, including minimal life support, quality of life, and growth stages. The technology available to meet these needs is reviewed and further research in fields related to a lunar base, such as the study of the moon's polar regions and the limits of lunar agriculture, is recommended.

  7. Geologic structure of shallow maria. [topography of lunar maria

    Dehon, R. A.; Waskom, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Isopach maps and structural contour maps of the eastern mare basins (30 deg N to 30 deg S; 0 deg to 100 deg E), constructed from measurements of partially buried craters, are presented and discussed. The data, which are sufficiently scattered to yield gross thickness variations, are restricted to shallow maria with less than 1500-2000 m of mare basalts. The average thickness of basalt in the irregular maria is between 200 and 400 m. Correlations between surface topography, basalt thickness, and basin floor structure are apparent in most of the basins that were studied. The mare surface is commonly depressed in regions of thick mare basalts; mare ridges are typically located in regions of pronounced thickness changes; and arcuate mare rilles are confined to thin mare basalts. Most surface structures are attributed to shallow stresses developed within the mare basalts during consolidation and volume reduction.

  8. Year 3 LUNAR Annual Report to the NASA Lunar Science Institute

    Burns, Jack; Lazio, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar University Network for Astrophysics Research (LUNAR) is a team of researchers and students at leading universities, NASA centers, and federal research laboratories undertaking investigations aimed at using the Moon as a platform for space science. LUNAR research includes Lunar Interior Physics & Gravitation using Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), Low Frequency Cosmology and Astrophysics (LFCA), Planetary Science and the Lunar Ionosphere, Radio Heliophysics, and Exploration Science. The LUN...

  9. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 20th, Houston, TX, Mar. 13-17, 1989, Proceedings

    Sharpton, V.L.; Ryder, G.

    1990-01-01

    Topics discussed include the petrology and geochemistry of the moon, the geology of the moon, lunar regolith processes and resources, the petrology and geochemistry of achondrites, comets and interplanetary dust, shock and terrestrial cratering, the geology of Mars, and the geology of Venus. Papers are presented on silicate liquid immiscibility in isothermal crystallization experiments; highly evolved and ultramafic lithologies from Apollo 14 soils; the relationship between orbital, earth-based, and sample data for lunar landing sites; and the volcanotectonic evolution of Mare Frigoris. Attention is also given to glass variants and multiple HASP trends in Apollo 14 regolith breccias, the characterization of lunar ilmenite resources, the U-Th-Pb systematics of the Estherville mesosiderite, and the extraterrestrial halogen and sulfur contents of the stratosphere. Other papers are on argon-40/argon-39 dating of impact craters; the outliers of dust along the southern margin of the Tharsis region, Mars; and the geology of southern Guinevere Planitia, Venus, based on analyses of Goldstone radar data

  10. The origin of lunar mascons - Analysis of the Bouguer gravity associated with Grimaldi

    Phillips, R. J.; Dvorak, J.

    1981-01-01

    Grimaldi is a relatively small multi-ringed basin located on the western limb of the moon. Spacecraft free-air gravity data reveal a mascon associated with the inner ring of this structure, and the topographic correction to the local lunar gravity field indicates a maximum Bouguer anomaly of +90 milligals at an altitude of 70 kilometers. Approximately 20% of this positive Bouguer anomaly can be attributed to the mare material lying within the inner ring of this basin. From a consideration of the Bouguer gravity and structure of large lunar craters comparable in size to the central basin of Grimaldi, it is suggested that the remaining positive Bouguer anomaly is due to a centrally uplifted plug of lunar mantle material. The uplift was caused by inward crustal collapse which also resulted in the formation of the concentric outer scarp of Grimaldi. In addition, an annulus of low density material, probably a combination of ejecta and in situ breccia, is required to fully reproduce the Bouguer gravity signature across this basin. It is proposed that Grimaldi supplies a critical test in the theory of mascon formation: crustal collapse by ring faulting and central uplift to depths of the crust-mantle boundary are requisites

  11. Geologic characteristics of the Luna 17/Lunokhod 1 and Chang'E-3/Yutu landing sites, Northwest Mare Imbrium of the Moon

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Abdrakhimov, A. M.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C. M.; Wu, Yunzhao; Xiao, Long

    2015-11-01

    We compared and assessed the results of measurements and observations by the Lunokhod 1 and Yutu rovers, both of which explored the northwestern part of Mare Imbrium. Both sites are within the distinctive Eratosthenian-aged lava flow geologic unit and our comparisons showed that the geologies of these exploration sites are very similar. As in the majority of other areas of the Moon, the dominant landforms in these sites are small impact craters, having various degrees of morphologic prominence and states of preservation, and rock fragments, mostly associated with the rims and interiors of fresh craters. The shape and the degree of preservation of the observed rock fragments in these two sites are similar. In both sites sporadic rock fragments were observed whose morphologies suggest that their source rocks had columnar jointing. Localization of these specific rocks on the rims of 450-470 m in diameter craters implies that the source rocks are at depths of 40-50 m. Regolith in the study areas is typically a few meters thick, but locally can be much thicker. The ground penetrating radar of the Yutu rover revealed the multilayer regolith structure, which is determined by superposition of crater ejecta; with some local variations, this type of the regolith stratigraphy should be typical of the majority of lunar mare sites. The physico-mechanical properties of the regolith in these two sites appear to be rather similar: the bearing capacity ranges from 0.04 to 1.44 kg/cm2, with a modal value ∼0.45 kg/cm2, and the shear strength ranges from 0.02 to 0.1 kg/cm2, with a modal value ∼0.05 kg/cm2. Both these factors decrease by a factor of 3-4 with an increase of surface slope from ∼2 to 12°. The chemical composition of surface materials determined by the rover instruments at these two sites differ from those derived from the remote sensing data for the Eratosthenian-aged basalts on which the two sites are located. This could be partly due to low measurement accuracies

  12. Characteristics of small young lunar impact craters focusing on current production and degradation on the Moon

    Kereszturi, Akos; Steinmann, Vilmos

    2017-11-01

    Analysing the size-frequency distribution of very small lunar craters (sized below 100 m including ones below 10 m) using LROC images, spatial density and related age estimations were calculated for mare and terra terrains. Altogether 1.55 km2 area was surveyed composed of 0.1-0.2 km2 units, counting 2784 craters. The maximal areal density was present at the 4-8 m diameter range at every analysed terrain suggesting the bombardment is areally relatively homogeneous. Analysing the similarities and differences between various areas, the mare terrains look about two times older than the terra terrains using ages ranged between 13 and 20 Ma for mare, 4-6 Ma for terra terrains. Substantial fluctuation (min: 936 craters/km2, max: 2495 craters/km2) was observed without obvious source of nearby secondaries or fresh ejecta blanket produced fresh crater. Randomness analysis and visual inspection also suggested no secondary craters or ejecta blanket from fresh impact could contribute substantially in the observed heterogeneity of the areal distribution of small craters - thus distant secondaries or even other, poorly known resurfacing processes should be considered in the future. The difference between the terra/mare ages might come only partly from the easier identification of small craters on smooth mare terrains, as the differences were observed for larger (30-60 m diameter) craters too. Difference in the target hardness could more contribute in this effect. It was possible to separate two groups of small craters based on their appearance: a rimmed thus less eroded, and a rimless thus more eroded one. As the separate usage of different morphology groups of craters for age estimation at the same area is not justifiable, this was used only for comparison. The SFD curves of these two groups showed characteristic differences: the steepness of the fresh craters' SFD curves are similar to each other and were larger than the isochrones. The eroded craters' SFD curves also resemble

  13. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Workshops for Educators, Year 1 Report

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Bleacher, L.; Shaner, A. J.; Dalton, H.

    2011-12-01

    This past summer, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) sponsored a series of weeklong professional development workshops designed to educate and inspire grade 6-12 science teachers: the Lunar Workshops for Educators. Participants learned about lunar science and exploration, gained tools to help address common student misconceptions about the Moon, heard some of the latest research results from LRO scientists, worked with LRO data, and learned how to bring these data to their students using hands-on activities aligned with grade 6-12 National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks. Where possible, the workshops also included tours of science facilities or field trips intended to help the teachers better understand mission operations or geologic processes relevant to the Moon. The workshops were very successful. Participants demonstrated an improved understanding of lunar science concepts in post-workshop assessments (as compared to identical pre-assessments) and a greater understanding of how to access and productively share data from LRO with their students and provide them with authentic research experiences. Participant feedback on workshop surveys was also enthusiastically positive. 5 additional Lunar Workshops for Educators will be held around the country in the summer of 2012. For more information and to register, visit http://lunar.gsfc.nasa.gov/lwe/index.html.

  14. Regional stratigraphy and geologic history of Mare Crisium

    Head, J. W., III; Adams, J. B.; Mccord, T. B.; Pieters, C.; Zisk, S.

    1978-01-01

    Remote sensing and Luna 24 sample data are used to develop a summary of the regional stratigraphy and geologic history of Mare Crisium. Laboratory spectra of Luna 24 samples, telescopic reflectance spectra in the 0.3 to 1.1 micron range and orbital X-ray data have identified three major basalt groups in the region. Group I soil is derived from iron- and magnesium-rich titaniferous basalts and was apparently emplaced over the majority of the basin, however is presently exposed as a shelf in the southwest part. Group II soils, derived from very low titanium ferrobasalts, were emplaced in two stages subsequent to Group I emplacement and now appear as part of the outer shelf and topographic annulus. Subsidence of the basin interior preceded and continued after the emplacement of the third basalt group, a soil derived from a low titanium ferrobasalt. The Luna 24 site is found to be within a patch of Group II material.

  15. RECURRENT, IDIOPATHIC URTICARIA IN A TONGA PONY MARE

    T. Ahmad, G. Muhammad and M. H. Hussain

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 15-Yearold tonga (a light wheeled horse cart pony mare was presented for the treatment of a condition characterized by generalized urticarial wheals, anemic mucous membranes, concentrated urine, inappetance and unilateral chemosis. Haematological alterations included a marked leucocytosis (WBC = 14x103/ul with monocytosis (2.5x109/L and moderate anemia (RBC count = 4.lx1012/L; PCV = 18; hemoglobin = 8.2 gm/dl. There was no history of exposure to agents known tQtrigger urticaria. Parental administration of a corticosteroid preparation (prednisolone plus dexamethasone and antihistamine (pheniramine maleate in 4 rounds of treatment over a 16 days period was associated with rebounding of signs of urticaria after cessation of each round oftherapyo

  16. Early lunar magnetism

    Banerjee, S. K.; Mellema, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    A new method (Shaw, 1974) for investigating paleointensity (the ancient magnetic field) was applied to three subsamples of a single, 1-m homogeneous clast from a recrystallized boulder of lunar breccia. Several dating methods established 4 billion years as the age of boulder assembly. Results indicate that the strength of the ambient magnetic field at the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon was about 0.4 oersted at 4 billion years ago. Values as high as 1.2 oersted have been reported (Collison et al., 1973). The required fields are approximately 10,000 times greater than present interplanetary or solar flare fields. It is suggested that this large field could have arisen from a pre-main sequence T-Tauri sun.

  17. Electrochemistry of lunar rocks

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Haskin, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Electrolysis of silicate melts has been shown to be an effective means of producing metals from common silicate materials. No fluxing agents need be added to the melts. From solution in melts of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) composition, the elements Si, Ti, Ni, and Fe have been reduced to their metallic states. Platinum is a satisfactory anode material, but other cathode materials are needed. Electrolysis of compositional analogs of lunar rocks initially produces iron metal at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Utilizing mainly heat and electricity which are readily available from sunlight, direct electrolysis is capable of producing useful metals from common feedstocks without the need for expendable chemicals. This simple process and the products obtained from it deserve further study for use in materials processing in space.

  18. Google Moon Lunar Mapping Data

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A collection of lunar maps and charts. This tool is an exciting new way to explore the story of the Apollo missions, still the only time mankind has set foot on...

  19. First oxygen from lunar basalt

    Gibson, M. A.; Knudsen, C. W.; Brueneman, D. J.; Kanamori, H.; Ness, R. O.; Sharp, L. L.; Brekke, D. W.; Allen, C. C.; Morris, R. V.; Keller, L. P.

    1993-01-01

    The Carbotek/Shimizu process to produce oxygen from lunar soils has been successfully demonstrated on actual lunar samples in laboratory facilities at Carbotek with Shimizu funding and support. Apollo sample 70035 containing approximately 25 percent ilmenite (FeTiO3) was used in seven separate reactions with hydrogen varying temperature and pressure: FeTiO3 + H2 yields Fe + TiO2 + H2O. The experiments gave extremely encouraging results as all ilmenite was reduced in every experiment. The lunar ilmenite was found to be about twice as reactive as terrestrial ilmenite samples. Analytical techniques of the lunar and terrestrial ilmenite experiments performed by NASA Johnson Space Center include iron Mossbauer spectroscopy (FeMS), optical microscopy, SEM, TEM, and XRD. The Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota performed three SEM techniques (point count method, morphology determination, elemental mapping), XRD, and optical microscopy.

  20. Thermodynamics of lunar ilmenite reduction

    Altenberg, B. H.; Franklin, H. A.; Jones, C. H.

    1993-01-01

    With the prospect of returning to the moon, the development of a lunar occupation would fulfill one of the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) of the late 1980's. Processing lunar resources into useful products, such as liquid oxygen for fuel and life support, would be one of many aspects of an active lunar base. ilmenite (FeTiO3) is found on the lunar surface and can be used as a feed stock to produce oxygen. Understanding the various ilmenite-reduction reactions elucidates many processing options. Defining the thermodynamic chemical behavior at equilibrium under various conditions of temperature and pressures can be helpful in specifying optimal operating conditions. Differences between a previous theoretical analysis and experimentally determined results has sparked interest in trying to understand the effect of operating pressure on the hydrogen-reduction-of-ilmenite reaction. Various aspects of this reduction reaction are discussed.

  1. The enigma of lunar magnetism

    Hood, L. L.

    1981-01-01

    Current understandings of the nature and probable origin of lunar magnetism are surveyed. Results of examinations of returned lunar samples are discussed which reveal the main carrier of the observed natural remanent magnetization to be iron, occasionally alloyed with nickel and cobalt, but do not distinguish between thermoremanent and shock remanent origins, and surface magnetometer data is presented, which indicates small-scale magnetic fields with a wide range of field intensities implying localized, near-surface sources. A detailed examination is presented of orbital magnetometer and charged particle data concerning the geologic nature and origin of magnetic anomaly sources and the directional properties of the magnetization, which exhibit a random distribution except for a depletion in the north-south direction. A lunar magnetization survey with global coverage provided by a polar orbiting satellite is suggested as a means of placing stronger constraints on the origin of lunar crustal magnetization.

  2. Lunar Health Monitor, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the Phase II Lunar Health Monitor program, Orbital Research will develop a second generation wearable sensor suite for astronaut physiologic monitoring. The...

  3. Prospective Ukrainian lunar orbiter mission

    Shkuratov, Y.; Litvinenko, L.; Shulga, V.; Yatskiv, Y.; Kislyuk, V.

    Ukraine has launch vehicles that are able to deliver about 300 kg to the lunar orbit. Future Ukrainian lunar program may propose a polar orbiter. This orbiter should fill principal information gaps in our knowledge about the Moon after Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions and the future missions, like Smart-1, Lunar-A, and Selene. We consider that this can be provided by radar studies of the Moon with supporting optical polarimetric observations from lunar polar orbit. These experiments allow one to better understand global structure of the lunar surface in a wide range of scales, from microns to kilometers. We propose three instruments for the prospective lunar orbiter. They are: a synthetic aperture imaging radar (SAR), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and imaging polarimeter (IP). The main purpose of SAR is to study with high resolution (50 m) the permanently shadowed sites in the lunar polar regions. These sites are cold traps for volatiles, and have a potential of resource utilization. Possible presence of water ice in the regolith in the sites makes them interesting for permanent manned bases on the Moon. Radar imaging and mapping of other interesting regions could be also planned. Multi-frequencies multi-polarization soun d ing of the lunar surface with GPR can provide information about internal structure of the lunar surface from meters to several hundred meters deep. GPR can be used for measuring the megaregolith layer properties, detection of cryptomaria, and studies of internal structure of the largest craters. IP will be a CCD camera with an additional suite of polarizers. Modest spatial resolution (100 m) should provide a total coverage or a large portion of the lunar surface in oblique viewing basically at large phase angles. Polarization degree at large (>90°) phase angles bears information about characteristic size of the regolith particles. Additional radiophysical experiments are considered with the use of the SAR system, e.g., bistatic radar

  4. Dielectric properties of lunar surface

    Yushkova, O. V.; Kibardina, I. N.

    2017-03-01

    Measurements of the dielectric characteristics of lunar soil samples are analyzed in the context of dielectric theory. It has been shown that the real component of the dielectric permittivity and the loss tangent of rocks greatly depend on the frequency of the interacting electromagnetic field and the soil temperature. It follows from the analysis that one should take into account diurnal variations in the lunar surface temperature when interpreting the radar-sounding results, especially for the gigahertz radio range.

  5. Lunar Navigation Architecture Design Considerations

    D'Souza, Christopher; Getchius, Joel; Holt, Greg; Moreau, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is aiming to establish a long-term presence on the lunar surface. The Constellation elements (Orion, Altair, Earth Departure Stage, and Ares launch vehicles) will require a lunar navigation architecture for navigation state updates during lunar-class missions. Orion in particular has baselined earth-based ground direct tracking as the primary source for much of its absolute navigation needs. However, due to the uncertainty in the lunar navigation architecture, the Orion program has had to make certain assumptions on the capabilities of such architectures in order to adequately scale the vehicle design trade space. The following paper outlines lunar navigation requirements, the Orion program assumptions, and the impacts of these assumptions to the lunar navigation architecture design. The selection of potential sites was based upon geometric baselines, logistical feasibility, redundancy, and abort support capability. Simulated navigation covariances mapped to entry interface flightpath- angle uncertainties were used to evaluate knowledge errors. A minimum ground station architecture was identified consisting of Goldstone, Madrid, Canberra, Santiago, Hartebeeshoek, Dongora, Hawaii, Guam, and Ascension Island (or the geometric equivalent).

  6. Positiivsust saab õppida / Mare Pork ; intervjueerinud Signe Rummo ; kommenteerinud Toivo Aavik

    Pork, Mare, 1950-

    2014-01-01

    Intervjuu Tallinna Ülikooli psühholoogiaprofessor Mare Porkiga positiivsest psühholoogiast ja raamatust Boniwell, Ilona. Positiivne psühholoogia : tõhusa toimimise põhitõed. Tallinn : Äripäev, 2014.

  7. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    2010-07-01

    ... Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open on... may contact the City of Vallejo via the same telephone number to schedule drawspan operation. (b) The...

  8. Electrolytic smelting of lunar rock for oxygen, iron, and silicon

    Haskin, Larry A.; Colson, Russell O.; Lindstrom, David J.; Lewis, Robert H.; Semkow, Krystyna W.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary studies of the electrochemical properties of silicate melts such as those available from heating of lunar mare soils indicate that conductivities are high enough for design of a practical electrolytic cell. The nature and kinetics of the electrode reactions, which involve reduction of Fe(++) and Si(IV) and oxidation of silicate anions as the primary, product-forming reactions, are also satisfactory. A survey of the efficiencies for production (amount of product for a given current) of O2, Fe(sup 0), and Si(sup 0) as functions of potential and of electrolyte composition indicate that conditions can be chosen to yield high production efficiencies. We also conclude that electronic conductivity does not occur to a significant extent. Based on these data, a cell with electrodes of 30 sq m in area operating between 1 and 5V with a current between 1.6 and 3.5(10)(exp 5) A for a mean power requirement of 0.54 MW and total energy use of approximately 13 MWhr per 24-hr day would produce 1 ton of O2, 0.81 ton of Fe(sup 0), 0.65 ton of Si(sup 0) (as Fe(sup 0)-Si(sup 0) alloy), and about 3.5 tons of silicate melt of altered composition per 24 hr. Adjustable distance between electrodes could offer flexibility with respect to feedstock and power source.

  9. Partial least squares methods for spectrally estimating lunar soil FeO abundance: A stratified approach to revealing nonlinear effect and qualitative interpretation

    Li, Lin

    2008-12-01

    Partial least squares (PLS) regressions were applied to lunar highland and mare soil data characterized by the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) for spectral estimation of the abundance of lunar soil chemical constituents FeO and Al2O3. The LSCC data set was split into a number of subsets including the total highland, Apollo 16, Apollo 14, and total mare soils, and then PLS was applied to each to investigate the effect of nonlinearity on the performance of the PLS method. The weight-loading vectors resulting from PLS were analyzed to identify mineral species responsible for spectral estimation of the soil chemicals. The results from PLS modeling indicate that the PLS performance depends on the correlation of constituents of interest to their major mineral carriers, and the Apollo 16 soils are responsible for the large errors of FeO and Al2O3 estimates when the soils were modeled along with other types of soils. These large errors are primarily attributed to the degraded correlation FeO to pyroxene for the relatively mature Apollo 16 soils as a result of space weathering and secondary to the interference of olivine. PLS consistently yields very accurate fits to the two soil chemicals when applied to mare soils. Although Al2O3 has no spectrally diagnostic characteristics, this chemical can be predicted for all subset data by PLS modeling at high accuracies because of its correlation to FeO. This correlation is reflected in the symmetry of the PLS weight-loading vectors for FeO and Al2O3, which prove to be very useful for qualitative interpretation of the PLS results. However, this qualitative interpretation of PLS modeling cannot be achieved using principal component regression loading vectors.

  10. Influence of composition of feed and lactation period on mineral composition of Mare's

    Miroslav Fišera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false CS X-NONE X-NONE Effects of lactation period and feed on essential minerals composition of mare's milk were studied. Average Ca, P, Na and Mg concentrations in feed DM were 0.66, 4.30, 0.13 and 2.21 g.kg-1 of DM (dry matter, respectively. In regard to milk all elements concentrations were not similar to each other due to the changes of the lactation day differences. Average Ca, P, Na and Mg concentrations (in DM caused by breed differences and lactation days were 1.95, 1.08, 0.53 and 0.22 g.kg-1, respectively. During the milk period, a high-quality feed were maintaining the major mineral composition of mare's milk in 1.5 - 2 times higher amount than milk of mare fed with pasture and a low-quality feed. The colostrum stage of mare was much shorter than other animals, the mare's milk on the 2nd day of lactation showed properties of initial milk in which its composition, particularly in minerals, were two times higher when compare to that on milk periods that was started from 5th day after parturition. It seemed that some factors, except well physiological conditions, such as mare's age, number of foaling, sex of foal etc. did not affect milk nutrient composition.

  11. Lunar Quest in Second Life, Lunar Exploration Island, Phase II

    Ireton, F. M.; Day, B. H.; Mitchell, B.; Hsu, B. C.

    2010-12-01

    Linden Lab’s Second Life is a virtual 3D metaverse created by users. At any one time there may be 40,000-50,000 users on line. Users develop a persona and are seen on screen as a human figure or avatar. Avatars move through Second Life by walking, flying, or teleporting. Users form communities or groups of mutual interest such as music, computer graphics, and education. These groups communicate via e-mail, voice, and text within Second Life. Information on downloading the Second Life browser and joining can be found on the Second Life website: www.secondlife.com. This poster details Phase II in the development of Lunar Exploration Island (LEI) located in Second Life. Phase I LEI highlighted NASA’s LRO/LCROSS mission. Avatars enter LEI via teleportation arriving at a hall of flight housing interactive exhibits on the LRO/ LCROSS missions including full size models of the two spacecraft and launch vehicle. Storyboards with information about the missions interpret the exhibits while links to external websites provide further information on the mission, both spacecraft’s instrument suites, and related EPO. Other lunar related activities such as My Moon and NLSI EPO programs. A special exhibit was designed for International Observe the Moon Night activities with links to websites for further information. The sim includes several sites for meetings, a conference stage to host talks, and a screen for viewing NASATV coverage of mission and other televised events. In Phase II exhibits are updated to reflect on-going lunar exploration highlights, discoveries, and future missions. A new section of LEI has been developed to showcase NASA’s Lunar Quest program. A new exhibit hall with Lunar Quest information has been designed and is being populated with Lunar Quest information, spacecraft models (LADEE is in place) and kiosks. A two stage interactive demonstration illustrates lunar phases with static and 3-D stations. As NASA’s Lunar Quest program matures further

  12. Lunar Meteorites: A Global Geochemical Dataset

    Zeigler, R. A.; Joy, K. H.; Arai, T.; Gross, J.; Korotev, R. L.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2017-01-01

    To date, the world's meteorite collections contain over 260 lunar meteorite stones representing at least 120 different lunar meteorites. Additionally, there are 20-30 as yet unnamed stones currently in the process of being classified. Collectively these lunar meteorites likely represent 40-50 distinct sampling locations from random locations on the Moon. Although the exact provenance of each individual lunar meteorite is unknown, collectively the lunar meteorites represent the best global average of the lunar crust. The Apollo sites are all within or near the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), thus lithologies from the PKT are overrepresented in the Apollo sample suite. Nearly all of the lithologies present in the Apollo sample suite are found within the lunar meteorites (high-Ti basalts are a notable exception), and the lunar meteorites contain several lithologies not present in the Apollo sample suite (e.g., magnesian anorthosite). This chapter will not be a sample-by-sample summary of each individual lunar meteorite. Rather, the chapter will summarize the different types of lunar meteorites and their relative abundances, comparing and contrasting the lunar meteorite sample suite with the Apollo sample suite. This chapter will act as one of the introductory chapters to the volume, introducing lunar samples in general and setting the stage for more detailed discussions in later more specialized chapters. The chapter will begin with a description of how lunar meteorites are ejected from the Moon, how deep samples are being excavated from, what the likely pairing relationships are among the lunar meteorite samples, and how the lunar meteorites can help to constrain the impactor flux in the inner solar system. There will be a discussion of the biases inherent to the lunar meteorite sample suite in terms of underrepresented lithologies or regions of the Moon, and an examination of the contamination and limitations of lunar meteorites due to terrestrial weathering. The

  13. Regolith stratigraphy at the Chang'E-3 landing site as seen by lunar penetrating radar

    Fa, Wenzhe; Zhu, Meng-Hua; Liu, Tiantian; Plescia, Jeffrey B.

    2015-12-01

    The Chang'E-3 lunar penetrating radar (LPR) observations at 500 MHz reveal four major stratigraphic zones from the surface to a depth of ~20 m along the survey line: a layered reworked zone (<1 m), an ejecta layer (~2-6 m), a paleoregolith layer (~4-11 m), and the underlying mare basalts. The reworked zone has two to five distinct layers and consists of surface regolith. The paleoregolith buried by the ejecta from a 500 m crater is relatively homogenous and contains only a few rocks. Population of buried rocks increases with depth to ~2 m at first, and then decreases with depth, representing a balance between initial deposition of the ejecta and later turnover of the regolith. Combining with the surface age, the LPR observations indicate a mean accumulation rate of about 5-10 m/Gyr for the surface regolith, which is at least 4-8 times larger than previous estimation.

  14. Precision Lunar Laser Ranging For Lunar and Gravitational Science

    Merkowitz, S. M.; Arnold, D.; Dabney, P. W.; Livas, J. C.; McGarry, J. F.; Neumann, G. A.; Zagwodzki, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Laser ranging to retroreflector arrays placed on the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts and the Soviet Lunar missions over the past 39 years have dramatically increased our understanding of gravitational physics along with Earth and Moon geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics. Significant advances in these areas will require placing modern retroreflectors and/or active laser ranging systems at new locations on the lunar surface. Ranging to new locations will enable better measurements of the lunar librations, aiding in our understanding of the interior structure of the moon. More precise range measurements will allow us to study effects that are too small to be observed by the current capabilities as well as enabling more stringent tests of Einstein's theory of General Relativity. Setting up retroreflectors was a key part of the Apollo missions so it is natural to ask if future lunar missions should include them as well. The Apollo retroreflectors are still being used today, and nearly 40 years of ranging data has been invaluable for scientific as well as other studies such as orbital dynamics. However, the available retroreflectors all lie within 26 degrees latitude of the equator, and the most useful ones within 24 degrees longitude of the sub-earth meridian. This clustering weakens their geometrical strength.

  15. New high pressure experiments on sulfide saturation of high-FeO∗ basalts with variable TiO2 contents - Implications for the sulfur inventory of the lunar interior

    Ding, Shuo; Hough, Taylor; Dasgupta, Rajdeep

    2018-02-01

    In order to constrain sulfur concentration in intermediate to high-Ti mare basalts at sulfide saturation (SCSS), we experimentally equilibrated FeS melt and basaltic melt using a piston cylinder at 1.0-2.5 GPa and 1400-1600 °C, with two silicate compositions similar to high-Ti (Apollo 11: A11, ∼11.1 wt.% TiO2, 19.1 wt.% FeO∗, and 39.6 wt.% SiO2) and intermediate-Ti (Luna 16, ∼5 wt.% TiO2, 18.7 wt.% FeO∗, and 43.8 wt.% SiO2) mare basalts. Our experimental results show that SCSS increases with increasing temperature, and decreases with increasing pressure, which are similar to the results from previous experimental studies. SCSS in the A11 melt is systematically higher than that in the Luna 16 melt, which is likely due to higher FeO∗, and lower SiO2 and Al2O3 concentration in the former. Compared to the previously constructed SCSS models, including those designed for high-FeO∗ basalts, the SCSS values determined in this study are generally lower than the predicted values, with overprediction increasing with increasing melt TiO2 content. We attribute this to the lower SiO2 and Al2O3 concentration of the lunar magmas, which is beyond the calibration range of previous SCSS models, and also more abundant FeTiO3 complexes in our experimental melts that have higher TiO2 contents than previous models' calibration range. The formation of FeTiO3 complexes lowers the activity of FeO∗, aFeO∗silicate melt , and therefore causes SCSS to decrease. To accommodate the unique lunar compositions, we have fitted a new SCSS model for basaltic melts of >5 wt.% FeO∗ and variable TiO2 contents. Using previous chalcophile element partitioning experiments that contained more complex Fe-Ni-S sulfide melts, we also derived an empirical correction that allows SCSS calculation for basalts where the equilibrium sulfides contain variable Ni contents of 10-50 wt.%. At the pressures and temperatures of multiple saturation points, SCSS of lunar magmas with compositions from

  16. Structure from Motion Photogrammetry and Micro X-Ray Computed Tomography 3-D Reconstruction Data Fusion for Non-Destructive Conservation Documentation of Lunar Samples

    Beaulieu, K. R.; Blumenfeld, E. H.; Liddle, D. A.; Oshel, E. R.; Evans, C. A.; Zeigler, R. A.; Righter, K.; Hanna, R. D.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    Our team is developing a modern, cross-disciplinary approach to documentation and preservation of astromaterials, specifically lunar and meteorite samples stored at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility. Apollo Lunar Sample 60639, collected as part of rake sample 60610 during the 3rd Extra-Vehicular Activity of the Apollo 16 mission in 1972, served as the first NASA-preserved lunar sample to be examined by our team in the development of a novel approach to internal and external sample visualization. Apollo Sample 60639 is classified as a breccia with a glass-coated side and pristine mare basalt and anorthosite clasts. The aim was to accurately register a 3-dimensional Micro X-Ray Computed Tomography (XCT)-derived internal composition data set and a Structure-From-Motion (SFM) Photogrammetry-derived high-fidelity, textured external polygonal model of Apollo Sample 60639. The developed process provided the means for accurate, comprehensive, non-destructive visualization of NASA's heritage lunar samples. The data products, to be ultimately served via an end-user web interface, will allow researchers and the public to interact with the unique heritage samples, providing a platform to "slice through" a photo-realistic rendering of a sample to analyze both its external visual and internal composition simultaneously.

  17. Lunar Industry & Research Base Concept

    Lysenko, J.; Kaliapin, M.; Osinovyy, G.

    2017-09-01

    Currently, all main space industry players, such as Europe, USA, Russia, China, etc., are looking back again at the idea of Moon exploration building there a manned lunar base. Alongside with other world spacefaring nations, Yuzhnoye State Design Office with its long-time development experience, technological and intellectual potential, organized its own conceptual work on development of the Lunar Industry & Research Base. In the frames of conceptual project "Lunar Industrial & Research Base" were formed its appearance, preliminary configuration and infrastructure at different stages of operation, trajectory and flight scheme to the Moon, as well as terms of the project's realization, and main technical characteristics of the systems under development, such as space transportation system for crew and cargo delivery to lunar surface and return to Earth, standardized designs of lunar modules, lunar surface vehicles, etc. The "Lunar Industrial & Research Base" project's preliminary risk assessment has shown a high value of its overall risk due to the lack of reliable information about the Moon, technical risks, long-term development of its elements, very high financial costs and dependence on state support. This points to the fact that it is reasonable to create such a global project in cooperation with other countries. International cooperation will expand the capabilities of any nation, reduce risks and increase the success probability of automated or manned space missions. It is necessary to create and bring into operation practical mechanisms for long-term space exploration on a global scale. One of the ways to do this is to create a multinational agency which would include both state enterprises and private companies.

  18. View of the Lunar Module 'Orion' and Lunar Roving Vehicle during first EVA

    1972-01-01

    A view of the Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' and Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), as photographed by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Descates landing site. Astronaut John W. Young, commander, can be seen directly behind the LRV. The lunar surface feature in the left background is Stone Mountain.

  19. The cosmopolitan maternal heritage of the Thoroughbred racehorse breed shows a significant contribution from British and Irish native mares.

