WorldWideScience

Sample records for lunar dust toxicology

  1. Lunar Dust Separation for Toxicology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.; McKay, D. S.; Riofrio, L. M.; Taylor, L. A.; Gonzalex, C. P.

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, crewmembers were briefly exposed to dust in the lunar module, brought in after extravehicular activity. When the lunar ascent module returned to micro-gravity, the dust that had settled on the floor now floated into the air, causing eye discomfort and occasional respiratory symptoms. Because our goal is to set an exposure standard for 6 months of episodic exposure to lunar dust for crew on the lunar surface, these brief exposures of a few days are not conclusive. Based on experience with industrial minerals such as sandblasting quartz, an exposure of several months may cause serious damage, while a short exposure may cause none. The detailed characteristics of sub-micrometer lunar dust are only poorly known, and this is the size range of particles that are of greatest concern. We have developed a method for extracting respirable dust (<2.5 micron) from Apollo lunar soils. This method meets stringent requirements that the soil must be kept dry, exposed only to pure nitrogen, and must conserve and recover the maximum amount of both respirable dust and coarser soil. In addition, we have developed a method for grinding coarser lunar soil to produce sufficient respirable soil for animal toxicity testing while preserving the freshly exposed grain surfaces in a pristine state.

  2. LADEE LUNAR DUST EXPERIMENT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This archive bundle includes data taken by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft....

  3. The Lunar Dust Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Jamey Robert

    Planetary bodies throughout the solar system are continually bombarded by dust particles, largely originating from cometary activities and asteroidal collisions. Surfaces of bodies with thick atmospheres, such as Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan are mostly protected from incoming dust impacts as these particles ablate in their atmospheres as 'shooting stars'. However, the majority of bodies in the solar system have no appreciable atmosphere and their surfaces are directly exposed to the flux of high speed dust grains. Impacts onto solid surfaces in space generate charged and neutral gas clouds, as well as solid secondary ejecta dust particles. Gravitationally bound ejecta clouds forming dust exospheres were recognized by in situ dust instruments around the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and had not yet been observed near bodies with refractory regolith surfaces before NASA's Lunar Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission. In this thesis, we first present the measurements taken by the Lunar Dust Explorer (LDEX), aboard LADEE, which discovered a permanently present, asymmetric dust cloud surrounding the Moon. The global characteristics of the lunar dust cloud are discussed as a function of a variety of variables such as altitude, solar longitude, local time, and lunar phase. These results are compared with models for lunar dust cloud generation. Second, we present an analysis of the groupings of impacts measured by LDEX, which represent detections of dense ejecta plumes above the lunar surface. These measurements are put in the context of understanding the response of the lunar surface to meteoroid bombardment and how to use other airless bodies in the solar system as detectors for their local meteoroid environment. Third, we present the first in-situ dust measurements taken over the lunar sunrise terminator. Having found no excess of small grains in this region, we discuss its implications for the putative population of electrostatically lofted dust.

  4. Toxicity of lunar dust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnarsson, D.; Carpenter, J.; Fubini, B.; Gerde, P.; Loftus, D.; Prisk, K.; Staufer, U.; Tranfield, E.; van Westrenen, W.

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of

  5. Modeling Respiratory Toxicity of Authentic Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Patricia A.; James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    The lunar expeditions of the Apollo operations from the 60 s and early 70 s have generated awareness about lunar dust exposures and their implication towards future lunar explorations. Critical analyses on the reports from the Apollo crew members suggest that lunar dust is a mild respiratory and ocular irritant. Currently, NASA s space toxicology group is functioning with the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to investigate and examine toxic effects to the respiratory system of rats in order to establish permissible exposure levels (PELs) for human exposure to lunar dust. In collaboration with the space toxicology group, LADTAG and NIOSH the goal of the present research is to analyze dose-response curves from rat exposures seven and twenty-eight days after intrapharyngeal instillations, and model the response using BenchMark Dose Software (BMDS) from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Via this analysis, the relative toxicities of three types of Apollo 14 lunar dust samples and two control dust samples, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and quartz will be determined. This will be executed for several toxicity endpoints such as cell counts and biochemical markers in bronchoaveolar lavage fluid (BALF) harvested from the rats.

  6. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  7. The Lunar Environment: Determining the Health Effects of Exposure to Moon Dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen

    2007-01-01

    The moon's surface is covered with a thin layer of fine, charged, reactive dust capable of layer of fine, charged, reactive dust capable of capable of entering habitats and vehicle compartments, where it can result in crewmember health problems. NASA formed the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Advisory Group (LADTAG) to study the effects of exposure to Lunar Dust on human health. To date, no scientifically defensible toxicological studies have been performed on lunar dusts, specifically the determination of exposure limits and their affect on human health. The multi-center LADTAG (Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicology center LADTAG (Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicology Advisory Group) was formed in response to the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Office s (OCHMO) request to develop recommendations for defining risk (OCHMO) request to develop recommendations for defining risk defining risk criteria for human lunar dust exposure.

  8. Respiratory Toxicity of Lunar Highland Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Wallace, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar dust exposures occurred during the Apollo missions while the crew was on the lunar surface and especially when microgravity conditions were attained during rendezvous in lunar orbit. Crews reported that the dust was irritating to the eyes and in some cases respiratory symptoms were elicited. NASA s vision for lunar exploration includes stays of 6 months on the lunar surface hence the health effects of periodic exposure to lunar dust need to be assessed. NASA has performed this assessment with a series of in vitro and in vivo tests on authentic lunar dust. Our approach is to "calibrate" the intrinsic toxicity of lunar dust by comparison to a nontoxic dust (TiO2) and a highly toxic dust (quartz) using intratrachael instillation of the dusts in mice. A battery of indices of toxicity is assessed at various time points after the instillations. Cultures of selected cells are exposed to test dusts to assess the adverse effects on the cells. Finally, chemical systems are used to assess the nature of the reactivity of various dusts and to determine the persistence of reactivity under various environmental conditions that are relevant to a space habitat. Similar systems are used to assess the dissolution of the dust. From these studies we will be able to set a defensible inhalation exposure standard for aged dust and predict whether we need a separate standard for reactive dust. Presently-available data suggest that aged lunar highland dust is slightly toxic, that it can adversely affect cultured cells, and that the surface reactivity induced by grinding the dust persists for a few hours after activation.

  9. What Questions Should We ask About the Health Effect of Mars Dust? Lessons from the Lunar Dust Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschmann, R. L.

    2017-06-01

    The toxicology of lunar dust has been studied over the last decade and standards set by NASA for exposure. This summary reviews that data and proposes to reapply the strategy employed there to future research on the health effects of Mars dust.

  10. Ocular toxicity of authentic lunar dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Valerie E; Garcìa, Hector D; Monds, Kathryn; Cooper, Bonnie L; James, John T

    2012-07-20

    Dust exposure is a well-known occupational hazard for terrestrial workers and astronauts alike and will continue to be a concern as humankind pursues exploration and habitation of objects beyond Earth. Humankind's limited exploration experience with the Apollo Program indicates that exposure to dust will be unavoidable. Therefore, NASA must assess potential toxicity and recommend appropriate mitigation measures to ensure that explorers are adequately protected. Visual acuity is critical during exploration activities and operations aboard spacecraft. Therefore, the present research was performed to ascertain the ocular toxicity of authentic lunar dust. Small (mean particle diameter = 2.9 ± 1.0 μm), reactive lunar dust particles were produced by grinding bulk dust under ultrapure nitrogen conditions. Chemical reactivity and cytotoxicity testing were performed using the commercially available EpiOcularTM assay. Subsequent in vivo Draize testing utilized a larger size fraction of unground lunar dust that is more relevant to ocular exposures (particles lunar dust was minimally irritating. Minor irritation of the upper eyelids was noted at the 1-hour observation point, but these effects resolved within 24 hours. In addition, no corneal scratching was observed using fluorescein stain. Low-titanium mare lunar dust is minimally irritating to the eyes and is considered a nuisance dust for ocular exposure. No special precautions are recommended to protect against ocular exposures, but fully shielded goggles may be used if dust becomes a nuisance.

  11. Extracting lunar dust parameters from image charge signals produced by the Lunar Dust Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, J.; Kempf, S.; Horanyi, M.; Szalay, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is an impact ionization dust detector used to characterize the lunar dust exosphere generated by the impacts of large interplanetary particles and meteor streams (Horanyi et al., 2015). In addition to the mass and speed of these lofted particles, LDEX is sensitive to their charge. The resulting signatures of impact events therefore provide valuable information about not only the ambient plasma environment, but also the speed vectors of these dust grains. Here, impact events produced from LDEX's calibration at the Dust Accelerator Laboratory are analyzed using an image charge model derived from the electrostatic simulation program, Coulomb. We show that parameters such as dust grain speed, size, charge, and position of entry into LDEX can be recovered and applied to data collected during LADEE's seven-month mission.

  12. Estimate of safe human exposure levels for lunar dust based on comparative benchmark dose modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Santana, Patricia A; Scully, Robert R

    2013-04-01

    Brief exposures of Apollo astronauts to lunar dust occasionally elicited upper respiratory irritation; however, no limits were ever set for prolonged exposure to lunar dust. The United States and other space faring nations intend to return to the moon for extensive exploration within a few decades. In the meantime, habitats for that exploration, whether mobile or fixed, must be designed to limit human exposure to lunar dust to safe levels. Herein we estimate safe exposure limits for lunar dust collected during the Apollo 14 mission. We instilled three respirable-sized (∼2 μ mass median diameter) lunar dusts (two ground and one unground) and two standard dusts of widely different toxicities (quartz and TiO₂) into the respiratory system of rats. Rats in groups of six were given 0, 1, 2.5 or 7.5 mg of the test dust in a saline-Survanta® vehicle, and biochemical and cellular biomarkers of toxicity in lung lavage fluid were assayed 1 week and one month after instillation. By comparing the dose--response curves of sensitive biomarkers, we estimated safe exposure levels for astronauts and concluded that unground lunar dust and dust ground by two different methods were not toxicologically distinguishable. The safe exposure estimates were 1.3 ± 0.4 mg/m³ (jet-milled dust), 1.0 ± 0.5 mg/m³ (ball-milled dust) and 0.9 ± 0.3 mg/m³ (unground, natural dust). We estimate that 0.5-1 mg/m³ of lunar dust is safe for periodic human exposures during long stays in habitats on the lunar surface.

  13. Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Hazard Assessments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B. L.; McKay, D. S.; Taylor, L. A.; Wallace, W. T.; James, J.; Riofrio, L.; Gonzalez, C. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) is developing data to set the permissible limits for human exposure to lunar dust. This standard will guide the design of airlocks and ports for EVA, as well as the requirements for filtering and monitoring the atmosphere in habitable vehicles, rovers and other modules. LADTAG’s recommendation for permissible exposure limits will be delivered to the Constellation Program in late 2010. The current worst-case exposure limit of 0.05 mg/m3, estimated by LADTAG in 2006, reflects the concern that lunar dust may be as toxic as quartz dust. Freshly-ground quartz is known to be more toxic than un-ground quartz dust. Our research has shown that the surfaces of lunar soil grains can be more readily activated by grinding than quartz. Activation was measured by the amount of free radicals generated—activated simulants generate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) i.e., production of hydroxyl free radicals. Of the various influences in the lunar environment, micrometeorite bombardment probably creates the most long-lasting reactivity on the surfaces of grains, although solar wind impingement and short-wavelength UV radiation also contribute. The comminution process creates fractured surfaces with unsatisfied bonds. When these grains are inhaled and carried into the lungs, they will react with lung surfactant and cells, potentially causing tissue damage and disease. Tests on lunar simulants have shown that dissolution and leaching of metals can occur when the grains are exposed to water—the primary component of lung fluid. However, simulants may behave differently than actual lunar soils. Rodent toxicity testing will be done using the respirable fraction of actual lunar soils (particles with physical size of less than 2.5 micrometers). We are currently separating the fine material from the coarser material that comprises >95% of the mass of each soil sample. Dry sieving is not practical in this size range, so a new system

  14. Lagrangian Trajectory Modeling of Lunar Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John E.; Metzger, Philip T.; Immer, Christopher D.

    2008-01-01

    Apollo landing videos shot from inside the right LEM window, provide a quantitative measure of the characteristics and dynamics of the ejecta spray of lunar regolith particles beneath the Lander during the final 10 [m] or so of descent. Photogrammetry analysis gives an estimate of the thickness of the dust layer and angle of trajectory. In addition, Apollo landing video analysis divulges valuable information on the regolith ejecta interactions with lunar surface topography. For example, dense dust streaks are seen to originate at the outer rims of craters within a critical radius of the Lander during descent. The primary intent of this work was to develop a mathematical model and software implementation for the trajectory simulation of lunar dust particles acted on by gas jets originating from the nozzle of a lunar Lander, where the particle sizes typically range from 10 micron to 500 micron. The high temperature, supersonic jet of gas that is exhausted from a rocket engine can propel dust, soil, gravel, as well as small rocks to high velocities. The lunar vacuum allows ejected particles to travel great distances unimpeded, and in the case of smaller particles, escape velocities may be reached. The particle size distributions and kinetic energies of ejected particles can lead to damage to the landing spacecraft or to other hardware that has previously been deployed in the vicinity. Thus the primary motivation behind this work is to seek a better understanding for the purpose of modeling and predicting the behavior of regolith dust particle trajectories during powered rocket descent and ascent.

  15. Lunar dust transport and potential interactions with power system components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzan, C.M.; Edwards, J.L.

    1991-11-01

    The lunar surface is covered by a thick blanket of fine dust. This dust may be readily suspended from the surface and transported by a variety of mechanisms. As a consequence, lunar dust can accumulate on sensitive power components, such as photovoltaic arrays and radiator surfaces, reducing their performance. In addition to natural mechanisms, human activities on the Moon will disturb significant amounts of lunar dust. Of all the mechanisms identified, the most serious is rocket launch and landing. The return of components from the Surveyor III provided a rare opportunity to observe the effects of the nearby landing of the Apollo 12 lunar module. The evidence proved that significant dust accumulation occurred on the Surveyor at a distance of 155 m. From available information on particle suspension and transport mechanisms, a series of models was developed to predict dust accumulation as a function of distance from the lunar module. The accumulation distribution was extrapolated to a future lunar lander scenario. These models indicate that accumulation is expected to be substantial even as far as 2 km from the landing site. Estimates of the performance penalties associated with lunar dust coverage on radiators and photovoltaic arrays are presented. Because of the lunar dust adhesive and cohesive properties, the most practical dust defensive strategy appears to be the protection of sensitive components from the arrival of lunar dust by location, orientation, or barriers

  16. Lunar dust transport and potential interactions with power system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzan, C.M.; Edwards, J.L.

    1991-11-01

    The lunar surface is covered by a thick blanket of fine dust. This dust may be readily suspended from the surface and transported by a variety of mechanisms. As a consequence, lunar dust can accumulate on sensitive power components, such as photovoltaic arrays and radiator surfaces, reducing their performance. In addition to natural mechanisms, human activities on the Moon will disturb significant amounts of lunar dust. Of all the mechanisms identified, the most serious is rocket launch and landing. The return of components from the Surveyor III provided a rare opportunity to observe the effects of the nearby landing of the Apollo 12 lunar module. The evidence proved that significant dust accumulation occurred on the Surveyor at a distance of 155 m. From available information on particle suspension and transport mechanisms, a series of models was developed to predict dust accumulation as a function of distance from the lunar module. The accumulation distribution was extrapolated to a future lunar lander scenario. These models indicate that accumulation is expected to be substantial even as far as 2 km from the landing site. Estimates of the performance penalties associated with lunar dust coverage on radiators and photovoltaic arrays are presented. Because of the lunar dust adhesive and cohesive properties, the most practical dust defensive strategy appears to be the protection of sensitive components from the arrival of lunar dust by location, orientation, or barriers.

  17. Aluminum is More Cytotoxic than Lunar Dust in Human Skin and Lung Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, D.; Shehata, T.; Hammond, D.; Shehata, T.; Wise, J.P.; Martino, J; Wise, J.P.; Wise, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    NASA plans to build a permanent space station on the moon to explore its surface. The surface of the moon is covered in lunar dust, which consists of fine particles that contain silicon, aluminum and titanium, among others. Because this will be a manned base, the potential toxicity of this dust has to be studied. Also, toxicity standards for potential exposure have to be set. To properly address the potential toxicity of lunar dust we need to understand the toxicity of its individual components, as well as their combined effects. In order to study this we compared NASA simulant JSC-1AVF (volcanic ash particles), that simulates the dust found on the moon, to aluminum, the 3rd most abundant component in lunar dust. We tested the cytotoxicity of both compounds on human lung and skin fibroblasts (WTHBF-6 and BJhTERT cell lines, respectively). Aluminum oxide was more cytotoxic than lunar dust to both cell lines. In human lung fibroblasts 5, 10 and 50 g/sq cm of aluminum oxide induced 85%, 61% and 30% relative survival, respectively. For human skin fibroblasts the same concentrations induced 58%, 41% and 58% relative survival. Lunar dust was also cytotoxic to both cell lines, but its effects were seen at higher concentrations: 50, 100, 200 and 400 g/sq cm of lunar dust induced a 69%, 46%, 35% and 30% relative survival in the skin cells and 53%, 16%, 8% and 2% on the lung cells. Overall, for both compounds, lung cells were more sensitive than skin cells. This work was supported by a NASA EPSCoR grant through the Maine Space Grant Consortium (JPW), the Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health., a Fulbright Grant (JM) and a Delta Kappa Gamma Society International World Fellowship (JM).

  18. Lunar Dust and Lunar Simulant Activation, Monitoring, Solution and Cellular Toxicity Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William; Jeevarajan, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, many undesirable situations were encountered that must be mitigated prior to returning humans to the moon. Lunar dust (that part of the lunar regolith less than 20 microns in diameter) was found to produce several problems with mechanical equipment and could have conceivably produced harmful physiological effects for the astronauts. For instance, the abrasive nature of the dust was found to cause malfunctions of various joints and seals of the spacecraft and suits. Additionally, though efforts were made to exclude lunar dust from the cabin of the lunar module, a significant amount of material nonetheless found its way inside. With the loss of gravity correlated with ascent from the lunar surface, much of the finer fraction of this dust began to float and was inhaled by the astronauts. The short visits tothe Moon during Apollo lessened exposure to the dust, but the plan for future lunar stays of up to six months demands that methods be developed to minimize the risk of dust inhalation. The guidelines for what constitutes "safe" exposure will guide the development of engineering controls aimed at preventing the presence of dust in the lunar habitat. This work has shown the effects of grinding on the activation level of lunar dust, the changes in dissolution properties of lunar simulant, and the production of cytokines by cellular systems. Grinding of lunar dust leads to the production of radicals in solution and increased dissolution of lunar simulant in buffers of different pH. Additionally, ground lunar simulant has been shown to promote the production of IL-6 and IL-8, pro-inflammatory cytokines, by alveolar epithelial cells. These results provide evidence of the need for further studies on these materials prior to returning to the lunar surface.

  19. Discoveries from Revisiting Apollo Direct Active Measurements of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Brian

    2010-05-01

    New missions to the moon being developed by China, Japan, India, USA, Russia and Europe and possibilities of human missions about 2020 face the reality that 6 Apollo expeditions did not totally manage or mitigate effects of easily-mobilised and very "sticky" lunar dust on humans and hardware. Laboratory and theoretical modelling cannot reliably simulate the complex lunar environments that affect dynamical movements of lunar dust. The only direct active measurements of lunar dust during Apollo were made by matchbox-sized minimalist Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) deployed to transmit some 30 million digital measurements from Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15. These were misplaced or relatively ignored until 2009, when a self-funded suite of discoveries (O'Brien Geophys. Research Letters FIX 6 May 2099) revealed unexpected properties of lunar dust, such as the adhesive force being stronger as illumination increased. We give the first reports of contrasting effects, contamination or cleansing, from rocket exhausts of Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 Lunar Modules leaving the moon. We further strengthen the importance of collateral dust inadvertently splashed on Apollo hardware by human activities. Dust management designs and mission plans require optimum use of such in situ measurements, extended by laboratory simulations and theoretical modelling.

  20. Pulmonary and Systemic Immune Response to Chronic Lunar Dust Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Quiriarte, Heather; Nelman, Mayra; Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.; Sams, Clarence

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to millennia of meteorite impact with virtually no erosive effects, the surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of ultra-fine, reactive Lunar dust. Very little is known regarding the toxicity of Lunar dust on human physiology. Given the size and electrostatic characteristics of Lunar dust, countermeasures to ensure non-exposure of astronauts will be difficult. To ensure astronaut safety during any future prolonged Lunar missions, it is necessary to establish the effect of chronic pulmonary Lunar dust exposure on all physiological systems. Methods: This study assessed the toxicity of airborne lunar dust exposure in rats on pulmonary and system immune system parameters. Rats were exposed to 0, 20.8, or 60.8 mg/m3 of lunar dust (6h/d; 5d/wk) for up to 13 weeks. Sacrifices occurred after exposure durations of 1day, 7 days, 4 weeks and 13 weeks post-exposure, when both blood and lung lavage fluid were collected for analysis. Lavage and blood assays included leukocyte distribution by flow cytometry, electron/fluorescent microscopy, and cytokine concentration. Cytokine production profiles following mitogenic stimulation were performed on whole blood only. Results: Untreated lavage fluid was comprised primarily of pulmonary macrophages. Lunar dust inhalation resulted in an influx of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Although the percentage of lymphocytes increased, the T cell CD4:CD8 ratio was unchanged. Cytokine analysis of the lavage fluid showed increased levels of IL-1b and TNFa. These alterations generally persisted through the 13 week sampling. Blood analysis showed few systemic effects from the lunar dust inhalation. By week 4, the peripheral granulocyte percentage was elevated in the treated rats. Plasma cytokine levels were unchanged in all treated rats compared to controls. Peripheral blood analysis showed an increased granulocyte percentage and altered cytokine production profiles consisting of increased in IL-1b and IL-6, and decreased IL-2

  1. Electrodynamic Dust Shield for Lunar/ISS Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center is developing a dust mitigation experiment and testing it on the lunar surface and on the...

  2. High-Fidelity Lunar Dust Simulant, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The severity of the lunar dust problems encountered during the Apollo missions were consistently underestimated by ground tests, illustrating the need to develop...

  3. High-Fidelity Lunar Dust Simulant, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The severity of the lunar dust problems encountered during the Apollo missions were consistently underestimated by ground tests, illustrating the need to develop...

  4. The Dust Management Project: Characterizing Lunar Environments and Dust, Developing Regolith Mitigation Technology and Simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Straka, Sharon A.

    2010-01-01

    A return to the Moon to extend human presence, pursue scientific activities, use the Moon to prepare for future human missions to Mars, and expand Earth?s economic sphere, will require investment in developing new technologies and capabilities to achieve affordable and sustainable human exploration. From the operational experience gained and lessons learned during the Apollo missions, conducting long-term operations in the lunar environment will be a particular challenge, given the difficulties presented by the unique physical properties and other characteristics of lunar regolith, including dust. The Apollo missions and other lunar explorations have identified significant lunar dust-related problems that will challenge future mission success. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it?s potentially harmful effects on exploration systems and human explorers. The Dust Management Project (DMP) is tasked with the evaluation of lunar dust effects, assessment of the resulting risks, and development of mitigation and management strategies and technologies related to Exploration Systems architectures. To this end, the DMP supports the overall goal of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) of addressing the relevant high priority technology needs of multiple elements within the Constellation Program (CxP) and sister ETDP projects. Project scope, plans, and accomplishments will be presented.

  5. Characterizing the Lunar Particulate Atmosphere with the Autonomous Lunar Dust Observer (ALDO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grund, C. J.; Colwell, J. A.

    2008-07-01

    Photoelectric effects and solar wind charge the lunar surface, levitating particles. ALDO maps suspended dust in 3D using lidar. Phenomenology and instrument modeling, applications, projected performance and concepts of operation are discussed.

  6. Nonlinear Electrostatic Properties of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Stacy A.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was designed to study the induction charging and charge decay characteristics of small dielectric particles, or glass beads. Initially, the goal of the experiment was further understanding of induction charging of lunar dust particles. However, the mechanism of charging became a point of greater interest as the project continued. Within an environmentally-controlled acrylic glove box was placed a large parallel plate capacitor at high-voltage (HV) power supply with reversible polarity. Spherical 1-mm and 0.5-mm glass beads, singly, were placed between the plates, and their behaviors recorded on video and quantified. Nearly a hundred trials at various humidities were performed. The analysis of the results indicated a non-linear relationship between humidity and particle charge exchange time (CET), for both sizes of beads. Further, a difference in CET for top-resting beads and bottom-resting beads hinted at a different charging mechanism than that of simple induction. Results from the I-mm bead trials were presented at several space science and physics conferences in 2008 and 2009, and were published as a Master's thesis in August 2009. Tangential work stemming from this project resulted in presentations at other international conferences in 2010, and selection to attend workshop on granular matter flow 2011.

  7. Toxicity of lunar dust assessed in inhalation-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chiu-wing; Scully, Robert R; Zhang, Ye; Renne, Roger A; Hunter, Robert L; McCluskey, Richard A; Chen, Bean T; Castranova, Vincent; Driscoll, Kevin E; Gardner, Donald E; McClellan, Roger O; Cooper, Bonnie L; McKay, David S; Marshall, Linda; James, John T

    2013-10-01

    Humans will again set foot on the moon. The moon is covered by a layer of fine dust, which can pose a respiratory hazard. We investigated the pulmonary toxicity of lunar dust in rats exposed to 0, 2.1, 6.8, 20.8 and 60.6 mg/m(3) of respirable-size lunar dust for 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week); the aerosols in the nose-only exposure chambers were generated from a jet-mill ground preparation of a lunar soil collected during the Apollo 14 mission. After 4 weeks of exposure to air or lunar dust, groups of five rats were euthanized 1 day, 1 week, 4 weeks or 13 weeks after the last exposure for assessment of pulmonary toxicity. Biomarkers of toxicity assessed in bronchoalveolar fluids showed concentration-dependent changes; biomarkers that showed treatment effects were total cell and neutrophil counts, total protein concentrations and cellular enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, glutamyl transferase and aspartate transaminase). No statistically significant differences in these biomarkers were detected between rats exposed to air and those exposed to the two low concentrations of lunar dust. Dose-dependent histopathology, including inflammation, septal thickening, fibrosis and granulomas, in the lung was observed at the two higher exposure concentrations. No lesions were detected in rats exposed to ≤6.8 mg/m(3). This 4-week exposure study in rats showed that 6.8 mg/m(3) was the highest no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL). These results will be useful for assessing the health risk to humans of exposure to lunar dust, establishing human exposure limits and guiding the design of dust mitigation systems in lunar landers or habitats.

  8. Measurements of Lunar Dust Charging Properties by Electron Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mian M.; Tankosic, Dragana; Craven, Paul D.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; LeClair, Andre; Spann, James F.; Norwood, Joseph K.

    2009-01-01

    Dust grains in the lunar environment are believed to be electrostatically charged predominantly by photoelectric emissions resulting from solar UV radiation on the dayside, and on the nightside by interaction with electrons in the solar wind plasma. In the high vacuum environment on the lunar surface with virtually no atmosphere, the positive and negative charge states of micron/submicron dust grains lead to some unusual physical and dynamical dust phenomena. Knowledge of the electrostatic charging properties of dust grains in the lunar environment is required for addressing their hazardous effect on the humans and mechanical systems. It is well recognized that the charging properties of individual small micron size dust grains are substantially different from the measurements on bulk materials. In this paper we present the results of measurements on charging of individual Apollo 11 and Apollo 17 dust grains by exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams in the 10-100 eV energy range. The charging/discharging rates of positively and negatively charged particles of approx. 0.1 to 5 micron radii are discussed in terms of the sticking efficiencies and secondary electron yields. The secondary electron emission process is found to be a complex and effective charging/discharging mechanism for incident electron energies as low as 10-25 eV, with a strong dependence on particle size. Implications of the laboratory measurements on the nature of dust grain charging in the lunar environment are discussed.

  9. Modelling of Lunar Dust and Electrical Field for Future Lunar Surface Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yunlong

    Modelling of the lunar dust and electrical field is important to future human and robotic activities on the surface of the moon. Apollo astronauts had witnessed the maintaining of micron- and millimeter sized moon dust up to meters level while walked on the surface of the moon. The characterizations of the moon dust would enhance not only the scientific understanding of the history of the moon but also the future technology development for the surface operations on the moon. It has been proposed that the maintaining and/or settlement of the small-sized dry dust are related to the size and weight of the dust particles, the level of the surface electrical fields on the moon, and the impaction and interaction between lunar regolith and the solar particles. The moon dust distributions and settlements obviously affected the safety of long term operations of future lunar facilities. For the modelling of the lunar dust and the electrical field, we analyzed the imaging of the legs of the moon lander, the cover and the footwear of the space suits, and the envelope of the lunar mobiles, and estimated the size and charges associated with the small moon dust particles, the gravity and charging effects to them along with the lunar surface environment. We also did numerical simulation of the surface electrical fields due to the impaction of the solar winds in several conditions. The results showed that the maintaining of meters height of the micron size of moon dust is well related to the electrical field and the solar angle variations, as expected. These results could be verified and validated through future on site and/or remote sensing measurements and observations of the moon dust and the surface electrical field.

  10. Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dust in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    NASA has been contemplating returning astronauts to the moon for long-duration habitation and research and using it as a stepping-stone to Mars. Other spacefaring nations are planning to send humans to the moon for the first time. The surface of the moon is covered by a layer of fine dust. Fine terrestrial dusts, if inhaled, are known to pose a health risk to humans. Some Apollo crews briefly exposed to moon dust that adhered to spacesuits and became airborne in the Lunar Module reported eye and throat irritation. The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle or outpost would inevitably become contaminated with lunar dust. To assess the health risks of exposure of humans to airborne lunar dust, we evaluated the toxicity of Apollo 14 moon dust in animal lungs. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally first done by intratracheal instillation (ITI) of aqueous suspensions of the test dust into the lungs of rodents. If a test dust is irritating or cytotoxic to the lungs, the alveolar macrophages, after phagocytizing the dust particles, will release cellular messengers to recruit white blood cells (WBCs) and to induce dilation of blood capillary walls to make them porous, allowing the WBCs to gain access to the alveolar space. The dilation of capillary walls also allows serum proteins and water entering the lung. Besides altering capillary integrity, a toxic dust can also directly kill the cells that come into contact with it or ingest it, after which the dead cells would release their contents, including lactate dehydrogenase (a common enzyme marker of cell death or tissue damage). In the treated animals, we lavaged the lungs 1 and 4 weeks after the dust instillation and measured the concentrations of these biomarkers of toxicity in the bronchioalveolar lavage fluids to determine the toxicity of the dust. To assess whether the inflammation and cellular injury observed in the biomarker study would lead to persistent or progressive histopathological

  11. Spacesuit Integrated Carbon Nanotube Dust Mitigation System for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyapu, Kavya Kamal

    Lunar dust proved to be troublesome during the Apollo missions. The lunar dust comprises of fine particles, with electric charges imparted by solar winds and ultraviolet radiation. As such, it adheres readily, and easily penetrates through smallest crevices into mechanisms. During Apollo missions, the powdery dust substantially degraded the performance of spacesuits by abrading suit fabric and clogging seals. Dust also degraded other critical equipment such as rovers, thermal control and optical surfaces, solar arrays, and was thus shown to be a major issue for surface operations. Even inside the lunar module, Apollo astronauts were exposed to this dust when they removed their dust coated spacesuits. This historical evidence from the Apollo missions has compelled NASA to identify dust mitigation as a critical path. This important environmental challenge must be overcome prior to sending humans back to the lunar surface and potentially to other surfaces such as Mars and asteroids with dusty environments. Several concepts were successfully investigated by the international research community for preventing deposition of lunar dust on rigid surfaces (ex: solar cells, thermal radiators). However, applying these technologies for flexible surfaces and specifically to spacesuits has remained an open challenge, due to the complexity of the suit design, geometry, and dynamics. The research presented in this dissertation brings original contribution through the development and demonstration of the SPacesuit Integrated Carbon nanotube Dust Ejection/Removal (SPIcDER) system to protect spacesuits and other flexible surfaces from lunar dust. SPIcDER leverages the Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS) concept developed at NASA for use on solar cells. For the SPIcDER research, the EDS concept is customized for application on spacesuits and flexible surfaces utilizing novel materials and specialized design techniques. Furthermore, the performance of the active SPIcDER system is enhanced

  12. Dust particles investigation for future Russian lunar missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnikov, Gennady; Horanyi, Mihaly; Esposito, Francesca; Zakharov, Alexander; Popel, Sergey; Afonin, Valeri; Borisov, Nikolay; Seran, Elena; Godefroy, Michel; Shashkova, Inna; Kuznetsov, Ilya; Lyash, Andrey; Vorobyova, Elena; Petrov, Oleg; Lisin, Evgeny

    One of the complicating factors of the future robotic and human lunar landing missions is the influence of the dust. Meteorites bombardment has accompanied by shock-explosive phenomena, disintegration and mix of the lunar soil in depth and on area simultaneously. As a consequence, the lunar soil has undergone melting, physical and chemical transformations. Recently we have the some reemergence for interest of Moon investigation. The prospects in current century declare USA, China, India, and European Union. In Russia also prepare two missions: Luna-Glob and Luna-Resource. Not last part of investigation of Moon surface is reviewing the dust condition near the ground of landers. Studying the properties of lunar dust is important both for scientific purposes to investigation the lunar exosphere component and for the technical safety of lunar robotic and manned missions. The absence of an atmosphere on the Moon's surface is leading to greater compaction and sintering. Properties of regolith and dust particles (density, temperature, composition, etc.) as well as near-surface lunar exosphere depend on solar activity, lunar local time and position of the Moon relative to the Earth's magneto tail. Upper layers of regolith are an insulator, which is charging as a result of solar UV radiation and the constant bombardment of charged particles, creates a charge distribution on the surface of the moon: positive on the illuminated side and negative on the night side. Charge distribution depends on the local lunar time, latitude and the electrical properties of the regolith (the presence of water in the regolith can influence the local distribution of charge). On light side of Moon near surface layer there exists possibility formation dusty plasma system. Altitude of levitation is depending from size of dust particle and Moon latitude. The distribution dust particle by size and altitude has estimated with taking into account photoelectrons, electrons and ions of solar wind, solar

  13. Summary of the results from the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment (LADEE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horanyi, Mihaly

    2016-07-01

    The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission (9/2013 - 4/2014) discovered a permanently present dust cloud engulfing the Moon. The size, velocity, and density distributions of the dust particles are consistent with ejecta clouds generated from the continual bombardment of the lunar surface by sporadic interplanetary dust particles. Intermittent density enhancements were observed during several of the annual meteoroid streams, especially during the Geminids. LDEX found no evidence of the expected density enhancements over the terminators where electrostatic processes were predicted to efficiently loft small grains. LDEX is an impact ionization dust detector, it captures coincident signals and full waveforms to reliably identify dust impacts. LDEX recorded average impact rates of approximately 1 and 0.1 hits/minute of particles with impact charges of q > 0.5 and q > 5 fC, corresponding to particles with radii of a > 0.3 and a> 0.7~μm, respectively. Several of the yearly meteor showers generated sustained elevated levels of impact rates, especially if their radiant direction intersected the lunar surface near the equatorial plane, greatly enhancing the probability of crossing their ejecta plumes. The characteristic velocities of dust particles in the cloud are on the order of ~100 m/s which we neglect compared to the typical spacecraft speeds of 1.6 km/s. Hence, with the knowledge of the spacecraft orbit and attitude, impact rates can be directly turned into particle densities as functions of time and position. LDEX observations are the first to identify the ejecta clouds around the Moon sustained by the continual bombardment of interplanetary dust particles. Most of the dust particles generated in impacts have insufficient energy to escape and follow ballistic orbits, returning to the surface, 'gardening' the regolith. Similar ejecta clouds are expected to engulf all airless planetary objects, including

  14. Signaling Pathways Involved in Lunar Dust Induced Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Scully, Robert R.; Williams, Kyle; Zalesak, Selina; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The Moon's surface is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust. Lunar dust contain about 1-2% of very fine dust (pathways involved in lunar dust-induced toxicity. F344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6h/d; 5d/wk) in nose-only inhalation chambers to concentrations of 0 (control air), 2.1, 6.1, 21, and 61 mg/m(exp 3) of lunar dust. Five rats per group were euthanized 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after the last inhalation exposure. The total RNAs were isolated from the blood or lung tissue after being lavaged, using the Qigen RNeasy kit. The Rat Fibrosis RT2 Profile PCR Array was used to profile the expression of 84 genes relevant to fibrosis. The genes with significant expression changes are identified and the gene expression data were further analyzed using IPA pathway analysis tool to determine the signaling pathways with significant changes.

  15. Inhalation Toxicity of Ground Lunar Dust Prepared from Apollo-14 Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Scully, Robert R.; Cooper, Bonnie L.

    2011-01-01

    Within the decade one or more space-faring nations intend to return humans to the moon for more in depth exploration of the lunar surface and subsurface than was conducted during the Apollo days. The lunar surface is blanketed with fine dust, much of it in the respirable size range (<10 micron). Eventually, there is likely to be a habitable base and rovers available to reach distant targets for sample acquisition. Despite designs that could minimize the entry of dust into habitats and rovers, it is reasonable to expect lunar dust to pollute both as operations progress. Apollo astronauts were exposed briefly to dust at nuisance levels, but stays of up to 6 months on the lunar surface are envisioned. Will repeated episodic exposures to lunar dust present a health hazard to those engaged in lunar exploration? Using rats exposed to lunar dust by nose-only inhalation, we set out to investigate that question.

  16. Liquid Crystal Membrane Dust Mitigation System for Lunar or Martian Operations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar dust creates a number of hazards to lunar operations including, effect on human health, degradation of life support systems, wear to mechanical systems and...

  17. Dust-Tolerant Reusable Connection Mechanisms for Lunar Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dust, especially lunar dust, has been identified as a significant and present challenge in future exploration missions. In addition to posing contamination and...

  18. DEM Solutions Develops Answers to Modeling Lunar Dust and Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carol Anne; Calle, Carlos; LaRoche, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    With the proposed return to the Moon, scientists like NASA-KSC's Dr. Calle are concerned for a number of reasons. We will be staying longer on the planet's surface, future missions may include dust-raising activities, such as excavation and handling of lunar soil and rock, and we will be sending robotic instruments to do much of the work for us. Understanding more about the chemical and physical properties of lunar dust, how dust particles interact with each other and with equipment surfaces and the role of static electricity build-up on dust particles in the low-humidity lunar environment is imperative to the development of technologies for removing and preventing dust accumulation, and successfully handling lunar regolith. Dr. Calle is currently working on the problems of the electrostatic phenomena of granular and bulk materials as they apply to planetary surfaces, particularly to those of Mars and the Moon, and is heavily involved in developing instrumentation for future planetary missions. With this end in view, the NASA Kennedy Space Center's Innovative Partnerships Program Office partnered with OEM Solutions, Inc. OEM Solutions is a global leader in particle dynamics simulation software, providing custom solutions for use in tackling tough design and process problems related to bulk solids handling. Customers in industries such as pharmaceutical, chemical, mineral, and materials processing as well as oil and gas production, agricultural and construction, and geo-technical engineering use OEM Solutions' EDEM(TradeMark) software to improve the design and operation of their equipment while reducing development costs, time-to-market and operational risk. EDEM is the world's first general-purpose computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool to use state-of-the-art discrete element modeling technology for the simulation and analysis of particle handling and manufacturing operations. With EDEM you'can quickly and easily create a parameterized model of your granular solids

  19. The lunar atmosphere and dust environment explorer mission (LADEE)

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains five articles describing the mission and its instruments.  The first paper, by the project scientist Richard C. Elphic and his colleagues, describes the mission objectives, the launch vehicle, spacecraft and the mission itself.  This is followed by a description of LADEE’s Neutral Mass Spectrometer by Paul Mahaffy and company.  This paper describes the investigation that directly targets the lunar exosphere, which can also be explored optically in the ultraviolet.  In the following article Anthony Colaprete describes LADEE’s Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer that operated from 230 nm to 810 nm scanning the atmosphere just above the surface.  Not only is there atmosphere but there is also dust that putatively can be levitated above the surface, possibly by electric fields on the Moon’s surface.  Mihaly Horanyi leads this investigation, called the Lunar Dust Experiment, aimed at understanding the purported observations of levitated dust.  This experiment was also very succes...

  20. Gene Expression Profiling of Lung Tissue of Rats Exposed to Lunar Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Feiveson, Alan H.; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Kidane, Yared H.; Ploutz-Snyder Robert; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zalesak, Selina M.; Scully, Robert R.; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the dynamics of global gene expression changes in the lung tissue of rats exposed to lunar dust particles. Multiple pathways and transcription factors were identified using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool, showing the potential networks of these signaling regulations involved in lunar dust-induced prolonged proflammatory response and toxicity. The data presented in this study, for the first time, explores the molecular mechanisms of lunar dust induced toxicity. This work contributes not only to the risk assessment for future space exploration, but also to the understanding of the dust-induced toxicity to humans on earth.

  1. LADEE UVS Observations of Atoms and Dust in the Lunar Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Colaprete, Anthony; Cook, Amanda M.; Shirley, Mark H.; Vargo, Kara E.; Elphic, Richard C.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Glenar, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) was a lunar orbiter launched in September 2013 that investigated the composition and temporal variation of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment. A major goal of the mission was to characterize the dust exosphere prior to future lunar exploration activities, which may alter the lunar environment. The Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) onboard LADEE addresses this goal, utilizing two sets of optics: a limbviewing telescope, and a solar-viewing telescope. We report on spectroscopic (approximately 280 - 820 nm) observations viewing down the lunar wake or along the 'lunar tail' from lunar orbit. Prior groundbased studies have observed the emission from neutral sodium atoms extended along the lunar tail, so often this region is referred to as the lunar sodium tail. UVS measurements were made on the dark side of the moon, with the UVS limb-viewing telescope pointed outward in the direction of the Moon's wake (almost anti-sun), during different lunar phases. These UVS observation activities sample a long column and allow the characterization of scattered light from dust and emission lines from atoms in the lunar tail. Observations in this UVS configuration show the largest excess of scattered blue light in our data set, indicative of the presence of small dust grains in the tail. Once lofted, nanoparticles may become charged and picked up by the solar wind, similar to the phenomena witnessed above Enceladus's northern hemisphere or by the STEREO/WAVES instrument while close to Earth's orbit. The UVS data show that small dust grains as well as atoms become entrained in the lunar tail.

  2. Measurements of Photoelectric Yield and Physical Properties of Individual Lunar Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; LeClair, A.; West, F. A.; Taylor, L.; Hoover, R.

    2005-01-01

    Micron size dust grains levitated and transported on the lunar surface constitute a major problem for the robotic and human habitat missions for the Moon. It is well known since the Apollo missions that the lunar surface is covered with a thick layer of micron/sub-micron size dust grains. Transient dust clouds over the lunar horizon were observed by experiments during the Apollo 17 mission. Theoretical models suggest that the dust grains on the lunar surface are charged by the solar UV radiation as well as the solar wind. Even without any physical activity, the dust grains are levitated by electrostatic fields and transported away from the surface in the near vacuum environment of the Moon. The current dust charging and the levitation models, however, do not fully explain the observed phenomena. Since the abundance of dust on the Moon's surface with its observed adhesive characteristics is believed to have a severe impact on the human habitat and the lifetime and operations of a variety of equipment, it is necessary to investigate the phenomena and the charging properties of the lunar dust in order to develop appropriate mitigating strategies. We will present results of some recent laboratory experiments on individual micro/sub-micron size dust grains levitated in electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. The experiments involve photoelectric emission measurements of individual micron size lunar dust grains illuminated with UV radiation in the 120-160 nm wavelength range. The photoelectric yields are required to determine the charging properties of lunar dust illuminated by solar UV radiation. We will present some recent results of laboratory measurement of the photoelectric yields and the physical properties of individual micron size dust grains from the Apollo and Luna-24 sample returns as well as the JSC-1 lunar simulants.

  3. Solar wind radiation damage in lunar dust grains and the characteristics of the ancient solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, J.; Chaumont, J.

    1980-01-01

    Current understanding of the exposure history of lunar dust grains to the ancient solar wind is reviewed, the work being based mostly on a Monte Carlo statistical code, describing the 'gardening' effects of the meteorite bombardment in the lunar regolith, and on analytical models, yielding the lifetimes of the grains against various types of destruction processes. Families of lunar dust grains are identified, and evidence is presented showing that lunar dust grains were not partially shielded from solar wind ions. Results of solar wind simulation experiments are used to interpret the thickness distribution of the amorphous coatings of solar wind radiation-damaged material observed on 1-micron lunar dust grains. It is argued that such distributions reflect the speed distribution of the ancient solar wind as averaged over periods of approximately 5000 years in duration, and that the ancient solar wind is less energetic than the present day solar wind

  4. Global Gene Expression Profiling in Lung Tissues of Rat Exposed to Lunar Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshitla, Samrawit A.; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Kidane, Yared H.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.; Meyers, Valerie E.; Zhang, Ye

    2014-01-01

    The Moon's surface is covered by a layer of fine, potential reactive dust. Lunar dust contain about 1-2% respirable very fine dust (less than 3 micrometers). The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle and outpost would inevitably be contaminated with lunar dust that could pose a health risk. The purpose of the study is to analyze the dynamics of global gene expression changes in lung tissues of rats exposed to lunar dust particles. F344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6h/d; 5d/wk) in nose-only inhalation chambers to concentrations of 0 (control air), 2.1, 6.8, 21, and 61 mg/m3 of lunar dust. Animals were euthanized at 1 day and 13 weeks after the last inhalation exposure. After being lavaged, lung tissue from each animal was collected and total RNA was isolated. Four samples of each dose group were analyzed using Agilent Rat GE v3 microarray to profile global gene expression of 44K transcripts. After background subtraction, normalization, and log transformation, t tests were used to compare the mean expression levels of each exposed group to the control group. Correction for multiple testing was made using the method of Benjamini, Krieger, and Yekuteli (1) to control the false discovery rate. Genes with significant changes of at least 1.75 fold were identified as genes of interest. Both low and high doses of lunar dust caused dramatic, dose-dependent global gene expression changes in the lung tissues. However, the responses of lung tissue to low dose lunar dust are distinguished from those of high doses, especially those associated with 61mg/m3 dust exposure. The data were further integrated into the Ingenuity system to analyze the gene ontology (GO), pathway distribution and putative upstream regulators and gene targets. Multiple pathways, functions, and upstream regulators have been identified in response to lunar dust induced damage in the lung tissue.

  5. Performance Evaluation of an Actuator Dust Seal for Lunar Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Gaier, James R.; Handschuh, Michael; Panko, Scott; Sechkar, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Exploration of extraterrestrial surfaces (e.g. moon, Mars, asteroid) will require durable space mechanisms that will survive potentially dusty surface conditions in addition to the hard vacuum and extreme temperatures of space. Baseline tests with lunar simulant were recently completed at NASA GRC on a new Low-Temperature Mechanism (LTM) dust seal for space actuator application. Following are top-level findings of the tests completed to date in vacuum using NU-LHT-2M lunar-highlands simulant. A complete set of findings are found in the conclusions section.Tests were run at approximately 10-7 torr with unidirectional rotational speed of 39 RPM.Initial break-in runs were performed at atmospheric conditions with no simulant. During the break-in runs, the maximum torque observed was 16.7 lbf-in. while the maximum seal outer diameter temperature was 103F. Only 0.4 milligrams of NU-LHT-2M simulant passed through the sealshaft interface in the first 511,000 cycles while under vacuum despite a chip on the secondary sealing surface.Approximately 650,000 of a planned 1,000,000 cycles were completed in vacuum with NU-LHT-2M simulant.Upon test disassembly NU-LHT-2M was found on the secondary sealing surface.

  6. Electrostatic Transport and Manipulation of Lunar Soil and Dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Transport and manipulation technologies of lunar soil and dust are under development utilizing the electrostatic force. Transport of particles is realized by an electrostatic conveyer consisting of parallel electrodes. Four-phase traveling electrostatic wave was applied to the electrodes to transport particles upon the conveyer and it was demonstrated that particles were efficiently transported under conditions of low frequency, high voltage, and the application of rectangular wave. Not only linear but also curved and closed transport was demonstrated. Numerical investigation was carried out with a three-dimensional hard-sphere model of the Distinct Element Method to clarify the mechanism of the transport and to predict performances in the lunar environment. This technology is expected to be utilized not only for the transport of bulk soil but also for the cleaning of a solar panel and an optical lens. Another technology is an electrostatic manipulation system to manipulate single particle. A manipulator consisted of two parallel pin electrodes. When voltage was applied between the electrodes, electrophoresis force generated in non-uniform electrostatic field was applied to the particle near the tip of the electrode. The particle was captured by the application of the voltage and released from the manipulator by turning off the voltage. It was possible to manipulate not only insulative but also conductive particles. Three-dimensional electrostatic field calculation was conducted to calculate the electrophoresis force and the Coulomb force

  7. 3 MV hypervelocity dust accelerator at the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Anthony; Collette, Andrew; Drake, Keith; Grün, Eberhard; Horányi, Mihály; Kempf, Sascha; Mocker, Anna; Munsat, Tobin; Northway, Paige; Srama, Ralf; Sternovsky, Zoltán; Thomas, Evan

    2012-07-01

    A hypervelocity dust accelerator for studying micrometeorite impacts has been constructed at the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) at the University of Colorado. Based on the Max-Planck-Institüt für Kernphysik (MPI-K) accelerator, this accelerator is capable of emitting single particles of a specific mass and velocity selected by the user. The accelerator consists of a 3 MV Pelletron generator with a dust source, four image charge pickup detectors, and two interchangeable target chambers: a large high-vacuum test bed and an ultra-high vacuum impact study chamber. The large test bed is a 1.2 m diameter, 1.5 m long cylindrical vacuum chamber capable of pressures as low as 10(-7) torr while the ultra-high vacuum chamber is a 0.75 m diameter, 1.1 m long chamber capable of pressures as low as 10(-10) torr. Using iron dust of up to 2 microns in diameter, final velocities have been measured up to 52 km/s. The spread of the dust particles and the effect of electrostatic focusing have been measured using a long exposure CCD and a quartz target. Furthermore, a new technique of particle selection is being developed using real time digital filtering techniques. Signals are digitized and then cross-correlated with a shaped filter, resulting in a suppressed noise floor. Improvements over the MPI-K design, which include a higher operating voltage and digital filtering for detection, increase the available parameter space of dust emitted by the accelerator. The CCLDAS dust facility is a user facility open to the scientific community to assist with instrument calibrations and experiments.

  8. 3 MV hypervelocity dust accelerator at the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Anthony; Horanyi, Mihaly; Kempf, Sascha; Thomas, Evan [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Collette, Andrew; Drake, Keith; Northway, Paige [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Gruen, Eberhard [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); MPI fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Mocker, Anna [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); MPI fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); IRS, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Munsat, Tobin [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Srama, Ralf [MPI fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); IRS, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); and others

    2012-07-15

    A hypervelocity dust accelerator for studying micrometeorite impacts has been constructed at the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) at the University of Colorado. Based on the Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Kernphysik (MPI-K) accelerator, this accelerator is capable of emitting single particles of a specific mass and velocity selected by the user. The accelerator consists of a 3 MV Pelletron generator with a dust source, four image charge pickup detectors, and two interchangeable target chambers: a large high-vacuum test bed and an ultra-high vacuum impact study chamber. The large test bed is a 1.2 m diameter, 1.5 m long cylindrical vacuum chamber capable of pressures as low as 10{sup -7} torr while the ultra-high vacuum chamber is a 0.75 m diameter, 1.1 m long chamber capable of pressures as low as 10{sup -10} torr. Using iron dust of up to 2 microns in diameter, final velocities have been measured up to 52 km/s. The spread of the dust particles and the effect of electrostatic focusing have been measured using a long exposure CCD and a quartz target. Furthermore, a new technique of particle selection is being developed using real time digital filtering techniques. Signals are digitized and then cross-correlated with a shaped filter, resulting in a suppressed noise floor. Improvements over the MPI-K design, which include a higher operating voltage and digital filtering for detection, increase the available parameter space of dust emitted by the accelerator. The CCLDAS dust facility is a user facility open to the scientific community to assist with instrument calibrations and experiments.

  9. Measurements of Charging of Apollo 17 Lunar Dust Grains by Electron Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mian M.; Tankosic, Dragana; Spann, James F.; Dube, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known since the Apollo missions that the lunar surface is covered with a thick layer of micron size dust grains with unusually high adhesive characteristics. The dust grains observed to be levitated and transported on the lunar surface are believed to have a hazardous impact on the robotic and human missions to the Moon. The observed dust phenomena are attributed to the lunar dust being charged positively during the day by UV photoelectric emissions, and negatively during the night by the solar wind electrons. The current dust charging and the levitation models, however, do not fully explain the observed phenomena, with the uncertainty of dust charging processes and the equilibrium potentials of the individual dust grains. It is well recognized that the charging properties of individual dust grains are substantially different from those determined from measurements made on bulk materials that are currently available. An experimental facility has been developed in the Dusty Plasma Laboratory at MSFC for investigating the charging and optical properties of individual micron/sub-micron size positively or negatively charged dust grains by levitating them in an electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. In this paper, we present the laboratory measurements on charging of Apollo 17 individual lunar dust grains by a low energy electron beam. The charging rates and the equilibrium potentials produced by direct electron impact and by secondary electron emission process are discussed.

  10. Multi-Use Coating for Abrasion Prevention, Wear Protection, and Lunar Dust Removal, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The deleterious effects of lunar dust, typically less than 50 µm in diameter, have to be addressed prior to establishing a human base and long duration human...

  11. Multi-Use Coating for Abrasion Prevention, Wear Protection, and Lunar Dust Removal, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The deleterious effects of lunar dust, typically less than 50 µm in diameter, have to be addressed prior to establishing a human base and long duration human...

  12. Laboratory Measurements of Charging of Apollo 17 Lunar Dust Grains by Low Energy Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mian M.; Tankosic, Dragana; Spann, James F.; Dube, Michael J.; Gaskin, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    It is well recognized that the charging properties of individual micron/sub-micron size dust grains by various processes are expected to be substantially different from the currently available measurements made on bulk materials. Solar UV radiation and the solar wind plasma charge micron size dust grains on the lunar surface with virtually no atmosphere. The electrostatically charged dust grains are believed to be levitated and transported long distances over the lunar terminator from the day to the night side. The current models do not fully explain the lunar dust phenomena and laboratory measurements are needed to experimentally determine the charging properties of lunar dust grains. An experimental facility has been developed in the Dusty Plasma Laboratory at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center MSFC for investigating the charging properties of individual micron/sub-micron size positively or negatively charged dust grains by levitating them in an electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. In this paper, we present laboratory measurements on charging of Apollo 17 individual lunar dust grains by low energy electron beams in the 5-100 eV energy range. The measurements are made by levitating Apollo 17 dust grains of 0.2 to 10 micrometer diameters, in an electrodynamic balance and exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams. The charging rates and the equilibrium potentials produced by direct electron impact and by secondary electron emission processes are discussed.

  13. Gene Expression Profiling in Lung Tissues from Rat Exposed to Lunar Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Zalesak, Selina M.; Kidane, Yared H.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Scully, Robert R.; Williams, Kyle; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The Moon's surface is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust. Lunar dust contain about 1-2% of very fine dust (gene expression changes in lung tissues from rats exposed to lunar dust particles. F344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6h/d; 5d/wk) in nose-only inhalation chambers to concentrations of 0 (control air), 2.1, 6.8, 21, and 61 mg/m(exp 3) of lunar dust. Five rats per group were euthanized 1 day, and 3 months after the last inhalation exposure. The total RNAs were isolated from lung tissues after being lavaged. The Agilent Rat GE v3 microarray was used to profile global gene expression (44K). The genes with significant expression changes are identified and the gene expression data were further analyzed using various statistical tools.

  14. Evaluation of Surface Modification as a Lunar Dust Mitigation Strategy for Thermal Control Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, James R.; Waters, Deborah L.; Misconin, Robert M.; Banks, Bruce A.; Crowder, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Three surface treatments were evaluated for their ability to lower the adhesion between lunar simulant dust and AZ93, AlFEP, and AgFEP thermal control surfaces under simulated lunar conditions. Samples were dusted in situ and exposed to a standardized puff of nitrogen gas. Thermal performance before dusting, after dusting, and after part of the dust was removed by the puff of gas, were compared to perform the assessment. None of the surface treatments was found to significantly affect the adhesion of lunar simulants to AZ93 thermal control paint. Oxygen ion beam texturing also did not lower the adhesion of lunar simulant dust to AlFEP or AgFEP. But a workfunction matching coating and a proprietary Ball Aerospace surface treatment were both found to significantly lower the adhesion of lunar simulants to AlFEP and AgFEP. Based on these results, it is recommended that all these two techniques be further explored as dust mitigation coatings for AlFEP and AgFEP thermal control surfaces.

  15. The Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Hodges, R. Richard; Benna, Mehdi; King, Todd; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Bendt, Mirl; Carigan, Daniel; Errigo, Therese; Harpold, Daniel N.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission is designed to measure the composition and variability of the tenuous lunar atmosphere. The NMS complements two other instruments on the LADEE spacecraft designed to secure spectroscopic measurements of lunar composition and in situ measurement of lunar dust over the course of a 100-day mission in order to sample multiple lunation periods. The NMS utilizes a dual ion source designed to measure both surface reactive and inert species and a quadrupole analyzer. The NMS is expected to secure time resolved measurements of helium and argon and determine abundance or upper limits for many other species either sputtered or thermally evolved from the lunar surface.

  16. Toxicity of Lunar Dust in Lungs Assessed by Examining Biomarkers in Exposed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, C.-W.; James, J. T.; Zeidler-Erdely, P. C.; Castranova, V.; Young, S. H.; Quan, C. L.; Khan-Mayberry, N.; Taylor, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is contemplating to build an outpost on the Moon for prolonged human habitation and research. The lunar surface is covered by a layer of soil, of which the finest portion is highly reactive dust. Dust samples of respirable sizes were aerodynamically isolated from two lunar soil samples of different maturities (cosmic exposure ages) collected during the Apollo 16 mission. The lunar dust samples, TiO2, or quartz, suspended in normal saline were given to groups of 5 C57 male mice by intrapharyngeal aspiration at 0. 1, 0.3, or 1.0 mg/mouse. Because lunar dust aggregates rapidly in aqueous media, some tests were conducted with dusts suspended in Survanta/saline (1:1). The mice were euthanized 7 or 30 days later, and their lungs were lavaged to assess the presence of toxicity biomarkers in bronchioalveolar lavage fluids. The overall results showed that the two lunar dust samples were similar in toxicity, they were more toxic than T102 , but less toxic than quartz. This preliminary study is a part of the large study to obtain data for setting exposure limits for astronauts living on the Moon

  17. Laboratory Measurements of Optical and Physical Properties of Individual Lunar Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Craven, P. D.; Hoover, R. B.

    2006-01-01

    The lunar surface is covered with a thick layer of sub-micron/micron size dust grains formed by meteoritic impact over billions of years. The fine dust grains are levitated and transported on the lunar surface, and transient dust clouds over the lunar horizon were observed by experiments during the Apollo 17 mission. Theoretical models suggest that the dust grains on the lunar surface are charged by the solar UV radiation as well as the solar wind. Even without any physical activity, the dust grains are levitated by electrostatic fields and transported away from the surface in the near vacuum environment of the Moon. The current dust charging and levitation models, however, do not fully explain the observed phenomena. Since the abundance of dust on the Moon's surface with its observed adhesive characteristics has the potential of severe impact on human habitat and operations and lifetime of a variety of equipment, it is necessary to investigate the charging properties and the lunar dust phenomena in order to develop appropriate mitigating strategies. Photoelectric emission induced by the solar UV radiation with photon energies higher than the work function of the grain materials is recognized to be the dominant process for charging of the lunar dust, and requires measurements of the photoelectric yields to determine the charging and equilibrium potentials of individual dust grains. In this paper, we present the first laboratory measurements of the photoelectric yields of individual sub-micron/micron size dust grains selected from sample returns of Apollo 17, and Luna 24 missions, as well as similar size dust grains from the JSC-1 simulants. The experimental results were obtained on a laboratory facility based on an electrodynamic balance that permits a variety of experiments to be conducted on individual sub-micron/micron size dust grains in simulated space environments. The photoelectric emission measurements indicate grain size dependence with the yield

  18. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE): Initial Science Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Salute, J. S.; Noble, S.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-01-01

    On September 6, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, dur-ing the government shutdown. The spacecraft impact-ed the lunar surface on April 18, 2014, following a completely successful mission. LADEE's science objectives were twofold: (1) De-termine the composition and variability of the lunar atmosphere; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, and its variability. The LADEE science payload consisted of the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), which sensed dust impacts in situ, for parti-cles between 100 nm and 5 micrometers; a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), which sampled lunar exo-spheric gases in situ, over the 2-150 Dalton mass range; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer (UVS) ac-quired spectra of atmospheric emissions and scattered light from tenuous dust, spanning a 250-800 nm wave-length range. UVS also performed dust extinction measurements via a separate solar viewer optic. The following are preliminary results for the lunar exosphere: (1) The helium exosphere of the Moon, first observed during Apollo, is clearly dominated by the delivery of solar wind He++. (2) Neon 20 is clearly seen as an important constituent of the exosphere. (3) Argon 40, also observed during Apollo and arising from interior outgassing, exhibits variations related to surface temperature-driven condensation and release, and is also enhanced over specific selenographic longi-tudes. (4) The sodium abundance varies with both lu-nar phase and with meteoroid influx, implicating both solar wind sputtering and impact vaporization process-es. (5) Potassium was also routinely monitored and exhibits some of the same properties as sodium. (6) Other candidate species were seen by both NMS and UVS, and await confirmation. Dust measurements have revealed a persistent "shroud" of small dust particles

  19. Contingency Trajectory Design for a Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver Failure by the Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Loucks, Michael; Carrico, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this extended abstract is to present results from a failed lunar-orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver contingency analysis for the Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission, managed and operated by NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, CA. The LADEE spacecrafts nominal trajectory implemented multiple sub-lunar phasing orbits centered at Earth before eventually reaching the Moon (Fig. 1) where a critical LOI maneuver was to be performed [1,2,3]. If this LOI was missed, the LADEE spacecraft would be on an Earth-escape trajectory, bound for heliocentric space. Although a partial mission recovery is possible from a heliocentric orbit (to be discussed in the full paper), it was found that an escape-prevention maneuver could be performed several days after a hypothetical LOI-miss, allowing a return to the desired science orbit around the Moon without leaving the Earths sphere-of-influence (SOI).

  20. LUNAR DUST GRAIN CHARGING BY ELECTRON IMPACT: COMPLEX ROLE OF SECONDARY ELECTRON EMISSIONS IN SPACE ENVIRONMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; LeClair, A. C.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.

    2010-01-01

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with radiation from nearby sources, or by electron/ion collisions by sticking or secondary electron emissions (SEEs). The high vacuum environment on the lunar surface leads to some unusual physical and dynamical phenomena involving dust grains with high adhesive characteristics, and levitation and transportation over long distances. Knowledge of the dust grain charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding a variety of physical and dynamical processes in the interstellar medium, and heliospheric, interplanetary/planetary, and lunar environments. It has been well recognized that the charging properties of individual micron-/submicron-size dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the corresponding values for bulk materials. In this paper, we present experimental results on the charging of individual 0.2-13 μm size dust grains selected from Apollo 11 and 17 dust samples, and spherical silica particles by exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams in the 10-200 eV energy range. The dust charging process by electron impact involving the SEEs discussed is found to be a complex charging phenomenon with strong particle size dependence. The measurements indicate substantial differences between the polarity and magnitude of the dust charging rates of individual small-size dust grains, and the measurements and model properties of corresponding bulk materials. A more comprehensive plan of measurements of the charging properties of individual dust grains for developing a database for realistic models of dust charging in astrophysical and lunar environments is in progress.

  1. SECONDARY EMISSION FROM NON-SPHERICAL DUST GRAINS WITH ROUGH SURFACES: APPLICATION TO LUNAR DUST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richterová, I.; Němeček, Z.; Beránek, M.; Šafránková, J.; Pavlů, J.

    2012-01-01

    Electrons impinging on a target can release secondary electrons and/or they can be scattered out of the target. It is well established that the number of escaping electrons per primary electron depends on the target composition and dimensions, the energy, and incidence angle of the primary electrons, but there are suggestions that the target's shape and surface roughness also influence the secondary emission. We present a further modification of the model of secondary electron emission from dust grains which is applied to non-spherical grains and grains with defined surface roughness. It is shown that the non-spherical grains give rise to a larger secondary electron yield, whereas the surface roughness leads to a decrease in the yield. Moreover, these effects can be distinguished: the shape effect is prominent for high primary energies, whereas the surface roughness predominantly affects the yield at the low-energy range. The calculations use the Lunar Highlands Type NU-LHT-2M simulant as a grain material and the results are compared with previously published laboratory and in situ measurements.

  2. Dust Removal Technology Demonstration for a Lunar Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, C. I.; Chen, A.; Immer, C. D.; Csonka, M.; Hogue, M. D.; Snyder, S. J.; Rogriquez, M.; Margiotta, D. V.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS), an active dust mitigation technology with applications to solar panels, thermal radiators, optical systems, visors, seals and connectors. This active technology is capable of removing dust and granular material with diameters as large as several hundred microns. In this paper, we report on the development of three types of EDS systems for NASA's Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU). A transparent EDS 20 cm in diameter with indium tin oxide electrodes on a 0.1 mm-thick polyethylene terephtalate (PET) film was constructed for viewport dust protection. Two opaque EDS systems with copper electrodes on 0.1 mm-thick Kapton were also built to demonstrate dust removal on the doors of the HDU. A lotus coating that minimizes dust adhesion was added to one of the last two EDS systems to demonstrate the effectiveness of the combined systems.

  3. LUNAR SURFACE AND DUST GRAIN POTENTIALS DURING THE EARTH’S MAGNETOSPHERE CROSSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaverka, J.; Richterová, I.; Pavlu, J.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z., E-mail: jana.safrankova@mff.cuni.cz [Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2016-07-10

    Interaction between the lunar surface and the solar UV radiation and surrounding plasma environment leads to its charging by different processes like photoemission, collection of charged particles, or secondary electron emission (SEE). Whereas the photoemission depends only on the angle between the surface and direction to the Sun and varies only slowly, plasma parameters can change rapidly as the Moon orbits around the Earth. This paper presents numerical simulations of one Moon pass through the magnetospheric tail including the real plasma parameters measured by THEMIS as an input. The calculations are concentrated on different charges of the lunar surface itself and a dust grain lifted above this surface. Our estimations show that (1) the SEE leads to a positive charging of parts of the lunar surface even in the magnetosphere, where a high negative potential is expected; (2) the SEE is generally more important for isolated dust grains than for the lunar surface covered by these grains; and (3) the time constant of charging of dust grains depends on their diameter being of the order of hours for sub-micrometer grains. In view of these results, we discuss the conditions under which and the areas where a levitation of the lifted dust grains could be observed.

  4. Efficiency determination of an electrostatic lunar dust collector by discrete element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Wu, Chang-Yu; Sorloaica-Hickman, Nicoleta

    2012-07-01

    Lunar grains become charged by the sun's radiation in the tenuous atmosphere of the moon. This leads to lunar dust levitation and particle deposition which often create serious problems in the costly system deployed in lunar exploration. In this study, an electrostatic lunar dust collector (ELDC) is proposed to address the issue and the discrete element method (DEM) is used to investigate the effects of electrical particle-particle interactions, non-uniformity of the electrostatic field, and characteristics of the ELDC. The simulations on 20-μm-sized lunar particles reveal the electrical particle-particle interactions of the dust particles within the ELDC plates require 29% higher electrostatic field strength than that without the interactions for 100% collection efficiency. For the given ELDC geometry, consideration of non-uniformity of the electrostatic field along with electrical interactions between particles on the same ELDC geometry leads to a higher requirement of ˜3.5 kV/m to ensure 100% particle collection. Notably, such an electrostatic field is about 103 times less than required for electrodynamic self-cleaning methods. Finally, it is shown for a "half-size" system that the DEM model predicts greater collection efficiency than the Eulerian-based model at all voltages less than required for 100% efficiency. Halving the ELDC dimensions boosts the particle concentration inside the ELDC, as well as the resulting field strength for a given voltage. Though a lunar photovoltaic system was the subject, the results of this study are useful for evaluation of any system for collecting charged particles in other high vacuum environment using an electrostatic field.

  5. Estimation of Apollo Lunar Dust Transport using Optical Extinction Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John E.; Metzger, Philip T.

    2015-04-01

    A technique to estimate mass erosion rate of surface soil during landing of the Apollo Lunar Module (LM) and total mass ejected due to the rocket plume interaction is proposed and tested. The erosion rate is proportional to the product of the second moment of the lofted particle size distribution N(D), and third moment of the normalized soil size distribution S(D), divided by the integral of S(D)ṡD2/v(D), where D is particle diameter and v(D) is the vertical component of particle velocity. The second moment of N(D) is estimated by optical extinction analysis of the Apollo cockpit video. Because of the similarity between mass erosion rate of soil as measured by optical extinction and rainfall rate as measured by radar reflectivity, traditional NWS radar/rainfall correlation methodology can be applied to the lunar soil case where various S(D) models are assumed corresponding to specific lunar sites.

  6. Estimation of Apollo lunar dust transport using optical extinction measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, John E.; Metzger, Philip T.

    2015-01-01

    A technique to estimate mass erosion rate of surface soil during landing of the Apollo Lunar Module (LM) and total mass ejected due to the rocket plume interaction is proposed and tested. The erosion rate is proportional to the product of the second moment of the lofted particle size distribution N(D), and third moment of the normalized soil size distribution S(D), divided by the integral of S(D)D^2/v(D), where D is particle diameter and v(D) is the vertical component of particle velocity. Th...

  7. First Results from NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphic, R. C.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Delory, G. T.; Noble, S. K.; Boroson, D.; Hine, B.; Salute, J.

    2013-12-01

    As of early August, 2013, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission is scheduled for launch on a Minotaur V rocket from Wallops Flight Facility during a five-day launch period that opens on Sept. 6, 2013 (early Sept. 7 UTC). LADEE will address 40 year-old mysteries of the lunar atmosphere and the question of levitated lunar dust. It will also pioneer the next generation of optical space communications. LADEE will assess the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal its sources and variability. These investigations are relevant to our understanding of surface boundary exospheres and dust processes occurring at many objects throughout the solar system, address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and have potential implications for future exploration activities. Following a successful launch, LADEE will enter a series of phasing orbits, which allows the spacecraft to arrive at the Moon at the proper time and phase. This approach accommodates any dispersion in the Minotaur V launch injection. LADEE's arrival at the moon depends on the launch date, but with the Sept. 6 launch date it should arrive at the Moon in early October. The spacecraft will approach the moon from its leading edge, travel behind the Moon out of sight of the Earth, and then re-emerge and execute a three-minute Lunar Orbit Insertion maneuver. This will place LADEE in an elliptical retrograde equatorial orbit with an orbital period of approximately 24 hours. A series of maneuvers is then performed to reduce the orbit to become nearly circular with a 156-mile (250-kilometer) altitude. Spacecraft checkout and science instrument commissioning will commence in early-October and will nominally span 30 days but can be extended for an additional 30

  8. Restoration and Reexamination of Apollo Lunar Dust Detector Data from Original Telemetry Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, M. J.; Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent

    2012-01-01

    We are recovering the original telemetry (Figure I) from the Apollo Dust, Thermal, Radiation Environment Monitor (DTREM) experiment, more commonly known as the Dust Detector, and producing full time resolution (54 second) data sets for release through the Planetary Data System (PDS). The primary objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of dust deposition, temperature, and radiation damage on solar cells on the lunar surface. The monitor was a small box consisting of three solar cells and thermistors mounted on the ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package) central station. The Dust Detector was carried on Apollo's 11, 12, 14 and 15. The Apollo 11 DTREM was powered by solar cells and only operated for a few months as planned. The Apollo 12, 14, and 15 detectors operated for 5 to 7 years, returning data every 54 seconds, consisting of voltage outputs from the three solar cells and temperatures measured by the three thermistors. The telemetry was received at ground stations and held on the Apollo Housekeeping (known as "Word 33") tapes. made available to the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) by Yosio Nakamura (University of Texas Institute for Geophysics). We have converted selected parts of the telemetry into uncalibrated and calibrated output voltages and temperatures.

  9. A Monte Carlo model for the exposure history of lunar dust grains in the ancient solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, J.; Comstock, G.M.; Langevin, Y.; Maurette, M.; Jouffrey, B.; Jouret, C.

    1976-01-01

    The theoretical motion of the individual dust grains in the lunar regolith is analyzed by using a Monte Carlo statistical code where the variables are the mass and speed distribution of meteorites at the lunar surface and the geometrical shape of impact craters. From these computations the detailed irradiation history of the grains in the ancient solar wind is traced back, over a period of 4 billion years, as a function of the grain-size. Then by combining this irradiation scheme with the results of solar wind simulation experiments, the time and depth dependent accumulation of solar wind effects in the theoretical grains (solar wind maturation) is inferred. Finally, the validity of these predictions is tentatively checked by discussing a variety of physical and chemical solar wind effects which are registered in the surface layers of lunar dust grains. Therefore these studies give a tentative scenario for the 'maturation' of the lunar regolith with respect to solar wind effects, but they also reveal useful guidelines to deduce meaningful information from such effects. In particular, they suggest a 'lunar skin' sampling technique for extracting dust grains in lunar core tubes which could help in deciphering the past activity of the ancient solar wind over a time scale of several billion years. (Auth.)

  10. Investigation of dust particles with future Russian lunar missions: achievements of further development of PmL instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Ilya; Zakharov, Alexander; Afonin, Valeri; Seran, Elena; Godefroy, Michel; Shashkova, Inna; Lyash, Andrey; Dolnikov, Gennady; Popel, Sergey; Lisin, Evgeny

    2016-07-01

    One of the complicating factors of the future robotic and human lunar landing missions is the influence of the dust. Meteorites bombardment has accompanied by shock-explosive phenomena, disintegration and mix of the lunar soil in depth and on area simultaneously. As a consequence, the lunar soil has undergone melting, physical and chemical transformations. Recently we have the some reemergence for interest of Moon investigation. The prospects in current century declare USA, China, India, and European Union. In Russia also prepare two missions: Luna-Glob and Luna-Resource. Not last part of investigation of Moon surface is reviewing the dust condition near the ground of landers. Studying the properties of lunar dust is important both for scientific purposes to investigation the lunar exosphere component and for the technical safety of lunar robotic and manned missions. The absence of an atmosphere on the Moon's surface is leading to greater compaction and sintering. Properties of regolith and dust particles (density, temperature, composition, etc.) as well as near-surface lunar exosphere depend on solar activity, lunar local time and position of the Moon relative to the Earth's magneto tail. Upper layers of regolith are an insulator, which is charging as a result of solar UV radiation and the constant bombardment of charged particles, creates a charge distribution on the surface of the moon: positive on the illuminated side and negative on the night side. Charge distribution depends on the local lunar time, latitude and the electrical properties of the regolith (the presence of water in the regolith can influence the local distribution of charge). On the day side of Moon near surface layer there exists possibility formation dusty plasma system. Altitude of levitation is depending from size of dust particle and Moon latitude. The distribution of dust particles by size and altitude has estimated with taking into account photoelectrons, electrons and ions of solar wind

  11. Modeling the Impact Ejected Dust Contribution to the Lunar Exosphere: Results from Experiments and Ground Truth from LADEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermalyn, B.; Colaprete, A.

    2013-12-01

    A considerable body of evidence indicates the presence of lofted regolith dust above the lunar surface. These observations range from multiple in-situ and orbital horizon glow detections to direct measurement of dust motion on the surface, as by the Apollo 17 Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites (LEAM) experiment. Despite this evidence, the specific mechanisms responsible for the lofting of regolith are still actively debated. These include impact ejection, electrostatic lofting, effects of high energy radiation, UV/X- rays, and interplay with solar wind plasma. These processes are highly relevant to one of the two main scientific objectives of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission (due to launch September, 2013): to directly measure the lunar exospheric dust environment and its spatial and temporal variability towards the goal of better understanding the dust flux. Of all the proposed mechanisms taking place on the lunar surface, the only unequivocal ongoing process is impact cratering. Hypervelocity impact events, which mobilize and redistribute regolith across planetary surfaces, are arguably the most pervasive geologic process on rocky bodies. While many studies of dust lofting state that the impact flux rate is orders of magnitude too low to account for the lunar horizon glow phenomenon and discount its contribution, it is imperative to re-examine these assumptions in light of new data on impact ejecta, particularly from the contributions from mesoscale (impactor size on the order of grain size) and macroscale (impactor > grain size) cratering. This is in large part due to a previous lack of data, for while past studies have established a canonical ejecta model for main-stage ejection of sand targets from vertical impacts, only recent studies have been able to begin quantitatively probing the intricacies of the ejection process outside this main-stage, vertical regime. In particular, it is the high-speed early-time ejecta that will reach

  12. Electrical Evolution of a Dust Plume from a Low Energy Lunar Impact: A Model Analog to LCROSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Jackson, T. L.; Colaprete, A.; Heldmann, J. L.; Schultz, P. H.; Killen, R. M.; Delory, G. T.; Halekas, J. S.; Marshall, J. R.; hide

    2011-01-01

    A Monte Carlo test particle model was developed that simulates the charge evolution of micron and sub-micron sized dust grains ejected upon low-energy impact of a moderate-size object onto a lunar polar crater floor. Our analog is the LCROSS impact into Cabeus crater. Our primary objective is to model grain discharging as the plume propagates upwards from shadowed crater into sunlight.

  13. Free-radical chemistry as a means to evaluate lunar dust health hazard in view of future missions to the moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turci, Francesco; Corazzari, Ingrid; Alberto, Gabriele; Martra, Gianmario; Fubini, Bice

    2015-05-01

    Lunar dust toxicity has to be evaluated in view of future manned missions to the Moon. Previous studies on lunar specimens and simulated dusts have revealed an oxidant activity assigned to HO· release. However, the mechanisms behind the reactivity of lunar dust are still quite unclear at the molecular level. In the present study, a complementary set of tests--including terephthalate (TA) hydroxylation, free radical release as measured by means of the spin-trapping/electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique, and cell-free lipoperoxidation--is proposed to investigate the reactions induced by the fine fraction of a lunar dust analogue (JSC-1A-vf) in biologically relevant experimental environments. Our study proved that JSC-1A-vf is able to hydroxylate TA also in anaerobic conditions, which indicates that molecular oxygen is not involved in such a reaction. Spin-trapping/EPR measures showed that the HO· radical is not the reactive intermediate involved in the oxidative potential of JSC-1A-vf. A surface reactivity implying a redox cycle of phosphate-complexed iron via a Fe(IV) state is proposed. The role of this iron species was investigated by assessing the reactivity of JSC-1A-vf toward hydrogen peroxide (Fenton-like activity), formate ions (homolytic rupture of C-H bond), and linoleic acid (cell-free lipoperoxidation). JSC-1A-vf was active in all tests, confirming that redox centers of transition metal ions on the surface of the dust may be responsible for dust reactivity and that the TA assay may be a useful field probe to monitor the surface oxidative potential of lunar dust.

  14. Environmental toxicology: Acute effects of suspended particulate matter (dust on hematological indices of albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.O. Ogugbuaja

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The elemental contents of suspended particulate matter (dust samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria, were determined which showed appreciably high levels for especially Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, K, Ca, and. Na. Wister albino rats were exposed to graded doses of phosphate buffered saline carried dust particles. The hematological indices of the exposed rats were examined on days 10, 20, 30, and 60 post administrations. White blood cell, red blood cell and hemoglobin counts peaked between days 20 and 30. This observation was markedly so for the higher doses, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, in contrast to the 500 mg/kg dose. The platelet count however indicated a gradual increase within the study period. Observed changes for these indices from the control values were found significant at 99% confidence level. Possible inhalatory problems are thus anticipated from prolonged accumulation of the dust in the respiratory system.

  15. Space Toxicology: Environmental Health Considerations during Spaceflight Operations and Potential Paths for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen N.; Sundaresan, Alemalu

    2009-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a specialized discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids [1]. Astronaut explorers face unique challenges to their health while working and living with limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. At its core the practice of space toxicology to identify, assess and predict potential chemical contaminants and limit the astronaut s exposure to these environmental factors in order to protect crew health. Space toxicologists are also charged with setting safe exposure limits that will protect the astronaut against a multitude of chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space, toxicological risks are gauged and managed within the context of isolation, continual exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the necessary use of highly toxic compounds required for propulsion. As the space program move towards human presence and exploration other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of unusual and/or reactive mineral dusts must also be analyzed and controlled. Placing humans for long-term presence in space creates several problems and challenges to the long-term health of the crew, such as bone-loss and immunological challenges and has spurred research into acute, chronic and episodic exposure of the pulmonary system to mineral dusts [2]. NASA has demonstrated that lunar soil contains several types of reactive dusts, including an extremely fine respirable component. In order to protect astronaut health, NASA is now investigating the toxicity of this unique class of dusts. Understanding how these reactive components behave "biochemically" in a moisture-rich pulmonary environment will aid in determining how toxic these particles are to humans. The data obtained from toxicological examination of lunar dusts will determine the human risk criteria for lunar

  16. Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Robert R.; Meyers, Valerie E.

    2015-01-01

    silica (Permissible Exposure Limit [PEL] 0.05 mg/m3) but more toxic than the nuisance dust titanium dioxide (TiO2 [PEL 5.0 mg/m3]). A PEL for episodic exposure to airborne lunar dust during a six-month stay on the lunar surface was established, in consultation with an independent, extramural panel of expert pulmonary toxicologists, at 0.3 mg/m3. The PEL provided for lunar dust is limited to the conditions and exposure specified therefore additional research remains to be accomplished with lunar dust to further address the issues of activation, address other areas of more unique lunar geology (Glotch et al., 2010; Greenhagen et al., 2010), examine potential toxicological effects of inhaled or ingested dust upon other organ systems, such cardiovascular, nervous systems, and examine effects of acute exposure to massive doses of dust such as may occur during off-nominal situations. Work to support the establishment of PELs for Martian dust and dusts of asteroids remains to be accomplished. The literature that describes health effects of exposure to toxic terrestrial dusts provides substantial basis for concern that prolonged exposure to respirable celestial dust could be detrimental to human health. Celestial bodies where a substantial portion of the dust is in the respirable range or where the dusts have large reactive surface areas or contain transition metals or volatile organics, represent greater risks of adverse effects from exposure to the dust. It is possible that in addition to adverse effects to the respiratory system, inhalation and ingestion of celestial dusts could pose risks to other systems

  17. Chemical composition of PM10 and its in vitro toxicological impacts on lung cells during the Middle Eastern Dust (MED) storms in Ahvaz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimabadi, Abolfazl; Ghadiri, Ata; Idani, Esmaeil; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Alavi, Nadali; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Khodadadi, Ali; Marzouni, Mohammad Bagherian; Ankali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Rouhizadeh, Ahmad; Goudarzi, Gholamreza

    2016-04-01

    Reports on the effects of PM10 from dust storm on lung cells are limited. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and in vitro toxicological impacts of PM10 suspensions, its water-soluble fraction, and the solvent-extractable organics extracted from Middle Eastern Dust storms on the human lung epithelial cell (A549). Samples of dust storms and normal days (PM10 0.05). These results led to the conclusions that dust storm PM10 as well as normal day PM10 could lead to cytotoxicity, and the organic compounds (PAHs) and the insoluble particle-core might be the main contributors to cytotoxicity. Our results showed that cytotoxicity and the risk of PM10 to human lung may be more severe during dust storm than normal days due to inhalation of a higher mass concentration of airborne particles. Further research on PM dangerous fractions and the most responsible components to make cytotoxicity in exposed cells is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lunar Riometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Burns, J. O.; Kasper, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent and its behavior over time, including modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) are based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, in situ, the peak plasma density of the lunar exosphere over time. We describe a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of nanometer- to micron-scale dust. The LUNAR consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

  19. Chemical composition of PM_1_0 and its in vitro toxicological impacts on lung cells during the Middle Eastern Dust (MED) storms in Ahvaz, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimabadi, Abolfazl; Ghadiri, Ata; Idani, Esmaeil; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Alavi, Nadali; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Khodadadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Reports on the effects of PM_1_0 from dust storm on lung cells are limited. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and in vitro toxicological impacts of PM_1_0 suspensions, its water-soluble fraction, and the solvent-extractable organics extracted from Middle Eastern Dust storms on the human lung epithelial cell (A549). Samples of dust storms and normal days (PM_1_0   0.05). These results led to the conclusions that dust storm PM_1_0 as well as normal day PM_1_0 could lead to cytotoxicity, and the organic compounds (PAH_s) and the insoluble particle-core might be the main contributors to cytotoxicity. Our results showed that cytotoxicity and the risk of PM_1_0 to human lung may be more severe during dust storm than normal days due to inhalation of a higher mass concentration of airborne particles. Further research on PM dangerous fractions and the most responsible components to make cytotoxicity in exposed cells is recommended. - Highlights: • Chemical compositions of PM_1_0 during normal and dust event days were obtained. • Heavy metal concentrations in dusty conditions were higher than normal days. • PM_1_0 caused a decrease in the cell viability and an increase in LDH in supernatant. • Water-soluble fraction had severe cytotoxicity than solvent extractable organics. • Higher mass concentrations of PM_1_0 may contribute to more severe cytotoxicity. - Inhalation of higher mass concentration of PM during the MED storms may contribute to more severe cytotoxicity than normal days.

  20. Autonomous Utility Connector for Lunar Surface Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar dust has been identified as a significant and present challenge in future exploration missions. The interlocking, angular nature of Lunar dust and its broad...

  1. Lunar electrostatic effects and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yongwei; Yuan, Qingyun; Xiong, Jiuliang

    2013-01-01

    The space environment and features on the moon surface are factors in strong electrostatic electrification. Static electricity will be produced in upon friction between lunar soil and detectors or astronauts on the lunar surface. Lunar electrostatic environment effects from lunar exploration equipment are very harmful. Lunar dust with electrostatic charge may enter the equipment or even cover the instruments. It can affect the normal performance of moon detectors. Owing to the huge environmental differences between the moon and the earth, the electrostatic protection technology on the earth can not be applied. In this paper, we review the electrostatic characteristics of lunar dust, its effects on aerospace equipment and moon static elimination technologies. It was concluded that the effect of charged lunar dust on detectors and astronauts should be completely researched as soon as possible.

  2. Evaluation of the dose-response and fate in the lung and pleura of chrysotile-containing brake dust compared to chrysotile or crocidolite asbestos in a 28-day quantitative inhalation toxicology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, D M; Toth, B; Rogers, R A; Sepulveda, R; Kunzendorf, P; Phillips, J I; Ernst, H

    2018-04-26

    This study provides an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology in the lung and pleura following inhalation of brake-dust (brakes manufactured with chrysotile). The design included a 28-day repeated multi-dose inhalation exposure (6 h/d, 5 d/wk, 4 wks) followed by 28-days without exposure. Fiber control groups included a similar grade chrysotile as used in the brakes and a commercial crocidolite asbestos. Aerosol fiber distributions of the chrysotile and crocidolite were similar (fiber-length > 20 μm/cm 3 : Chrysotile-low/high 42/62; Crocidolite-low/high 36/55; WHO-fibers/cm 3 : Chrysotile-low/high 192/219; Crocidolite-low/high 211/255). The total number of aerosol particles/cm 3 in the brake-dust was similar to that in the chrysotile (Brake-dust 710-1065; Chrysotile 532-1442). Brake-dust at particle exposure levels equal to or greater than chrysotile or crocidolite caused no indication of microgranulomas, epithelial hyperplasia, or fibrosis (Wagner score brake-dust and chrysotile-HD groups or in thickness of visceral or parietal pleural. The crocidolite exposure resulted in extensive inflammatory response, collagen development and adhesions between the visceral and parietal surfaces with double the surface thickness. These results provide essential information for the design of a subsequent subchronic study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Shuttle Lesson Learned - Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    This is a script for a video about toxicology and the space shuttle. The first segment is deals with dust in the space vehicle. The next segment will be about archival samples. Then we'll look at real time on-board analyzers that give us a lot of capability in terms of monitoring for combustion products and the ability to monitor volatile organics on the station. Finally we will look at other issues that are about setting limits and dealing with ground based lessons that pertain to toxicology.

  4. Toxicology screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003578.htm Toxicology screen To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A toxicology screen refers to various tests that determine the ...

  5. A dental myth bites the dust--no observable relation between the incidence of dental abscess and the weather and lunar phase: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristow, Oliver; Koerdt, Steffen; Stelzner, Ruben; Stelzner, Matthias; Johannes, Christoph; Ristow, Melanie; Hohlweg-Majert, Bettina; Pautke, Christoph

    2015-02-11

    Anecdotal reports assert a relationship between weather and lunar activity and the odontogenic abscess (OA) incidence, but this relationship has not been validated. Therefore, the present study investigated the relationship between oral pain caused by OA and a variety of meteorological parameters and cyclic lunar activity. The records of all dental emergency patients treated at the AllDent Zahnzentrum Emergency Unit in Munich, Germany during 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with oral pain who were diagnosed with OA and treated surgically (n = 1211) were included in the analysis. The OA incidence was correlated to daily meteorological data, biosynoptic weather analysis, and cyclic lunar activity. There was no seasonal variation in the OA incidence. None of the meteorological parameters, lunar phase, or biosynoptic weather class were significantly correlated with the OA incidence, except the mean barometric pressure, which was weakly correlated (rho = -0.204). The OA incidence showed a decreasing trend as barometric pressure increased (p lunar activities.

  6. Toxicology elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viala, A.

    1998-01-01

    This work studies the different aspects of the modern toxicology: toxico-kinetic, biological, medico legal, food, professional, pharmaceuticals, environmental, social and regulatory. It is divided in three parts that consider the principle problems of general toxicology and analytical toxicology. (N.C.)

  7. Lunar CATALYST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown (Lunar CATALYST) is a NASA initiative to encourage the development of U.S. private-sector robotic lunar...

  8. Aerospace Toxicology and Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Parmet, A. J.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Toxicology dates to the very earliest history of humanity with various poisons and venom being recognized as a method of hunting or waging war with the earliest documentation in the Evers papyrus (circa 1500 BCE). The Greeks identified specific poisons such as hemlock, a method of state execution, and the Greek word toxos (arrow) became the root of our modern science. The first scientific approach to the understanding of poisons and toxicology was the work during the late middle ages of Paracelsus. He formulated what were then revolutionary views that a specific toxic agent or "toxicon" caused specific dose-related effects. His principles have established the basis of modern pharmacology and toxicology. In 1700, Bernardo Ramazzini published the book De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (The Diseases of Workers) describing specific illnesses associated with certain labor, particularly metal workers exposed to mercury, lead, arsenic, and rock dust. Modern toxicology dates from development of the modern industrial chemical processes, the earliest involving an analytical method for arsenic by Marsh in 1836. Industrial organic chemicals were synthesized in the late 1800 s along with anesthetics and disinfectants. In 1908, Hamilton began the long study of occupational toxicology issues, and by WW I the scientific use of toxicants saw Haber creating war gases and defining time-dosage relationships that are used even today.

  9. Green toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  10. Forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gregory G

    2012-01-01

    Toxicologic analysis is an integral part of death investigation, and the use or abuse of an unsuspected substance belongs in the differential diagnosis of patients who have a sudden, unexpected change in their condition. History and physical findings may alter suspicion that intoxication played a role in a patient's decline or death, but suspicions cannot be confirmed and is performed, analysis unless toxicologic no toxicologic analysis is possible unless someone collects the proper specimens necessary for analysis. In a hospital autopsy the only specimens that can rightfully be collected are those within the restrictions stated in the autopsy permit. Autopsies performed by the medical examiner do not have these restrictions. Sometimes the importance of toxicologic testing in a case is not evident until days or weeks after the change in the patient's status, thus retaining the appropriate specimens until investigation of that case has ended is important. Proper interpretation of toxicologic findings requires integrating the clinical setting and findings with the toxicologic results in a way that makes medical sense. If called upon to testify concerning findings, answer the questions truthfully, politely, and in a way that is understandable to someone who has no special training in toxicology.

  11. The Dust Management Project: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Straka, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A return to the Moon to extend human presence, pursue scientific activities, use the Moon to prepare for future human missions to Mars, and expand Earth s economic sphere, will require investment in developing new technologies and capabilities to achieve affordable and sustainable human exploration. From the operational experience gained and lessons learned during the Apollo missions, conducting longterm operations in the lunar environment will be a particular challenge, given the difficulties presented by the unique physical properties and other characteristics of lunar regolith, including dust. The Apollo missions and other lunar explorations have identified significant lunar dust-related problems that will challenge future mission success. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it s potentially harmful effects on exploration systems and human explorers. The Dust Management Project (DMP) is tasked with the evaluation of lunar dust effects, assessment of the resulting risks, and development of mitigation and management strategies and technologies related to Exploration Systems architectures. To this end, the DMP supports the overall goal of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) of addressing the relevant high priority technology needs of multiple elements within the Constellation Program (CxP) and sister ETDP projects. Project scope, approach, accomplishments, summary of deliverables, and lessons learned are presented.

  12. Electrostatic Power Generation from Negatively Charged, Simulated Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; King, Glen C.; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Yeonjoon

    2010-01-01

    Research was conducted to develop an electrostatic power generator for future lunar missions that facilitate the utilization of lunar resources. The lunar surface is known to be negatively charged from the constant bombardment of electrons and protons from the solar wind. The resulting negative electrostatic charge on the dust particles, in the lunar vacuum, causes them to repel each other minimizing the potential. The result is a layer of suspended dust about one meter above the lunar surface. This phenomenon was observed by both Clementine and Surveyor spacecrafts. During the Apollo 17 lunar landing, the charged dust was a major hindrance, as it was attracted to the astronauts' spacesuits, equipment, and the lunar buggies. The dust accumulated on the spacesuits caused reduced visibility for the astronauts, and was unavoidably transported inside the spacecraft where it caused breathing irritation [1]. In the lunar vacuum, the maximum charge on the particles can be extremely high. An article in the journal "Nature", titled "Moon too static for astronauts?" (Feb 2, 2007) estimates that the lunar surface is charged with up to several thousand volts [2]. The electrostatic power generator was devised to alleviate the hazardous effects of negatively charged lunar soil by neutralizing the charged particles through capacitive coupling and thereby simultaneously harnessing power through electric charging [3]. The amount of power generated or collected is dependent on the areal coverage of the device and hovering speed over the lunar soil surface. A thin-film array of capacitors can be continuously charged and sequentially discharged using a time-differentiated trigger discharge process to produce a pulse train of discharge for DC mode output. By controlling the pulse interval, the DC mode power can be modulated for powering devices and equipment. In conjunction with a power storage system, the electrostatic power generator can be a power source for a lunar rover or other

  13. Design and Construction of Manned Lunar Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijie

    2016-07-01

    support system based on physical/chemic-regenerative life support system, which includes microbial waste treatment system, plants cultivation system and animal-protein production system. Energy is another important aspect needs to be solved when building lunar base habitation. The steps of lunar base building process are divided into lunar surface landing, transport, unloading, assembly and construction. Thus the activity systems including lunar lander, lunar chain block, various lunar rovers, robots and 3D printing machine are needed while building a lunar base. For the sake of enough power support for these facilities, the integrated manned lunar base will use solar + nuclear energy plus regenerative fuel cell together with 180kW power to satisfy the requirement of power supply. Besides these two questions talked above, the lunar base habitation also needs to solve the problem of lunar dust protection. Lunar dust grains are sharp and have electrostatic adsorption, which means this kind of dust may damage the functions of spacesuit, lunar rover and other equipments, and it may cause diseases if breathed by astronauts, consequently, lunar dust protection and cleaning mechanism needs to be founded and the anti-dust, automatic dust removal and self-cleaning materials need to be used. At last, this paper puts forward corresponding advices about building lunar base by using international collaboration. Out of question, the construction of lunar base is a huge project, it is very hard to be accomplished by any country alone since lots of uncertain complications exist there. By this token, international collaboration is a certain development direction, and lots of aerospace countries have already achieved the breakout of correlation key technologies, in order to avoid unnecessary waste, the dispersive advantageous resources need to be combined together.

  14. Erosive Wear Characterization of Materials for Lunar Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpagazehe, Jeremiah N.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Delgado, Irebert R.; Higgs, C. Fred, III

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Apollo missions revealed that exhaust from the retrorockets of landing spacecraft may act to significantly accelerate lunar dust on the surface of the Moon. A recent study by Immer et al. (C. Immer, P.T. Metzger, P.E. Hintze, A. Nick, and R. Horan, Apollo 12 Lunar Module exhaust plume impingement on Lunar Surveyor III, Icarus, Vol. 211, pp. 1089-1102, 2011) investigated coupons returned to Earth from the Surveyor III lunar probe which were subjected to lunar dust impingement by the Apollo 12 Lunar Module landing. Their study revealed that even with indirect impingement, the spacecraft sustained erosive damage from the fast-moving lunar dust particles. In this work, results are presented from a series of erosive wear experiments performed on 6061 Aluminum using the JSC-1AF lunar dust simulant. Optical profilometry was used to investigate the surface after the erosion process. It was found that even short durations of lunar dust simulant impacting at low velocities produced substantial changes in the surface.

  15. Lunar Exploration Missions Since 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S. J. (Editor); Gaddis, L. R.; Joy, K. H.; Petro, N. E.

    2017-01-01

    The announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration in 2004 sparked a resurgence in lunar missions worldwide. Since the publication of the first "New Views of the Moon" volume, as of 2017 there have been 11 science-focused missions to the Moon. Each of these missions explored different aspects of the Moon's geology, environment, and resource potential. The results from this flotilla of missions have revolutionized lunar science, and resulted in a profoundly new emerging understanding of the Moon. The New Views of the Moon II initiative itself, which is designed to engage the large and vibrant lunar science community to integrate the results of these missions into new consensus viewpoints, is a direct outcome of this impressive array of missions. The "Lunar Exploration Missions Since 2006" chapter will "set the stage" for the rest of the volume, introducing the planetary community at large to the diverse array of missions that have explored the Moon in the last decade. Content: This chapter will encompass the following missions: Kaguya; ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun); Chang’e-1; Chandrayaan-1; Moon Impact Probe; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Lunar Crater Observation Sensing Satellite (LCROSS); Chang’e-2; Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL); Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE); Chang’e-3.

  16. Lunar dusty plasma: A result of interaction of the solar wind flux and ultraviolet radiation with the lunar surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisin, E A; Tarakanov, V P; Petrov, O F; Popel, S I

    2015-01-01

    One of the main problems of future missions to the Moon is associated with lunar dust. Solar wind flux and ultraviolet radiation interact with the lunar surface. As a result, there is a substantial surface change and a near-surface plasma sheath. Dust particles from the lunar regolith, which turned in this plasma because of any mechanical processes, can levitate above the surface, forming dust clouds. In preparing of the space experiments “Luna-Glob” and “Luna-Resource” particle-in-cell calculations of the near-surface plasma sheath parameters are carried out. Here we present some new results of particle-in-cell simulation of the plasma sheath formed near the surface of the moon as a result of interaction of the solar wind and ultraviolet radiation with the lunar surface. The conditions of charging and stable levitation of dust particles in plasma above the lunar surface are also considered. (paper)

  17. Lunar horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  18. Lunar cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  19. Surface System Dust Mitigation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will perform a detailed examination of dust mitigation and tolerance strategies for connections and mechanisms to be employed on the lunar...

  20. Dust Dynamics Near Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Joshua; Hughes, Anna; Grund, Chris

    Observations of a lunar "horizon glow" by several Surveyor spacecraft in the 1960s opened the study of the dynamics of charged dust particles near planetary surfaces. The surfaces of the Moon and other airless planetary bodies in the solar system (asteroids, and other moons) are directly exposed to the solar wind and ionizing solar ultraviolet radiation, resulting in a time-dependent electric surface potential. Because these same objects are also exposed to bombardment by micrometeoroids, the surfaces are usually characterized by a power-law size distribution of dust that extends to sub-micron-sized particles. Individual particles can acquire a charge different from their surroundings leading to electrostatic levitation. Once levitated, particles may simply return to the surface on nearly ballistic trajectories, escape entirely from the moon or asteroid if the initial velocity is large, or in some cases be stably levitated for extended periods of time. All three outcomes have observable consequences. Furthermore, the behavior of charged dust near the surface has practical implications for planned future manned and unmanned activities on the lunar surface. Charged dust particles also act as sensitive probes of the near-surface plasma environment. Recent numerical modeling of dust levitation and transport show that charged micron-sized dust is likely to accumulate in topographic lows such as craters, providing a mechanism for the creation of dust "ponds" observed on the asteroid 433 Eros. Such deposition can occur when particles are supported by the photoelectron sheath above the dayside and drift over shadowed regions of craters where the surface potential is much smaller. Earlier studies of the lunar horizon glow are consistent with those particles being on simple ballistic trajectories following electrostatic launching from the surface. Smaller particles may be accelerated from the lunar surface to high altitudes consistent with observations of high altitude

  1. Lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  2. Searching for Lunar Horizon Glow With the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, M. K.; Mazarico, E. M.; McClanahan, T. P.; Sun, X.; Smith, D. E.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Head, J. W., III

    2017-12-01

    The dust environment of the Moon is sensitive to the interplanetary meteoroid population and dust transport processes near the lunar surface, and this affects many aspects of lunar surface science and planetary exploration. The interplanetary meteoroid population poses a significant risk to spacecraft, yet it remains one of the more uncertain constituents of the space environment. Observed and hypothesized lunar dust transport mechanisms have included impact-generated dust plumes, electrostatic levitation, and dynamic lofting. Many details of the impactor flux and impact ejection process are poorly understood, a fact highlighted by recent discrepant estimates of the regolith mixing rate. Apollo-era observations of lunar horizon glow (LHG) were interpreted as sunlight forward-scattered by exospheric dust grains levitating in the top meter above the surface or lofted to tens of kilometers in altitude. However, recent studies have placed limits on the dust density orders of magnitude less than what was originally inferred, raising new questions on the time variability of the dust environment. Motivated by the need to better understand dust transport processes and the meteoroid population, the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is conducting a campaign to search for LHG with the LOLA Laser Ranging (LR) system. Advantages of this LOLA LHG search include: (1) the LOLA-LR telescope can observe arbitrarily close to the Sun at any time during the year without damaging itself or the other instruments, (2) a long temporal baseline with observations both during and outside of meteor streams, which will improve the chances of detecting LHG, and (3) a focus on altitudes methodology, and preliminary results.

  3. The Lunar Transit Telescope (LTT) - An early lunar-based science and engineering mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgraw, John T.

    1992-01-01

    The Sentinel, the soft-landed lunar telescope of the LTT project, is described. The Sentinel is a two-meter telescope with virtually no moving parts which accomplishes an imaging survey of the sky over almost five octaves of the electromagnetic spectrum from the ultraviolet into the infrared, with an angular resolution better than 0.1 arsec/pixel. The Sentinel will incorporate innovative techniques of interest for future lunar-based telescopes and will return significant engineering data which can be incorporated into future lunar missions. The discussion covers thermal mapping of the Sentinel, measurement of the cosmic ray flux, lunar dust, micrometeoroid flux, the lunar atmosphere, and lunar regolith stability and seismic activity.

  4. Lunar Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present an open design for a first plant growth module on the Moon (LPX). The primary science goal of lunar habitat is to investigate germination and initial...

  5. Lunar Flashlight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar Flashlight (LF) is an innovative cubesat mission sponsored by NASA’s Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division to be launched on the Space Launch System...

  6. Autonomous Utility Connector for Lunar Surface Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar dust has been identified as a significant and present challenge in future exploration missions. Significant development is called for in the area of devices...