    Bower, M A; Campana, M G; Whitten, M; Edwards, C J; Jones, H; Barrett, E; Cassidy, R; Nisbet, R E R; Hill, E W; Howe, C J; Binns, M

    2011-04-23

    The paternal origins of Thoroughbred racehorses trace back to a handful of Middle Eastern stallions, imported to the British Isles during the seventeenth century. Yet, few details of the foundation mares were recorded, in many cases not even their names (several different maternal lineages trace back to 'A Royal Mare'). This has fuelled intense speculation over their origins. We examined mitochondrial DNA from 1929 horses to determine the origin of Thoroughbred foundation mares. There is no evidence to support exclusive Arab maternal origins as some historical records have suggested, or a significant importation of Oriental mares (the term used in historic records to refer to Middle East and western Asian breeds including Arab, Akhal-Teke, Barb and Caspian). Instead, we show that Thoroughbred foundation mares had a cosmopolitan European heritage with a far greater contribution from British and Irish Native mares than previously recognized.

  20. What can be learned about the lunar mantle from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL)?

    Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Asmar, S. W.; Konopliv, A. S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Melosh, J.; Neumann, G. A.; Phillips, R. J.; Solomon, S. C.; Watkins, M. M.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Williams, J. G.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Garrick-Bethell, I.; Head, J. W.; Kiefer, W. S.; Matsuyama, I.; McGovern, P. J.; Nimmo, F.; Soderblom, J. M.; Taylor, J.; Weber, R. C.; Goossens, S. J.; Kruizinga, G. L.; Mazarico, E.; Park, R. S.; Yuan, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL), a dual-spacecraft, gravity-mapping mission that is a component of NASA's Discovery Program, has successfully concluded its Primary and Extended Missions, and is currently in the science analysis phase. In order to safely navigate the dual spacecraft at an average altitude of 22.5 km above the lunar surface during the Extended Mission phase in the fall of 2012, and to derive the greatest information from the full mission data set, the focus had been on the production of gravitational fields with the highest-possible resolution. Spherical harmonic models of the Moon's gravitational field, produced by separate software systems at the Goddard Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, now include observations from both the Primary and Extended Missions. The highest-resolution models to date are to degree and order 900, corresponding to a spatial block size of 6 km, and are ideally suited to study the structure of the Moon's crust in extraordinary detail. GRAIL has achieved all measurement objectives for the Primary Mission, enabling all science investigations to be addressed. One of these investigations is to study the lunar hemispherical asymmetry, i.e., the difference between the nearside and farside. In this study we explore the nearside and farside mantle by isolating the long-wavelength gravity field. We accomplish this objective by removing plausible short-wavelength contributions from the crust that were based on the full resolution of high-degree and -order models, and by considering constraints from crustal compositions and volumes of mare basalt deposits. We localize the power spectral contributions of the nearside and farside to constrain lateral density variations, such as those associated with melting from the source regions of the mare basalts.

  1. Apollo Missions to the Lunar Surface

    Graff, Paige V.

    2018-01-01

    Six Apollo missions to the Moon, from 1969-1972, enabled astronauts to collect and bring lunar rocks and materials from the lunar surface to Earth. Apollo lunar samples are curated by NASA Astromaterials at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX. Samples continue to be studied and provide clues about our early Solar System. Learn more and view collected samples at: https://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar.

  2. Lunar surface engineering properties experiment definition

    Mitchell, J. K.; Goodman, R. E.; Hurlbut, F. C.; Houston, W. N.; Willis, D. R.; Witherspoon, P. A.; Hovland, H. J.

    1971-01-01

    Research on the mechanics of lunar soils and on developing probes to determine the properties of lunar surface materials is summarized. The areas of investigation include the following: soil simulation, soil property determination using an impact penetrometer, soil stabilization using urethane foam or phenolic resin, effects of rolling boulders down lunar slopes, design of borehole jack and its use in determining failure mechanisms and properties of rocks, and development of a permeability probe for measuring fluid flow through porous lunar surface materials.

  3. New Age for Lunar Exploration

    Taylor, G. J.; Martel, L. M. V.

    2018-04-01

    Lunar-focused research and plans to return to the lunar surface for science and exploration have reemerged since the Space Policy Directive-1 of December 11, 2017 amended the National Space Policy to include the following, "Lead an innovative and sustainable program of exploration with commercial and international partners to enable human expansion across the solar system and to bring back to Earth new knowledge and opportunities. Beginning with missions beyond low-Earth orbit, the United States will lead the return of humans to the Moon for long-term exploration and utilization, followed by human missions to Mars and other destinations." In response to this revision, NASA proposes a Lunar Exploration and Discovery Program in the U.S. fiscal year 2019 Budget Request. It supports NASA's interests in commercial and international partnerships in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), long-term exploration in Cislunar space beyond LEO, and research and exploration conducted on the Moon to inform future crewed missions, even to destinations beyond the Moon. (Cislunar refers to the volume of space between LEO and the Moon's orbital distance.) The lunar campaign strengthens the integration of human and robotic activities on the lunar surface with NASA's science, technology, and exploration goals.

  4. Lunar power systems. Final report

    1986-12-01

    The findings of a study on the feasibility of several methods of providing electrical power for a permanently manned lunar base are provided. Two fundamentally different methods for lunar electrical power generation are considered. One is the use of a small nuclear reactor and the other is the conversion of solar energy to electricity. The baseline goal was to initially provide 300 kW of power with growth capability to one megawatt and eventually to 10 megawatts. A detailed, day by day scenario for the establishment, build-up, and operational activity of the lunar base is presented. Also presented is a conceptual approach to a supporting transportation system which identifies the number, type, and deployment of transportation vehicles required to support the base. An approach to the use of solar cells in the lunar environment was developed. There are a number of heat engines which are applicable to solar/electric conversions, and these are examined. Several approaches to energy storage which were used by the electric power utilities were examined and those which could be used at a lunar base were identified

  5. Basic radio interferometry for future lunar missions

    Aminaei, Amin; Klein Wolt, Marc; Chen, Linjie; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Pourshaghaghi, Hamid Reza; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Falcke, Heino

    2014-01-01

    In light of presently considered lunar missions, we investigate the feasibility of the basic radio interferometry (RIF) for lunar missions. We discuss the deployment of two-element radio interferometer on the Moon surface. With the first antenna element is envisaged to be placed on the lunar lander,

  6. Status and Future of Lunar Geoscience.

    1986

    A review of the status, progress, and future direction of lunar research is presented in this report from the lunar geoscience working group of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Information is synthesized and presented in four major sections. These include: (1) an introduction (stating the reasons for lunar study and identifying…

  7. Nanophase Fe0 in lunar soils

    globules that occur in the rinds of many soil grains and in the ... tinitic glass is a quenched product of silicate melts, also produced by micrometeorite impacts on lunar soils ..... stand impact processes and their products. ... cules at night; the earth's atmosphere by con- .... deep lunar interior from an inversion of lunar free oscil-.

  8. PROBIOTIC POTENCY OF LACTOBACILLUS SPP. ISOLATED FROM SUMBAWA MARE MILK

    I Nengah Sujaya

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was deigned to elucidate the potency of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from sumbawa mare milk to be developed as a probiotic. Sixteen lacobacilli were screened based on their resitancy to a model of gastric juice at pH 2, 3, and 4, then followed by their resistncy to small intestional fluid model containing deoxycholic. Three lactobacilli i.e. Lactobacillus sp. SKA13, Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG34 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG49 were found to be resistentent to gastric juice at pH 3 and 4. However, there were no lactobacilli resisted to pH 2. Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG34 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG49 were able to reach the colon even after being expossed to a model of intestinal fluid containing 0,4 mM deoxycholate and pancreatine. Therefore, these isolates have a potency to be developed as probiotic lactobacilli. Nevertherless, these lactobcailli could probably transform cholic acid into secondary bile acids, which were not expected to be found in the probiotic, and this capability is not appropriate for probiotic. This character is worthly to be studied since it has never been reported in lactobacilli.

  9. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald James; Clark, Pamela E.; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can b e considered which have a wide range of transfer duration, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO) geostationary transfer orbits (GTO) and higher energy direct lunar transfer and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.

  10. Lunar Rotation, Orientation and Science

    Williams, J. G.; Ratcliff, J. T.; Boggs, D. H.

    2004-12-01

    The Moon is the most familiar example of the many satellites that exhibit synchronous rotation. For the Moon there is Lunar Laser Ranging measurements of tides and three-dimensional rotation variations plus supporting theoretical understanding of both effects. Compared to uniform rotation and precession the lunar rotational variations are up to 1 km, while tidal variations are about 0.1 m. Analysis of the lunar variations in pole direction and rotation about the pole gives moment of inertia differences, third-degree gravity harmonics, tidal Love number k2, tidal dissipation Q vs. frequency, dissipation at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and emerging evidence for an oblate boundary. The last two indicate a fluid core, but a solid inner core is not ruled out. Four retroreflectors provide very accurate positions on the Moon. The experience with the Moon is a starting point for exploring the tides, rotation and orientation of the other synchronous bodies of the solar system.

  11. Lunar heat-flow experiment

    Langseth, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    The principal components of the experiment were probes, each with twelve thermometers of exceptional accuracy and stability, that recorded temperature variations at the surface and in the regolith down to 2.5 m. The Apollo 15 experiment and the Apollo 17 probes recorded lunar surface and subsurface temperatures. These data provided a unique and valuable history of the interaction of solar energy with lunar surface and the effects of heat flowing from the deep interior out through the surface of the moon. The interpretation of these data resulted in a clearer definition of the thermal and mechanical properties of the upper two meters of lunar regolith, direct measurements of the gradient in mean temperature due to heat flow from the interior and a determination of the heat flow at the Apollo 15 and Apollo 17 sites.

  12. Equine alpha-fetoprotein levels in Lipizzaner mares with normal pregnancies and with pregnancy loss.

    Vincze, Boglárka; Gáspárdy, András; Kulcsár, Margit; Baska, Ferenc; Bálint, Ádám; Hegedűs, György Tamás; Szenci, Ottó

    2015-12-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein has proved to be a good indicator of fetal well-being in human medicine for decades. Although this molecule is present in most of the mammalian species including horses, reference values in healthy and high-risk pregnant mares have not yet been published. The aim of the present study was to determine whether equine alpha-fetoprotein (eqAFP) is a good indicator of complicated pregnancies in Lipizzaner mares. A total of 111 serum samples from 30 mares have been analyzed for eqAFP levels throughout gestation (Days 60-325). After the pregnancy was confirmed, 23 mares had normal pregnancies with viable foals, six had late embryonic loss, and one of the mares aborted in the ninth gestational month. Equine alpha-fetoprotein concentrations significantly differed in the normal group (72.93 ± 49.25 pg/mL; mean ± standard deviation) and in the complicated pregnancy loss group (152 ± 36.48 pg/mL; mean ± standard deviation). The mares' age, gestational age, and the conception rate significantly affected the alpha-fetoprotein concentrations in the normal group. Furthermore, notable individual differences occurred in eqAFP concentrations between mares. Equine alpha-fetoprotein seems to be an important indicator of fetal well-being in horses, but there are still some unanswered questions (levels in foals of different age, ponies, and draft horses) regarding this serum protein. Large-scale studies are needed to assess the specificity, sensitivity, and reliability of this test as a possible future diagnostic tool for fetal well-being in horses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  14. Lunar Prospecting With Chandra

    2003-09-01

    Observations of the bright side of the Moon with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have detected oxygen, magnesium, aluminum and silicon over a large area of the lunar surface. The abundance and distribution of those elements will help to determine how the Moon was formed. "We see X-rays from these elements directly, independent of assumptions about the mineralogy and other complications," said Jeremy Drake of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., at a press conference at the "Four Years with Chandra" symposium in Huntsville, Alabama. "We have Moon samples from the six widely-space Apollo landing sites, but remote sensing with Chandra can cover a much wider area," continued Drake. "It's the next best thing to being there, and it's very fast and cost-effective." The lunar X-rays are caused by fluorescence, a process similar to the way that light is produced in fluorescent lamps. Solar X-rays bombard the surface of the Moon, knock electrons out of the inner parts of the atoms, putting them in a highly unstable state. Almost immediately, other electrons rush to fill the gaps, and in the process convert their energy into the fluorescent X-rays seen by Chandra. According to the currently popular "giant impact" theory for the formation of the Moon, a body about the size of Mars collided with the Earth about 4.5 billion years ago. This impact flung molten debris from the mantle of both the Earth and the impactor into orbit around the Earth. Over the course of tens of millions of years, the debris stuck together to form the Moon. By measuring the amounts of aluminum and other elements over a wide area of the Moon and comparing them to the Earth's mantle, Drake and his colleagues plan to help test the giant impact hypothesis. "One early result," quipped Drake, "is that there is no evidence for large amounts of calcium, so cheese is not a major constituent of the Moon." Illustration of Earth's Geocorona Illustration of Earth's Geocorona The same

  15. Uses for lunar crawler transporters

    Kaden, Richard A.

    This article discusses state-of-the-art crawler transporters and expresses the need for additional research and development for lunar crawlers. The thrust of the paper illustrates how the basic crawler technology has progressed to a point where extremely large modules can be shop fabricated and move to some distant location at a considerable savings. Also, extremely heavy loads may be lifted by large crawler cranes and placed in designed locations. The Transi-Lift Crawler crane with its traveling counterweight is an attractive concept for lunar construction.

  16. Building lunar roads - An overview

    Rutledge, Bennett

    The problems involved in constructing lunar roads are explored. The main challenges are airlessness, low gravity, and solar effects, especially temperature extremes. Also involved are the expense of delivering equipment and material to the job site (especially for bridges and other structures), obtaining skilled labor, and providing maintenance. The lunar road will most likely be gravel, but with the size of the material closer to cobblestone to reduce scattering. They will probably be very winding, even on the flats, and feature numerous bridges and some cuts. This traffic will be mostly automatic or teleoperated cargo carriers with a handful of shirtsleeve-pressurized 'passenger cars' large enough to live in for several days.

  17. Lunar phases and crisis center telephone calls.

    Wilson, J E; Tobacyk, J J

    1990-02-01

    The lunar hypothesis, that is, the notion that lunar phases can directly affect human behavior, was tested by time-series analysis of 4,575 crisis center telephone calls (all calls recorded for a 6-month interval). As expected, the lunar hypothesis was not supported. The 28-day lunar cycle accounted for less than 1% of the variance of the frequency of crisis center calls. Also, as hypothesized from an attribution theory framework, crisis center workers reported significantly greater belief in lunar effects than a non-crisis-center-worker comparison group.

  18. What is a lunar standstill III?

    Lionel Duke Sims

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prehistoric monument alignments on lunar standstills are currently understood for horizon range, perturbation event, crossover event, eclipse prediction, solstice full Moon and the solarisation of the dark Moon. The first five models are found to fail the criteria of archaeoastronomy field methods. The final model of lunar-solar conflation draws upon all the observed components of lunar standstills – solarised reverse phased sidereal Moons culminating in solstice dark Moons in a roughly nine-year alternating cycle between major and minor standstills. This lunar-solar conflation model is a syncretic overlay upon an antecedent Palaeolithic template for lunar scheduled rituals and amenable to transformation.

  19. A 70th Degree Lunar Gravity Model (GLGM-2) from Clementine and other tracking data

    Lemonie, Frank G. R.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.

    1997-01-01

    mascons are bounded by annuli of negative anomalies representing significant subsurface mass deficiencies. Mare Orientale appears as a minor mascon surrounded by a horseshoe-shaped gravity low centered on the Inner and Outer Rook rings that is evidence of significant subsurface structural heterogeneity. Although direct tracking is not available over a significant part of the lunar farside, GLGM-2 resolves negative anomalies that correlate with many farside basins, including South Pole-Aitken, Hertzsprung, Korolev, Moscoviense, Tsiolkovsky, and Freundlich-Sharonov.

  20. Consequences of the low density of the lunar primary crust on its magmatic history (Invited)

    Michaut, C.; Thorey, C.

    2013-12-01

    The lunar highlands are very old, with ages covering a timespan between 4.5 to 4.2 Gyr, and probably formed by flotation of light plagioclase minerals on top of the lunar magma ocean. The lunar crust provides thus an invaluable evidence of the geological and magmatic processes occurring in the first times of the terrestrial planets history. According to the last estimates from the GRAIL mission, the lunar primary crust is particularly light and relatively thick. This low-density crust acted as a barrier for the dense primary mantle melts. This is particularly evident in the fact that subsequent mare basalts erupted primarily within large impact basins: at least part of the crust must have been removed for the magma to reach the surface. However, the trajectory of the magma from the mantle to the surface is unknown. Here, we provide evidence of intrusions within the crust of the Moon as surface deformations in the form of low-slope lunar domes and floor-fractured craters. All these geological features have morphologies consistent with models of magma spreading at depth and deforming an overlying elastic layer. Furthermore, at floor-fractured craters, the deformation is contained within the crater interior, suggesting that the overpressure at the origin of magma ascent and intrusion was less than the pressure due to the weight of the crust removed by impact. The pressure release due to material removal by impact is significant over a depth equivalent to the crater radius. Because many of these floor-fractured craters are relatively small, i.e. less than 20 to 30 km in radius, this observation suggests that the magma at the origin of the intrusion was already stored within or just below the crust, in deeper intrusions. Thus, a large fraction of the mantle melt might have stored at depth below or within the light primary crust before reaching shallower layers. And hence, magma intrusions must have had a large influence on the thermal and geological evolution of the

  1. The origin of water in the primitive Moon as revealed by the lunar highlands samples

    Barnes, Jessica J.; Tartèse, Romain; Anand, Mahesh; McCubbin, Francis M.; Franchi, Ian A.; Starkey, Natalie A.; Russell, Sara S.

    2014-03-01

    The recent discoveries of hydrogen (H) bearing species on the lunar surface and in samples derived from the lunar interior have necessitated a paradigm shift in our understanding of the water inventory of the Moon, which was previously considered to be a ‘bone-dry’ planetary body. Most sample-based studies have focused on assessing the water contents of the younger mare basalts and pyroclastic glasses, which are partial-melting products of the lunar mantle. In contrast, little attention has been paid to the inventory and source(s) of water in the lunar highlands rocks which are some of the oldest and most pristine materials available for laboratory investigations, and that have the potential to reveal the original history of water in the Earth-Moon system. Here, we report in-situ measurements of hydroxyl (OH) content and H isotopic composition of the mineral apatite from four lunar highlands samples (two norites, a troctolite, and a granite clast) collected during the Apollo missions. Apart from troctolite in which the measured OH contents in apatite are close to our analytical detection limit and its H isotopic composition appears to be severely compromised by secondary processes, we have measured up to ˜2200 ppm OH in the granite clast with a weighted average δD of ˜ -105±130‰, and up to ˜3400 ppm OH in the two norites (77215 and 78235) with weighted average δD values of -281±49‰ and -27±98‰, respectively. The apatites in the granite clast and the norites are characterised by higher OH contents than have been reported so far for highlands samples, and have H isotopic compositions similar to those of terrestrial materials and some carbonaceous chondrites, providing one of the strongest pieces of evidence yet for a common origin for water in the Earth-Moon system. In addition, the presence of water, of terrestrial affinity, in some samples of the earliest-formed lunar crust suggests that either primordial terrestrial water survived the aftermath

  2. Vascular perfusion of reproductive organs in pony mares and heifers during sedation with detomidine or xylazine.

    Araujo, Reno R; Ginther, O J

    2009-01-01

    To assess the vascular effects of detomidine and xylazine in pony mares and heifers, respectively, as determined in a major artery and by extent of vascular perfusion of reproductive organs. 10 pony mares and 10 Holstein heifers. Pony mares were assigned to receive physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (n = 5) or detomidine (3.0 mg/mare, IV; 5). Heifers were assigned to receive saline solution (5) or xylazine (14 mg/heifer, IM; 5). Color Doppler ultrasonographic examinations were performed immediately before and 10 minutes after administration of saline solution or sedative. In spectral Doppler mode, a spectral graph of blood flow velocities during a cardiac cycle was obtained at the internal iliac artery and at the ovarian pedicle. In color-flow mode, color signals of blood flow in vessels of the corpus luteum and endometrium were assessed. Systemic effects of sedation in the 2 species were evident as a decrease in heart rate; increase in duration of systole, diastole, or both; decrease in volume of blood flow; and decrease in velocity of blood flow within the internal iliac artery. However, an effect of sedatives on local vascular perfusion in the ovaries and endometrium was not detected. Sedation with detomidine in pony mares and xylazine in heifers did not affect vascular perfusion in reproductive organs. These sedatives can be used in experimental and clinical color Doppler evaluations of vascular perfusion of the corpus luteum and endometrium.

  3. Mechanical properties of lunar regolith and lunar soil simulant

    Perkins, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Through the Surveyor 3 and 7, and Apollo 11-17 missions a knowledge of the mechanical properties of Lunar regolith were gained. These properties, including material cohesion, friction, in-situ density, grain-size distribution and shape, and porosity, were determined by indirect means of trenching, penetration, and vane shear testing. Several of these properties were shown to be significantly different from those of terrestrial soils, such as an interlocking cohesion and tensile strength formed in the absence of moisture and particle cementation. To characterize the strength and deformation properties of Lunar regolith experiments have been conducted on a lunar soil simulant at various initial densities, fabric arrangements, and composition. These experiments included conventional triaxial compression and extension, direct tension, and combined tension-shear. Experiments have been conducted at low levels of effective confining stress. External conditions such as membrane induced confining stresses, end platten friction and material self weight have been shown to have a dramatic effect on the strength properties at low levels of confining stress. The solution has been to treat these external conditions and the specimen as a full-fledged boundary value problem rather than the idealized elemental cube of mechanics. Centrifuge modeling allows for the study of Lunar soil-structure interaction problems. In recent years centrifuge modeling has become an important tool for modeling processes that are dominated by gravity and for verifying analysis procedures and studying deformation and failure modes. Centrifuge modeling is well established for terrestrial enginering and applies equally as well to Lunar engineering. A brief review of the experiments is presented in graphic and outline form.

  4. NASA Lunar Base Wireless System Propagation Analysis

    Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    There have been many radio wave propagation studies using both experimental and theoretical techniques over the recent years. However, most of studies have been in support of commercial cellular phone wireless applications. The signal frequencies are mostly at the commercial cellular and Personal Communications Service bands. The antenna configurations are mostly one on a high tower and one near the ground to simulate communications between a cellular base station and a mobile unit. There are great interests in wireless communication and sensor systems for NASA lunar missions because of the emerging importance of establishing permanent lunar human exploration bases. Because of the specific lunar terrain geometries and RF frequencies of interest to the NASA missions, much of the published literature for the commercial cellular and PCS bands of 900 and 1800 MHz may not be directly applicable to the lunar base wireless system and environment. There are various communication and sensor configurations required to support all elements of a lunar base. For example, the communications between astronauts, between astronauts and the lunar vehicles, between lunar vehicles and satellites on the lunar orbits. There are also various wireless sensor systems among scientific, experimental sensors and data collection ground stations. This presentation illustrates the propagation analysis of the lunar wireless communication and sensor systems taking into account the three dimensional terrain multipath effects. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate the lunar surface material, terrain geometry and antenna location are the important factors affecting the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, surface material and operating frequency. The

  5. Concept of Lunar Energy Park

    Niino, Masayuki; Kisara, Katsuto; Chen, Lidong

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents a new concept of energy supply system named Lunar Energy Park (LEP) as one of the next-generation clean energy sources. In this concept, electricity is generated by nuclear power plants built on the moon and then transmitted to receiving stations on the earth by laser beam through transporting systems situated in geostationary orbit. The lunar nuclear power plants use a high-efficiency composite energy conversion system consisting of thermionic and thermoelectric generators to change nuclear thermal energy into electricity directly. The nuclear resources are considered to be available from the moon, and nuclear fuel transport from earth to moon is not necessary. Because direct energy conversion systems are employed, the lunar nuclear plants can be operated and controlled by robots and are maintenance-free, and so will cause no pollution to humans. The key technologies for LEP include improvements of conversion efficiency of both thermionic and thermoelectric converters, and developments of laser-beam power transmission technology as well. The details, including the construction of lunar nuclear plants, energy conversion and energy transmission systems, as well as the research plan strategies for this concept are reviewed.

  6. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXII

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM publication contains the extended abstracts that were accepted for presentation at the 32nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference held at Houston, TX, March 12-16, 2001. The papers are presented in PDF format and are indexed by author, keyword, meteorite, program and samples for quick reference.

  7. Perspectives on Lunar Helium-3

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1999-01-01

    Global demand for energy will likely increase by a factor of six or eight by the mid-point of the 21st Century due to a combination of population increase, new energy intensive technologies, and aspirations for improved standards of living in the less-developed world (1). Lunar helium-3 (3He), with a resource base in the Tranquillitatis titanium-rich lunar maria (2,3) of at least 10,000 tonnes (4), represents one potential energy source to meet this rapidly escalating demand. The energy equivalent value of 3He delivered to operating fusion power plants on Earth would be about 3 billion per tonne relative to today's coal which supplies most of the approximately 90 billion domestic electrical power market (5). These numbers illustrate the magnitude of the business opportunity. The results from the Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (6) suggests that 3He also may be concentrated at the lunar poles along with solar wind hydrogen (7). Mining, extraction, processing, and transportation of helium to Earth requires new innovations in engineering but no known new engineering concepts (1). By-products of lunar 3He extraction, largely hydrogen, oxygen, and water, have large potential markets in space and ultimately will add to the economic attractiveness of this business opportunity (5). Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion technology appears to be the most attractive and least capital intensive approach to terrestrial fusion power plants (8). Heavy lift launch costs comprise the largest cost uncertainty facing initial business planning, however, many factors, particularly long term production contracts, promise to lower these costs into the range of 1-2000 per kilogram versus about 70,000 per kilogram fully burdened for the Apollo Saturn V rocket (1). A private enterprise approach to developing lunar 3He and terrestrial IEC fusion power would be the most expeditious means of realizing this unique opportunity (9). In spite of the large, long-term potential

  8. Cis-Lunar Base Camp

    Merrill, Raymond G.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, John D., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, when mounting expeditions into uncharted territories, explorers have established strategically positioned base camps to pre-position required equipment and consumables. These base camps are secure, safe positions from which expeditions can depart when conditions are favorable, at which technology and operations can be tested and validated, and facilitate timely access to more robust facilities in the event of an emergency. For human exploration missions into deep space, cis-lunar space is well suited to serve as such a base camp. The outer regions of cis-lunar space, such as the Earth-Moon Lagrange points, lie near the edge of Earth s gravity well, allowing equipment and consumables to be aggregated with easy access to deep space and to the lunar surface, as well as more distant destinations, such as near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Mars and its moons. Several approaches to utilizing a cis-lunar base camp for sustainable human exploration, as well as some possible future applications are identified. The primary objective of the analysis presented in this paper is to identify options, show the macro trends, and provide information that can be used as a basis for more detailed mission development. Compared within are the high-level performance and cost of 15 preliminary cis-lunar exploration campaigns that establish the capability to conduct crewed missions of up to one year in duration, and then aggregate mass in cis-lunar space to facilitate an expedition from Cis-Lunar Base Camp. Launch vehicles, chemical propulsion stages, and electric propulsion stages are discussed and parametric sizing values are used to create architectures of in-space transportation elements that extend the existing in-space supply chain to cis-lunar space. The transportation options to cis-lunar space assessed vary in efficiency by almost 50%; from 0.16 to 0.68 kg of cargo in cis-lunar space for every kilogram of mass in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). For the 15 cases, 5-year campaign

  9. Integrated lunar materials manufacturing process

    Gibson, Michael A. (Inventor); Knudsen, Christian W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A manufacturing plant and process for production of oxygen on the moon uses lunar minerals as feed and a minimum of earth-imported, process materials. Lunar feed stocks are hydrogen-reducible minerals, ilmenite and lunar agglutinates occurring in numerous, explored locations mixed with other minerals in the pulverized surface layer of lunar soil known as regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO.sub.3) and agglutinates contain ferrous (Fe.sup.+2) iron reducible by hydrogen to yield H.sub.2 O and metallic Fe at about 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. The H.sub.2 O is electrolyzed in gas phase to yield H.sub.2 for recycle and O.sub.2 for storage and use. Hydrogen losses to lunar vacuum are minimized, with no net hydrogen (or any other earth-derived reagent) consumption except for small leaks. Feed minerals are surface-mined by front shovels and transported in trucks to the processing area. The machines are manned or robotic. Ilmenite and agglutinates occur mixed with silicate minerals which are not hydrogen-reducible at 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. and consequently are separated and concentrated before feeding to the oxygen generation process. Solids rejected from the separation step and reduced solids from the oxygen process are returned to the mine area. The plant is powered by nuclear or solar power generators. Vapor-phase water electrolysis, a staged, countercurrent, fluidized bed reduction reactor and a radio-frequency-driven ceramic gas heater are used to improve thermal efficiency.

  10. Earth-based and Galileo SSI multispectral observations of eastern mare serenitatis and the Apollo 17 landing site

    Hiesinger, H.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    1993-01-01

    Both the Apollo 17 and the Mare Serenitatis region were observed by Galileo during its fly-by in December 1992. We used earth-based multispectral data to define mare units which then can be compared with the results of the Galileo SSI data evaluation.

  11. 33 CFR 334.1170 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; gunnery range, Naval Inshore Operations Training Center, Mare Island...

    2010-07-01

    ... range, Naval Inshore Operations Training Center, Mare Island, Vallejo. 334.1170 Section 334.1170... Operations Training Center, Mare Island, Vallejo. (a) The Danger Zone. A sector in San Pablo Bay delineated..., Vallejo, California, will conduct gunnery practice in the area during the period April 1 through September...

  12. The Processing of Lunar Penetrating Radar Channel-2B Data from Chang'E-3

    Zhu, P.; Zhao, N.; Yang, K.; Yuan, Y.; Guo, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) carried by Chang'E-3 has imaged the shallow subsurface of the landing site at the northern Mare Imbrium. The antenna B of the Channel-2 onboard the LPR (LPR Channel-2B) has collected more than 20000 traces of raw data. The raw LPR data could not be directly used for geological interpretation because of the operation mode of the LPR, noise and fast attenuation of radar wave. This study focuses data preprocessing and processing methods to obtain higher quality data. A section of usable LPR data of over 2000 traces is gained after the preprocessing of selecting, splicing, removing delay time and fine-correcting to raw data, but only a few shallow geological structures are visible. To further improve the resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio of the LPR data, we have processed the LPR data including amplitude compensation, filtering, and deconvolution processes based on electromagnetic wave theory. The processing results reveal that (1) the spherical spreading compensation and auto gain control enhance the amplitude of reflection echoes from deeper strata and make the geological structures more obvious, (2) the spiking deconvolution applied to narrow reflection events down makes it possible to identify thin layers with 30% improved resolution, and (3) the band-pass filtering removes the multiple reflections and, consequently, improves the signal-to-noise ratio of LPR data. The processing results will lay the foundation for the subsequent geological interpretation and physical property inversion of lunar materials.

  13. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, a Planning Tool for Missions to the Moon

    Keller, J. W.; Petro, N. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission was conceived as a one year exploration mission to pave the way for a return to the lunar surface, both robotically and by humans. After a year in orbit LRO transitioned to a science mission but has operated in a duel role of science and exploration ever since. Over the years LRO has compiled a wealth of data that can and is being used for planning future missions to the Moon by NASA, other national agencies and by private enterprises. While collecting this unique and unprecedented data set, LRO's science investigations have uncovered new questions that motivate new missions and targets. Examples include: when did volcanism on the Moon cease, motivating a sample return mission from an irregular mare patch such as Ina-D; or, is there significant water ice sequestered near the poles outside of the permanently shaded regions? In this presentation we will review the data products, tools and maps that are available for mission planning, discuss how the operating LRO mission can further enhance future missions, and suggest new targets motivated by LRO's scientific investigations.

  14. The effect of early handling of foals on their reaction to handling, humans and novelty, and the foal-mare relationship

    Søndergaard, Eva; Jago, J.

    2010-01-01

    at a mean age of 14 days. The approach and leave behaviour of mare-foal pairs were observed at pasture during week 5 to evaluate their relationship. Mares of H foals were less active in keeping the pair together than mares of C foals (GLM: F1,33 = 6.81; P 

  15. The cosmopolitan maternal heritage of the Thoroughbred racehorse breed shows a significant contribution from British and Irish native mares

    Bower, M. A.; Campana, M. G.; Whitten, M.; Edwards, C. J.; Jones, H.; Barrett, E.; Cassidy, R.; Nisbet, R. E. R.; Hill, E. W.; Howe, C. J.; Binns, M.

    2011-01-01

    The paternal origins of Thoroughbred racehorses trace back to a handful of Middle Eastern stallions, imported to the British Isles during the seventeenth century. Yet, few details of the foundation mares were recorded, in many cases not even their names (several different maternal lineages trace back to ‘A Royal Mare’). This has fuelled intense speculation over their origins. We examined mitochondrial DNA from 1929 horses to determine the origin of Thoroughbred foundation mares. There is no evidence to support exclusive Arab maternal origins as some historical records have suggested, or a significant importation of Oriental mares (the term used in historic records to refer to Middle East and western Asian breeds including Arab, Akhal-Teke, Barb and Caspian). Instead, we show that Thoroughbred foundation mares had a cosmopolitan European heritage with a far greater contribution from British and Irish Native mares than previously recognized. PMID:20926431

  16. Design and Construction of Manned Lunar Base

    Li, Zhijie

    2016-07-01

    Building manned lunar base is one of the core aims of human lunar exploration project, which is also an important way to carry out the exploitation and utilization of lunar in situ resources. The most important part of manned lunar base is the design and construction of living habitation and many factors should be considered including science objective and site selection. Through investigating and research, the scientific goals of manned lunar base should be status and characteristics ascertainment of lunar available in situ resources, then developing necessary scientific experiments and utilization of lunar in situ resources by using special environment conditions of lunar surface. The site selection strategy of manned lunar base should rely on scientific goals according to special lunar surface environment and engineering capacity constraints, meanwhile, consulting the landing sites of foreign unmanned and manned lunar exploration, and choosing different typical regions of lunar surface and analyzing the landform and physiognomy, reachability, thermal environment, sunlight condition, micro meteoroids protection and utilization of in situ resources, after these steps, a logical lunar living habitation site should be confirmed. This paper brings out and compares three kinds of configurations with fabricating processes of manned lunar base, including rigid module, flexible and construction module manned lunar base. 1.The rigid habitation module is usually made by metal materials. The design and fabrication may consult the experience of space station, hence with mature technique. Because this configuration cannot be folded or deployed, which not only afford limit working and living room for astronauts, but also needs repetitious cargo transit between earth and moon for lunar base extending. 2. The flexible module habitation can be folded in fairing while launching. When deploying on moon, the configuration can be inflatable or mechanically-deployed, which means under

  17. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MANAGERIAL COMPETENCIES BASED ON EVIDENCE FROM SATU MARE COUNTY, ROMANIA

    Olimpia Neagu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the managerial competencies of human resources in the companies from Satu Mare County, by comparing the employers' and employees' views. The comparison is based on data collected and processed within the project HURO/0901/264/2.2.2 implemented in partnership by "Vasile Goldiș" Western University and University of Debrecen and financed by European Union through ERDF under Hungary-Romania 2007-2013 Programme, in 2012, and on data collected and processed in 2013-2014, in a new field research applied to employees from Satu Mare county.

  18. LANDSLIDES INCIDENCE IN THE PIEDMONT OF BAIA MARE URBAN AREA (CASE STUDIES

    S. ZAHARIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The landslides incidence in the piedmont of baia mare urbana area cae studies. The General Urban Plan (GUP of Baia Mare municipality requires the study of expected susceptibility for landslides in order to build infrastructure within sustainable development conditions. The complexity and diversity of local geographic area factors, strongly affected by the human pressure, favours the triggering and extension of slope processes in the municipality’s piedmont area. To prevent some major imbalances it is imperative to implement some adequate measures based on in-depth studies.

  19. Tall-building development process in downtown Maringá-PR, Brazil

    José Roberto Machado

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the urbanization process taking place in the city of Maringá, in the context of the tallbuilding development at its main economic axis, the city center. This research aims to conduct an in-depth analysis of the role played by the housing industry in the development of tall buildings at downtown Maringá, the origin of the capital associated to such process, and the rationale for building them in Zone 1 (downtown. This is also analyzed considering local environmental information and infrastructural considerations involved in this process.

  20. Effect of β-carotene integration to Italian trotter mares in peripartum

    A. Falaschini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy trotter horses begin racing activity in the summer, two years after their birth year, so that the foals born in the first months of the year are better developed than those born in late spring-summer. As it is known, mares are characterised by an oestrus cyclic activity, which founds its best time in spring. The management of trotter mares tries to anticipate the foaling at first months of the year and therefore the next oestrus cycle, too...

  1. Where was the 1898 Mare Island Earthquake? Insights from the 2014 South Napa Earthquake

    Hough, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 South Napa earthquake provides an opportunity to reconsider the Mare Island earthquake of 31 March 1898, which caused severe damage to buildings at a Navy yard on the island. Revising archival accounts of the 1898 earthquake, I estimate a lower intensity magnitude, 5.8, than the value in the current Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF) catalog (6.4). However, I note that intensity magnitude can differ from Mw by upwards of half a unit depending on stress drop, which for a historical earthquake is unknowable. In the aftermath of the 2014 earthquake, there has been speculation that apparently severe effects on Mare Island in 1898 were due to the vulnerability of local structures. No surface rupture has ever been identified from the 1898 event, which is commonly associated with the Hayward-Rodgers Creek fault system, some 10 km west of Mare Island (e.g., Parsons et al., 2003). Reconsideration of detailed archival accounts of the 1898 earthquake, together with a comparison of the intensity distributions for the two earthquakes, points to genuinely severe, likely near-field ground motions on Mare Island. The 2014 earthquake did cause significant damage to older brick buildings on Mare Island, but the level of damage does not match the severity of documented damage in 1898. The high intensity files for the two earthquakes are more over spatially shifted, with the centroid of the 2014 distribution near the town of Napa and that of the 1898 distribution near Mare Island, east of the Hayward-Rodgers Creek system. I conclude that the 1898 Mare Island earthquake was centered on or near Mare Island, possibly involving rupture of one or both strands of the Franklin fault, a low-slip-rate fault sub-parallel to the Rodgers Creek fault to the west and the West Napa fault to the east. I estimate Mw5.8 assuming an average stress drop; data are also consistent with Mw6.4 if stress drop was a factor of ≈3 lower than average for California earthquakes. I

  2. Estrus, ovulation, and serum progesterone, estradiol, and LH concentrations in mares after an increased photoperiod during winter.

    Oxender, W D; Noden, P A; Hafs, H D

    1977-02-01

    On December 11, 1974, 15 seasonally anestrous mares were assigned at random to 1 of 3 experimental groups: outdoor-control, indoor-control, or indoor light-treated (a 16-hour photo-period). This experiment was terminated on April 21, 1975. The five mares in the indoor light-treated group ovulated 59.0+/-6.9 days later, which was 74 days earlier (P less than 0.01) than 2 of the 5 outdoor-controls (the other 3 ovulated after April 21 during a subsequent experiment) and 50 days earlier (P less than 0.05) than the indoor-controls. Durations of the 1st estrus for the 3 groups of mares were 13.3+/-3.6, 8.4+/-2.0, and 6.0+/-1.0 days for the indoor light-treated, indoor-control, and outdoor-control groups, respectively. The indoor light-treated mares averaged 4.2 estrous cycles before April 21, the indoor-control mares averaged 1.4 estrous cycles, and 2 of 5 outdoor-control mares ovulated 1 time during the experiment. The peripheral blood luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, and progesterone concentrations were minimal during winter anestrous. The hormone changes normally associated with estrous cycle activity in mares--maximal estradiol and luteinizing hormone concentrations near ovulation and maximal progesterone concentration during diestrus--were observed in all mares beginning at the 1st estrus. Hair loss was observed earlier in the light-treated mares, than in either of the other groups. In conclusion, a 16-hour photo-period initiated in early December for anestrous brood mares caused endocrinologically normal estrous cycles to begin within 2 months. This may allow breeding and foaling considerably earlier than normally expected.

  3. The ESA Lunar Lander and the search for Lunar Volatiles

    Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Waltham, N. R.; Waugh, L. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2011-10-01

    Following the Apollo era the moon was considered a volatile poor body. Samples collected from the Apollo missions contained only ppm levels of water formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the lunar regolith [1]. However more recent orbiter observations have indicated that water may exist as water ice in cold polar regions buried within craters at concentrations of a few wt. % [2]. Infrared images from M3 on Chandrayaan-1 have been interpreted as showing the presence of hydrated surface minerals with the ongoing hydroxyl/water process feeding cold polar traps. This has been supported by observation of ephemeral features termed "space dew" [3]. Meanwhile laboratory studies indicate that water could be present in appreciable quantities in lunar rocks [4] and could also have a cometary source [5]. The presence of sufficient quantities of volatiles could provide a resource which would simplify logistics for long term lunar missions. The European Space Agency (ESA's Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations) have provisionally scheduled a robotic mission to demonstrate key technologies to enable later human exploration. Planned for launch in 2018, the primary aim is for precise automated landing, with hazard avoidance, in zones which are almost constantly illuminated (e.g. at the edge of the Shackleton crater at the lunar south pole). These regions would enable the solar powered Lander to survive for long periods > 6 months, but require accurate navigation to within 200m. Although landing in an illuminated area, these regions are close to permanently shadowed volatile rich regions and the analysis of volatiles is a major science objective of the mission. The straw man payload includes provision for a Lunar Volatile and Resources Analysis Package (LVRAP). The authors have been commissioned by ESA to conduct an evaluation of possible technologies to be included in L-VRAP which can be included within the Lander payload. Scientific aims are to demonstrate the

  4. The Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) Paradigm Versus the Realities of Lunar Anorthosites

    Treiman, A. H.; Gross, J.

    2018-05-01

    The paradigm of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) is inconsistent with much chemical and compositional data on lunar anorthosites. The paradigm of serial anorthosite diapirism is more consistent, though not a panacea.

  5. Comparison between two ovulation-inducing drugs in mares

    Paula Cardoso de Almeida Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Silva P.C.A., Oliveira J.P., Sá M.A.F., Paiva S.O., Caram D.F., Junqueira R.G.C. & Jacob J.C.F. [Comparison between two ovulation-inducing drugs in mares.] Comparação entre dois agentes indutores da ovulação em éguas. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(Supl.2:45-48, 2016. Departamento de Reprodução e Avaliação Animal, Instituto de Zootecnia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR-465, Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: paulinha_calmeida@hotmail.com Hormonal control of the ovulation is an effective tool to improve reproductive performance and reduce costs in equine breeding programs. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of lower doses of hCG and Deslorelina than doses traditionally used, evaluating the follicular parameters and time between induction and ovulation. Induction of ovulation was performed according to the groups, 1000 IU of hCG (G1, 0.75mg of Deslorelin (G2, and 1.0ml of saline solution (G3. Twenty-four hours after administration, ovaries were evaluated by ultrasound every six hours until detection of ovulation.  The percentage of ovulation within 36 hours was 34.4%, 13.3% and 8.7%, and up to 42 hours was 96.9%, 70% and 17.4% for G1, G2 and G3, respectively, showing a significant increase (p ˂ 0.0001 in G1 compared to other groups. In G2 there was a significant increase (p ˂ 0.0001 of ovulation after 42 hours from the induction, and G3 after 48 hours. Until 48 hours the percentage of induction of ovulation was 96.8% (31/32 90% (27/30 and 30.4% (7/23, respectively, for G1, G2 and G3. Thus, the lower doses of ovulation-inducing drugs were effective in inducing ovulation within 48 hours, however hCG was faster than deslorelin, which might reduce costs and help the reproduction management.

  6. Lunar domes properties and formation processes

    Lena, Raffaello; Phillips, Jim; Chiocchetta, Maria Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Lunar domes are structures of volcanic origin which are usually difficult to observe due to their low heights. The Lunar Domes Handbook is a reference work on these elusive features. It provides a collection of images for a large number of lunar domes, including telescopic images acquired with advanced but still moderately intricate amateur equipment as well as recent orbital spacecraft images. Different methods for determining the morphometric properties of lunar domes (diameter, height, flank slope, edifice volume) from image data or orbital topographic data are discussed. Additionally, multispectral and hyperspectral image data are examined, providing insights into the composition of the dome material. Several classification schemes for lunar domes are described, including an approach based on the determined morphometric quantities and spectral analyses. Furthermore, the book provides a description of geophysical models of lunar domes, which yield information about the properties of the lava from which the...

  7. Lower-Cost, Relocatable Lunar Polar Lander and Lunar Surface Sample Return Probes

    Amato, G. Michael; Garvin, James B.; Burt, I. Joseph; Karpati, Gabe

    2011-01-01

    Key science and exploration objectives of lunar robotic precursor missions can be achieved with the Lunar Explorer (LEx) low-cost, robotic surface mission concept described herein. Selected elements of the LEx concept can also be used to create a lunar surface sample return mission that we have called Boomerang

  8. Infrared Lunar Laser Ranging at Calern : Impact on Lunar Dynamics

    Viswanathan, Vishnu; Fienga, Agnes; Manche, Herve; Gastineau, Mickael; Courde, Clement; Torre, Jean Marie; Exertier, Pierre; Laskar, Jacques

    2017-04-01

    Introduction: Since 2015, in addition to the traditional green (532nm), infrared (1064nm) has been the preferred wavelength for lunar laser ranging at the Calern lunar laser ranging (LLR) site in France. Due to the better atmospheric transmission of IR with respect to Green, nearly 3 times the number of normal points have been obtained in IR than in Green [1]. Dataset: In our study, in addition to the historical data obtained from various other LLR sites, we include the recent IR normal points obtained from Calern over the 1 year time span (2015-2016), constituting about 4.2% of data spread over 46 years of LLR. Near even distribution of data provided by IR on both the spatial and temporal domain, helps us to improve constraints on the internal structure of the Moon modeled within the planetary ephemeris : INPOP [2]. Data reduction: IERS recommended models have been used in the data reduction software GINS (GRGS,CNES) [3]. Constraints provided by GRAIL [4], on the Lunar gravitational potential and Love numbers have been taken into account in the least-square fit procedure. Earth orientation parameters from KEOF series have been used as per a recent study [5]. Results: New estimates on the dynamical parameters of the lunar core will be presented. Acknowledgements: We thank the lunar laser ranging observers at Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France, McDonald Observatory, Texas, Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii, and Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico for providing LLR observations that made this study possible. The research described in this abstract was carried out at Geoazur-CNRS, France, as a part of a PhD thesis funded by Observatoire de Paris and French Ministry of Education and Research. References: [1] Clement C. et al. (2016) submitted to A&A [2] Fienga A. et al. (2015) Celest Mech Dyn Astr, 123: 325. doi:10.1007/s10569-015-9639-y [3] Viswanathan V. et al. (2015) EGU, Abstract 18, 13995 [4] Konopliv A. S. et al. (2013) J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 118, 1415

  9. Energy for lunar resource exploitation

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1992-02-01

    Humanity stands at the threshold of exploiting the known lunar resources that have opened up with the access to space. America's role in the future exploitation of space, and specifically of lunar resources, may well determine the level of achievement in technology development and global economic competition. Space activities during the coming decades will significantly influence the events on Earth. The 'shifting of history's tectonic plates' is a process that will be hastened by the increasingly insistent demands for higher living standards of the exponentially growing global population. Key to the achievement of a peaceful world in the 21st century, will be the development of a mix of energy resources at a societally acceptable and affordable cost within a realistic planning horizon. This must be the theme for the globally applicable energy sources that are compatible with the Earth's ecology. It is in this context that lunar resources development should be a primary goal for science missions to the Moon, and for establishing an expanding human presence. The economic viability and commercial business potential of mining, extracting, manufacturing, and transporting lunar resource based materials to Earth, Earth orbits, and to undertake macroengineering projects on the Moon remains to be demonstrated. These extensive activities will be supportive of the realization of the potential of space energy sources for use on Earth. These may include generating electricity for use on Earth based on beaming power from Earth orbits and from the Moon to the Earth, and for the production of helium 3 as a fuel for advanced fusion reactors.

  10. Production of Synthetic Lunar Simulants, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Zybek Advanced Products has proven the ability to produce industrial quantities of lunar simulant materials, including glass, agglutinate and melt breccias. These...

  11. Tomographic location of potential melt-bearing phenocrysts in lunar glass spherules

    Ebel, D.S.; Fogel, R.A.; Rivers, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Apollo 17 orange glass spherules contain olivine phenocrysts with melt inclusions from depth. Tomography ( 200 spherules located 1 phenocryst. We will try to find melt inclusions and obtain original magma volatiles and compositions. In 1971, Apollo 17 astronauts collected a 10 cm soil sample (74220) comprised almost entirely of orange glass spherules. Below this, a double drive-tube core sampled a 68 cm thick horizon comprised of orange glass and black beads (crystallized equivalents of orange glass). Primitive lunar glass spherules (e.g.-A17 orange glasses) are thought to represent ejecta from lunar mare fire fountains. The fire-fountains were apparently driven by a combination of C-O gas exsolution from orange glass melt and the oxidation of graphite. Upon eruption, magmas lost their volatiles (e.g., S, CO, CO 2 ) to space. Evidence for volatile escape remains as volatile-rich coatings on the exteriors of many spherules. Moreover, it showed that Type I and II Fe-Ni-rich metal particles found within orange glass olivine phenocrysts, or free-floating in the glass itself, are powerful evidence for the volatile driving force for lunar fire fountains. More direct evidence for the volatile mechanism has yet to be uncovered. Issues remaining include: the exact composition of magmatic volatiles; the hypothesized existence of graphite in the magma; the oxygen fugacity of the magma and of the lunar interior. In 1996 reported a single ∼450 micron, equant olivine phenocryst, containing four glassy melt inclusions (or inclusion cores), the largest ∼30micron in size, in a thin section of the 74001/2 drill core. The melt is assumed to sample the parent magma of the lunar basalts at depth, evidenced by the S content of the inclusion (600 ppm) which is 400 ppm greater than that of the orange glass host. Such melts potentially contain a full complement of the volatile components of the parent magma, which can be analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. Although the A17 orange glass

  12. Development of a lunar infrastructure

    Burke, J. D.

    If humans are to reside continuously and productively on the Moon, they must be surrounded and supported there by an infrastructure having some attributes of the support systems that have made advanced civilization possible on Earth. Building this lunar infrastructure will, in a sense, be an investment. Creating it will require large resources from Earth, but once it exists it can do much to limit the further demands of a lunar base for Earthside support. What is needed for a viable lunar infrastructure? This question can be approached from two directions. The first is to examine history, which is essentially a record of growing information structures among humans on Earth (tribes, agriculture, specialization of work, education, ethics, arts and sciences, cities and states, technology). The second approach is much less secure but may provide useful insights: it is to examine the minimal needs of a small human community - not just for physical survival but for a stable existence with a net product output. This paper presents a summary, based on present knowledge of the Moon and of the likely functions of a human community there, of some of these infrastructure requirements, and also discusses possible ways to proceed toward meeting early infrastructure needs.

  13. Lunar feldspathic meteorites: Constraints on the geology of the lunar highlands, and the origin of the lunar crust

    Gross, Juliane; Treiman, Allan H.; Mercer, Celestine N.

    2014-02-01

    The composition of the lunar crust provides clues about the processes that formed it and hence contains information on the origin and evolution of the Moon. Current understanding of lunar evolution is built on the Lunar Magma Ocean hypothesis that early in its history, the Moon was wholly or mostly molten. This hypothesis is based on analyses of Apollo samples of ferroan anorthosites (>90% plagioclase; molar Mg/(Mg+Fe)=Mg#Moon's surface, and remote sensing data, show that ferroan anorthosites are not globally distributed and that the Apollo highland samples, used as a basis for the model, are influenced by ejecta from the Imbrium basin. In this study we evaluate anorthosites from all currently available adequately described lunar highland meteorites, representing a more widespread sampling of the lunar highlands than Apollo samples alone, and find that ∼80% of them are significantly more magnesian than Apollo ferroan anorthosites. Interestingly, Luna mission anorthosites, collected outside the continuous Imbrium ejecta, are also highly magnesian. If the lunar highland crust consists dominantly of magnesian anorthosites, as suggested by their abundance in samples sourced outside Imbrium ejecta, a reevaluation of the Lunar Magma Ocean model is a sensible step forward in the endeavor to understand lunar evolution. Our results demonstrate that lunar anorthosites are more similar in their chemical trends and mineral abundance to terrestrial massif anorthosites than to anorthosites predicted in a Lunar Magma Ocean. This analysis does not invalidate the idea of a Lunar Magma Ocean, which seems a necessity under the giant impact hypothesis for the origin of the moon. However, it does indicate that most rocks now seen at the Moon's surface are not primary products of a magma ocean alone, but are products of more complex crustal processes.

  14. Considerations on the extreme flood produced in Ral Mare Basin (Retezat Mountains, Romania)

    Barbuc, Mihai

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to illustrate the major impact of an extreme flood on the landscape, on the upper basin of Raul Mare, from Retezat Mountains, Romania, and what means 'hazardous phenomenon'. Romania is one of the European countries most severely affected by natural hazards, which have a big social and economic impact. Between them, floods are the very frequent and have one of the most important effects on settlements, agriculture and communications. Raul mare has three main sources: Lapusnicul Mare, Lapusnicul Mic and Raul Ses. Its springs from glacier lakes, at high altitude, over 2000 m, and have torrential and narrow valleys. In present, their conflence, at Gura Apelor, is covered by an anthropic lake, formed behind of a great dam, 173 m high. This dam had a major role to attenuate and to fail to control the extreme flood from July 1990 and, at the same time, to reduce significantly, the damages in Hateg depression, a low area with many settlements and economic objectives. Behind of the Gura Apelor kake, the Lapusnicul Mare and Mic valleys, the flush flood covered the whole channel, the effects on the landscape-devastating, and the flood probability, between 0,1 -0,1 %. The maps, graphics and pictures presented in this paper will emphasize the situation before and after the event. Furthermore, some standard forms used to be filled in by authorities for immediate and unitary recording of extreme phenomena are presented.(Author)

  15. The mare as a model for luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome : intrafollicular endocrine milieu

    Bashir, S T; Gastal, M O; Tazawa, S P; Tarso, S G S; Hales, D B; Cuervo-Arango, J; Baerwald, A R; Gastal, E L

    2016-01-01

    Luteinized unruptured follicle (LUF) syndrome is a recurrent anovulatory dysfunction that affects up to 23% of women with normal menstrual cycles and up to 73% with endometriosis. Mechanisms underlying the development of LUF syndrome in mares were studied to provide a potential model for human

  16. In vitro screening of mare's milk antimicrobial effect and antiproliverative activity.

    Guri, Anilda; Paligot, Michele; Crèvecoeur, Sebastien; Piedboeuf, Benoit; Claes, Jonathan; Daube, Georges; Corredig, Milena; Griffiths, M W; Delcenserie, Veronique

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the effect of mare's milk on virulence gene expression of Salmonella Typhimurium and observe its potential activity on proliferation of adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. Different supernatants of mare's milk, raw or heat-treated at 65°C for 15 s or 30 min, were studied. The changes in hilA gene expression of Salmonella Typhimurium in presence of mare's milk supernatants were assessed using a reporter luminescent strain. A significant decrease in hilA gene expression was observed with all tested supernatants. Virulence gene expression was then assessed using qPCR on a wild-type strain of Salmonella Typhimurium. A significant decrease of hilA and ssrB2 gene expression was observed with raw milk supernatants but not with heat-treated supernatants. The same supernatants were administered to Caco-2 cells to measure their proliferation rate. A significant reduction of proliferative effect was observed only with raw milk supernatants. This study reports that raw mare's milk was able to modulate virulence gene expression of Salmonella Typhimurium and exerts antiproliferative effects on Caco-2 cells. These results may offer new approaches for promoting gastrointestinal health. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Towards a typology of the mares sandstone of Mallorca Concept, characterization and stratigraphy

    Mas Gornals, C.

    2017-01-01

    The mares sandstone has traditionally been the most representative and characteristic building stone on the island of Mallorca, used practically exclusively as construction material for centuries, since the abandonment of stone-and-mortar walls, until its progressive disuse with the appearance of the re-enforced concrete, which finally eclipsed its use. Such emblematic buildings for the island, as Bellver Castle, the Cathedral, La Lonja or the old city walls of Palma, bear witness to this. In Mallorca, the mares sandstone is quarried in the open air or in subterranean galleries. Vernacular architecture has always used the most accessible appropriate materials, and in the case of the mares sandstone, its abundance, sufficient softness, which facilitates its extraction, Together with sufficient hardness to confer solidity and durability in constructions, converge. The lack of specific scientific and geological data published about the different types of mares in Mallorca, added to the recent resurgence of technical, applied and landscape interest in this stone, have made a revision of its definition, characterization and classification necessary. [es

  18. Green glass vitrophyre 78526 - An impact of very low-Ti mare basalt composition

    Warner, R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Kiel, K.; Planner, H. H.; Nehru, C. E.; Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Rake sample 78526 is an 8.77 g rock consisting primarily of vitrophyric pale green glass with subordinate mineral and lithic relics. Petrographic and compositional evidence leads to the following conclusions: (1) the bulk composition represents that of a mixture formed by impact melting of at least two different textural and compositional varieties of VLT mare basalt that are now present in the rock as lithic relics and a poorly defined low-Ti mare basalt component observed in thin section only in the form of isolated mineral relics; (2) the admixed VLT mare basalts had REE abundances lower than those found in other mare basalts (but probably higher than emerald green glass) and REE patterns showing significant enrichment of the heavy relative to light REE's, suggesting that they were derived by comparatively high degrees of partial melting of a clinopyroxene-rich source region; and (3) the impact melt supercooled to produce the vitrophyre, with rather sharply contrasting textural domains present in the vitrophyre resulting from differences in nucleation kinetics and degrees of supercooling in various portions of the sample.

  19. Ei sinistele esmaspäevadele!!! / Piret Jamnes, Marju Unt, Mare Teichmann, Eva Palu

    2010-01-01

    Personaliotsingufirma Fontes partner ja konsultant Piret Jamnes, Estonian Euromanagement Institute'i direktor Marju Unt, kommunikatsioonibüroo JLS PR-konsultant Eva Palu ja TTÜ psühholoogiaprofessor Mare Teichmann ideedest, mis aitavad tööst rohkem rõõmu tunda

  20. Heavy metals pollution influences the soil of Baia Mare city Roumania

    Dumitrescu, L.; Petrescu, L.; Stanescu, L.F.; Bilal, E.

    2010-01-01

    For a connection between the environment close by industrial area and residential area; where the consequences heavy metal pollution are more acute, we had drawn samples inside Romplumb S.A. factory in Baia Mare city (Romania), the main heavy metal pollution agent, close by this factory, cross roads, areas close by parks and areas far off the main pollution agent. These samples had drawn both on the surface soil and 15 cm depth. In this subchapter we will present the analyses types and the results of these analyses taking into account the chemistry composition of drawing samples. A half of each sample was crushed very fine for ICP, XRF. From uncrushed half a part was crushed at 2 accordance with ICP results and these distributions on maps, we can see that the biggest heavy metals amount is in N-E of Baia Mare (zone I) due to the main pollution factor, Romplumb S.A... The pollution for zone II is not as big as zone I. Heavy metals in this zone are due to emission released by Romplumb S.A. and Phonix S.A. which are carry by air and due to the cross roads. The high amount of heavy metal from Baia Mare soils affects more and more people health. Health Direction Baia Mare made a lot of investigation on Baia Mare Soil. The results of these investigations are: - The hope life is smaller with 2,2 years than usual - Mortality is bigger with 10-15% than usual - Avitaminoza D*2 is 65-95% - Metabolism diseases due to Pb are frequent with 40-60%

  1. Neutrophil extracellular traps formation by bacteria causing endometritis in the mare.

    Rebordão, M R; Carneiro, C; Alexandre-Pires, G; Brito, P; Pereira, C; Nunes, T; Galvão, A; Leitão, A; Vilela, C; Ferreira-Dias, G

    2014-12-01

    Besides the classical functions, neutrophils (PMNs) are able to release DNA in response to infectious stimuli, forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and killing pathogens. The pathogenesis of endometritis in the mare is not completely understood. The aim was to evaluate the in vitro capacity of equine PMNs to secrete NETs by chemical activation, or stimulated with Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (Szoo), Escherichia coli (Ecoli) or Staphylococcus capitis (Scap) strains obtained from mares with endometritis. Ex vivo endometrial mucus from mares with bacterial endometritis were evaluated for the presence of NETs. Equine blood PMNs were used either without or with stimulation by phorbol-myristate-acetate (PMA), a strong inducer of NETs, for 1-3h. To evaluate PMN ability to produce NETs when phagocytosis was impaired, the phagocytosis inhibitor cytochalasin (Cyt) was added after PMA. After the addition of bacteria, a subsequent 1-h incubation was carried out in seven groups. NETs were visualized by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and anti-histone. Ex vivo samples were immunostained for myeloperoxidase and neutrophil elastase. A 3-h incubation period of PMN + PMA increased NETs (p Ecoli or Scap (p < 0.05). Ex vivo NETs were present in mares with endometritis. Scanning electron microscopy showed the spread of NETs formed by smooth fibers and globules that can be aggregated in thick bundles. Formation of NETs and the subsequent entanglement of bacteria suggest that equine NETs might be a complementary mechanism in fighting some of the bacteria causing endometritis in the mare. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Echo simulation of lunar penetrating radar: based on a model of inhomogeneous multilayer lunar regolith structure

    Dai Shun; Su Yan; Xiao Yuan; Feng Jian-Qing; Xing Shu-Guo; Ding Chun-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) based on the time domain Ultra-Wideband (UWB) technique onboard China's Chang'e-3 (CE-3) rover, has the goal of investigating the lunar subsurface structure and detecting the depth of lunar regolith. An inhomogeneous multi-layer microwave transfer inverse-model is established. The dielectric constant of the lunar regolith, the velocity of propagation, the reflection, refraction and transmission at interfaces, and the resolution are discussed. The model is further used to numerically simulate and analyze temporal variations in the echo obtained from the LPR attached on CE-3's rover, to reveal the location and structure of lunar regolith. The thickness of the lunar regolith is calculated by a comparison between the simulated radar B-scan images based on the model and the detected result taken from the CE-3 lunar mission. The potential scientific return from LPR echoes taken from the landing region is also discussed

  3. Echo simulation of lunar penetrating radar: based on a model of inhomogeneous multilayer lunar regolith structure

    Dai, Shun; Su, Yan; Xiao, Yuan; Feng, Jian-Qing; Xing, Shu-Guo; Ding, Chun-Yu

    2014-12-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) based on the time domain Ultra-Wideband (UWB) technique onboard China's Chang'e-3 (CE-3) rover, has the goal of investigating the lunar subsurface structure and detecting the depth of lunar regolith. An inhomogeneous multi-layer microwave transfer inverse-model is established. The dielectric constant of the lunar regolith, the velocity of propagation, the reflection, refraction and transmission at interfaces, and the resolution are discussed. The model is further used to numerically simulate and analyze temporal variations in the echo obtained from the LPR attached on CE-3's rover, to reveal the location and structure of lunar regolith. The thickness of the lunar regolith is calculated by a comparison between the simulated radar B-scan images based on the model and the detected result taken from the CE-3 lunar mission. The potential scientific return from LPR echoes taken from the landing region is also discussed.

  4. Analytical, Experimental, and Modelling Studies of Lunar and Terrestrial Rocks

    Haskin, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of our research has been to understand the paths and the processes of planetary evolution that produced planetary surface materials as we find them. Most of our work has been on lunar materials and processes. We have done studies that obtain geological knowledge from detailed examination of regolith materials and we have reported implications for future sample-collecting and on-surface robotic sensing missions. Our approach has been to study a suite of materials that we have chosen in order to answer specific geologic questions. We continue this work under NAG5-4172. The foundation of our work has been the study of materials with precise chemical and petrographic analyses, emphasizing analysis for trace chemical elements. We have used quantitative models as tests to account for the chemical compositions and mineralogical properties of the materials in terms of regolith processes and igneous processes. We have done experiments as needed to provide values for geochemical parameters used in the models. Our models take explicitly into account the physical as well as the chemical processes that produced or modified the materials. Our approach to planetary geoscience owes much to our experience in terrestrial geoscience, where samples can be collected in field context and sampling sites revisited if necessary. Through studies of terrestrial analog materials, we have tested our ideas about the origins of lunar materials. We have been mainly concerned with the materials of the lunar highland regolith, their properties, their modes of origin, their provenance, and how to extrapolate from their characteristics to learn about the origin and evolution of the Moon's early igneous crust. From this work a modified model for the Moon's structure and evolution is emerging, one of globally asymmetric differentiation of the crust and mantle to produce a crust consisting mainly of ferroan and magnesian igneous rocks containing on average 70-80% plagioclase, with a large

  5. Man-Made Debris In and From Lunar Orbit

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    During 1966-1976, as part of the first phase of lunar exploration, 29 manned and robotic missions placed more than 40 objects into lunar orbit. Whereas several vehicles later successfully landed on the Moon and/or returned to Earth, others were either abandoned in orbit or intentionally sent to their destruction on the lunar surface. The former now constitute a small population of lunar orbital debris; the latter, including four Lunar Orbiters and four Lunar Module ascent stages, have contributed to nearly 50 lunar sites of man's refuse. Other lunar satellites are known or suspected of having fallen from orbit. Unlike Earth satellite orbital decays and deorbits, lunar satellites impact the lunar surface unscathed by atmospheric burning or melting. Fragmentations of lunar satellites, which would produce clouds of numerous orbital debris, have not yet been detected. The return to lunar orbit in the 1990's by the Hagoromo, Hiten, Clementine, and Lunar Prospector spacecraft and plans for increased lunar exploration early in the 21st century, raise questions of how best to minimize and to dispose of lunar orbital debris. Some of the lessons learned from more than 40 years of Earth orbit exploitation can be applied to the lunar orbital environment. For the near-term, perhaps the most important of these is postmission passivation. Unique solutions, e.g., lunar equatorial dumps, may also prove attractive. However, as with Earth satellites, debris mitigation measures are most effectively adopted early in the concept and design phase, and prevention is less costly than remediation.

  6. NASA Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program

    Foxworth, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program is designed for K-12 classroom educators who work in K-12 schools, museums, libraries, or planetariums. Educators have to be certified to borrow the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disks by attending a NASA Certification Workshop provided by a NASA Authorized Sample Disk Certifier.

  7. Low temperature thermophysical properties of lunar soil

    Cremers, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of lunar fines samples from the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 missions, determined at low temperatures as a function of temperature and various densities, are reviewed. It is shown that the thermal conductivity of lunar soil is nearly the same as that of terrestrial basaltic rock under the same temperature and pressure conditions.

  8. Lunar landing and launch facilities and operations

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary design of a lunar landing and launch facility for a Phase 3 lunar base is formulated. A single multipurpose vehicle for the lunar module is assumed. Three traffic levels are envisioned: 6, 12, and 24 landings/launches per year. The facility is broken down into nine major design items. A conceptual description of each of these items is included. Preliminary sizes, capacities, and/or other relevant design data for some of these items are obtained. A quonset hut tent-like structure constructed of aluminum rods and aluminized mylar panels is proposed. This structure is used to provide a constant thermal environment for the lunar modules. A structural design and thermal analysis is presented. Two independent designs for a bridge crane to unload/load heavy cargo from the lunar module are included. Preliminary investigations into cryogenic propellant storage and handling, landing/launch guidance and control, and lunar module maintenance requirements are performed. Also, an initial study into advanced concepts for application to Phase 4 or 5 lunar bases has been completed in a report on capturing, condensing, and recycling the exhaust plume from a lunar launch.