  7. Rust Contamination from Water Leaks in the Cosmic Dust Lab and Lunar and Meteorite Thin Sections Labs at Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, J. J.; Berger, E. L.; Fries, M. D.; Bastien, R.; McCubbin, F. M.; Pace, L.; Righter, K.; Sutter, B.; Zeigler, R. A.; Zolensky, M.

    2017-01-01

    On the early morning of September 15th, 2016, on the first floor of Building 31 at NASA-Johnson Space Center, the hose from a water chiller ruptured and began spraying water onto the floor. The water had been circulating though old metal pipes, and the leaked water contained rust-colored particulates. The water flooded much of the western wing of the building's ground floor before the leak was stopped, and it left behind a residue of rust across the floor, most notably in the Apollo and Meteorite Thin Section Labs and Sample Preparation Lab. No samples were damaged in the event, and the affected facilities are in the process of remediation. At the beginning of 2016, a separate leak occurred in the Cosmic Dust Lab, located in the same building. In that lab, a water leak occurred at the bottom of the sink used to clean the lab's tools and containers with ultra-pure water. Over years of use, the ultra-pure water eroded the metal sink piping and leaked water onto the inside of the lab's flow bench. This water also left behind a film of rusty material. The material was cleaned up and the metal piping was replaced with PVC pipe and sealed with Teflon plumber's tape. Samples of the rust detritus were collected from both incidents. These samples were imaged and analyzed to determine their chemical and mineralogical compositions. The purpose of these analyses is to document the nature of the detritus for future reference in the unlikely event that these materials occur as contaminants in the Cosmic Dust samples or Apollo or Meteorite thin sections.

  8. TOXNET: Toxicology Data Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to TOXNET Your resource for searching databases on toxicology, hazardous chemicals, environmental health, and toxic releases SEARCH ... over 3,000 chemicals (1991-1998) Environmental Health & Toxicology Resources on environmental health and toxicology Visit Site ...

  9. Space Toxicology: Human Health during Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T.; Tyl, ROchelle; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  10. Space Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Safe breathing air for space faring crews is essential whether they are inside an Extravehicular Mobility Suit (EMU), a small capsule such as Soyuz, or the expansive International Space Station (ISS). Sources of air pollution can include entry of propellants, excess offgassing from polymeric materials, leakage of systems compounds, escape of payload compounds, over-use of utility compounds, microbial metabolism, and human metabolism. The toxicological risk posed by a compound is comprised of the probability of escaping to cause air pollution and the magnitude of adverse effects on human health if escape occurs. The risk from highly toxic compounds is controlled by requiring multiple levels of containment to greatly reduce the probability of escape; whereas compounds that are virtually non-toxic may require little or no containment. The potential for toxicity is determined by the inherent toxicity of the compound and the amount that could potentially escape into the breathing air.

  11. Animal toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amdur, M.

    1996-12-31

    The chapter evaluates results of toxicological studies on experimental animals to investigate health effects of air pollutants and examines the animal data have predicted the response to human subject. Data are presented on the comparative toxicity of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid. The animal data obtained by measurement of airway resistance in guinea pigs and of bronchial clearance of particles in donkeys predicted clearly that sulfuric acid was more irritant than sulfur dioxide. Data obtained on human subjects confirmed this prediction. These acute studies also correctly predicted the comparative toxicity of the two compounds in two year studies of monkeys. Such chronic studies are not possible in human subjects but it is a reasonable to assume that sulfuric acid would be more toxic than sulfur dioxide. Current findings in epidemiological studies certainly support this assumption.

  12. Forensic Toxicology: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael P; Bluth, Martin H

    2016-12-01

    This article presents an overview of forensic toxicology. The authors describe the three components that make up forensic toxicology: workplace drug testing, postmortem toxicology, and human performance toxicology. Also discussed are the specimens that are tested, the methods used, and how the results are interpreted in this particular discipline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and Stability of Iron Nanoparticles for Lunar Environment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-cheh; McNatt, Jeremiah

    2009-01-01

    Simulant of lunar dust is needed when researching the lunar environment. However, unlike the true lunar dust, today s simulants do not contain nanophase iron. Two different processes have been developed to fabricate nanophase iron to be used as part of the lunar dust simulant: (1) Sequentially treating a mixture of ferric chloride, fluorinated carbon, and soda lime glass beads at about 300 C in nitrogen, at room temperature in air, and then at 1050 C in nitrogen. The product includes glass beads that are grey in color, can be attracted by a magnet, and contain alpha-iron nanoparticles (which seem to slowly lose their lattice structure in ambient air during a period of 12 months). This product may have some similarity to the lunar glassy regolith that contains Fe(sup 0). (2) Heating a mixture of carbon black and a lunar simulant (a mixed metal oxide that includes iron oxide) at 1050 C in nitrogen. This process simulates lunar dust reaction to the carbon in a micrometeorite at the time of impact. The product contains a chemically modified simulant that can be attracted by a magnet and has a surface layer whose iron concentration increased during the reaction. The iron was found to be alpha-iron and Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which appear to grow after the fabrication process, but stabilizes after 6 months of ambient air storage.

  14. Size Distributions and Characterization of Native and Ground Samples for Toxicology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, David S.; Cooper, Bonnie L.; Taylor, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation shows charts and graphs that review the particle size distribution and characterization of natural and ground samples for toxicology studies. There are graphs which show the volume distribution versus the number distribution for natural occurring dust, jet mill ground dust, and ball mill ground dust.

  15. Cornerstones of Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A Wallace; Dixon, Darlene

    2017-01-01

    The 35th Annual Society of Toxicologic Pathology Symposium, held in June 2016 in San Diego, California, focused on "The Basis and Relevance of Variation in Toxicologic Responses." In order to review the basic tenants of toxicology, a "broad brush" interactive talk that gave an overview of the Cornerstones of Toxicology was presented. The presentation focused on the historical milestones and perspectives of toxicology and through many scientific graphs, data, and real-life examples covered the three basic principles of toxicology that can be summarized, as dose matters (as does timing), people differ, and things change (related to metabolism and biotransformation).

  16. National Toxicology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NTP? NTP develops and applies tools of modern toxicology and molecular biology to identify substances in the ... depend on for decisions that matter. The National Toxicology Program provides the scientific basis for programs, activities, ...

  17. Toxicology Education Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bodies and our world. Welcome to the Toxicology Education Foundation! Our mission is to enhance public understanding ... In with us, follow our Tweets, choose Toxicology Education Foundation as your preferred charity through Smile.Amazon. ...

  18. Environmental Toxicology Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Fully-equipped facilities for environmental toxicology researchThe Environmental Toxicology Research Facility (ETRF) located in Vicksburg, MS provides over 8,200 ft...

  19. Handbook of systems toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Casciano, Daniel A; Sahu, Saura C

    2011-01-01

    "In the first handbook to comprehensively cover the emerging area of systems toxicology, the Handbook of Systems Toxicology provides an authoritative compilation of up-to-date developments presented...

  20. Green Toxicology – Application of predictive toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Taxvig, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    safer chemicals and to identify problematic compounds already in use such as industrial compounds, drugs, pesticides and cosmetics, is required. Green toxicology is the application of predictive toxicology to the production of chemicals with the specific intent of improving their design for hazard...

  1. Dust-Tolerant Intelligent Electrical Connection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark; Dokos, Adam; Perotti, Jose; Calle, Carlos; Mueller, Robert; Bastin, Gary; Carlson, Jeffrey; Townsend, Ivan, III; Immer, Chirstopher; Medelius, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Faults in wiring systems are a serious concern for the aerospace and aeronautic (commercial, military, and civilian) industries. Circuit failures and vehicle accidents have occurred and have been attributed to faulty wiring created by open and/or short circuits. Often, such circuit failures occur due to vibration during vehicle launch or operation. Therefore, developing non-intrusive fault-tolerant techniques is necessary to detect circuit faults and automatically route signals through alternate recovery paths while the vehicle or lunar surface systems equipment is in operation. Electrical connector concepts combining dust mitigation strategies and cable diagnostic technologies have significant application for lunar and Martian surface systems, as well as for dusty terrestrial applications. The dust-tolerant intelligent electrical connection system has several novel concepts and unique features. It combines intelligent cable diagnostics (health monitoring) and automatic circuit routing capabilities into a dust-tolerant electrical umbilical. It retrofits a clamshell protective dust cover to an existing connector for reduced gravity operation, and features a universal connector housing with three styles of dust protection: inverted cap, rotating cap, and clamshell. It uses a self-healing membrane as a dust barrier for electrical connectors where required, while also combining lotus leaf technology for applications where a dust-resistant coating providing low surface tension is needed to mitigate Van der Waals forces, thereby disallowing dust particle adhesion to connector surfaces. It also permits using a ruggedized iris mechanism with an embedded electrodynamic dust shield as a dust barrier for electrical connectors where required.

  2. Photometric Lunar Surface Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefian, Ara V.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Morattlo, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Beyer, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate photometric reconstruction of the Lunar surface is important in the context of upcoming NASA robotic missions to the Moon and in giving a more accurate understanding of the Lunar soil composition. This paper describes a novel approach for joint estimation of Lunar albedo, camera exposure time, and photometric parameters that utilizes an accurate Lunar-Lambertian reflectance model and previously derived Lunar topography of the area visualized during the Apollo missions. The method introduced here is used in creating the largest Lunar albedo map (16% of the Lunar surface) at the resolution of 10 meters/pixel.

  3. Lunar Atmosphere Probe Station: A Proof-of-Concept Instrument Package for Monitoring the Lunar Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Stewart, K. P.; Burns, J. O.; Farrell, W. M.; Giersch, L.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Hicks, B. C.; Polisensky, E. J.; Hartman, J. M.; Nesnas, I.; Weiler, K.; Kasper, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent, the extent of contributions from volatile outgassing from the Moon, and its behavior over time, including response to the solar wind and modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) are based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, *in situ*, the vertical extent of the lunar exosphere over time. We provide an update on a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report or commercial ventures. The instrument concept is simple, consisting of an antenna implemented as a metal deposited on polyimide film and receiver. We illustrate various deployment mechanisms and performance of a prototype in increasing lunar analog conditions. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of dust impactors. The Lunar University Network for Astrophysical Research consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. Artist's impression of the Lunar Atmosphere Probe Station.

  4. Electrostatic Separator for Beneficiation of Lunar Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Arens, Ellen; Trigwell, Steve; Captain, James

    2010-01-01

    A charge separator has been constructed for use in a lunar environment that will allow for separation of minerals from lunar soil. In the present experiments, whole lunar dust as received was used. The approach taken here was that beneficiation of ores into an industrial feedstock grade may be more efficient. Refinement or enrichment of specific minerals in the soil before it is chemically processed may be more desirable as it would reduce the size and energy requirements necessary to produce the virgin material, and it may significantly reduce the process complexity. The principle is that minerals of different composition and work function will charge differently when tribocharged against different materials, and hence be separated in an electric field.

  5. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...

  6. Lunar Flashlight and Other Lunar Cubesats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Water is a human-exploitable resource. Lunar Flashlight is a Cubesat mission to detect and map lunar surface ice in permanently-shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. EM-1 will carry 13 Cubesat-class missions to further smallsat science and exploration capabilities; much room to infuse LEO cubesat methodology, models, and technology. Exploring the value of concurrent measurements to measure dynamical processes of water sources and sinks.

  7. Experiments on Dust Grain Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. N.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; West, E. A.

    2004-01-01

    Dust particles in various astrophysical environments are charged by a variety of mechanisms generally involving collisional processes with other charged particles and photoelectric emission with UV radiation from nearby sources. The sign and the magnitude of the particle charge are determined by the competition between the charging processes by UV radiation and collisions with charged particles. Knowledge of the particle charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding of a number of physical processes. The charge of a dust grain is thus a fundamental parameter that influences the physics of dusty plasmas, processes in the interplanetary medium and interstellar medium, interstellar dust clouds, planetary rings, cometary and outer atmospheres of planets etc. In this paper we present some results of experiments on charging of dust grains carried out on a laboratory facility capable levitating micron size dust grains in an electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. The charging/discharging experiments were carried out by exposing the dust grains to energetic electron beams and UV radiation. Photoelectric efficiencies and yields of micron size dust grains of SiO2, and lunar simulates obtained from NASA-JSC will be presented.

  8. Wood Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about wood dust, which can raise the risk of cancers of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. High amounts of wood dust are produced in sawmills, and in the furniture-making, cabinet-making, and carpentry industries.

  9. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Boyce, J. W.; Burney, D.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Klima, R. L.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Steenstra, E.; Tartèse, R.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.

    2018-04-01

    This abstract discusses numerous outstanding questions on the topic of endogenous lunar volatiles that will need to be addressed in the coming years. Although substantial insights into endogenous lunar volatiles have been gained, more work remains.

  10. Critical Robotic Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, J. B.

    2018-04-01

    Perhaps the most critical missions to understanding lunar history are in situ dating and network missions. These would constrain the volcanic and thermal history and interior structure. These data would better constrain lunar evolution models.

  11. Fossil fuel toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    A program is described for the investigation of the toxicology of coal-derived effluents that will utilize a battery of cellular and mammalian test systems and end points to evaluate the toxicological effects of acute, sub-acute, and long-term, low-level exposure to gaseous and particulate effluents from combustion of coal, with special emphasis on fluidized bed combustion

  12. Toxicology ontology perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Barry; Apic, Gordana; Carthew, Philip; Clark, Dominic; Cook, David; Dix, Ian; Escher, Sylvia; Hastings, Janna; Heard, David J; Jeliazkova, Nina; Judson, Philip; Matis-Mitchell, Sherri; Mitic, Dragana; Myatt, Glenn; Shah, Imran; Spjuth, Ola; Tcheremenskaia, Olga; Toldo, Luca; Watson, David; White, Andrew; Yang, Chihae

    2012-01-01

    The field of predictive toxicology requires the development of open, public, computable, standardized toxicology vocabularies and ontologies to support the applications required by in silico, in vitro, and in vivo toxicology methods and related analysis and reporting activities. In this article we review ontology developments based on a set of perspectives showing how ontologies are being used in predictive toxicology initiatives and applications. Perspectives on resources and initiatives reviewed include OpenTox, eTOX, Pistoia Alliance, ToxWiz, Virtual Liver, EU-ADR, BEL, ToxML, and Bioclipse. We also review existing ontology developments in neighboring fields that can contribute to establishing an ontological framework for predictive toxicology. A significant set of resources is already available to provide a foundation for an ontological framework for 21st century mechanistic-based toxicology research. Ontologies such as ToxWiz provide a basis for application to toxicology investigations, whereas other ontologies under development in the biological, chemical, and biomedical communities could be incorporated in an extended future framework. OpenTox has provided a semantic web framework for the implementation of such ontologies into software applications and linked data resources. Bioclipse developers have shown the benefit of interoperability obtained through ontology by being able to link their workbench application with remote OpenTox web services. Although these developments are promising, an increased international coordination of efforts is greatly needed to develop a more unified, standardized, and open toxicology ontology framework.

  13. Space Environmental Testing of the Electrodynamic Dust Shield Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.; Mackey, P. J.; Hogue, M. D.; Johansen, M .R.; Yim, H.; Delaune, P. B.; Clements, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's exploration missions to Mars and the moon may be jeopardized by dust that will adhere to surfaces of (a) Optical systems, viewports and solar panels, (b) Thermal radiators, (c) Instrumentation, and (d) Spacesuits. We have developed an active dust mitigation technology, the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, a multilayer coating that can remove dust and also prevents its accumulation Extensive testing in simulated laboratory environments and on a reduced gravity flight shows that high dust removal performance can be achieved Long duration exposure to the space environment as part of the MISSE-X payload will validate the technology for lunar missions.

  14. A Study of an Optical Lunar Surface Communications Network with High Bandwidth Direct to Earth Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K.; Biswas, A.; Schoolcraft, J.

    2011-01-01

    Analyzed optical DTE (direct to earth) and lunar relay satellite link analyses, greater than 200 Mbps downlink to 1-m Earth receiver and greater than 1 Mbps uplink achieved with mobile 5-cm lunar transceiver, greater than 1Gbps downlink and greater than 10 Mpbs uplink achieved with 10-cm stationary lunar transceiver, MITLL (MIT Lincoln Laboratory) 2013 LLCD (Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration) plans to demonstrate 622 Mbps downlink with 20 Mbps uplink between lunar orbiter and ground station; Identified top five technology challenges to deploying lunar optical network, Performed preliminary experiments on two of challenges: (i) lunar dust removal and (ii)DTN over optical carrier, Exploring opportunities to evaluate DTN (delay-tolerant networking) over optical link in a multi-node network e.g. Desert RATS.

  15. Evidence-Based Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hartung, Thomas; Stephens, Martin

    Evidence-based toxicology (EBT) was introduced independently by two groups in 2005, in the context of toxicological risk assessment and causation as well as based on parallels between the evaluation of test methods in toxicology and evidence-based assessment of diagnostics tests in medicine. The role model of evidence-based medicine (EBM) motivated both proposals and guided the evolution of EBT, whereas especially systematic reviews and evidence quality assessment attract considerable attention in toxicology.Regarding test assessment, in the search of solutions for various problems related to validation, such as the imperfectness of the reference standard or the challenge to comprehensively evaluate tests, the field of Diagnostic Test Assessment (DTA) was identified as a potential resource. DTA being an EBM discipline, test method assessment/validation therefore became one of the main drivers spurring the development of EBT.In the context of pathway-based toxicology, EBT approaches, given their objectivity, transparency and consistency, have been proposed to be used for carrying out a (retrospective) mechanistic validation.In summary, implementation of more evidence-based approaches may provide the tools necessary to adapt the assessment/validation of toxicological test methods and testing strategies to face the challenges of toxicology in the twenty first century.

  16. Agenda of behavioral toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B

    1978-01-01

    The author describes behavioral toxicology as a new discipline and contrasts it to the fields of physics and pharmacology. Several questions are raised and discussed concerning the field of behavioral toxicology. Some of these questions are: (1) how is an adverse behavioral effect recognized; (2) how can the non-specific be specified; (3) are standardized test batteries feasible. The problem of chronic intake is discussed as well as drawing information from other related disciplines such as neurochemistry, neuropathology and neurophysiology. The author concludes with several statements concerning new directions in the discipline of behavioral toxicology.

  17. Lunar atmosphere. How surface composition and meteoroid impacts mediate sodium and potassium in the lunar exosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaprete, A; Sarantos, M; Wooden, D H; Stubbs, T J; Cook, A M; Shirley, M

    2016-01-15

    Despite being trace constituents of the lunar exosphere, sodium and potassium are the most readily observed species due to their bright line emission. Measurements of these species by the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVS) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) have revealed unambiguous temporal and spatial variations indicative of a strong role for meteoroid bombardment and surface composition in determining the composition and local time dependence of the Moon's exosphere. Observations show distinct lunar day (monthly) cycles for both species as well as an annual cycle for sodium. The first continuous measurements for potassium show a more repeatable variation across lunations and an enhancement over KREEP (Potassium Rare Earth Elements and Phosphorus) surface regions, revealing a strong dependence on surface composition. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    "Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy" supports a vision of people moving freely and economically between the earth and the Moon in an expansive space and lunar economy. It makes the economic case for the creation of a lunar space economy and projects the business plan that will make the venture an economic success. In addition, this paper argues that this vision can be created and sustained only by private enterprise and the legal right of private property in space and on the Moon. Finally, this paper advocates the use of lunar land grants as the key to unleashing the needed capital and the economic power of private enterprise in the creation of a 21st century lunar space economy. It is clear that the history of our United States economic system proves the value of private property rights in the creation of any new economy. It also teaches us that the successful development of new frontiers-those that provide economic opportunity for freedom-loving people-are frontiers that encourage, respect and protect the possession of private property and the fruits of labor and industry. Any new 21st century space and lunar economy should therefore be founded on this same principle.

  19. Dusty plasmas over the Moon: theory research in support of the upcoming lunar missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popel, Sergey; Zelenyi, Lev; Zakharov, Alexander; Izvekova, Yulia; Dolnikov, Gennady; Dubinskii, Andrey; Kopnin, Sergey; Golub, Anatoly

    The future Russian lunar missions Luna 25 and Luna 27 are planned to be equipped with instruments for direct detection of nano- and microscale dust particles and determination of plasma properties over the surface of the Moon. Lunar dust over the Moon is usually considered as a part of a dusty plasma system. Here, we present the main our theory results concerning the lunar dusty plasmas. We start with the description of the observational data on dust particles on and over the surface of the Moon. We show that the size distribution of dust on the lunar surface is in a good agreement with the Kolmogorov distribution, which is the size distribution of particles in the case of multiple crushing. We discuss the role of adhesion which has been identified as a significant force in the dust particle launching process. We evaluate the adhesive force for lunar dust particles with taking into account the roughness and adsorbed molecular layers. We show that dust particle launching can be explained if the dust particles rise at a height of about dozens of nanometers owing to some processes. This is enough for the particles to acquire charges sufficient for the dominance of the electrostatic force over the gravitational and adhesive forces. The reasons for the separation of the dust particles from the surface of the Moon are, in particular, their heating by solar radiation and cooling. We consider migration of free protons in regolith from the viewpoint of the photoemission properties of the lunar soil. Finally, we develop a model of dusty plasma system over the Moon and show that it includes charged dust, photoelectrons, and electrons and ions of the solar wind. We determine the distributions of the photoelectrons and find the characteristics of the dust which rise over the lunar regolith. We show that there are no significant constraints on the Moon landing sites for future lunar missions that will study dusty plasmas in the surface layer of the Moon. We discuss also waves in

  20. Metabonomics and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Hartung, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Being an emerging field of "omics" research, metabonomics has been increasingly used in toxicological studies mostly because this technology has the ability to provide more detailed information to elucidate mechanism of toxicity. As an interdisciplinary field of science, metabonomics combines analytical chemistry, bioinformatics, statistics, and biochemistry. When applied to toxicology, metabonomics also includes aspects of patho-biochemistry, systems biology, and molecular diagnostics. During a toxicological study, the metabolic changes over time and dose after chemical treatment can be monitored. Therefore, the most important use of this emerging technology is the identification of signatures of toxicity-patterns of metabolic changes predictive of a hazard manifestation. This chapter summarizes the current state of metabonomics technology and its applications in various areas of toxicological studies.

  1. Downloadable Computational Toxicology Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s computational toxicology research generates data that investigates the potential harm, or hazard of a chemical, the degree of exposure to chemicals as well as the unique chemical characteristics. This data is publicly available here.

  2. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Axel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational and environmental health. The complexity of modern industrial processes has dramatically changed over the past years and today's areas include effects of atmospheric pollution, carcinogenesis, biological monitoring, ergonomics, epidemiology, product safety and health promotion. We hope that the launch of the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology will aid in the advance of these important areas of research bringing together multi-disciplinary research findings.

  3. Cometary Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Agarwal, Jessica; Cottin, Hervé; Engrand, Cécile; Flynn, George; Fulle, Marco; Gombosi, Tamas; Langevin, Yves; Lasue, Jérémie; Mannel, Thurid; Merouane, Sihane; Poch, Olivier; Thomas, Nicolas; Westphal, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    This review presents our understanding of cometary dust at the end of 2017. For decades, insight about the dust ejected by nuclei of comets had stemmed from remote observations from Earth or Earth's orbit, and from flybys, including the samples of dust returned to Earth for laboratory studies by the Stardust return capsule. The long-duration Rosetta mission has recently provided a huge and unique amount of data, obtained using numerous instruments, including innovative dust instruments, over a wide range of distances from the Sun and from the nucleus. The diverse approaches available to study dust in comets, together with the related theoretical and experimental studies, provide evidence of the composition and physical properties of dust particles, e.g., the presence of a large fraction of carbon in macromolecules, and of aggregates on a wide range of scales. The results have opened vivid discussions on the variety of dust-release processes and on the diversity of dust properties in comets, as well as on the formation of cometary dust, and on its presence in the near-Earth interplanetary medium. These discussions stress the significance of future explorations as a way to decipher the formation and evolution of our Solar System.

  4. Hypervelocity Dust Impacts in Space and the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horanyi, Mihaly; Colorado CenterLunar Dust; Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) Team

    2013-10-01

    Interplanetary dust particles continually bombard all objects in the solar system, leading to the excavation of material from the target surfaces, the production of secondary ejecta particles, plasma, neutral gas, and electromagnetic radiation. These processes are of interest to basic plasma science, planetary and space physics, and engineering to protect humans and instruments against impact damages. The Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) has recently completed a 3 MV dust accelerator, and this talk will summarize our initial science results. The 3 MV Pelletron contains a dust source, feeding positively charged micron and sub-micron sized particles into the accelerator. We will present the technical details of the facility and its capabilities, as well as the results of our initial experiments for damage assessment of optical devices, and penetration studies of thin films. We will also report on the completion of our dust impact detector, the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), is expected to be flying onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission by the time of this presentation. LDEX was tested, and calibrated at our dust accelerator. We will close by offering the opportunity to use this facility by the planetary, space and plasma physics communities.

  5. Progress in computational toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekins, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Computational methods have been widely applied to toxicology across pharmaceutical, consumer product and environmental fields over the past decade. Progress in computational toxicology is now reviewed. A literature review was performed on computational models for hepatotoxicity (e.g. for drug-induced liver injury (DILI)), cardiotoxicity, renal toxicity and genotoxicity. In addition various publications have been highlighted that use machine learning methods. Several computational toxicology model datasets from past publications were used to compare Bayesian and Support Vector Machine (SVM) learning methods. The increasing amounts of data for defined toxicology endpoints have enabled machine learning models that have been increasingly used for predictions. It is shown that across many different models Bayesian and SVM perform similarly based on cross validation data. Considerable progress has been made in computational toxicology in a decade in both model development and availability of larger scale or 'big data' models. The future efforts in toxicology data generation will likely provide us with hundreds of thousands of compounds that are readily accessible for machine learning models. These models will cover relevant chemistry space for pharmaceutical, consumer product and environmental applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. In silico toxicology protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Glenn J; Ahlberg, Ernst; Akahori, Yumi; Allen, David; Amberg, Alexander; Anger, Lennart T; Aptula, Aynur; Auerbach, Scott; Beilke, Lisa; Bellion, Phillip; Benigni, Romualdo; Bercu, Joel; Booth, Ewan D; Bower, Dave; Brigo, Alessandro; Burden, Natalie; Cammerer, Zoryana; Cronin, Mark T D; Cross, Kevin P; Custer, Laura; Dettwiler, Magdalena; Dobo, Krista; Ford, Kevin A; Fortin, Marie C; Gad-McDonald, Samantha E; Gellatly, Nichola; Gervais, Véronique; Glover, Kyle P; Glowienke, Susanne; Van Gompel, Jacky; Gutsell, Steve; Hardy, Barry; Harvey, James S; Hillegass, Jedd; Honma, Masamitsu; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Hughes, Kathy; Johnson, Candice; Jolly, Robert; Jones, David; Kemper, Ray; Kenyon, Michelle O; Kim, Marlene T; Kruhlak, Naomi L; Kulkarni, Sunil A; Kümmerer, Klaus; Leavitt, Penny; Majer, Bernhard; Masten, Scott; Miller, Scott; Moser, Janet; Mumtaz, Moiz; Muster, Wolfgang; Neilson, Louise; Oprea, Tudor I; Patlewicz, Grace; Paulino, Alexandre; Lo Piparo, Elena; Powley, Mark; Quigley, Donald P; Reddy, M Vijayaraj; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Ruiz, Patricia; Schilter, Benoit; Serafimova, Rositsa; Simpson, Wendy; Stavitskaya, Lidiya; Stidl, Reinhard; Suarez-Rodriguez, Diana; Szabo, David T; Teasdale, Andrew; Trejo-Martin, Alejandra; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vuorinen, Anna; Wall, Brian A; Watts, Pete; White, Angela T; Wichard, Joerg; Witt, Kristine L; Woolley, Adam; Woolley, David; Zwickl, Craig; Hasselgren, Catrin

    2018-04-17

    The present publication surveys several applications of in silico (i.e., computational) toxicology approaches across different industries and institutions. It highlights the need to develop standardized protocols when conducting toxicity-related predictions. This contribution articulates the information needed for protocols to support in silico predictions for major toxicological endpoints of concern (e.g., genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity, acute toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity) across several industries and regulatory bodies. Such novel in silico toxicology (IST) protocols, when fully developed and implemented, will ensure in silico toxicological assessments are performed and evaluated in a consistent, reproducible, and well-documented manner across industries and regulatory bodies to support wider uptake and acceptance of the approaches. The development of IST protocols is an initiative developed through a collaboration among an international consortium to reflect the state-of-the-art in in silico toxicology for hazard identification and characterization. A general outline for describing the development of such protocols is included and it is based on in silico predictions and/or available experimental data for a defined series of relevant toxicological effects or mechanisms. The publication presents a novel approach for determining the reliability of in silico predictions alongside experimental data. In addition, we discuss how to determine the level of confidence in the assessment based on the relevance and reliability of the information. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Laboratory Measurements on Charging of Individual Micron-Size Apollo-11 Dust Grains by Secondary Electron Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankosic, D.; Abbas, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Observations made during Apollo missions, as well as theoretical models indicate that the lunar surface and dust grains are electrostatically charged, levitated and transported. Lunar dust grains are charged by UV photoelectric emissions on the lunar dayside and by the impact of the solar wind electrons on the nightside. The knowledge of charging properties of individual lunar dust grains is important for developing appropriate theoretical models and mitigating strategies. Currently, very limited experimental data are available for charging of individual micron-size size lunar dust grains in particular by low energy electron impact. However, experimental results based on extensive laboratory measurements on the charging of individual 0.2-13 micron size lunar dust grains by the secondary electron emissions (SEE) have been presented in a recent publication. The SEE process of charging of micron-size dust grains, however, is found to be very complex phenomena with strong particle size dependence. In this paper we present some examples of the complex nature of the SEE properties of positively charged individual lunar dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance (EDB), and show that they remain unaffected by the variation of the AC field employed in the above mentioned measurements.

  8. Orbital studies of lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, M. G.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Limitations of present lunar magnetic maps are considered. Optimal processing of satellite derived magnetic anomaly data is also considered. Studies of coastal and core geomagnetism are discussed. Lunar remanent and induced lunar magnetization are included.

  9. Lunar resource base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulley, John; Wise, Todd K.; Roy, Claude; Richter, Phil

    A lunar base that exploits local resources to enhance the productivity of a total SEI scenario is discussed. The goals were to emphasize lunar science and to land men on Mars in 2016 using significant amounts of lunar resources. It was assumed that propulsion was chemical and the surface power was non-nuclear. Three phases of the base build-up are outlined, the robotic emplacement of the first elements is detailed and a discussion of future options is included.

  10. Lunar and interplanetary trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Biesbroek, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with a clear description of the types of lunar and interplanetary trajectories, and how they influence satellite-system design. The description follows an engineering rather than a mathematical approach and includes many examples of lunar trajectories, based on real missions. It helps readers gain an understanding of the driving subsystems of interplanetary and lunar satellites. The tables and graphs showing features of trajectories make the book easy to understand. .

  11. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Workshops for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Hessen, K.; Bleacher, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWEs) are a series of weeklong professional development workshops, accompanied by quarterly follow-up sessions, designed to educate and inspire grade 6-12 science teachers, sponsored by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Participants learn about lunar science and exploration, gain tools to help address common student misconceptions about the Moon, find out about the latest research results from LRO scientists, work with data from LRO and other lunar missions, and learn how to bring these data to their students using hands-on activities aligned with grade 6-12 National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks and through authentic research experiences. LWEs are held around the country, primarily in locations underserved with respect to NASA workshops. Where possible, workshops also include tours of science facilities or field trips intended to help participants better understand mission operations or geologic processes relevant to the Moon. Scientist and engineer involvement is a central tenant of the LWEs. LRO scientists and engineers, as well as scientists working on other lunar missions, present their research or activities to the workshop participants and answer questions about lunar science and exploration. This interaction with the scientists and engineers is consistently ranked by the LWE participants as one of the most interesting and inspiring components of the workshops. Evaluation results from the 2010 and 2011 workshops, as well as preliminary analysis of survey responses from 2012 participants, demonstrated an improved understanding of lunar science concepts among LWE participants in post-workshop assessments (as compared to identical pre-assessments) and a greater understanding of how to access and effectively share LRO data with students. Teachers reported increased confidence in helping students conduct research using lunar data, and learned about programs that would allow their students to make authentic

  12. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are ...

  13. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk...... assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure......-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data....

  14. Lunar-A

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    penetrators will be transmitted to the earth station via the Lunar-A mother spacecraft orbiting at an altitude of about .... to save the power consumption of the Lunar-A penetrator .... and an origin-time versus tidal-phases correlation. (Toksoz et al ...

  15. Lunar Riometry: Proof-of-Concept Instrument Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Stewart, K.; Giersch, L.; Burns, J. O.; Farrell, W. M.; Kasper, J. C.; O'Dwyer, I.; Hartman, J.

    2012-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent, the extent of contributions from volatile outgassing from the Moon, and its behavior over time, including response to the solar wind and modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) is based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, in situ, the vertical extent of the lunar exosphere over time. We describe a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report. The instrument concept is simple, consisting of an antenna implemented as a metal deposited on polyimide film and receiver. We illustrate various deployment mechanisms and performance of a prototype in increasing lunar analog conditions. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of dust impactors. The Lunar University Network for Astrophysical Research consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

  16. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.

  17. Using Lunar Module Shadows To Scale the Effects of Rocket Exhaust Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Excavating granular materials beneath a vertical jet of gas involves several physical mechanisms. These occur, for example, beneath the exhaust plume of a rocket landing on the soil of the Moon or Mars. We performed a series of experiments and simulations (Figure 1) to provide a detailed view of the complex gas-soil interactions. Measurements taken from the Apollo lunar landing videos (Figure 2) and from photographs of the resulting terrain helped demonstrate how the interactions extrapolate into the lunar environment. It is important to understand these processes at a fundamental level to support the ongoing design of higher fidelity numerical simulations and larger-scale experiments. These are needed to enable future lunar exploration wherein multiple hardware assets will be placed on the Moon within short distances of one another. The high-velocity spray of soil from the landing spacecraft must be accurately predicted and controlled or it could erode the surfaces of nearby hardware. This analysis indicated that the lunar dust is ejected at an angle of less than 3 degrees above the surface, the results of which can be mitigated by a modest berm of lunar soil. These results assume that future lunar landers will use a single engine. The analysis would need to be adjusted for a multiengine lander. Figure 3 is a detailed schematic of the Lunar Module camera calibration math model. In this chart, formulas relating the known quantities, such as sun angle and Lunar Module dimensions, to the unknown quantities are depicted. The camera angle PSI is determined by measurement of the imaged aspect ratio of a crater, where the crater is assumed to be circular. The final solution is the determination of the camera calibration factor, alpha. Figure 4 is a detailed schematic of the dust angle math model, which again relates known to unknown parameters. The known parameters now include the camera calibration factor and Lunar Module dimensions. The final computation is the ejected

  18. Toxicología Vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Antonio Juan

    2010-01-01

    Presentaciones de clase de los temas de Toxicología Vegetal de la licenciatura de Veterinaria de la Universidad de Murcia del curso 2011/12. Presentaciones de Toxicología Vegetal de la asignatura de Toxicología de la Licenciatura de Veterinaria del curso 2011/12

  19. Toxicological aspects of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Puertas, P.

    1991-01-01

    Different toxicological aspects of water have been studied, remarking the activity of various chemical substances in the organism. These substances are divided in: trace metals (Sb, As, Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se), other contaminants (CN-, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, pesticides, detergents) and radioactivity. Finally, some considerations on this subject are made [es

  20. Lunar neutron source function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornblum, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    The search for a quantitative neutron source function for the lunar surface region is justified because it contributes to our understanding of the history of the lunar surface and of nuclear process occurring on the moon since its formation. A knowledge of the neutron source function and neutron flux distribution is important for the interpretation of many experimental measurements. This dissertation uses the available pertinent experimental measurements together with theoretical calculations to obtain an estimate of the lunar neutron source function below 15 MeV. Based upon reasonable assumptions a lunar neutron source function having adjustable parameters is assumed for neutrons below 15 MeV. The lunar neutron source function is composed of several components resulting from the action of cosmic rays with lunar material. A comparison with previous neutron calculations is made and significant differences are discussed. Application of the results to the problem of lunar soil histories is examined using the statistical model for soil development proposed by Fireman. The conclusion is drawn that the moon is losing mass

  1. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  2. Lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The University Space Research Association (USRA) requested the University of Minnesota Spacecraft Design Team to design a lunar transportation infrastructure. This task was a year long design effort culminating in a complete conceptual design and presentation at Johnson Space Center. The mission objective of the design group was to design a system of vehicles to bring a habitation module, cargo, and crew to the lunar surface from LEO and return either or both crew and cargo safely to LEO while emphasizing component commonality, reusability, and cost effectiveness. During the course of the design, the lunar transportation system (LTS) has taken on many forms. The final design of the system is composed of two vehicles, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a lunar excursion vehicle (LEV). The LTV serves as an efficient orbital transfer vehicle between the earth and the moon while the LEV carries crew and cargo to the lunar surface. Presented in the report are the mission analysis, systems layout, orbital mechanics, propulsion systems, structural and thermal analysis, and crew systems, avionics, and power systems for this lunar transportation concept.

  3. CE-4 Mission and Future Journey to Lunar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yongliao; Wang, Qin; Liu, Xiaoqun

    2016-07-01

    Chang'E-4 mission, being undertaken by phase two of China Lunar Exploration Program, represents China's first attempt to explore farside of lunar surface. Its probe includes a lander, a rover and a telecommunication relay which is scheduled to launch in around 2018. The scientific objectives of CE-4 mission will be implemented to investigate the lunar regional geological characteristics of landing and roving area, and also will make the first radio-astronomy measurements from the most radio-quiet region of near-earth space. The rover will opreate for at least 3 months, the lander for half a year, and the relay for no less than 3 years. Its scinetific instruments includes Cameras, infrared imaging spectrometer, Penetrating Radar onboard the rover in which is the same as the paylads on board the CE-3 rover, and a Dust-analyzer, a Temperature-instrument and a Wide Band Low Frequency Digital Radio Astronomical Station will be installed on board the lander. Our scientific goals of the future lunar exploration will aim at the lunar geology, resources and surface environments. A series of exploraion missions such as robotic exploration and non-manned lunar scientific station is proposed in this paper.

  4. Simulations of Water Migration in the Lunar Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, D.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Goldstein, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    We perform modeling and analysis of water in the lunar exosphere. There were two controlled experiments of water interactions with the surface of the Moon observed by the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS). The Chang'e 3 landing on the Moon on 14 Dec 2013 putatively sprayed ~120 kg of water on the surface on the Moon at a mid-morning local time. Observations by LADEE near the noon meridian on six of the orbits in the 24 hours following the landing constrain the propagation of water vapor. Further, on 4 Apr 2014, LADEE's Orbital Maintenance Manuever (OMM) #21 sprayed the surface of the Moon with an estimated 0.73 kg of water in the pre-dawn sector. Observations of this maneuver and later in the day constrain the adsorption and release at dawn of adsorbed materials. Using the Chang'e 3 exhaust plume and LADEE's OMM-21 as control experiments, we set limits to the adsorption and thermalization of water with lunar regolith. This enables us to predict the efficiency of the migration of water as a delivery mechanism to the lunar poles. Then we simulate the migration of water through the lunar exosphere using the rate of sporadic inputs from meteoritic sources (Benna et al., this session). Simulations predict the amount of water adsorbed to the surface of the Moon and the effective delivery rate to the lunar polar cold traps.

  5. Dust: A major environmental hazard on the earth's moon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Vaniman, D.; Lehnert, B.

    1990-01-01

    On the Earth's Moon, obvious hazards to humans and machines are created by extreme temperature fluctuations, low gravity, and the virtual absence of any atmosphere. The most important other environmental factor is ionizing radiation. Less obvious environmental hazards that must be considered before establishing a manned presence on the lunar surface are the hazards from micrometeoroid bombardment, the nuisance of electro-statically-charged lunar dust, and an alien visual environment without familiar clues. Before man can establish lunar bases and lunar mining operations, and continue the exploration of that planet, we must develop a means of mitigating these hazards. 4 refs.

  6. Artist rendering of dust grains colliding at low speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Clues to the formation of planets and planetary rings -- like Saturn's dazzling ring system -- may be found by studying how dust grains interact as they collide at low speeds. To study the question of low-speed dust collisions, NASA sponsored the COLLisions Into Dust Experiment (COLLIDE) at the University of Colorado. It was designed to spring-launch marble-size projectiles into trays of powder similar to space or lunar dust. COLLIDE-1 (1998) discovered that collisions below a certain energy threshold eject no material. COLLIDE-2 was designed to identify where the threshold is. In COLLIDE-2, scientists nudged small projectiles into dust beds and recorded how the dust splashed outward (video frame at top; artist's rendering at bottom). The slowest impactor ejected no material and stuck in the target. The faster impactors produced ejecta; some rebounded while others stuck in the target.

  7. Electrical stress and strain in lunar regolith simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Richard, D.; Davis, S.

    2011-11-01

    Experiments to entrain dust with electrostatic and fluid-dynamic forces result in particulate clouds of aggregates rather than individual dust grains. This is explained within the framework of Griffith-flaw theory regarding the comminution/breakage of weak solids. Physical and electrical inhomogeneities in powders are equivalent to microcracks in solids insofar as they facilitate failure at stress risers. Electrical charging of powders induces bulk sample stresses similar to mechanical stresses experienced by strong solids, depending on the nature of the charging. A powder mass therefore "breaks" into clumps rather than separating into individual dust particles. This contrasts with the expectation that electrical forces on the Moon will eject a submicron population of dust from the regolith into the exosphere. A lunar regolith will contain physical and electrostatic inhomogeneities similar to those in most charged powders.

  8. Lunar Map Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps; zone...

  9. Consolidated Lunar Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Consolidated Lunar Atlas is a collection of the best photographic images of the moon, including low-oblique photography, full-moon photography, and tabular and...

  10. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf' vacuum cleaner will be used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques in order to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating particulate removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, optical microscopy was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner testing that has

  11. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Toxicology of inorganic tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burba, J.V.

    1982-01-01

    Tin(II) or stannous ion as a reducing agent is important in nuclear medicine because it is an essential component and common denominator for many in vivo radiodiagnostic agents, commonly called kits for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. This report is intended to alert nuclear medicine community regarding the wide range of biological effects that the stannous ion is capable of producing, and is a review of a large number of selected publications on the toxicological potential of tin(II)

  13. Operational Toxicology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    techniques for perchlorate in water, groundwater, soil and biological matrices such as blood, urine, milk . thyroid and other tissues required for...toxicity when they are inhaled or ingested and they are irritating to the skin and mucus membranes (Committee on Toxicology, 1996). When compared to...the data collected. Develop analytical techniques for perchlorate in water, groundwater, soil, and biological matrices such as blood, urine, milk

  14. Beneficiation of lunar ilmenite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Joaquin

    1991-01-01

    One of the most important commodities lacking in the moon is free oxygen which is required for life and used extensively for propellent. Free oxygen, however, can be obtained by liberating it from the oxides and silicates that form the lunar rocks and regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO3) is considered one of the leading candidates for production of oxygen because it can be reduced with a reasonable amount of energy and it is an abundant mineral in the lunar regolith and many mare basalts. In order to obtain oxygen from ilmenite, a method must be developed to beneficiate ilmenite from lunar material. Two possible techniques are electrostatic or magnetic methods. Both methods have complications because lunar ilmenite completely lacks Fe(3+). Magnetic methods were tested on eucrite meteorites, which are a good chemical simulant for low Ti mare basalts. The ilmenite yields in the experiments were always very low and the eucrite had to be crushed to xxxx. These data suggest that magnetic separation of ilmenite from fine grain lunar basalts would not be cost effective. Presently, experiments are being performed with electrostatic separators, and lunar regolith is being waited for so that simulants do not have to be employed.

  15. Lunar Sample Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium will be to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon. This Compendium will be organized rock by rock in the manor of a catalog, but will not be as comprehensive, nor as complete, as the various lunar sample catalogs that are available. Likewise, this Compendium will not duplicate the various excellent books and reviews on the subject of lunar samples (Cadogen 1981, Heiken et al. 1991, Papike et al. 1998, Warren 2003, Eugster 2003). However, it is thought that an online Compendium, such as this, will prove useful to scientists proposing to study individual lunar samples and should help provide backup information for lunar sample displays. This Compendium will allow easy access to the scientific literature by briefly summarizing the significant findings of each rock along with the documentation of where the detailed scientific data are to be found. In general, discussion and interpretation of the results is left to the formal reviews found in the scientific literature. An advantage of this Compendium will be that it can be updated, expanded and corrected as need be.

  16. Dusty plasma in the region of the lunar terminator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popel, S. I., E-mail: popel@iki.rssi.ru; Zelenyi, L. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation); Atamaniuk, B. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Space Research Center (Poland)

    2016-05-15

    Dusty plasma in the region of the lunar terminator is considered. It is shown that, in this region, a structure resembling a plasma sheath forms near the lunar surface. This sheath creates a potential barrier, due to which electrons over the illuminated part of the Moon are confined by electrostatic forces. The width of the sheath-like structure is on the order of the ion Debye length. In this structure, significant (about several hundred V/m) electric fields arise, which lift charged micron-size dust grains to heights of several tens of centimeters. The suggested effect may be used to explain the glow observed by the Surveyor spacecraft over the lunar terminator.

  17. Review of measurements of dust movements on the Moon during Apollo

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Brian J.

    2011-11-01

    This is the first review of 3 Apollo experiments, which made the only direct measurements of dust on the lunar surface: (i) minimalist matchbox-sized 270 g Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) of Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15, produced 30 million Lunar Day measurements 21 July 1969-30 September, 1977; (ii) Thermal Degradation Samples (TDS) of Apollo 14, sprinkled with dust, photographed, taken back to Earth into quarantine and lost; and (iii) the 7.5 kg Lunar Ejecta and Meteoroids (LEAM) experiment of Apollo 17, whose original tapes and plots are lost. LEAM, designed to measure rare impacts of cosmic dust, registered scores of events each lunation most frequently around sunrise and sunset. LEAM data are accepted as caused by heavily-charged particles of lunar dust at speeds of motivation for returning to the Moon. New analyses here show some raw data are sporadic bursts of 1, 2, 3 or more events within time bubbles smaller than 0.6 s, not predicted by theoretical dust models but consistent with noise bits caused by electromagnetic interference (EMI) from switching of large currents in the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP), as occurred in pre-flight LEAM-acceptance tests. On the Moon switching is most common around sunrise and sunset in a dozen heavy-duty heaters essential for operational survival during 350 h of lunar night temperatures of minus 170 °C. Another four otherwise unexplained features of LEAM data are consistent with the "noise bits" hypothesis. Discoveries with DDE and TDS reported in 1970 and 1971, though overlooked, and extensive DDE discoveries in 2009 revealed strengths of adhesive and cohesive forces of lunar dust. Rocket exhaust gases during Lunar Module (LM) ascent caused dust and debris to (i) contaminate instruments 17 m distant (Apollo 11) as expected, and (ii) unexpectedly cleanse Apollo hardware 130 m (Apollo 12) and 180 m (Apollo 14) from LM. TDS photos uniquely document in situ cohesion of dust particles and their adhesion to 12

  18. Closer look at lunar volcanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry

  19. Toxicological Benchmarks for Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E. Opresko, D.M. Suter, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated by using a two-tiered process. In the first tier, a screening assessment is performed where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks represent concentrations of chemicals (i.e., concentrations presumed to be nonhazardous to the biota) in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.). While exceedance of these benchmarks does not indicate any particular level or type of risk, concentrations below the benchmarks should not result in significant effects. In practice, when contaminant concentrations in food or water resources are less than these toxicological benchmarks, the contaminants may be excluded from further consideration. However, if the concentration of a contaminant exceeds a benchmark, that contaminant should be retained as a contaminant of potential concern (COPC) and investigated further. The second tier in ecological risk assessment, the baseline ecological risk assessment, may use toxicological benchmarks as part of a weight-of-evidence approach (Suter 1993). Under this approach, based toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. Other sources of evidence include media toxicity tests, surveys of biota (abundance and diversity), measures of contaminant body burdens, and biomarkers. This report presents NOAEL- and lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 85 chemicals on 9 representative mammalian wildlife species (short-tailed shrew, little brown bat, meadow vole, white-footed mouse, cottontail rabbit, mink, red fox, and whitetail deer) or 11 avian wildlife species (American robin, rough-winged swallow, American woodcock, wild turkey, belted kingfisher, great blue heron, barred owl, barn owl, Cooper's hawk, and red

  20. Summary introduction to environmental toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzow, B.; Jessen, H.; Wendorff, D.

    1986-01-01

    The increasing environmental consciousness and the increasing public interest in environmental medicine and toxicology is much appreciated by the Research Institute for Environmental Toxicology. This information brochure gives the reader some insight into the importance of environmental toxicology and into the waste of the Research Institute. In response to the current situation, the authors have included an appendix on radiation protection. (orig./PW) [de

  1. High Throughput Transcriptomics @ USEPA (Toxicology ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ideal chemical testing approach will provide complete coverage of all relevant toxicological responses. It should be sensitive and specific It should identify the mechanism/mode-of-action (with dose-dependence). It should identify responses relevant to the species of interest. Responses should ideally be translated into tissue-, organ-, and organism-level effects. It must be economical and scalable. Using a High Throughput Transcriptomics platform within US EPA provides broader coverage of biological activity space and toxicological MOAs and helps fill the toxicological data gap. Slide presentation at the 2016 ToxForum on using High Throughput Transcriptomics at US EPA for broader coverage biological activity space and toxicological MOAs.

  2. Lunar geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Dickey, J. O.

    2002-01-01

    Experience with the dynamics and data analyses for earth and moon reveals both similarities and differences. Analysis of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) data provides information on the lunar orbit, rotation, solid-body tides, and retroreflector locations.

  3. The Future Lunar Flora Colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, E. G.; Guven, U. G.

    2017-10-01

    A constructional design for the primary establishment for a lunar colony using the micrometeorite rich soil is proposed. It highlights the potential of lunar regolith combined with Earth technology for water and oxygen for human outposts on the Moon.

  4. ACToR-AGGREGATED COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    One goal of the field of computational toxicology is to predict chemical toxicity by combining computer models with biological and toxicological data. predict chemical toxicity by combining computer models with biological and toxicological data

  5. Postmortem Biochemistry and Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Flanagan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of postmortem biochemistry and toxicology is either to help establish the cause of death, or to gain information on events immediately before death. If self-poisoning is suspected, the diagnosis may be straightforward and all that could be required is confirmation of the agents involved. However, if the cause of death is not immediately obvious then suspicion of possible poisoning or of conditions such as alcoholic ketoacidosis is of course crucial. On the other hand, it may be important to investigate adherence to prescribed therapy, for example with anticonvulsants or antipsychotics, hence sensitive methods are required. Blood sampling (needle aspiration, peripheral vein, for example femoral, ideally after proximal ligation before opening the body minimizes the risk of sample contamination with, for example, gut contents or urine. Other specimens (stomach contents, urine, liver, vitreous humor may also be valuable and may be needed to corroborate unexpected or unusual findings in the absence of other evidence. The site of sampling should always be recorded. The availability of antemortem specimens should not necessarily preclude postmortem sampling. Appropriate sample preservation, transport, and storage are mandatory. Interpretation of analytical toxicology results must take into account what is known of the pharmacokinetics and toxicology of the agent(s in question, the circumstances under which death occurred including the mechanism of exposure, and other factors such as the stability of the analyte(s and the analytical methods used. It is important to realise that changes may occur in the composition of body fluids, even peripheral blood, after death. Such changes are likely to be greater after attempted resuscitation, and with centrally-acting drugs with large volumes of distribution given chronically, and may perhaps be minimised by prompt refrigeration of the body and performing the autopsy quickly.