  9. Krypton and xenon in lunar fines

    Basford, J. R.; Dragon, J. C.; Pepin, R. O.; Coscio, M. R., Jr.; Murthy, V. R.

    1973-01-01

    Data from grain-size separates, stepwise-heated fractions, and bulk analyses of 20 samples of fines and breccias from five lunar sites are used to define three-isotope and ordinate intercept correlations in an attempt to resolve the lunar heavy rare gas system in a statistically valid approach. Tables of concentrations and isotope compositions are given.

  10. Lunar ranging instrument for Chandrayaan-1

    ... Committee on Scientific Values · Project Lifescape · Scientific Data of Public Interest ... Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument (LLRI)proposed for the first Indian lunar ... field by precisely measuring the altitude from a polar orbit around the Moon. ... Laboratory for Electro-Optics Systems, Indian Space Research Organization ...

  11. Armstrong practices in Lunar Module simulator

    1969-01-01

    Neil A. Armstrong, Commander for the Apollo 11 Moon-landing mission, practices for the historic event in a Lunar Module simulator in the Flight Crew Training building at KSC. Accompanying Armstrong on the Moon flight will be Command Module Pilot Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin Jr.

  12. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries

    Allen, Jaclyn; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo samples and meteorites first hand. Lunar rocks and soil, embedded in Lucite disks, are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks reveals the early history of our Earth-Moon system and meteorites reveal much of the history of the early solar system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet and solar system and the basic processes accretion, differentiation, impact and volcanism. With these samples, educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by many NASA planetary missions. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the

  13. Rover exploration on the lunar surface; a science proposal for SELENE-B mission

    Sasaki, S.; Kubota, T.; Akiyama, H.; Hirata, N.; Kunii, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Okada, T.; Otake, M.; Saiki, K.; Sugihara, T.

    LUNARSURFACE:ASCIENCES. Sasaki (1), T. Kubota (2) , H. Akiyama (1) , N. Hirata (3), Y. Kunii (4), K. Matsumoto (5), T. Okada (2), M. Otake (3), K. Saiki (6), T. Sugihara (3) (1) Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Univ. Tokyo, (2) Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences, (3) National Space Development Agency of Japan, (4) Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Chuo Univ., (5) National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan, (6) Research Institute of Materials and Resources, Akita Univ. sho@eps.s.u -tokyo.ac.jp/Fax:+81-3-5841-4569 A new lunar landing mission (SELENE-B) is now in consideration in Japan. Scientific investigation plans using a rover are proposed. To clarify the origin and evolution of the moon, the early crustal formation and later mare volcanic processes are still unveiled. We proposed two geological investigation plans: exploration of a crater central peak to discover subsurface materials and exploration of dome-cone structures on young mare region. We propose multi-band macro/micro camera using AOTF, X-ray spectrometer/diffractometer and gamma ray spectrometer. Since observation of rock fragments in brecciaed rocks is necessary, the rover should have cutting or scraping mechanism of rocks. In our current scenario, landing should be performed about 500m from the main target (foot of a crater central peak or a cone/dome). After the spectral survey by multi-band camera on the lander, the rover should be deployed for geological investigation. The rover should make a short (a few tens meter) round trip at first, then it should perform traverse observation toward the main target. Some technological investigations on SELENE-B project will be also presented.

  14. The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. IV. Serum progestagen, FSH, LH and melatonin concentrations during the anovulatory, transitional and ovulatory periods in the non-pregnant mare

    F.E. Van Niekerk

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of total protein intake and protein quality on the serum concentrations of certain reproductive hormones during the anovulatory, transitional and ovulatory periods were studied in 36 Anglo-Arab mares. High-quality protein stimulated FSH and LH production during the late transitional period. Serum progestagen and melatonin concentrations were unaffected by the quality of protein nutrition during the anovulatory period. Mares receiving high-quality protein exhibited a 10-14-day cyclical pattern of FSH release approximately 4-6 weeks earlier than the mares fed the lower-quality protein diet, and also ovulated 3-4 weeks earlier than the mares on the lower-quality protein diet. Progesterone concentrations during the 1st oestrous cycle after the anovulatory period were unaffected by protein quality in the diet.

  15. Lunar surface fission power supplies: Radiation issues

    Houts, M.G.; Lee, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    A lunar space fission power supply shield that uses a combination of lunar regolith and materials brought from earth may be optimal for early lunar outposts and bases. This type of shield can be designed such that the fission power supply does not have to be moved from its landing configuration, minimizing handling and required equipment on the lunar surface. Mechanisms for removing heat from the lunar regolith are built into the shield, and can be tested on earth. Regolith activation is greatly reduced compared with a shield that uses only regolith, and it is possible to keep the thermal conditions of the fission power supply close to these seen in free space. For a well designed shield, the additional mass required to be brought fro earth should be less than 1000 kg. Detailed radiation transport calculations confirm the feasibility of such a shield

  16. Lunar surface fission power supplies: Radiation issues

    Houts, M.G.; Lee, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    A lunar space fission power supply shield that uses a combination of lunar regolith and materials brought from earth may be optimal for early lunar outposts and bases. This type of shield can be designed such that the fission power supply does not have to be moved from its landing configuration, minimizing handling and required equipment on the lunar surface. Mechanisms for removing heat from the lunar regolith are built into the shield, and can be tested on earth. Regolith activation is greatly reduced compared with a shield that uses only regolith, and it is possible to keep the thermal conditions of the fission power supply close to those seen in free space. For a well designed shield, the additional mass required to be brought from earth should be less than 1,000 kg. Detailed radiation transport calculations confirm the feasibility of such a shield

  17. Lunar nitrogen: Secular variation or mixing?

    Norris, S.J.; Wright, I.P.; Pillinger, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    The two current models to explain the nearly 40% variation of the lunar nitrogen isotopic composition are: (1) secular variation of solar wind nitrogen; and (2) a two component mixing model having a constant, heavy solar wind admixed with varying amounts of indigenous light lunar N (LLN). Both models are needed to explain the step pyrolysis extraction profile. The secular variation model proposes that the low temperature release is modern day solar wind implanted into grain surfaces, the 900 C to 1100 C release is from grain surfaces which were once exposed to the ancient solar wind but which are now trapped inside agglutinates, and the >1100 C release as spallogenic N produced by cosmic rays. The mixing model ascribes the components to solar wind, indigenous lunar N and spallogenic N respectively. An extension of either interpretation is that the light N seen in lunar breccias or deep drill cores represent conditions when more N-14 was available to the lunar surface

  18. APOLLO 10 ASTRONAUT ENTERS LUNAR MODULE SIMULATOR

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 10 lunar module pilot Eugene A. Cernan prepares to enter the lunar module simulator at the Flight Crew Training Building at the NASA Spaceport. Cernan, Apollo 10 commander Thomas P. Stafford and John W. Young, command module pilot, are to be launched May 18 on the Apollo 10 mission, a dress rehearsal for a lunar landing later this summer. Cernan and Stafford are to detach the lunar module and drop to within 10 miles of the moon's surface before rejoining Young in the command/service module. Looking on as Cernan puts on his soft helmet is Snoopy, the lovable cartoon mutt whose name will be the lunar module code name during the Apollo 10 flight. The command/service module is to bear the code name Charlie Brown.

  19. Lunar soil as shielding against space radiation

    Miller, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 83R0101, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: miller@lbl.gov; Taylor, L. [Planetary Geosciences Institute, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Zeitlin, C. [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Heilbronn, L. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Guetersloh, S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); DiGiuseppe, M. [Northrop Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, NY 11714 (United States); Iwata, Y.; Murakami, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    We have measured the radiation transport and dose reduction properties of lunar soil with respect to selected heavy ion beams with charges and energies comparable to some components of the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), using soil samples returned by the Apollo missions and several types of synthetic soil glasses and lunar soil simulants. The suitability for shielding studies of synthetic soil and soil simulants as surrogates for lunar soil was established, and the energy deposition as a function of depth for a particular heavy ion beam passing through a new type of lunar highland simulant was measured. A fragmentation and energy loss model was used to extend the results over a range of heavy ion charges and energies, including protons at solar particle event (SPE) energies. The measurements and model calculations indicate that a modest amount of lunar soil affords substantial protection against primary GCR nuclei and SPE, with only modest residual dose from surviving charged fragments of the heavy beams.

  20. Uterine involution in colombian fine pace mares, measured by ultrasonography and endometrial cytology

    Germán Ramírez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, there still exists a controversial issue, as to the high incidence of early embryonic death in mares, mated on the first post partum oestrus. The purpose of this study was first, to determine the post partum period of uterine involution in fine pace Colombian mares using endometrial cytology and ultra sonograph. Secondly, to determine the relation between the neutrophil percentages found in cytology and the echogenicity of accumulated intrauterine fluid during the first 30 post partum days. Twenty (n=20 mares were examined beginning on the 6th post partum day and on alternate days, up to the 30th day. All subjects were grazing Kikuyo grass (Pennisetum clandestinum at la Sabana de Bogotá, 2.600 meters over sea level, 4 º north latitude and with an average temperature of 13 º C. From the 3rd postpartum day, all 20 mares were exposed to 2 healthy stallions, to establish their heat behaviour. Ten of them, following complete randomization, were inseminated on the first postpartum heat, while the others were inseminated on the second post partum heat. Genital examination was carried out by a technician, who did not know the reproductive history of any of the experimental mares. Examinations included rectal palpation, ultra sonograph (Pie Medical 480, linear array, 5 MHz, vaginal swabs and endometrial cytology. Uterine dimension was recorded by rectal palpation and ultra sonograph, it was included the uterine horn dimensions (tip, middle, and corporo-cornual junction of previously gravid and non gravid uterus. Intrauterine fluid detection was performed by the use of an echogenicity scale. Ovaric structures were recorded (preovulatory follicles and ovulation. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed on day 15 post ovulation and then confirmed on day 40. Endometrial cytology samples were taken from uterus after the perineal area was disinfected using non covered isopos with a Pollanski speculum. Smears specimens were fixed with metil alcohol for 15

  1. Perioperative risk factors for mortality and length of hospitalization in mares with dystocia undergoing general anesthesia: A retrospective study

    Rioja, Eva; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Costa, Maria Carolina; Valverde, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated associations between perioperative factors and probability of death and length of hospitalization of mares with dystocia that survived following general anesthesia. Demographics and perioperative characteristics from 65 mares were reviewed retrospectively and used in a risk factor analysis. Mortality rate was 21.5% during the first 24 h post-anesthesia. The mean ± standard deviation number of days of hospitalization of surviving mares was 6.3 ± 5.4 d. Several factors were found in the univariable analysis to be significantly associated (P dystocia, intraoperative hypotension, and drugs used during recovery. Type of delivery and day of the week the surgery was performed were significantly associated with length of hospitalization in the multivariable mixed effects model. The study identified some risk factors that may allow clinicians to better estimate the probability of mortality and morbidity in these mares. PMID:23115362

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides 406 Isolated from the Traditional Fermented Mare Milk Airag in Tuv Aimag, Mongolia

    Morita, Hidetoshi; Toh, Hidehiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Nakano, Akiyo; Hano, Chihiro; Yoshida, Saki; Nguyen, Tien Thi Thuy; Wulijideligen,; Tashiro, Kosuke; Arakawa, Kensuke; Miyamoto, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Leuconostoc mesenteroides 406 was isolated from the traditional fermented mare milk airag in Tuv Aimag, Mongolia. This strain produces an antilisterial bacteriocin. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this organism.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides 406 Isolated from the Traditional Fermented Mare Milk Airag in Tuv Aimag, Mongolia.

    Morita, Hidetoshi; Toh, Hidehiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Nakano, Akiyo; Hano, Chihiro; Yoshida, Saki; Nguyen, Tien Thi Thuy; Wulijideligen; Tashiro, Kosuke; Arakawa, Kensuke; Miyamoto, Taku

    2016-03-24

    Leuconostoc mesenteroides406 was isolated from the traditional fermented mare milk airag in Tuv Aimag, Mongolia. This strain produces an antilisterial bacteriocin. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this organism. Copyright © 2016 Morita et al.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides 213M0, Isolated from Traditional Fermented Mare Milk Airag in Bulgan Aimag, Mongolia

    Morita, Hidetoshi; Toh, Hidehiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Nakano, Akiyo; Hano, Chihiro; Yoshida, Saki; Bolormaa, Tsognemekh; Burenjargal, Sedkhuu; Nguyen, Co Thi Kim; Tashiro, Kosuke; Arakawa, Kensuke; Miyamoto, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Leuconostoc mesenteroides 213M0 was isolated from traditional fermented mare milk airag in Bulgan Aimag, Mongolia. This strain produces a listericidal bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this organism.

  5. Immunoassay of sexual steroids for fertility control in cows, sows and mares. Part 1

    Han Sun Choi

    1987-01-01

    The immunological determination of oestrogens in faeces as a method of pregnancy diagnosis in cows, sows and mares, and the stability of oestrogens in faeces was tested. During 8 days storage at -20 0 to +37 0 C the concentration of oestrogen in faeces was not significantly influenced. During 2 oestrous cycles blood was taken daily of 8 cows and the concentration of progesterone (P4), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA), androstenedione (AD), epitestosterone (Epi) and testosterone (T) in plasma was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The average concentration of DHA in the blood of cows was 650±71 pg/ml, that of AD 77±8 pg/ml to 122±29 pg/ml (x-bar ± SD). The concentration of Epi and T was from 160 to 243 pg/ml and from 46 to 96 pg/ml plasma. For the pregnancy diagnosis in sows blood and faeces were collected of 6 non-pregnant and 30 pregnant animals day 16 to 30 after mating. In faeces the concentration of oestrogens was determined by means of RIA, in blood that of oestrone sulphate and P4 by EIA on micro titre plates. During the whole period of examination the concentration of P4 remained fairly constant. From day 17 to 23 after mating the concentration in non-pregnant was significantly lower than in pregnant sows. In the blood of non-pregnant sows the oestrone sulphate concentration was 1,3±1,2 ng/ml (x-bar ± SD). Day 24 to 30: >x-bar ± 2SD in pregnant animals. Day 25 and 29 of pregnancy the concentration of oestrogens in faeces was: >x-bar ± 2SD = 20,6 ng/g faeces. Pregnancy diagnosis: 21 non-pregnant cows and heifers, 6 bulls and 83 pregnant cows were examined (10th to 35th week of pregnancy). Faeces samples from 21 non-pregnant mares, 6 stallions and 57 pregnant mares (10th to 35th week) and 18 samples from 3 mares at parturition. 18th week of pregnancy the concentration of oestrogens in faeces of cows and mares was: (>x-bar ± 3SD) in non-pregnant animals; (cows: 21,6 ng/g, mares: 14,3 ng/g ) after parturition. 17 refs. (Author)

  6. Immunoassay of sexual steroids for fertility control in cows, sows and mares. Part 2

    Han Sun Choi

    1987-01-01

    The immunological determination of oestrogens in faeces as a method of pregnancy diagnosis in cows, sows and mares, and the stability of oestrogens in faeces was tested. During 8 days storage at -20 0 to +37 0 C the concentration of oestrogen in faeces was not significantly influenced. During 2 oestrous cycles blood was taken daily of 8 cows and the concentration of progesterone (P4), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA), androstenedione (AD), epitestosterone (Epi) and testosterone (T) in plasma was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The average concentration of DHA in the blood of cows was 650±71 pg/ml, that of AD 77±8 pg/ml to 122±29 pg/ml (x-bar ± SD). The concentration of Epi and T was from 160 to 243 pg/ml and from 46 to 96 pg/ml plasma. For the pregnancy diagnosis in sows blood and faeces were collected of 6 non-pregnant and 30 pregnant animals day 16 to 30 after mating. In faeces the concentration of oestrogens was determined by means of RIA, in blood that of oestrone sulphate and P4 by EIA on micro titre plates. During the whole period of examination the concentration of P4 remained fairly constant. From day 17 to 23 after mating the concentration in non-pregnant was significantly lower than in pregnant sows. In the blood of non-pregnant sows the oestrone sulphate concentration was 1,3±1,2 ng/ml (x-bar ± SD). Day 24 to 30: >x-bar ± 2SD in pregnant animals. Day 25 and 29 of pregnancy the concentration of oestrogens in faeces was: >x-bar ± 2SD = 20,6 ng/g faeces. Pregnancy diagnosis: 21 non-pregnant cows and heifers, 6 bulls and 83 pregnant cows were examined (10th to 35th week of pregnancy). Faeces samples from 21 non-pregnant mares, 6 stallions and 57 pregnant mares (10th to 35th week) and 18 samples from 3 mares at parturition. 18th week of pregnancy the concentration of oestrogens in faeces of cows and mares was: (>x-bar ± 3SD) in non-pregnant animals; (cows: 21,6 ng/g, mares: 14,3 ng/g ) after parturition. 17 refs. (Author)

  7. An experimental and petrologic investigation of the source regions of lunar magmatism in the context of the primordial differentiation of the moon

    Elardo, Stephen M.

    The primordial differentiation of the Moon via a global magma ocean has become the paradigm under which all lunar data are interpreted. The success of this model in explaining multiple geochemical, petrologic, and isotopic characteristics lunar geology has led to magma oceans becoming the preferred model for the differentiation of Earth, Mars, Mercury, Vesta, and other large terrestrial bodies. The goal of this work is to combine petrologic analyses of lunar samples with high pressure, high temperature petrologic experiments to place new and detailed constraints the petrogenetic processes that operated during different stages of lunar magmatism, the processes that have acted upon these magmas to obscure their relationship to their mantle source regions, and how those source regions fit into the context of the lunar magma ocean model. This work focuses on two important phases of lunar magmatism: the ancient crust-building plutonic lithologies of the Mg-suite dating to ~4.3 Ga, and the most recent known mare basaltic magmas dating to ~3 Ga. These samples provide insight into the petrogenesis of magmas and interior thermal state when the Moon was a hot, juvenile planet, and also during the last gasps of magmatism from a cooling planet. Chapter 1, focusing on Mg-suite troctolite 76535, presents data on chromite symplectites, olivine-hosted melt inclusions, intercumulus mineral assemblages, and cumulus mineral chemistry to argue that the 76535 was altered by metasomatism by a migrating basaltic melt. This process could effectively raise radioisotope systems above their mineral-specific blocking temperatures and help explain some of the Mg-suite-FAN age overlap. Chapter 2 focuses on lunar meteorites NWA 4734, 032, and LAP 02205, which are 3 of the 5 youngest igneous samples from the Moon. Using geochemical and isotopic data combined with partial melting models, it is shown that these basalts do not have a link to the KREEP reservoir, and a model is presented for low

  8. Lunar Dust and Lunar Simulant Activation, Monitoring, Solution and Cellular Toxicity Properties

    Wallace, William; Jeevarajan, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, many undesirable situations were encountered that must be mitigated prior to returning humans to the moon. Lunar dust (that part of the lunar regolith less than 20 microns in diameter) was found to produce several problems with mechanical equipment and could have conceivably produced harmful physiological effects for the astronauts. For instance, the abrasive nature of the dust was found to cause malfunctions of various joints and seals of the spacecraft and suits. Additionally, though efforts were made to exclude lunar dust from the cabin of the lunar module, a significant amount of material nonetheless found its way inside. With the loss of gravity correlated with ascent from the lunar surface, much of the finer fraction of this dust began to float and was inhaled by the astronauts. The short visits tothe Moon during Apollo lessened exposure to the dust, but the plan for future lunar stays of up to six months demands that methods be developed to minimize the risk of dust inhalation. The guidelines for what constitutes "safe" exposure will guide the development of engineering controls aimed at preventing the presence of dust in the lunar habitat. This work has shown the effects of grinding on the activation level of lunar dust, the changes in dissolution properties of lunar simulant, and the production of cytokines by cellular systems. Grinding of lunar dust leads to the production of radicals in solution and increased dissolution of lunar simulant in buffers of different pH. Additionally, ground lunar simulant has been shown to promote the production of IL-6 and IL-8, pro-inflammatory cytokines, by alveolar epithelial cells. These results provide evidence of the need for further studies on these materials prior to returning to the lunar surface.

  9. The cosmopolitan maternal heritage of the Thoroughbred racehorse breed shows a significant contribution from British and Irish native mares

    Bower, M. A.; Campana, M. G.; Whitten, M.; Edwards, C. J.; Jones, H.; Barrett, E.; Cassidy, R.; Nisbet, R. E. R.; Hill, E. W.; Howe, C. J.; Binns, M.

    2010-01-01

    The paternal origins of Thoroughbred racehorses trace back to a handful of Middle Eastern stallions, imported to the British Isles during the seventeenth century. Yet, few details of the foundation mares were recorded, in many cases not even their names (several different maternal lineages trace back to ‘A Royal Mare’). This has fuelled intense speculation over their origins. We examined mitochondrial DNA from 1929 horses to determine the origin of Thoroughbred foundation mares. There is no e...

  10. Mineralogical and chemical properties of the lunar regolith

    Mckay, David S.; Ming, Douglas W.

    1989-01-01

    The composition of lunar regolith and its attendant properties are discussed. Tables are provided listing lunar minerals, the abundance of plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, and ilmenite in lunar materials, typical compositions of common lunar minerals, and cumulative grain-size distribution for a large number of lunar soils. Also provided are charts on the chemistry of breccias, the chemistry of lunar glass, and the comparative chemistry of surface soils for the Apollo sites. Lunar agglutinates, constructional particles made of lithic, mineral, and glass fragments welded together by a glassy matrix containing extremely fine-grained metallic iron and formed by micrometeoric impacts at the lunar surface, are discussed. Crystalline, igneous rock fragments, breccias, and lunar glass are examined. Volatiles implanted in lunar materials and regolith maturity are also addressed.

  11. Visual lunar and planetary astronomy

    Abel, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of CCDs and webcams, the focus of amateur astronomy has to some extent shifted from science to art. The object of many amateur astronomers is now to produce “stunning images” that, although beautiful, are not intended to have scientific merit. Paul Abel has been addressing this issue by promoting visual astronomy wherever possible – at talks to astronomical societies, in articles for popular science magazines, and on BBC TV’s The Sky at Night.   Visual Lunar and Planetary Astronomy is a comprehensive modern treatment of visual lunar and planetary astronomy, showing that even in the age of space telescopes and interplanetary probes it is still possible to contribute scientifically with no more than a moderately priced commercially made astronomical telescope.   It is believed that imaging and photography is somehow more objective and more accurate than the eye, and this has led to a peculiar “crisis of faith” in the human visual system and its amazing processing power. But by anal...

  12. Robotic Lunar Lander Development Status

    Ballard, Benjamin; Cohen, Barbara A.; McGee, Timothy; Reed, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory have developed several mission concepts to place scientific and exploration payloads ranging from 10 kg to more than 200 kg on the surface of the moon. The mission concepts all use a small versatile lander that is capable of precision landing. The results to date of the lunar lander development risk reduction activities including high pressure propulsion system testing, structure and mechanism development and testing, and long cycle time battery testing will be addressed. The most visible elements of the risk reduction program are two fully autonomous lander flight test vehicles. The first utilized a high pressure cold gas system (Cold Gas Test Article) with limited flight durations while the subsequent test vehicle, known as the Warm Gas Test Article, utilizes hydrogen peroxide propellant resulting in significantly longer flight times and the ability to more fully exercise flight sensors and algorithms. The development of the Warm Gas Test Article is a system demonstration and was designed with similarity to an actual lunar lander including energy absorbing landing legs, pulsing thrusters, and flight-like software implementation. A set of outdoor flight tests to demonstrate the initial objectives of the WGTA program was completed in Nov. 2011, and will be discussed.

  13. Laparoscopic application of PGE2 to re-establish oviducal patency and fertility in infertile mares: a preliminary study.

    Allen, W R; Wilsher, S; Morris, L; Crowhurst, J S; Hillyer, M H; Neal, H N

    2006-09-01

    Mares are occasionally encountered that consistently fail to conceive when inseminated, naturally or artificially, with fertile stallion semen in the absence of any identifiable pathology of either the structure or function of their reproductive tract. Temporary blockage of the oviducts by accumulations of naturally occurring oviducal masses may be preventing oviducal transport of the embryo to the uterus. Mares, with known reproductive histories, that had exhibited inexplicable failure of conception were treated by laparoscopically guided administration of PGE2-laced triacetin gel directly onto the surface of their oviducts. Fifteen mares age 10-21 years that had exhibited inexplicable failure of conception during 1-4 years were treated, of which 14 (93%) conceived within the same or subsequent breeding season. The high success rate of this treatment supports the tentative diagnosis of oviducal obstruction in these mares and indicates that blockage of the mare's oviducts may occur in the form of a moveable accumulation of debris rather than from permanent fibrous adhesions resulting from salpingitis. This laparoscopic application of PGE2 to the oviducts constitutes a sound and practical method of restoring fertility in mares suffering oviducal obstruction and further studies involving the procedure are warranted.

  14. Endoscopic-assisted resection of a pedunculated uterine leiomyoma with maximal tissue preservation in a cow and a mare.

    Schneeweiss, Wilfried; Krump, Lea; Metcalfe, Lucy; Ryan, Eoin; Beltman, Marijke; Jahns, Hanne; David, Florent

    2015-02-01

    To report successful minimally invasive treatment of a uterine leiomyoma in a cow and a mare. Clinical report. Limousine cow (n = 1), Thoroughbred mare (n = 1). A 10-year-old cow and an 18-year-old mare were presented for difficulties in breeding and infertility, respectively. Examination of the reproductive tract revealed the presence of a large mass attached to the uterine wall via a wide and short peduncle in both cases. The mass expanded into the uterine lumen in the mare and into the abdomen in the cow. Both masses were removed using a minimally invasive endoscopic approach and a vessel-sealing and dividing device. Minimally invasive surgical resection of a subserosal and a submucosal leiomyoma with maximal sparing of uterine tissue resulted in a short convalescence period and apparent return to breeding function in a cow and a mare. Use of a vessel-sealing and dividing device provided excellent hemostasis and decreased tissue handling. Leiomyoma with short, wide, and thick peduncles were treated successfully in a cow and a mare with minimally invasive endoscopic approaches aiming at maximal uterine tissue preservation. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  15. Improved Discrimination of Volcanic Complexes, Tectonic Features, and Regolith Properties in Mare Serenitatis from Earth-Based Radar Mapping

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Hawke, B. Ray; Morgan, Gareth A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, Donald B.; Nolan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Radar images at 70 cm wavelength show 4-5 dB variations in backscatter strength within regions of relatively uniform spectral reflectance properties in central and northern Mare Serenitatis, delineating features suggesting lava flow margins, channels, and superposition relationships. These backscatter differences are much less pronounced at 12.6 cm wavelength, consistent with a large component of the 70 cm echo arising from the rough or blocky transition zone between the mare regolith and the intact bedrock. Such deep probing is possible because the ilmenite content, which modulates microwave losses, of central Mare Serenitatis is generally low (2-3% by weight). Modeling of the radar returns from a buried interface shows that an average regolith thickness of 10m could lead to the observed shifts in 70 cm echo power with a change in TiO2 content from 2% to 3%. This thickness is consistent with estimates of regolith depth (10-15m) based on the smallest diameter for which fresh craters have obvious blocky ejecta. The 70 cm backscatter differences provide a view of mare flow-unit boundaries, channels, and lobes unseen by other remote sensing methods. A localized pyroclastic deposit associated with Rima Calippus is identified based on its low radar echo strength. Radar mapping also improves delineation of units for crater age dating and highlights a 250 km long, east-west trending feature in northern Mare Serenitatis that we suggest is a large graben flooded by late-stage mare flows.

  16. Understanding the Lunar System Architecture Design Space

    Arney, Dale C.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Reeves, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the flexible path strategy and the desire of the international community, the lunar surface remains a destination for future human exploration. This paper explores options within the lunar system architecture design space, identifying performance requirements placed on the propulsive system that performs Earth departure within that architecture based on existing and/or near-term capabilities. The lander crew module and ascent stage propellant mass fraction are primary drivers for feasibility in multiple lander configurations. As the aggregation location moves further out of the lunar gravity well, the lunar lander is required to perform larger burns, increasing the sensitivity to these two factors. Adding an orbit transfer stage to a two-stage lunar lander and using a large storable stage for braking with a one-stage lunar lander enable higher aggregation locations than Low Lunar Orbit. Finally, while using larger vehicles enables a larger feasible design space, there are still feasible scenarios that use three launches of smaller vehicles.

  17. Lunar Dust Separation for Toxicology Studies

    Cooper, Bonnie L.; McKay, D. S.; Riofrio, L. M.; Taylor, L. A.; Gonzalex, C. P.

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, crewmembers were briefly exposed to dust in the lunar module, brought in after extravehicular activity. When the lunar ascent module returned to micro-gravity, the dust that had settled on the floor now floated into the air, causing eye discomfort and occasional respiratory symptoms. Because our goal is to set an exposure standard for 6 months of episodic exposure to lunar dust for crew on the lunar surface, these brief exposures of a few days are not conclusive. Based on experience with industrial minerals such as sandblasting quartz, an exposure of several months may cause serious damage, while a short exposure may cause none. The detailed characteristics of sub-micrometer lunar dust are only poorly known, and this is the size range of particles that are of greatest concern. We have developed a method for extracting respirable dust (<2.5 micron) from Apollo lunar soils. This method meets stringent requirements that the soil must be kept dry, exposed only to pure nitrogen, and must conserve and recover the maximum amount of both respirable dust and coarser soil. In addition, we have developed a method for grinding coarser lunar soil to produce sufficient respirable soil for animal toxicity testing while preserving the freshly exposed grain surfaces in a pristine state.

  18. Modeling Respiratory Toxicity of Authentic Lunar Dust

    Santana, Patricia A.; James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    The lunar expeditions of the Apollo operations from the 60 s and early 70 s have generated awareness about lunar dust exposures and their implication towards future lunar explorations. Critical analyses on the reports from the Apollo crew members suggest that lunar dust is a mild respiratory and ocular irritant. Currently, NASA s space toxicology group is functioning with the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to investigate and examine toxic effects to the respiratory system of rats in order to establish permissible exposure levels (PELs) for human exposure to lunar dust. In collaboration with the space toxicology group, LADTAG and NIOSH the goal of the present research is to analyze dose-response curves from rat exposures seven and twenty-eight days after intrapharyngeal instillations, and model the response using BenchMark Dose Software (BMDS) from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Via this analysis, the relative toxicities of three types of Apollo 14 lunar dust samples and two control dust samples, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and quartz will be determined. This will be executed for several toxicity endpoints such as cell counts and biochemical markers in bronchoaveolar lavage fluid (BALF) harvested from the rats.

  19. A construção da cidade de Maringá – 1947 a 1982

    Fabiola Castelo de Souza Cordovil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Apresentamos algumas linhas de análise da tese de doutorado intitulada “A Aventura Planejada: engenharia e urbanismo na construção de Maringá – 1947 a 1982” que se dividiu em duas partes. A primeira denomina-se “A criação de Maringá: projeto e história” e constitui-se por dois capítulos. A segunda parte intitula-se “Construir e administrar: técnica e política na construção da cidade” e compõe-se de sete capítulos, sendo um para cada gestão estudada, de 1953 a 1982. Na primeira parte estudamos o contexto regional no qual se formou Maringá e analisamos o seu plano inicial. A segunda parte refere-se especificamente às realizações das administrações municipais. Divide-se em sete capítulos, abarcando as primeiras sete gestões. Em três décadas e meia reconstituímos o processo de construção da cidade e a constituição da cultura técnico-profissional municipal.

    Abstract

    This text presents an analysis of the Ph. D. dissertation entitled “A Aventura Planejada: engenharia e urbanismo na construção de Maringá – 1947 a 1982” — “The Planned Adventure: Engineering and Urban Planning in the Building of Maringá.” The dissertation is divided into two parts. The first is called "A criação de Maringá: projeto e história"—“The Creation of Maringá,” and it consists of two chapters. The second part is entitled "Construir e administrar: técnica e política na construção da cidade” — “To Build and to Administer: Technique and Politics in the Building of the City,” and consists of seven chapters, one for each administration studied, from 1953 to 1982. In the first part we study the regional context in which

  20. Da questa parte del mare. Gianmaria Testa ed Erri De Luca nel secolo delle migrazioni

    Isabella Maria Zoppi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Gianmaria Testa's album Da questa parte del mare (2006 expresses a fifteen-year-long meditation about the theme of the great migrations which have marked the Twentieth Century. That same theme is considered by Erri De Luca as the only possible, epic narration of the contemporary world. On the one hand, Testa's project finds its starting point from the song-writer's capacity of observing and interpreting common stories as well as from his considerations about the changing of History; on the other hand, it takes origin from the reading of Erri De Luca's novels and lyrics, especially those of Solo andata. Righe che vanno troppo spesso a capo (2005. Within Testa's Da questa parte del mare, their lyrical voices and artistic and human perspectives seem somehow to cross and melt. Through his songs, Testa tells in an original way the new human geography traced by the migrant phenomenon across the Mediterranean and Europe.

  1. Effects of body condition and leptin on the reproductive performance of Lusitano mares on extensive systems.

    Fradinho, M J; Correia, M J; Grácio, V; Bliebernicht, M; Farrim, A; Mateus, L; Martin-Rosset, W; Bessa, R J B; Caldeira, R M; Ferreira-Dias, G

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of body condition (BC), BC changes, and plasma leptin concentrations on the reproductive performance of Lusitano broodmares on extensive systems. Data from 119 mares (ranging from 4 to 22 years of age) were collected over a period of four consecutive breeding seasons. Each case was considered as one foaled mare bred in 1 year. Body condition changes at conception (ΔBCScon) showed a strong effect on fertility at the first two postpartum estrous cycles and a significant interaction with body condition score at conception (BCScon) was observed (P rate for the 4-year period was 74.5%. Mean foaling interval and gestation length were, respectively, 368.0 ± 2.8 and 340.3 ± 1.0 days. Gestation length was influenced by the month of foaling (P conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bringing You the Moon: Lunar Education Efforts of the Center for Lunar Science and Education

    Shaner, A. J.; Shupla, C.; Shipp, S.; Allen, J.; Kring, D. A.; Halligan, E.; LaConte, K.