  6. Toxicology of freshwater cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, H M; Arachchi, D N Magana; Abeysekara, T; Guneratne, L

    2016-07-02

    Many chemical contaminants in drinking water have been shown to cause adverse health effects in humans after prolonged exposure. Cyanobacteria are one of the most potent and diverse groups of photosynthetic prokaryotes. One key component of cyanobacterial success in the environment is the production of potent toxins as secondary metabolites, which have been responsible for numerous adverse health impacts in humans. Anthropogenic activities have led to the increase of eutrophication in freshwater bodies' worldwide, causing cyanobacterial blooms to become more frequent. The present article will discuss about harmful cyanobacteria and their toxicology with special references to microcystin, nodularin, and cylindrospermopsin.

  7. Pharmacogenetics and forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musshoff, Frank; Stamer, Ulrike M; Madea, Burkhard

    2010-12-15

    Large inter-individual variability in drug response and toxicity, as well as in drug concentrations after application of the same dosage, can be of genetic, physiological, pathophysiological, or environmental origin. Absorption, distribution and metabolism of a drug and interactions with its target often are determined by genetic differences. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variations can appear at the level of drug metabolizing enzymes (e.g., the cytochrome P450 system), drug transporters, drug targets or other biomarker genes. Pharmacogenetics or toxicogenetics can therefore be relevant in forensic toxicology. This review presents relevant aspects together with some examples from daily routines. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Lunar and Vesta Web Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; JPL Luna Mapping; Modeling Project Team

    2015-06-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project offers Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (http://lmmp.nasa.gov) and Vesta Trek Portal (http://vestatrek.jpl.nasa.gov) providing interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable users to access mapped Lunar and Vesta data products.

  9. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-09-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  10. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Tartese, R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The chapter will begin with an introduction that defines magmatic volatiles (e.g., H, F, Cl, S) versus geochemical volatiles (e.g., K, Rb, Zn). We will discuss our approach of understanding both types of volatiles in lunar samples and lay the ground work for how we will determine the overall volatile budget of the Moon. We will then discuss the importance of endogenous volatiles in shaping the "Newer Views of the Moon", specifically how endogenous volatiles feed forward into processes such as the origin of the Moon, magmatic differentiation, volcanism, and secondary processes during surface and crustal interactions. After the introduction, we will include a re-view/synthesis on the current state of 1) apatite compositions (volatile abundances and isotopic compositions); 2) nominally anhydrous mineral phases (moderately to highly volatile); 3) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar pyroclastic glass beads; 4) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar basalts; 5) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of melt inclusions; and finally 6) experimental constraints on mineral-melt partitioning of moderately to highly volatile elements under lunar conditions. We anticipate that each section will summarize results since 2007 and focus on new results published since the 2015 Am Min review paper on lunar volatiles [9]. The next section will discuss how to use sample abundances of volatiles to understand the source region and potential caveats in estimating source abundances of volatiles. The following section will include our best estimates of volatile abundances and isotopic compositions (where permitted by available data) for each volatile element of interest in a number of important lunar reservoirs, including the crust, mantle, KREEP, and bulk Moon. The final section of the chapter will focus upon future work, outstanding questions

  11. The dissolution of natural and artificial dusts in glutamic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zhang; Faqin, Dong; Xiaochun, He

    2015-06-01

    This article describes the characteristics of natural dusts, industrial dusts, and artificial dusts, such as mineral phases, chemical components, morphological observation and size. Quartz and calcite are the main phases of natural dusts and industrial dusts with high SiO2 and CaO and low K2O and Na2O in the chemical composition. The dissolution and electrochemical action of dusts in glutamic acid liquor at the simulated human body temperature (37 °C) in 32 h was investigated. The potential harm that the dust could lead to in body glutamic acid acidic environment, namely biological activity, is of great importance for revealing the human toxicological mechanism. The changes of pH values and electric conductivity of suspension of those dusts were similar, increased slowly in the first 8 h, and then the pH values increased rapidly. The total amount of dissolved ions of K, Ca, Na, and Mg was 35.4 to 429 mg/kg, particularly Ca was maximal of 20 to 334 mg/kg. The total amount of dissolved ions of Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, and Ba was 0.18 to 5.59 mg/kg and in Al and Si was 3.0 to 21.7 mg/kg. The relative solubility order of dusts in glutamic acid is wollastonite > serpentine > sepiolite, the cement plant industrial dusts > natural dusts > power plant industrial dusts. The wollastonite and cement plant industrial dusts have the highest solubility, which also have high content of CaO; this shows that there are a poorer corrosion-resisting ability and lower bio-resistibility. Sepiolite and power plant industrial dusts have lowest solubility, which also have high content of SiO2; this shows that there are a higher corrosion-resisting ability and stronger bio-resistibility.

  12. History and Flight Devleopment of the Electrodynamic Dust Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Michael R.; Mackey, Paul J.; Hogue, Michael D.; Cox, Rachel E.; Phillips, James R., III; Calle, Carlos I.

    2015-01-01

    The surfaces of the moon, Mars, and that of some asteroids are covered with a layer of dust that may hinder robotic and human exploration missions. During the Apollo missions, for example, lunar dust caused a number of issues including vision obscuration, false instrument readings, contamination, and elevated temperatures. In fact, some equipment neared failure after only 75 hours on the lunar surface due to effects of lunar dust. NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed an active technology to remove dust from surfaces during exploration missions. The Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS), which consists of a series of embedded electrodes in a high dielectric strength substrate, uses a low power, low frequency signal that produces an electric field wave that travels across the surface. This non-uniform electric field generates dielectrophoretic and electrostatic forces capable of moving dust out of these surfaces. Implementations of the EDS have been developed for solar radiators, optical systems, camera lenses, visors, windows, thermal radiators, and fabrics The EDS implementation for transparent applications (solar panels, optical systems, windows, etc.) uses transparent indium tin oxide electrodes on glass or transparent lm. Extensive testing was performed in a roughly simulated lunar environment (one-sixth gravity at 1 mPa atmospheric pressure) with lunar simulant dust. EDS panels over solar radiators showed dust removal that restored solar panel output reaching values very close to their initial output. EDS implementations for thermal radiator protection (metallic spacecraft surfaces with white thermal paint and reflective films) were also extensively tested at similar high vacuum conditions. Reflectance spectra for these types of implementations showed dust removal efficiencies in the 96% to 99% range. These tests indicate that the EDS technology is now at a Technology Readiness Level of 4 to 5. As part of EDS development, a flight version is being prepared for

  13. The Sooner Lunar Schooner: Lunar engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. P.; Hougen, D. F.; Shirley, D.

    2003-06-01

    The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore a small section of the Moon; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by an Apollo mission thirty years earlier; and to perform a selenographic survey of areas that were too distant or considered too dangerous to be done by the Apollo crew. The goal of the Sooner Lunar Schooner Project is to improve the science and engineering educations of the hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students working on the project. The participants, while primarily from engineering and physics, will also include representatives from business, art, journalism, law and education. This project ties together numerous existing research programs at the University, and provides a framework for the creation of many new research proposals. The authors were excited and motivated by the Apollo missions to the Moon. When we asked what we could do to similarly motivate students we realized that nothing is as exciting as going to the Moon. The students seem to agree.

  14. Lunar Phases Planisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawl, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a lunar phases planisphere with which a user can answer questions about the rising and setting times of the Moon as well as questions about where the Moon will be at a given phase and time. The article contains figures that can be photocopied to make the planisphere. (Contains 2 figures.)

  15. Lunar magma transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    An outline of magma transport theory relevant to the evolution of a possible Lunar Magma Ocean and the origin and transport history of the later phase of mare basaltic volcanism is presented. A simple model is proposed to evaluate the extent of fractionation as magma traverses the cold lunar lithosphere. If Apollo green glasses are primitive and have not undergone significant fractionation en route to the surface, then mean ascent rates of 10 m/s and cracks of widths greater than 40 m are indicated. Lunar tephra and vesiculated basalts suggest that a volatile component plays a role in eruption dynamics. The predominant vapor species appear to be CO CO2, and COS. Near the lunar surface, the vapor fraction expands enormously and vapor internal energy is converted to mixture kinetic energy with the concomitant high-speed ejection of vapor and pyroclasts to form lunary fire fountain deposits such as the Apollo 17 orange and black glasses and Apollo 15 green glass.

  16. Nuclear toxicology at CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giustranti, C.

    2001-01-01

    CEA (French commission of atomic energy) has launched a new program dedicated to the study of the transfer of heavy metals and some radionuclides from environment to living beings. The substances that will be studied, are those that are involved in research, medical activities, and in nuclear industry. It means iodine, technetium, trans-uranides (uranium and plutonium), fission products (iodine, cesium), carbon, cobalt, boron and beryllium. This program is composed of 2 axis: the first one concerns the bio-geo-chemical cycles that are involved in transfer and the second axis deals with the detoxication processes that appear in animal and man cells. This program will rely on the strong competencies of CEA in chemistry, radiochemistry, biology, physiology and toxicology. (A.C.)

  17. Emerging approaches in predictive toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luoping; McHale, Cliona M; Greene, Nigel; Snyder, Ronald D; Rich, Ivan N; Aardema, Marilyn J; Roy, Shambhu; Pfuhler, Stefan; Venkatactahalam, Sundaresan

    2014-12-01

    Predictive toxicology plays an important role in the assessment of toxicity of chemicals and the drug development process. While there are several well-established in vitro and in vivo assays that are suitable for predictive toxicology, recent advances in high-throughput analytical technologies and model systems are expected to have a major impact on the field of predictive toxicology. This commentary provides an overview of the state of the current science and a brief discussion on future perspectives for the field of predictive toxicology for human toxicity. Computational models for predictive toxicology, needs for further refinement and obstacles to expand computational models to include additional classes of chemical compounds are highlighted. Functional and comparative genomics approaches in predictive toxicology are discussed with an emphasis on successful utilization of recently developed model systems for high-throughput analysis. The advantages of three-dimensional model systems and stem cells and their use in predictive toxicology testing are also described. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbughuni, Michael M; Jannetto, Paul J; Langman, Loralie J

    2016-12-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used in the Toxicological analysis of drugs, poisons, and metabolites of both. To date, MS applications have permeated all fields of toxicology which include; environmental, clinical, and forensic toxicology. While many different analytical applications are used in these fields, MS and its hyphenated applications such as; gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS), inductively coupled plasma ionization MS (ICP-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MS n ) have emerged as powerful tools used in toxicology laboratories. This review will focus on these hyphenated MS technologies and their applications for toxicology.

  19. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbughuni, Michael M.; Jannetto, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used in the Toxicological analysis of drugs, poisons, and metabolites of both. To date, MS applications have permeated all fields of toxicology which include; environmental, clinical, and forensic toxicology. While many different analytical applications are used in these fields, MS and its hyphenated applications such as; gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS), inductively coupled plasma ionization MS (ICP-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MSn) have emerged as powerful tools used in toxicology laboratories. This review will focus on these hyphenated MS technologies and their applications for toxicology. PMID:28149262

  20. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary

  1. Paradigm shifts about dust on the Moon: From Apollo 11 to Chang'e-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Brian J.

    2018-07-01

    Strategic purposes of this DAP-2017 report are to update our DAP-2010 report on movements of inescapable fine lunar dust, to summarise key new measurements and to assist rigorous focus. Lunar dust is defined here in two sciences, Apollo dust and Ejecta dust, to end several confusions. The Kuhn Cycle is introduced to stimulate progression of a science about movements of Apollo dust which lacks an agreed paradigm to supply puzzles for scientists to solve and tools for their solution. We populate the cycle with two paradigm shifts. The first was serendipitous invention in 1966 of the Apollo Dust Detector Experiment (DDE), 3 orthogonal solar cells each with a thermometer, which on Apollo 12 measured cause and effect, collective movements of billions to trillions of low-energy Apollo dust particles and changes in temperature they cause. In contrast, Apollo 17 LEAM and LADEE LDEX experiments follow traditions to measure impacts of high-velocity Ejecta dust particles, one by one. In 2015, Apollo 12 DDE discoveries of sunrise-driven storms of Apollo dust stimulated a measurement-based 5-step model of dust transport at astronaut waist height. The discoveries solve (i) 50-year-old mysteries of Horizon Glow, (ii) 30-year-old uncertainties about levitated dust, (iii) processes leading to lunar surfaces being smooth and (iv) immobilisation of the Chang'e-3 lunar rover Yutu in 2014 after its first sunrise. The IAC-2017 Website Abstract of a withdrawn Chang'e-3 presentation may support our views that sunrise-mobilised dust caused immobilisation of Yutu. A precursor to a second paradigm shift was May 2016 announced revision of Chang'e-4 scientific priorities. Using Kuhn terminology of scientific progress, a second shift would follow our "revolution" in 2015 that sunrise-driven dust storms caused the 2014 ″crisis" of immobilisation of Chang'e-3 lunar rover Yutu. No such sequence occurred previously with lunar dust. Measurement-based evidence from Apollo 11 to Chang'e-3 confirms

  2. COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY-WHERE IS THE DATA? ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This talk will briefly describe the state of the data world for computational toxicology and one approach to improve the situation, called ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource). This talk will briefly describe the state of the data world for computational toxicology and one approach to improve the situation, called ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource).

  3. Ninth Triennial Toxicology Salary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Shayne Cox; Sullivan, Dexter Wayne

    2016-01-01

    This survey serves as the ninth in a series of toxicology salary surveys conducted at 3-year intervals and beginning in 1988. An electronic survey instrument was distributed to 5919 individuals including members of the Society of Toxicology, American College of Toxicology, and 23 additional professional organizations. Question items inquired about gender, age, degree, years of experience, certifications held, areas of specialization, society membership, employment and income. Overall, 1293 responses were received (response rate 21.8%). The results of the 2014 survey provide insight into the job market and career path for current and future toxicologists. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. The International Lunar Decade Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, V.; Foing, B.; Bland, D.; Crisafulli, J.

    2015-10-01

    The International Lunar Decade Declaration was discussed at the conference held November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space" - http://2014giantleap.aerospacehawaii.info/ and accepted by a core group that forms the International Lunar Decade Working Group (ILDWG) that is seeking to make the proposed global event and decade long process a reality. The Declaration will be updated from time to time by members of the ILDWreflecting new knowledge and fresh perspectives that bear on building a global consortium with a mission to progress from lunar exploration to the transformation of the Moon into a wealth gene rating platform for the expansion of humankind into the solar system. When key organizations have endorsed the idea and joined the effort the text of the Declaration will be considered final. An earlier International Lunar Decade proposal was issued at the 8th ICEUM Conference in 2006 in Beijing together with 13 specific initiatives for lunar exploration[1,2,3]. These initiatives have been largely implemented with coordination among the different space agencies involved provided by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group[2,3]. The Second International Lunar Decade from 2015 reflects current trends towards increasing involvement of commercial firms in space, particularly seeking opportunities beyond low Earth orbit. The central vision of the International Lunar Decade is to build the foundations for a sustainable space economy through international collaboration concurrently addressing Lunar exploration and building a shared knowledge base;Policy development that enables collabo rative research and development leading to lunar mining and industrial and commercial development;Infrastructure on the Moon and in cislunar space (communications, transport, energy systems, way-stations, other) that reduces costs, lowers risks and speeds up the time to profitable operations;Enabling technologies

  5. Discussion of thermal extraction chamber concepts for Lunar ISRU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Matthias; Hager, Philipp; Parzinger, Stephan; Dirlich, Thomas; Spinnler, Markus; Sattelmayer, Thomas; Walter, Ulrich

    The Exploration group of the Institute of Astronautics (LRT) of the Technische Universitüt a München focuses on long-term scenarios and sustainable human presence in space. One of the enabling technologies in this long-term perspective is in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). When dealing with the prospect of future manned missions to Moon and Mars the use of ISRU seems useful and intended. The activities presented in this paper focus on Lunar ISRU. This basically incorporates both the exploitation of Lunar oxygen from natural rock and the extraction of solar wind implanted particles (SWIP) from regolith dust. Presently the group at the LRT is examining possibilities for the extraction of SWIPs, which may provide several gaseous components (such as H2 and N2) valuable to a human presence on the Moon. As a major stepping stone in the near future a Lunar demonstrator/ verification experiment payload is being designed. This experiment, LUISE (LUnar ISru Experiment), will comprise a thermal process chamber for heating regolith dust (grain size below 500m), a solar thermal power supply, a sample distribution unit and a trace gas analysis. The first project stage includes the detailed design and analysis of the extraction chamber concepts and the thermal process involved in the removal of SWIP from Lunar Regolith dust. The technique of extracting Solar Wind volatiles from Regolith has been outlined by several sources. Heating the material to a threshold value seems to be the most reasonable approach. The present paper will give an overview over concepts for thermal extraction chambers to be used in the LUISE project and evaluate in detail the pros and cons of each concept. The special boundary conditions set by solar thermal heating of the chambers as well as the material properties of Regolith in a Lunar environment will be discussed. Both greatly influence the design of the extraction chamber. The performance of the chamber concepts is discussed with respect to the

  6. Dust collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahourin, H.

    1988-03-22

    This invention relates to a dust collector or filter which may be used for large volume cleaning air for gases or for separating out industrial byproducts such as wood chips, sawdust, and shavings. It relies on filtration or separation using only a uniquely configured medium. A primary, but not exclusive, purpose of the invention is to enable very large throughput, capable of separating or filtering of gases containing up to three or more tons of byproduct with a minimum pressure-drop across the device. No preliminary cycloning, to remove major particulates is necessary. The collector generally comprises a continuous and integral filter medium which is suspended from a plurality of downwardly extending frames forming a series of separate elements having a triangular cross-section, each element being relatively wide at the top and narrow at the bottom to define, between adjacent elements, a divergent collecting space which is wide at the bottom. 11 figs.

  7. Dust Measurements in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudakov, D; Yu, J; Boedo, J; Hollmann, E; Krasheninnikov, S; Moyer, R; Muller, S; Yu, A; Rosenberg, M; Smirnov, R; West, W; Boivin, R; Bray, B; Brooks, N; Hyatt, A; Wong, C; Fenstermacher, M; Groth, M; Lasnier, C; McLean, A; Stangeby, P; Ratynskaia, S; Roquemore, A; Skinner, C; Solomon, W M

    2008-01-01

    Dust production and accumulation impose safety and operational concerns for ITER. Diagnostics to monitor dust levels in the plasma as well as in-vessel dust inventory are currently being tested in a few tokamaks. Dust accumulation in ITER is likely to occur in hidden areas, e.g. between tiles and under divertor baffles. A novel electrostatic dust detector for monitoring dust in these regions has been developed and tested at PPPL. In DIII-D tokamak dust diagnostics include Mie scattering from Nd:YAG lasers, visible imaging, and spectroscopy. Laser scattering resolves size of particles between 0.16-1.6 (micro)m in diameter; the total dust content in the edge plasmas and trends in the dust production rates within this size range have been established. Individual dust particles are observed by visible imaging using fast-framing cameras, detecting dust particles of a few microns in diameter and larger. Dust velocities and trajectories can be determined in 2D with a single camera or 3D using multiple cameras, but determination of particle size is problematic. In order to calibrate diagnostics and benchmark dust dynamics modeling, pre-characterized carbon dust has been injected into the lower divertor of DIII-D. Injected dust is seen by cameras, and spectroscopic diagnostics observe an increase of carbon atomic, C2 dimer, and thermal continuum emissions from the injected dust. The latter observation can be used in the design of novel dust survey diagnostics

  8. American College of Medical Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Journal of Medical Toxicology About ACMT About Us History of ACMT ACMT Fact Sheet Strategic Plan ACMT ... Policies IJMT JMT Editorial Board About ACMT About Us History of ACMT ACMT Fact Sheet Strategic Plan ACMT ...

  9. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACTOR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACTOR) is a database on environmental chemicals that is searchable by chemical name and other identifiers, and by...

  10. Predictive toxicology in drug safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Jinghai J; Urban, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    .... It provides information on the present knowledge of drug side effects and their mitigation strategy during drug discovery, gives guidance for risk assessment, and promotes evidence-based toxicology...

  11. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource (AcTOR) is EPA's online aggregator of all the public sources of chemical toxicity data. ACToR aggregates data...

  12. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  13. Particulate deposition in the human lung under lunar habitat conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darquenne, Chantal; Prisk, G Kim

    2013-03-01

    Lunar dust may be a toxic challenge to astronauts. While deposition in reduced gravity is less than in normal gravity (1 G), reduced gravitational sedimentation causes particles to penetrate deeper in the lung, potentially causing more harm. The likely design of the lunar habitat has a reduced pressure environment and low-density gas has been shown to reduce upper airway deposition and increase peripheral deposition. Breathing air and a reduced-density gas approximating the density of the proposed lunar habitat atmosphere, five healthy subjects inhaled 1 -microm diameter aerosol boluses at penetration volumes (V(p)) of 200 ml (central airways), 500 ml, and 1000 ml (lung periphery) in microgravity during parabolic flight, and in 1 G. Deposition in the lunar habitat was significantly less than for Earth conditions (and less than in 1 G with the low-density gas) with a relative decrease in deposition of -59.1 +/- 14.0% (-46.9 +/- 11.7%), -50.7 +/- 9.2% (-45.8 +/- 11.2%), and -46.0 +/- 8.3% (-45.3 +/- 11.1%) at V(p) = 200, 500, and 1000 ml, respectively. There was no significant effect of reduced density on deposition in 1 G. While minimally affected by gas density, deposition was significantly less in microgravity than in 1 G for both gases, with a larger portion of particles depositing in the lung periphery under lunar conditions than Earth conditions. Thus, gravity, and not gas properties, mainly affects deposition in the peripheral lung, suggesting that studies of aerosol transport in the lunar habitat need not be performed at the low density proposed for the atmosphere in that environment.

  14. Petrology of lunar rocks and implication to lunar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, W. I.

    1976-01-01

    Recent advances in lunar petrology, based on studies of lunar rock samples available through the Apollo program, are reviewed. Samples of bedrock from both maria and terra have been collected where micrometeorite impact penetrated the regolith and brought bedrock to the surface, but no in situ cores have been taken. Lunar petrogenesis and lunar thermal history supported by studies of the rock sample are discussed and a tentative evolutionary scenario is constructed. Mare basalts, terra assemblages of breccias, soils, rocks, and regolith are subjected to elemental analysis, mineralogical analysis, trace content analysis, with studies of texture, ages and isotopic composition. Probable sources of mare basalts are indicated.

  15. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Mbughuni, Michael M.; Jannetto, Paul J.; Langman, Loralie J.

    2016-01-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used i...

  16. Behavioral assays in environmental toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental toxicology is too permeated by questions about how the whole organism functions to abandon intact animals as test systems. Behavior does not participate as a single entity or discipline. It ranges across the total spectrum of functional toxicity, from tenuous subjective complaints to subtle sensory and motor disturbances demanding advanced instrumentation for their evaluation. Three facets of behavioral toxicology that illustrate its breadth of interests and potential contributions are discussed.

  17. Optimization of Photovoltaic Performance Through the Integration of Electrodynamic Dust Shield Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, Steven; Davis, Kris; Hickman, Nicoleta; McFall, Judith; Arens, Ellen; Calle, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The viability of photovoltaics on the Lunar and Martian surfaces may be determined by their ability to withstand significant degradation in the Lunar and Martian environments. One of the greatest threats is posed by fine dust particles which are continually blown about the surfaces. In an effort to determine the extent of the threat, and to investigate some abatement strategies, a series of experiments were conducted outdoors and in the Moon and Mars environmental chamber at the Florida Solar Energy Center. Electrodynamic dust shield prototypes based on the electric curtain concept have been developed by our collaborators at the Kennedy Space Center [1]. These thin film layers can remove dust from surfaces and prevent dust accumulation. Several types of dust shields were designed, built and tested under high vacuum conditions and simulated lunar gravity to validate the technology for lunar exploration applications. Gallium arsenide, single crystal and polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic integrated devices were designed, built and tested under Moon and Mars environmental conditions as well as under ambient conditions. Photovoltaic efficiency measurements were performed on each individual cell with the following configurations; without an encapsulation layer, with a glass covering, and with various thin film dust shields. It was found that the PV efficiency of the hybrid systems was unaffected by these various thin film dust shields, proving that the optical transmission of light through the device is virtually uninhibited by these layers. The future goal of this project is to incorporate a photovoltaic cell as the power source for the electrodynamic dust shield system, and experimentally show the effective removal of dust obstructing any light incident on the cell, thus insuring power production is maximized over time.

  18. Laser-powered lunar base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costen, R.; Humes, D.H.; Walker, G.H.; Williams, M.D.; Deyoung, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to compare a nuclear reactor-driven Sterling engine lunar base power source to a laser-to-electric converter with orbiting laser power station, each providing 1 MW of electricity to the lunar base. The comparison was made on the basis of total mass required in low-Earth-orbit for each system. This total mass includes transportation mass required to place systems in low-lunar orbit or on the lunar surface. The nuclear reactor with Sterling engines is considered the reference mission for lunar base power and is described first. The details of the laser-to-electric converter and mass are discussed. The next two solar-driven high-power laser concepts, the diode array laser or the iodine laser system, are discussed with associated masses in low-lunar-orbit. Finally, the payoff for laser-power beaming is summarized

  19. Lunar ash flows - Isothermal approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Suggestion of the ash flow mechanism as one of the major processes required to account for some features of lunar soil. First the observational background and the gardening hypothesis are reviewed, and the shortcomings of the gardening hypothesis are shown. Then a general description of the lunar ash flow is given, and a simple mathematical model of the isothermal lunar ash flow is worked out with numerical examples to show the differences between the lunar and the terrestrial ash flow. The important parameters of the ash flow process are isolated and analyzed. It appears that the lunar surface layer in the maria is not a residual mantle rock (regolith) but a series of ash flows due, at least in part, to great meteorite impacts. The possibility of a volcanic contribution is not excluded. Some further analytic research on lunar ash flows is recommended.

  20. A practice analysis of toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carol S; Weis, Christopher P; Caro, Carla M; Roe, Amy

    2016-12-01

    In 2015, the American Board of Toxicology (ABT), with collaboration from the Society of Toxicology (SOT), in consultation with Professional Examination Service, performed a practice analysis study of the knowledge required for general toxicology. The purpose of this study is to help assure that the examination and requirements for attainment of Diplomate status are relevant to modern toxicology and based upon an empirical foundation of knowledge. A profile of the domains and tasks used in toxicology practice was developed by subject-matter experts representing a broad range of experiences and perspectives. An on-line survey of toxicologists, including Diplomates of the ABT and SOT members, confirmed the delineation. Results of the study can be used to improve understanding of toxicology practice, to better serve all toxicologists, and to present the role of toxicologists to those outside the profession. Survey results may also be used by the ABT Board of Directors to develop test specifications for the certifying examination and will be useful for evaluating and updating the content of professional preparation, development, and continuing education programs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. International Lunar Decade Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, VZ; Crisafulli, J.; Dunlop, D.; Foing, B.

    2017-09-01

    The International Lunar Decade is a global decadal event designed to provide a framework for strategically directed international cooperation for permanent return to the Moon. To be launched July 20, 2019, the 50th anniversary of the giant leap for mankind marked by Neil Armstrong's first step on the Moon, the ILD launch will include events around the world to celebrate space exploration, science, and the expansion of humanity into the Solar System. The ILD framework links lunar exploration and space sciences with the development of enabling technologies, infrastructure, means of financing, laws and policies aimed at lowering the costs and risks of venturing into space. Dramatically reduced costs will broaden the range of opportunities available in space and widen access to space for more states, companies and people worldwide. The ILD is intended to bring about the efflorescence of commercial business based on space resources from the Moon, asteroids, comets and other bodies in the Solar System.

  2. Lunar Core and Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2,3,4] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening, which in the past has been marginal but improving [3,4,5], now seems significant. Direct detection of the core moment has not yet been achieved.

  3. Lunar Health Monitor (LHM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisy, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    Orbital Research, Inc., has developed a low-profile, wearable sensor suite for monitoring astronaut health in both intravehicular and extravehicular activities. The Lunar Health Monitor measures respiration, body temperature, electrocardiogram (EKG) heart rate, and other cardiac functions. Orbital Research's dry recording electrode is central to the innovation and can be incorporated into garments, eliminating the need for conductive pastes, adhesives, or gels. The patented dry recording electrode has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The LHM is easily worn under flight gear or with civilian clothing, making the system completely versatile for applications where continuous physiological monitoring is needed. During Phase II, Orbital Research developed a second-generation LHM that allows sensor customization for specific monitoring applications and anatomical constraints. Evaluations included graded exercise tests, lunar mission task simulations, functional battery tests, and resting measures. The LHM represents the successful integration of sensors into a wearable platform to capture long-duration and ambulatory physiological markers.

  4. The Lunar Sample Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of the data obtained from 40 years of study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic petrographic, chemical and age information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. The LSC can be found online using Google. The initial allocation of lunar samples was done sparingly, because it was realized that scientific techniques would improve over the years and new questions would be formulated. The LSC is important because it enables scientists to select samples within the context of the work that has already been done and facilitates better review of proposed allocations. It also provides back up material for public displays, captures information found only in abstracts, grey literature and curatorial databases and serves as a ready access to the now-vast scientific literature.

  5. Charged-particle track analysis, thermoluminescence and microcratering studies of lunar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies of lunar samples (from both Apollo and Luna missions) have been carried out, using track analysis and thermoluminescence (t.l.) techniques, with a view to shedding light on the radiation and temperature histories of the Moon. In addition, microcraters in lunar glasses have been studied in order to elucidate the cosmic-dust impact history of the lunar regolith. In tracks studies, the topics discussed include the stabilizing effect of the thermal annealing of fossil tracks due to the lunar temperature cycle; the 'radiation annealing' of fresh heavy-ion tracks by large doses of protons (to simulate the effect of lunar radiation-damage on track registration); and correction factors for the anisotropic etching of crystals which are required in reconstructing the exposure history of lunar grains. An abundance ratio of ca. (1.1 + 0.3) x 10 -3 has been obtained, by the differential annealing technique, for the nuclei beyond the iron group to those within that group in the cosmic rays incident on the Moon. The natural t.l. of lunar samples has been used to estimate their effective storage temperature and mean depth below the surface. The results of the study of natural and artificially produced microcraters have been studied. (author)

  6. Lunary Dust Grain Charging by Electron Impact: Complex Role of Secondary Electron Emissions in Space Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Crave, P. D.; LeClair, A.; Spann, J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with radiation from nearby sources, or by electron/ion collisions by sticking or secondary electron emissions (SEES). The high vacuum environment on the lunar surface leads to some unusual physical and dynamical phenomena involving dust grains with high adhesive characteristics, and levitation and transportation over long distances. Knowledge of the dust grain charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding a variety of physical and dynamical processes in the interstellar medium, and heliospheric, interplanetary/ planetary, and lunar environments. It has been well recognized that the charging properties of individual micron-/submicron-size dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the corresponding values for bulk materials. In this paper, we present experimental results on the charging of individual 0.2-13 m size dust grains selected from Apollo 11 and 17 dust samples, and spherical silica particles by exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams in the 10-200 eV energy range. The dust charging process by electron impact involving the SEES discussed is found to be a complex charging phenomenon with strong particle size dependence. The measurements indicate substantial differences between the polarity and magnitude of the dust charging rates of individual small-size dust grains, and the measurements and model properties of corresponding bulk materials. A more comprehensive plan of measurements of the charging properties of individual dust grains for developing a database for realistic models of dust charging in astrophysical and lunar environments is in progress.

  7. Lunar concrete for construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingford, Hatice S.; Keller, M. Dean

    1988-01-01

    Feasibility of using concrete for lunar-base construction has been discussed recently without relevant data for the effects of vacuum on concrete. Experimental studies performed earlier at Los Alamos have shown that concrete is stable in vacuum with no deterioration of its quality as measured by the compressive strength. Various considerations of using concrete successfully on the moon are provided in this paper along with specific conclusions from the existing data base.

  8. First lunar outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andino, Aureo F.; Silva, Daniel; Ortiz, Nelson; Alvarez, Omar; Colon, Julio A.; Colon, Myrelle; Diaz, Alicia; Escobar, Xochiquetzal Y.; Garcia, Alberto; Gonzalez, Isabel C.

    1992-01-01

    Design and research efforts at the University of Puerto Rico have focused on the evaluation and refinement of the Habitability Criteria for a prolonged human presence in space during the last four years. Living quarters for a Mars mission and a third generation lunar base concept were proposed. This academic year, 1991-92, work on further refinement of the habitability criteria and design of partial gravity furniture was carried on. During the first semester, design alternatives for furniture necessary in a habitat design optimized for lunar and Martian environments were developed. Designs are based on recent research data from lunar and Mars gravity simulations, and current NASA standards. Artifacts will be submitted to NASA architects to be tested in KC-135 flights. Test findings will be submitted for incorporation in future updates to NASA habitat design standards. Second semester work was aimed at integrating these findings into the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), a mission scenario currently being considered by NASA. The mission consists of a manned return to the moon by crews of four astronauts for periods of 45 days. The major hardware components of the mission are as follows: (1) a Crew Module for the delivery of the crew and their supplies, and (2) the Habitat Module, which will arrive on the Moon unmanned. Our design efforts concentrated on this Habitat Module and on application of habitability criteria. Different geometries for the pressure vessel and their impact on the interior architecture were studied. Upon the selection of a geometry, a more detailed analysis of the interior design was performed, taking into consideration the reduced gravity, and the protection against radiation, micrometeorites, and the extreme temperature variation. A proposal for a FLO was submitted by the students, consisting essentially of a 24-feet (7.3 m.) by 35-feet (10.67 m) high vertical cylinder with work areas, crew quarters, galley, wardroom, leisure facilities, health

  9. Ethanol Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Paul J; Doroudgar, Shadi; Van Dyke, Priscilla

    2017-12-01

    Ethanol abuse can lead to negative consequences that oftentimes result in criminal charges and civil lawsuits. When an individual is suspected of driving under the influence, law enforcement agents can determine the extent of intoxication by measuring the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and performing a standardized field sobriety test. The BAC is dependent on rates of absorption, distribution, and elimination, which are influenced mostly by the dose of ethanol ingested and rate of consumption. Other factors contributing to BAC are gender, body mass and composition, food effects, type of alcohol, and chronic alcohol exposure. Because of individual variability in ethanol pharmacology and toxicology, careful extrapolation and interpretation of the BAC is needed, to justify an arrest and assignment of criminal liability. This review provides a summary of the pharmacokinetic properties of ethanol and the clinical effects of acute intoxication as they relate to common forensic questions. Concerns regarding the extrapolation of BAC and the implications of impaired memory caused by alcohol-induced blackouts are discussed. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  10. [Toxicologic blood emergency screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sabine; Manat, Aurélie; Dumont, Benoit; Bévalot, Fabien; Manchon, Monique; Berny, Claudette

    2010-01-01

    In order to overcome the stop marketing by Biorad company of automated high performance liquid chromatograph with UV detection (Remedi), we developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect and to give an approximation of the overdose of molecules frequently encountered in drug intoxications. Therefore two hundred eighty seventeen blood samples were collected over a period of one year and allowed us to evaluate and compare the performance of these two techniques. As identification, GC-MS does not identify all molecules detected by Remedi in 24.2% of cases; there is a lack of sensitivity for opiates and the systematic absence of certain molecules such as betablockers. However, in 75.8% of cases the GC-MS detects all molecules found by Remedi and other molecules such as meprobamate, paracetamol, benzodiazepines and phenobarbital. The concentrations obtained are interpreted in terms of overdose showed 15.7% of discrepancy and 84.3% of concordance between the two techniques. The GC-MS technique described here is robust, fast and relatively simple to implement; the identification is facilitated by macro commands and the semi quantification remains manual. Despite a sequence of cleaning the column after each sample, carryover of a sample to the next remains possible. This technique can be used for toxicologic screening in acute intoxications. Nevertheless it must be supplemented by a HPLC with UV detection if molecules such as betablockers are suspected.

  11. Toxicology of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    Data are reviewed from studies on the toxicity of Pu in experimental animals. Of the several plutonium isotopes, only 238 Pu and 239 Pu have been studied well. Sufficient results have been obtained to show that the behavior of 238 Pu in biological systems and the resulting biological effects cannot be precisely predicted from studies of 239 Pu. This probably applies also to other radiologically important plutonium isotopes which have half-lives ranging from 45 days to 10 7 years and decay by β-emission, electron capture, and spontaneous fission, as well as by emission of α-particles. All the biological effects of plutonium described in this review are attributed to alpha-particle radiation emitted by the plutonium. However, since plutonium is a chemically active heavy metal, one cannot ignore the possibility of chemical toxicity of the low-specific-activity isotopes, 239 Pu, 242 Pu, and 244 Pu. The preponderance of our knowledge of plutonium toxicology has come from short-term studies of relatively high dosage levels in several animal species. The consequences of high-level internal exposures can be predicted with confidence in experimental animals and probably also in man. However, considering the care with which plutonium is handled in the nuclear industry, a high-level contamination event is unlikely. Considerably less is known about the long-term effects of low levels of contamination. (250 references) (U.S.)

  12. Religion and Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, V.

    1969: The Eagle lands on the Moon. A moment that would not only mark the highest scientific achievement of all times, but would also have significant religious impli- cations. While the island of Bali lodges a protest at the United Nations against the US for desecrating a sacred place, Hopi Indians celebrate the fulfilment of an ancient prophecy that would reveal the "truth of the Sacred Ways". The plaque fastened to the Eagle - "We Came in Peace for All Mankind" would have contained the words "under God" as directed by the US president, if not for an assistant administrator at NASA that did not want to offend any religion. In the same time, Buzz Aldrin takes the Holy Communion on the Moon, and a Bible is left there by another Apollo mission - not long after the crew of Apollo 8 reads a passage from Genesis while circling the Moon. 1998: Navajo Indians lodge a protest with NASA for placing human ashes aboard the Lunar Prospector, as the Moon is a sacred place in their religion. Past, present and fu- ture exploration of the Moon has significant religious and spiritual implications that, while not widely known, are nonetheless important. Is lunar exploration a divine duty, or a sacrilege? This article will feature and thoroughly analyse the examples quoted above, as well as other facts, as for instance the plans of establishing lunar cemeteries - welcomed by some religions, and opposed by others.

  13. Lunar sample studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Lunar samples discussed and the nature of their analyses are: (1) an Apollo 15 breccia which is thoroughly analyzed as to the nature of the mature regolith from which it derived and the time and nature of the lithification process, (2) two Apollo 11 and one Apollo 12 basalts analyzed in terms of chemistry, Cross-Iddings-Pirsson-Washington norms, mineralogy, and petrography, (3) eight Apollo 17 mare basalts, also analyzed in terms of chemistry, Cross-Iddings-Pirsson-Washington norms, mineralogy, and petrography. The first seven are shown to be chemically similar although of two main textural groups; the eighth is seen to be distinct in both chemistry and mineralogy, (4) a troctolitic clast from a Fra Mauro breccia, analyzed and contrasted with other high-temperature lunar mineral assemblages. Two basaltic clasts from the same breccia are shown to have affinities with rock 14053, and (5) the uranium-thorium-lead systematics of three Apollo 16 samples are determined; serious terrestrial-lead contamination of the first two samples is attributed to bandsaw cutting in the lunar curatorial facility

  14. Modeling lunar volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housley, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    Simple physical arguments are used to show that basaltic volcanos on different planetary bodies would fountain to the same height if the mole fraction of gas in the magma scaled with the acceleration of gravity. It is suggested that the actual eruption velocities and fountain heights are controlled by the velocities of sound in the two phase gas/liquid flows. These velocities are in turn determined by the gas contents in the magma. Predicted characteristics of Hawaiian volcanos are in excellent accord with observations. Assuming that the only gas in lunar volcano is the CO which would be produced if the observed Fe metal in lunar basalts resulted from graphite reduction, lunar volcanos would fountain vigorously, but not as spectacularly as their terrestrial counterparts. The volatile trace metals, halogens, and sulfur released would be transported over the entire moon by the transient atmosphere. Orange and black glass type pyroclastic materials would be transported in sufficient amounts to produce the observed dark mantle deposits.

  15. Complex Role of Secondary Electron Emissions in Dust Grain Charging in Space Environments: Measurements on Apollo 11 and 17 Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Spann, J. F.; LeClair, A. C.

    2010-01-01

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with radiation from nearby sources, or by electron/ion collisions by sticking or secondary electron emissions. Knowledge of the dust grain charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding of a variety of physical and dynamical processes in the interstellar medium (ISM), and heliospheric, interplanetary, planetary, and lunar environments. The high vacuum environment on the lunar surface leads to some unusual physical and dynamical phenomena involving dust grains with high adhesive characteristics, and levitation and transportation over long distances. It has been well recognized that the charging properties of individual micron/submicron size dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the corresponding values for bulk materials and theoretical models. In this paper we present experimental results on charging of individual dust grains selected from Apollo 11 and Apollo 17 dust samples by exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams in the 10- 400 eV energy range. The charging rates of positively and negatively charged particles of approximately 0.2 to 13 microns diameters are discussed in terms of the secondary electron emission (SEE) process, which is found to be a complex charging process at electron energies as low as 10-25 eV, with strong particle size dependence. The measurements indicate substantial differences between dust charging properties of individual small size dust grains and of bulk materials.

  16. Lunar imaging and ionospheric calibration for the Lunar Cherenkov technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McFadden, R.; Scholten, O.; Mevius, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Cherenkov technique is a promising method for UHE neutrino and cosmic ray detection which aims to detect nanosecond radio pulses produced during particle interactions in the Lunar regolith. For low frequency experiments, such as NuMoon, the frequency dependent dispersive effect of the

  17. Predicting the Blast of Lunar Soil Under a Rocket's Exhaust Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Carlos J. Sanchez

    2007-01-01

    The blast of lunar soil represents a problem for the future missions planned for the moon. When the lander approached the ground during the Apollo missions, huge showers of dust particles were sent in all directions at extremely high velocities - including upwards towards the landing spacecraft. This represents a clear danger to the lander because the loss of visibility and the damage that can be produced to the vehicle itself. If there had been equipment on the ground, these showers of particles would have created a sand blasting effect over the equipment, possibly damaging optics and contaminating the equipment and depending on the size and velocity of the particles maybe even more extensive damage as the particles penetrated the outer surface of the equipment. Since the there is no air on the moon to slow down the particles, they can travel large distances at high speeds, in fact in some instances they can reach near escape velocity and go into an orbit around the moon and come all the way back to almost the same point where they were at the beginning; meaning that some of the lunar dust that came up during landing will shower back over the site. Once on the surface, the extremely fine dust had a habit of getting itself everywhere. During the Apollo missions it not only covered the astronauts' suits, but managed to work its way inside, damaging airtight joints and scratching up glass visors. The dust found its way inside the spacecraft, contaminating the floor and electronic systems inside, clogging air filters in the process. This is due to the fact that the lunar soil is extremely cohesive. The Lunar soil causes all of the same problems as sand does on Earth but unlike sand particles on Earth, which have smooth spherical shapes, the dust on the Moon is more like small particles of glass with sharper edges since there is no erosion on the lunar surface. During the Apollo missions the dust problem did not cause a big problem due to the fact of the length of

  18. Perlite toxicology and epidemiology – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebo, Ron; McConnell, Ernest E.

    2014-01-01

    Perlite is a generic name for an amorphous volcanic alumina–silicate rock that expands by a factor of 4–20 when rapidly heated to 1400–1800 °F (760–980 °C). Both the ore and the expanded product have extensive and widespread commercial applications. Limited data on the toxicology of perlite in animal studies indicate that the LD50 (oral ingestion) is more than 10 g/kg and, from a chronic inhalation study in guinea pigs and rats, that the NOAEL for the inhalation pathway is 226 mg/m3. Health surveillance studies of workers in US perlite mines and expansion plants (including some workers exposed to levels greater than prevailing occupational exposure limits (OELs) conducted over 20 years indicate that the respiratory health of workers is not adversely affected. Studies in Turkish mines and expanding plants had generally similar results, but are more difficult to interpret because of high smoking rates in these populations. A recent mortality study of permanent residents of the island of Milos (Greece) exposed to various mining dusts (including perlite) resulted in non-significant increases in standard mortality ratios for pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), whereas a companion morbidity study revealed elevated odds ratios for allergic rhinitis, pneumonia, and COPD when compared to another industrial area of Greece. Residents were exposed to other mining dusts and other possible causes or contributing factors and no ambient monitoring data were presented so it is not possible to use this study for risk calculations of perlite-exposed populations. Perlite is regulated as a “nuisance dust” in most countries. PMID:24601903

  19. Cancer and Toxicology Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The Cancer and Toxicology Section is concerned with the investigation of the mechanisms by which chemicals, radiation, and viruses cause the changes broadly identified as cancer. In addition, the study of mechanisms has been extended to include the nontumorigenic effects of various agents associated with fossil energy and fuels. Research in molecular genetics of carcinogenesis focuses largely on the transposon properties of the genomes of retroviruses. The transposon structure of the DNA genomes of endogenous murine N-tropic and B-tropic type C retroviruses is being elucidated, and their chromosomal location mapped in hamster-mouse cell hybrids. A model of the mechanism of retrovirus induction by radiation and chemicals is being developed, and experiments have established that compounds such as hydroxyurea act as inducer. There is the possibility that transposition of sequences of this endogenous virus may be linked to leukemogenesis. Research in regulation of gene expression aims at defining in molecular terms the mechanisms determining expression of specific genes, how these are regulated by hormones, and the events responsible for dysfunction of gene expression in cancer. In corollary work, a library of cloned cDNAs specific for products of genes of special interest to regulation is being developed. Improvement of reversed-phase chromatography as a means of isolating bacterial plasmids and restriction fragments of DNA is underway. Newly developed techniques permit the isolation of supercoiled plasmid DNA directly from bacterial extracts. The technology has been developed recently for the photosynthetic growth of the chemo-autotrophic organism Rhodospirillum rubrum and the enzyme ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase has been produced in quantity

  20. REE Partitioning in Lunar Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Lapen, T. J.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are an extremely useful tool in modeling lunar magmatic processes. Here we present the first experimentally derived plagioclase/melt partition coefficients in lunar compositions covering the entire suite of REE. Positive europium anomalies are ubiquitous in the plagioclase-rich rocks of the lunar highlands, and complementary negative Eu anomalies are found in most lunar basalts. These features are taken as evidence of a large-scale differentiation event, with crystallization of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) resulting in a plagioclase flotation crust and a mafic lunar interior from which mare basalts were subsequently derived. However, the extent of the Eu anomaly in lunar rocks is variable. Fagan and Neal [1] reported highly anorthitic plagioclase grains in lunar impact melt rock 60635,19 that displayed negative Eu anomalies as well as the more usual positive anomalies. Indeed some grains in the sample are reported to display both positive and negative anomalies. Judging from cathodoluminescence images, these anomalies do not appear to be associated with crystal overgrowths or zones.

  1. Chronology of early lunar crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasch, E.J.; Nyquist, L.E.; Ryder, G.

    1988-01-01

    The chronology of lunar rocks is summarized. The oldest pristine (i.e., lacking meteoritic contamination of admixed components) lunar rock, recently dated with Sm-Nd by Lugmair, is a ferroan anorthosite, with an age of 4.44 + 0.02 Ga. Ages of Mg-suite rocks (4.1 to 4.5 Ga) have large uncertainties, so that age differences between lunar plutonic rock suites cannot yet be resolved. Most mare basalts crystallized between 3.1 and 3.9 Ga. The vast bulk of the lunar crust, therefore, formed before the oldest preserved terrestrial rocks. If the Moon accreted at 4.56 Ga, then 120 Ma may have elapsed before lunar crust was formed

  2. Lunar Regolith Particle Shape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekhaefer, Rebecca; Hardy, Sandra; Rickman, Douglas; Edmunson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Future engineering of structures and equipment on the lunar surface requires significant understanding of particle characteristics of the lunar regolith. Nearly all sediment characteristics are influenced by particle shape; therefore a method of quantifying particle shape is useful both in lunar and terrestrial applications. We have created a method to quantify particle shape, specifically for lunar regolith, using image processing. Photomicrographs of thin sections of lunar core material were obtained under reflected light. Three photomicrographs were analyzed using ImageJ and MATLAB. From the image analysis measurements for area, perimeter, Feret diameter, orthogonal Feret diameter, Heywood factor, aspect ratio, sieve diameter, and sieve number were recorded. Probability distribution functions were created from the measurements of Heywood factor and aspect ratio.

  3. Toxicological aspects of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Part I reviews the principles of toxicology, describes the biological fate of chemicals in the body, discusses basic pathobiology, and reviews short-term toxicity tests. Part II describes the toxicology and pathology of pollutants in several important organ systems. The greatest emphasis is placed on the respiratory tract because of its high probability as a route of exposure to pollutants from energy technologies and its high sensitivity to pollutant related tissue damage. Part III describes the toxicological aspects of specific chemical classes associated with fossil fuels; these include polycyclic hydrocarbons, gases and metals. Part IV describes the biomedical effects associated with each energy technology, including coal and oil, fossil fuel and biomass conversions, solar and geothermal and radiological health aspects associated with uranium mining, nuclear fission and fusion, and with nonionising radiations and electromagnetic fields

  4. 2007 TOXICOLOGY AND RISK ASSESSMENT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has announced The 2007 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference Cincinnati Marriott North, West Chester (Cincinnati), OHApril 23- 26, 2007 - Click to register!The Annual Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference is a unique meeting where several Government Agencies come together to discuss toxicology and risk assessment issues that are not only of concern to the government, but also to a broader audience including academia and industry. The theme of this year's conference is Emerging Issues and Challenges in Risk Assessment and the preliminary agenda includes: Plenary Sessions and prominent speakers (tentative) include: Issues of Emerging Chemical ContaminantsUncertainty and Variability in Risk Assessment Use of Mechanistic data in IARC evaluationsParallel Sessions:Uncertainty and Variability in Dose-Response Assessment Recent Advances in Toxicity and Risk Assessment of RDX The Use of Epidemiologic Data for Risk Assessment Applications Cumulative Health Risk Assessment:

  5. Lunar Circular Structure Classification from Chang 'e 2 High Resolution Lunar Images with Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X. G.; Liu, J. J.; Zuo, W.; Chen, W. L.; Liu, Y. X.

    2018-04-01

    Circular structures are widely distributed around the lunar surface. The most typical of them could be lunar impact crater, lunar dome, et.al. In this approach, we are trying to use the Convolutional Neural Network to classify the lunar circular structures from the lunar images.

  6. NASA Lunar Impact Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Robert M.; Moser, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    The MSFC lunar impact monitoring program began in 2006 in support of environment definition for the Constellation (return to Moon) program. Work continued by the Meteoroid Environment Office after Constellation cancellation. Over 330 impacts have been recorded. A paper published in Icarus reported on the first 5 years of observations and 126 calibrated flashes. Icarus: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103514002243; ArXiv: http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.6458 A NASA Technical Memorandum on flash locations is in press

  7. Lunar architecture and urbanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

  8. Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Database (DART)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A bibliographic database on the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) with references to developmental and reproductive toxicology...

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Acrolein (2003 Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Acrolein: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Acrolein and accompanying toxicological review have been added to the IRIS Database.

  10. Application of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in forensic chemistry and toxicology with focus on biological matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Werner; Keller, Thomas; Regenscheit, Priska

    1995-01-01

    The IMS (Ion Mobility Spectroscopy) instrument 'Ionscan' takes advantage of the fact that trace quantities of illicit drugs are adsorbed on dust particles on clothes, in cars and on other items of evidence. The dust particles are collected on a membrane filter by a special attachment on a vacuum cleaner. The sample is then directly inserted into the spectrometer and can be analyzed immediately. We show casework applications of a forensic chemistry and toxicology laboratory. One new application of IMS in forensic chemistry is the detection of psilocybin in dried mushrooms without any further sample preparation.

  11. Proceedings of the 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference included sessions on: Phoenix: Exploration of the Martian Arctic; Origin and Early Evolution of the Moon; Comet Wild 2: Mineralogy and More; Astrobiology: Meteorites, Microbes, Hydrous Habitats, and Irradiated Ices; Phoenix: Soil, Chemistry, and Habitability; Planetary Differentiation; Presolar Grains: Structures and Origins; SPECIAL SESSION: Venus Atmosphere: Venus Express and Future Missions; Mars Polar Caps: Past and Present; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part I; 5 Early Nebula Processes and Models; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Cosmic Gymnasts; Mars: Ground Ice and Climate Change; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part II; Chondrite Parent-Body Processes; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Salubrious Surfaces; SNC Meteorites; Ancient Martian Crust: Primary Mineralogy and Aqueous Alteration; SPECIAL SESSION: Messenger at Mercury: A Global Perspective on the Innermost Planet; CAIs and Chondrules: Records of Early Solar System Processes; Small Bodies: Shapes of Things to Come; Sulfur on Mars: Rocks, Soils, and Cycling Processes; Mercury: Evolution and Tectonics; Venus Geology, Volcanism, Tectonics, and Resurfacing; Asteroid-Meteorite Connections; Impacts I: Models and Experiments; Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation; Mars: Aqueous Processes; Magmatic Volatiles and Eruptive Conditions of Lunar Basalts; Comparative Planetology; Interstellar Matter: Origins and Relationships; Impacts II: Craters and Ejecta Mars: Tectonics and Dynamics; Mars Analogs I: Geological; Exploring the Diversity of Lunar Lithologies with Sample Analyses and Remote Sensing; Chondrite Accretion and Early History; Science Instruments for the Mars Science Lander; . Martian Gullies: Morphology and Origins; Mars: Dunes, Dust, and Wind; Mars: Volcanism; Early Solar System Chronology

  12. Hydrogen Distribution in the Lunar Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Bakhtin, B. N.; Bodnarik, J. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Harshmann, K.; Fedosov, F.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present a method of conversion of the lunar neutron counting rate measured by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) instrument collimated neutron detectors, to water equivalent hydrogen (WEH) in the top approximately 1 m layer of lunar regolith. Polar maps of the Moon’s inferred hydrogen abundance are presented and discussed.

  13. Lunar Topography: Results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gregory; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Mazarico, Erwan

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been operating nearly continuously since July 2009, accumulating over 6 billion measurements from more than 2 billion in-orbit laser shots. LRO's near-polar orbit results in very high data density in the immediate vicinity of the lunar poles, with full coverage at the equator from more than 12000 orbital tracks averaging less than 1 km in spacing at the equator. LRO has obtained a global geodetic model of the lunar topography with 50-meter horizontal and 1-m radial accuracy in a lunar center-of-mass coordinate system, with profiles of topography at 20-m horizontal resolution, and 0.1-m vertical precision. LOLA also provides measurements of reflectivity and surface roughness down to its 5-m laser spot size. With these data LOLA has measured the shape of all lunar craters 20 km and larger. In the proposed extended mission commencing late in 2012, LOLA will concentrate observations in the Southern Hemisphere, improving the density of the polar coverage to nearly 10-m pixel resolution and accuracy to better than 20 m total position error. Uses for these data include mission planning and targeting, illumination studies, geodetic control of images, as well as lunar geology and geophysics. Further improvements in geodetic accuracy are anticipated from the use of re ned gravity fields after the successful completion of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission in 2012.

  14. Plume Impingement to the Lunar Surface: A Challenging Problem for DSMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Forrest; Marichalar, Jermiah; Piplica, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The President's Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of human exploration of the Moon. The plans are ambitious and call for the creation of a lunar outpost. Lunar Landers will therefore be required to land near predeployed hardware, and the dust storm created by the Lunar Lander's plume impingement to the lunar surface presents a hazard. Knowledge of the number density, size distribution, and velocity of the grains in the dust cloud entrained into the flow is needing to develop mitigation strategies. An initial step to acquire such knowledge is simulating the associated plume impingement flow field. The following paper presents results from a loosely coupled continuum flow solver/Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique for simulating the plume impingement of the Apollo Lunar module on the lunar surface. These cases were chosen for initial study to allow for comparison with available Apollo video. The relatively high engine thrust and the desire to simulate interesting cases near touchdown result in flow that is nearly entirely continuum. The DSMC region of the flow field was simulated using NASA's DSMC Analysis Code (DAC) and must begin upstream of the impingement shock for the loosely coupled technique to succeed. It was therefore impossible to achieve mean free path resolution with a reasonable number of molecules (say 100 million) as is shown. In order to mitigate accuracy and performance issues when using such large cells, advanced techniques such as collision limiting and nearest neighbor collisions were employed. The final paper will assess the benefits and shortcomings of such techniques. In addition, the effects of plume orientation, plume altitude, and lunar topography, such as craters, on the flow field, the surface pressure distribution, and the surface shear stress distribution are presented.

  15. Formation of Nanophase Iron in Lunar Soil Simulant for Use in ISRU Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Hill, Eddy; Day, James D. M.

    2005-01-01

    For the prospective return of humans to the Moon and the extensive amount of premonitory studies necessary, large quantities of lunar soil simulants are required, for a myriad of purposes from construction/engineering purposes all the way to medical testing of its effects from ingestion by humans. And there is only a limited and precious quantity of lunar soil available on Earth (i.e., Apollo soils) - therefore, the immediate need for lunar soil simulants. Since the Apollo era, there have been several simulants; of these JSC-1 (Johnson Space Center) and MLS-1 (Minnesota Lunar Simulant) have been the most widely used. JSC-1 was produced from glassy volcanic tuff in order to approximate lunar soil geotechnical properties; whereas, MLS-1 approximates the chemistry of Apollo 11 high-Ti soil, 10084. Stocks of both simulants are depleted, but JSC-1 has recently gone back into production. The lunar soil simulant workshop, held at Marshall Space Flight Center in January 2005, identified the need to make new simulants for the special properties of lunar soil, such as nanophase iron (np-Fe(sup 0). Hill et al. (2005, this volume) showed the important role of microscale Fe(sup 0) in microwave processing of the lunar soil simulants JSC-1 and MLS-1. Lunar soil is formed by space weathering of lunar rocks (e.g., micrometeorite impact, cosmic particle bombardment). Glass generated during micrometeorite impact cements rock and mineral fragments together to form aggregates called agglutinates, and also produces vapor that is deposited and coats soil grains. Taylor et al. (2001) showed that the relative amount of impact glass in lunar soil increases with decreasing grain size and is the most abundant component in lunar dust (less than 20 micrometer fraction). Notably, the magnetic susceptibility of lunar soil also increases with the decreasing grain size, as a function of the amount of nanophase-sized Fe(sup 0) in impact-melt generated glass. Keller et al. (1997, 1999) also

  16. Optical Extinction Measurements of Dust Density in the GMRO Regolith Test Bin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J.; Mantovani, J.; Mueller, R.; Nugent, M.; Nick, A.; Schuler, J.; Townsend, I.

    2016-01-01

    A regolith simulant test bin was constructed and completed in the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations (GMRO) Lab in 2013. This Planetary Regolith Test Bed (PRTB) is a 64 sq m x 1 m deep test bin, is housed in a climate-controlled facility, and contains 120 MT of lunar-regolith simulant, called Black Point-1 or BP-1, from Black Point, AZ. One of the current uses of the test bin is to study the effects of difficult lighting and dust conditions on Telerobotic Perception Systems to better assess and refine regolith operations for asteroid, Mars and polar lunar missions. Low illumination and low angle of incidence lighting pose significant problems to computer vision and human perception. Levitated dust on Asteroids interferes with imaging and degrades depth perception. Dust Storms on Mars pose a significant problem. Due to these factors, the likely performance of telerobotics is poorly understood for future missions. Current space telerobotic systems are only operated in bright lighting and dust-free conditions. This technology development testing will identify: (1) the impact of degraded lighting and environmental dust on computer vision and operator perception, (2) potential methods and procedures for mitigating these impacts, (3) requirements for telerobotic perception systems for asteroid capture, Mars dust storms and lunar regolith ISRU missions. In order to solve some of the Telerobotic Perception system problems, a plume erosion sensor (PES) was developed in the Lunar Regolith Simulant Bin (LRSB), containing 2 MT of JSC-1a lunar simulant. PES is simply a laser and digital camera with a white target. Two modes of operation have been investigated: (1) single laser spot - the brightness of the spot is dependent on the optical extinction due to dust and is thus an indirect measure of particle number density, and (2) side-scatter - the camera images the laser from the side, showing beam entrance into the dust cloud and the boundary between dust and void. Both

  17. 42 CFR 493.937 - Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Toxicology. 493.937 Section 493.937 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.937 Toxicology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for toxicology, the annual program must...

  18. 42 CFR 493.1213 - Condition: Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Toxicology. 493.1213 Section 493.1213 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1213 Condition: Toxicology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Toxicology, the...

  19. Lunar and Planetary Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, Alexander T.

    2018-05-01

    Lunar and planetary geology can be described using examples such as the geology of Earth (as the reference case) and geologies of the Earth's satellite the Moon; the planets Mercury, Mars and Venus; the satellite of Saturn Enceladus; the small stony asteroid Eros; and the nucleus of the comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Each body considered is illustrated by its global view, with information given as to its position in the solar system, size, surface, environment including gravity acceleration and properties of its atmosphere if it is present, typical landforms and processes forming them, materials composing these landforms, information on internal structure of the body, stages of its geologic evolution in the form of stratigraphic scale, and estimates of the absolute ages of the stratigraphic units. Information about one body may be applied to another body and this, in particular, has led to the discovery of the existence of heavy "meteoritic" bombardment in the early history of the solar system, which should also significantly affect Earth. It has been shown that volcanism and large-scale tectonics may have not only been an internal source of energy in the form of radiogenic decay of potassium, uranium and thorium, but also an external source in the form of gravity tugging caused by attractions of the neighboring bodies. The knowledge gained by lunar and planetary geology is important for planning and managing space missions and for the practical exploration of other bodies of the solar system and establishing manned outposts on them.

  20. Construction dust amelioration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Dust produced on seasonal road construction sites in Alaska is both a traffic safety and environmental concern. Dust emanating from : unpaved road surfaces during construction severely reduces visibility and impacts stopping sight distance, and contr...

  1. On Dust Charging Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Tsintsadze, Nodar L.; Tsintsadze, Levan N.

    2008-01-01

    A general derivation of the charging equation of a dust grain is presented, and indicated where and when it can be used. A problem of linear fluctuations of charges on the surface of the dust grain is discussed.

  2. Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Kenneth; Frampton, Jeffrey; Honaker, David; McClure, Kerry; Zeinali, Mazyar; Bhardwaj, Manoj; Bulsara, Vatsal; Kokan, David; Shariff, Shaun; Svarverud, Eric

    The objective of this project was to design a manned pressurized lunar rover (PLR) for long-range transportation and for exploration of the lunar surface. The vehicle must be capable of operating on a 14-day mission, traveling within a radius of 500 km during a lunar day or within a 50-km radius during a lunar night. The vehicle must accommodate a nominal crew of four, support two 28-hour EVA's, and in case of emergency, support a crew of six when near the lunar base. A nominal speed of ten km/hr and capability of towing a trailer with a mass of two mt are required. Two preliminary designs have been developed by two independent student teams. The PLR 1 design proposes a seven meter long cylindrical main vehicle and a trailer which houses the power and heat rejection systems. The main vehicle carries the astronauts, life support systems, navigation and communication systems, lighting, robotic arms, tools, and equipment for exploratory experiments. The rover uses a simple mobility system with six wheels on the main vehicle and two on the trailer. The nonpressurized trailer contains a modular radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) supplying 6.5 kW continuous power. A secondary energy storage for short-term peak power needs is provided by a bank of lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries. The life support system is partly a regenerative system with air and hygiene water being recycled. A layer of water inside the composite shell surrounds the command center allowing the center to be used as a safe haven during solar flares. The PLR 1 has a total mass of 6197 kg. It has a top speed of 18 km/hr and is capable of towing three metric tons, in addition to the RTG trailer. The PLR 2 configuration consists of two four-meter diameter, cylindrical hulls which are passively connected by a flexible passageway, resulting in the overall vehicle length of 11 m. The vehicle is driven by eight independently suspended wheels. The dual-cylinder concept allows articulated as well as double

  3. Physics of interstellar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Krugel, Endrik

    2002-01-01

    The dielectric permeability; How to evaluate grain cross sections; Very small and very big particles; Case studies of Mie calculus; Particle statistics; The radiative transition probability; Structure and composition of dust; Dust radiation; Dust and its environment; Polarization; Grain alignment; PAHs and spectral features of dust; Radiative transport; Diffuse matter in the Milky Way; Stars and their formation; Emission from young stars. Appendices Mathematical formulae; List of symbols.

  4. Dust as a surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A M; Schram, P P J M; Trigger, S A

    2003-01-01

    We argue that dust immersed in a plasma sheath acts as a surfactant. By considering the momentum balance in a plasma sheath, we evaluate the dependence of the plasma surface pressure on the dust density. It is shown that the dust may reduce the surface pressure, giving rise to a sufficiently strong tangential force. The latter is capable of confining the dust layer inside the sheath in the direction perpendicular to the ion flow

  5. Pulmonary toxicology of respirable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1980-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 44 papers presented in these proceedings that deal will radioactive particles. The last paper (Stannard) in the proceedings is an historical review of the field of inhalation toxicology and is not included in the analytics

  6. Surprises and omissions in toxicology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rašková, H.; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2004), S94-S96 ISSN 1210-7778. [Inderdisciplinary Czech-Slovak Toxicological Conference /8./. Praha, 03.09.2004-05.09.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5008914 Keywords : bacterial toxins Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry

  7. Tests of the lunar hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The concept that the Moon was fissioned from the Earth after core separation is the most readily testable hypothesis of lunar origin, since direct comparisons of lunar and terrestrial compositions can be made. Differences found in such comparisons introduce so many ad hoc adjustments to the fission hypothesis that it becomes untestable. Further constraints may be obtained from attempting to date the volatile-refractory element fractionation. The combination of chemical and isotopic problems suggests that the fission hypothesis is no longer viable, and separate terrestrial and lunar accretion from a population of fractionated precursor planetesimals provides a more reasonable explanation.

  8. Development of a lunar infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of building an infrastructure on the moon is discussed, assuming that earth-to-moon and moon-to-earth transport will be available. The sequence of events which would occur in the process of building an infrastructure is examined. The human needs which must be met on a lunar base are discussed, including minimal life support, quality of life, and growth stages. The technology available to meet these needs is reviewed and further research in fields related to a lunar base, such as the study of the moon's polar regions and the limits of lunar agriculture, is recommended.

  9. Year 3 LUNAR Annual Report to the NASA Lunar Science Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, Jack; Lazio, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar University Network for Astrophysics Research (LUNAR) is a team of researchers and students at leading universities, NASA centers, and federal research laboratories undertaking investigations aimed at using the Moon as a platform for space science. LUNAR research includes Lunar Interior Physics & Gravitation using Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), Low Frequency Cosmology and Astrophysics (LFCA), Planetary Science and the Lunar Ionosphere, Radio Heliophysics, and Exploration Science. The LUN...

  10. Regulatory issues in accreditation of toxicology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, Michael G

    2012-09-01

    Clinical toxicology laboratories and forensic toxicology laboratories operate in a highly regulated environment. This article outlines major US legal/regulatory issues and requirements relevant to accreditation of toxicology laboratories (state and local regulations are not covered in any depth). The most fundamental regulatory distinction involves the purposes for which the laboratory operates: clinical versus nonclinical. The applicable regulations and the requirements and options for operations depend most basically on this consideration, with clinical toxicology laboratories being directly subject to federal law including mandated options for accreditation and forensic toxicology laboratories being subject to degrees of voluntary or state government–required accreditation.

  11. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Workshops for Educators, Year 1 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Bleacher, L.; Shaner, A. J.; Dalton, H.

    2011-12-01

    This past summer, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) sponsored a series of weeklong professional development workshops designed to educate and inspire grade 6-12 science teachers: the Lunar Workshops for Educators. Participants learned about lunar science and exploration, gained tools to help address common student misconceptions about the Moon, heard some of the latest research results from LRO scientists, worked with LRO data, and learned how to bring these data to their students using hands-on activities aligned with grade 6-12 National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks. Where possible, the workshops also included tours of science facilities or field trips intended to help the teachers better understand mission operations or geologic processes relevant to the Moon. The workshops were very successful. Participants demonstrated an improved understanding of lunar science concepts in post-workshop assessments (as compared to identical pre-assessments) and a greater understanding of how to access and productively share data from LRO with their students and provide them with authentic research experiences. Participant feedback on workshop surveys was also enthusiastically positive. 5 additional Lunar Workshops for Educators will be held around the country in the summer of 2012. For more information and to register, visit http://lunar.gsfc.nasa.gov/lwe/index.html.

  12. Early lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S. K.; Mellema, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    A new method (Shaw, 1974) for investigating paleointensity (the ancient magnetic field) was applied to three subsamples of a single, 1-m homogeneous clast from a recrystallized boulder of lunar breccia. Several dating methods established 4 billion years as the age of boulder assembly. Results indicate that the strength of the ambient magnetic field at the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon was about 0.4 oersted at 4 billion years ago. Values as high as 1.2 oersted have been reported (Collison et al., 1973). The required fields are approximately 10,000 times greater than present interplanetary or solar flare fields. It is suggested that this large field could have arisen from a pre-main sequence T-Tauri sun.

  13. Electrochemistry of lunar rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Haskin, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Electrolysis of silicate melts has been shown to be an effective means of producing metals from common silicate materials. No fluxing agents need be added to the melts. From solution in melts of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) composition, the elements Si, Ti, Ni, and Fe have been reduced to their metallic states. Platinum is a satisfactory anode material, but other cathode materials are needed. Electrolysis of compositional analogs of lunar rocks initially produces iron metal at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Utilizing mainly heat and electricity which are readily available from sunlight, direct electrolysis is capable of producing useful metals from common feedstocks without the need for expendable chemicals. This simple process and the products obtained from it deserve further study for use in materials processing in space.

  14. Google Moon Lunar Mapping Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A collection of lunar maps and charts. This tool is an exciting new way to explore the story of the Apollo missions, still the only time mankind has set foot on...

  15. First oxygen from lunar basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, M. A.; Knudsen, C. W.; Brueneman, D. J.; Kanamori, H.; Ness, R. O.; Sharp, L. L.; Brekke, D. W.; Allen, C. C.; Morris, R. V.; Keller, L. P.

    1993-01-01

    The Carbotek/Shimizu process to produce oxygen from lunar soils has been successfully demonstrated on actual lunar samples in laboratory facilities at Carbotek with Shimizu funding and support. Apollo sample 70035 containing approximately 25 percent ilmenite (FeTiO3) was used in seven separate reactions with hydrogen varying temperature and pressure: FeTiO3 + H2 yields Fe + TiO2 + H2O. The experiments gave extremely encouraging results as all ilmenite was reduced in every experiment. The lunar ilmenite was found to be about twice as reactive as terrestrial ilmenite samples. Analytical techniques of the lunar and terrestrial ilmenite experiments performed by NASA Johnson Space Center include iron Mossbauer spectroscopy (FeMS), optical microscopy, SEM, TEM, and XRD. The Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota performed three SEM techniques (point count method, morphology determination, elemental mapping), XRD, and optical microscopy.

  16. Thermodynamics of lunar ilmenite reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenberg, B. H.; Franklin, H. A.; Jones, C. H.

    1993-01-01

    With the prospect of returning to the moon, the development of a lunar occupation would fulfill one of the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) of the late 1980's. Processing lunar resources into useful products, such as liquid oxygen for fuel and life support, would be one of many aspects of an active lunar base. ilmenite (FeTiO3) is found on the lunar surface and can be used as a feed stock to produce oxygen. Understanding the various ilmenite-reduction reactions elucidates many processing options. Defining the thermodynamic chemical behavior at equilibrium under various conditions of temperature and pressures can be helpful in specifying optimal operating conditions. Differences between a previous theoretical analysis and experimentally determined results has sparked interest in trying to understand the effect of operating pressure on the hydrogen-reduction-of-ilmenite reaction. Various aspects of this reduction reaction are discussed.

  17. The enigma of lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.

    1981-01-01

    Current understandings of the nature and probable origin of lunar magnetism are surveyed. Results of examinations of returned lunar samples are discussed which reveal the main carrier of the observed natural remanent magnetization to be iron, occasionally alloyed with nickel and cobalt, but do not distinguish between thermoremanent and shock remanent origins, and surface magnetometer data is presented, which indicates small-scale magnetic fields with a wide range of field intensities implying localized, near-surface sources. A detailed examination is presented of orbital magnetometer and charged particle data concerning the geologic nature and origin of magnetic anomaly sources and the directional properties of the magnetization, which exhibit a random distribution except for a depletion in the north-south direction. A lunar magnetization survey with global coverage provided by a polar orbiting satellite is suggested as a means of placing stronger constraints on the origin of lunar crustal magnetization.

  18. Lunar Health Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the Phase II Lunar Health Monitor program, Orbital Research will develop a second generation wearable sensor suite for astronaut physiologic monitoring. The...

  19. Prospective Ukrainian lunar orbiter mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkuratov, Y.; Litvinenko, L.; Shulga, V.; Yatskiv, Y.; Kislyuk, V.

    Ukraine has launch vehicles that are able to deliver about 300 kg to the lunar orbit. Future Ukrainian lunar program may propose a polar orbiter. This orbiter should fill principal information gaps in our knowledge about the Moon after Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions and the future missions, like Smart-1, Lunar-A, and Selene. We consider that this can be provided by radar studies of the Moon with supporting optical polarimetric observations from lunar polar orbit. These experiments allow one to better understand global structure of the lunar surface in a wide range of scales, from microns to kilometers. We propose three instruments for the prospective lunar orbiter. They are: a synthetic aperture imaging radar (SAR), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and imaging polarimeter (IP). The main purpose of SAR is to study with high resolution (50 m) the permanently shadowed sites in the lunar polar regions. These sites are cold traps for volatiles, and have a potential of resource utilization. Possible presence of water ice in the regolith in the sites makes them interesting for permanent manned bases on the Moon. Radar imaging and mapping of other interesting regions could be also planned. Multi-frequencies multi-polarization soun d ing of the lunar surface with GPR can provide information about internal structure of the lunar surface from meters to several hundred meters deep. GPR can be used for measuring the megaregolith layer properties, detection of cryptomaria, and studies of internal structure of the largest craters. IP will be a CCD camera with an additional suite of polarizers. Modest spatial resolution (100 m) should provide a total coverage or a large portion of the lunar surface in oblique viewing basically at large phase angles. Polarization degree at large (>90°) phase angles bears information about characteristic size of the regolith particles. Additional radiophysical experiments are considered with the use of the SAR system, e.g., bistatic radar

  20. International lunar observatory / power station: from Hawaii to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, S.

    -like lava flow geology adds to Mauna Kea / Moon similarities. Operating amidst the extinct volcano's fine grain lava and dust particles offers experience for major challenges posed by silicon-edged, powdery, deep and abundant lunar regolith. Power stations for lunar observatories, both robotic and low cost at first, are an immediate enabling necessity and will serve as a commercial-industrial driver for a wide range of lunar base technologies. Both microwave rectenna-transmitters and radio-optical telescopes, maybe 1-meter diameter, can be designed using the same, new ultra-lightweight materials. Five of the world's six major spacefaring powers - America, Russia, Japan, China and India, are located around Hawaii in the Pacific / Asia area. With Europe, which has many resources in the Pacific hemisphere including Arianespace offices in Tokyo and Singapore, they have 55-60% of the global population. New international business partnerships such as Sea Launch in the mid-Pacific, and national ventures like China's Hainan spaceport, Japan's Kiribati shuttle landing site, Australia and Indonesia's emerging launch sites, and Russia's Ekranoplane sea launcher / lander - all combine with still more and advancing technologies to provide the central Pacific a globally representative, state-of-the-art and profitable access to space in this new century. The astronomer / engineers tasked with operation of the lunar observatory / power station will be the first to voyage from Hawaii to the Moon, before this decade is out. Their scientific and technical training at the world's leading astronomical complex on the lunar-like landscape of Mauna Kea may be enhanced with the learning and transmission of local cultures. Following the astronomer / engineers, tourism and travel in the commercially and technologically dynamic Pacific hemisphere will open the new ocean of space to public access in the 21st century like they opened the old ocean of sea and air to Hawaii in the 20th - with Hawaii

  1. Dielectric properties of lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkova, O. V.; Kibardina, I. N.

    2017-03-01

    Measurements of the dielectric characteristics of lunar soil samples are analyzed in the context of dielectric theory. It has been shown that the real component of the dielectric permittivity and the loss tangent of rocks greatly depend on the frequency of the interacting electromagnetic field and the soil temperature. It follows from the analysis that one should take into account diurnal variations in the lunar surface temperature when interpreting the radar-sounding results, especially for the gigahertz radio range.

  2. Impacts of Cosmic Dust on Planetary Atmospheres and Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plane, John M. C.; Flynn, George J.; Määttänen, Anni; Moores, John E.; Poppe, Andrew R.; Carrillo-Sanchez, Juan Diego; Listowski, Constantino

    2018-02-01

    Recent advances in interplanetary dust modelling provide much improved estimates of the fluxes of cosmic dust particles into planetary (and lunar) atmospheres throughout the solar system. Combining the dust particle size and velocity distributions with new chemical ablation models enables the injection rates of individual elements to be predicted as a function of location and time. This information is essential for understanding a variety of atmospheric impacts, including: the formation of layers of metal atoms and ions; meteoric smoke particles and ice cloud nucleation; perturbations to atmospheric gas-phase chemistry; and the effects of the surface deposition of micrometeorites and cosmic spherules. There is discussion of impacts on all the planets, as well as on Pluto, Triton and Titan.

  3. Charging of Individual Micron-Size Interstellar/Planetary Dust Grains by Secondary Electron Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankosic, D.; Abbas, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with UV/X-ray radiation, as well as by electron/ion impact. Knowledge of physical and optical properties of individual dust grains is required for understanding of the physical and dynamical processes in space environments and the role of dust in formation of stellar and planetary systems. In this paper, we discuss experimental results on dust charging by electron impact, where low energy electrons are scattered or stick to the dust grains, thereby charging the dust grains negatively, and at sufficiently high energies the incident electrons penetrate the grain leading to excitation and emission of electrons referred to as secondary electron emission (SEE). Currently, very limited experimental data are available for charging of individual micron-size dust grains, particularly by low energy electron impact. Available theoretical models based on the Sternglass equation (Sternglass, 1954) are applicable for neutral, planar, and bulk surfaces only. However, charging properties of individual micron-size dust grains are expected to be different from the values measured on bulk materials. Our recent experimental results on individual, positively charged, micron-size lunar dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance facility (at NASA-MSFC) indicate that the SEE by electron impact is a complex process. The electron impact may lead to charging or discharging of dust grains depending upon the grain size, surface potential, electron energy, electron flux, grain composition, and configuration (e.g. Abbas et al, 2010). Here we discuss the complex nature of SEE charging properties of individual micron-size lunar dust grains and silica microspheres.

  4. Lunar rock surfaces as detectors of solar processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung, J.B.; Hunter College, New York, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Lunar rock surfaces exposed at or just below the lunar surface are considered as detectors of the solar wind, solar flares and solar-derived magnetic fields through their interactions with galactic cosmic rays. The degradation of the solar detector capabilities of lunar surface rocks by meteoroid impact erosion, accreta deposition, loose dust, and sputtering, amorphous layer formation and accelerated diffusion due to solar particles and illumination is discussed, and it is noted that the complex interactions of factors affecting the outer micron of exposed surface material has so far prevented the development of a satisfactory model for a particle detector on the submicron scale. Methods for the determination of surface exposure ages based on the accumulation of light solar wind noble gases, Fe and Mg, impact craters, solar flare tracks, and cosmogenic Kr isotopes are examined, and the systematic variations in the ages determined by the various clocks are discussed. It is concluded that a means of obtaining satisfactory quantitative rate or flux data has not yet been established

  5. Lunar Navigation Architecture Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Christopher; Getchius, Joel; Holt, Greg; Moreau, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is aiming to establish a long-term presence on the lunar surface. The Constellation elements (Orion, Altair, Earth Departure Stage, and Ares launch vehicles) will require a lunar navigation architecture for navigation state updates during lunar-class missions. Orion in particular has baselined earth-based ground direct tracking as the primary source for much of its absolute navigation needs. However, due to the uncertainty in the lunar navigation architecture, the Orion program has had to make certain assumptions on the capabilities of such architectures in order to adequately scale the vehicle design trade space. The following paper outlines lunar navigation requirements, the Orion program assumptions, and the impacts of these assumptions to the lunar navigation architecture design. The selection of potential sites was based upon geometric baselines, logistical feasibility, redundancy, and abort support capability. Simulated navigation covariances mapped to entry interface flightpath- angle uncertainties were used to evaluate knowledge errors. A minimum ground station architecture was identified consisting of Goldstone, Madrid, Canberra, Santiago, Hartebeeshoek, Dongora, Hawaii, Guam, and Ascension Island (or the geometric equivalent).

  6. Contingency Trajectory Design for a Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver Failure by the LADEE Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from a contingency trajectory analysis performed for the Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission in the event of a missed lunar-orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver by the LADEE spacecraft. The effects of varying solar perturbations in the vicinity of the weak stability boundary (WSB) in the Sun-Earth system on the trajectory design are analyzed and discussed. It is shown that geocentric recovery trajectory options existed for the LADEE spacecraft, depending on the spacecraft's recovery time to perform an Earth escape-prevention maneuver after the hypothetical LOI maneuver failure and subsequent path traveled through the Sun-Earth WSB. If Earth-escape occurred, a heliocentric recovery option existed, but with reduced science capacapability for the spacecraft in an eccentric, not circular near-equatorial retrograde lunar orbit.

  7. LLR data analysis and impact on lunar dynamics from recent developments at OCA LLR Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vishnu; Fienga, Agnes; Courde, Clement; Torre, Jean-Marie; Exertier, Pierre; Samain, Etienne; Feraudy, Dominique; Albanese, Dominique; Aimar, Mourad; Mariey, Hervé; Viot, Hervé; Martinot-Lagarde, Gregoire

    2016-04-01

    Since late 2014, OCA LLR station has been able to range with infrared wavelength (1064nm). IR ranging provides both temporal and spatial improvement in the LLR observations. IR detection also permits in densification of normal points, including the L1 and L2 retroreflectors due to better signal to noise ratio. This contributes to a better modelisation of the lunar libration. The hypothesis of lunar dust and environmental effects due to the chromatic behavior noticed on returns from L2 retroreflector is discussed. In addition, data analysis shows that the effect of retroreflector tilt and the use of calibration profile for the normal point deduction algorithm, contributes to improving the precision of normal points, thereby impacting lunar dynamical models and inner physics.

  8. The Potential Impact of Mars' Atmospheric Dust on Future Human Exploration of the Red Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterhalter, D.; Levine, J. S.; Kerschmann, R.; Beaty, D. W.; Carrier, B. L.; Ashley, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    With the increasing focus by NASA and other space agencies on a crewed mission to Mars in the 2039 time-frame, many Mars-specific environmental factors are now starting to be considered by NASA and other engineering teams. Learning from NASA's Apollo Missions to the Moon, where lunar dust turned out to be a significant challenge to mission and crew safety, attention is now turning to the dust in Mars' atmosphere and regolith. To start the process of identifying possible dust-caused challenges to the human presence on Mars, and thus aid early engineering and mission design efforts, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Robotic Spacecraft Technical Discipline Team organized and conducted a Workshop on the "Dust in Mars' Atmosphere and Its Impact on the Human Exploration of Mars", held at the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), Houston, TX, June 13-15, 2017. The workshop addressed the following general areas: 1. What is known about Mars' dust in terms of its physical and chemical properties, its local and global abundance and composition, and its variability.2. What is the impact of Mars atmospheric dust on human health.3. What is the impact of Mars atmospheric dust on surface mechanical systems (e.g., spacesuits, habitats, mobility systems, etc.). We present the top priority issues identified in the workshop.

  9. Safety and Toxicology of Cannabinoids

    OpenAIRE

    Sachs, Jane; McGlade, Erin; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    There is extensive research on the safety, toxicology, potency, and therapeutic potential of cannabis. However, uncertainty remains facilitating continued debate on medical and recreational cannabis policies at the state and federal levels. This review will include a brief description of cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system; a summary of the acute and long-term effects of cannabis; and a discussion of the therapeutic potential of cannabis. The conclusions about safety and efficacy will...

  10. Lunar Quest in Second Life, Lunar Exploration Island, Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireton, F. M.; Day, B. H.; Mitchell, B.; Hsu, B. C.

    2010-12-01

    Linden Lab’s Second Life is a virtual 3D metaverse created by users. At any one time there may be 40,000-50,000 users on line. Users develop a persona and are seen on screen as a human figure or avatar. Avatars move through Second Life by walking, flying, or teleporting. Users form communities or groups of mutual interest such as music, computer graphics, and education. These groups communicate via e-mail, voice, and text within Second Life. Information on downloading the Second Life browser and joining can be found on the Second Life website: www.secondlife.com. This poster details Phase II in the development of Lunar Exploration Island (LEI) located in Second Life. Phase I LEI highlighted NASA’s LRO/LCROSS mission. Avatars enter LEI via teleportation arriving at a hall of flight housing interactive exhibits on the LRO/ LCROSS missions including full size models of the two spacecraft and launch vehicle. Storyboards with information about the missions interpret the exhibits while links to external websites provide further information on the mission, both spacecraft’s instrument suites, and related EPO. Other lunar related activities such as My Moon and NLSI EPO programs. A special exhibit was designed for International Observe the Moon Night activities with links to websites for further information. The sim includes several sites for meetings, a conference stage to host talks, and a screen for viewing NASATV coverage of mission and other televised events. In Phase II exhibits are updated to reflect on-going lunar exploration highlights, discoveries, and future missions. A new section of LEI has been developed to showcase NASA’s Lunar Quest program. A new exhibit hall with Lunar Quest information has been designed and is being populated with Lunar Quest information, spacecraft models (LADEE is in place) and kiosks. A two stage interactive demonstration illustrates lunar phases with static and 3-D stations. As NASA’s Lunar Quest program matures further

  11. Lunar Meteorites: A Global Geochemical Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Joy, K. H.; Arai, T.; Gross, J.; Korotev, R. L.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2017-01-01

    To date, the world's meteorite collections contain over 260 lunar meteorite stones representing at least 120 different lunar meteorites. Additionally, there are 20-30 as yet unnamed stones currently in the process of being classified. Collectively these lunar meteorites likely represent 40-50 distinct sampling locations from random locations on the Moon. Although the exact provenance of each individual lunar meteorite is unknown, collectively the lunar meteorites represent the best global average of the lunar crust. The Apollo sites are all within or near the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), thus lithologies from the PKT are overrepresented in the Apollo sample suite. Nearly all of the lithologies present in the Apollo sample suite are found within the lunar meteorites (high-Ti basalts are a notable exception), and the lunar meteorites contain several lithologies not present in the Apollo sample suite (e.g., magnesian anorthosite). This chapter will not be a sample-by-sample summary of each individual lunar meteorite. Rather, the chapter will summarize the different types of lunar meteorites and their relative abundances, comparing and contrasting the lunar meteorite sample suite with the Apollo sample suite. This chapter will act as one of the introductory chapters to the volume, introducing lunar samples in general and setting the stage for more detailed discussions in later more specialized chapters. The chapter will begin with a description of how lunar meteorites are ejected from the Moon, how deep samples are being excavated from, what the likely pairing relationships are among the lunar meteorite samples, and how the lunar meteorites can help to constrain the impactor flux in the inner solar system. There will be a discussion of the biases inherent to the lunar meteorite sample suite in terms of underrepresented lithologies or regions of the Moon, and an examination of the contamination and limitations of lunar meteorites due to terrestrial weathering. The

  12. Precision Lunar Laser Ranging For Lunar and Gravitational Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkowitz, S. M.; Arnold, D.; Dabney, P. W.; Livas, J. C.; McGarry, J. F.; Neumann, G. A.; Zagwodzki, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Laser ranging to retroreflector arrays placed on the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts and the Soviet Lunar missions over the past 39 years have dramatically increased our understanding of gravitational physics along with Earth and Moon geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics. Significant advances in these areas will require placing modern retroreflectors and/or active laser ranging systems at new locations on the lunar surface. Ranging to new locations will enable better measurements of the lunar librations, aiding in our understanding of the interior structure of the moon. More precise range measurements will allow us to study effects that are too small to be observed by the current capabilities as well as enabling more stringent tests of Einstein's theory of General Relativity. Setting up retroreflectors was a key part of the Apollo missions so it is natural to ask if future lunar missions should include them as well. The Apollo retroreflectors are still being used today, and nearly 40 years of ranging data has been invaluable for scientific as well as other studies such as orbital dynamics. However, the available retroreflectors all lie within 26 degrees latitude of the equator, and the most useful ones within 24 degrees longitude of the sub-earth meridian. This clustering weakens their geometrical strength.

  13. Lunar Industry & Research Base Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, J.; Kaliapin, M.; Osinovyy, G.

    2017-09-01

    Currently, all main space industry players, such as Europe, USA, Russia, China, etc., are looking back again at the idea of Moon exploration building there a manned lunar base. Alongside with other world spacefaring nations, Yuzhnoye State Design Office with its long-time development experience, technological and intellectual potential, organized its own conceptual work on development of the Lunar Industry & Research Base. In the frames of conceptual project "Lunar Industrial & Research Base" were formed its appearance, preliminary configuration and infrastructure at different stages of operation, trajectory and flight scheme to the Moon, as well as terms of the project's realization, and main technical characteristics of the systems under development, such as space transportation system for crew and cargo delivery to lunar surface and return to Earth, standardized designs of lunar modules, lunar surface vehicles, etc. The "Lunar Industrial & Research Base" project's preliminary risk assessment has shown a high value of its overall risk due to the lack of reliable information about the Moon, technical risks, long-term development of its elements, very high financial costs and dependence on state support. This points to the fact that it is reasonable to create such a global project in cooperation with other countries. International cooperation will expand the capabilities of any nation, reduce risks and increase the success probability of automated or manned space missions. It is necessary to create and bring into operation practical mechanisms for long-term space exploration on a global scale. One of the ways to do this is to create a multinational agency which would include both state enterprises and private companies.

  14. 21 CFR 862.3200 - Clinical toxicology calibrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical toxicology calibrator. 862.3200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3200 Clinical toxicology calibrator. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology calibrator is...

  15. Resource Guide to Careers in Toxicology, 3rd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Society of Toxicology, Reston, VA.

    This resource guide was prepared by the Tox 90's Educational Issues Task Force of the Society of Toxicology. The introduction provides information on the Society of Toxicology and financial support for graduate students in toxicology. Other sections include career opportunities in toxicology, academic and postdoctoral programs in toxicology, and…

  16. View of the Lunar Module 'Orion' and Lunar Roving Vehicle during first EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A view of the Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' and Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), as photographed by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Descates landing site. Astronaut John W. Young, commander, can be seen directly behind the LRV. The lunar surface feature in the left background is Stone Mountain.

  17. Comparative toxicological studies on the effects of internal exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oghiso, Yoichi; Fukuda, Satoshi; Iida, Haruzo; Yamada, Yuji; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Matsuoka, Osamu

    1989-01-01

    In order to study the toxicological mechanism of transuranic elements, such as plutonium, involved in the induction of pulmonary fibrosis, toxic effects of several inhaled dusts and mineral particles were examined in rats. Pulmonary alveolar macrophage (PAM) was responsible for retention and behavior of inhaled asbestos fibers or silica particles and their transfer to the lymph nodes. PAM exhibited prominent phagocytosis of particles, followed by a significant release of lactic dehydrogenase and beta-glucuronidase. Multinucleated or Ia-positive PAM was frequently observed in rats presenting with pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis that was induced by inhaled asbestos or silica particles was associated with significant production and release of cytokines. This indicated a close correlation with inflammatory or proliferating responses of fibroblasts and lymphocytes. Such reactions observed in PAM depended on toxicity of particles involved in phagocytosis (i.e., the ability of particles to induce pulmonary fibrosis), suggesting heterogeneity in the population of PAM. (Namekawa, K)

  18. Postmortem aviation forensic toxicology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2010-05-01

    An overview of the subtopic aviation combustion toxicology of the field of aerospace toxicology has been published. In a continuation of the overview, the findings associated with postmortem aviation forensic toxicology are being summarized in the present overview. A literature search for the period of 1960-2007 was performed. The important findings related to postmortem toxicology were evaluated. In addition to a brief introduction, this overview is divided into the sections of analytical methods; carboxyhemoglobin and blood cyanide ion; ethanol; drugs; result interpretation; glucose and hemoglobin A(1c); and references. Specific details of the subject matter were discussed. It is anticipated that this overview will be an outline source for aviation forensic toxicology within the field of aerospace toxicology.

  19. Achieving a Prioritized Research and Technology Development Portfolio for the Dust Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Abel, Phillip; Delaune, Paul; Fishman, Julianna; Kohli, Rajiv

    2009-01-01

    Mission architectures for human exploration of the lunar surface continue to advance as well as the definitions of capability needs, best practices and engineering design to mitigate the impact of lunar dust on exposed systems. The NASA DMP has been established as the agency focal point for dust characterization, technology, and simulant development. As described in this paper, the DMP has defined a process for selecting and justifying its R&T portfolio. The technology prioritization process, which is based on a ranking system according to weighted criteria, has been successfully applied to the current DMP dust mitigation technology portfolio. Several key findings emerged from this assessment. Within the dust removal and cleaning technologies group, there are critical technical challenges that must be overcome for these technologies to be implemented for lunar applications. For example, an in-situ source of CO2 on the moon is essential to the CO2 shower technology. Also, significant development effort is required to achieve technology readiness level TRL 6 for the electrostatic cleaning system for removal of particles smaller than 50 pm. The baseline materials related technologies require considerable development just to achieve TRL 6. It is also a nontrivial effort to integrate the materials in hardware for lunar application. At present, there are no terrestrial applications that are readily adaptable to lunar surface applications nor are there any obvious leading candidates. The unique requirements of dust sealing systems for lunar applications suggest an extensive development effort will be necessary to mature dust sealing systems to TRL 6 and beyond. As discussed here, several alternate materials and technologies have achieved high levels of maturity for terrestrial applications and warrant due diligence in ongoing assessment of the technology portfolio. The present assessment is the initial step in an ongoing effort to continually evaluate the DMP technology

  20. Two lunar global asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The Moon's center of mass is displaced from its center of figure about 2 km in a roughly earthward direction. Most maria are on the side of the Moon which faces the Earth. It is assumed that the Moon was initially spherically symmetric. The emplacement of mare basalts transfers mass which produces most of the observed center of mass displacement toward the Earth. The cause of the asymmetric distribution of lunar maria was examined. The Moon is in a spin orbit coupled relationship with the Earth and the effect of the Earth's gravity on the Moon is asymmetric. The earth-facing side of the Moon is a gravitational favored location for the extrusion of mare basalt magma in the same way that the topographically lower floor of a large impact basin is a gravitationally favored location. This asymmetric effect increases inversely with the fourth power of the Earth Moon distance. The history of the Earth-Moon system includes: formation of the Moon by accretion processes in a heliocentric orbit ner that of the Earth; a gravitational encounter with the Earth about 4 billion years ago resulting in capture of the Moon into a geocentric orbit and heating of the Moon through dissipation of energy related to tides raised during close approaches to the Earth(5) to produce mare basalt magma; and evolution of the Moon's orbit to its present position, slowly at first to accommodate more than 500 million years during which magmas were extruded.

  1. Experimental Investigation of Charging Properties of Interstellar Type Silica Dust Grains by Secondary Electron Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankosic, D.; Abbas, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    The dust charging by electron impact is an important dust charging processes in astrophysical and planetary environments. Incident low energy electrons are reflected or stick to the grains charging the dust grains negatively. At sufficiently high energies electrons penetrate the grains, leading to excitation and emission of electrons referred to as secondary electron emission (SEE). Available classical theoretical models for calculations of SEE yields are generally applicable for neutral, planar, or bulk surfaces. These models, however, are not valid for calculations of the electron impact charging properties of electrostatically charged micron/submicron-size dust grains in astrophysical environments. Rigorous quantum mechanical models are not yet available, and the SEE yields have to be determined experimentally for development of more accurate models for charging of individual dust grains. At the present time, very limited experimental data are available for charging of individual micron-size dust grains, particularly for low energy electron impact. The experimental results on individual, positively charged, micron-size lunar dust grains levitated carried out by us in a unique facility at NASA-MSFC, based on an electrodynamic balance, indicate that the SEE by electron impact is a complex process. The electron impact may lead to charging or discharging of dust grains depending upon the grain size, surface potential, electron energy, electron flux, grain composition, and configuration (Abbas et al, 2010, 2012). In this paper, we discuss SEE charging properties of individual micron-size silica microspheres that are believed to be analogs of a class of interstellar dust grains. The measurements indicate charging of the 0.2m silica particles when exposed to 25 eV electron beams and discharging when exposed to higher energy electron beams. Relatively large size silica particles (5.2-6.82m) generally discharge to lower equilibrium potentials at both electron energies

  2. Dust Devil Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 8 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 50.0 S and 17.7 W displays dust devil tracks on the surface. Most of the lighter portions of the image likely have a thin veneer of dust settled on the surface. As a dust devil passes over the surface, it acts as a vacuum and picks up the dust, leaving the darker substrate exposed. In this image there is a general trend of many of the tracks running from east to west or west to east, indicating the general wind direction. There is often no general trend present in dust devil tracks seen in other images. The track patterns are quite ephemeral and can completely change or even disappear over the course of a few months. Dust devils are one of the mechanisms that Mars uses to constantly pump dust into the ubiquitously dusty atmosphere. This atmospheric dust is one of the main driving forces of the present Martian climate. The Story Vrrrrooooooooom. Think of a tornado, the cartoon Tasmanian devil, or any number of vacuum commercials that powerfully suck up swirls of dust and dirt. That's pretty much what it's like on the surface of Mars a lot of the time. Whirlpools of wind called

  3. Apollo Missions to the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Paige V.

    2018-01-01

    Six Apollo missions to the Moon, from 1969-1972, enabled astronauts to collect and bring lunar rocks and materials from the lunar surface to Earth. Apollo lunar samples are curated by NASA Astromaterials at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX. Samples continue to be studied and provide clues about our early Solar System. Learn more and view collected samples at: https://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar.

  4. Lunar surface engineering properties experiment definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Goodman, R. E.; Hurlbut, F. C.; Houston, W. N.; Willis, D. R.; Witherspoon, P. A.; Hovland, H. J.

    1971-01-01

    Research on the mechanics of lunar soils and on developing probes to determine the properties of lunar surface materials is summarized. The areas of investigation include the following: soil simulation, soil property determination using an impact penetrometer, soil stabilization using urethane foam or phenolic resin, effects of rolling boulders down lunar slopes, design of borehole jack and its use in determining failure mechanisms and properties of rocks, and development of a permeability probe for measuring fluid flow through porous lunar surface materials.

  5. New Age for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.; Martel, L. M. V.

    2018-04-01

    Lunar-focused research and plans to return to the lunar surface for science and exploration have reemerged since the Space Policy Directive-1 of December 11, 2017 amended the National Space Policy to include the following, "Lead an innovative and sustainable program of exploration with commercial and international partners to enable human expansion across the solar system and to bring back to Earth new knowledge and opportunities. Beginning with missions beyond low-Earth orbit, the United States will lead the return of humans to the Moon for long-term exploration and utilization, followed by human missions to Mars and other destinations." In response to this revision, NASA proposes a Lunar Exploration and Discovery Program in the U.S. fiscal year 2019 Budget Request. It supports NASA's interests in commercial and international partnerships in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), long-term exploration in Cislunar space beyond LEO, and research and exploration conducted on the Moon to inform future crewed missions, even to destinations beyond the Moon. (Cislunar refers to the volume of space between LEO and the Moon's orbital distance.) The lunar campaign strengthens the integration of human and robotic activities on the lunar surface with NASA's science, technology, and exploration goals.

  6. Lunar power systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The findings of a study on the feasibility of several methods of providing electrical power for a permanently manned lunar base are provided. Two fundamentally different methods for lunar electrical power generation are considered. One is the use of a small nuclear reactor and the other is the conversion of solar energy to electricity. The baseline goal was to initially provide 300 kW of power with growth capability to one megawatt and eventually to 10 megawatts. A detailed, day by day scenario for the establishment, build-up, and operational activity of the lunar base is presented. Also presented is a conceptual approach to a supporting transportation system which identifies the number, type, and deployment of transportation vehicles required to support the base. An approach to the use of solar cells in the lunar environment was developed. There are a number of heat engines which are applicable to solar/electric conversions, and these are examined. Several approaches to energy storage which were used by the electric power utilities were examined and those which could be used at a lunar base were identified

  7. History of Japanese Society of Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Founded in 1981, the Japanese Society of Toxicology (JSOT) has grown into an organization of nearly 3,000 members working together to advance the nation's scientific knowledge and understanding of toxicology through the implementation of planning that ensures a systematic and efficient expenditure of energies and resources, and is closely aligned with a strategy for accomplishing the Society's long-range plans. To promote public education in toxicology, the Society organizes public lectures during each year's annual meeting. Other activities include hosting scientific conferences, promoting continuing education, and facilitating international collaboration. Internally, the JSOT operates five standing committees: General Affairs, Educational, Editorial, Finance, and Science and Publicity to handle its necessary relationships. To bestow official recognition, the Society established its Toxicologist Certification Program in 1997, and has certified 536 members as Diplomat Toxicologists (DJSOT) as of May 1, 2016. Furthermore, on the same date, 43 JSOT members were certified as Emeritus Diplomats of the JSOT (EDJSOT). The Society has launched two official journals, the "Journal of Toxicological Sciences (JTS)" in 1981 and "Fundamental Toxicological Sciences (Fundam. Toxicol. Sci.)" in 2014. As for participation in the international organizations, the JSOT (then known as the Toxicological Research Group) joined the International Union of Toxicology as a charter member in 1980, and became a founding member of the Asian Society of Toxicology at its inauguration in 1994. Into the future, the JSOT will continue working diligently to advance knowledge and understanding of toxicology and secure its place among the interdisciplinary fields of science, humane studies, and ethics.

  8. 78 FR 45253 - National Toxicology Program Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program... Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of... Director, National Toxicology Program. [FR Doc. 2013-17919 Filed 7-25-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4140-01-P ...

  9. Basic radio interferometry for future lunar missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aminaei, Amin; Klein Wolt, Marc; Chen, Linjie; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Pourshaghaghi, Hamid Reza; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Falcke, Heino

    2014-01-01

    In light of presently considered lunar missions, we investigate the feasibility of the basic radio interferometry (RIF) for lunar missions. We discuss the deployment of two-element radio interferometer on the Moon surface. With the first antenna element is envisaged to be placed on the lunar lander,

  10. Status and Future of Lunar Geoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986

    A review of the status, progress, and future direction of lunar research is presented in this report from the lunar geoscience working group of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Information is synthesized and presented in four major sections. These include: (1) an introduction (stating the reasons for lunar study and identifying…

  11. Nanophase Fe0 in lunar soils

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    globules that occur in the rinds of many soil grains and in the ... tinitic glass is a quenched product of silicate melts, also produced by micrometeorite impacts on lunar soils ..... stand impact processes and their products. ... cules at night; the earth's atmosphere by con- .... deep lunar interior from an inversion of lunar free oscil-.