    2012-01-01

    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA's Johnson Space Center, is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute. In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and public outreach. Overarching goals of CLSE education are to strengthen the future science workforce, attract and retain students in STEM disciplines, and develop advocates for lunar exploration. The team's efforts have resulted in a variety of programs and products, including the creation of a variety of Lunar Traveling Exhibits and the High School Lunar Research Project, featured at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/nlsi/education/.

  3. The Lunar Transit Telescope (LTT) - An early lunar-based science and engineering mission

    Mcgraw, John T.

    1992-01-01

    The Sentinel, the soft-landed lunar telescope of the LTT project, is described. The Sentinel is a two-meter telescope with virtually no moving parts which accomplishes an imaging survey of the sky over almost five octaves of the electromagnetic spectrum from the ultraviolet into the infrared, with an angular resolution better than 0.1 arsec/pixel. The Sentinel will incorporate innovative techniques of interest for future lunar-based telescopes and will return significant engineering data which can be incorporated into future lunar missions. The discussion covers thermal mapping of the Sentinel, measurement of the cosmic ray flux, lunar dust, micrometeoroid flux, the lunar atmosphere, and lunar regolith stability and seismic activity.

  4. Respiratory Toxicity of Lunar Highland Dust

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Wallace, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar dust exposures occurred during the Apollo missions while the crew was on the lunar surface and especially when microgravity conditions were attained during rendezvous in lunar orbit. Crews reported that the dust was irritating to the eyes and in some cases respiratory symptoms were elicited. NASA s vision for lunar exploration includes stays of 6 months on the lunar surface hence the health effects of periodic exposure to lunar dust need to be assessed. NASA has performed this assessment with a series of in vitro and in vivo tests on authentic lunar dust. Our approach is to "calibrate" the intrinsic toxicity of lunar dust by comparison to a nontoxic dust (TiO2) and a highly toxic dust (quartz) using intratrachael instillation of the dusts in mice. A battery of indices of toxicity is assessed at various time points after the instillations. Cultures of selected cells are exposed to test dusts to assess the adverse effects on the cells. Finally, chemical systems are used to assess the nature of the reactivity of various dusts and to determine the persistence of reactivity under various environmental conditions that are relevant to a space habitat. Similar systems are used to assess the dissolution of the dust. From these studies we will be able to set a defensible inhalation exposure standard for aged dust and predict whether we need a separate standard for reactive dust. Presently-available data suggest that aged lunar highland dust is slightly toxic, that it can adversely affect cultured cells, and that the surface reactivity induced by grinding the dust persists for a few hours after activation.

  5. Baltimaade klaasikunstil on arenguruumi, vajaka jääb võimalustest / Mare Saare

    Saare, Mare, 1955-

    2008-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline klaasinäitus "Vitrum Balticum IV" ("Balti klaas IV") Kaunases kuni 7. XII. Esindatud on Eesti (Kai Kiudsoo-Värv, Eeva Käsper, Ivo Lill, Kairi Orgusaar, Mare Saare, Maret Sarapu, Tiina Sarapu), Läti, Leedu ja Soome klaasikunstnikud. 14. XI rahvusvaheline seminar Läänemeremaade klaasikunsti arengukäigust 21. sajandil kunstiakadeemias. Näituse ja seminari kuraator kunstiteadlane Raimonda Kogelyte-Simanatiene

  6. Ways of Optimising Regional Planning: Settlement Typology. Case Study: Baia Mare Depression

    ADRIAN GAVRA; SORIN FILIP

    2006-01-01

    In a relatively uniform natural environment, the settlements in the Baia Mare Depression have very diverse forms. According to an oriented complex typology, we have identified the features and the problems characteristic of these settlements, according to the following criteria: the infrastructure already, demographic features, education, health, and tourism. By synthesising these criteria, we identified the following settlement types: polarising urban centres, under-pressure urban settlement...

  7. Whole-genome sequencing and genetic variant analysis of a Quarter Horse mare.

    Doan, Ryan; Cohen, Noah D; Sawyer, Jason; Ghaffari, Noushin; Johnson, Charlie D; Dindot, Scott V

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The catalog of genetic variants in the horse genome originates from a few select animals, the majority originating from the Thoroughbred mare used for the equine genome sequencing project. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertion/deletion polymorphisms (INDELs), and copy number variants (CNVs) in the genome of an individual Quarter Horse mare sequenced by next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: Using massively parallel paired-end sequencing, we generated 59.6 Gb of DNA sequence from a Quarter Horse mare resulting in an average of 24.7X sequence coverage. Reads were mapped to approximately 97% of the reference Thoroughbred genome. Unmapped reads were de novo assembled resulting in 19.1 Mb of new genomic sequence in the horse. Using a stringent filtering method, we identified 3.1 million SNPs, 193 thousand INDELs, and 282 CNVs. Genetic variants were annotated to determine their impact on gene structure and function. Additionally, we genotyped this Quarter Horse for mutations of known diseases and for variants associated with particular traits. Functional clustering analysis of genetic variants revealed that most of the genetic variation in the horse's genome was enriched in sensory perception, signal transduction, and immunity and defense pathways. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first sequencing of a horse genome by next-generation sequencing and the first genomic sequence of an individual Quarter Horse mare. We have increased the catalog of genetic variants for use in equine genomics by the addition of novel SNPs, INDELs, and CNVs. The genetic variants described here will be a useful resource for future studies of genetic variation regulating performance traits and diseases in equids.

  8. Influence of atipamezole on effects of midsacral subarachnoidally administered detomidine in mares.

    Skarda, R T; Muir, W W

    1998-04-01

    To examine effects of atipamezole on detomidine midsacral subarachnoidally-induced analgesia, cardiovascular and respiratory activity, head ptosis, and position of pelvic limbs in healthy mares. 10 healthy mares. Using a randomized, blinded, crossover study design, mares received detomidine (0.03 mg/kg of body weight, diluted in 3 ml of CSF) midsacral subarachnoidally, followed by atipamezole (0.1 mg/kg [test]) or sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control), i.v. 61 minutes later and saline solution (3 ml, midsacral subarachnoidally) on a separate occasion, at least 2 weeks later. Analgesia was determined by lack of sensory perception to electrical stimulation at the perineal dermatome and no response to needle-prick stimulation extending from the coccygeal to T15 dermatomes. Arterial acid-base (pH, standard bicarbonate, and base excess values), gas tensions (PO2, PCO2), PCV, total solids concentration, heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature, and arterial blood pressure were determined, and mares were observed for sweating and urination. Mean scores of perineal analgesia, head ptosis, position of pelvic limbs, and cardiovascular and respiratory data were compared for the 3-hour test period. Subarachnoidally administered detomidine induced perineal analgesia (mean +/- SD onset, 9.0 +/- 4.6 minutes; duration, 130 +/- 26 minutes), marked head ptosis, moderate changes in pelvic limb position, cardiovascular and respiratory depression, sweating in analgesic zones, and diuresis. Intravenously administered atipamezole significantly reduced mean scores of detomidine-induced perineal analgesia, head ptosis, pelvic limb position, sweating and diuresis; partially antagonized detomidine-induced bradycardia; and did not effect detomidine-induced bradypnea. Most effects of midsacral subarachnoidally administered detomidine, except bradycardia and bradypnea, were reversed by atipamezole (0.1 mg/kg, i.v.), indicating that most of the actions of detomidine were mediated

  9. Whole-genome sequencing and genetic variant analysis of a Quarter Horse mare.

    Doan, Ryan

    2012-02-17

    BACKGROUND: The catalog of genetic variants in the horse genome originates from a few select animals, the majority originating from the Thoroughbred mare used for the equine genome sequencing project. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertion/deletion polymorphisms (INDELs), and copy number variants (CNVs) in the genome of an individual Quarter Horse mare sequenced by next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: Using massively parallel paired-end sequencing, we generated 59.6 Gb of DNA sequence from a Quarter Horse mare resulting in an average of 24.7X sequence coverage. Reads were mapped to approximately 97% of the reference Thoroughbred genome. Unmapped reads were de novo assembled resulting in 19.1 Mb of new genomic sequence in the horse. Using a stringent filtering method, we identified 3.1 million SNPs, 193 thousand INDELs, and 282 CNVs. Genetic variants were annotated to determine their impact on gene structure and function. Additionally, we genotyped this Quarter Horse for mutations of known diseases and for variants associated with particular traits. Functional clustering analysis of genetic variants revealed that most of the genetic variation in the horse\\'s genome was enriched in sensory perception, signal transduction, and immunity and defense pathways. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first sequencing of a horse genome by next-generation sequencing and the first genomic sequence of an individual Quarter Horse mare. We have increased the catalog of genetic variants for use in equine genomics by the addition of novel SNPs, INDELs, and CNVs. The genetic variants described here will be a useful resource for future studies of genetic variation regulating performance traits and diseases in equids.

  10. Lunar Impact Flash Locations from NASA's Lunar Impact Monitoring Program

    Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Kupferschmidt, L.; Feldman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Meteoroids are small, natural bodies traveling through space, fragments from comets, asteroids, and impact debris from planets. Unlike the Earth, which has an atmosphere that slows, ablates, and disintegrates most meteoroids before they reach the ground, the Moon has little-to-no atmosphere to prevent meteoroids from impacting the lunar surface. Upon impact, the meteoroid's kinetic energy is partitioned into crater excavation, seismic wave production, and the generation of a debris plume. A flash of light associated with the plume is detectable by instruments on Earth. Following the initial observation of a probable Taurid impact flash on the Moon in November 2005,1 the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) began a routine monitoring program to observe the Moon for meteoroid impact flashes in early 2006, resulting in the observation of over 330 impacts to date. The main objective of the MEO is to characterize the meteoroid environment for application to spacecraft engineering and operations. The Lunar Impact Monitoring Program provides information about the meteoroid flux in near-Earth space in a size range-tens of grams to a few kilograms-difficult to measure with statistical significance by other means. A bright impact flash detected by the program in March 2013 brought into focus the importance of determining the impact flash location. Prior to this time, the location was estimated to the nearest half-degree by visually comparing the impact imagery to maps of the Moon. Better accuracy was not needed because meteoroid flux calculations did not require high-accuracy impact locations. But such a bright event was thought to have produced a fresh crater detectable from lunar orbit by the NASA spacecraft Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The idea of linking the observation of an impact flash with its crater was an appealing one, as it would validate NASA photometric calculations and crater scaling laws developed from hypervelocity gun testing. This idea was

  11. Zinnia Germination and Lunar Soil Amendment

    Reese, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Germination testing was performed to determine the best method for germinating zinnias. This method will be used to attempt to germinate the zinnia seeds produced in space. It was found that seed shape may be critically important in determining whether a seed will germinate or not. The ability of compost and worm castings to remediate lunar regolith simulant for plant growth was tested. It was found that neither treatment effectively improves plant growth in lunar regolith simulant. A potential method of improving lunar regolith simulant by mixing it with arcillite was discovered.

  12. Adsorption of Hg on lunar samples

    Reed, G.W. Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1985-01-01

    Understanding the presence, migration mechanisms and trapping of indigneous gases and volatiles on the moon is the objective of this study. The rare gases Ar and Xe and highly volatile Hg 0 and Br 0 (and/or their compounds) have been determined to be present in the lunar regolith. Evidence for these elements in the moon was recently reviewed. Studies of the sorption behavior of Xe on lunar material have been carried out. We report here preliminary results of a study designed to rationalize the behavior of Hg in lunar material

  13. Bullialdus - Strengthening the case for lunar plutons

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-01-01

    Although many craters expose materials of a composition different from that of the local surroundings, Bullialdus has excavated material representing three distinct stratigraphic zones that occur in the upper 6 km of crust, the top two of which are gabbroic and the deepest of which is noritic. This three-component stratigraphy at Bullialdus provides strong evidence that the lunar crust includes pockets of compositionally layered material reminiscent of mafic layered plutons. When combined with previous information on the compositional diversity at other large craters, these remote analyses obtained in a geologic context substantially strengthen the hypothesis suggested from lunar samples that plutons play an integral role in lunar crustal evolution.

  14. Polar lunar power ring: Propulsion energy resource

    Galloway, Graham Scott

    1990-01-01

    A ring shaped grid of photovoltaic solar collectors encircling a lunar pole at 80 to 85 degrees latitude is proposed as the primary research, development, and construction goal for an initial lunar base. The polar Lunar Power Ring (LPR) is designed to provide continuous electrical power in ever increasing amounts as collectors are added to the ring grid. The LPR can provide electricity for any purpose indefinitely, barring a meteor strike. The associated rail infrastructure and inherently expandable power levels place the LPR as an ideal tool to power an innovative propulsion research facility or a trans-Jovian fleet. The proposed initial output range is 90 Mw to 90 Gw.

  15. Technicians work with Apollo 14 lunar sample material in Lunar Receiving Lab.

    1971-01-01

    Glove handlers work with freshly opened Apollo 14 lunar sample material in modularized cabinets in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at the Manned Spacecraft Center. The glove operator on the right starts to pour fine lunar material which he has just taken from a tote bag. This powdery sample was among the last to be revealed of the 90-odd pounds of material brought back to Earth by the Apollo 14 crewmen.

  16. Changes of biochemical environment and body weight in healthy periparturient Lipizzan mares

    Vladimír Hura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, chlorine, potassium, sodium, urea, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, non-esterified fatty acids, total protein, creatinine, total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, insulin, insulin growth factor 1, and glucose in the blood serum and to monitor the body weight changes in nine clinically healthy Lipizzan mares at weekly intervals within 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after the parturition. A significant body weight loss (P < 0.01 was found in the mares after the foaling. The peak of insulin growth factor 1 concentration in serum was reached at the day of parturition and similar patterns were revealed for the concentrations of insulin and glucose. After parturition, all these indices were significantly decreased. The concentrations of phosphorus and triacylglycerols were decreased, while the concentrations of potassium and sodium were increased at the day of parturition. Moreover, the concentration of non-esterified fatty acids was increased at the day of parturition (P < 0.05 with a tendency to higher values even on the 7th day postpartum. Other studied indexes remained relatively stable throughout the transition period. We can conclude that periparturient mares face some degree of negative energy balance with concomitant significant homeostatic and homeorhetic changes. For this reason, our results can be used as a basis for reference values and a diagnostic tool to examine the health status in horses during the transition period.

  17. Identification of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitory peptides from mare whey protein hydrolysates.

    Song, J J; Wang, Q; Du, M; Ji, X M; Mao, X Y

    2017-09-01

    Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) activity is a promising strategy for treatment of type 2 diabetes. In the current study, DPP-IV inhibitory peptides were identified from mare whey protein hydrolysates obtained by papain. The results showed that all the mare whey protein hydrolysates obtained at various hydrolysis durations possessed more potent DPP-IV inhibitory activity compared with intact whey protein. The 4-h hydrolysates showed the greatest DPP-IV inhibitory activity with half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 0.18 mg/mL. The 2 novel peptides from 4-h hydrolysate fractions separated by successive chromatographic steps were characterized by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The novel peptides Asn-Leu-Glu-Ile-Ile-Leu-Arg and Thr-Gln-Met-Val-Asp-Glu-Glu-Ile-Met-Glu-Lys-Phe-Arg, which corresponded to β-lactoglobulin 1 f(71-77) and β-lactoglobulin 1 f(143-155), demonstrated DPP-IV inhibitory activity with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 86.34 and 69.84 μM, respectively. The DPP-IV inhibitory activity of the 2 peptides was retained or even improved after simulated gastrointestinal digestion in vitro. Our findings indicate that mare whey protein-derived peptides may possess potential as functional food ingredients in the management of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Burn Delay Analysis of the Lunar Orbit Insertion for Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter

    Bae, Jonghee; Song, Young-Joo; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Bangyeop

    2017-12-01

    The first Korea lunar orbiter, Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO), has been in development since 2016. After launch, the KPLO will execute several maneuvers to enter into the lunar mission orbit, and will then perform lunar science missions for one year. Among these maneuvers, the lunar orbit insertion (LOI) is the most critical maneuver because the KPLO will experience an extreme velocity change in the presence of the Moon’s gravitational pull. However, the lunar orbiter may have a delayed LOI burn during operation due to hardware limitations and telemetry delays. This delayed burn could occur in different captured lunar orbits; in the worst case, the KPLO could fly away from the Moon. Therefore, in this study, the burn delay for the first LOI maneuver is analyzed to successfully enter the desired lunar orbit. Numerical simulations are performed to evaluate the difference between the desired and delayed lunar orbits due to a burn delay in the LOI maneuver. Based on this analysis, critical factors in the LOI maneuver, the periselene altitude and orbit period, are significantly changed and an additional delta-V in the second LOI maneuver is required as the delay burn interval increases to 10 min from the planned maneuver epoch.

  19. Building an Economical and Sustainable Lunar Infrastructure to Enable Lunar Industrialization

    Zuniga, Allison F.; Turner, Mark; Rasky, Daniel; Loucks, Mike; Carrico, John; Policastri, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    A new concept study was initiated to examine the architecture needed to gradually develop an economical, evolvable and sustainable lunar infrastructure using a public/private partnerships approach. This approach would establish partnership agreements between NASA and industry teams to develop a lunar infrastructure system that would be mutually beneficial. This approach would also require NASA and its industry partners to share costs in the development phase and then transfer operation of these infrastructure services back to its industry owners in the execution phase. These infrastructure services may include but are not limited to the following: lunar cargo transportation, power stations, communication towers and satellites, autonomous rover operations, landing pads and resource extraction operations. The public/private partnerships approach used in this study leveraged best practices from NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program which introduced an innovative and economical approach for partnering with industry to develop commercial cargo services to the International Space Station. This program was planned together with the ISS Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) contracts which was responsible for initiating commercial cargo delivery services to the ISS for the first time. The public/private partnerships approach undertaken in the COTS program proved to be very successful in dramatically reducing development costs for these ISS cargo delivery services as well as substantially reducing operational costs. To continue on this successful path towards installing economical infrastructure services for LEO and beyond, this new study, named Lunar COTS (Commercial Operations and Transport Services), was conducted to examine extending the NASA COTS model to cis-lunar space and the lunar surface. The goals of the Lunar COTS concept are to: 1) develop and demonstrate affordable and commercial cis-lunar and surface capabilities, such as lunar cargo

  20. Comparative analysis of some serum proteins and immunoglobulin G concentration in the blood of Yugoslav Trotter mares and newborn foals

    Lauš S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of some serum protein concentrations was performed on 12 Yugoslav Trotter mares and their newborn foals. The mares included in the evaluation were divided into two groups of 6 each. The mares in the first group were vaccinated against equine herpes virus 1 and 4, in the 5th, 7th and 9th month of pregnancy, while mares in the second group were not vaccinated at all. Pregnant mares were clinically observed during the last stage of pregnancy and blood for biochemical evaluations was sampled immediately after foaling. Foals were clinically observed for seven days after birth and blood samples were collected immediately after foaling (before nursing, and 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours after birth. Foals included in the evaluation were divided into two groups according to the group allocation of the respective mares. All mares gave birth to normal foals in expected terms. Biochemical examination revealed slightly lower total gammaglobulin and IgG values in tested mares compared to the values obtained in other horse breeds. The antibody titres against equine herpes virus-1 reached the level that provides sufficient protection in vaccinated mares. Gammaglobulin and traces of IgG were present in the blood serum of foals tested immediately after birth and before nursing. A significant increase of IgG and gammaglobulin concentration was revealed in all foals after the first 24 hours of life. The observed first day increase of concentration was followed by stagnation of gammaglobulin and IgG levels in all foals. Total protein values showed a significant increase 24 hours after the first intake of colostrum in all foals. Immunoglobulin G concentration established by semiquantitative test was considered low positive in 16.67% and in 33.34% of foals from vaccinated and unvaccinated mares, respectively. Turbidimetric analyses of the same samples revealed sufficient Ig transfer, i.e. Ig concentration over 8 g/L. Comparison of the results obtained by the

  1. How does the suppression of energy supplementation affect herbage intake, performance and parasitism in lactating saddle mares?

    Collas, C; Fleurance, G; Cabaret, J; Martin-Rosset, W; Wimel, L; Cortet, J; Dumont, B

    2014-08-01

    Agroecology opens up new perspectives for the design of sustainable farming systems by using the stimulation of natural processes to reduce the inputs needed for production. In horse farming systems, the challenge is to maximize the proportion of forages in the diet, and to develop alternatives to synthetic chemical drugs for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes. Lactating saddle mares, with high nutritional requirements, are commonly supplemented with concentrates at pasture, although the influence of energy supplementation on voluntary intake, performance and immune response against parasites has not yet been quantified. In a 4-month study, 16 lactating mares experimentally infected with cyathostome larvae either received a daily supplement of barley (60% of energy requirements for lactation) or were non-supplemented. The mares were rotationally grazed on permanent pastures over three vegetation cycles. All the mares met their energy requirements and maintained their body condition score higher than 3. In both treatments, they produced foals with a satisfying growth rate (cycle 1: 1293 g/day; cycle 2: 1029 g/day; cycle 3: 559 g/day) and conformation (according to measurements of height at withers and cannon bone width at 11 months). Parasite egg excretion by mares increased in both groups during the grazing season (from 150 to 2011 epg), independently of whether they were supplemented or not. This suggests that energy supplementation did not improve mare ability to regulate parasite burden. Under unlimited herbage conditions, grass dry matter intake by supplemented mares remained stable around 22.6 g DM/kg LW per day (i.e. 13.5 kg DM/al per day), whereas non-supplemented mares increased voluntary intake from 22.6 to 28.0 g DM/kg LW per day (13.5 to 17.2 kg DM/al per day) between mid-June and the end of August. Hence total digestible dry matter intake and net energy intake did not significantly differ between supplemented and non-supplemented mares during the

  2. Lunar seismicity, structure, and tectonics

    Lammlein, D. R.; Latham, G. V.; Dorman, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Ewing, M.

    1974-01-01

    Natural seismic events have been detected by the long-period seismometers at Apollo stations 16, 14, 15, and 12 at annual rates of 3300, 1700, 800, and 700, respectively, with peak activity at 13- to 14-day intervals. The data are used to describe magnitudes, source characteristics, and periodic features of lunar seismicity. In a present model, the rigid lithosphere overlies an asthenosphere of reduced rigidity in which present-day partial melting is probable. Tidal deformation presumably leads to critical stress concentrations at the base of the lithosphere, where moonquakes are found to occur. The striking tidal periodicities in the pattern of moonquake occurrence and energy release suggest that tidal energy is the dominant source of energy released as moonquakes. Thus, tidal energy is dissipated by moonquakes in the lithosphere and probably by inelastic processes in the asthenosphere.

  3. Fusion power from lunar resources

    Kulcinski, G.L.; Schmitt, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the moon contains an enormous energy source in 3 He deposited by the solar wind. Fusion of only 100 kg of 3 He with deuterium in thermonuclear fusion power plants can produce > 1000 MW (electric) of electrical energy, and the lunar resource base is estimated at 1 x 10 9 kg of 3 He. This fuel can supply >1000 yr of terrestrial electrical energy demand. The methods for extracting this fuel and the other solar wind volatiles are described. Alternate uses of D- 3 He fusion in direct thrust rockets will enable more ambitious deep-space missions to be conducted. The capability of extracting hydrogen, water, nitrogen, and other carbon-containing molecules will open up the moon to a much greater level of human settlement than previously thought

  4. Radioactivity in returned lunar materials

    1972-01-01

    The H-3, Ar-37, and Ar-39 radioactivities were measured at several depths in the large documented lunar rocks 14321 and 15555. The comparison of the Ar-37 activities from similar locations in rocks 12002, 14321, and 15555 gives direct measures of the amount of Ar-37 produced by the 2 November 1969 and 24 January 1971 solar flares. The tritium contents in the documented rocks decreased with increasing depths. The solar flare intensity averaged over 30 years obtained from the tritium depth dependence was approximately the same as the flare intensity averaged over 1000 years obtained from the Ar-37 measurements. Radioactivities in two Apollo 15 soil samples, H-3 in several Surveyor 3 samples, and tritium and radon weepage were also measured.

  5. The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. VII. Embryonic development, early embryonic death, foetal losses and their relationship with serum progestagen

    F.E. Van Niekerk

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-four Thoroughbred and Anglo-Arab mares aged 6-12 years were randomly allocated to 4 dietary groups and fed diets that differed in the total protein content and quality (essential amino-acids. Forty mares were non-lactating and 24 lactating. Eight mares were withdrawn from the investigation owing to injuries or gynaecological pathology. An overall conception rate of 94.6%and a foaling rate of 80%was achieved. Five of 14 (35.7 % mares (Group 1 fed a low-quality protein diet suffered from early embryonic loss before 90 days of pregnancy compared to 3 of 41 (7.3 % mares in the remaining groups that received the higher-quality protein in their diets. Serum progestagen concentrations of mares in Group 1 that suffered foetal loss were indicative of luteal function insufficiency during the 1st 40 days post-ovulation. Non-lactating mares in all 4 groups gained on average approximately 30 kg in mass during the 90 days before the breeding period. Lactating mares in Group 1 (low-quality protein lost on average 25 kg in mass during lactation, with no weight loss observed among the lactating mares in the other 3 groups. No difference in the diameter of the embryonic vesicle was found between dietary groups until Day 35 of pregnancy.

  6. THE QUANTITATIVE COMPONENT’S DIAGNOSIS OF THE ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATION CONDITION IN BAIA MARE URBAN AREA

    S. ZAHARIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric precipitation, an essential meteorological element for defining the climatic potential of a region, presents through its general and local particularities a defining influence for the evolution of the other climatic parameters, conditioning the structure of the overall geographic landscape. Their quantitative parameters sets up the regional natural setting and differentiation of water resources, soil, vegetation and fauna, in the same time influencing the majority of human activities’ aspects, through the generated impact over the agriculture, transportation, construction, for tourism etc. Especially, through the evolution of the related climatic parameters (production type, quantity, duration, frequency, intensity and their spatial and temporal fluctuations, the pluviometric extremes set out the maxim manifestation of the energy gap of the hydroclimatic hazards/risks which induce unfavourable or even damaging conditions for the human activities’ progress. Hence, the production of atmospheric precipitation surpluses conditions the triggering, or reactivation of some intense erosion processes, landslides, and last but not least, floods. Just as dangerous are the adverse amounts of precipitation or their absence on longer periods, determining the appearance of droughts, aridity phenomena, which if associated with the sharp anthropic pressure over the environment, favours the expansion of desertification, with the whole process of the arising negative effects. In this context, this paper aims to perform the diagnosis of atmospheric precipitation condition in Baia Mare urban area, through its quantitative component, in multiannual condition (1971-2007, underlining through the results of the analyzed climatic data and their interpretation, the main characteristics that define it. The data bank from Baia Mare station from the National Meteorological Administration network, representative for the chosen study area, was used. Baia

  7. Lunar construction/mining equipment

    Ozdemir, Levent

    1990-01-01

    For centuries, mining has utilized drill and blast as the primary method of rock excavation. Although this technique has undergone significant improvements, it still remains a cyclic, labor intensive operation with inherent safety hazards. Other drawbacks include damage to the surrounding ground, creation of blast vibrations, rough excavation walls resulting in increased ventilation requirements, and the lack of selective mining ability. Perhaps the most important shortcoming of drill and blast is that it is not conducive to full implementation of automation or robotics technologies. Numerous attempts have been made in the past to automate drill and blast operations to remove personnel from the hazardous work environment. Although most of the concepts devised look promising on paper, none of them was found workable on a sustained production basis. In particular, the problem of serious damage to equipment during the blasting cycle could not be resolved regardless of the amount of charge used in excavation. Since drill and blast is not capable of meeting the requirements of a fully automated rock fragmentation method, its role is bound to gradually decrease. Mechanical excavation, in contrast, is highly suitable to automation because it is a continuous process and does not involve any explosives. Many of the basic principles and trends controlling the design of an earth-based mechanical excavator will hold in an extraterrestrial environment such as on the lunar surface. However, the economic and physical limitations for transporting materials to space will require major rethinking of these machines. In concept, then, a lunar mechanical excavator will look and perform significantly different from one designed for use here on earth. This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of such mechanical excavator systems.

  8. Lunar Plants Prototype for Moon Express

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of our project is to bring the first full life cycle to the moon: to demonstrate germination of plants in lunar gravity and radiation.The Moon Express...

  9. Educating the Next Generation of Lunar Scientists

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) and NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC), is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI). In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and outreach. In support of NASA’s and NLSI’s objective to train the next generation of scientists, CLSE’s High School Lunar Research Project is a conduit through which high school students can actively participate in lunar science and learn about pathways into scientific careers. The High School Lunar Research Project engages teams of high school students in authentic lunar research that envelopes them in the process of science and supports the science goals of the CLSE. Most high school students’ lack of scientific research experience leaves them without an understanding of science as a process. Because of this, each team is paired with a lunar scientist mentor responsible for guiding students through the process of conducting a scientific investigation. Before beginning their research, students undertake “Moon 101,” designed to familiarize them with lunar geology and exploration. Students read articles covering various lunar geology topics and analyze images from past and current lunar missions to become familiar with available lunar data sets. At the end of “Moon 101”, students present a characterization of the geology and chronology of features surrounding the Apollo 11 landing site. To begin their research, teams choose a research subject from a pool of topics compiled by the CLSE staff. After choosing a topic, student teams ask their own research questions, within the context of the larger question, and design their own research approach to direct their investigation. At the conclusion of their research, teams present their results and, after receiving feedback, create and present a conference style poster to a panel of

  10. Lunar Soil Particle Separator, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS improves ISRU oxygen...

  11. Lunar Soil Particle Separator, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS can improve ISRU oxygen...

  12. Strength and compressibility of returned lunar soil.

    Carrier, W. D., III; Bromwell, L. G.; Martin, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    Two oedometer and three direct shear tests have been performed in vacuum on a 200 g sample of lunar soil from Apollo 12 (12001, 119). The compressibility data have been used to calculate bulk density and shear wave velocity versus depth on the lunar surface. The shear wave velocity was found to increase approximately with the one-fourth power of the depth, and the results suggest that the Apollo 14 Active Seismic Experiment may not have detected the Fra Mauro formation at a depth of 8.5 m, but only naturally consolidated lunar soil. The shear data indicate that the strength of the lunar soil sample is about 65% that of a ground basalt simulant at the same void ratio.

  13. Lunar Wireless Power Transfer Feasibility Study

    Freid, Sheldon [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Popovic, Zoya [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Beckett, David R. [Independent Consultant; Anderson, Scott R. [Independent Consultant; Mann, Diana [Independent Consultant; Walker, Stuart [Independent Consultant

    2008-03-01

    This study examines the feasibility of a multi-kilowatt wireless radio frequency (RF) power system to transfer power between lunar base facilities. Initial analyses, show that wireless power transfer (WPT) systems can be more efficient and less expensive than traditional wired approaches for certain lunar and terrestrial applications. The study includes evaluations of the fundamental limitations of lunar WPT systems, the interrelationships of possible operational parameters, and a baseline design approach for a notionial system that could be used in the near future to power remote facilities at a lunar base. Our notional system includes state-of-the-art photovoltaics (PVs), high-efficiency microwave transmitters, low-mass large-aperture high-power transmit antennas, high-efficiency large-area rectenna receiving arrays, and reconfigurable DC combining circuitry.

  14. Measurement of the lunar neutron density profile

    Woolum, D.S.; Burnett, D.S.; Furst, M.; Weiss, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    An in situ measurement of the lunar neutron density from 20 to 400 g cm -2 depth below the lunar surface was made by the Apollo 17 Lunar Neutron Probe Experiment (LNPE) using particle tracks produced by the 10 B (n,α) 7 Li reaction. Both the absolute magnitude and the depth profile of the neutron density are in good agreement with theoretical calculations by Lingenfelter, Canfield, and Hampel. However, relatively small deviations between experiment and theory in the effect of Cd absorption on the neutron density and in the relative 149 Sm to 157 Gd capture rates reported previously (Russ et al., 1972) imply that the true lunar 157 Gd capture rate is about one half of that calculated theoretically. (Auth.)

  15. International Coordination of Lunar Polar Volatiles Exploration

    Gruener, J. E.; Suzuki, N. H.; Carpenter, J. D.

    2015-10-01

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) has established a study team to coordinate the worldwide interest in lunar polar volatiles, and in particular water ice, in an effort to stimulate cooperation and collaboration.

  16. Life Sciences Implications of Lunar Surface Operations

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document preliminary, predicted, life sciences implications of expected operational concepts for lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). Algorithms developed through simulation and testing in lunar analog environments were used to predict crew metabolic rates and ground reaction forces experienced during lunar EVA. Subsequently, the total metabolic energy consumption, the daily bone load stimulus, total oxygen needed, and other variables were calculated and provided to Human Research Program and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate stakeholders. To provide context to the modeling, the report includes an overview of some scenarios that have been considered. Concise descriptions of the analog testing and development of the algorithms are also provided. This document may be updated to remain current with evolving lunar or other planetary surface operations, assumptions and concepts, and to provide additional data and analyses collected during the ongoing analog research program.

  17. Production of Lunar Oxygen Through Vacuum Pyrolysis

    Matchett, John

    2006-01-01

    .... The vacuum pyrolysis method of oxygen production from lunar regolith presents a viable option for in situ propellant production because of its simple operation involving limited resources from earth...

  18. Learning Lunar Science Through the Selene Videogame

    Reese, D. D.; Wood, C. A.