  12. The Interstellar Gas Dust Streams and Seeds of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleg, Khavroshkin; Vladislav, Tsyplakov

    Gas dust Streams from Double Stars & Lunar Seismicity. The time series of seismic events were generated as follows: on the ordinate axis the peak amplitudes of events in standard units, on abscissa axis - seismogram durations of the same moonquakes and subsequent time intervals between them were used. Spectrum of the series disclosed time picks on hidden cosmological periodicities of lunar seismicity. A part of results (picks) presents orbital periods of double stars nearest to the Solar system. The explanation of that results is existing gas-dust streams from binary stars systems and interacting of it with lunar surface. Information content of the Nakamura`s Catalog of moonquakes is very rich: from solar-earth tides to clustering among the meteoroid streams [1, 2]. The histograms from meteoroid impacts seismic data revealed the seismic wave responses of the Moon to solar oscillations and the action on the lunar surface by dust-gas plasma of meteoroid streams [3]. The time series of seismic events were generated as follows: on an axis of ordinates - the peak amplitudes of events in standard units, on an abscissa - seismogram durations of the same moonquakes and subsequent time intervals between them were put aside [4]. Spectrum of the series of meteoroid streams seismicity disclosed time picks on orbital periods some planets and their satellites and solar oscillations [4, 5]. The research of peculiarities of histogram envelopes [3] and comparative common analysis solar bursts data and mass meteoroid distribution are confirmed [3, 4] and revealed Forbush`s effect for gas-dust plasma [6]. Hidden astrophysical periodicities of lunar seismicity were obtained early from an analysis of time series [7] which were similarity to series [4]. The path of results of [7] is presented in the Table where picks presents orbital periods of double stars nearest to the Solar system. Hypothesis for explanation of the Table results is existing gas-dust streams from binary stars near

  13. Whither Cometary Dust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Carey M.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper I will discuss recent findings that have important implications for our understanding of the formation and evolution of primitive solar system dust, including: - Nesvorny et al. (2010), following up on their dynamical analyses of the zodiacal dust bands as sourced by the breakup of the Karin (5Mya) and Veritas (8Mya) asteroid families, argue that over 90% of the interplanetary dust cloud at 1 AU comes from JFC comets with near-circularized, low inclination orbits. This implies that the noted IPD collections of anhydrous and hydrous dust particles are likely to be from Oort cloud and JFC comets, respectively, not from asteroids and comets as thought in the past. Hydrous dust particles from comets like 85P/Wild2 and 9P/Tempel 1 would be consistent with results from the STARDUST and Deep Impact experiments. - Estimates of the dust particle size distributions (PSDs) in the comae of 85P/Wild2 (Green et al. 2004, 2007) and 73P/SW-3 (Sitko et al. 2010, Vaubaillon & Reach 2010) and in the trails of comets (Reach et al. 2007) have broken power law structure, with a plateau enhancement of particles of 1 mm - 1 cm in size. This size is also the size of most chondritic inclusions, and the predicted size range of the "aggregational barrier", where collisions between dust particles become destructive. - Studies of the albedo and polarization properties of cometary dust (Kolokolova et al. 2007) suggest there are 2 major groupings, one with low scattering capability and one with high. While these families could possibly have been explained by systematics in the PSDs of the emitted dust, independent work by Lisse et al. (2008) on the mineralogy of a number of highly dusty comets has shown evidence for one family of comets with highly crystalline dust and another with highly amorphous dust.

  14. Communication plan for windblown dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Windblown dust events occur in Arizona, and blowing dust has been considered a contributing factor to serious crashes on the : segment of Interstate 10 (I10) between Phoenix and Tucson, as well as on other Arizona roadways. Arizonas dust events...

  15. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald James; Clark, Pamela E.; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can b e considered which have a wide range of transfer duration, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO) geostationary transfer orbits (GTO) and higher energy direct lunar transfer and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.

  16. Lunar Rotation, Orientation and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Ratcliff, J. T.; Boggs, D. H.

    2004-12-01

    The Moon is the most familiar example of the many satellites that exhibit synchronous rotation. For the Moon there is Lunar Laser Ranging measurements of tides and three-dimensional rotation variations plus supporting theoretical understanding of both effects. Compared to uniform rotation and precession the lunar rotational variations are up to 1 km, while tidal variations are about 0.1 m. Analysis of the lunar variations in pole direction and rotation about the pole gives moment of inertia differences, third-degree gravity harmonics, tidal Love number k2, tidal dissipation Q vs. frequency, dissipation at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and emerging evidence for an oblate boundary. The last two indicate a fluid core, but a solid inner core is not ruled out. Four retroreflectors provide very accurate positions on the Moon. The experience with the Moon is a starting point for exploring the tides, rotation and orientation of the other synchronous bodies of the solar system.

  17. Lunar heat-flow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langseth, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    The principal components of the experiment were probes, each with twelve thermometers of exceptional accuracy and stability, that recorded temperature variations at the surface and in the regolith down to 2.5 m. The Apollo 15 experiment and the Apollo 17 probes recorded lunar surface and subsurface temperatures. These data provided a unique and valuable history of the interaction of solar energy with lunar surface and the effects of heat flowing from the deep interior out through the surface of the moon. The interpretation of these data resulted in a clearer definition of the thermal and mechanical properties of the upper two meters of lunar regolith, direct measurements of the gradient in mean temperature due to heat flow from the interior and a determination of the heat flow at the Apollo 15 and Apollo 17 sites.

  18. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  19. Safety and Toxicology of Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Jane; McGlade, Erin; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    There is extensive research on the safety, toxicology, potency, and therapeutic potential of cannabis. However, uncertainty remains facilitating continued debate on medical and recreational cannabis policies at the state and federal levels. This review will include a brief description of cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system; a summary of the acute and long-term effects of cannabis; and a discussion of the therapeutic potential of cannabis. The conclusions about safety and efficacy will then be compared with the current social and political climate to suggest future policy directions and general guidelines.

  20. Lunar Prospecting With Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Observations of the bright side of the Moon with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have detected oxygen, magnesium, aluminum and silicon over a large area of the lunar surface. The abundance and distribution of those elements will help to determine how the Moon was formed. "We see X-rays from these elements directly, independent of assumptions about the mineralogy and other complications," said Jeremy Drake of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., at a press conference at the "Four Years with Chandra" symposium in Huntsville, Alabama. "We have Moon samples from the six widely-space Apollo landing sites, but remote sensing with Chandra can cover a much wider area," continued Drake. "It's the next best thing to being there, and it's very fast and cost-effective." The lunar X-rays are caused by fluorescence, a process similar to the way that light is produced in fluorescent lamps. Solar X-rays bombard the surface of the Moon, knock electrons out of the inner parts of the atoms, putting them in a highly unstable state. Almost immediately, other electrons rush to fill the gaps, and in the process convert their energy into the fluorescent X-rays seen by Chandra. According to the currently popular "giant impact" theory for the formation of the Moon, a body about the size of Mars collided with the Earth about 4.5 billion years ago. This impact flung molten debris from the mantle of both the Earth and the impactor into orbit around the Earth. Over the course of tens of millions of years, the debris stuck together to form the Moon. By measuring the amounts of aluminum and other elements over a wide area of the Moon and comparing them to the Earth's mantle, Drake and his colleagues plan to help test the giant impact hypothesis. "One early result," quipped Drake, "is that there is no evidence for large amounts of calcium, so cheese is not a major constituent of the Moon." Illustration of Earth's Geocorona Illustration of Earth's Geocorona The same

  1. Dust in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    The author's review concentrates on theoretical aspects of dust in planetary nebulae (PN). He considers the questions: how much dust is there is PN; what is its composition; what effects does it have on the ionization structure, on the dynamics of the nebula. (Auth.)

  2. Combustible dust tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugar dust explosion in Georgia on February 7, 2008 killed 14 workers and injured many others (OSHA, 2009). As a consequence of this explosion, OSHA revised its Combustible Dust National Emphasis (NEP) program. The NEP targets 64 industries with more than 1,000 inspections and has found more tha...

  3. Uses for lunar crawler transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaden, Richard A.

    This article discusses state-of-the-art crawler transporters and expresses the need for additional research and development for lunar crawlers. The thrust of the paper illustrates how the basic crawler technology has progressed to a point where extremely large modules can be shop fabricated and move to some distant location at a considerable savings. Also, extremely heavy loads may be lifted by large crawler cranes and placed in designed locations. The Transi-Lift Crawler crane with its traveling counterweight is an attractive concept for lunar construction.

  4. Building lunar roads - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Bennett

    The problems involved in constructing lunar roads are explored. The main challenges are airlessness, low gravity, and solar effects, especially temperature extremes. Also involved are the expense of delivering equipment and material to the job site (especially for bridges and other structures), obtaining skilled labor, and providing maintenance. The lunar road will most likely be gravel, but with the size of the material closer to cobblestone to reduce scattering. They will probably be very winding, even on the flats, and feature numerous bridges and some cuts. This traffic will be mostly automatic or teleoperated cargo carriers with a handful of shirtsleeve-pressurized 'passenger cars' large enough to live in for several days.

  5. Respirable dust measured downwind during rock dust application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M L; Organiscak, J; Klima, S; Perera, I E

    2017-05-01

    The Pittsburgh Mining Research Division of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted underground evaluations in an attempt to quantify respirable rock dust generation when using untreated rock dust and rock dust treated with an anticaking additive. Using personal dust monitors, these evaluations measured respirable rock dust levels arising from a flinger-type application of rock dust on rib and roof surfaces. Rock dust with a majority of the respirable component removed was also applied in NIOSH's Bruceton Experimental Mine using a bantam duster. The respirable dust measurements obtained downwind from both of these tests are presented and discussed. This testing did not measure miners' exposure to respirable coal mine dust under acceptable mining practices, but indicates the need for effective continuous administrative controls to be exercised when rock dusting to minimize the measured amount of rock dust in the sampling device.

  6. LRO-LAMP Observations of the Lunar Exosphere Coordinated with LADEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grava, C.; Retherford, K. D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Gladstone, R.; Hurley, D.; Cook, J. C.; Stern, S. A.; Feldman, P. D.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Miles, P. F.; Pryor, W. R.; Halekas, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    The polar orbiting Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) carried out an atmospheric campaign during the month of December 2013, at the same time the Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission was sampling the lunar exosphere in a retrograde equatorial orbit. Observations of the lunar exosphere were performed by LAMP during a solar "beta-90" geometry, i.e. riding along the lunar terminator. During this geometry, the LAMP nadir-pointed line of sight to the nightside surface also includes illuminated columns of foreground emissions from exospheric species, which is invaluable in the study of the tenuous lunar exosphere. Other types of maneuvers to probe the lunar exosphere were also performed by LAMP/LRO during this campaign. During backward pitch slews, the LRO spacecraft was pitched to look opposite its direction of motion to a point just inside the limb in the nightside region around the polar terminator. Forward pitch slews were also obtained, and the angles of 63 deg or 77 deg from nadir were set depending on the polar region observed. Finally, during lateral roll slews, LRO rotated by ~60 deg towards the nightside limb, maximizing the amount of illuminated atmosphere in the foreground probed by the LAMP field of view. We extract day to day density variations on helium and/or upper limits for numerous other species that were accessible to both LAMP and LADEE (e.g., Ar, Ne, O, and H2). Moreover, constraints on helium density will complement measurements of solar wind alpha particles (He++) from the ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, & Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun) mission. This comparison will provide a comprehensive picture of composition, abundance, and spatial and temporal variations of volatiles of the lunar exosphere, combining equatorial (LADEE) and polar (LAMP) measurements for the first time. Volatiles in the lunar exosphere, especially water, are of paramount

  7. Lunar phases and crisis center telephone calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J E; Tobacyk, J J

    1990-02-01

    The lunar hypothesis, that is, the notion that lunar phases can directly affect human behavior, was tested by time-series analysis of 4,575 crisis center telephone calls (all calls recorded for a 6-month interval). As expected, the lunar hypothesis was not supported. The 28-day lunar cycle accounted for less than 1% of the variance of the frequency of crisis center calls. Also, as hypothesized from an attribution theory framework, crisis center workers reported significantly greater belief in lunar effects than a non-crisis-center-worker comparison group.

  8. What is a lunar standstill III?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Duke Sims

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prehistoric monument alignments on lunar standstills are currently understood for horizon range, perturbation event, crossover event, eclipse prediction, solstice full Moon and the solarisation of the dark Moon. The first five models are found to fail the criteria of archaeoastronomy field methods. The final model of lunar-solar conflation draws upon all the observed components of lunar standstills – solarised reverse phased sidereal Moons culminating in solstice dark Moons in a roughly nine-year alternating cycle between major and minor standstills. This lunar-solar conflation model is a syncretic overlay upon an antecedent Palaeolithic template for lunar scheduled rituals and amenable to transformation.

  9. The Toxicology Education Summit: building the future of toxicology through education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchowsky, Aaron; Buckley, Lorrene A; Carlson, Gary P; Fitsanakis, Vanessa A; Ford, Sue M; Genter, Mary Beth; Germolec, Dori R; Leavens, Teresa L; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Safe, Stephen H; Sulentic, Courtney E W; Eidemiller, Betty J

    2012-06-01

    Toxicology and careers in toxicology, as well as many other scientific disciplines, are undergoing rapid and dramatic changes as new discoveries, technologies, and hazards advance at a blinding rate. There are new and ever increasing demands on toxicologists to keep pace with expanding global economies, highly fluid policy debates, and increasingly complex global threats to public health. These demands must be met with new paradigms for multidisciplinary, technologically complex, and collaborative approaches that require advanced and continuing education in toxicology and associated disciplines. This requires paradigm shifts in educational programs that support recruitment, development, and training of the modern toxicologist, as well as continued education and retraining of the midcareer professional to keep pace and sustain careers in industry, government, and academia. The Society of Toxicology convened the Toxicology Educational Summit to discuss the state of toxicology education and to strategically address educational needs and the sustained advancement of toxicology as a profession. The Summit focused on core issues of: building for the future of toxicology through educational programs; defining education and training needs; developing the "Total Toxicologist"; continued training and retraining toxicologists to sustain their careers; and, finally, supporting toxicology education and professional development. This report summarizes the outcomes of the Summit, presents examples of successful programs that advance toxicology education, and concludes with strategies that will insure the future of toxicology through advanced educational initiatives.

  10. The Emergence of Systematic Review in Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Martin L; Betts, Kellyn; Beck, Nancy B; Cogliano, Vincent; Dickersin, Kay; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne; Freeman, James; Gray, George; Hartung, Thomas; McPartland, Jennifer; Rooney, Andrew A; Scherer, Roberta W; Verloo, Didier; Hoffmann, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    The Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration hosted a workshop on "The Emergence of Systematic Review and Related Evidence-based Approaches in Toxicology," on November 21, 2014 in Baltimore, Maryland. The workshop featured speakers from agencies and organizations applying systematic review approaches to questions in toxicology, speakers with experience in conducting systematic reviews in medicine and healthcare, and stakeholders in industry, government, academia, and non-governmental organizations. Based on the workshop presentations and discussion, here we address the state of systematic review methods in toxicology, historical antecedents in both medicine and toxicology, challenges to the translation of systematic review from medicine to toxicology, and thoughts on the way forward. We conclude with a recommendation that as various agencies and organizations adapt systematic review methods, they continue to work together to ensure that there is a harmonized process for how the basic elements of systematic review methods are applied in toxicology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.

  11. 42 CFR 493.845 - Standard; Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Toxicology. 493.845 Section 493.845 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.845 Standard; Toxicology. (a) Failure to attain a score of at least 80 percent of...

  12. A 900 electrostatic prism for microparticle beam steering on a 2 MV van der Graaff dust accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.G.; Clarke, C.D.; McDonnell, J.A.M.; Dickason, R.E.; Flavill, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    The design and construction of a 90 0 electrostatic prism is described. The device is used to deflect hypervelocity dust particles produced in a horizontal van der Graaff accelerator to simulate micrometeoroid impacts on dusty lunar and asteroidal surfaces where vertical incidence must be provided. (author)

  13. Blood transcriptomics: applications in toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Pius; Umbright, Christina; Sellamuthu, Rajendran

    2015-01-01

    The number of new chemicals that are being synthesized each year has been steadily increasing. While chemicals are of immense benefit to mankind, many of them have a significant negative impact, primarily owing to their inherent chemistry and toxicity, on the environment as well as human health. In addition to chemical exposures, human exposures to numerous non-chemical toxic agents take place in the environment and workplace. Given that human exposure to toxic agents is often unavoidable and many of these agents are found to have detrimental human health effects, it is important to develop strategies to prevent the adverse health effects associated with toxic exposures. Early detection of adverse health effects as well as a clear understanding of the mechanisms, especially at the molecular level, underlying these effects are key elements in preventing the adverse health effects associated with human exposure to toxic agents. Recent developments in genomics, especially transcriptomics, have prompted investigations into this important area of toxicology. Previous studies conducted in our laboratory and elsewhere have demonstrated the potential application of blood gene expression profiling as a sensitive, mechanistically relevant and practical surrogate approach for the early detection of adverse health effects associated with exposure to toxic agents. The advantages of blood gene expression profiling as a surrogate approach to detect early target organ toxicity and the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity are illustrated and discussed using recent studies on hepatotoxicity and pulmonary toxicity. Furthermore, the important challenges this emerging field in toxicology faces are presented in this review article. PMID:23456664

  14. Evolution of toxicology information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wassom, J.S.; Lu, P.Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Society today is faced with new health risk situations that have been brought about by recent scientific and technical advances. Federal and state governments are required to assess the many potential health risks to exposed populations from the products (chemicals) and by-products (pollutants) of these advances. Because a sound analysis of any potential health risk should be based on the use of relevant information, it behooves those individuals responsible for making the risk assessments to know where to obtain needed information. This paper reviews the origins of toxicology information systems and explores the specialized information center concept that was proposed in 1963 as a means of providing ready access to scientific and technical information. As a means of illustrating this concept, the operation of one specialized information center (the Environmental Mutagen Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory) will be discussed. Insights into how toxicological information resources came into being, their design and makeup, will be of value to those seeking to acquire information for risk assessment purposes. 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. Mechanical properties of lunar regolith and lunar soil simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Through the Surveyor 3 and 7, and Apollo 11-17 missions a knowledge of the mechanical properties of Lunar regolith were gained. These properties, including material cohesion, friction, in-situ density, grain-size distribution and shape, and porosity, were determined by indirect means of trenching, penetration, and vane shear testing. Several of these properties were shown to be significantly different from those of terrestrial soils, such as an interlocking cohesion and tensile strength formed in the absence of moisture and particle cementation. To characterize the strength and deformation properties of Lunar regolith experiments have been conducted on a lunar soil simulant at various initial densities, fabric arrangements, and composition. These experiments included conventional triaxial compression and extension, direct tension, and combined tension-shear. Experiments have been conducted at low levels of effective confining stress. External conditions such as membrane induced confining stresses, end platten friction and material self weight have been shown to have a dramatic effect on the strength properties at low levels of confining stress. The solution has been to treat these external conditions and the specimen as a full-fledged boundary value problem rather than the idealized elemental cube of mechanics. Centrifuge modeling allows for the study of Lunar soil-structure interaction problems. In recent years centrifuge modeling has become an important tool for modeling processes that are dominated by gravity and for verifying analysis procedures and studying deformation and failure modes. Centrifuge modeling is well established for terrestrial enginering and applies equally as well to Lunar engineering. A brief review of the experiments is presented in graphic and outline form.

  16. Toxicological profile for thorium. Draft report (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Thorium is intended to characterize succinctly the toxicological and health effects information for the substance. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the substance's toxicological properties. Other literature is presented but described in less detail. The profile is not intended to be an exhaustive document; however, more comprehensive sources of specialty information are referenced. The profile begins with a public health statement, which describes in nontechnical language the substance's relevant toxicological properties. Following the statement is material that presents levels of significant human exposure and, where known, significant health effects. The adequacy of information to determine the substance's health effects is described. Research gaps in nontoxic and health effects information are described. Research gaps that are of significance to the protection of public health will be identified in a separate effort. The focus of the document is on health and toxicological information

  17. Toxicological profile for uranium. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Uranium is intended to characterize succinctly the toxicological and health effects information for the substance. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the substances's toxicological properties. Other literature is presented but described in less detail. The profile is not intended to be an exhaustive document; however, more comprehensive sources of specialty information are referenced. The profile begins with a public health statement, which describes in nontechnical language the substance's relevant toxicological properties. Following the statement is material that presents levels of significant human exposure and, where known, significant health effects. The adequacy of information to determine the substance's health effects is described. Research gaps in nontoxic and health effects information are described. Research gaps that are of significance to the protection of public health will be identified in a separate effort. The focus of the document is on health and toxicological information

  18. Toxicological profile for radon. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Radon is intended to characterize succinctly the toxicological and health effects information for the substance. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the substance's toxicological properties. Other literature is presented but described in less detail. The profile is not intended to be an exhaustive document; however, more comprehensive sources of specialty information are referenced. The profile begins with a public health statement, which describes in nontechnical language the substance's relevant toxicological properties. Following the statement is material that presents levels of significant human exposure and, where known, significant health effects. The adequacy of information to determine the substance's health effects is described. Research gaps in nontoxic and health effects information are described. Research gaps that are of significance to the protection of public health will be identified in a separate effort. The focus of the document is on health and toxicological information

  19. Toxicological profile for plutonium. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Plutonium is intended to characterize succinctly the toxicological and health effects information for the substance. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the substance's toxicological properties. Other literature is presented but described in less detail. The profile is not intended to be an exhaustive document; however, more comprehensive sources of specialty information are referenced. The profile begins with a public health statement, which describes in nontechnical language the substance's relevant toxicological properties. Following the statement is material that presents levels of significant human exposure and, where known, significant health effects. The adequacy of information to determine the substance's health effects is described. Research gaps in nontoxic and health effects information are described. Research gaps that are of significance to the protection of public health will be identified in a separate effort. The focus of the document is on health and toxicological information

  20. Toxicological profile for radium. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Radium is intended to characterize succinctly the toxicological and health effects information for the substance. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the substances' toxicological properties. Other literature is presented but described in less detail. The profile is not intended to be an exhaustive document; however, more comprehensive sources of specialty information are referenced. The profile begins with a public health statement, which describes in nontechnical language the substance's relevant toxicological properties. Following the statement is material that presents levels of significant human exposure and, where known, significant health effects. The adequacy of information to determine the substance's health effects is described. Research gaps in nontoxic and health effects information are described. Research gaps that are of significance to the protection of public health will be identified in a separate effort. The focus of the document is on health and toxicological information

  1. Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macewen, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Oxygen toxicity is examined, including the effects of oxygen partial pressure variations on toxicity and oxygen effects on ozone and nitrogen dioxide toxicity. Toxicity of fuels and oxidizers, such as hydrazines, are reported. Carbon monoxide, spacecraft threshold limit values, emergency exposure limits, spacecraft contaminants, and water quality standards for space missions are briefly summarized.

  2. Research on rat's pulmonary acute injury induced by lunar soil simulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Liu, Jin-Guo; Zheng, Yong-Chun; Xiao, Chun-Ling; Wan, Bing; Guo, Li; Wang, Xu-Guang; Bo, Wei

    2018-02-01

    The steps to the moon never stopped after the Apollo Project. Lessons from manned landings on the moon have shown that lunar dust has great influence on the health of astronauts. In this paper, comparative studies between the lunar soil simulant (LSS) and PM2.5 were performed to discover their harm to human biological systems and explore the methods of prevention and treatment of dust poisoning for future lunar manned landings. Rats were randomly divided into the control group, two CAS-1 lunar soil simulant groups (tracheal perfusion with 7 mg and 0.7 mg, respectively, in a 1-mL volume) and the PM2.5 group (tracheal perfusion with 0.7 mg in a 1-mL volume). The biochemical indicators in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), MPO activity in the lung tissue, pathologic changes, and inflammatory cells in the BALF were measured after 4 h and 24 h. The LSS group showed cytotoxicity that was closely related to the concentration. The figures of the two LSS groups (4 and 24 h) show that the alveolar septa were thickened. Additionally, it was observed that neutrophils had infiltrated, and various levels of inflammation occurred around the vascular and bronchial structures. The overall results of the acute effects of the lungs caused by dust showed that the lung toxicity of LSS was greater than that of PM2.5. LSS could induce lung damage and inflammatory lesions. The biomarkers in BALF caused by acute injury were consistent with histopathologic observations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  3. NASA Lunar Base Wireless System Propagation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    There have been many radio wave propagation studies using both experimental and theoretical techniques over the recent years. However, most of studies have been in support of commercial cellular phone wireless applications. The signal frequencies are mostly at the commercial cellular and Personal Communications Service bands. The antenna configurations are mostly one on a high tower and one near the ground to simulate communications between a cellular base station and a mobile unit. There are great interests in wireless communication and sensor systems for NASA lunar missions because of the emerging importance of establishing permanent lunar human exploration bases. Because of the specific lunar terrain geometries and RF frequencies of interest to the NASA missions, much of the published literature for the commercial cellular and PCS bands of 900 and 1800 MHz may not be directly applicable to the lunar base wireless system and environment. There are various communication and sensor configurations required to support all elements of a lunar base. For example, the communications between astronauts, between astronauts and the lunar vehicles, between lunar vehicles and satellites on the lunar orbits. There are also various wireless sensor systems among scientific, experimental sensors and data collection ground stations. This presentation illustrates the propagation analysis of the lunar wireless communication and sensor systems taking into account the three dimensional terrain multipath effects. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate the lunar surface material, terrain geometry and antenna location are the important factors affecting the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, surface material and operating frequency. The

  4. An Extension of Analysis of Solar-Heated Thermal Wadis to Support Extended-Duration Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Gokoglu, S. A.; Sacksteder, K. R.; Wegeng, R. S.; Suzuki, N. H.

    2010-01-01

    The realization of the renewed exploration of the Moon presents many technical challenges; among them is the survival of lunar surface assets during periods of darkness when the lunar environment is very cold. Thermal wadis are engineered sources of stored solar energy using modified lunar regolith as a thermal storage mass that can supply energy to protect lightweight robotic rovers or other assets during the lunar night. This paper describes an extension of an earlier analysis of performance of thermal wadis based on the known solar illumination of the Moon and estimates of producible thermal properties of modified lunar regolith. The current analysis has been performed for the lunar equatorial region and validates the formerly used 1-D model by comparison of predictions to those obtained from 2-D and 3-D computations. It includes the effects of a thin dust layer covering the surface of the wadi, and incorporating either water as a phase-change material or aluminum stakes as a high thermal conductivity material into the regolith. The calculations indicate that thermal wadis can provide the desired thermal energy and temperature control for the survival of rovers or other equipment during periods of darkness.

  5. Concept of Lunar Energy Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niino, Masayuki; Kisara, Katsuto; Chen, Lidong

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents a new concept of energy supply system named Lunar Energy Park (LEP) as one of the next-generation clean energy sources. In this concept, electricity is generated by nuclear power plants built on the moon and then transmitted to receiving stations on the earth by laser beam through transporting systems situated in geostationary orbit. The lunar nuclear power plants use a high-efficiency composite energy conversion system consisting of thermionic and thermoelectric generators to change nuclear thermal energy into electricity directly. The nuclear resources are considered to be available from the moon, and nuclear fuel transport from earth to moon is not necessary. Because direct energy conversion systems are employed, the lunar nuclear plants can be operated and controlled by robots and are maintenance-free, and so will cause no pollution to humans. The key technologies for LEP include improvements of conversion efficiency of both thermionic and thermoelectric converters, and developments of laser-beam power transmission technology as well. The details, including the construction of lunar nuclear plants, energy conversion and energy transmission systems, as well as the research plan strategies for this concept are reviewed.

  6. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXII

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM publication contains the extended abstracts that were accepted for presentation at the 32nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference held at Houston, TX, March 12-16, 2001. The papers are presented in PDF format and are indexed by author, keyword, meteorite, program and samples for quick reference.

  7. Quantifying Anthropogenic Dust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Pierre, Caroline

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic land use and land cover change, including local environmental disturbances, moderate rates of wind-driven soil erosion and dust emission. These human-dust cycle interactions impact ecosystems and agricultural production, air quality, human health, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. While the impacts of land use activities and land management on aeolian processes can be profound, the interactions are often complex and assessments of anthropogenic dust loads at all scales remain highly uncertain. Here, we critically review the drivers of anthropogenic dust emission and current evaluation approaches. We then identify and describe opportunities to: (1) develop new conceptual frameworks and interdisciplinary approaches that draw on ecological state-and-transition models to improve the accuracy and relevance of assessments of anthropogenic dust emissions; (2) improve model fidelity and capacity for change detection to quantify anthropogenic impacts on aeolian processes; and (3) enhance field research and monitoring networks to support dust model applications to evaluate the impacts of disturbance processes on local to global-scale wind erosion and dust emissions.

  8. Perspectives on Lunar Helium-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1999-01-01

    Global demand for energy will likely increase by a factor of six or eight by the mid-point of the 21st Century due to a combination of population increase, new energy intensive technologies, and aspirations for improved standards of living in the less-developed world (1). Lunar helium-3 (3He), with a resource base in the Tranquillitatis titanium-rich lunar maria (2,3) of at least 10,000 tonnes (4), represents one potential energy source to meet this rapidly escalating demand. The energy equivalent value of 3He delivered to operating fusion power plants on Earth would be about 3 billion per tonne relative to today's coal which supplies most of the approximately 90 billion domestic electrical power market (5). These numbers illustrate the magnitude of the business opportunity. The results from the Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (6) suggests that 3He also may be concentrated at the lunar poles along with solar wind hydrogen (7). Mining, extraction, processing, and transportation of helium to Earth requires new innovations in engineering but no known new engineering concepts (1). By-products of lunar 3He extraction, largely hydrogen, oxygen, and water, have large potential markets in space and ultimately will add to the economic attractiveness of this business opportunity (5). Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion technology appears to be the most attractive and least capital intensive approach to terrestrial fusion power plants (8). Heavy lift launch costs comprise the largest cost uncertainty facing initial business planning, however, many factors, particularly long term production contracts, promise to lower these costs into the range of 1-2000 per kilogram versus about 70,000 per kilogram fully burdened for the Apollo Saturn V rocket (1). A private enterprise approach to developing lunar 3He and terrestrial IEC fusion power would be the most expeditious means of realizing this unique opportunity (9). In spite of the large, long-term potential

  9. Cis-Lunar Base Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond G.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, John D., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, when mounting expeditions into uncharted territories, explorers have established strategically positioned base camps to pre-position required equipment and consumables. These base camps are secure, safe positions from which expeditions can depart when conditions are favorable, at which technology and operations can be tested and validated, and facilitate timely access to more robust facilities in the event of an emergency. For human exploration missions into deep space, cis-lunar space is well suited to serve as such a base camp. The outer regions of cis-lunar space, such as the Earth-Moon Lagrange points, lie near the edge of Earth s gravity well, allowing equipment and consumables to be aggregated with easy access to deep space and to the lunar surface, as well as more distant destinations, such as near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Mars and its moons. Several approaches to utilizing a cis-lunar base camp for sustainable human exploration, as well as some possible future applications are identified. The primary objective of the analysis presented in this paper is to identify options, show the macro trends, and provide information that can be used as a basis for more detailed mission development. Compared within are the high-level performance and cost of 15 preliminary cis-lunar exploration campaigns that establish the capability to conduct crewed missions of up to one year in duration, and then aggregate mass in cis-lunar space to facilitate an expedition from Cis-Lunar Base Camp. Launch vehicles, chemical propulsion stages, and electric propulsion stages are discussed and parametric sizing values are used to create architectures of in-space transportation elements that extend the existing in-space supply chain to cis-lunar space. The transportation options to cis-lunar space assessed vary in efficiency by almost 50%; from 0.16 to 0.68 kg of cargo in cis-lunar space for every kilogram of mass in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). For the 15 cases, 5-year campaign

  10. Magnetic Sorting of the Regolith on the Moon: Lunar Swirls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, C. M.; Garrick-Bethell, I.; Hemingway, D.

    2014-12-01

    All of the mysterious albedo features on the Moon called "lunar swirls" are associated with magnetic anomalies, but not all magnetic anomalies are associated with lunar swirls [1]. It is often hypothesized that the albedo markings are tied to immature regolith on the surface, perhaps due to magnetic shielding of the solar wind and prevention of normal space weathering of the soil. Although interaction of the solar wind with the surface at swirls is indeed affected by the local magnetic field [2], this does not appear to result in immature soils on the surface. Calibrated spectra from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper [M3] (in image format) demonstrate that the high albedo markings for swirls are simply not consistent with immature regolith as is now understood from detailed analyses of lunar samples [eg 3]. However, M3 data show that the high albedo features of swirls are distinct and quite different from normal soils (in both the highlands and the mare). They allexhibit a flatter continuum across the near-infrared, but the actual band strength of ferrous minerals shows little (if any) deviation [4]. Recent analyses of magnetic field direction at swirls [5] mimic the observed albedo patterns (horizontal surface fields in bright areas, vertical surface fields in dark lanes). When coupled with the optical properties of magnetic separates of lunar soils [6] and our knowledge that the magnetic component of the soil results from space weathering [3,6], we propose a new and very simple explanation for these enigmatic albedo markings: the lunar swirls result from magnetic sorting of a well developed regolith. With time, normal gardening of the soil over a magnetic anomaly causes some of the dark magnetic component of the soil to be gradually removed from regions (high albedo areas) and accumulated in others (dark lanes). We are modeling predicted sorting rates using realistic rates of dust production. If this mechanism is tenable, only the origin of these magnetic anomalies

  11. Integrated lunar materials manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Michael A. (Inventor); Knudsen, Christian W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A manufacturing plant and process for production of oxygen on the moon uses lunar minerals as feed and a minimum of earth-imported, process materials. Lunar feed stocks are hydrogen-reducible minerals, ilmenite and lunar agglutinates occurring in numerous, explored locations mixed with other minerals in the pulverized surface layer of lunar soil known as regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO.sub.3) and agglutinates contain ferrous (Fe.sup.+2) iron reducible by hydrogen to yield H.sub.2 O and metallic Fe at about 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. The H.sub.2 O is electrolyzed in gas phase to yield H.sub.2 for recycle and O.sub.2 for storage and use. Hydrogen losses to lunar vacuum are minimized, with no net hydrogen (or any other earth-derived reagent) consumption except for small leaks. Feed minerals are surface-mined by front shovels and transported in trucks to the processing area. The machines are manned or robotic. Ilmenite and agglutinates occur mixed with silicate minerals which are not hydrogen-reducible at 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. and consequently are separated and concentrated before feeding to the oxygen generation process. Solids rejected from the separation step and reduced solids from the oxygen process are returned to the mine area. The plant is powered by nuclear or solar power generators. Vapor-phase water electrolysis, a staged, countercurrent, fluidized bed reduction reactor and a radio-frequency-driven ceramic gas heater are used to improve thermal efficiency.

  12. Spirit Feels Dust Gust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    On sol 1149 (March 28, 2007) of its mission, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit caught a wind gust with its navigation camera. A series of navigation camera images were strung together to create this movie. The front of the gust is observable because it was strong enough to lift up dust. From assessing the trajectory of this gust, the atmospheric science team concludes that it is possible that it passed over the rover. There was, however, no noticeable increase in power associated with this gust. In the past, dust devils and gusts have wiped the solar panels of dust, making it easier for the solar panels to absorb sunlight.

  13. Applications of scientific imaging in environmental toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Demerdash, Aref M.

    The national goals of clean air, clean water, and healthy ecosystems are a few of the primary forces that drive the need for better environmental monitoring. As we approach the end of the 1990s, the environmental questions at regional to global scales are being redefined and refined in the light of developments in environmental understanding and technological capability. Research in the use of scientific imaging data for the study of the environment is urgently needed in order to explore the possibilities of utilizing emerging new technologies. The objective of this research proposal is to demonstrate the usability of a wealth of new technology made available in the last decade to providing a better understanding of environmental problems. Research is focused in two imaging techniques macro and micro imaging. Several examples of applications of scientific imaging in research in the field of environmental toxicology were presented. This was achieved on two scales, micro and macro imaging. On the micro level four specific examples were covered. First, the effect of utilizing scanning electron microscopy as an imaging tool in enhancing taxa identification when studying diatoms was presented. Second, scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive x-ray analyzer were demonstrated as a valuable and effective tool for identifying and analyzing household dust samples. Third, electronic autoradiography combined with FT-IR microscopy were used to study the distribution pattern of [14C]-Malathion in rats as a result of dermal exposure. The results of the autoradiography made on skin sections of the application site revealed the presence of [ 14C]-activity in the first region of the skin. These results were evidenced by FT-IR microscopy. The obtained results suggest that the penetration of Malathion into the skin and other tissues is vehicle and dose dependent. The results also suggest the use of FT-IR microscopy imaging for monitoring the disposition of

  14. Method Development in Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Frank T; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Busardo, Francesco Paolo; Marchei, Emilia; Pichini, Simona

    2017-01-01

    In the field of forensic toxicology, the quality of analytical methods is of great importance to ensure the reliability of results and to avoid unjustified legal consequences. A key to high quality analytical methods is a thorough method development. The presented article will provide an overview on the process of developing methods for forensic applications. This includes the definition of the method's purpose (e.g. qualitative vs quantitative) and the analytes to be included, choosing an appropriate sample matrix, setting up separation and detection systems as well as establishing a versatile sample preparation. Method development is concluded by an optimization process after which the new method is subject to method validation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Testing of Binders Toxicological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokova, V.; Nelyubova, V.; Rykunova, M.

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the results of a study of the toxicological effect of binders with different compositions on the vital activity of plant and animal test-objects. The analysis of the effect on plant cultures was made on the basis of the phytotesting data. The study of the effect of binders on objects of animal origin was carried out using the method of short-term testing. Based on the data obtained, binders are ranked according to the degree of increase in the toxic effect: Gypsum → Portland cement → Slag Portland cement. Regardless of the test-object type, the influence of binders is due to the release of various elements (calcium ions or heavy metals) into the solution. In case of plant cultures, the saturation of the solution with elements has a positive effect (there is no inhibitory effect), and in case of animal specimens - an increase in the toxic effect.

  16. Information resources in toxicology--Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preziosi, Paolo; Dracos, Adriana; Marcello, Ida

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to provide an overview of current resources in the field of toxicology in Italy. The discussion will begin with a brief history of toxicology in this country, which includes the study of the toxicity of plants and other natural substances, and the birth of industrial and forensic toxicology. We will also provide information on research, education, and hazard control in the field of toxicology. Within this context we will examine the public bodies responsible for surveillance and regulatory activities, state-owned and private structures involved in toxicological research, and the educational programs and research activities of universities. Particular emphasis will be placed on the activities of the National Health Service, which plays an important role in areas such as clinical toxicology, food safety, and animal health, as well as those of national and regional agencies dedicated to the protection of the environment. The presentation will be organized as follows: - A Brief History of Toxicology in Italy; - Professional Societies; - National Health Service; - National Bodies; - Resources for the Environment; - Biomedical Websites; - Recent Publications; - Research Structures; - Graduate and Postgraduate Programs; - Legislation

  17. Predictive toxicology: the paths of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detilleux, Ph.; Vallier, L.; Legallais, C.; Leclerc, E.; Prot, J.M.; Choucha, L.; Baudoin, R.; Dufresne, M.; Gautier, A.; Carpentier, B.; Mansuy, D.; Pery, A.; Brochot, C.; Manivet, Ph.; Rabilloud, Th.; Spire, C.; Coumoul, X.; Junot, Ch.; Laprevote, O.; Le pape, A.; Le Guevel, R.; Tourneur, E.; Ben Mkaddem, S.; Chassin, C.; Aloulou, M.; Goujon, J.M.; Hertif, A.; Ouali, N.; Vimont, S.; Monteiro, R.; Rondeau, E.; Elbim, C.; Werts, C.; Vandewalle, A.; Ben Mkaddem, S.; Pedruzzi, E.; Coant, N.; Bens, M.; Cluzeaud, F.; Ogier-Denis, E.; Pongnimitprasert, N.; Babin-Chevaye, C.; Fay, M.; Bernard, M.; Dupuy, C.; Ei Benna, J.; Gougerot-Pocidale, M.A.; Braut-Boucher, F.; Pinton, Ph.; Lucioli, J.; Tsybulskyy, D.; Joly, B.; Laffitte, J.; Bourges-Abella, N.; Oswald, I.P.; Kolf-Clauw, M.; Pierre, St.; Bats, A.S.; Chevallier, A.; Bui, L.Ch.; Ambolet-Camoit, A.; Garlatti, M.; Aggerbeck, M.; Barouki, R.; Al Khansa, I.; Blanck, O.; Guillouzo, A.; Bars, R.; Rouas, C.; Bensoussan, H.; Suhard, D.; Tessier, C.; Grandcolas, L.; Pallardy, M.; Gueguen, Y.; Sparfel, L.; Pinel-Marie, M.L.; Boize, M.; Koscielny, S.; Desmots, S.; Pery, A.; Fardel, O.; Alvergnas, M.; Rouleau, A.; Lucchi, G.; Mantion, G.; Heyd, B.; Richert, L.; Ducoroy, P.; Martin, H.; Val, St.; Martinon, L.; Cachier, H.; Yahyaoui, A.; Marfaing, H.; Baeza-Squiban, A.; Martin-Chouly, C.; Bonvallet, M.; Morzadec, C.; Fardel, O.; Vernhet, L.; Baverel, G.; El Hage, M.; Nazaret, R.; Conjard-Duplany, A.; Ferrier, B.; Martin, G.; Legendre, A.; Desmots, S.; Lecomte, A.; Froment, P.; Habert, R.; Lemazurier, E.; Robinel, F.; Dupont, O.; Sanfins, E.; Dairou, J.; Chaffotte, A.F.; Busi, F.; Rodrigues Lima, F.; Dupret, J.M.; Mayati, A.; Le Ferrec, E.; Levoin, N.; Paris, H.; Uriac, Ph.; N'Diaye, M.; Lagadic-Gossmann, D.; Fardel, O.; Assemat, E.; Boublil, L.; Borot, M.C.; Marano, F.; Baeza-Squiban, A.; Martiny, V.Y.; Moroy, G.; Badel, A.; Miteva, M.A.; Hussain, S.; Ferecatu, I.; Borot, C.; Andreau, K.; Baeza-Squiban, A.; Marano, F.; Boland, S.; Leroux, M.; Zucchini-Pascal, N.; Peyre, L.; Rahmani, R.; Buron, N.; Porcedou, M.; Fromenty, B.; Borgne-Sanchez, A.; Rogue, A.; Spire, C.; Claude, N.; Guillouzo, A.

    2010-01-01

    Prevention of possible noxious effects in relation with the exposure to one or several chemical, physical or biological agents present in our domestic or professional environment is one of today's big public health stakes. Another stake is the better assessment of the risks linked with the use of health-care products. The efficacy and predictiveness of toxicology studies are directly related to the combination of alternate complementary methods and animal experiments (obtaining data from different species and with different models: in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo). Despite important efforts, the toxicological evaluation remains perfectible. The proceedings of this 2010 congress of the French Society of cell pharmaco-toxicology deal with recent advances, both scientific and technological, in 'predictive toxicology'. Four main topics are approached: cell and organ models, 'omics', in silico modeling, and new technologies (imaging, cell ships, high-speed processing). Among the different presentations, 3 abstracts present some recent advances in imaging techniques applied to toxicology studies. These are: 1 - first uses in toxicology of TOF-SIMS mass spectroscopy imaging (O. Laprevote, Paris-Descartes Univ. (FR)); 2 - Small animal imaging, a tool for predictive toxicology (A. Le Pape, CNRS Orleans (FR)); 3 - uranium localization at cell level using SIMS imaging technique (C. Rouas et al., IRSN Fontenay-aux-Roses (FR)). (J.S.)

  18. A primer on systematic reviews in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; de Vries, Rob B M; Stephens, Martin L; Beck, Nancy B; Dirven, Hubert A A M; Fowle, John R; Goodman, Julie E; Hartung, Thomas; Kimber, Ian; Lalu, Manoj M; Thayer, Kristina; Whaley, Paul; Wikoff, Daniele; Tsaioun, Katya

    2017-07-01

    Systematic reviews, pioneered in the clinical field, provide a transparent, methodologically rigorous and reproducible means of summarizing the available evidence on a precisely framed research question. Having matured to a well-established approach in many research fields, systematic reviews are receiving increasing attention as a potential tool for answering toxicological questions. In the larger framework of evidence-based toxicology, the advantages and obstacles of, as well as the approaches for, adapting and adopting systematic reviews to toxicology are still being explored. To provide the toxicology community with a starting point for conducting or understanding systematic reviews, we herein summarized available guidance documents from various fields of application. We have elaborated on the systematic review process by breaking it down into ten steps, starting with planning the project, framing the question, and writing and publishing the protocol, and concluding with interpretation and reporting. In addition, we have identified the specific methodological challenges of toxicological questions and have summarized how these can be addressed. Ultimately, this primer is intended to stimulate scientific discussions of the identified issues to fuel the development of toxicology-specific methodology and to encourage the application of systematic review methodology to toxicological issues.

  19. Historical perspectives on cadmium toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordberg, Gunnar F.

    2009-01-01

    The first health effects of cadmium (Cd) were reported already in 1858. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred among persons using Cd-containing polishing agent. The first experimental toxicological studies are from 1919. Bone effects and proteinuria in humans were reported in the 1940's. After World War II, a bone disease with fractures and severe pain, the itai-itai disease, a form of Cd-induced renal osteomalacia, was identified in Japan. Subsequently, the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of Cd were described including its binding to the protein metallothionein. International warnings of health risks from Cd-pollution were issued in the 1970's. Reproductive and carcinogenic effects were studied at an early stage, but a quantitative assessment of these effects in humans is still subject to considerable uncertainty. The World Health Organization in its International Program on Chemical Safety, WHO/IPCS (1992) (Cadmium. Environmental Health Criteria Document 134, IPCS. WHO, Geneva, 1-280.) identified renal dysfunction as the critical effect and a crude quantitative evaluation was presented. In the 1990's and 2000 several epidemiological studies have reported adverse health effects, sometimes at low environmental exposures to Cd, in population groups in Japan, China, Europe and USA (reviewed in other contributions to the present volume). The early identification of an important role of metallothionein in cadmium toxicology formed the basis for recent studies using biomarkers of susceptibility to development of Cd-related renal dysfunction such as gene expression of metallothionein in peripheral lymphocytes and autoantibodies against metallothionein in blood plasma. Findings in these studies indicate that very low exposure levels to cadmium may give rise to renal dysfunction among sensitive subgroups of human populations such as persons with diabetes.

  20. Lunar remote sensing and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H.J.; Boyce, J.M.; Schaber, G.G.; Scott, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing and measurements of the Moon from Apollo orbiting spacecraft and Earth form a basis for extrapolation of Apollo surface data to regions of the Moon where manned and unmanned spacecraft have not been and may be used to discover target regions for future lunar exploration which will produce the highest scientific yields. Orbital remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) relative ages and inferred absolute ages, (2) gravity, (3) magnetism, (4) chemical composition, and (5) reflection of radar waves (bistatic). Earth-based remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) reflection of sunlight, (2) reflection and scattering of radar waves, and (3) infrared eclipse temperatures. Photographs from the Apollo missions, Lunar Orbiters, and other sources provide a fundamental source of data on the geology and topography of the Moon and a basis for comparing, correlating, and testing the remote sensing and measurements. Relative ages obtained from crater statistics and then empirically correlated with absolute ages indicate that significant lunar volcanism continued to 2.5 b.y. (billion years) ago-some 600 m.y. (million years) after the youngest volcanic rocks sampled by Apollo-and that intensive bombardment of the Moon occurred in the interval of 3.84 to 3.9 b.y. ago. Estimated fluxes of crater-producing objects during the last 50 m.y. agree fairly well with fluxes measured by the Apollo passive seismic stations. Gravity measurements obtained by observing orbiting spacecraft reveal that mare basins have mass concentrations and that the volume of material ejected from the Orientale basin is near 2 to 5 million km 3 depending on whether there has or has not been isostatic compensation, little or none of which has occurred since 3.84 b.y. ago. Isostatic compensation may have occurred in some of the old large lunar basins, but more data are needed to prove it. Steady fields of remanent magnetism were detected by the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites

  1. Galactic dust and extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyngaa, G.

    1979-01-01

    The ratio R between visual extinction and colour excess, is slightly larger than 3 and does not vary much throughout our part of the Galaxy. The distribution of dust in the galactic plane shows, on the large scale, a gradient with higher colour excesses towards l=50 0 than towards l=230 0 . On the smaller scale, much of the dust responsible for extinction is situated in clouds which tend to group together. The correlation between positions of interstellar dust clouds and positions of spiral tracers seems rather poor in our Galaxy. However, concentrated dark clouds as well as extended regions of dust show an inclined distribution similar to the Gould belt of bright stars. (Auth.)

  2. The ESA Lunar Lander and the search for Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Waltham, N. R.; Waugh, L. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2011-10-01

    Following the Apollo era the moon was considered a volatile poor body. Samples collected from the Apollo missions contained only ppm levels of water formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the lunar regolith [1]. However more recent orbiter observations have indicated that water may exist as water ice in cold polar regions buried within craters at concentrations of a few wt. % [2]. Infrared images from M3 on Chandrayaan-1 have been interpreted as showing the presence of hydrated surface minerals with the ongoing hydroxyl/water process feeding cold polar traps. This has been supported by observation of ephemeral features termed "space dew" [3]. Meanwhile laboratory studies indicate that water could be present in appreciable quantities in lunar rocks [4] and could also have a cometary source [5]. The presence of sufficient quantities of volatiles could provide a resource which would simplify logistics for long term lunar missions. The European Space Agency (ESA's Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations) have provisionally scheduled a robotic mission to demonstrate key technologies to enable later human exploration. Planned for launch in 2018, the primary aim is for precise automated landing, with hazard avoidance, in zones which are almost constantly illuminated (e.g. at the edge of the Shackleton crater at the lunar south pole). These regions would enable the solar powered Lander to survive for long periods > 6 months, but require accurate navigation to within 200m. Although landing in an illuminated area, these regions are close to permanently shadowed volatile rich regions and the analysis of volatiles is a major science objective of the mission. The straw man payload includes provision for a Lunar Volatile and Resources Analysis Package (LVRAP). The authors have been commissioned by ESA to conduct an evaluation of possible technologies to be included in L-VRAP which can be included within the Lander payload. Scientific aims are to demonstrate the

  3. Transport dynamics calculated under the full Mie scattering theory for micron and submicron lunar ejecta in selenocentric, cislunar, and geocentric space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, T. W.; Alexander, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    In 1967, Lunar Explorer 35 was launched from the earth and placed into a stable orbit around the moon. The data from the dust particle experiment on this spacecraft were essentially continuous over a 5-yr period from the time of insertion in lunar orbit. Analysis of this data has been interpreted to show that micron-sized lunar ejecta leave the moon and traverse through selenocentric and cislunar space and obtain either interplanetary/heliocentric orbits or intercept the earth's magnetosphere and move into geocentric orbits. Extensive studies of the orbital trajectories of lunar particles in this size range have now been conducted that include a calculation of the solar radiation force using the full Mie scattering theory. A significant flux of particles with radii less than 0.1 micron are found to intercept the earth's magnetopause surface. This flux is shown to be strongly dependent upon both the particle's density and its index of refraction.

  4. Radioisotope dust pollution monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szepke, R.; Harasimczuk, J.; Dobrowiecki, J.

    1990-01-01

    Measuring principles and specification of two dust monitors: station-type AMIZ and portable-type PIK-10 for ambient air pollution are presented. The first one, a fully automatic instrument is destined for permanent monitoring of air pollution in preset sampling time from .25 to 24 hours. The second one was developed as a portable working model. Both instruments display their results in digital form in dust concentration units. (author)

  5. Coal dust symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    This paper gives a report of the paper presented at the symposium held in Hanover on 9 and 10 February 1981. The topics include: the behaviour of dust and coal dust on combustion and explosion; a report on the accidents which occurred at the Laegerdorf cement works' coal crushing and drying plant; current safety requirements at coal crushing and drying plant; and coal crushing and drying. Four papers are individually abstracted. (In German)

  6. Dust devil generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G Onishchenko, O; A Pokhotelov, O; Horton, W; Stenflo, L

    2014-01-01

    The equations describing axi-symmetric nonlinear internal gravity waves in an unstable atmosphere are derived. A hydrodynamic model of a dust devil generation mechanism in such an atmosphere is investigated. It is shown that in an unstably stratified atmosphere the convective plumes with poloidal motion can grow exponentially. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that these convective plumes in an atmosphere with weak large scale toroidal motion are unstable with respect to three-dimensional dust devil generation. (papers)

  7. Predictive Toxicology: Current Status and Future Outlook (EBI ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slide presentation at the EBI-EMBL Industry Programme Workshop on Predictive Toxicology and the currently status of Computational Toxicology activities at the US EPA. Slide presentation at the EBI-EMBL Industry Programme Workshop on Predictive Toxicology and the currently status of Computational Toxicology activities at the US EPA.