    2010-03-01

    Selene is a videogame to promote and assess learning of lunar science concepts. As players build and modify a Moon, Selene measures learning as it occurs. Selene is a model for 21st century learning and embedded assessment.

  19. Review of lunar telescope studies at MSFC

    Hilchey, John D.; Nein, Max E.

    1993-09-01

    In the near future astronomers can take advantage of the lunar surface as the new 'high ground' from which to study the universe. Optical telescopes placed and operated on the lunar surface would be successors to NASA's Great Observatories. Four telescopes, ranging in aperture from a 16-m, IR/Vis/UV observatory down to a 1-m, UV 'transit' instrument, have been studied by the Lunar Telescope Working Group and the LUTE (lunar telescope ultraviolet experiment) Task Team of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This paper presents conceptual designs of the telescopes, provides descriptions of the telescope subsystem options selected for each concept, and outlines the potential evolution of their science capabilities.

  20. Remote compositional analysis of lunar olivine-rich lithologies with Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectra

    Isaacson, P.J.; Pieters, C.M.; Besse, S.; Clark, R.N.; Head, J.W.; Klima, R.L.; Mustard, J.F.; Petro, N.E.; Staid, M.I.; Sunshine, J.M.; Taylor, L.A.; Thaisen, K.G.; Tompkins, S.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic approach for deconvolving remotely sensed lunar olivine-rich visible to near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra with the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) is evaluated with Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M 3) spectra. Whereas earlier studies of laboratory reflectance spectra focused only on complications due to chromite inclusions in lunar olivines, we develop a systematic approach for addressing (through continuum removal) the prominent continuum slopes common to remotely sensed reflectance spectra of planetary surfaces. We have validated our continuum removal on a suite of laboratory reflectance spectra. Suites of olivine-dominated reflectance spectra from a small crater near Mare Moscoviense, the Copernicus central peak, Aristarchus, and the crater Marius in the Marius Hills were analyzed. Spectral diversity was detected in visual evaluation of the spectra and was quantified using the MGM. The MGM-derived band positions are used to estimate the olivine's composition in a relative sense. Spectra of olivines from Moscoviense exhibit diversity in their absorption features, and this diversity suggests some variation in olivine Fe/Mg content. Olivines from Copernicus are observed to be spectrally homogeneous and thus are predicted to be more compositionally homogeneous than those at Moscoviense but are of broadly similar composition to the Moscoviense olivines. Olivines from Aristarchus and Marius exhibit clear spectral differences from those at Moscoviense and Copernicus but also exhibit features that suggest contributions from other phases. If the various precautions discussed here are weighed carefully, the methods presented here can be used to make general predictions of absolute olivine composition (Fe/Mg content). Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Modeling lunar calendar effects in taiwan

    Jin-Lung Lin; Tian- Syh Liu

    2003-01-01

    The three most important Chinese holidays, Chinese New Year, the Dragon- boat Festival, and Mid-Autumn Holiday have dates determined by a lunar calendar and move between two solar months. Consumption, production, and other economic behavior in countries with large Chinese population including Taiwan are strongly affected by these holidays. For example, production accelerates before lunar new year, almost completely stops during the holidays and gradually rises to an average level after the ho...

  2. Coumestrol and its metabolite in mares' plasma after ingestion of phytoestrogen-rich plants: potent endocrine disruptors inducing infertility.

    Ferreira-Dias, G; Botelho, M; Zagrajczuk, A; Rebordão, M R; Galvão, A M; Bravo, P Pinto; Piotrowska-Tomala, K; Szóstek, A Z; Wiczkowski, W; Piskula, M; Fradinho, M J; Skarzynski, D J

    2013-10-01

    Phytoestrogens exist in plants that are present in forages fed to horses. They may compete with 17-β estradiol and influence the estrous cycle. Therefore, the objective was to determine whether coumestrol from clover-mixed pastures is present in mare's plasma after their ingestion (experiment I), and when this phytoestrogen was present in mare's plasma after ingestion (experiment II). The effect of a long-term ingestion of phytoestrogens on estrous cycle disruption was assessed (experiment III; clinical case). Experiment I was carried out in nonpregnant anestrous and cyclic Lusitano mares (n = 14) kept on clover and grass-mixed pastures, and supplemented with concentrate and hay or cereal straw. Blood and feedstuff were obtained from November to March. In experiment II, stabled cyclic Lusitano mares (n = 6) were fed for 14 days with increasing amounts of alfalfa pellets (250 g to 1 kg/day). Sequential blood samples were obtained for 8 hours after feed intake on Day 0 (control) and on Days 13 and 14 (1 kg/day alfalfa pellets). Experiment III mares were fed with a mixture of alfalfa and clover haylage for 5 months (group 1; n = 4) or for 9 months (group 2; n = 12). Estrous cycle was determined on the basis of plasma estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and ultrasound (experiment III). Concentrations of phytoestrogen coumestrol and its metabolite methoxycoumestrol were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Phytoestrogens decreased in pasture from November until March (P haylage) than in group 1, after haylage withdrawal (P < 0.001). These data show that in the mare, coumestrol and its metabolite increase in blood after ingestion of estrogenic plants and can influence reproduction in mares as potent endocrine disruptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gestational length in Carthusian broodmares: effects of breeding season, foal gender, age of mare, year of parturition, parity and sire.

    Satué, K; Felipe, M; Mota, J; Muñoz, A

    2011-01-01

    The length of gestation in Carthusian broodmares was calculated on the basis of 339 spontaneous full-term deliveries taking place in the 8-year period 1998-2005 from 158 broodmares and 29 stallions in a major farm of Spanish horses of Carthusian strain in southern Spain. Ultrasonography was used to determine follicular dehiscence, 1st day of pregnancy and to confirm conception in mares. Mean GL was 332.4 +/- 12.1 days, and a normal interval of 297-358 days was established for this breed. GL records were grouped on the basis of foal sex (colts or fillies), mating month (between November and January; February and April; May and July), age of the mare (4 to 7 years; 8 to 12 years; 13 to 17 years), breeding year, stallion and parity (primiparous vs. multiparous). GLs were 12.9 days shorter in mares mated between May and July than those mated between November and January and 15.3 days in mares mated between February and April (p < 0.001). Mares aged between 8-12 years had 5.3 days shorter GLs than those aged between 13-17 years (p < 0.05). Pregnancy was significantly 5.7 days longer when the mare gave birth to colts than fillies (p < 0.05). GL was 14.5 days longer in primiparous than in multiparous mares ( p < 0.001). No statistical differences in GL were found between the studied years. This study shows the influence of certain stallion on GL.

  4. Progesterone levels and days to luteolysis in mares treated with intrauterine fractionated coconut oil.

    Diel de Amorim, Mariana; Nielsen, Kayla; Cruz, Raissa Karolliny Salgueiro; Card, Claire

    2016-07-15

    Intrauterine plant oil infusion, including fractionated coconut oil, has been previously found to be a safe, inexpensive, and reversible method of prolonging the luteal phase in mares when administered on Day 10 of the estrous cycle. Our objective was to understand the uteroovarian response to the administration of fractionated coconut oil infusion in the uterus of diestrous mares. We hypothesized that intrauterine coconut oil administration on Day 10 would prolong luteal life span in a dose-dependent fashion and would result in higher serum progesterone levels than untreated mares at the expected time of luteolysis. Light-horse mares (n = 18) were examined using transrectal palpation and ultrasonography to determine if they had a normal interovulatory interval and were then examined daily in estrus until the day of ovulation (Day 0) and then every other day during an estrous cycle. Jugular blood was drawn on Day 11, Day 13, Day 15, and Day 17, centrifuged, and serum stored until assayed for progesterone (P4; Siemens Coat-a-Count Progesterone RIA, Los Angeles, CA, USA). Mares were randomly assigned to treatment and studied over one to two estrous cycles with a rest cycle after each treatment cycle. Groups were: control (n = 5), fractionated coconut oil 1.0 mL (Miglyol 810; Sasol Oil, Witten, Germany) infused in the uterus with an artificial insemination pipette on Day 10 (Group 1; n = 5) and fractionated coconut oil 0.5 mL infused in the uterus with an embryo transfer gun, on Day 10 (Group 2; n = 5). All statistical analyses were performed using analytical software (Stata SE, version 13.1, College Station, TX, USA) at P < 0.05. Data were first evaluated using the Shapiro-Wilk test for normality. Differences between groups in days to luteolysis (DTL) were examined using analysis of variance and Bonferroni, and the effect of day and treatment on P4 levels were examined using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's all pairwise test. There was a significant

  5. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope systematics of the lunar Mg-suite: the age of the lunar crust and its relation to the time of Moon formation.

    Carlson, Richard W; Borg, Lars E; Gaffney, Amy M; Boyet, Maud

    2014-09-13

    New Rb-Sr, (146,147)Sm-(142,143)Nd and Lu-Hf isotopic analyses of Mg-suite lunar crustal rocks 67667, 76335, 77215 and 78238, including an internal isochron for norite 77215, were undertaken to better define the time and duration of lunar crust formation and the history of the source materials of the Mg-suite. Isochron ages determined in this study for 77215 are: Rb-Sr=4450±270 Ma, (147)Sm-(143)Nd=4283±23 Ma and Lu-Hf=4421±68 Ma. The data define an initial (146)Sm/(144)Sm ratio of 0.00193±0.00092 corresponding to ages between 4348 and 4413 Ma depending on the half-life and initial abundance used for (146)Sm. The initial Nd and Hf isotopic compositions of all samples indicate a source region with slight enrichment in the incompatible elements in accord with previous suggestions that the Mg-suite crustal rocks contain a component of KREEP. The Sm/Nd-(142)Nd/(144)Nd correlation shown by both ferroan anorthosite and Mg-suite rocks is coincident with the trend defined by mare and KREEP basalts, the slope of which corresponds to ages between 4.35 and 4.45 Ga. These data, along with similar ages for various early Earth differentiation events, are in accord with the model of lunar formation via giant impact into Earth at ca 4.4 Ga. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most eagerly studied questions upon initial return of lunar samples was whether significant amounts of organic compounds, including amino acids, were present. Analyses during the 1970s produced only tentative and inconclusive identifications of indigenous amino acids. Those analyses were hampered by analytical difficulties including relative insensitivity to certain compounds, the inability to separate chiral enantiomers, and the lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements, which made it impossible to determine whether the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the results of contamination. Numerous advances have been made in instrumentation and methodology for amino acid characterization in extraterrestrial samples in the intervening years, yet the origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples has been revisited only once for a single lunar sample, (3) and remains unclear. Here, we present initial data from the analyses of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples. We discuss these abundances in the context of four potential amino acid sources: (1) terrestrial biological contamination; (2) contamination from lunar module (LM) exhaust; (3) derivation from solar windimplanted precursors; and (4) exogenous delivery from meteorites.

  7. Extraction of Water from Lunar Permafrost

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing indicates the presence of hydrogen rich regions associated with the lunar poles. The logical hypothesis is that there is cryogenically trapped water ice located in craters at the lunar poles. Some of the craters have been in permanent darkness for a billion years. The presence of water at the poles as well as other scientific advantages of a polar base, have influenced NASA plans for the lunar outpost. The lunar outpost has water and oxygen requirements on the order of 1 ton per year scaling up to as much as 5 tons per year. Microwave heating of the frozen permafrost has unique advantages for water extraction. Proof of principle experiments have successfully demonstrated that microwaves will couple to the cryogenic soil in a vacuum and the sublimed water vapor can be successfully captured on a cold trap. Dielectric property measurements of lunar soil simulant have been measured. Microwave absorption and attenuation in lunar soil simulant has been correlated with measured dielectric properties. Future work will be discussed.

  8. COMPASS Final Report: Lunar Communications Terminal (LCT)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Communications Terminal (LCT) COllaborative Modeling and Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) session designed a terminal to provide communications between lunar South Pole assets, communications relay to/from these assets through an orbiting Lunar Relay Satellite (LRS) and navigation support. The design included a complete master equipment list, power requirement list, configuration design, and brief risk assessment and cost analysis. The Terminal consists of a pallet containing the communications and avionics equipment, surrounded by the thermal control system (radiator), an attached, deployable 10-m tower, upon which were mounted locally broadcasting and receiving modems and a deployable 1 m diameter Ka/S band dish which provides relay communications with the lunar relay satellites and, as a backup, Earth when it is in view. All power was assumed to come from the lunar outpost Habitat. Three LCT design options were explored: a stand-alone LCT servicing the manned outpost, an integrated LCT (into the Habitat or Lunar Lander), and a mini-LCT which provides a reduced level of communication for primarily robotic areas dealing as in situ resource utilization (ISRU) and remote science. Where possible all the designs assumed single fault tolerance. Significant mass savings were found when integrating the LCT into the Habitat or Lander but increases in costs occurred depending upon the level of man rating required for such designs.

  9. Plume Mitigation: Soil Erosion and Lunar Prospecting Sensor Project

    Metzger, Philip T.

    2014-01-01

    Demonstrate feasibility of the simplest, lowest-mass method of measuring density of a cloud of lunar soil ejected by rocket exhaust, using new math techniques with a small baseline laser/camera system. Focus is on exploring the erosion process that occurs when the exhaust plume of a lunar rocket impacts the regolith. Also, predicting the behavior of the lunar soil that would be blasted from a lunar landing/launch site shall assist in better design and protection of any future lunar settlement from scouring of structures and equipment. NASA is gathering experimental data to improve soil erosion models and understand how lunar particles enter the plume flow.

  10. Low-Energy Ballistic Transfers to Lunar Halo Orbits

    Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Recent lunar missions have begun to take advantage of the benefits of low-energy ballistic transfers between the Earth and the Moon rather than implementing conventional Hohmann-like lunar transfers. Both Artemis and GRAIL plan to implement low-energy lunar transfers in the next few years. This paper explores the characteristics and potential applications of many different families of low-energy ballistic lunar transfers. The transfers presented here begin from a wide variety of different orbits at the Earth and follow several different distinct pathways to the Moon. This paper characterizes these pathways to identify desirable low-energy lunar transfers for future lunar missions.

  11. A Combined XRD/XRF Instrument for Lunar Resource Assessment

    Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Blacic, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Robotic surface missions to the Moon should be capable of measuring mineral as well as chemical abundances in regolith samples. Although much is already known about the lunar regolith, our data are far from comprehensive. Most of the regolith samples returned to Earth for analysis had lost the upper surface, or it was intermixed with deeper regolith. This upper surface is the part of the regolith most recently exposed to the solar wind; as such it will be important to resource assessment. In addition, it may be far easier to mine and process the uppermost few centimeters of regolith over a broad area than to engage in deep excavation of a smaller area. The most direct means of analyzing the regolith surface will be by studies in situ. In addition, the analysis of the impact-origin regolith surfaces, the Fe-rich glasses of mare pyroclastic deposits, are of resource interest, but are inadequately known; none of the extensive surface-exposed pyroclastic deposits of the Moon have been systematically sampled, although we know something about such deposits from the Apollo 17 site. Because of the potential importance of pyroclastic deposits, methods to quantify glass as well as mineral abundances will be important to resource evaluation. Combined x ray diffraction (XRD) and x ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis will address many resource characterization problems on the Moon. XRF methods are valuable for obtaining full major-element abundances with high precision. Such data, collected in parallel with quantitative mineralogy, permit unambiguous determination of both mineral and chemical abundances where concentrations are high enough to be of resource grade. Collection of both XRD and XRF data from a single sample provides simultaneous chemical and mineralogic information. These data can be used to correlate quantitative chemistry and mineralogy as a set of simultaneous linear equations, the solution of which can lead to full characterization of the sample. The use of

  12. Characterizing dark mantle deposits in the lunar crater Alphonsus

    Shkuratov, Y. G.; Ivanov, M. A.; Korokhin, V. V.; Kaydash, V. G.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Videen, G.; Hradyska, L. V.; Velikodsky, Y. I.; Marchenko, G. P.

    2018-04-01

    We analyze available remote-sensing data of the crater Alphonsus, focusing on the analysis of the crater's dark mantle deposits (DMDs), which includes images from NASA Clementine and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Japanese Selene (Kaguya), and Indian Chandrayaan-1 missions. The Alphonsus DMDs are gentle-sloped flat hills with typical heights of several meters, which are presented with pyroclastic materials. Our determination of the absolute ages of the Alphonsus DMDs by the technique of crater size-frequency distributions shows that they are ∼200-400 m.y. old. However, being geologically young, the Alphonsus DMDs are not seen in OMAT maps. The DMDs have noticeably lower content of TiO2 (2-3%) than the mare regions to the west (>4%). The assessment of total pyroxene shows it has a higher abundance in the DMDs, although LRO Diviner measurements of the Chirstiansen feature suggest, rather, a high abundance of olivine. The DMDs pyroclastic material has no signs of OH/H2O compounds. We may suggest that this characteristic of the DMDs either relates to their impact reworking and loss of the OH/H2O compounds or to the non-water volatiles as the driving agent of the pyroclastic activity. The compositional assessments of the DMDs may be flawed from contamination with the surrounding material due to horizontal and vertical transportation due to impacts. This effect probably can be observed in LROC NAC images of high resolution. A very dark material outcropping on the slopes of the vent depression is seen due to renovation of the regolith on the steep walls of the depression. Thus, at smaller phase angles, the pyroclastic material is dark and at larger phase angles it appears almost like the surrounding material. This means that the phase dependence of the outcropping dark material is shallow; i.e. the dark surface is smoother than its surroundings. This may suggest venting of gases resulting in fluidization of the granular pyroclastic material of the deposit.

  13. Lunar e-Library: A Research Tool Focused on the Lunar Environment

    McMahan, Tracy A.; Shea, Charlotte A.; Finckenor, Miria; Ferguson, Dale

    2007-01-01

    As NASA plans and implements the Vision for Space Exploration, managers, engineers, and scientists need lunar environment information that is readily available and easily accessed. For this effort, lunar environment data was compiled from a variety of missions from Apollo to more recent remote sensing missions, such as Clementine. This valuable information comes not only in the form of measurements and images but also from the observations of astronauts who have visited the Moon and people who have designed spacecraft for lunar missions. To provide a research tool that makes the voluminous lunar data more accessible, the Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program, managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL, organized the data into a DVD knowledgebase: the Lunar e-Library. This searchable collection of 1100 electronic (.PDF) documents and abstracts makes it easy to find critical technical data and lessons learned from past lunar missions and exploration studies. The SEE Program began distributing the Lunar e-Library DVD in 2006. This paper describes the Lunar e-Library development process (including a description of the databases and resources used to acquire the documents) and the contents of the DVD product, demonstrates its usefulness with focused searches, and provides information on how to obtain this free resource.

  14. Summary of the results from the lunar orbiter laser altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Lemoine, Frank G.; Head, James W., III; Lucey, Paul G.; Aharonson, Oded; Robinson, Mark S.; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H.; Barker, Michael K.; Oberst, Juergen; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Mao, Dandan; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Jha, Kopal; Rowlands, David D.; Goossens, Sander; Baker, David; Bauer, Sven; Gläser, Philipp; Lemelin, Myriam; Rosenburg, Margaret; Sori, Michael M.; Whitten, Jennifer; Mcclanahan, Timothy

    2017-02-01

    In June 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft was launched to the Moon. The payload consists of 7 science instruments selected to characterize sites for future robotic and human missions. Among them, the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) was designed to obtain altimetry, surface roughness, and reflectance measurements. The primary phase of lunar exploration lasted one year, following a 3-month commissioning phase. On completion of its exploration objectives, the LRO mission transitioned to a science mission. After 7 years in lunar orbit, the LOLA instrument continues to map the lunar surface. The LOLA dataset is one of the foundational datasets acquired by the various LRO instruments. LOLA provided a high-accuracy global geodetic reference frame to which past, present and future lunar observations can be referenced. It also obtained high-resolution and accurate global topography that were used to determine regions in permanent shadow at the lunar poles. LOLA further contributed to the study of polar volatiles through its unique measurement of surface brightness at zero phase, which revealed anomalies in several polar craters that may indicate the presence of water ice. In this paper, we describe the many LOLA accomplishments to date and its contribution to lunar and planetary science.

  15. Summary of the Results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter after Seven Years in Lunar Orbit

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Lemoine, Frank G.; Head, James W., III; Lucey, Paul G.; Aharonson, Oded; Robinson, Mark S.; Sun, Xiaoli; hide

    2016-01-01

    In June 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft was launched to the Moon. The payload consists of 7 science instruments selected to characterize sites for future robotic and human missions. Among them, the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) was designed to obtain altimetry, surface roughness, and reflectance measurements. The primary phase of lunar exploration lasted one year, following a 3-month commissioning phase. On completion of its exploration objectives, the LRO mission transitioned to a science mission. After 7 years in lunar orbit, the LOLA instrument continues to map the lunar surface. The LOLA dataset is one of the foundational datasets acquired by the various LRO instruments. LOLA provided a high-accuracy global geodetic reference frame to which past, present and future lunar observations can be referenced. It also obtained high-resolution and accurate global topography that were used to determine regions in permanent shadow at the lunar poles. LOLA further contributed to the study of polar volatiles through its unique measurement of surface brightness at zero phase, which revealed anomalies in several polar craters that may indicate the presence of water ice. In this paper, we describe the many LOLA accomplishments to date and its contribution to lunar and planetary science.

  16. High-resolution UV-visible spectroscopy of lunar red spots

    Bruno, B. C.; Lucey, P. G.; Hawke, B. R.

    1991-01-01

    A spectral reflectance study of selected lunar 'red spots', highland areas characterized by an absorption in the ultraviolet relative to the visible was conducted. Some red spots were suggested to be the sites of ancient highland volcanism. High-resolution spectral data of eight red spots on the western portion of the moon over the wavelength region 0.39-0.82 micron were obtained. Much spectral variation among these red spots in the magnitude as well as the wavelength position of the ultraviolet absorption were found. Spectral structure at visible and near-infrared wavelength were also identified. These spectral differences indicate that red spots do not have a single mineralogical composition, which in turn suggests that red spots may have multiple origins. Additional imaging spectroscopic observations were taken of the Herigonius red spot, a morphologically complex region northeast of Mare Humorum. These data reveal significant spectral differences among the various morphological units within the Herigonius red spot. Although some of these are likely due to the effects of the maturation process, others appear to reflect differences in mineral abundances and composition.

  17. The properties of the lunar regolith at Chang'e-3 landing site: A study based on LPR data

    Feng, J.; Su, Y.; Xing, S.; Ding, C.; Li, C.

    2015-12-01

    In situ sampling from surface is difficult in the exploration of planets and sometimes radar sensing is a better choice. The properties of the surface material such as permittivity, density and depth can be obtained by a surface penetrating radar. The Chang'e-3 (CE-3) landed in the northern Mare Imbrium and a Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) is carried on the Yutu rover to detect the shallow structure of the lunar crust and the properties of the lunar regolith, which will give us a close look at the lunar subsurface. We process the radar data in a way which consist two steps: the regular preprocessing step and migration step. The preprocessing part includes zero time correction, de-wow, gain compensation, DC removal, geometric positioning. Then we combine all radar data obtained at the time the rover was moving, and use FIR filter to reduce the noise in the radar image with a pass band frequency range 200MHz-600MHz. A normal radar image is obtained after the preprocessing step. Using a nonlinear least squares fitting method, we fit the most hyperbolas in the radar image which are caused by the buried objects or rocks in the regolith and estimate the EM wave propagation velocity and the permittivity of the regolith. For there is a fixed mathematical relationship between dielectric constant and density, the density profile of the lunar regolith is also calculated. It seems that the permittivity and density at the landing site is larger than we thought before. Finally with a model of variable velocities, we apply the Kirchhoff migration method widely used in the seismology to transform the the unfocused space-time LPR image to a focused one showing the object's (most are stones) true location and size. From the migrated image, we find that the regolith depth in the landing site is smaller than previous study and the stone content rises rapidly with depth. Our study suggests that the landing site is a young region and the reworked history of the surface is short, which is

  18. Optimal Lunar Landing Trajectory Design for Hybrid Engine

    Dong-Hyun Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lunar landing stage is usually divided into two parts: deorbit burn and powered descent phases. The optimal lunar landing problem is likely to be transformed to the trajectory design problem on the powered descent phase by using continuous thrusters. The optimal lunar landing trajectories in general have variety in shape, and the lunar lander frequently increases its altitude at the initial time to obtain enough time to reduce the horizontal velocity. Due to the increment in the altitude, the lunar lander requires more fuel for lunar landing missions. In this work, a hybrid engine for the lunar landing mission is introduced, and an optimal lunar landing strategy for the hybrid engine is suggested. For this approach, it is assumed that the lunar lander retrofired the impulsive thruster to reduce the horizontal velocity rapidly at the initiated time on the powered descent phase. Then, the lunar lander reduced the total velocity and altitude for the lunar landing by using the continuous thruster. In contradistinction to other formal optimal lunar landing problems, the initial horizontal velocity and mass are not fixed at the start time. The initial free optimal control theory is applied, and the optimal initial value and lunar landing trajectory are obtained by simulation studies.

  19. Lunar Atmosphere Probe Station: A Proof-of-Concept Instrument Package for Monitoring the Lunar Atmosphere

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Stewart, K. P.; Burns, J. O.; Farrell, W. M.; Giersch, L.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Hicks, B. C.; Polisensky, E. J.; Hartman, J. M.; Nesnas, I.; Weiler, K.; Kasper, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent, the extent of contributions from volatile outgassing from the Moon, and its behavior over time, including response to the solar wind and modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) are based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, *in situ*, the vertical extent of the lunar exosphere over time. We provide an update on a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report or commercial ventures. The instrument concept is simple, consisting of an antenna implemented as a metal deposited on polyimide film and receiver. We illustrate various deployment mechanisms and performance of a prototype in increasing lunar analog conditions. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of dust impactors. The Lunar University Network for Astrophysical Research consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. Artist's impression of the Lunar Atmosphere Probe Station.

  20. The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission

    Riris, H.; Cavanaugh, J.; Sun, X.; Liiva, P.; Rodriguez, M.; Neuman, G.

    2017-11-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument [1-3] on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission, launched on June 18th, 2009, from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, will provide a precise global lunar topographic map using laser altimetry. LOLA will assist in the selection of landing sites on the Moon for future robotic and human exploration missions and will attempt to detect the presence of water ice on or near the surface, which is one of the objectives of NASA's Exploration Program. Our present knowledge of the topography of the Moon is inadequate for determining safe landing areas for NASA's future lunar exploration missions. Only those locations, surveyed by the Apollo missions, are known with enough detail. Knowledge of the position and characteristics of the topographic features on the scale of a lunar lander are crucial for selecting safe landing sites. Our present knowledge of the rest of the lunar surface is at approximately 1 km kilometer level and in many areas, such as the lunar far side, is on the order of many kilometers. LOLA aims to rectify that and provide a precise map of the lunar surface on both the far and near side of the moon. LOLA uses short (6 ns) pulses from a single laser through a Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) to produce a five-beam pattern that illuminates the lunar surface. For each beam, LOLA measures the time of flight (range), pulse spreading (surface roughness), and transmit/return energy (surface reflectance). LOLA will produce a high-resolution global topographic model and global geodetic framework that enables precise targeting, safe landing, and surface mobility to carry out exploratory activities. In addition, it will characterize the polar illumination environment, and image permanently shadowed regions of the lunar surface to identify possible locations of surface ice crystals in shadowed polar craters.

  1. The lunar tide in sporadic E

    R. J. Stening

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available It seems that the wind shear theory is accepted for the explanation of sporadic E at mid and low latitudes. Some examples from Arecibo are displayed to show this. The effect of lunar tides should then modify the wind-shear theory in a manner that yields the observed features of the lunar tide in the critical frequency foEs and the height h'Es of the sporadic E. This is shown to imply that the phase of the lunar tide in h'Es should be the same as the phase of the lunar tide in the eastward wind and that the phase of the lunar tide in foEs is three hours later. Hourly values of foEs, f bEs (the blanketing critical frequency and h'Es from several observatories are analysed for the lunar semidiurnal tide. It is found that the phase of the tide in foEs is often about 3 hours later than for h'Es in agreement with the theory. Seasonal variations in the tide are also examined with the statistically most significant results (largest amplitudes usually occurring in summer. After reviewing the many difficulties associated with determining the lunar tide in Es, both experimentally and theoretically, the analysed phase results are compared with what might be expected from Hagan's global scale wave model. Agreement is only fair (a success rate of 69% among the cases examined but probably as good as might be expected.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere – atmosphere interactions – ionospheric irregularities, Meteorology and atmosphere dynamics (waves and tides

  2. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator.

    Engel, Kilian A

    2005-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required delta v, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo. c2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel lunar bed rest analogue.

    Cavanagh, Peter R; Rice, Andrea J; Licata, Angelo A; Kuklis, Matthew M; Novotny, Sara C; Genc, Kerim O; Englehaupt, Ricki K; Hanson, Andrea M

    2013-11-01

    Humans will eventually return to the Moon and thus there is a need for a ground-based analogue to enable the study of physiological adaptations to lunar gravity. An important unanswered question is whether or not living on the lunar surface will provide adequate loading of the musculoskeletal system to prevent or attenuate the bone loss that is seen in microgravity. Previous simulations have involved tilting subjects to an approximately 9.5 degrees angle to achieve a lunar gravity component parallel to the long-axis of the body. However, subjects in these earlier simulations were not weight-bearing, and thus these protocols did not provide an analogue for load on the musculoskeletal system. We present a novel analogue which includes the capability to simulate standing and sitting in a lunar loading environment. A bed oriented at a 9.5 degrees angle was mounted on six linear bearings and was free to travel with one degree of freedom along rails. This allowed approximately 1/6 body weight loading of the feet during standing. "Lunar" sitting was also successfully simulated. A feasibility study demonstrated that the analogue was tolerated by subjects for 6 d of continuous bed rest and that the reaction forces at the feet during periods of standing were a reasonable simulation of lunar standing. During the 6 d, mean change in the volume of the quadriceps muscles was -1.6% +/- 1.7%. The proposed analogue would appear to be an acceptable simulation of lunar gravity and deserves further exploration in studies of longer duration.

  4. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator

    Engel, Kilian A.

    2005-07-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator-launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required Δv, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo.

  5. Lunar magnetic anomalies detected by the Apollo substatellite magnetometers

    Hood, L.L.; Coleman, P.J.; Russell, C.T.; Wilhelms, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Properties of lunar crustal magnetization thus far deduced from Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data are reviewed using two of the most accurate presently available magnetic anomaly maps - one covering a portion of the lunar near side and the other a part of the far side. The largest single anomaly found within the region of coverage on the near-side map correlates exactly with a conspicuous, light-colored marking in western Oceanus Procellarum called Reiner Gamma. This feature is interpreted as an unusual deposit of ejecta from secondary craters of the large nearby primary impact crater Cavalerius. An age for Cavalerius (and, by implication, for Reiner Gamma) of 3.2 ?? 0.2 ?? 109 y is estimated. The main (30 ?? 60 km) Reiner Gamma deposit is nearly uniformly magnetized in a single direction, with a minimum mean magnetization intensity of ???7 ?? 10-2 G cm3/g (assuming a density of 3 g/cm3), or about 700 times the stable magnetization component of the most magnetic returned samples. Additional medium-amplitude anomalies exist over the Fra Mauro Formation (Imbrium basin ejecta emplaced ???3.9 ?? 109 y ago) where it has not been flooded by mare basalt flows, but are nearly absent over the maria and over the craters Copernicus, Kepler, and Reiner and their encircling ejecta mantles. The mean altitude of the far-side anomaly gap is much higher than that of the near-side map and the surface geology is more complex, so individual anomaly sources have not yet been identified. However, it is clear that a concentration of especially strong sources exists in the vicinity of the craters Van de Graaff and Aitken. Numerical modeling of the associated fields reveals that the source locations do not correspond with the larger primary impact craters of the region and, by analogy with Reiner Gamma, may be less conspicuous secondary crater ejecta deposits. The reason for a special concentration of strong sources in the Van de Graaff-Aitken region is unknown, but may be indirectly

  6. Leveraging Virtual Reality for the Benefit of Lunar Exploration

    McCandless, R. S.; Burke, E. D.; McGinley, V. T.

    2017-10-01

    Virtual reality (VR) and related technologies will assist scientists with lunar exploration and public engagement. We will present the future exponential impact of VR on lunar activities over the coming decades.

  7. Lunar All-Terrain Utility Vehicle for EVA, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ProtoInnovations, LLC proposes to develop a new type of planetary rover called a Lunar All-terrain Utility Vehicle ("Lunar ATV") to assist extra-vehicular activities...

  8. Autonomous Utility Connector for Lunar Surface Systems, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar dust has been identified as a significant and present challenge in future exploration missions. The interlocking, angular nature of Lunar dust and its broad...

  9. Endoscopic monitoring the estrous phase of Arabian mares with assaying its biopsy

    Mohamed Fathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the changes occur in the vagina, cervix and endometrium during the pre- ovulatory period in Arabian mares by using endoscope as a diagnostic tool as well as the availability of taking an endoscopic biopsy during this stage.Methods: Ten cyclic and healthy arabian mares were subjected to ultrasound scanning of their ovaries to estimate the diameter of the preovulatory follicles, collection of blood samples for estimating the hormonal levels (Estradiol-17 β and progestrone for confirming the estrous phase, endoscopic monitoring their vagina, cervix and endometrium, the availability of taking biopsical samples and histological examination of the obtained samples.Results: The obtained data revealed that, the mean diameter of the preovulatory follicles was (3.95±0.34 cm, the plasma estradiol and progestrone levels were (85.98±5.26 pg/mL and (0.73±0.23 ng/mL, respectively, endoscopic monitoring the vagina, cervix and endometrium revealed hyperemic vaginal mucous membrane, soft and opened cervical ostium with abundant estrous mucous and folding, hyperemic and edematous appearance of the endometrium, respectively and the histological features of the biopsical endometrial samples revealed that, The lamina propria-sub mucosa was packed with simple or branched tubular glands lined with simple columnar epithelium showing oval or rounded dark nuclei with different degrees of secretory activities of the glands.Conclusions: The endoscope proved to be a reliable tool for confirming the estrous phase in mares and monitoring the gross features of the vagina, the cervix and the endometrium, in addition to the availability of taking biopsical smears.

  10. The lunar thermal ice pump

    Schorghofer, Norbert [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Aharonson, Oded, E-mail: norbert@hawaii.edu [Helen Kimmel Center for Planetary Science, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel)

    2014-06-20

    It has long been suggested that water ice can exist in extremely cold regions near the lunar poles, where sublimation loss is negligible. The geographic distribution of H-bearing regolith shows only a partial or ambiguous correlation with permanently shadowed areas, thus suggesting that another mechanism may contribute to locally enhancing water concentrations. We show that under suitable conditions, water molecules can be pumped down into the regolith by day-night temperature cycles, leading to an enrichment of H{sub 2}O in excess of the surface concentration. Ideal conditions for pumping are estimated and found to occur where the mean surface temperature is below 105 K and the peak surface temperature is above 120 K. These conditions complement those of the classical cold traps that are roughly defined by peak temperatures lower than 120 K. On the present-day Moon, an estimated 0.8% of the global surface area experiences such temperature variations. Typically, pumping occurs on pole-facing slopes in small areas, but within a few degrees of each pole the equator-facing slopes are preferred. Although pumping of water molecules is expected over cumulatively large areas, the absolute yield of this pump is low; at best, a few percent of the H{sub 2}O delivered to the surface could have accumulated in the near-surface layer in this way. The amount of ice increases with vapor diffusivity and is thus higher in the regolith with large pore spaces.

  11. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd chronology and genealogy of mare basalts from the Sea of Tranquility

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Depaolo, D. J.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages of two Apollo 11 mare basalts, high-K basalt 10072 and low-K basalt 10062, are reported. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and Ar-40-Ar-39 ages are in good agreement and indicate an extensive time interval for filling of the Sea of Tranquility, presumably by thin lava flows, in agreement with similar observations for the Ocean of Storms. Initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions on Apollo 11 basalts reveal at least two parent sources producing basalts. The Sm-Nd isotopic data demonstrate that low-K and high-Ti basalts from Apollo 11 and 17 derived from distinct reservoirs, while low-Ti Apollo 15 mare basalt sources have Sm/Nd similar to the sources of Apollo 11 basalts. Groupings of mare basalt based on Ti content and on isotopic data do not coincide.

  12. Effect of immunomodulatory therapy on the endometrial inflammatory response to induced infectious endometritis in susceptible mares

    Christoffersen, Mette; Woodward, Elizabeth; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2012-01-01

    endometritis based on their endometrial histopathology and ability to clear an induced uterine inflammation. To investigate the effect of immunomodulatory therapy, the mares were inoculated with 10(5) colony forming units (CFU) Escherichia coli in three consecutive estrus cycles in a modified cross-over study...... inoculation. Endometrial biopsies were recovered 3, 24 and 72 h post inoculation. Relative gene-expression analyses were performed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Endometrial gene expression of inflammatory cytokines was modulated by administration of GC. Expression of proinflammatory...

  13. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, J.; Schougaard, H.

    2006-01-01

    may occur. Mycoplasmas have been implicated in genital disorders and infertility of many species including humans and horses. However, their role as commensals or pathogens of the genital tract of horses is still not determined. Bacteriological examinations made on the fossa glandis, urethra, penis...... and semen of stallions, showed the presence of different Mycoplasma species. Therefore our study aimed to find the prevalence of Mycoplasma species and a possible association with fertility problems in Danish riding horses. Eighty semen samples from stallions and 19 vaginal swab samples from mares were...

  14. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, J; Schougaard, H

    2007-01-01

    may occur. Mycoplasmas have been implicated in genital disorders and infertility of many species including humans and horses. However, their role as commensals or pathogens of the genital tract of horses is still not determined. Bacteriological examinations made on the fossa glandis, urethra, penis...... and semen of stallions, showed the presence of different Mycoplasma species. Therefore our study aimed to find the prevalence of Mycoplasma species and a possible association with fertility problems in Danish riding horses. Eighty semen samples from stallions and 19 vaginal swab samples from mares were...

  15. Endoscopic diagnosis and management of an unusual nasal foreign body in a mare

    Turke M. Shawaf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of intra-nasal foreign bodies is uncommon in horses. This report describes -for the first time- a case of a 4-year-old Arabian-cross mare with unilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, epistaxis and exercise intolerance due to intra-nasal foreign body. Clinical signs, radiography and endoscopic examination confirmed the presence of a tooth fragment (foreign body embedded in the ventral valve of the left nasal cavity. The foreign body was successfully removed using alligator forceps under endoscopic guidance.

  16. Compositional analyses of small lunar pyroclastic deposits using Clementine multispectral data

    Gaddis, L.R.; Hawke, B.R.; Robinson, M.S.; Coombs, C.

    2000-01-01

    Clementine ultraviolet-visible (UVVIS) data are used to examine the compositions of 18 pyroclastic deposits (15 small, three large) at 13 sites on the Moon. Compositional variations among pyroclastic deposits largely result from differing amounts of new basaltic (or juvenile) material and reworked local material entrained in their ejecta upon eruption. Characterization of pyroclastic deposit compositions allows us to understand the mechanisms of lunar explosive volcanism. Evidence for compositional differences between small pyroclastic deposits at a single site is observed at Atlas crater. At all sites, compositional variation among the small pyroclastic deposits is consistent with earlier classification based on Earth-based spectra: three compositional groups can be observed, and the trend of increasing mafic absorption band strength from Group 1 to Group 2 to Group 3 is noted. As redefined here, Group 1 deposits include those of Alphonsus West, Alphonsus Southeast, Alphonsus Northeast 2, Atlas South, Crüger, Franklin, Grimaldi, Lavoisier, Oppenheimer, Orientale, and Riccioli. Group 1 deposits resemble lunar highlands, with weak mafic bands and relatively high UV/VIS ratios. Group 2 deposits include those of Alphonsus Northeast 1, Atlas North, Eastern Frigoris East and West, and Aristarchus Plateau; Group 2 deposits are similar to mature lunar maria, with moderate mafic band depths and intermediate UV/VIS ratios. The single Group 3 deposit, J. Herschel, has a relatively strong mafic band and a low UV/VIS ratio, and olivine is a likely juvenile component. Two of the deposits in these groups, Orientale and Aristarchus, are large pyroclastic deposits. The third large pyroclastic deposit, Apollo 17/Taurus Littrow, has a very weak mafic band and a high UV/VIS ratio and it does not belong to any of the compositional groups for small pyroclastic deposits. The observed compositional variations indicate that highland and mare materials are also present in many large and

  17. Optimal Lunar Landing Trajectory Design for Hybrid Engine

    Cho, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Donghoon; Leeghim, Henzeh

    2015-01-01

    The lunar landing stage is usually divided into two parts: deorbit burn and powered descent phases. The optimal lunar landing problem is likely to be transformed to the trajectory design problem on the powered descent phase by using continuous thrusters. The optimal lunar landing trajectories in general have variety in shape, and the lunar lander frequently increases its altitude at the initial time to obtain enough time to reduce the horizontal velocity. Due to the increment in the altitude,...

  18. Experimental Fractional Crystallization of the Lunar Magma Ocean

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    The current paradigm for lunar evolution is of crystallization of a global scale magma ocean, giving rise to the anorthositic crust and mafic cumulate interior. It is thought that all other lunar rocks have arisen from this differentiated interior. However, until recently this paradigm has remained untested experimentally. Presented here are the first experimental results of fractional crystallization of a Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) using the Taylor Whole Moon (TWM) bulk lunar composition [1].

  19. Recreating Galileo's 1609 Discovery of Lunar Mountains

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Needham, Paul S.; Wright, Ernest T.; Gingerich, Owen

    2014-11-01

    The question of exactly which lunar features persuaded Galileo that there were mountains on the moon has not yet been definitively answered; Galileo was famously more interested in the concepts rather than the topographic mapping in his drawings and the eventual engravings. Since the pioneering work of Ewen Whitaker on trying to identify which specific lunar-terminator features were those that Galileo identified as mountains on the moon in his 1609 observations reported in his Sidereus Nuncius (Venice, 1610), and since the important work on the sequence of Galileo's observations by Owen Gingerich (see "The Mystery of the Missing 2" in Galilaeana IX, 2010, in which he concludes that "the Florentine bifolium sheet [with Galileo's watercolor images] is Galileo's source for the reworked lunar diagrams in Sidereus Nuncius"), there have been advances in lunar topographical measurements that should advance the discussion. In particular, one of us (E.T.W.) at the Scientific Visualization Studio of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has used laser-topography from NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to recreate what Galileo would have seen over a sequence of dates in late November and early December 1609, and provided animations both at native resolution and at the degraded resolution that Galileo would have observed with his telescope. The Japanese Kaguya spacecraft also provides modern laser-mapped topographical maps.

  20. Lunar surface exploration using mobile robots

    Nishida, Shin-Ichiro; Wakabayashi, Sachiko

    2012-06-01

    A lunar exploration architecture study is being carried out by space agencies. JAXA is carrying out research and development of a mobile robot (rover) to be deployed on the lunar surface for exploration and outpost construction. The main target areas for outpost construction and lunar exploration are mountainous zones. The moon's surface is covered by regolith. Achieving a steady traversal of such irregular terrain constitutes the major technical problem for rovers. A newly developed lightweight crawler mechanism can effectively traverse such irregular terrain because of its low contact force with the ground. This fact was determined on the basis of the mass and expected payload of the rover. This paper describes a plan for Japanese lunar surface exploration using mobile robots, and presents the results of testing and analysis needed in their development. This paper also gives an overview of the lunar exploration robot to be deployed in the SELENE follow-on mission, and the composition of its mobility, navigation, and control systems.

  1. Design of a lunar oxygen production plant

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam

    1990-01-01

    To achieve permanent human presence and activity on the moon, oxygen is required for both life support and propulsion. Lunar oxygen production using resources existing on the moon will reduce or eliminate the need to transport liquid oxygen from earth. In addition, the co-products of oxygen production will provide metals, structural ceramics, and other volatile compounds. This will enable development of even greater self-sufficiency as the lunar outpost evolves. Ilmenite is the most abundant metal-oxide mineral in the lunar regolith. A process involving the reaction of ilmenite with hydrogen at 1000 C to produce water, followed by the electrolysis of this water to provide oxygen and recycle the hydrogen has been explored. The objective of this 1990 Summer Faculty Project was to design a lunar oxygen-production plant to provide 5 metric tons of liquid oxygen per year from lunar soil. The results of this study describe the size and mass of the equipment, the power needs, feedstock quantity and the engineering details of the plant.

  2. A Ground-Based Comparison of the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) and a Standard Isokinetic Dynamometer

    Hackney, K. J.; English, K. L.; Redd, E.; DeWitt, J. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: 1) To compare the test-to-test reliability of Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) with a standard laboratory isokinetic dynamometer (ISOK DYN) and; 2) to determine if measures of peak torque and total work differ between devices. METHODS: Ten subjects (6M, 4F) completed two trials on both MARES and an ISOK DYN in a counterbalanced order. Peak torque values at 60 deg & 180 deg / s were obtained from five maximal repetitions of knee extension (KE) and knee flexion (KF). Total work at 180 deg / s was determined from the area under the torque vs. displacement curve during twenty maximal repetitions of KE and KF. Reliability of measures within devices was interpreted from the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and compared between devices using the ratio of the within-device standard deviations. Indicators of agreement for the two devices were evaluated from: 1) a calculation of concordance (rho) and; 2) the correlation between the mean of measures versus the delta difference between measures (m u vs delta). RESULTS: For all outcome measures ICCs were high for both the ISOK DYN (0.95-0.99) and MARES (0.90-0.99). However, ratios of the within-device standard deviation were 1.3 to 4.3 times higher on MARES. On average, a wide range (3.3 to 1054 Nm) of differences existed between the values obtained. Only KE peak torque measured at 60 deg & 180 deg / s showed similarities between devices (rho = 0.91 & 0.87; Pearson's r for m u vs delta = -0.22 & -0.37, respectively). CONCLUSION: Although MARES was designed for use in microgravity it was quite reliable during ground-based testing. However, MARES was consistently more variable than an ISOK DYN. Future longitudinal studies evaluating a change in isokinetic peak torque or total work should be limited within one device.

  3. THE IMPORTANCE OF TECHNICAL INFRASTRUCTURE IN TERRITORY. CASE STUDY: DRINKING WATER SUPPLY IN DÂNGĂU MARE, CLUJ COUNTY

    M. ALEXE

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of technical infrastructure in territory. Case study: drinking water supply in Dângău Mare, Cluj County. Water represents an important element in life. Accessibility, water quantity and quality show the standard of living of one community. This article presents a case study, the one of water supply in Dângău Mare from Cluj County. The purpose of this analysis is to reveal the benefits of applying some measures regarding water supply in the rural area, as well as the dysfunction abilities which derive from a bad management (eg. lack of sewage system. Dângău Mare lies near the Gilău Mountains and possesses important and rich resources of surface and underground waters varying under qualitative ratio. The hydrological resources of Dângău Mare are made up of river/rivulet networks (Mireş, Blidaru, Agârbiciu, phreatic waters and natural springs. The identification and delimitation of the Dângău Mare territory represents the first stage of this study, followed by the consultation of bibliographic and cartographic sources, field surveys, to obtain the qualitative and quantitative pieces of information. The second stage consists in the analyzation and classification of information, the integrated study of phenomena and elaboration of cartographic models using GIS. At the end of this study we have made the SWOT analysis to emphasize the characteristics of favourability, the anomalies and the opportunities to improve and develop the territory of Dângău Mare from Cluj County.

  4. Influence of the Choice of Lunar Gravity Model on Orbit Determination for Lunar Orbiters

    Young-Rok Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the influence of the lunar gravity model on the orbit determination (OD of a lunar orbiter operating in a 100 km high, lunar polar orbit. Doppler and sequential range measurements by three Deep Space Network antennas and one Korea Deep Space Antenna were used. For measurement simulation and OD analysis, STK11 and ODTK6 were utilized. GLGM2, LP100K, LP150Q, GRAIL420A, and GRAIL660B were used for investigation of lunar gravity model selection effect. OD results were assessed by position and velocity uncertainties with error covariance and an external orbit comparison using simulated true orbit. The effect of the lunar gravity models on the long-term OD, degree and order level, measurement-acquisition condition, and lunar altitude was investigated. For efficiency verification, computational times for the five lunar gravity models were compared. Results showed that significant improvements to OD accuracy are observed by applying a GRAIL-based model; however, applying a full order and degree gravity modeling is not always the best strategy, owing to the computational burden. Consequently, we consider that OD using GRAIL660B with 70 × 70 degree and order is the most efficient strategy for mission preanalysis. This study provides useful guideline for KPLO OD analysis during nominal mission operation.

  5. Introduction of JAXA Lunar and Planetary Exploration Data Analysis Group: Landing Site Analysis for Future Lunar Polar Exploration Missions

    Otake, H.; Ohtake, M.; Ishihara, Y.; Masuda, K.; Sato, H.; Inoue, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Hoshino, T.; Wakabayashi, S.; Hashimoto, T.

    2018-04-01

    JAXA established JAXA Lunar and Planetary Exploration Data Analysis Group (JLPEDA) at 2016. Our group has been analyzing lunar and planetary data for various missions. Here, we introduce one of our activities.

  6. Design of guidance laws for lunar pinpoint soft landing

    Guo, J.; Han, C.

    2009-01-01

    Future lunar missions ask for the capability to perform precise Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) to the selected landing sites on the lunar surface. This paper studies the guidance issues for the lunar pinpoint soft landing problem. The primary contribution of this paper is the design of

  7. The Near Side : Regional Lunar Gravity Field Determination

    Goossens, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the past ten years the Moon has come fully back into focus, resulting in missions such as Clementine and Lunar Prospector. Data from these missions resulted in a boost in lunar gravity field modelling. Until this date, the lunar gravity field has mainly been expressed in a global representation,

  8. Lunar Cycles, Catchability of Penaeid Shrimps and Implications for ...

    Keywords: Penaeidae, fishing effort, lunar phases, profitability, spatial closures. ... closures during periods of the lunar cycle with predictably low catch-per- ... each lunar phase and month using two-way ANOVA. ... shrimps, for which the CPUE declined throughout the fishing season ... (Garcia, 1988) and abundance of.

  9. Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' at the Descartes landing site

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' is part of the lunar scene at the Descartes landing site, as seen in the reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Note the U.S. flag deployed on the left. This picture was made during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2).

  10. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface siumlation training

    1969-01-01

    Suited Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit, participates in lunar surface simulation training on April 18, 1969, in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he simulates scooping up a lunar surface sample.

  11. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface simulation training

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), participates in lunar surface simulation training on April 18, 1969 in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center. Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he is standing on Lunar Module mockup foot pad preparing to ascend steps.

  12. On the chronology of lunar origin and evolution. Implications for Earth, Mars and the Solar System as a whole

    Geiss, Johannes; Rossi, Angelo Pio

    2013-11-01

    An origin of the Moon by a Giant Impact is presently the most widely accepted theory of lunar origin. It is consistent with the major lunar observations: its exceptionally large size relative to the host planet, the high angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system, the extreme depletion of volatile elements, and the delayed accretion, quickly followed by the formation of a global crust and mantle. According to this theory, an impact on Earth of a Mars-sized body set the initial conditions for the formation and evolution of the Moon. The impact produced a protolunar cloud. Fast accretion of the Moon from the dense cloud ensured an effective transformation of gravitational energy into heat and widespread melting. A "Magma Ocean" of global dimensions formed, and upon cooling, an anorthositic crust and a mafic mantle were created by gravitational separation. Several 100 million years after lunar accretion, long-lived isotopes of K, U and Th had produced enough additional heat for inducing partial melting in the mantle; lava extruded into large basins and solidified as titanium-rich mare basalt. This delayed era of extrusive rock formation began about 3.9 Ga ago and may have lasted nearly 3 Ga. A relative crater count timescale was established and calibrated by radiometric dating (i.e., dating by use of radioactive decay) of rocks returned from six Apollo landing regions and three Luna landing spots. Fairly well calibrated are the periods ≈4 Ga to ≈3 Ga BP (before present) and ≈0.8 Ga BP to the present. Crater counting and orbital chemistry (derived from remote sensing in spectral domains ranging from γ- and x-rays to the infrared) have identified mare basalt surfaces in the Oceanus Procellarum that appear to be nearly as young as 1 Ga. Samples returned from this area are needed for narrowing the gap of 2 Ga in the calibrated timescale. The lunar timescale is not only used for reconstructing lunar evolution, but it serves also as a standard for chronologies of the

  13. Expression of oxytocin receptors is greatly reduced in the placenta of heavy mares with retained fetal membranes due to secondary uterine atony.

    Rapacz-Leonard, A; Raś, A; Całka, J; Janowski, T E

    2015-09-01

    Fetal membrane retention can be a life-threatening condition and its incidence exceeds 50% in heavy draught mares. Although fetal membrane retention is commonly treated with repeated injections of oxytocin, based on the suggestion that it is caused mainly by secondary atony of the uterus, this treatment sometimes fails. This led us to ask if expression of oxytocin receptors differs in mares that retain fetal membranes due to secondary uterine atony. To determine whether expression of oxytocin receptors in equine placental tissues differs when heavy draught mares expel fetal membranes or retain them because of secondary uterine atony. Controlled study using archived tissues. Placental biopsies (containing the endometrium and allantochorion) were taken from 8 heavy draught mares during parturition. Four mares expelled fetal membranes shortly after foaling (control mares) and 4 mares retained them (expulsion time was >3 h from delivery). The 4 mares that retained fetal membranes had secondary atony of the uterus. The amount of oxytocin receptors was estimated by measuring the intensity of western blot bands. The presence and location of oxytocin receptors were determined by immunocytochemistry. Oxytocin receptor expression was nearly 50 times less intense in mares with placenta retention due to secondary atony of the uterus and immunocytochemical staining was barely visible. In the control mares, oxytocin receptors were found in both epithelial and endothelial cells of the placenta and staining was most intense where the endometrium contacts the allantochorion. Inadequate expression of oxytocin receptors may be a cause of uterine atony leading to fetal membrane retention. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Concentrations of radioactive elements in lunar materials

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1998-01-01

    As an aid to interpreting data obtained remotely on the distribution of radioactive elements on the lunar surface, average concentrations of K, U, and Th as well as Al, Fe, and Ti in different types of lunar rocks and soils are tabulated. The U/Th ratio in representative samples of lunar rocks and regolith is constant at 0.27; K/Th ratios are more variable because K and Th are carried by different mineral phases. In nonmare regoliths at the Apollo sites, the main carriers of radioactive elements are mafic (i.e., 6-8 percent Fe) impact-melt breccias created at the time of basin formation and products derived therefrom.

  15. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) instrument overview

    Robinson, M.S.; Brylow, S.M.; Tschimmel, M.; Humm, D.; Lawrence, S.J.; Thomas, P.C.; Denevi, B.W.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Zerr, J.; Ravine, M.A.; Caplinger, M.A.; Ghaemi, F.T.; Schaffner, J.A.; Malin, M.C.; Mahanti, P.; Bartels, A.; Anderson, J.; Tran, T.N.; Eliason, E.M.; McEwen, A.S.; Turtle, E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Hiesinger, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) are on the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The WAC is a 7-color push-frame camera (100 and 400 m/pixel visible and UV, respectively), while the two NACs are monochrome narrow-angle linescan imagers (0.5 m/pixel). The primary mission of LRO is to obtain measurements of the Moon that will enable future lunar human exploration. The overarching goals of the LROC investigation include landing site identification and certification, mapping of permanently polar shadowed and sunlit regions, meter-scale mapping of polar regions, global multispectral imaging, a global morphology base map, characterization of regolith properties, and determination of current impact hazards.

  16. The Open Gateway: Lunar Exploration in 2050

    Lawrence, S.; Neal, C.

    2017-01-01

    The Moon, with its fundamental science questions and abundant, potentially useful re-sources, is the most viable destination for near-term future human and robotic exploration. Given what we have learned since Apollo, the lunar frontier now presents an entirely new paradigm for planetary exploration. The Lunar Exploration Roadmap [1], which was jointly developed by engineers, planetary scientists, commercial entities, and policymakers, is the cohesive strategic plan for using the Moon and its resources to enable the exploration of all other destinations within the Solar system by leveraging incremental, affordable investments in cislunar infrastructure. Here, we summarize the Lunar Exploration Roadmap, and describe the immense benefits that will arise from its successful implementation.

  17. Tests of Gravity Using Lunar Laser Ranging

    Stephen M. Merkowitz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Lunar laser ranging (LLR has been a workhorse for testing general relativity over the past four decades. The three retroreflector arrays put on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts and the French built arrays on the Soviet Lunokhod rovers continue to be useful targets, and have provided the most stringent tests of the Strong Equivalence Principle and the time variation of Newton’s gravitational constant. The relatively new ranging system at the Apache Point 3.5 meter telescope now routinely makes millimeter level range measurements. Incredibly, it has taken 40 years for ground station technology to advance to the point where characteristics of the lunar retroreflectors are limiting the precision of the range measurements. In this article, we review the gravitational science and technology of lunar laser ranging and discuss prospects for the future.

  18. The Microstructure of Lunar Micrometeorite Impact Craters

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The peak of the mass flux of impactors striking the lunar surface is made up of objects approximately 200 micrometers in diameter that erode rocks, comminute regolith grains, and produce agglutinates. The effects of these micro-scale impacts are still not fully understood. Much effort has focused on evaluating the physical and optical effects of micrometeorite impacts on lunar and meteoritic material using pulsed lasers to simulate the energy deposited into a substrate in a typical hypervelocity impact. Here we characterize the physical and chemical changes that accompany natural micrometeorite impacts into lunar rocks with long surface exposure to the space environment (12075 and 76015). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations were obtained from cross-sections of approximately 10-20 micrometers diameter craters that revealed important micro-structural details of micrometeorite impact processes, including the creation of npFe (sup 0) in the melt, and extensive deformation around the impact site.

  19. Electrostatic Separator for Beneficiation of Lunar Soil

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Arens, Ellen; Trigwell, Steve; Captain, James

    2010-01-01

    A charge separator has been constructed for use in a lunar environment that will allow for separation of minerals from lunar soil. In the present experiments, whole lunar dust as received was used. The approach taken here was that beneficiation of ores into an industrial feedstock grade may be more efficient. Refinement or enrichment of specific minerals in the soil before it is chemically processed may be more desirable as it would reduce the size and energy requirements necessary to produce the virgin material, and it may significantly reduce the process complexity. The principle is that minerals of different composition and work function will charge differently when tribocharged against different materials, and hence be separated in an electric field.

  20. Deployable structures for a human lunar base

    Gruber, Petra; Häuplik, Sandra; Imhof, Barbara; Özdemir, Kürsad; Waclavicek, Rene; Perino, Maria Antoinetta

    2007-06-01

    The study Lunar exploration architecture—deployable structures for a lunar base was performed within the Alcatel Alenia Space “Lunar Exploration Architecture” study for the European Space Agency. The purpose of the study was to investigate bionic concepts applicable to deployable structures and to interpret the findings for possible implementation concepts. The study aimed at finding innovative solutions for deployment possibilities. Translating folding/unfolding principles from nature, candidate geometries were developed and researched using models, drawings and visualisations. The use of materials, joints between structural elements and construction details were investigated for these conceptual approaches. Reference scenarios were used to identify the technical and environmental conditions, which served as design drivers. Mechanical issues and the investigation of deployment processes narrowed the selection down to six chosen concepts. Their applicability was evaluated at a conceptual stage in relation to the timescale of the mission.

  1. Lunar Radio Telescopes: A Staged Approach for Lunar Science, Heliophysics, Astrobiology, Cosmology, and Exploration

    Lazio, Joseph; Bowman, Judd D.; Burns, Jack O.; Farrell, W. M.; Jones, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; MacDowall, R. J.; Stewart, K. P.; Weiler, K.

    2012-01-01

    Observations with radio telescopes address key problems in cosmology, astrobiology, heliophysics, and planetary science including the first light in the Universe (Cosmic Dawn), magnetic fields of extrasolar planets, particle acceleration mechanisms, and the lunar ionosphere. The Moon is a unique science platform because it allows access to radio frequencies that do not penetrate the Earth's ionosphere and because its far side is shielded from intense terrestrial emissions. The instrument packages and infrastructure needed for radio telescopes can be transported and deployed as part of Exploration activities, and the resulting science measurements may inform Exploration (e.g., measurements of lunar surface charging). An illustrative roadmap for the staged deployment of lunar radio telescopes

  2. Building an Economical and Sustainable Lunar Infrastructure to Enable Lunar Science and Space Commerce

    Zuniga, Allison; Turner, Mark; Rasky, Dan

    2017-01-01

    A new concept study was initiated to examine the framework needed to gradually develop an economical and sustainable lunar infrastructure using a public private partnerships approach. This approach would establish partnership agreements between NASA and industry teams to develop cis-lunar and surface capabilities for mutual benefit while sharing cost and risk in the development phase and then allowing for transfer of operation of these infrastructure services back to its industry owners in the execution phase. These infrastructure services may include but are not limited to the following: lunar cargo transportation, power stations, energy storage devices, communication relay satellites, local communication towers, and surface mobility operations.

  3. Lunar Global Heat Flow: Predictions and Constraints

    Siegler, M.; Williams, J. P.; Paige, D. A.; Feng, J.

    2017-12-01

    The global thermal state of the Moon provides fundamental information on its bulk composition and interior evolution. The Moon is known to have a highly asymmetric surface composition [e.g. Lawrence et al., 2003] and crustal thickness [Wieczorek et al.,2012], which is suspected to result from interior asymmetries [Wieczorek and Phillips, 2000; Laneuville et al., 2013]. This is likely to cause a highly asymmetric surface heat flux, both past and present. Our understanding the thermal evolution and composition of the bulk moon therefore requires a global picture of the present lunar thermal state, well beyond our two-point Apollo era measurement. As on the on the Earth, heat flow measurements need to be taken in carefully selected locations to truly characterize the state of the planet's interior. Future surface heat flux and seismic observations will be affected by the presence of interior temperature and crustal radiogenic anomalies, so placement of such instruments is critically important for understanding the lunar interior. The unfortunate coincidence that Apollo geophysical measurements lie areas within or directly abutting the highly radiogenic, anomalously thin-crusted Procellarum region highlights the importance of location for in situ geophysical study [e.g. Siegler and Smrekar, 2014]. Here we present the results of new models of global lunar geothermal heat flux. We synthesize data from several recent missions to constrain lunar crustal composition, thickness and density to provide global predictions of the surface heat flux of the Moon. We also discuss implications from new surface heat flux constraints from the LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment and Chang'E 2 Microwave Radiometer. We will identify areas with the highest uncertainty to provide insight on the placement of future landed geophysical missions, such as the proposed Lunar Geophysical Network, to better aim our future exploration of the Moon.

  4. MOTIVATIONAL PRACTICES USED BY EMPLOYERS FROM THE COUNTIES OF SATU MARE AND BIHOR

    Olimpia Neagu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the motivation of human resources in the companies from counties of Satu Mare and Bihor. Data were collected by applying a questionnaire to 114 companies located in the counties of Satu Mare and Bihor, within the project HURO/0901/264/2.2.2 implemented in partnership by "Vasile Goldis" Western University and University of Debrecen and financed by European Union through ERDF under Hungary-Romania 2007- 2013 Programme. Data were processed and analyzed by using the SPSS soft. We found that employers perceived as most efficient the following motivation instruments: a good communication between employees, basic wage, partial delegation of managerial tasks and optimal working conditions. The efficiency of the motivation instruments in the view of employers differs significantly across activity sectors. Thus, using the ANOVA test, we found that the variation of variables related to basic wage, performance rewarding, bonuses, partial delegation of managerial tasks, work competencies, fear of job loss, need for affiliation to a workgroup, the prestige outside the organisation, working a good reputation organisation, social benefits, home distance can be explained in a proportion ranged from 23,5% to 42,9% by the variation of variable associated to the activity sector.

  5. dataMares - An online platform for the fast, effective dissemination of science

    Johnson, A. F.; Aburto-Oropeza, O.; Moreno-Báez, M.; Giron-Nava, A.; Lopez-Sagástegui, R.; Lopez-Sagástegui, C.

    2016-02-01

    One of the current challenges in public policy development, especially related to natural resource management and conservation, is that there are very few tools that help easily identify and incorporate relevant scientific findings and data into public policy. This can also lead to a repetition of research efforts and the collect of information that in some cases might already exist. The key to addressing this challenge is to develop collaborative research tools, which can be used by different sectors of society including key stakeholder groups, managers, policy makers and the public. Here we present an "open science" platform capable of handling large data and disseminating results to a wide audience quickly. dataMares uses business intelligence software to allow the dynamic presentation of data quickly to a range of users online. dataMares provides Robust and up-to-date scientific information for decision-makers, resource managers, conservation practitioners, fishers, community members, and regional and national level decision-makers in a nutshell. It can also be used in the training of young scientists and allows quick and open connections with the journalism industry.

  6. Cartografía del desencanto en la novela Los mares del Sur

    Héctor Reyes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este trabajo pretendemos aproximarnos a la obra de Montalbán, en específico a la novela Los mares de Sur, desde la literatura del viaje. Para esto trazamos el recorrido real e imaginario de Carlos Stuart Pedrell y Pepe Carvalho dentro de un marco espacial determinado por el propio escritor, es decir Barcelona, y durante un periodo específico, la transición democrática,todo ello encaminado a mostrar lo que para un gran número de críticos literarios simboliza la narrativa de Manuel Vázquez Montalbán: “la crónica del desencanto”. ABSTRACT: In this study we attempt to approach Montalban’s oeuvre, specifically the novel Los mares de Sur, from the perspective of travel literature. For this purpose we trace the real and imaginary itinerary of Carlos Stuart Pedrell and Pepe Carvalho within a spatial framework provided by the writer himself, that is Barcelona, and during a specific period, the democratic transition, all aimed at revealing what for a large number of literary critics symbolizes Manuel Vázquez Montalbán’s narrative: “the chronicle of disenchantment”.

  7. Management of Stakeholders in Urban Regeneration Projects. Case Study: Baia-Mare, Transylvania

    Corina M. Rădulescu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of regeneration of abandoned areas or deteriorated structures in the cities of Romania has become a strategy of urban-integrated development. Conversions and/or regeneration of facilities in the form of assets, with different destinations, are part of the new trend of urban regeneration and a strategy used to attract investment capital. The disappearance of mining industry sites in Maramures County, Romania, has allowed the expansion and planning of new spaces for public use and/or semipublic, and most cities have opened new development perspectives. The study is based on empirical research conducted on the brownfields of Baia-Mare City. This research investigates how stakeholders of an urban regeneration project can be more actively involved in the decision-making processes with regard to the strategic elements of the renewal project of Cuprom, as a former mining industry area. This research contributes to the development of the investigation of new types of knowledge of stakeholder analysis and improves the available practices for stakeholder salience. Social networks created and consolidated by stakeholders of an urban regeneration project are the object of analysis, evaluation, and monitoring of the equilibrium between project management and grant of resources and capital. This paper studies the salience of stakeholders of the SEPA-CUPROM project from Baia-Mare using the social networking approach. Visualization by graphical methods of social networking analysis is a useful instrument in the decision-making process of brownfield projects as part of sustainable strategies in Romania.