  8. Principles and procedures in forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, John F

    2012-09-01

    The principles and procedures employed in a modern forensic toxicology lab are detailed in this review. Aspects of Behavioral and Postmortem toxicology, including certification of analysts and accreditation of labs, chain of custody requirements, typical testing services provided, rationale for specimen selection, and principles of quality assurance are discussed. Interpretation of toxicology results in postmortem specimens requires the toxicologist and pathologist to be cognizant of drug-drug interactions, drug polymorphisms and pharmacogenomics, the gross signs of toxic pathology, postmortem redistribution, confirmation of systemic toxicity in suspected overdoses, the possibility of developed tolerance, and the effects of decomposition on drug concentration.

  9. How to re-discover lunar variation of precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejkrlik, L.

    2003-04-01

    In the course of history of human civilization the observers of nature believed in lunar influence on weather. This plain belief changed into scientific knowledge after reasonable amount of reliable weather records had been collected and examined by statistical methods. In the 19th and 20th Centuries meteorologists tried to detect lunar component in weather data, often with varying success. In the early 1960s of the last century scientists in the USA and Australia almost simultaneously published papers demonstrating the existence of an significant and persistent synodical variation of heavy rainfall in two extensive datasets from distant parts of the world. In fact a pair of authors from Sydney, E. E. Adderley and E. G. Bowen postponed the publication of their results in fear they would not have met the right response in meteorological circles. During the next decade, however, the observed phenomenon of excessive precipitation recorded near the middle of the first and third weeks of the synodical month had been widely accepted and the proposed explanation related to meteoritic dust had even been referred to as the "Bowen hypothesis". The following years saw decline in the interest of the geophysical community in this matter. The reason might be that the effect was not observed in current precipitation series. An analysis of the daily rainfall at Prague-Clementinum in the years 1901-2002 was carried out by method similar to Bowen's. The method of superposition of epochs was applied on ever synodical sub-series during 78 sub-sequent 25-year periods. The resulting 3-dimensional picture indicates that the lunar signal, which resembled the original one until the 1930s changed significantly for the next 20 years. The important result of this analysis is that for 25-year periods which include the data since approx. 1970 is the effect even more pronounced and therefore more noticeable for people still denying its existence.

  10. The Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) Paradigm Versus the Realities of Lunar Anorthosites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.; Gross, J.

    2018-05-01

    The paradigm of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) is inconsistent with much chemical and compositional data on lunar anorthosites. The paradigm of serial anorthosite diapirism is more consistent, though not a panacea.

  11. Experimental Simulations to Understand the Lunar and Martian Surficial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. Y. S.; Li, X.; Tang, H.; Li, Y.; Zeng, X.; Chang, R.; Li, S.; Zhang, S.; Jin, H.; Mo, B.; Li, R.; Yu, W.; Wang, S.

    2016-12-01

    In support with China's Lunar and Mars exploration programs and beyond, our center is dedicated to understand the surficial processes and environments of planetary bodies. Over the latest several years, we design, build and optimize experimental simulation facilities and utilize them to test hypotheses and evaluate affecting mechanisms under controlled conditions particularly relevant to the Moon and Mars. Among the fundamental questions to address, we emphasize on five major areas: (1) Micrometeorites bombardment simulation to evaluate the formation mechanisms of np-Fe0 which was found in lunar samples and the possible sources of Fe. (2) Solar wind implantation simulation to evaluate the alteration/amorphization/OH or H2O formation on the surface of target minerals or rocks. (3) Dusts mobility characteristics on the Moon and other planetary bodies by excitation different types of dust particles and measuring their movements. (4) Mars basaltic soil simulant development (e.g., Jining Martian Soil Simulant (JMSS-1)) and applications for scientific/engineering experiments. (5) Halogens (Cl and Br) and life essential elements (C, H, O, N, P, and S) distribution and speciation on Mars during surficial processes such as sedimentary- and photochemical- related processes. Depending on the variables of interest, the simulation systems provide flexibility to vary source of energy, temperature, pressure, and ambient gas composition in the reaction chambers. Also, simulation products can be observed or analyzed in-situ by various analyzer components inside the chamber, without interrupting the experimental conditions. In addition, behavior of elements and isotopes during certain surficial processes (e.g., evaporation, dissolution, etc.) can be theoretically predicted by our theoretical geochemistry group with thermodynamics-kinetics calculation and modeling, which supports experiment design and result interpretation.

  12. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 20th, Houston, TX, Mar. 13-17, 1989, Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpton, V.L.; Ryder, G.

    1990-01-01

    Topics discussed include the petrology and geochemistry of the moon, the geology of the moon, lunar regolith processes and resources, the petrology and geochemistry of achondrites, comets and interplanetary dust, shock and terrestrial cratering, the geology of Mars, and the geology of Venus. Papers are presented on silicate liquid immiscibility in isothermal crystallization experiments; highly evolved and ultramafic lithologies from Apollo 14 soils; the relationship between orbital, earth-based, and sample data for lunar landing sites; and the volcanotectonic evolution of Mare Frigoris. Attention is also given to glass variants and multiple HASP trends in Apollo 14 regolith breccias, the characterization of lunar ilmenite resources, the U-Th-Pb systematics of the Estherville mesosiderite, and the extraterrestrial halogen and sulfur contents of the stratosphere. Other papers are on argon-40/argon-39 dating of impact craters; the outliers of dust along the southern margin of the Tharsis region, Mars; and the geology of southern Guinevere Planitia, Venus, based on analyses of Goldstone radar data

  13. Lunar Meteoroid Impacts and How to Observe Them

    CERN Document Server

    Cudnik, Brian

    2009-01-01

    We all know that the pock marked face of the Moon looks the way it does because it was hit by meteors. But not many people know that this is still happening today. While the era of major impacts is over, lunar meteorites still cause flashes and puffs of gas, vaporized rock, and dust that we can observe. The Moon itself has a fascinating history. It is now thought to have been formed after a Mars-sized object collided with Earth and stripped off a portion of its mass. This debris took shape within a few hundred years and was originally much closer to our planet. The craters on its surface were largely formed by intense meteorite and asteroid bombardment between 4.6 billion and 3.8 billion years ago. In this comprehensive book, Brian Cudnik, one of the first people to observe a meteorite impact on the Moon in real time, shows how both amateur and practical astronomers can look for these ‘lunar transient phenomena,’ or LTPs. He explains in detail the processes that formed the craters and impact marks we see ...

  14. Soil stabilization mat for lunar launch/landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acord, Amy L.; Cohenour, Mark W.; Ephraim, Daniel; Gochoel, Dennis; Roberts, Jefferson G.

    1990-01-01

    Facilities which are capable of handling frequent arrivals and departures of spaceships between Earth and a lunar colony are necessary. The facility must be able to provide these services with minimal interruption of operational activity within the colony. The major concerns associated with the space traffic are the dust and rock particles that will be kicked up by the rocket exhaust. As a result of the reduced gravitation of the Moon, these particles scatter over large horizontal distances. This flying debris will not only seriously interrupt the routine operations of the colony, but could cause damage to the equipment and facilities surrounding the launch site. An approach to overcome this problem is presented. A proposed design for a lunar take-off/landing mat is presented. This proposal goes beyond dealing with the usual problems of heat and load resistances associated with take-off and landing, by solving the problem of soil stabilization at the site. Through adequate stabilization, the problem of flying debris is eliminated.

  15. Multiscale Toxicology- Building the Next Generation Tools for Toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retterer, S. T. [ORNL; Holsapple, M. P. [Battelle Memorial Institute

    2013-10-31

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was established between Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) with the goal of combining the analytical and synthetic strengths of the National Laboratories with BMI's expertise in basic and translational medical research to develop a collaborative pipeline and suite of high throughput and imaging technologies that could be used to provide a more comprehensive understanding of material and drug toxicology in humans. The Multi-Scale Toxicity Initiative (MSTI), consisting of the team members above, was established to coordinate cellular scale, high-throughput in vitro testing, computational modeling and whole animal in vivo toxicology studies between MSTI team members. Development of a common, well-characterized set of materials for testing was identified as a crucial need for the initiative. Two research tracks were established by BMI during the course of the CRADA. The first research track focused on the development of tools and techniques for understanding the toxicity of nanomaterials, specifically inorganic nanoparticles (NPs). ORNL"s work focused primarily on the synthesis, functionalization and characterization of a common set of NPs for dissemination to the participating laboratories. These particles were synthesized to retain the same surface characteristics and size, but to allow visualization using the variety of imaging technologies present across the team. Characterization included the quantitative analysis of physical and chemical properties of the materials as well as the preliminary assessment of NP toxicity using commercially available toxicity screens and emerging optical imaging strategies. Additional efforts examined the development of high-throughput microfluidic and imaging assays for measuring NP uptake, localization, and

  16. Lunar domes properties and formation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Lena, Raffaello; Phillips, Jim; Chiocchetta, Maria Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Lunar domes are structures of volcanic origin which are usually difficult to observe due to their low heights. The Lunar Domes Handbook is a reference work on these elusive features. It provides a collection of images for a large number of lunar domes, including telescopic images acquired with advanced but still moderately intricate amateur equipment as well as recent orbital spacecraft images. Different methods for determining the morphometric properties of lunar domes (diameter, height, flank slope, edifice volume) from image data or orbital topographic data are discussed. Additionally, multispectral and hyperspectral image data are examined, providing insights into the composition of the dome material. Several classification schemes for lunar domes are described, including an approach based on the determined morphometric quantities and spectral analyses. Furthermore, the book provides a description of geophysical models of lunar domes, which yield information about the properties of the lava from which the...

  17. Lower-Cost, Relocatable Lunar Polar Lander and Lunar Surface Sample Return Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, G. Michael; Garvin, James B.; Burt, I. Joseph; Karpati, Gabe

    2011-01-01

    Key science and exploration objectives of lunar robotic precursor missions can be achieved with the Lunar Explorer (LEx) low-cost, robotic surface mission concept described herein. Selected elements of the LEx concept can also be used to create a lunar surface sample return mission that we have called Boomerang

  18. Infrared Lunar Laser Ranging at Calern : Impact on Lunar Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vishnu; Fienga, Agnes; Manche, Herve; Gastineau, Mickael; Courde, Clement; Torre, Jean Marie; Exertier, Pierre; Laskar, Jacques

    2017-04-01

    Introduction: Since 2015, in addition to the traditional green (532nm), infrared (1064nm) has been the preferred wavelength for lunar laser ranging at the Calern lunar laser ranging (LLR) site in France. Due to the better atmospheric transmission of IR with respect to Green, nearly 3 times the number of normal points have been obtained in IR than in Green [1]. Dataset: In our study, in addition to the historical data obtained from various other LLR sites, we include the recent IR normal points obtained from Calern over the 1 year time span (2015-2016), constituting about 4.2% of data spread over 46 years of LLR. Near even distribution of data provided by IR on both the spatial and temporal domain, helps us to improve constraints on the internal structure of the Moon modeled within the planetary ephemeris : INPOP [2]. Data reduction: IERS recommended models have been used in the data reduction software GINS (GRGS,CNES) [3]. Constraints provided by GRAIL [4], on the Lunar gravitational potential and Love numbers have been taken into account in the least-square fit procedure. Earth orientation parameters from KEOF series have been used as per a recent study [5]. Results: New estimates on the dynamical parameters of the lunar core will be presented. Acknowledgements: We thank the lunar laser ranging observers at Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France, McDonald Observatory, Texas, Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii, and Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico for providing LLR observations that made this study possible. The research described in this abstract was carried out at Geoazur-CNRS, France, as a part of a PhD thesis funded by Observatoire de Paris and French Ministry of Education and Research. References: [1] Clement C. et al. (2016) submitted to A&A [2] Fienga A. et al. (2015) Celest Mech Dyn Astr, 123: 325. doi:10.1007/s10569-015-9639-y [3] Viswanathan V. et al. (2015) EGU, Abstract 18, 13995 [4] Konopliv A. S. et al. (2013) J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 118, 1415

  19. Energy for lunar resource exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1992-02-01

    Humanity stands at the threshold of exploiting the known lunar resources that have opened up with the access to space. America's role in the future exploitation of space, and specifically of lunar resources, may well determine the level of achievement in technology development and global economic competition. Space activities during the coming decades will significantly influence the events on Earth. The 'shifting of history's tectonic plates' is a process that will be hastened by the increasingly insistent demands for higher living standards of the exponentially growing global population. Key to the achievement of a peaceful world in the 21st century, will be the development of a mix of energy resources at a societally acceptable and affordable cost within a realistic planning horizon. This must be the theme for the globally applicable energy sources that are compatible with the Earth's ecology. It is in this context that lunar resources development should be a primary goal for science missions to the Moon, and for establishing an expanding human presence. The economic viability and commercial business potential of mining, extracting, manufacturing, and transporting lunar resource based materials to Earth, Earth orbits, and to undertake macroengineering projects on the Moon remains to be demonstrated. These extensive activities will be supportive of the realization of the potential of space energy sources for use on Earth. These may include generating electricity for use on Earth based on beaming power from Earth orbits and from the Moon to the Earth, and for the production of helium 3 as a fuel for advanced fusion reactors.

  20. Techniques for Investigating Molecular Toxicology of Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Li, Chenchen; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Lei, Zhendong; Wu, Minghong

    2016-06-01

    Nanotechnology has been a rapidly developing field in the past few decades, resulting in the more and more exposure of nanomaterials to human. The increased applications of nanomaterials for industrial, commercial and life purposes, such as fillers, catalysts, semiconductors, paints, cosmetic additives and drug carriers, have caused both obvious and potential impacts on human health and environment. Nanotoxicology is used to study the safety of nanomaterials and has grown at the historic moment. Molecular toxicology is a new subdiscipline to study the interactions and impacts of materials at the molecular level. To better understand the relationship between the molecular toxicology and nanomaterials, this review summarizes the typical techniques and methods in molecular toxicology which are applied when investigating the toxicology of nanomaterials and include six categories: namely; genetic mutation detection, gene expression analysis, DNA damage detection, chromosomal aberration analysis, proteomics, and metabolomics. Each category involves several experimental techniques and methods.

  1. Comparative BioInformatics and Computational Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reflecting the numerous changes in the field since the publication of the previous edition, this third edition of Developmental Toxicology focuses on the mechanisms of developmental toxicity and incorporates current technologies for testing in the risk assessment process.

  2. Pulmonary toxicology of respirable particles. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, C.L.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A. (eds.)

    1980-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 44 papers presented in these proceedings. The last paper (Stannard) in the proceedings is an historical review of the field of inhalation toxicology and is not included in the analytics. (DS)

  3. Environmental chemistry and toxicology of mercury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Guangliang; Cai, Yong; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

    2012-01-01

    ... employed in recent studies. The coverage discusses the environmental behavior and toxicological effects of mercury on organisms, including humans, and provides case studies at the end of each chapter...

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of Chloroform (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Chloroform: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Chloroform and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  5. Multiscale Toxicology - Building the Next Generation Tools for Toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrall, Brian D.; Minard, Kevin R.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2012-09-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was sponsored by Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle, Columbus), to initiate a collaborative research program across multiple Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories aimed at developing a suite of new capabilities for predictive toxicology. Predicting the potential toxicity of emerging classes of engineered nanomaterials was chosen as one of two focusing problems for this program. PNNL’s focus toward this broader goal was to refine and apply experimental and computational tools needed to provide quantitative understanding of nanoparticle dosimetry for in vitro cell culture systems, which is necessary for comparative risk estimates for different nanomaterials or biological systems. Research conducted using lung epithelial and macrophage cell models successfully adapted magnetic particle detection and fluorescent microscopy technologies to quantify uptake of various forms of engineered nanoparticles, and provided experimental constraints and test datasets for benchmark comparison against results obtained using an in vitro computational dosimetry model, termed the ISSD model. The experimental and computational approaches developed were used to demonstrate how cell dosimetry is applied to aid in interpretation of genomic studies of nanoparticle-mediated biological responses in model cell culture systems. The combined experimental and theoretical approach provides a highly quantitative framework for evaluating relationships between biocompatibility of nanoparticles and their physical form in a controlled manner.

  6. Production of Synthetic Lunar Simulants, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Zybek Advanced Products has proven the ability to produce industrial quantities of lunar simulant materials, including glass, agglutinate and melt breccias. These...

  7. NASA Lunar Mining and Construction Activities and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    2009-01-01

    the need to implement efforts that are sustainable and affordable. One area NASA is developing that can significantly change how systems required for sustained human presence are designed and integrated, as well as potentially break our reliance on Earth supplied logistics, is In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). ISRU, also known living off the land, involves the extraction and processing of local resources into useful products. In particular, the ability to make propellants, life support consumables, fuel cell reagents, and radiation shielding can significantly reduce the cost, mass, and risk of sustained human activities beyond Earth. Also, the ability to modify the lunar landscape for safer landing, transfer of payloads from the lander an outpost, dust generation mitigation, and infrastructure placement and buildup are also extremely important for long-term lunar operations. While extra-terrestrial excavation, material handling and processing, and site preparation and construction may be new to NASA and other space agencies, there is extensive terrestrial hardware and commercial experience that can be leveraged. This paper will provide an overview of current NASA activities in lunar ISRU mining and construction and how terrestrial experience in these areas are important to achieving the goal of affordable and sustainable human exploration.

  8. Development of a lunar infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J. D.

    If humans are to reside continuously and productively on the Moon, they must be surrounded and supported there by an infrastructure having some attributes of the support systems that have made advanced civilization possible on Earth. Building this lunar infrastructure will, in a sense, be an investment. Creating it will require large resources from Earth, but once it exists it can do much to limit the further demands of a lunar base for Earthside support. What is needed for a viable lunar infrastructure? This question can be approached from two directions. The first is to examine history, which is essentially a record of growing information structures among humans on Earth (tribes, agriculture, specialization of work, education, ethics, arts and sciences, cities and states, technology). The second approach is much less secure but may provide useful insights: it is to examine the minimal needs of a small human community - not just for physical survival but for a stable existence with a net product output. This paper presents a summary, based on present knowledge of the Moon and of the likely functions of a human community there, of some of these infrastructure requirements, and also discusses possible ways to proceed toward meeting early infrastructure needs.

  9. Fractal dust grains in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.; Peng, R. D.; Liu, Y. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Ye, M. F.; Wang, L.

    2012-01-01

    Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

  10. Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice. PMID:17579968

  11. Integrative Systems Biology Applied to Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsbak, Kristine Grønning

    associated with combined exposure to multiple chemicals. Testing all possible combinations of the tens of thousands environmental chemicals is impractical. This PhD project was launched to apply existing computational systems biology methods to toxicological research. In this thesis, I present in three...... of a system thereby suggesting new ways of thinking specific toxicological endpoints. Furthermore, computational methods can serve as valuable input for the hypothesis generating phase of the preparations of a research project....

  12. Lunar feldspathic meteorites: Constraints on the geology of the lunar highlands, and the origin of the lunar crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Juliane; Treiman, Allan H.; Mercer, Celestine N.

    2014-02-01

    The composition of the lunar crust provides clues about the processes that formed it and hence contains information on the origin and evolution of the Moon. Current understanding of lunar evolution is built on the Lunar Magma Ocean hypothesis that early in its history, the Moon was wholly or mostly molten. This hypothesis is based on analyses of Apollo samples of ferroan anorthosites (>90% plagioclase; molar Mg/(Mg+Fe)=Mg#Moon's surface, and remote sensing data, show that ferroan anorthosites are not globally distributed and that the Apollo highland samples, used as a basis for the model, are influenced by ejecta from the Imbrium basin. In this study we evaluate anorthosites from all currently available adequately described lunar highland meteorites, representing a more widespread sampling of the lunar highlands than Apollo samples alone, and find that ∼80% of them are significantly more magnesian than Apollo ferroan anorthosites. Interestingly, Luna mission anorthosites, collected outside the continuous Imbrium ejecta, are also highly magnesian. If the lunar highland crust consists dominantly of magnesian anorthosites, as suggested by their abundance in samples sourced outside Imbrium ejecta, a reevaluation of the Lunar Magma Ocean model is a sensible step forward in the endeavor to understand lunar evolution. Our results demonstrate that lunar anorthosites are more similar in their chemical trends and mineral abundance to terrestrial massif anorthosites than to anorthosites predicted in a Lunar Magma Ocean. This analysis does not invalidate the idea of a Lunar Magma Ocean, which seems a necessity under the giant impact hypothesis for the origin of the moon. However, it does indicate that most rocks now seen at the Moon's surface are not primary products of a magma ocean alone, but are products of more complex crustal processes.

  13. Sahara Dust Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Dust Particles Click on the image for Quicktime movie from 7/15-7/24 A continent-sized cloud of hot air and dust originating from the Sahara Desert crossed the Atlantic Ocean and headed towards Florida and the Caribbean. A Saharan Air Layer, or SAL, forms when dry air and dust rise from Africa's west coast and ride the trade winds above the Atlantic Ocean. These dust clouds are not uncommon, especially during the months of July and August. They start when weather patterns called tropical waves pick up dust from the desert in North Africa, carry it a couple of miles into the atmosphere and drift westward. In a sequence of images created by data acquired by the Earth-orbiting Atmospheric Infrared Sounder ranging from July 15 through July 24, we see the distribution of the cloud in the atmosphere as it swirls off of Africa and heads across the ocean to the west. Using the unique silicate spectral signatures of dust in the thermal infrared, AIRS can detect the presence of dust in the atmosphere day or night. This detection works best if there are no clouds present on top of the dust; when clouds are present, they can interfere with the signal, making it much harder to detect dust as in the case of July 24, 2005. In the Quicktime movie, the scale at the bottom of the images shows +1 for dust definitely detected, and ranges down to -1 for no dust detected. The plots are averaged over a number of AIRS observations falling within grid boxes, and so it is possible to obtain fractional numbers. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Total Water Vapor in the Atmosphere Around the Dust Cloud Click on the image for Quicktime movie The dust cloud is contained within a dry adiabatic layer which originates over the Sahara Desert. This Saharan Air Layer (SAL) advances Westward over the Atlantic Ocean, overriding the cool, moist air nearer the surface. This burst of very dry air is visible in the AIRS retrieved total water

  14. Electrodynamic Dust Shield Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankie, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the project was to design and manufacture a device to demonstrate a new technology developed by NASA's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory. The technology itself is a system which uses magnetic principles to remove regolith dust from its surface. This project was to create an enclosure that will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the invention to The Office of the Chief Technologist. ONE of the most important challenges of space exploration is actually caused by something very small and seemingly insignificant. Dust in space, most notably on the moon and Mars, has caused many unforeseen issues. Dirt and dust on Earth, while a nuisance, can be easily cleaned and kept at bay. However, there is considerably less weathering and erosion in space. As a result, the microscopic particles are extremely rough and abrasive. They are also electrostatically charged, so they cling to everything they make contact with. This was first noted to be a major problem during the Apollo missions. Dust would stick to the spacesuits, and could not be wiped off as predicted. Dust was brought back into the spacecraft, and was even inhaled by astronauts. This is a major health hazard. Atmospheric storms and other events can also cause dust to coat surfaces of spacecraft. This can cause abrasive damage to the craft. The coating can also reduce the effectiveness of thermal insulation and solar panels.' A group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory have developed a new technology, called the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, to help alleviate these problems. It is based off of the electric curtain concept developed at NASA in 1967. "The EDS is an active dust mitigation technology that uses traveling electric fields to transport electrostatically charged dust particles along surfaces. To generate the traveling electric fields, the EDS consists of a multilayer dielectric coating with an embedded thin electrode grid

  15. Synodic and semiannual oscillations of argon-40 in the lunar exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, R. Richard; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    The neutral mass spectrometer on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft collected a trove of exospheric data, including a set of high-quality measurements of radiogenic 40Ar over a period of 142 days. Data synthesis studies, using well-established exosphere simulation tools, show that the LADEE argon data are consistent with an exosphere-regolith interaction that is dominated by adsorption and that the desorption process generates the Armand distribution of exit velocities. The synthesis work has uncovered an apparent semiannual oscillation of argon that is consistent with temporal sequestration in the seasonal cold traps created at the poles by the obliquity of the Moon. In addition, the LADEE data provide new insight into the pristine nature of lunar regolith, its spatially varying sorption properties, and the influence of sorption processes on the synodic oscillation of the argon exosphere.

  16. [Toxicological evaluation in the childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Amparo; Rodrigo, Carlos; Marrón, M Teresa

    2014-03-01

    Intoxications in infancy require urgent medical treatment within national health systems. In our country they represent 0.3% of paediatric urgencies. Most of them are accidental intoxications but is not infrequent to find some related to child abuse or to suicidal intentions, especially in adolescence. The objectives of the study are to evaluate both clinical health care and medical legal aspects in intoxications in infancy. Medical assistance is described and it includes clinical diagnosis, typology of the more common toxics, percentages and referral to social work and emergency care equipment units of the Ministry of Social Welfare and the Department of Health or, where appropriate, directly to prosecutors and courts for their intervention. In cases of detection of alcohol, drugs or medication in infants, the importance of the correct interpretation of the results of toxicological findings is discussed. Several studies for the interpretation of results concerning the detection of these toxics are reported. Both legal aspects and the forensic medical opinion are assessed. The findings will be analysed by the judicial authority in order to circumscribe responsibilities or to take appropriate decisions concerning the protection of infants' interests. In conclusion intoxication in infancy can lead to legal proceedings requiring specific actions for their protection. Both physicians and hospitals must comply with the legal requirement of the submission to the court of judicial parties. On the other hand, this information is an interesting step toward reinforcing public health surveillance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Good Practices in Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript provides an overview for analysts, medical and scientific investigators, and laboratory administrators, the range of factors that should be considered to implement best practice forensic toxicology. These include laboratory influence over the collection of specimens, their proper transport and chain-of-custody before arrival in the laboratory. In addition, the laboratory needs to ensure properly trained staff use suitably validated and documented analytical procedures that meet the intended purpose and type of case in an accredited or suitably quality oriented management system. To assist the investigating officers laboratory results require an interpretation over their possible significance when sufficient details are available over the circumstances of the case. This requires a thorough understanding of the various factors that influence concentrations of substances and ultimately their likely physiological effect. These include consideration of the route of ingestion, influence over chronicity of usage on tissue concentrations and tolerance, possible combined drug effects or likely adverse reactions and consideration of relevant genetic factors that may have influenced pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic response. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Introduction: biomarkers in neurodevelopment toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needleman, H.L.

    1987-10-01

    The search for markers of toxicant exposure and effect upon the development of organisms presents a set of challenges that differ in many ways from those encountered in the study of markers in reproduction or pregnancy. These latter two fields specify a relatively narrow set of organs or biological systems. The term development, on the other hand, can apply to any organ system, or to any set of phenomena that changes in an ordered way over time. For this reason the papers presented in the session on development were chosen to narrow the focus to neurodevelopmental markers, as such markers may be altered by neurotoxic exposure. In attempting to meet this task, the authors have been able to select a group of investigators who work at the leading edges of their respective fields of developmental neuroanatomy, neurotoxicology, neuroendocrinology, neuropsychology, and infant development. The notion that toxicants could affect behavior certainly is not new. Recent knowledge that behavioral aberrations can occur at exposures below those which produce organic changes, and that behavioral aberrations can occur at exposures below those which produce organic changes, and that behavioral observation might provide early markers of effect has given rise to two new fields: behavioral toxicology and behavioral teratology.

  19. Data governance in predictive toxicology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xin; Wojak, Anna; Neagu, Daniel; Ridley, Mick; Travis, Kim

    2011-07-13

    Due to recent advances in data storage and sharing for further data processing in predictive toxicology, there is an increasing need for flexible data representations, secure and consistent data curation and automated data quality checking. Toxicity prediction involves multidisciplinary data. There are hundreds of collections of chemical, biological and toxicological data that are widely dispersed, mostly in the open literature, professional research bodies and commercial companies. In order to better manage and make full use of such large amount of toxicity data, there is a trend to develop functionalities aiming towards data governance in predictive toxicology to formalise a set of processes to guarantee high data quality and better data management. In this paper, data quality mainly refers in a data storage sense (e.g. accuracy, completeness and integrity) and not in a toxicological sense (e.g. the quality of experimental results). This paper reviews seven widely used predictive toxicology data sources and applications, with a particular focus on their data governance aspects, including: data accuracy, data completeness, data integrity, metadata and its management, data availability and data authorisation. This review reveals the current problems (e.g. lack of systematic and standard measures of data quality) and desirable needs (e.g. better management and further use of captured metadata and the development of flexible multi-level user access authorisation schemas) of predictive toxicology data sources development. The analytical results will help to address a significant gap in toxicology data quality assessment and lead to the development of novel frameworks for predictive toxicology data and model governance. While the discussed public data sources are well developed, there nevertheless remain some gaps in the development of a data governance framework to support predictive toxicology. In this paper, data governance is identified as the new challenge in

  20. Data governance in predictive toxicology: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Xin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to recent advances in data storage and sharing for further data processing in predictive toxicology, there is an increasing need for flexible data representations, secure and consistent data curation and automated data quality checking. Toxicity prediction involves multidisciplinary data. There are hundreds of collections of chemical, biological and toxicological data that are widely dispersed, mostly in the open literature, professional research bodies and commercial companies. In order to better manage and make full use of such large amount of toxicity data, there is a trend to develop functionalities aiming towards data governance in predictive toxicology to formalise a set of processes to guarantee high data quality and better data management. In this paper, data quality mainly refers in a data storage sense (e.g. accuracy, completeness and integrity and not in a toxicological sense (e.g. the quality of experimental results. Results This paper reviews seven widely used predictive toxicology data sources and applications, with a particular focus on their data governance aspects, including: data accuracy, data completeness, data integrity, metadata and its management, data availability and data authorisation. This review reveals the current problems (e.g. lack of systematic and standard measures of data quality and desirable needs (e.g. better management and further use of captured metadata and the development of flexible multi-level user access authorisation schemas of predictive toxicology data sources development. The analytical results will help to address a significant gap in toxicology data quality assessment and lead to the development of novel frameworks for predictive toxicology data and model governance. Conclusions While the discussed public data sources are well developed, there nevertheless remain some gaps in the development of a data governance framework to support predictive toxicology. In this paper

  1. Dust in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, S.

    1980-01-01

    A two-component dust model is suggested to explain the infrared emission from planetary nebulae. A cold dust component located in the extensive remnant of the red-giant envelope exterior to the visible nebula is responsible for the far-infrared emission. A ward dust component, which is condensed after the formation of the planetary nebula and confined within the ionized gas shell, emits most of the near- and mid-infrared radiation. The observations of NGC 7027 are shown to be consisten with such a model. The correlation of silicate emission in several planetary nebulae with an approximately +1 spectral index at low radio frequencies suggests that both the silicate and radio emissions originate from the remnant of the circumstellar envelope of th precursor star and are observable only while the planetary nebula is young. It is argued that oxygen-rich stars as well as carbon-rich stars can be progenitors of planetary nebulae

  2. Interstellar dust and extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    It is noted that the term interstellar dust refers to materials with rather different properties, and that the mean extinction law of Seaton (1979) or Savage and Mathis (1979) should be replaced by the expression given by Cardelli et al. (1989), using the appropriate value of total-to-selective extinction. The older laws were appropriate for the diffuse ISM but dust in clouds differs dramatically in its extinction law. Dust is heavily processed while in the ISM by being included within clouds and cycled back into the diffuse ISM many times during its lifetime. Hence, grains probably reflect only a trace of their origin, although meteoritic inclusions with isotopic anomalies demonstrate that some tiny particles survive intact from a supernova origin to the present. 186 refs

  3. Dust control for draglines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grad, P.

    2009-09-15

    Monitoring dust levels inside draglines reveals room for improvement in how filtration systems are used and maintained. The Australian firm BMT conducted a field test program to measure airflow parameters, dust fallout rates and dust concentrations, inside and outside the machine house, on four draglines and one shovel. The study involved computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The article describes how the tests were made and gives results. It was not possible to say which of the two main filtration systems currently used on Australian draglines - Dynavane or Floseps - performs better. It would appear that more frequent maintenance and cleaning would increase the overall filtration performance and systems could be susceptible to repeat clogging in a short time. 2 figs., 1 photos.

  4. DustEM: Dust extinction and emission modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compiègne, M.; Verstraete, L.; Jones, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Boulanger, F.; Flagey, N.; Le Bourlot, J.; Paradis, D.; Ysard, N.

    2013-07-01

    DustEM computes the extinction and the emission of interstellar dust grains heated by photons. It is written in Fortran 95 and is jointly developed by IAS and CESR. The dust emission is calculated in the optically thin limit (no radiative transfer) and the default spectral range is 40 to 108 nm. The code is designed so dust properties can easily be changed and mixed and to allow for the inclusion of new grain physics.

  5. Echo simulation of lunar penetrating radar: based on a model of inhomogeneous multilayer lunar regolith structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Shun; Su Yan; Xiao Yuan; Feng Jian-Qing; Xing Shu-Guo; Ding Chun-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) based on the time domain Ultra-Wideband (UWB) technique onboard China's Chang'e-3 (CE-3) rover, has the goal of investigating the lunar subsurface structure and detecting the depth of lunar regolith. An inhomogeneous multi-layer microwave transfer inverse-model is established. The dielectric constant of the lunar regolith, the velocity of propagation, the reflection, refraction and transmission at interfaces, and the resolution are discussed. The model is further used to numerically simulate and analyze temporal variations in the echo obtained from the LPR attached on CE-3's rover, to reveal the location and structure of lunar regolith. The thickness of the lunar regolith is calculated by a comparison between the simulated radar B-scan images based on the model and the detected result taken from the CE-3 lunar mission. The potential scientific return from LPR echoes taken from the landing region is also discussed

  6. Echo simulation of lunar penetrating radar: based on a model of inhomogeneous multilayer lunar regolith structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shun; Su, Yan; Xiao, Yuan; Feng, Jian-Qing; Xing, Shu-Guo; Ding, Chun-Yu

    2014-12-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) based on the time domain Ultra-Wideband (UWB) technique onboard China's Chang'e-3 (CE-3) rover, has the goal of investigating the lunar subsurface structure and detecting the depth of lunar regolith. An inhomogeneous multi-layer microwave transfer inverse-model is established. The dielectric constant of the lunar regolith, the velocity of propagation, the reflection, refraction and transmission at interfaces, and the resolution are discussed. The model is further used to numerically simulate and analyze temporal variations in the echo obtained from the LPR attached on CE-3's rover, to reveal the location and structure of lunar regolith. The thickness of the lunar regolith is calculated by a comparison between the simulated radar B-scan images based on the model and the detected result taken from the CE-3 lunar mission. The potential scientific return from LPR echoes taken from the landing region is also discussed.

  7. Dust Interactions on Small Solar System Bodies and Technology Considerations for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrick, Ryan,; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Pavone, Marco; Street, Kenneth; Rickman, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Small-bodies such as asteroids and Mars' moons Phobos and Deimos have relatively unknown regolith environments. It is hypothesized that dust preserved in the regolith on the surfaces will have similar mechanical properties to lunar dust because of similar formation processes from micrometeorite bombardment, low relative gravity for slow settling times, and virtually no weathering because there is no atmosphere. This combination of processes infers that small-body dust particles will be highly angular and retain abrasive properties. The focus of this paper uses the mission architecture and engineering design for an asteroid hopper known as Hedgehog, a spherical spacecraft with several symmetric spikes used to aid with tumbling mobility in a low gravity environment. Dust abrasion considerations are highlighted throughout the paper relating to the lead authors' previous work, but act as an example of one of many important dust or regolith physical properties that need to be considered for future exploration. Measurable regolith properties are summarized in order to identify technologies that may be useful for exploration in terms of scientific return and spacecraft design. Previous instruments are summarized in this paper that could be used on the Hedgehog. Opportunities for hardware payloads are highlighted that include low mass solutions or dualpurpose instruments that can measure regolith or dust properties. Finally, dust mitigation suggestions are made for vehicles of this mobility profile.

  8. Man-Made Debris In and From Lunar Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    During 1966-1976, as part of the first phase of lunar exploration, 29 manned and robotic missions placed more than 40 objects into lunar orbit. Whereas several vehicles later successfully landed on the Moon and/or returned to Earth, others were either abandoned in orbit or intentionally sent to their destruction on the lunar surface. The former now constitute a small population of lunar orbital debris; the latter, including four Lunar Orbiters and four Lunar Module ascent stages, have contributed to nearly 50 lunar sites of man's refuse. Other lunar satellites are known or suspected of having fallen from orbit. Unlike Earth satellite orbital decays and deorbits, lunar satellites impact the lunar surface unscathed by atmospheric burning or melting. Fragmentations of lunar satellites, which would produce clouds of numerous orbital debris, have not yet been detected. The return to lunar orbit in the 1990's by the Hagoromo, Hiten, Clementine, and Lunar Prospector spacecraft and plans for increased lunar exploration early in the 21st century, raise questions of how best to minimize and to dispose of lunar orbital debris. Some of the lessons learned from more than 40 years of Earth orbit exploitation can be applied to the lunar orbital environment. For the near-term, perhaps the most important of these is postmission passivation. Unique solutions, e.g., lunar equatorial dumps, may also prove attractive. However, as with Earth satellites, debris mitigation measures are most effectively adopted early in the concept and design phase, and prevention is less costly than remediation.

  9. Dust-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, M.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of our theoretical research under this grant over the past 3 years was to develop new understanding in a range of topics in the physics of dust-plasma interactions, with application to space and the laboratory. We conducted studies related to the physical properties of dust, waves and instabilities in both weakly coupled and strongly coupled dusty plasmas, and innovative possible applications. A major consideration in our choice of topics was to compare theory with experiments or observations, and to motivate new experiments, which we believe is important for developing this relatively new field. Our research is summarized, with reference to our list of journal publications.

  10. Precision toxicology based on single cell sequencing: an evolving trend in toxicological evaluations and mechanism exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Boyang; Huang, Kunlun; Zhu, Liye; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao

    2017-07-01

    In this review, we introduce a new concept, precision toxicology: the mode of action of chemical- or drug-induced toxicity can be sensitively and specifically investigated by isolating a small group of cells or even a single cell with typical phenotype of interest followed by a single cell sequencing-based analysis. Precision toxicology can contribute to the better detection of subtle intracellular changes in response to exogenous substrates, and thus help researchers find solutions to control or relieve the toxicological effects that are serious threats to human health. We give examples for single cell isolation and recommend laser capture microdissection for in vivo studies and flow cytometric sorting for in vitro studies. In addition, we introduce the procedures for single cell sequencing and describe the expected application of these techniques to toxicological evaluations and mechanism exploration, which we believe will become a trend in toxicology.

  11. Systems Toxicology: Real World Applications and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Systems Toxicology aims to change the basis of how adverse biological effects of xenobiotics are characterized from empirical end points to describing modes of action as adverse outcome pathways and perturbed networks. Toward this aim, Systems Toxicology entails the integration of in vitro and in vivo toxicity data with computational modeling. This evolving approach depends critically on data reliability and relevance, which in turn depends on the quality of experimental models and bioanalysis techniques used to generate toxicological data. Systems Toxicology involves the use of large-scale data streams (“big data”), such as those derived from omics measurements that require computational means for obtaining informative results. Thus, integrative analysis of multiple molecular measurements, particularly acquired by omics strategies, is a key approach in Systems Toxicology. In recent years, there have been significant advances centered on in vitro test systems and bioanalytical strategies, yet a frontier challenge concerns linking observed network perturbations to phenotypes, which will require understanding pathways and networks that give rise to adverse responses. This summary perspective from a 2016 Systems Toxicology meeting, an international conference held in the Alps of Switzerland, describes the limitations and opportunities of selected emerging applications in this rapidly advancing field. Systems Toxicology aims to change the basis of how adverse biological effects of xenobiotics are characterized, from empirical end points to pathways of toxicity. This requires the integration of in vitro and in vivo data with computational modeling. Test systems and bioanalytical technologies have made significant advances, but ensuring data reliability and relevance is an ongoing concern. The major challenge facing the new pathway approach is determining how to link observed network perturbations to phenotypic toxicity. PMID:28362102

  12. Non-precautionary aspects of toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandjean, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Empirical studies in toxicology aim at deciphering complex causal relationships, especially in regard to human disease etiologies. Several scientific traditions limit the usefulness of documentation from current toxicological research, in regard to decision-making based on the precautionary principle. Among non-precautionary aspects of toxicology are the focus on simplified model systems and the effects of single hazards, one by one. Thus, less attention is paid to sources of variability and uncertainty, including individual susceptibility, impacts of mixed and variable exposures, susceptible life-stages, and vulnerable communities. In emphasizing the need for confirmatory evidence, toxicology tends to penalize false positives more than false negatives. An important source of uncertainty is measurement error that results in misclassification, especially in regard to exposure assessment. Standard statistical analysis assumes that the exposure is measured without error, and imprecisions will usually result in an underestimation of the dose-effect relationship. In testing whether an effect could be considered a possible result of natural variability, a 5% limit for 'statistical significance' is usually applied, even though it may rule out many findings of causal associations, simply because the study was too small (and thus lacked statistical power) or because some imprecision or limited sensitivity of the parameters precluded a more definitive observation. These limitations may be aggravated when toxicology is influenced by vested interests. Because current toxicology overlooks the important goal of achieving a better characterization of uncertainties and their implications, research approaches should be revised and strengthened to counteract the innate ideological biases, thereby supporting our confidence in using toxicology as a main source of documentation and in using the precautionary principle as a decision procedure in the public policy arena

  13. Systems Toxicology: Real World Applications and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas; FitzGerald, Rex E; Jennings, Paul; Mirams, Gary R; Peitsch, Manuel C; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Shah, Imran; Wilks, Martin F; Sturla, Shana J

    2017-04-17

    Systems Toxicology aims to change the basis of how adverse biological effects of xenobiotics are characterized from empirical end points to describing modes of action as adverse outcome pathways and perturbed networks. Toward this aim, Systems Toxicology entails the integration of in vitro and in vivo toxicity data with computational modeling. This evolving approach depends critically on data reliability and relevance, which in turn depends on the quality of experimental models and bioanalysis techniques used to generate toxicological data. Systems Toxicology involves the use of large-scale data streams ("big data"), such as those derived from omics measurements that require computational means for obtaining informative results. Thus, integrative analysis of multiple molecular measurements, particularly acquired by omics strategies, is a key approach in Systems Toxicology. In recent years, there have been significant advances centered on in vitro test systems and bioanalytical strategies, yet a frontier challenge concerns linking observed network perturbations to phenotypes, which will require understanding pathways and networks that give rise to adverse responses. This summary perspective from a 2016 Systems Toxicology meeting, an international conference held in the Alps of Switzerland, describes the limitations and opportunities of selected emerging applications in this rapidly advancing field. Systems Toxicology aims to change the basis of how adverse biological effects of xenobiotics are characterized, from empirical end points to pathways of toxicity. This requires the integration of in vitro and in vivo data with computational modeling. Test systems and bioanalytical technologies have made significant advances, but ensuring data reliability and relevance is an ongoing concern. The major challenge facing the new pathway approach is determining how to link observed network perturbations to phenotypic toxicity.

  14. NASA Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxworth, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program is designed for K-12 classroom educators who work in K-12 schools, museums, libraries, or planetariums. Educators have to be certified to borrow the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disks by attending a NASA Certification Workshop provided by a NASA Authorized Sample Disk Certifier.

  15. Low temperature thermophysical properties of lunar soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of lunar fines samples from the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 missions, determined at low temperatures as a function of temperature and various densities, are reviewed. It is shown that the thermal conductivity of lunar soil is nearly the same as that of terrestrial basaltic rock under the same temperature and pressure conditions.

  16. Lunar landing and launch facilities and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary design of a lunar landing and launch facility for a Phase 3 lunar base is formulated. A single multipurpose vehicle for the lunar module is assumed. Three traffic levels are envisioned: 6, 12, and 24 landings/launches per year. The facility is broken down into nine major design items. A conceptual description of each of these items is included. Preliminary sizes, capacities, and/or other relevant design data for some of these items are obtained. A quonset hut tent-like structure constructed of aluminum rods and aluminized mylar panels is proposed. This structure is used to provide a constant thermal environment for the lunar modules. A structural design and thermal analysis is presented. Two independent designs for a bridge crane to unload/load heavy cargo from the lunar module are included. Preliminary investigations into cryogenic propellant storage and handling, landing/launch guidance and control, and lunar module maintenance requirements are performed. Also, an initial study into advanced concepts for application to Phase 4 or 5 lunar bases has been completed in a report on capturing, condensing, and recycling the exhaust plume from a lunar launch.

  17. Krypton and xenon in lunar fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basford, J. R.; Dragon, J. C.; Pepin, R. O.; Coscio, M. R., Jr.; Murthy, V. R.

    1973-01-01

    Data from grain-size separates, stepwise-heated fractions, and bulk analyses of 20 samples of fines and breccias from five lunar sites are used to define three-isotope and ordinate intercept correlations in an attempt to resolve the lunar heavy rare gas system in a statistically valid approach. Tables of concentrations and isotope compositions are given.

  18. Lunar ranging instrument for Chandrayaan-1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Committee on Scientific Values · Project Lifescape · Scientific Data of Public Interest ... Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument (LLRI)proposed for the first Indian lunar ... field by precisely measuring the altitude from a polar orbit around the Moon. ... Laboratory for Electro-Optics Systems, Indian Space Research Organization ...

  19. Armstrong practices in Lunar Module simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Neil A. Armstrong, Commander for the Apollo 11 Moon-landing mission, practices for the historic event in a Lunar Module simulator in the Flight Crew Training building at KSC. Accompanying Armstrong on the Moon flight will be Command Module Pilot Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin Jr.

  20. Control of harmful dust in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, B; Bower, K; Mitchell, D

    1973-01-01

    This handbook consists of a series of short chapters devoted to: sources of airborne dust; dust standards and methods of sampling; dust prevention on mechanized faces; ventilation and dust extraction; distribution and use of water; dust control on mechanized faces; dust control in drivages and headings; drilling and shotfiring; dust control in transport; some outbye dust control techniques (hygroscopic salts, impingement curtains); water infusion; personal protective equipment. (CIS Abstr.)

  1. Dust evolution in protoplanetary disks

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez , Jean-François; Fouchet , Laure; T. Maddison , Sarah; Laibe , Guillaume

    2007-01-01

    6 pages, 5 figures, to appear in the Proceedings of IAU Symp. 249: Exoplanets: Detection, Formation and Dynamics (Suzhou, China); International audience; We investigate the behaviour of dust in protoplanetary disks under the action of gas drag using our 3D, two-fluid (gas+dust) SPH code. We present the evolution of the dust spatial distribution in global simulations of planetless disks as well as of disks containing an already formed planet. The resulting dust structures vary strongly with pa...

  2. Respirable versus inhalable dust sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondros, J.

    1987-01-01

    The ICRP uses a total inhalable dust figure as the basis of calculations on employee lung dose. This paper was written to look at one aspect of the Olympic Dam dust situation, namely, the inhalable versus respirable fraction of the dust cloud. The results of this study will determine whether it is possible to use respirable dust figures, as obtained during routine monitoring to help in the calculations of employee exposure to internal radioactive contaminants

  3. Lunar surface fission power supplies: Radiation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, M.G.; Lee, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    A lunar space fission power supply shield that uses a combination of lunar regolith and materials brought from earth may be optimal for early lunar outposts and bases. This type of shield can be designed such that the fission power supply does not have to be moved from its landing configuration, minimizing handling and required equipment on the lunar surface. Mechanisms for removing heat from the lunar regolith are built into the shield, and can be tested on earth. Regolith activation is greatly reduced compared with a shield that uses only regolith, and it is possible to keep the thermal conditions of the fission power supply close to these seen in free space. For a well designed shield, the additional mass required to be brought fro earth should be less than 1000 kg. Detailed radiation transport calculations confirm the feasibility of such a shield

  4. Lunar surface fission power supplies: Radiation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, M.G.; Lee, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    A lunar space fission power supply shield that uses a combination of lunar regolith and materials brought from earth may be optimal for early lunar outposts and bases. This type of shield can be designed such that the fission power supply does not have to be moved from its landing configuration, minimizing handling and required equipment on the lunar surface. Mechanisms for removing heat from the lunar regolith are built into the shield, and can be tested on earth. Regolith activation is greatly reduced compared with a shield that uses only regolith, and it is possible to keep the thermal conditions of the fission power supply close to those seen in free space. For a well designed shield, the additional mass required to be brought from earth should be less than 1,000 kg. Detailed radiation transport calculations confirm the feasibility of such a shield

  5. Lunar nitrogen: Secular variation or mixing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, S.J.; Wright, I.P.; Pillinger, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    The two current models to explain the nearly 40% variation of the lunar nitrogen isotopic composition are: (1) secular variation of solar wind nitrogen; and (2) a two component mixing model having a constant, heavy solar wind admixed with varying amounts of indigenous light lunar N (LLN). Both models are needed to explain the step pyrolysis extraction profile. The secular variation model proposes that the low temperature release is modern day solar wind implanted into grain surfaces, the 900 C to 1100 C release is from grain surfaces which were once exposed to the ancient solar wind but which are now trapped inside agglutinates, and the >1100 C release as spallogenic N produced by cosmic rays. The mixing model ascribes the components to solar wind, indigenous lunar N and spallogenic N respectively. An extension of either interpretation is that the light N seen in lunar breccias or deep drill cores represent conditions when more N-14 was available to the lunar surface

  6. APOLLO 10 ASTRONAUT ENTERS LUNAR MODULE SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 10 lunar module pilot Eugene A. Cernan prepares to enter the lunar module simulator at the Flight Crew Training Building at the NASA Spaceport. Cernan, Apollo 10 commander Thomas P. Stafford and John W. Young, command module pilot, are to be launched May 18 on the Apollo 10 mission, a dress rehearsal for a lunar landing later this summer. Cernan and Stafford are to detach the lunar module and drop to within 10 miles of the moon's surface before rejoining Young in the command/service module. Looking on as Cernan puts on his soft helmet is Snoopy, the lovable cartoon mutt whose name will be the lunar module code name during the Apollo 10 flight. The command/service module is to bear the code name Charlie Brown.

  7. Lunar soil as shielding against space radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 83R0101, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: miller@lbl.gov; Taylor, L. [Planetary Geosciences Institute, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Zeitlin, C. [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Heilbronn, L. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Guetersloh, S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); DiGiuseppe, M. [Northrop Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, NY 11714 (United States); Iwata, Y.; Murakami, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    We have measured the radiation transport and dose reduction properties of lunar soil with respect to selected heavy ion beams with charges and energies comparable to some components of the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), using soil samples returned by the Apollo missions and several types of synthetic soil glasses and lunar soil simulants. The suitability for shielding studies of synthetic soil and soil simulants as surrogates for lunar soil was established, and the energy deposition as a function of depth for a particular heavy ion beam passing through a new type of lunar highland simulant was measured. A fragmentation and energy loss model was used to extend the results over a range of heavy ion charges and energies, including protons at solar particle event (SPE) energies. The measurements and model calculations indicate that a modest amount of lunar soil affords substantial protection against primary GCR nuclei and SPE, with only modest residual dose from surviving charged fragments of the heavy beams.