  8. THE NITROGEN REGIME OF THE SASAR RIVER, IN BAIA MARE SECTION, THE PERIOD 2000-2010

    ADRIANA MUNTEAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Baia Mare city - the residence of Maramures county, is known as one of the most polluted cities from Romania, following a long history of mining activities and ores processing. The improper treatment of wastewater from flotation and treatment with cyanide ores and their discharge into the river Sasar led, slowly, but surely destroying the ecosystem. In addition to mining activities have contributed of course, and the metallurgical activities in the area. One of constant pollutions is and disposal of sewage waste water (treated poorly or not at all in the mass water of the Sasar river. The nitrogen regime may provide clues as to the possibility of developing various forms of life, being an indicator of the nutrient regime of aquatic life. This study aims at assessing the quality of the nitrogen regime of Sasar river, in the section upstream and downstream of Baia Mare, in the period 2000-2010, with reference to the Order 161/2006 - regarding the classification of surface water quality to determine the ecological status of water bodies .

  9. Detecting Volatiles Deep in the Lunar Regolith

    Crotts, A.; Heggy, E.; Ciarletti, V.; Colaprete, A.; Moghaddam, M.; Siegler, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing theoretical and empirical evidence, from the Apollo era and after, of volatiles deep in the lunar interior, in the crust and deeper, both hydrogen-rich and otherwise. This comes in the form of fire fountain samples from Apollo 15 and Apollo 17, of hydrated minerals excavated by impacts which reach the base of the lunar crust e.g., crater Bullialdus, of hydration of apatite and other minerals, as well as predictions of a water-concentrated layer along with the KREEP material at the base of the lunar crust. We discuss how the presence of these volatiles might be directly explored. In particular water vapor molecules percolating to the surface through lunar regolith might be expected to stick and freeze into the regolith, at depths of several meters depending on the regolith temperature profile, porosity and particle size distribution, quantities that are not well known beyond two meters depth. To explore these depths in the regolith we use and propose several modes of penetrating radar. We will present results using the SELENE/Kaguya's Lunar Sounding RADAR (LSR) to probe the bulk volatile dielectric and loss structure properties of the regolith in various locations, both within permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and without, and within neutron suppression regions (NSRs) as traced by epithermal neutrons and without. We also propose installation of ground penetrating RADAR (GPR) on a roving lunar platform that should be able to probe between 0.2 and 1.6 GHz, which will provide a probe of the entire depth of the lunar regolith as well as a high-resolution (about 4 cm FWHM) probe of the upper meter or two of the lunar soil, where other probes of volatiles such as epithermal neutron absorption or drilling might be employed. We discuss predictions for what kinds of volatile density profiles might be distinguished in this way, and whether these will be detected from orbit as NSRs, whether these must be restricted to PSRs, and how these might appear in

  10. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  11. Avaliação de ruído na região central de Maringá e Universidade Estadual de Maringá - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v32i1.1919

    Luiza Helena Costa Dutra Sousa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho realizou-se o mapeamento acústico para salas de aulas, laboratórios e biblioteca pertencentes à Universidade Estadual de Maringá, bem como para a região central da cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná. Na primeira etapa do trabalho, realizou-se estudo e revisão bibliográfica sobre os parâmetros de interesse quando se deseja qualificar uma sala ou ambiente quanto ao seu nível de ruído, bem como o levantamento dos principais pontos a serem estudados. A segunda etapa compreendeu as medições in locu desses parâmetros, executadas conforme normas ABNT, ISO e recomendações da literatura. Por último, analisaram-se, estatisticamente, os dados para que pudessem ser comparados com os valores estipulados por leis vigentes. Após análise dos dados obtidos, pode-se perceber que a maioria dos pontos apresentou-se acima dos valores permitidos por lei, principalmente em relação à cidade de Maringá, e alguns trechos apresentaram-se com níveis de ruído bastante elevados. Com relação à Universidade Estadual de Maringá, grande parte dos pontos apresentou-se acima do permitido, mas em alguns casos apresentaram excelente qualidade.

  12. Mechanical properties of lunar materials under anhydrous, hard vacuum conditions: applications of lunar glass structural components

    Blacic, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Lunar materials and derivatives such as glass may possess very high tensile strengths compared to equivalent materials on earth because of the absence of hydrolytic weakening processes on the moon and in the hard vacuum of free space. Hydrolyzation of Si-O bonds at crack tips or dislocations reduces the strength of silicates by about an order of magnitude in earth environments. However, lunar materials are extremely anhydrous and hydrolytic weakening will be suppressed in free space. Thus, the geomechanical properties of the moon and engineering properties of lunar silicate materials in space environments will be very different than equivalent materials under earth conditions where the action of water cannot be conveniently avoided. Possible substitution of lunar glass for structural metals in a variety of space engineering applications enhances the economic utilization of the moon. 26 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  13. Lunar Navigator - A Miniature, Fully Autonomous, Lunar Navigation, Surveyor, and Range Finder System, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm will use existing hardware and software from related programs to create a prototype Lunar Navigation Sensor (LNS) early in Phase II, such that most of the...

  14. Visibility of lunar surface features - Apollo 14 orbital observations and lunar landing.

    Ziedman, K.

    1972-01-01

    Description of an in-flight visibility test conducted during the Apollo 14 mission for the purpose of validating and extending the mathematical visibility models used previously in the course of the Apollo program to examine the constraints on descent operations imposed by lunar visibility limitations. Following a background review of the effects on mission planning of the visibility limitations due to downsun lunar surface detail 'washout' and a discussion of the visibility prediction techniques previously used for studying lunar visibility problems, the visibility test rationale and procedures are defined and the test results presented. The results appear to confirm the validity of the visibility prediction techniques employed in lunar visibility problem studies. These results provide also a basis for improving the accuracy of the prediction techniques by appropriate modifications.

  15. Lunar Navigator - A Miniature, Fully Autonomous, Lunar Navigation, Surveyor, and Range Finder System, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm proposes to design and develop a fully autonomous Lunar Navigator based on our MicroMak miniature star sensor and a gravity gradiometer similar to one on a...

  16. Characterizing the Lunar Particulate Atmosphere with the Autonomous Lunar Dust Observer (ALDO)

    Grund, C. J.; Colwell, J. A.

    2008-07-01

    Photoelectric effects and solar wind charge the lunar surface, levitating particles. ALDO maps suspended dust in 3D using lidar. Phenomenology and instrument modeling, applications, projected performance and concepts of operation are discussed.

  17. [Possibility of exacerbation of allergy by lunar regolith].

    Horie, Masanori; Kambara, Tatsunori; Kuroda, Etsushi; Miki, Takeo; Honma, Yoshiyuki; Aoki, Shigeru; Morimoto, Yasuo

    2012-09-01

    Japan, U.S.A. and other foreign space agencies have plans for the construction of a lunar base and long-term stay of astronauts on the moon. The surface of the moon is covered by a thick layer of soil that includes fine particles called "lunar regolith", which is formed by meteorite impact and space weathering. Risk assessment of particulate matter on the moon is important for astronauts working in microgravity on the moon. However, there are few investigations about the biological influences of lunar regolith. Especially, there is no investigation about allergic activity to lunar regolith. The main chemical components of lunar regolith are SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, FeO, etc. Of particular interest, approximately 50% of lunar regolith consists of SiO2. There is a report that the astronauts felt hay fever-like symptoms from the inhalation of the lunar regolith. Yellow sand, whose chemical components are similar to lunar regolith, enhances allergenic reactions, suggesting the possibility that lunar regolith has an adjuvant-like activity. Although intraperitoneal administration of lunar regolith with ovalbumin to mouse did not show enhancement of allergenic reactions, further evaluation of lunar regolith's potential to exacerbate the effects of allergies is essential for development of the moon.

  18. Multi-state autonomous drilling for lunar exploration

    Chen Chongbin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of information of subsurface lunar regolith stratification which varies along depth, the drilling device may encounter lunar soil and lunar rock randomly in the drilling process. To meet the load safety requirements of unmanned sampling mission under limited orbital resources, the control strategy of autonomous drilling should adapt to the indeterminable lunar environments. Based on the analysis of two types of typical drilling media (i.e., lunar soil and lunar rock, this paper proposes a multi-state control strategy for autonomous lunar drilling. To represent the working circumstances in the lunar subsurface and reduce the complexity of the control algorithm, lunar drilling process was categorized into three drilling states: the interface detection, initiation of drilling parameters for recognition and drilling medium recognition. Support vector machine (SVM and continuous wavelet transform were employed for the online recognition of drilling media and interface, respectively. Finite state machine was utilized to control the transition among different drilling states. To verify the effectiveness of the multi-state control strategy, drilling experiments were implemented with multi-layered drilling media constructed by lunar soil simulant and lunar rock simulant. The results reveal that the multi-state control method is capable of detecting drilling state variation and adjusting drilling parameters timely under vibration interferences. The multi-state control method provides a feasible reference for the control of extraterrestrial autonomous drilling.

  19. Heterogeneity in lunar anorthosite meteorites: implications for the lunar magma ocean model.

    Russell, Sara S; Joy, Katherine H; Jeffries, Teresa E; Consolmagno, Guy J; Kearsley, Anton

    2014-09-13

    The lunar magma ocean model is a well-established theory of the early evolution of the Moon. By this model, the Moon was initially largely molten and the anorthositic crust that now covers much of the lunar surface directly crystallized from this enormous magma source. We are undertaking a study of the geochemical characteristics of anorthosites from lunar meteorites to test this model. Rare earth and other element abundances have been measured in situ in relict anorthosite clasts from two feldspathic lunar meteorites: Dhofar 908 and Dhofar 081. The rare earth elements were present in abundances of approximately 0.1 to approximately 10× chondritic (CI) abundance. Every plagioclase exhibited a positive Eu-anomaly, with Eu abundances of up to approximately 20×CI. Calculations of the melt in equilibrium with anorthite show that it apparently crystallized from a magma that was unfractionated with respect to rare earth elements and ranged in abundance from 8 to 80×CI. Comparisons of our data with other lunar meteorites and Apollo samples suggest that there is notable heterogeneity in the trace element abundances of lunar anorthosites, suggesting these samples did not all crystallize from a common magma source. Compositional and isotopic data from other authors also suggest that lunar anorthosites are chemically heterogeneous and have a wide range of ages. These observations may support other models of crust formation on the Moon or suggest that there are complexities in the lunar magma ocean scenario to allow for multiple generations of anorthosite formation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Solar PV Industry in Jiangsu Province [China

    2010-03-01

    Jiangsu Province is a leading province in China both in terms of Solar PV application as well as its implementation. The Netherlands Business Support Office in Nanjing reports on the photovoltaic solar cell industry in Jiangsu Province with details on opportunities for foreign investors; applications of solar energy in the province; Chinese government; relevant organizations; and key Chinese players in this sector.

  1. Lunar Prospector Orbit Determination Uncertainties Using the High Resolution Lunar Gravity Models

    Carranza, Eric; Konopliv, Alex; Ryne, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector (LP) mission began on January 6, 1998, when the LP spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The objectives of the mission were to determine whether water ice exists at the lunar poles, generate a global compositional map of the lunar surface, detect lunar outgassing, and improve knowledge of the lunar magnetic and gravity fields. Orbit determination of LP performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducted as part of the principal science investigation of the lunar gravity field. This paper will describe the JPL effort in support of the LP Gravity Investigation. This support includes high precision orbit determination, gravity model validation, and data editing. A description of the mission and its trajectory will be provided first, followed by a discussion of the orbit determination estimation procedure and models. Accuracies will be examined in terms of orbit-to-orbit solution differences, as a function of oblateness model truncation, and inclination in the plane-of-sky. Long term predictions for several gravity fields will be compared to the reconstructed orbits to demonstrate the accuracy of the orbit determination and oblateness fields developed by the Principal Gravity Investigator.

  2. Can Fractional Crystallization of a Lunar Magma Ocean Produce the Lunar Crust?

    Rapp, Jennifer F.; Draper, David S.

    2013-01-01

    New techniques enable the study of Apollo samples and lunar meteorites in unprecedented detail, and recent orbital spectral data reveal more about the lunar farside than ever before, raising new questions about the supposed simplicity of lunar geology. Nevertheless, crystallization of a global-scale magma ocean remains the best model to account for known lunar lithologies. Crystallization of a lunar magma ocean (LMO) is modeled to proceed by two end-member processes - fractional crystallization from (mostly) the bottom up, or initial equilibrium crystallization as the magma is vigorously convecting and crystals remain entrained, followed by crystal settling and a final period of fractional crystallization [1]. Physical models of magma viscosity and convection at this scale suggest that both processes are possible. We have been carrying out high-fidelity experimental simulations of LMO crystallization using two bulk compositions that can be regarded as end-members in the likely relevant range: Taylor Whole Moon (TWM) [2] and Lunar Primitive Upper Mantle (LPUM) [3]. TWM is enriched in refractory elements by 1.5 times relative to Earth, whereas LPUM is similar to the terrestrial primitive upper mantle, with adjustments made for the depletion of volatile alkalis observed on the Moon. Here we extend our earlier equilibrium-crystallization experiments [4] with runs simulating full fractional crystallization

  3. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Data Enable Science and Terrain Analysis of Potential Landing Sites in South Pole-Aitken Basin

    Jolliff, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    Exploring the South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA), one of the key unsampled geologic terranes on the Moon, is a high priority for Solar System science. As the largest and oldest recognizable impact basin on the Moon, it anchors the heavy bombardment chronology. It is thus a key target for sample return to better understand the impact flux in the Solar System between formation of the Moon and 3.9 Ga when Imbrium, one of the last of the great lunar impact basins, formed. Exploration of SPA has implications for understanding early habitable environments on the terrestrial planets. Global mineralogical and compositional data exist from the Clementine UV-VIS camera, the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer, the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on Chandrayaan-1, the Chang'E-1 Imaging Interferometer, the spectral suite on SELENE, and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Cameras (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Diviner thermal radiometer. Integration of data sets enables synergistic assessment of geology and distribution of units across multiple spatial scales. Mineralogical assessment using hyperspectral data indicates spatial relationships with mineralogical signatures, e.g., central peaks of complex craters, consistent with inferred SPA basin structure and melt differentiation (Moriarty & Pieters, 2015, JGR-P 118). Delineation of mare, cryptomare, and nonmare surfaces is key to interpreting compositional mixing in the formation of SPA regolith to interpret remotely sensed data, and for scientific assessment of landing sites. LROC Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images show the location and distribution of >0.5 m boulders and fresh craters that constitute the main threats to automated landers and thus provide critical information for landing site assessment and planning. NAC images suitable for geometric stereo derivation and digital terrain models so derived, controlled with Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data, and oblique NAC images made with large slews of the spacecraft, are

  4. Relationship between colour flow Doppler sonographic assessment of corpus luteum activity and progesterone concentrations in mares after embryo transfer

    Brogan, P. T.; Henning, H.; Stout, T. A E; de Ruijter-Villani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Colour-flow Doppler sonography has been described as a means of assessing corpus luteum (CL) function rapidly, because area of luteal blood vessels correlates well with circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations [P4] in oestrous cycling mares. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides 213M0, Isolated from Traditional Fermented Mare Milk Airag in Bulgan Aimag, Mongolia.

    Morita, Hidetoshi; Toh, Hidehiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Nakano, Akiyo; Hano, Chihiro; Yoshida, Saki; Bolormaa, Tsognemekh; Burenjargal, Sedkhuu; Nguyen, Co Thi Kim; Tashiro, Kosuke; Arakawa, Kensuke; Miyamoto, Taku

    2016-03-31

    Leuconostoc mesenteroides213M0 was isolated from traditional fermented mare milk airag in Bulgan Aimag, Mongolia. This strain produces a listericidal bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this organism. Copyright © 2016 Morita et al.

  6. Electrostatic Power Generation from Negatively Charged, Simulated Lunar Regolith

    Choi, Sang H.; King, Glen C.; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Yeonjoon

    2010-01-01

    Research was conducted to develop an electrostatic power generator for future lunar missions that facilitate the utilization of lunar resources. The lunar surface is known to be negatively charged from the constant bombardment of electrons and protons from the solar wind. The resulting negative electrostatic charge on the dust particles, in the lunar vacuum, causes them to repel each other minimizing the potential. The result is a layer of suspended dust about one meter above the lunar surface. This phenomenon was observed by both Clementine and Surveyor spacecrafts. During the Apollo 17 lunar landing, the charged dust was a major hindrance, as it was attracted to the astronauts' spacesuits, equipment, and the lunar buggies. The dust accumulated on the spacesuits caused reduced visibility for the astronauts, and was unavoidably transported inside the spacecraft where it caused breathing irritation [1]. In the lunar vacuum, the maximum charge on the particles can be extremely high. An article in the journal "Nature", titled "Moon too static for astronauts?" (Feb 2, 2007) estimates that the lunar surface is charged with up to several thousand volts [2]. The electrostatic power generator was devised to alleviate the hazardous effects of negatively charged lunar soil by neutralizing the charged particles through capacitive coupling and thereby simultaneously harnessing power through electric charging [3]. The amount of power generated or collected is dependent on the areal coverage of the device and hovering speed over the lunar soil surface. A thin-film array of capacitors can be continuously charged and sequentially discharged using a time-differentiated trigger discharge process to produce a pulse train of discharge for DC mode output. By controlling the pulse interval, the DC mode power can be modulated for powering devices and equipment. In conjunction with a power storage system, the electrostatic power generator can be a power source for a lunar rover or other

  7. Moonstruck how lunar cycles affect life

    Naylor, Ernest

    2015-01-01

    Throughout history, the influence of the full Moon on humans and animals has featured in folklore and myths. Yet it has become increasingly apparent that many organisms really are influenced indirectly, and in some cases directly, by the lunar cycle. Breeding behaviour among some marine animals has been demonstrated to be controlled by internal circalunar biological clocks, to the point where lunar-daily and lunar-monthly patterns of Moon-generated tides are embedded in their genes. Yet, intriguingly, Moon-related behaviours are also found in dry land and fresh water species living far beyond the influence of any tides. In Moonstruck, Ernest Naylor dismisses the myths concerning the influence of the Moon, but shows through a range of fascinating examples the remarkable real effects that we are now finding through science. He suggests that since the advent of evolution on Earth, which occurred shortly after the formation of the Moon, animals evolved adaptations to the lunar cycle, and considers whether, if Moo...

  8. Michiel Florent van Langren and Lunar Naming

    van der Krogt, P.C.J.; Ormeling, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Michiel Florent van Langren produced a lunar map in 1645 in order to present a way to mariners to find their position at sea by observing which craters were either illuminated by solar rays or obscured during the waxing or waning of the moon. This required a detailed map of the moon and in order to

  9. Molecular gas species in the lunar atmosphere

    Hoffman, J.H.; Hodges, R.R. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    There is good evidence for the existence of very small amounts of methane, ammonia and carbon dioxide in the very tenuous lunar atmosphere which consists primarily of the rare gases helium, neon and argon. All of these gases, except 40 Ar, originate from solar wind particles which impinge on the lunar surface and are imbedded in the surface material. Here they may form molecules before being released into the atmosphere, or may be released directly, as is the case for rare gases. Evidence for the existence of the molecular gas species is based on the pre-dawn enhancement of the mass peaks attributable to these compounds in the data from the Apollo 17 Lunar Mass Spectrometer. Methane is the most abundant molecular gas but its concentration is exceedingly low, 1 x 10 3 mol cm -3 , slightly less than 36 Ar, whereas the solar wind flux of carbon is approximately 2000 times that of 36 Ar. Several reasons are advanced for the very low concentration of methane in the lunar atmosphere

  10. Reactions of atmospheric vapors with lunar soil

    Fuller, E.L. Jr.; Agron, P.A.

    1976-03-01

    Detailed experimental data have been acquired for the hydration of the surfaces of lunar fines. Inert vapor adsorption has been employed to measure the surface properties (surface energy, surface area, porosity, etc.) and changes wrought in the hydration-dehydration processes. Plausible mechanisms have been considered and the predominant process involves hydration of the metamict metallosilicate surfaces to form a hydrated laminar structure akin to terrestrial clays. Additional credence for this interpretation is obtained by comparison to existing geochemical literature concerning terrestrial weathering of primary metallosilicates. The surface properties of the hydrated lunar fines are compared favorably to those of terrestrial clay minerals. In addition, experimental results are given to show that fresh disordered surfaces of volcanic sand react with water vapor in a manner virtually identical to the majority of the lunar fines. The results show that ion track etching and/or grain boundary attack are minor contributions in the weathering of lunar fines in the realm of our microgravimetric experimental conditions. 14 references

  11. Methane Lunar Surface Thermal Control Test

    Plachta, David W.; Sutherlin, Steven G.; Johnson, Wesley L.; Feller, Jeffrey R.; Jurns, John M.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is considering propulsion system concepts for future missions including human return to the lunar surface. Studies have identified cryogenic methane (LCH4) and oxygen (LO2) as a desirable propellant combination for the lunar surface ascent propulsion system, and they point to a surface stay requirement of 180 days. To meet this requirement, a test article was prepared with state-of-the-art insulation and tested in simulated lunar mission environments at NASA GRC. The primary goals were to validate design and models of the key thermal control technologies to store unvented methane for long durations, with a low-density high-performing Multi-layer Insulation (MLI) system to protect the propellant tanks from the environmental heat of low Earth orbit (LEO), Earth to Moon transit, lunar surface, and with the LCH4 initially densified. The data and accompanying analysis shows this storage design would have fallen well short of the unvented 180 day storage requirement, due to the MLI density being much higher than intended, its substructure collapse, and blanket separation during depressurization. Despite the performance issue, insight into analytical models and MLI construction was gained. Such modeling is important for the effective design of flight vehicle concepts, such as in-space cryogenic depots or in-space cryogenic propulsion stages.

  12. Towards the Next International Lunar Decade

    Beldavs, Vidvuds

    2016-07-01

    The idea of an International Lunar Decade (ILD) germinated in work underway in the International Lunar Working Group (ILEWG) coordinated by ESA starting before 2000. Envisioned was an International Geophysical Year (IGY) inspired global collaborative undertaking to better understand the Moon, its origins and resources as a step towards lunar development and possible human settlement. By 2006 the ILD idea had evolved sufficiently that the ILEWG endorsed it and endorsement was also received from COSPAR [1] The Planetary Society under the leadership of Louis Friedman championed the ILD idea, received a grant from the Secure World Foundation to promote it at various conferences as well as to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). Friedman made a presentation about ILD to COPUOS in February, 2007 [2]. Despite positive interest in the idea no member state of COPUOS chose to promote it. The ILD agenda was adopted by ILEWG and largely fulfilled by the member space agencies in the decade from 2007-2014, but without UN endorsement as a global initiative. In 2013 an idea for an International Lunar Decade took hold among a group of space activists that included ideas for an International Lunar Research Park [3], an International Lunar Geophysical Year and other elements including an article published by V. Beldavs in the Space Review on January 14, 2014 [4]. These various thought streams were brought to focus at the conference "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space", November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii that resulted in the International Lunar Decade Declaration [3] and the formation of the working group (ILDWG) to promote implementation of ILD. In 2015 numerous organizations and influential persons were approached and informed about the idea of a framework for international collaboration sustained over a decade to gain an understanding of the Moon and its resources and to develop the technologies and

  13. Human Lunar Destiny: Past, Present, and Future

    Fletcher, David

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers conceptual strategy and rationale for returning astronauts to the moon. NASA's historic Apollo program enabled humans to make the first expeditionary voyages to the moon and to gather and return samples back to the earth for further study. To continue exploration of the moon within the next ten to fifteen years, one possible mission concept for returning astronauts using existing launch vehicle infrastructure is presented. During these early lunar missions, expeditionary trips are made to geographical destinations and permanent outposts are established at the lunar south pole. As these missions continue, mining operations begin in an effort to learn how to live off the land. Over time, a burgeoning economy based on mining and scientific activity emerges with the formation of more accommodating settlements and surface infrastructure assets. As lunar activity advances, surface infrastructure assets grow and become more complex, lunar settlements and outposts are established across the globe, travel to and from the moon becomes common place, and commerce between earth and the moon develops and flourishes. Colonization and development of the moon is completed with the construction of underground cities and the establishment of a full range of political, religious, educational, and recreational institutions with a diverse population from all nations of the world. Finally, rationale for diversifying concentrations of humanity throughout earth's neighborhood and the greater solar system is presented.

  14. "International regime for advancing lunar development"

    Beldavs, VZ

    2017-09-01

    A specific concern regarding the Moon Treaty is the provision for sharing the wealth gained from space with developing countries that have not invested and taken risks in making possible space materials utilization. Article 11, par. 7 states "The main purposes of the international regime to be established shall include: (a) The orderly and safe development of the natural resources of the moon; (b) The rational management of those resources; (c) The expansion of opportunities in the use of those resources; (d) An equitable sharing by all States Parties in the benefits derived from those resources, whereby the interests and needs of the developing countries, as well as the efforts of those countries which have contributed either directly or indirectly to the exploration of the moon, shall be given special consideration." Whether the Moon Treaty in its present form or modified to be acceptable to more parties or the Moon Treaty is ignored, the language of Article 11, paragraph 7 can be used to construct an international regime for lunar development that can meet the requirements of commercial business as well as of states that provide support for lunar development as well as developing countries that may have played a modest role in making lunar development possible. This paper will consider options for constructing an international regime for lunar development.

  15. Overview of lunar-based astronomy.

    Smith, H. J.

    The Moon offers both significant advantages and drawbacks for astronomy. Recognition of these characteristics can clarify the objectives toward which developments should be directed and can help to inhibit premature or excessive selling of lunar developments on the basis of astronomy.

  16. The Distribution of Titanium in Lunar Soils on the Basis of Sensor and In Situ Data Fusion

    Clark, P. E.; Evans, L.

    1999-01-01

    A variety of remote-sensing measurements have been used to map the distribution of elements on the Moon as a means of providing constraints on the processes from which its crust and major terranes originated. Discussed here is Ti, which is incorporated into refractory minerals such as ilmenite during the latter stages of differentiation, and is thus a most useful element for understanding mare basalt petrogenesis. One of the earliest Ti maps showed Ti variations in nearside maria on the basis of groundbased spectral reflectance measurements. A map of Ti derived from gamma-ray measurements on Apollo 15 and 16 was produced at about the same time, and was improved upon considerably by Davis and coworkers, who effectively removed sources of spurious variation from Fe and Al or REE (e.g., Th) interference, and calibrated Ti on the bases of landing-site soil averages. In recent years, spectral reflectance measurements from Clementine have been used by Lucey and coworkers to produce global Ti distribution maps as well. As we indicated previously, the Lucey and Davis maps agree to first order. Meanwhile, we are using the concept of sensor data fusion to combine measurements from the AGR (Apollo gamma-ray) and CSR (Clementine Spectral Reflectance) techniques with ground truth from lunar soils to utilize the differences between the two maps to understand the distribution of Ti within lunar soil components, as we have done with Fe. This technique should be verified and applied on Lunar Prospector gamma-ray measurements of Ti, as the calibrated data become available within the next couple of years. Lunar Ti is found principally in the mineral ilmenite, and is associated with certain components of lunar soil: crystalline Ilmenite mineral fragments and high Ti-bearing glass. All data indicate that Ti is associated with maria and mafic minerals. In AGR and CSR datasets, Ti is highest on the nearside and in the maria, particularly in southern Serenitatis/northern Tranquillitatis

  17. Relationship between colour flow Doppler sonographic assessment of corpus luteum activity and progesterone concentrations in mares after embryo transfer.

    Brogan, P T; Henning, H; Stout, T A E; de Ruijter-Villani, M

    2016-03-01

    Colour-flow Doppler sonography has been described as a means of assessing corpus luteum (CL) function rapidly, because area of luteal blood vessels correlates well with circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations [P4] in oestrous cycling mares. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between CL size and vascularity, and circulating [P4] during early pregnancy in mares, and to determine whether luteal blood flow was a useful aid for selecting an embryo transfer recipient. Equine embryos (n=48) were recovered 8 days after ovulation and were transferred to available recipient mares as part of a commercial program with the degree of synchrony in timing of recipient ovulation ranging from 1 day before to 4 days after the donor. Immediately prior to embryo transfer (ET), maximum CL cross-section and blood vessel areas were assessed sonographically, and jugular blood was collected to measure plasma [P4]. Sonographic measurements and jugular blood collection were repeated at day 4 after ET for all mares, and again at days 11, 18 and 25 after ET in mares that were pregnant. The number of grey-scale and colour pixels within the CL was subsequently quantified using ImageJ software. The CL blood flow correlated significantly but weakly with plasma [P4] on the day of transfer and on day 4 after ET in all mares, and on days 11 and 25 after ET in pregnant mares (r=0.30-0.36). The CL area and plasma [P4] were also correlated on each day until day 11 after ET (r=0.49-0.60). The CL colour pixel area decreased significantly after day 18, whereas CL area was already decreasing by day 4 after ET. The CL area, area of blood flow, or [P4] was predictive of pregnancy. Findings in the present study suggest that both CL area and blood flow are correlated with circulating [P4] at the time of transfer and in early pregnancy. Evaluation of the CL using B-mode or CF sonography, although practical, provides no improvement in the selection of recipients or prediction of pregnancy

  18. Winds and tides of Ligeia Mare, with application to the drift of the proposed time TiME (Titan Mare Explorer) capsule

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Tokano, Tetsuya; Newman, Claire E.

    2012-01-01

    We use two independent General Circulation Models (GCMs) to estimate surface winds at Titan’s Ligeia Mare (78° N, 250° W), motivated by a proposed mission to land a floating capsule in this ∼500 km hydrocarbon sea. The models agree on the overall magnitude (∼0.5-1 m/s) and seasonal variation (strongest in summer) of windspeeds, but details of seasonal and diurnal variation of windspeed and direction differ somewhat, with the role of surface exchanges being more significant than that of gravitational tides in the atmosphere. We also investigate the tidal dynamics in the sea using a numerical ocean dynamics model: assuming a rigid lithosphere, the tidal amplitude is up to ∼0.8 m. Tidal currents are overall proportional to the reciprocal of depth-with an assumed central depth of 300 m, the characteristic tidal currents are ∼1 cm/s, with notable motions being a slosh between Ligeia’s eastern and western lobes, and a clockwise flow pattern. We find that a capsule will drift at approximately one tenth of the windspeed, unless measures are adopted to augment the drag areas above or below the waterline. Thus motion of a floating capsule is dominated by the wind, and is likely to be several km per Earth day, a rate that will be readily measured from Earth by radio navigation methods. In some instances, the wind vector rotates diurnally such that the drift trajectory is epicyclic.

  19. Living matter: the "lunar eclipse" phenomena.

    Korpan, Nikolai N

    2010-01-01

    The present investigations describe a unique phenomenon, namely the phenomenon of the "lunar eclipse", which has been observed and discovered by the author in living substance during the freeze-thawing processes in vivo using temperatures of various intensities and its cryosurgical response in animal experiment. Similar phenomena author has observed in nature, namely the total lunar eclipse and total solar eclipse. In this experimental study 76 animals (mongrel dogs) were investigated. A disc cryogenic probe was placed on the pancreas after the laparotomy. For cryosurgical exposure a temperature range of -40 degrees C, -80 degrees C, -120 degrees C and -180 degrees C was selected in contact with pancreas parenchyma. The freeze-thaw cycle was monitored by intraoperative ultrasound before, during and after cryosurgery. Each cryolesion was observed for one hour after thawing intraoperatively. Immediately after freezing, during the thawing process, the snow-white pancreas parenchyma, frozen hard to an ice block and resembling a full moon with a sharp demarcation line, gradually assumed a ruby-red shade and a hemispherical shape as it grew in size depend on reconstruction vascular circulation from the periphery to the center. This snow-white cryogenic lesion dissolved in the same manner in all animal tissues. The "lunar eclipse" phenomenon contributes to a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of biological tissue damage during low temperature exposure in cryoscience and cryomedicine. Properties of the pancreas parenchyma response during the phenomenon of the "lunar eclipse" provide important insights into the mechanisms of damage and the formation of cryogenic lesion immediately after thawing in cryosurgery. Vascular changes and circulatory stagnation are commonly considered to be the main mechanism of biological tissue injury during low temperature exposure. The phenomenon of the "lunar eclipse" suggests that cryosurgery is the first surgical technique to use

  20. Hazard Detection Software for Lunar Landing

    Huertas, Andres; Johnson, Andrew E.; Werner, Robert A.; Montgomery, James F.

    2011-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is developing a system for safe and precise manned lunar landing that involves novel sensors, but also specific algorithms. ALHAT has selected imaging LIDAR (light detection and ranging) as the sensing modality for onboard hazard detection because imaging LIDARs can rapidly generate direct measurements of the lunar surface elevation from high altitude. Then, starting with the LIDAR-based Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) algorithm developed for Mars Landing, JPL has developed a mature set of HDA software for the manned lunar landing problem. Landing hazards exist everywhere on the Moon, and many of the more desirable landing sites are near the most hazardous terrain, so HDA is needed to autonomously and safely land payloads over much of the lunar surface. The HDA requirements used in the ALHAT project are to detect hazards that are 0.3 m tall or higher and slopes that are 5 or greater. Steep slopes, rocks, cliffs, and gullies are all hazards for landing and, by computing the local slope and roughness in an elevation map, all of these hazards can be detected. The algorithm in this innovation is used to measure slope and roughness hazards. In addition to detecting these hazards, the HDA capability also is able to find a safe landing site free of these hazards for a lunar lander with diameter .15 m over most of the lunar surface. This software includes an implementation of the HDA algorithm, software for generating simulated lunar terrain maps for testing, hazard detection performance analysis tools, and associated documentation. The HDA software has been deployed to Langley Research Center and integrated into the POST II Monte Carlo simulation environment. The high-fidelity Monte Carlo simulations determine the required ground spacing between LIDAR samples (ground sample distances) and the noise on the LIDAR range measurement. This simulation has also been used to determine the effect of