  8. Paleo-dust insights onto dust-climate interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, S.; Mahowald, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral dust emissions are affected by changing climate conditions, and in turn dust impacts the atmospheric radiation budget, clouds and biogeochemical cycles. Climate and public health dust-related issues call for attention on the fate of the dust cycle in the future, and the representation of the dust cycle is now part of the strategy of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project phase 4 and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 6 (PMIP4-CMIP6). Since mineral aerosols are one of the most important natural aerosols, understanding past dust responses to climate in the paleoclimate will allow us to better understand mineral aerosol feedbacks with climate and biogeochemistry in the Anthropocene. Modern observations and paleoclimate records offer the possibility of multiple, complementary views on the global dust cycle, and allow to validate and/or constrain the numerical representation of dust in climate and Earth system models. We present our results from a set of simulations with the Community Earth System Model for different climate states, including present and past climates such as the pre-industrial, the mid-Holocene and the Last Glacial Maximum. A set of simulations including a prognostic dust cycle was thoroughly compared with a wide set of present day observations from different platforms and regions, in order to realistically constrain the magnitude of dust load, surface concentration, deposition, optical properties, and particle size distributions. The magnitude of emissions for past climate regimes was constrained based on compilations of paleodust mass accumulation rates and size distributions, as well as based on information on dust provenance. The comparison with a parallel set of simulations without dust allows estimating the impacts of dust on surface climate. We analyze impacts of dust on the mean and variability of surface temperature and precipitation in each climate state, as well as the impacts that changing dust emissions had

  9. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Draft Toxicological Review was developed to evaluate both the cancer and non cancer human health risks from environmental exposure to vinyl chloride. A reference concentration (RfC), and a reference dose (RfD) were developed based upon induction of liver cell polymorphism in a chronic dietary study utilizing Wistar rats. An RfC of 1E-1 mg/m3 and an RfD of 5E-3 mg/kg-d are recommended. On the basis of sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity in human epidemiology studies vinyl chloride is reaffirmed to be a known human carcinogen. Cancer potencies were derived for oral and inhalation exposure. An oral slope factor of 1.3 per (mg/kg-day) for continuous exposure during adulthood and 2.5 per (mg/kg-day) for continuous lifetime exposure from birth, based upon a chronic dietary study in female Wistar rats is recommended; an inhalation unit risk of 4.3 E-6 per (55g/m3) for continuous exposure during adulthood and 8.7 E-6 per (55g/m3) for continuous lifetime exposure from birth is also recommended, based upon exposure of male and female Sprague Dawley rats and Swiss mice, via inhalation, for a lifetime. A PBPK model was used in the derivation of the RfC, RfD, and cancer potency estimates. Its use is based on the assumption that equal tissue concentrations of reactive metabolite, chlorethylene oxide or chloracetaldehyde, at the critical target site will result in equivalent toxicity between species.

  10. Erosion of dust aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seizinger, A.; Krijt, S.; Kley, W.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to gain a deeper insight into how much different aggregate types are affected by erosion. Especially, it is important to study the influence of the velocity of the impacting projectiles. We also want to provide models for dust growth in protoplanetary disks with simple

  11. Dust-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Marelene

    2005-01-01

    Our theoretical research on dust-plasma interactions has concentrated on three main areas: (a)studies of grain charging and applications; (b) waves and instabilities in weakly correlated dusty plasma with applications to space and laboratory plasmas; (c) waves in strongly coupled dusty plasmas.

  12. From dust to life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    After initially challenging the dirty-ice theory of interstellar grains, Fred Hoyle and the present author proposed carbon (graphite) grains, mixtures of refractory grains, organic polymers, biochemicals and finally bacterial grains as models of interstellar dust. The present contribution summarizes this trend and reviews the main arguments supporting a modern version of panspermia.

  13. Mass loading of the Earth's magnetosphere by micron size lunar ejecta. 2: Ejecta dynamics and enhanced lifetimes in the Earth's magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, W. M.; Tanner, W. G.; Anz, P. D.; Chen, A. L.

    1986-01-01

    Extensive studies were conducted concerning the indivdual mass, temporal and positional distribution of micron and submicron lunar ejecta existing in the Earth-Moon gravitational sphere of influence. Initial results show a direct correlation between the position of the Moon, relative to the Earth, and the percentage of lunar ejecta leaving the Moon and intercepting the magnetosphere of the Earth at the magnetopause surface. It is seen that the Lorentz Force dominates all other forces, thus suggesting that submicron dust particles might possibly be magnetically trapped in the well known radiation zones.

  14. Mineralogical and chemical properties of the lunar regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, David S.; Ming, Douglas W.

    1989-01-01

    The composition of lunar regolith and its attendant properties are discussed. Tables are provided listing lunar minerals, the abundance of plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, and ilmenite in lunar materials, typical compositions of common lunar minerals, and cumulative grain-size distribution for a large number of lunar soils. Also provided are charts on the chemistry of breccias, the chemistry of lunar glass, and the comparative chemistry of surface soils for the Apollo sites. Lunar agglutinates, constructional particles made of lithic, mineral, and glass fragments welded together by a glassy matrix containing extremely fine-grained metallic iron and formed by micrometeoric impacts at the lunar surface, are discussed. Crystalline, igneous rock fragments, breccias, and lunar glass are examined. Volatiles implanted in lunar materials and regolith maturity are also addressed.

  15. Modelling dust transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.D.; Martin, J.D.; Bacharis, M.; Coppins, M.; Counsell, G.F.; Allen, J.E.; Counsell, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    The DTOKS code, which models dust transport through tokamak plasmas, is described. The floating potential and charge of a dust grain in a plasma and the fluxes of energy to and from it are calculated. From this model, the temperature of the dust grain can be estimated. A plasma background is supplied by a standard tokamak edge modelling code (B2SOLPS5.0), and dust transport through MAST (the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak) and ITER plasmas is presented. We conclude that micron-radius tungsten dust can reach the separatrix in ITER. (authors)

  16. ACToR - Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judson, Richard; Richard, Ann; Dix, David; Houck, Keith; Elloumi, Fathi; Martin, Matthew; Cathey, Tommy; Transue, Thomas R.; Spencer, Richard; Wolf, Maritja

    2008-01-01

    ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) is a database and set of software applications that bring into one central location many types and sources of data on environmental chemicals. Currently, the ACToR chemical database contains information on chemical structure, in vitro bioassays and in vivo toxicology assays derived from more than 150 sources including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Institutes of Health (NIH), state agencies, corresponding government agencies in Canada, Europe and Japan, universities, the World Health Organization (WHO) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). At the EPA National Center for Computational Toxicology, ACToR helps manage large data sets being used in a high-throughput environmental chemical screening and prioritization program called ToxCast TM

  17. Toxicology research projects directory, 1978. Monthly repts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Toxicology Research Projects Directory is a monthly publication of ongoing research projects in toxicology and related fields selected from the files of the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange (SSIE). Each issue lists toxicology-related research projects reported to SSIE during the one-month period preceding that issue. Each of the summaries is categorized by scientific discipline and assigned a unique identification number for cross-referencing from the Directory Indexes--Subject, Investigator, Performing Organization, Supporting Agency, and Master Grant Number. The thirteenth issue consists of Cumulative Indexes for the entire volume with referencing to projects in all of the previous twelve issues. The emphasis of the Directory is on the manifestations of the exposure of man and animals to toxic substances. Projects are classified by toxic agents, research orientation, and areas of environmental concern

  18. Prospects for applying synthetic biology to toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendorff, James Bruce Yarnton H; Gillam, Elizabeth M.J.

    2017-01-01

    The 30 years since the inception of Chemical Research in Toxicology, game-changing advances in chemical and molecular biology, the fundamental disciplines underpinning molecular toxicology, have been made. While these have led to important advances in the study of mechanisms by which chemicals...... damage cells and systems, there has been less focus on applying these advances to prediction, detection, and mitigation of toxicity. Over the last ∼15 years, synthetic biology, the repurposing of biological "parts" in systems engineered for useful ends, has been explored in other areas of the biomedical...... and life sciences, for such applications as detecting metabolites, drug discovery and delivery, investigating disease mechanisms, improving medical treatment, and producing useful chemicals. These examples provide models for the application of synthetic biology to toxicology, which, for the most part, has...

  19. Visual lunar and planetary astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of CCDs and webcams, the focus of amateur astronomy has to some extent shifted from science to art. The object of many amateur astronomers is now to produce “stunning images” that, although beautiful, are not intended to have scientific merit. Paul Abel has been addressing this issue by promoting visual astronomy wherever possible – at talks to astronomical societies, in articles for popular science magazines, and on BBC TV’s The Sky at Night.   Visual Lunar and Planetary Astronomy is a comprehensive modern treatment of visual lunar and planetary astronomy, showing that even in the age of space telescopes and interplanetary probes it is still possible to contribute scientifically with no more than a moderately priced commercially made astronomical telescope.   It is believed that imaging and photography is somehow more objective and more accurate than the eye, and this has led to a peculiar “crisis of faith” in the human visual system and its amazing processing power. But by anal...

  20. Robotic Lunar Lander Development Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Benjamin; Cohen, Barbara A.; McGee, Timothy; Reed, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory have developed several mission concepts to place scientific and exploration payloads ranging from 10 kg to more than 200 kg on the surface of the moon. The mission concepts all use a small versatile lander that is capable of precision landing. The results to date of the lunar lander development risk reduction activities including high pressure propulsion system testing, structure and mechanism development and testing, and long cycle time battery testing will be addressed. The most visible elements of the risk reduction program are two fully autonomous lander flight test vehicles. The first utilized a high pressure cold gas system (Cold Gas Test Article) with limited flight durations while the subsequent test vehicle, known as the Warm Gas Test Article, utilizes hydrogen peroxide propellant resulting in significantly longer flight times and the ability to more fully exercise flight sensors and algorithms. The development of the Warm Gas Test Article is a system demonstration and was designed with similarity to an actual lunar lander including energy absorbing landing legs, pulsing thrusters, and flight-like software implementation. A set of outdoor flight tests to demonstrate the initial objectives of the WGTA program was completed in Nov. 2011, and will be discussed.

  1. Comparison of toxicological and radiological aspects of K basins sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RITTMANN, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    The composition of various K Basins sludge is evaluated for its toxicological and radiological impacts downwind from accidents. It is shown that the radiological risk evaluation guidelines are always more limiting than the toxicological risk evaluation guidelines

  2. Experimental Investigations of the Physical and Optical Properties of Individual Micron/Submicron-Size Dust Grains in Astrophysical Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.

    2014-01-01

    Dust grains constitute a significant component of matter in the universe, and play an important and crucial role in the formation and evolution of the stellar/planetary systems in interstellar dust clouds. Knowledge of physical and optical properties of dust grains is required for understanding of a variety of processes in astrophysical and planetary environments. The currently available and generally employed data on the properties of dust grains is based on bulk materials, with analytical models employed to deduce the corresponding values for individual small micron/submicron-size dust grains. However, it has been well-recognized over a long period, that the properties of individual smallsize dust grains may be very different from those deduced from bulk materials. This has been validated by a series of experimental investigations carried out over the last few years, on a laboratory facility based on an Electrodynamic Balance at NASA, which permits levitation of single small-size dust grains of desired composition and size, in vacuum, in simulated space environments. In this paper, we present a brief review of the results of a series of selected investigations carried out on the analogs of interstellar and planetary dust grains, as well as dust grains obtained by Apollo-l1-17 lunar missions. The selected investigations, with analytical results and discussions, include: (a) Direct measurements of radiation on individual dust grains (b) Rotation and alignments of dust grains by radiative torque (c) Charging properties of dust grains by: (i) UV Photo-electric emissions (ii) Electron Impact. The results from these experiments are examined in the light of the current theories of the processes involved.

  3. Understanding the Lunar System Architecture Design Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Dale C.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Reeves, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the flexible path strategy and the desire of the international community, the lunar surface remains a destination for future human exploration. This paper explores options within the lunar system architecture design space, identifying performance requirements placed on the propulsive system that performs Earth departure within that architecture based on existing and/or near-term capabilities. The lander crew module and ascent stage propellant mass fraction are primary drivers for feasibility in multiple lander configurations. As the aggregation location moves further out of the lunar gravity well, the lunar lander is required to perform larger burns, increasing the sensitivity to these two factors. Adding an orbit transfer stage to a two-stage lunar lander and using a large storable stage for braking with a one-stage lunar lander enable higher aggregation locations than Low Lunar Orbit. Finally, while using larger vehicles enables a larger feasible design space, there are still feasible scenarios that use three launches of smaller vehicles.

  4. Developmental toxicology: adequacy of current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, P W

    1998-01-01

    Toxicology embraces several disciplines such as carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity. Reproductive toxicology is concerned with possible effects of substances on the reproductive process, i.e. on sexual organs and their functions, endocrine regulation, fertilization, transport of the fertilized ovum, implantation, and embryonic, fetal and postnatal development, until the end-differentiation of the organs is achieved. Reproductive toxicology is divided into areas related to male and female fertility, and developmental toxicology. Developmental toxicology can be further broken down into prenatal and postnatal toxicology. Today, much new information is available about the origins of developmental disorders resulting from chemical exposure. While these findings seem to promise important new developments in methodology and research, there is a danger of losing sight of the precepts and principles established in the light of existing knowledge. There is also a danger that we may fail to correct shortcomings in our existing procedures and practice. The aim of this presentation is to emphasize the importance of testing substances for their impact in advance of their use and to underline that we must use the best existing tools for carrying out risk assessments. Moreover, it needs to be stressed that there are many substances that are never assessed with respect to reproductive and developmental toxicity. Similarly, our programmes for post-marketing surveillance with respect to developmental toxicology are grossly inadequate. Our ability to identify risks to normal development and reproduction would be much improved, first if a number of straightforward precepts were always followed and second, if we had a clearer understanding of what we mean by risk and acceptable levels of risk in the context of development. Other aims of this paper are: to stress the complexity of the different stages of normal prenatal development; to note the principles that are

  5. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1996 Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sample, B.E.; Opresko, D.M.; Suter, G.W., II.

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of certain chemicals on mammalian and avian wildlife species. Publication of this document meets a milestone for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Risk Assessment Program. This document provides the ER Program with toxicological benchmarks that may be used as comparative tools in screening assessments as well as lines of evidence to support or refute the presence of ecological effects in ecological risk assessments. The chemicals considered in this report are some that occur at US DOE waste sites, and the wildlife species evaluated herein were chosen because they represent a range of body sizes and diets

  6. IRIS Toxicological Review of Trichloroethylene (TCE) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Trichloroethylene (TCE) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. The purpose of this Toxicological Review is to provide scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment in IRIS pertaining to chronic exposure to trichloroethylene. It is not intended to be a comprehensive treatise on the chemical or toxicological nature of trichloroethylene.

  7. [Forensic toxicology, a growing scientific discipline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augsburger, Marc; Staub, Christian

    2008-07-02

    Forensic toxicology has to bring evidence of substances that could have been involved directly or indirectly in the cause of death or that could influence the behaviour of somebody. The increase of the consumption of illegal and legal drugs in modern societies during last decades gave a boost to forensic toxicology. Moreover, improvement with analytical technology gave tools with high degrees of sensitivity and specificity for the screening and quantification of a large amount of substances in various biological specimens, even with very low concentration resulting of a single dose of medication.

  8. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1996 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Opresko, D.M.; Suter, G.W., II

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of certain chemicals on mammalian and avian wildlife species. Publication of this document meets a milestone for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Risk Assessment Program. This document provides the ER Program with toxicological benchmarks that may be used as comparative tools in screening assessments as well as lines of evidence to support or refute the presence of ecological effects in ecological risk assessments. The chemicals considered in this report are some that occur at US DOE waste sites, and the wildlife species evaluated herein were chosen because they represent a range of body sizes and diets.

  9. Bringing You the Moon: Lunar Education Efforts of the Center for Lunar Science and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shupla, C.; Shipp, S.; Allen, J.; Kring, D. A.; Halligan, E.; LaConte, K.

    2012-01-01

    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA's Johnson Space Center, is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute. In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and public outreach. Overarching goals of CLSE education are to strengthen the future science workforce, attract and retain students in STEM disciplines, and develop advocates for lunar exploration. The team's efforts have resulted in a variety of programs and products, including the creation of a variety of Lunar Traveling Exhibits and the High School Lunar Research Project, featured at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/nlsi/education/.

  10. Developmental toxicology of radon exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.; Cross, F.T.; Mast, T.J.; Palmer, H.E.; James, A.C.; Thrall, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    Concerns about hazards associated with radon exposure in dwellings may be especially relevant to pregnant women, many of whom spend substantial amounts of time in their homes. There are few data concerning the placental transfer and fetoplacental distribution of inhaled radon and decay products or their effects on the conceptus. We performed a study in rats to determine if prenatal effects could be produced by prolonged inhalation exposures to high concentrations of radon throughout gestation. A group of 43 pregnant rats was exposed 18 h d -1 , at a rate of 124 working level months (WLM) per day, from 6 to 19 days of gestation (dg), of radon and daughters adsorbed onto ore dust. A group of 26 pregnant rats from the same shipment was exposed to a filtered-air atmosphere as controls. At 20 dg, the rats were removed from the chambers, killed, and necropsied. The fetuses were evaluated for the presence of toxic effects, which included detailed teratology protocols. These exposures did not produce detectable reproductive toxicity nor teratogenic change. Two other rats were removed from the radon chambers during the last day of exposure, and their tissues were analyzed to determine the distribution of radioactivity and for dosimetry. Samples from these rats suggested that the dose rates to the placenta were roughly threefold those to the fetus but were similar to those to the liver and femur of the pregnant rats. These data indicate that the dose to the conceptus from the decay of placentally transferred radon and its progeny is more important than the contribution of translocated decay products. Translocated radon decay products are an important source of radiation doses to placental structures, however, and may have most of the radioactivity content at birth

  11. Lunar Impact Flash Locations from NASA's Lunar Impact Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Kupferschmidt, L.; Feldman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Meteoroids are small, natural bodies traveling through space, fragments from comets, asteroids, and impact debris from planets. Unlike the Earth, which has an atmosphere that slows, ablates, and disintegrates most meteoroids before they reach the ground, the Moon has little-to-no atmosphere to prevent meteoroids from impacting the lunar surface. Upon impact, the meteoroid's kinetic energy is partitioned into crater excavation, seismic wave production, and the generation of a debris plume. A flash of light associated with the plume is detectable by instruments on Earth. Following the initial observation of a probable Taurid impact flash on the Moon in November 2005,1 the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) began a routine monitoring program to observe the Moon for meteoroid impact flashes in early 2006, resulting in the observation of over 330 impacts to date. The main objective of the MEO is to characterize the meteoroid environment for application to spacecraft engineering and operations. The Lunar Impact Monitoring Program provides information about the meteoroid flux in near-Earth space in a size range-tens of grams to a few kilograms-difficult to measure with statistical significance by other means. A bright impact flash detected by the program in March 2013 brought into focus the importance of determining the impact flash location. Prior to this time, the location was estimated to the nearest half-degree by visually comparing the impact imagery to maps of the Moon. Better accuracy was not needed because meteoroid flux calculations did not require high-accuracy impact locations. But such a bright event was thought to have produced a fresh crater detectable from lunar orbit by the NASA spacecraft Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The idea of linking the observation of an impact flash with its crater was an appealing one, as it would validate NASA photometric calculations and crater scaling laws developed from hypervelocity gun testing. This idea was

  12. Zinnia Germination and Lunar Soil Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Germination testing was performed to determine the best method for germinating zinnias. This method will be used to attempt to germinate the zinnia seeds produced in space. It was found that seed shape may be critically important in determining whether a seed will germinate or not. The ability of compost and worm castings to remediate lunar regolith simulant for plant growth was tested. It was found that neither treatment effectively improves plant growth in lunar regolith simulant. A potential method of improving lunar regolith simulant by mixing it with arcillite was discovered.

  13. Adsorption of Hg on lunar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, G.W. Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1985-01-01

    Understanding the presence, migration mechanisms and trapping of indigneous gases and volatiles on the moon is the objective of this study. The rare gases Ar and Xe and highly volatile Hg 0 and Br 0 (and/or their compounds) have been determined to be present in the lunar regolith. Evidence for these elements in the moon was recently reviewed. Studies of the sorption behavior of Xe on lunar material have been carried out. We report here preliminary results of a study designed to rationalize the behavior of Hg in lunar material

  14. Bullialdus - Strengthening the case for lunar plutons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-01-01

    Although many craters expose materials of a composition different from that of the local surroundings, Bullialdus has excavated material representing three distinct stratigraphic zones that occur in the upper 6 km of crust, the top two of which are gabbroic and the deepest of which is noritic. This three-component stratigraphy at Bullialdus provides strong evidence that the lunar crust includes pockets of compositionally layered material reminiscent of mafic layered plutons. When combined with previous information on the compositional diversity at other large craters, these remote analyses obtained in a geologic context substantially strengthen the hypothesis suggested from lunar samples that plutons play an integral role in lunar crustal evolution.

  15. Polar lunar power ring: Propulsion energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Graham Scott

    1990-01-01

    A ring shaped grid of photovoltaic solar collectors encircling a lunar pole at 80 to 85 degrees latitude is proposed as the primary research, development, and construction goal for an initial lunar base. The polar Lunar Power Ring (LPR) is designed to provide continuous electrical power in ever increasing amounts as collectors are added to the ring grid. The LPR can provide electricity for any purpose indefinitely, barring a meteor strike. The associated rail infrastructure and inherently expandable power levels place the LPR as an ideal tool to power an innovative propulsion research facility or a trans-Jovian fleet. The proposed initial output range is 90 Mw to 90 Gw.

  16. Technicians work with Apollo 14 lunar sample material in Lunar Receiving Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Glove handlers work with freshly opened Apollo 14 lunar sample material in modularized cabinets in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at the Manned Spacecraft Center. The glove operator on the right starts to pour fine lunar material which he has just taken from a tote bag. This powdery sample was among the last to be revealed of the 90-odd pounds of material brought back to Earth by the Apollo 14 crewmen.

  17. 40 CFR 161.340 - Toxicology data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Toxicology data requirements. 161.340... Toxicology data requirements. (a) Table. Sections 161.100 through 161.102 describe how to use this table to determine the toxicology data requirements and the substance to be tested. Kind of data required (b) Notes...

  18. Evaluation of sampling methods for toxicological testing of indoor air particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirkkonen, Jenni; Täubel, Martin; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Leppänen, Hanna; Lindsley, William G; Chen, Bean T; Hyvärinen, Anne; Huttunen, Kati

    2016-09-01

    There is a need for toxicity tests capable of recognizing indoor environments with compromised air quality, especially in the context of moisture damage. One of the key issues is sampling, which should both provide meaningful material for analyses and fulfill requirements imposed by practitioners using toxicity tests for health risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate different existing methods of sampling indoor particulate matter (PM) to develop a suitable sampling strategy for a toxicological assay. During three sampling campaigns in moisture-damaged and non-damaged school buildings, we evaluated one passive and three active sampling methods: the Settled Dust Box (SDB), the Button Aerosol Sampler, the Harvard Impactor and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to particle suspensions and cell metabolic activity (CMA), production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) were determined after 24 h of exposure. The repeatability of the toxicological analyses was very good for all tested sampler types. Variability within the schools was found to be high especially between different classrooms in the moisture-damaged school. Passively collected settled dust and PM collected actively with the NIOSH Sampler (Stage 1) caused a clear response in exposed cells. The results suggested the higher relative immunotoxicological activity of dust from the moisture-damaged school. The NIOSH Sampler is a promising candidate for the collection of size-fractionated PM to be used in toxicity testing. The applicability of such sampling strategy in grading moisture damage severity in buildings needs to be developed further in a larger cohort of buildings.

  19. Burn Delay Analysis of the Lunar Orbit Insertion for Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jonghee; Song, Young-Joo; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Bangyeop

    2017-12-01

    The first Korea lunar orbiter, Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO), has been in development since 2016. After launch, the KPLO will execute several maneuvers to enter into the lunar mission orbit, and will then perform lunar science missions for one year. Among these maneuvers, the lunar orbit insertion (LOI) is the most critical maneuver because the KPLO will experience an extreme velocity change in the presence of the Moon’s gravitational pull. However, the lunar orbiter may have a delayed LOI burn during operation due to hardware limitations and telemetry delays. This delayed burn could occur in different captured lunar orbits; in the worst case, the KPLO could fly away from the Moon. Therefore, in this study, the burn delay for the first LOI maneuver is analyzed to successfully enter the desired lunar orbit. Numerical simulations are performed to evaluate the difference between the desired and delayed lunar orbits due to a burn delay in the LOI maneuver. Based on this analysis, critical factors in the LOI maneuver, the periselene altitude and orbit period, are significantly changed and an additional delta-V in the second LOI maneuver is required as the delay burn interval increases to 10 min from the planned maneuver epoch.

  20. Building an Economical and Sustainable Lunar Infrastructure to Enable Lunar Industrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Allison F.; Turner, Mark; Rasky, Daniel; Loucks, Mike; Carrico, John; Policastri, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    A new concept study was initiated to examine the architecture needed to gradually develop an economical, evolvable and sustainable lunar infrastructure using a public/private partnerships approach. This approach would establish partnership agreements between NASA and industry teams to develop a lunar infrastructure system that would be mutually beneficial. This approach would also require NASA and its industry partners to share costs in the development phase and then transfer operation of these infrastructure services back to its industry owners in the execution phase. These infrastructure services may include but are not limited to the following: lunar cargo transportation, power stations, communication towers and satellites, autonomous rover operations, landing pads and resource extraction operations. The public/private partnerships approach used in this study leveraged best practices from NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program which introduced an innovative and economical approach for partnering with industry to develop commercial cargo services to the International Space Station. This program was planned together with the ISS Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) contracts which was responsible for initiating commercial cargo delivery services to the ISS for the first time. The public/private partnerships approach undertaken in the COTS program proved to be very successful in dramatically reducing development costs for these ISS cargo delivery services as well as substantially reducing operational costs. To continue on this successful path towards installing economical infrastructure services for LEO and beyond, this new study, named Lunar COTS (Commercial Operations and Transport Services), was conducted to examine extending the NASA COTS model to cis-lunar space and the lunar surface. The goals of the Lunar COTS concept are to: 1) develop and demonstrate affordable and commercial cis-lunar and surface capabilities, such as lunar cargo

  1. Dust storm, northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    This large dust storm along the left side of the photo, covers a large portion of the state of Coahuila, Mexico (27.5N, 102.0E). The look angle of this oblique photo is from the south to the north. In the foreground is the Sierra Madre Oriental in the states Coahuila and Nuevo Leon with the Rio Grande River, Amistad Reservoir and Texas in the background.

  2. Water and organics in interplanetary dust particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, John

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and larger micrometeorites (MMs) impinge on the upper atmosphere where they decelerate at 90 km altitude and settle to the Earths surface. Comets and asteroids are the major sources and the flux, 30,000-40,000 tons/yr, is comparable to the mass of larger meteorites impacting the Earths surface. The sedimentary record suggests that the flux was much higher on the early Earth. The chondritic porous (CP) subset of IDPs together with their larger counterparts, ultracarbonaceous micrometeorites (UCMMs), appear to be unique among known meteoritic materials in that they are composed almost exclusively of anhydrous minerals, some of them contain >> 50% organic carbon by volume as well as the highest abundances of presolar silicate grains including GEMS. D/H and 15N abundances implicate the Oort Cloud or presolar molecular cloud as likely sources of the organic carbon. Prior to atmospheric entry, IDPs and MMs spend 104-105 year lifetimes in solar orbit where their surfaces develop amorphous space weathered rims from exposure to the solar wind (SW). Similar rims are observed on lunar soil grains and on asteroid Itokawa regolith grains. Using valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) we have detected radiolytic water in the rims on IDPs formed by the interaction of solar wind protons with oxygen in silicate minerals. Therefore, IDPs and MMs continuously deliver both water and organics to the earth and other terrestrial planets. The interaction of protons with oxygen-rich minerals to form water is a universal process.

  3. Systems toxicology: applications of toxicogenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics in toxicology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, W.H.M.; Kienhuis, A.S.; Ommen, van B.; Stierum, R.; Groten, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Toxicogenomics can facilitate the identification and characterization of toxicity, as illustrated in this review. Toxicogenomics, the application of the functional genomics technologies (transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) in toxicology enables the study of adverse effects of xenobiotic

  4. Dust acoustic shock wave at high dust density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Samiran; Sarkar, Susmita; Khan, Manoranjan; Avinash, K.; Gupta, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Dust acoustic (DA) shock wave at high dust density, i.e., the dust electroacoustic (DEA) or dust Coulomb (DC) shock wave has been investigated incorporating the nonadiabatic dust charge variation. The nonlinear DEA (DC) shock wave is seen to be governed by the Korteweg-de Vries Burger equation, in which the Burger term is proportional to the nonadiabaticity generated dissipation. It is seen that the shock strength decreases but after reaching minimum, it increases as the dust space charge density |q d n d | increases and the shock strength of DA wave is greater than that of DEA (DC) wave. Moreover the DEA (DC) shock width increases appreciably with increase mass m i of the ion component of the dusty plasma but for DA shock wave the effect is weak

  5. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health.

  6. Parameterizing the interstellar dust temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocuk, S.; Szűcs, L.; Caselli, P.; Cazaux, S.; Spaans, M.; Esplugues, G. B.

    2017-08-01

    The temperature of interstellar dust particles is of great importance to astronomers. It plays a crucial role in the thermodynamics of interstellar clouds, because of the gas-dust collisional coupling. It is also a key parameter in astrochemical studies that governs the rate at which molecules form on dust. In 3D (magneto)hydrodynamic simulations often a simple expression for the dust temperature is adopted, because of computational constraints, while astrochemical modelers tend to keep the dust temperature constant over a large range of parameter space. Our aim is to provide an easy-to-use parametric expression for the dust temperature as a function of visual extinction (AV) and to shed light on the critical dependencies of the dust temperature on the grain composition. We obtain an expression for the dust temperature by semi-analytically solving the dust thermal balance for different types of grains and compare to a collection of recent observational measurements. We also explore the effect of ices on the dust temperature. Our results show that a mixed carbonaceous-silicate type dust with a high carbon volume fraction matches the observations best. We find that ice formation allows the dust to be warmer by up to 15% at high optical depths (AV> 20 mag) in the interstellar medium. Our parametric expression for the dust temperature is presented as Td = [ 11 + 5.7 × tanh(0.61 - log 10(AV) ]χuv1/5.9, where χuv is in units of the Draine (1978, ApJS, 36, 595) UV field.

  7. Toxicological aspects of fuel and exhaust gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avella, F.

    1993-01-01

    Some aspects concerning fuels (gasoline) and gas exhaust vehicle emissions toxicology are briefly examined in light of the results reported in recent literature on this argument. Many experimental studies carried out on animals and men turn out incomplete and do not allow thorough evaluations, for every aspect, of the risk to which men and the environment are subjected

  8. Evolution of Computational Toxicology-from Primitive ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation at the Health Canada seminar in Ottawa, ON, Canada on Nov. 15. 2016 Presentation at the Health Canada seminar in Ottawa, ON, Canada on Nov. 15. 2016 on the Evolution of Computational Toxicology-from Primitive Beginnings to Sophisticated Application

  9. Good cell culture practices &in vitro toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Chantra; Boström, Ann-Charlotte; Bowe, Gerhard; Coecke, Sandra; Hartung, Thomas; Hendriks, Giel; Pamies, David; Piton, Alain; Rovida, Costanza

    2017-12-01

    Good Cell Culture Practices (GCCP) is of high relevance to in vitro toxicology. The European Society of Toxicology In Vitro (ESTIV), the Center for Alternatives for Animal Testing (CAAT) and the In Vitro Toxicology Industrial Platform (IVTIP) joined forces to address by means of an ESTIV 2016 pre-congress session the different aspects and applications of GCCP. The covered aspects comprised the current status of the OECD guidance document on Good In Vitro Method Practices, the importance of quality assurance for new technological advances in in vitro toxicology including stem cells, and the optimized implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices and Good Laboratory Practices for regulatory testing purposes. General discussions raised the duality related to the difficulties in implementing GCCP in an academic innovative research framework on one hand, and on the other hand, the need for such GCCP principles in order to ensure reproducibility and robustness of in vitro test methods for toxicity testing. Indeed, if good cell culture principles are critical to take into consideration for all uses of in vitro test methods for toxicity testing, the level of application of such principles may depend on the stage of development of the test method as well as on the applications of the test methods, i.e., academic innovative research vs. regulatory standardized test method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Research Models in Developmental Behavioral Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Kim N.; Pearson, Douglas T.

    Developmental models currently used by child behavioral toxicologists and teratologists are inadequate to address current issues in these fields. Both child behavioral teratology and toxicology scientifically study the impact of exposure to toxic agents on behavior development: teratology focuses on prenatal exposure and postnatal behavior…

  11. A medical-toxicological view of tattooing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laux, Peter; Tralau, Tewes; Tentschert, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    of infections. Meanwhile, the increasing popularity of tattooing has led to the development of many new colours, allowing tattoos to be more spectacular than ever before. However, little is known about the toxicological risks of the ingredients used. For risk assessment, safe intradermal application...

  12. Toxicodynetics: A new discipline in clinical toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, F J; Houzé, P; Villa, A; Borron, S W; Carli, P

    2016-05-01

    Regarding the different disciplines that encompass the pharmacology and the toxicology, none is specifically dedicated to the description and analysis of the time-course of relevant toxic effects both in experimental and clinical studies. The lack of a discipline devoted to this major field in toxicology results in misconception and even in errors by clinicians. Review of the basic different disciplines that encompass pharmacology toxicology and comparing with the description of the time-course of effects in conditions in which toxicological analysis was not performed or with limited analytical evidence. Review of the literature clearly shows how misleading is the current extrapolation of toxicokinetic data to the description of the time-course of toxic effects. A new discipline entitled toxicodynetics should be developed aiming at a more systematic description of the time-course of effects in acute human and experimental poisonings. Toxicodynetics might help emergency physicians in risk assessment when facing a poisoning and contribute to a better assessment of quality control of data collected by poison control centres. Toxicodynetics would also allow a quantitative approach to the clinical effects resulting from drug-drug interaction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Metabolomics in Toxicology and Preclinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Daneshian, Mardas; Kamp, Hennicke; Bois, Frederic Y.; Clench, Malcolm R.; Coen, Muireann; Donley, Beth; Fischer, Steven M.; Ekman, Drew R.; Fabian, Eric; Guillou, Claude; Heuer, Joachim; Hogberg, Helena T.; Jungnickel, Harald; Keun, Hector C.; Krennrich, Gerhard; Krupp, Eckart; Luch, Andreas; Noor, Fozia; Peter, Erik; Riefke, Bjoern; Seymour, Mark; Skinner, Nigel; Smirnova, Lena; Verheij, Elwin; Wagner, Silvia; Hartung, Thomas; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Leist, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Summary Metabolomics, the comprehensive analysis of metabolites in a biological system, provides detailed information about the biochemical/physiological status of a biological system, and about the changes caused by chemicals. Metabolomics analysis is used in many fields, ranging from the analysis of the physiological status of genetically modified organisms in safety science to the evaluation of human health conditions. In toxicology, metabolomics is the -omics discipline that is most closely related to classical knowledge of disturbed biochemical pathways. It allows rapid identification of the potential targets of a hazardous compound. It can give information on target organs and often can help to improve our understanding regarding the mode-of-action of a given compound. Such insights aid the discovery of biomarkers that either indicate pathophysiological conditions or help the monitoring of the efficacy of drug therapies. The first toxicological applications of metabolomics were for mechanistic research, but different ways to use the technology in a regulatory context are being explored. Ideally, further progress in that direction will position the metabolomics approach to address the challenges of toxicology of the 21st century. To address these issues, scientists from academia, industry, and regulatory bodies came together in a workshop to discuss the current status of applied metabolomics and its potential in the safety assessment of compounds. We report here on the conclusions of three working groups addressing questions regarding 1) metabolomics for in vitro studies 2) the appropriate use of metabolomics in systems toxicology, and 3) use of metabolomics in a regulatory context. PMID:23665807

  14. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-one participants from Europe, North America and China convened in Chongqing, China, October 12-14, 2005, for the Eighth International Symposium in Fish Physiology, Toxicology and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was "Hypoxia in vertebrates: Comparisons of terrestr...

  15. Toxicological requirements for risk assessment of shellfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increasing concern by consumers with regard to the health aspects and safety of foodstuffs. Most food additives and contaminants are controlled by regulatory authorities, with Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADIs) having been set on the basis of detailed acute short- and long-term toxicological studies. The situation with ...

  16. Phytochemical Screening, Antibacterial and Toxicological Activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical screening, antibacterial and toxicological activities of extracts of the stem bark of Acacia senegal were investigated. The phytochemical analyses according to standard screening tests using conventional protocols revealed the presence of tannins, saponins and sterols in the stem bark of the plant.

  17. Toxicological perspectives of inhaled therapeutics and nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Amanda J; Bakand, Shahnaz

    2014-07-01

    The human respiratory system is an important route for the entry of inhaled therapeutics into the body to treat diseases. Inhaled materials may consist of gases, vapours, aerosols and particulates. In all cases, assessing the toxicological effect of inhaled therapeutics has many challenges. This article provides an overview of in vivo and in vitro models for testing the toxicity of inhaled therapeutics and nanoparticles implemented in drug delivery. Traditionally, inhalation toxicity has been performed on test animals to identify the median lethal concentration of airborne materials. Later maximum tolerable concentration denoted by LC0 has been introduced as a more ethically acceptable end point. More recently, in vitro methods have been developed, allowing the direct exposure of airborne material to cultured human target cells on permeable porous membranes at the air-liquid interface. Modifications of current inhalation therapies, new pulmonary medications for respiratory diseases and implementation of the respiratory tract for systemic drug delivery are providing new challenges when conducting well-designed inhalation toxicology studies. In particular, the area of nanoparticles and nanocarriers is of critical toxicological concern. There is a need to develop toxicological test models, which characterise the toxic response and cellular interaction between inhaled particles and the respiratory system.

  18. Collection of biological samples in forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, R J; Carvalho, F; Duarte, J A; Remião, F; Marques, A; Santos, A; Magalhães, T

    2010-09-01

    Forensic toxicology is the study and practice of the application of toxicology to the purposes of the law. The relevance of any finding is determined, in the first instance, by the nature and integrity of the specimen(s) submitted for analysis. This means that there are several specific challenges to select and collect specimens for ante-mortem and post-mortem toxicology investigation. Post-mortem specimens may be numerous and can endow some special difficulties compared to clinical specimens, namely those resulting from autolytic and putrefactive changes. Storage stability is also an important issue to be considered during the pre-analytic phase, since its consideration should facilitate the assessment of sample quality and the analytical result obtained from that sample. The knowledge on degradation mechanisms and methods to increase storage stability may enable the forensic toxicologist to circumvent possible difficulties. Therefore, advantages and limitations of specimen preservation procedures are thoroughfully discussed in this review. Presently, harmonized protocols for sampling in suspected intoxications would have obvious utility. In the present article an overview is given on sampling procedures for routinely collected specimens as well as on alternative specimens that may provide additional information on the route and timing of exposure to a specific xenobiotic. Last, but not least, a discussion on possible bias that can influence the interpretation of toxicological results is provided. This comprehensive review article is intented as a significant help for forensic toxicologists to accomplish their frequently overwhelming mission.

  19. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists from ten countries presented papers at the Fifth International Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality, which was held on the campus of the city University of Hong Kong on November 10-13, 1998. These Proceedings include 23 papers presented in sessi...

  20. Phytochemical analysis and toxicological evaluation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, Flavonoid, Alkaloids, Anthraquinone, Saponin and Cardiac glycosides. This work thus justifies the ethnomedicinal use of the plant in the treatment of anaemia and its safety profile. Keywords: Toxicological, Ethno toxicity, Hematological and phytochemical ...

  1. The rat incisor in toxicologic pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, M.H.M.; Kooij, A.J. van de; Slootweg, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Microscopic examination of the incisors of rats and mice may reveal toxicologically significant changes. First, the incisor morphology reflects the nutritional status of the animal: fluctuations of mineral metabolism and vitamin availability are disclosed by the rodent incisors, because the incisors

  2. A prospective toxicology analysis in alcoholics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørgen Lange; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Felby, Søren

    1997-01-01

    A prospective and comprehensive investigation was done on 73 medico–legal autopsies in alcoholics. The results of the toxicology analyses are described. Alcohol intoxication was the cause of death in 8%, combined alcohol/drug intoxication in 15% and drugs alone in 19%. Alcoholic ketoacidosis...

  3. Toxicology research for precautionary decision-making and the role of Human & Experimental Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, P

    2015-12-01

    A key aim of toxicology is the prevention of adverse effects due to toxic hazards. Therefore, the dissemination of toxicology research findings must confront two important challenges: one being the lack of information on the vast majority of potentially toxic industrial chemicals and the other being the strict criteria for scientific proof usually required for decision-making in regard to prevention. The present study ascertains the coverage of environmental chemicals in four volumes of Human & Experimental Toxicology and the presentation and interpretation of research findings in published articles. Links in SciFinder showed that the 530 articles published in four selected volumes between 1984 and 2014 primarily dealt with metals (126 links) and other toxicants that have received substantial attention in the past. Thirteen compounds identified by US authorities in 2006 as high-priority substances, for which toxicology documentation is badly needed, were not covered in the journal issues at all. When reviewing published articles, reliance on p values was standard, and non-significant findings were often called 'negative.' This tradition may contribute to the perceived need to extend existing research on toxic hazards that have already been well characterized. Several sources of bias towards the null hypothesis can affect toxicology research, but are generally not considered, thus adding to the current inclination to avoid false positive findings. In this regard, toxicology is particularly prone to bias because of the known paucity of false positives and, in particular, the existence of a vast number of toxic hazards which by default are considered innocuous due to lack of documentation. The Precautionary Principle could inspire decision-making on the basis of incomplete documentation and should stimulate a change in toxicology traditions and in toxicology research publication. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Lunar seismicity, structure, and tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammlein, D. R.; Latham, G. V.; Dorman, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Ewing, M.

    1974-01-01

    Natural seismic events have been detected by the long-period seismometers at Apollo stations 16, 14, 15, and 12 at annual rates of 3300, 1700, 800, and 700, respectively, with peak activity at 13- to 14-day intervals. The data are used to describe magnitudes, source characteristics, and periodic features of lunar seismicity. In a present model, the rigid lithosphere overlies an asthenosphere of reduced rigidity in which present-day partial melting is probable. Tidal deformation presumably leads to critical stress concentrations at the base of the lithosphere, where moonquakes are found to occur. The striking tidal periodicities in the pattern of moonquake occurrence and energy release suggest that tidal energy is the dominant source of energy released as moonquakes. Thus, tidal energy is dissipated by moonquakes in the lithosphere and probably by inelastic processes in the asthenosphere.

  5. Fusion power from lunar resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulcinski, G.L.; Schmitt, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the moon contains an enormous energy source in 3 He deposited by the solar wind. Fusion of only 100 kg of 3 He with deuterium in thermonuclear fusion power plants can produce > 1000 MW (electric) of electrical energy, and the lunar resource base is estimated at 1 x 10 9 kg of 3 He. This fuel can supply >1000 yr of terrestrial electrical energy demand. The methods for extracting this fuel and the other solar wind volatiles are described. Alternate uses of D- 3 He fusion in direct thrust rockets will enable more ambitious deep-space missions to be conducted. The capability of extracting hydrogen, water, nitrogen, and other carbon-containing molecules will open up the moon to a much greater level of human settlement than previously thought

  6. Radioactivity in returned lunar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The H-3, Ar-37, and Ar-39 radioactivities were measured at several depths in the large documented lunar rocks 14321 and 15555. The comparison of the Ar-37 activities from similar locations in rocks 12002, 14321, and 15555 gives direct measures of the amount of Ar-37 produced by the 2 November 1969 and 24 January 1971 solar flares. The tritium contents in the documented rocks decreased with increasing depths. The solar flare intensity averaged over 30 years obtained from the tritium depth dependence was approximately the same as the flare intensity averaged over 1000 years obtained from the Ar-37 measurements. Radioactivities in two Apollo 15 soil samples, H-3 in several Surveyor 3 samples, and tritium and radon weepage were also measured.

  7. Lunar construction/mining equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Levent

    1990-01-01

    For centuries, mining has utilized drill and blast as the primary method of rock excavation. Although this technique has undergone significant improvements, it still remains a cyclic, labor intensive operation with inherent safety hazards. Other drawbacks include damage to the surrounding ground, creation of blast vibrations, rough excavation walls resulting in increased ventilation requirements, and the lack of selective mining ability. Perhaps the most important shortcoming of drill and blast is that it is not conducive to full implementation of automation or robotics technologies. Numerous attempts have been made in the past to automate drill and blast operations to remove personnel from the hazardous work environment. Although most of the concepts devised look promising on paper, none of them was found workable on a sustained production basis. In particular, the problem of serious damage to equipment during the blasting cycle could not be resolved regardless of the amount of charge used in excavation. Since drill and blast is not capable of meeting the requirements of a fully automated rock fragmentation method, its role is bound to gradually decrease. Mechanical excavation, in contrast, is highly suitable to automation because it is a continuous process and does not involve any explosives. Many of the basic principles and trends controlling the design of an earth-based mechanical excavator will hold in an extraterrestrial environment such as on the lunar surface. However, the economic and physical limitations for transporting materials to space will require major rethinking of these machines. In concept, then, a lunar mechanical excavator will look and perform significantly different from one designed for use here on earth. This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of such mechanical excavator systems.

  8. Restoration and Reexamination of Data from the Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 Dust, Thermal and Radiation Engineering Measurements Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Marie J.; Williams, David R.; Kent, H.; Turner, Niescja

    2012-01-01

    As part of an effort by the Lunar Data Node (LDN) we are restoring data returned by the Apollo Dust, Thermal, and Radiation Engineering Measurements (DTREM) packages emplaced on the lunar surface by the crews of Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15. Also commonly known as the Dust Detector experiments, the DTREM packages measured the outputs of exposed solar cells and thermistors over time. They operated on the surface for up to nearly 8 years, returning data every 54 seconds. The Apollo 11 DTREM was part of the Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP), and operated for a few months as planned following emplacement in July 1969. The Apollo 12, 14, and 15 DTREMs were mounted on the central station as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) and operated from deployment until ALSEP shutdown in September 1977. The objective of the DTREM experiments was to determine the effects of lunar and meteoric dust, thermal stresses, and radiation exposure on solar cells. The LDN, part of the Geosciences Node of the Planetary Data System (PDS), operates out of the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at Goddard Space Flight Center. The goal of the LDN is to extract lunar data stored on older media and/or in obsolete formats, restore the data into a usable digital format, and archive the data with PDS and NSSDC. For the DTREM data we plan to recover the raw telemetry, translate the raw counts into appropriate output units, and then apply calibrations. The final archived data will include the raw, translated, and calibrated data and the associated conversion tables produced from the microfilm, as well as ancillary supporting data (metadata) packaged in PDS format.

  9. Lunar Plants Prototype for Moon Express

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of our project is to bring the first full life cycle to the moon: to demonstrate germination of plants in lunar gravity and radiation.The Moon Express...

  10. Educating the Next Generation of Lunar Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) and NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC), is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI). In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and outreach. In support of NASA’s and NLSI’s objective to train the next generation of scientists, CLSE’s High School Lunar Research Project is a conduit through which high school students can actively participate in lunar science and learn about pathways into scientific careers. The High School Lunar Research Project engages teams of high school students in authentic lunar research that envelopes them in the process of science and supports the science goals of the CLSE. Most high school students’ lack of scientific research experience leaves them without an understanding of science as a process. Because of this, each team is paired with a lunar scientist mentor responsible for guiding students through the process of conducting a scientific investigation. Before beginning their research, students undertake “Moon 101,” designed to familiarize them with lunar geology and exploration. Students read articles covering various lunar geology topics and analyze images from past and current lunar missions to become familiar with available lunar data sets. At the end of “Moon 101”, students present a characterization of the geology and chronology of features surrounding the Apollo 11 landing site. To begin their research, teams choose a research subject from a pool of topics compiled by the CLSE staff. After choosing a topic, student teams ask their own research questions, within the context of the larger question, and design their own research approach to direct their investigation. At the conclusion of their research, teams present their results and, after receiving feedback, create and present a conference style poster to a panel of

  11. Lunar Soil Particle Separator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS improves ISRU oxygen...

  12. Lunar Soil Particle Separator, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS can improve ISRU oxygen...

  13. Strength and compressibility of returned lunar soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, W. D., III; Bromwell, L. G.; Martin, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    Two oedometer and three direct shear tests have been performed in vacuum on a 200 g sample of lunar soil from Apollo 12 (12001, 119). The compressibility data have been used to calculate bulk density and shear wave velocity versus depth on the lunar surface. The shear wave velocity was found to increase approximately with the one-fourth power of the depth, and the results suggest that the Apollo 14 Active Seismic Experiment may not have detected the Fra Mauro formation at a depth of 8.5 m, but only naturally consolidated lunar soil. The shear data indicate that the strength of the lunar soil sample is about 65% that of a ground basalt simulant at the same void ratio.

  14. Lunar Wireless Power Transfer Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freid, Sheldon [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Popovic, Zoya [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Beckett, David R. [Independent Consultant; Anderson, Scott R. [Independent Consultant; Mann, Diana [Independent Consultant; Walker, Stuart [Independent Consultant

    2008-03-01

    This study examines the feasibility of a multi-kilowatt wireless radio frequency (RF) power system to transfer power between lunar base facilities. Initial analyses, show that wireless power transfer (WPT) systems can be more efficient and less expensive than traditional wired approaches for certain lunar and terrestrial applications. The study includes evaluations of the fundamental limitations of lunar WPT systems, the interrelationships of possible operational parameters, and a baseline design approach for a notionial system that could be used in the near future to power remote facilities at a lunar base. Our notional system includes state-of-the-art photovoltaics (PVs), high-efficiency microwave transmitters, low-mass large-aperture high-power transmit antennas, high-efficiency large-area rectenna receiving arrays, and reconfigurable DC combining circuitry.

  15. Measurement of the lunar neutron density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolum, D.S.; Burnett, D.S.; Furst, M.; Weiss, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    An in situ measurement of the lunar neutron density from 20 to 400 g cm -2 depth below the lunar surface was made by the Apollo 17 Lunar Neutron Probe Experiment (LNPE) using particle tracks produced by the 10 B (n,α) 7 Li reaction. Both the absolute magnitude and the depth profile of the neutron density are in good agreement with theoretical calculations by Lingenfelter, Canfield, and Hampel. However, relatively small deviations between experiment and theory in the effect of Cd absorption on the neutron density and in the relative 149 Sm to 157 Gd capture rates reported previously (Russ et al., 1972) imply that the true lunar 157 Gd capture rate is about one half of that calculated theoretically. (Auth.)

  16. International Coordination of Lunar Polar Volatiles Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, J. E.; Suzuki, N. H.; Carpenter, J. D.

    2015-10-01

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) has established a study team to coordinate the worldwide interest in lunar polar volatiles, and in particular water ice, in an effort to stimulate cooperation and collaboration.

  17. Life Sciences Implications of Lunar Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document preliminary, predicted, life sciences implications of expected operational concepts for lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). Algorithms developed through simulation and testing in lunar analog environments were used to predict crew metabolic rates and ground reaction forces experienced during lunar EVA. Subsequently, the total metabolic energy consumption, the daily bone load stimulus, total oxygen needed, and other variables were calculated and provided to Human Research Program and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate stakeholders. To provide context to the modeling, the report includes an overview of some scenarios that have been considered. Concise descriptions of the analog testing and development of the algorithms are also provided. This document may be updated to remain current with evolving lunar or other planetary surface operations, assumptions and concepts, and to provide additional data and analyses collected during the ongoing analog research program.

  18. Production of Lunar Oxygen Through Vacuum Pyrolysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matchett, John

    2006-01-01

    .... The vacuum pyrolysis method of oxygen production from lunar regolith presents a viable option for in situ propellant production because of its simple operation involving limited resources from earth...

  19. Learning Lunar Science Through the Selene Videogame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, D. D.; Wood, C. A.

    2010-03-01

    Selene is a videogame to promote and assess learning of lunar science concepts. As players build and modify a Moon, Selene measures learning as it occurs. Selene is a model for 21st century learning and embedded assessment.

  20. Review of lunar telescope studies at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilchey, John D.; Nein, Max E.

    1993-09-01

    In the near future astronomers can take advantage of the lunar surface as the new 'high ground' from which to study the universe. Optical telescopes placed and operated on the lunar surface would be successors to NASA's Great Observatories. Four telescopes, ranging in aperture from a 16-m, IR/Vis/UV observatory down to a 1-m, UV 'transit' instrument, have been studied by the Lunar Telescope Working Group and the LUTE (lunar telescope ultraviolet experiment) Task Team of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This paper presents conceptual designs of the telescopes, provides descriptions of the telescope subsystem options selected for each concept, and outlines the potential evolution of their science capabilities.