WorldWideScience

Sample records for luminosity proton collider

  1. Design of a High Luminosity 100 TeV Proton-Antiproton Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros Tautiva, Sandra Jimena

    Currently new physics is being explored with the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and with Intensity Frontier programs at Fermilab and KEK. The energy scale for new physics is known to be in the multi-TeV range, signaling the need for a future collider which well surpasses this energy scale. A 10 34 cm-2 s-1 luminosity 100 TeV proton-antiproton collider is explored with 7x the energy of the LHC. The dipoles are 4.5 T to reduce cost. A proton-antiproton collider is selected as a future machine for several reasons. The cross section for many high mass states is 10 times higher in pp than pp collisions. Antiquarks for production can come directly from an antiproton rather than indirectly from gluon splitting. The higher cross sections reduce the synchrotron radiation in superconducting magnets and the number of events per bunch crossing, because lower beam currents can produce the same rare event rates. Events are also more centrally produced, allowing a more compact detector with less space between quadrupole triplets and a smaller beta* for higher luminosity. To adjust to antiproton beam losses (burn rate), a Fermilab-like antiproton source would be adapted to disperse the beam into 12 different momentum channels, using electrostatic septa, to increase antiproton momentum capture 12 times. At Fermilab, antiprotons were stochastically cooled in one Debuncher and one Accumulator ring. Because the stochastic cooling time scales as the number of particles, two options of 12 independent cooling systems are presented. One electron cooling ring might follow the stochastic cooling rings for antiproton stacking. Finally antiprotons in the collider ring would be recycled during runs without leaving the collider ring, by joining them to new bunches with snap bunch coalescence and synchrotron damping. These basic ideas are explored in this work on a future 100 TeV proton-antiproton collider and the main parameters are presented.

  2. Design of a High Luminosity 100 TeV Proton Antiproton Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveros Tuativa, Sandra Jimena [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Currently new physics is being explored with the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and with Intensity Frontier programs at Fermilab and KEK. The energy scale for new physics is known to be in the multi-TeV range, signaling the need for a future collider which well surpasses this energy scale. A 10$^{\\,34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ luminosity 100 TeV proton-antiproton collider is explored with 7$\\times$ the energy of the LHC. The dipoles are 4.5\\,T to reduce cost. A proton-antiproton collider is selected as a future machine for several reasons. The cross section for many high mass states is 10 times higher in $p\\bar{p}$ than $pp$ collisions. Antiquarks for production can come directly from an antiproton rather than indirectly from gluon splitting. The higher cross sections reduce the synchrotron radiation in superconducting magnets and the number of events per bunch crossing, because lower beam currents can produce the same rare event rates. Events are also more centrally produced, allowing a more compact detector with less space between quadrupole triplets and a smaller $\\beta^{*}$ for higher luminosity. To adjust to antiproton beam losses (burn rate), a Fermilab-like antiproton source would be adapted to disperse the beam into 12 different momentum channels, using electrostatic septa, to increase antiproton momentum capture 12 times. At Fermilab, antiprotons were stochastically cooled in one Debuncher and one Accumulator ring. Because the stochastic cooling time scales as the number of particles, two options of 12 independent cooling systems are presented. One electron cooling ring might follow the stochastic cooling rings for antiproton stacking. Finally antiprotons in the collider ring would be recycled during runs without leaving the collider ring, by joining them to new bunches with snap bunch coalescence and synchrotron damping. These basic ideas are explored in this work on a future 100 TeV proton-antiproton collider and the main parameters are presented.

  3. High luminosity particle colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.

    1997-03-01

    The authors consider the high energy physics advantages, disadvantages and luminosity requirements of hadron (pp, p anti p), lepton (e + e - , μ + μ - ) and photon-photon colliders. Technical problems in obtaining increased energy in each type of machine are presented. The machines relative size are also discussed

  4. Hadron collider luminosity limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon R

    1992-01-01

    The three colliders operated to date have taught us a great deal about the behaviour of both bunched and debunched beams in storage rings. The main luminosity limitations are now well enough understood that most of them can be stronglu attenuated or eliminated by approriate design precautions. Experience with the beam-beam interaction in both the SPS and the Tevatron allow us to predict the performance of the new generation of colliders with some degree of confidence. One of the main challenges that the accelerator physicist faces is the problem of the dynamic aperture limitations due to the lower field quality expected, imposed by economic and other constraints.

  5. Exploration of a High Luminosity 100 TeV Proton Antiproton Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveros, Sandra J. [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States); Summers, Don [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States); Cremaldi, Lucien [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States); Acosta, John [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States); Neuffer, David [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-04-12

    New physics is being explored with the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and with Intensity Frontier programs at Fermilab and KEK. The energy scale for new physics is known to be in the multi-TeV range, signaling the need for a future collider which well surpasses this energy scale. We explore a 10$^{\\,34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ luminosity, 100 TeV $p\\bar{p}$ collider with 7$\\times$ the energy of the LHC but only 2$\\times$ as much NbTi superconductor, motivating the choice of 4.5 T single bore dipoles. The cross section for many high mass states is 10 times higher in $p\\bar{p}$ than $pp$ collisions. Antiquarks for production can come directly from an antiproton rather than indirectly from gluon splitting. The higher cross sections reduce the synchrotron radiation in superconducting magnets and the number of events per beam crossing, because lower beam currents can produce the same rare event rates. Events are more centrally produced, allowing a more compact detector with less space between quadrupole triplets and a smaller $\\beta^{*}$ for higher luminosity. A Fermilab-like $\\bar p$ source would disperse the beam into 12 momentum channels to capture more antiprotons. Because stochastic cooling time scales as the number of particles, 12 cooling ring sets would be used. Each set would include phase rotation to lower momentum spreads, equalize all momentum channels, and stochastically cool. One electron cooling ring would follow the stochastic cooling rings. Finally antiprotons would be recycled during runs without leaving the collider ring by joining them to new bunches with synchrotron damping.

  6. Polarized proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    High energy polarized beam collisions will open up the unique physics opportunities of studying spin effects in hard processes. This will allow the study of the spin structure of the proton and also the verification of the many well documented expectations of spin effects in perturbative QCD and parity violation in W and Z production. Proposals for polarized proton acceleration for several high energy colliders have been developed. A partial Siberian Snake in the AGS has recently been successfully tested and full Siberian Snakes, spin rotators, and polarimeters for RHIC are being developed to make the acceleration of polarized beams to 250 GeV possible. This allows for the unique possibility of colliding two 250 GeV polarized proton beams at luminosities of up to 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1

  7. High luminosity μ+ μ- collider: Report of a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.; Tollestrup, A.; Sessler, A.

    1996-12-01

    Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV (c-of-m) high luminosity μ + μ - colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in a collider ring. Detector background, polarization, and nonstandard operating conditions are analyzed. Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. We briefly mention the luminosity requirements of hadrons and lepton machines and their high-energy-physics advantages and disadvantages in reference to their effective center of mass energy. Finally, we present an R ampersand D plan to determine whether such machines are practical

  8. Measurement of the Inclusive $Z \\to ee$ Production Cross Section in Proton-Proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7TeV and $Z \\to ee$ Decays as Standard Candles for Luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Jeremy [Princeton U.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis comprises a precision measurement of the inclusive \\Zee production cross section in proton-proton collisions provided by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=7$~TeV and the absolute luminosity based on \\Zee decays. The data was collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector near Geneva, Switzerland during the year of 2010 and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of $\\int\\mathcal{L}dt = 35.9\\pm 1.4$~pb$^{-1}$. Electronic decays of $Z$ bosons allow one of the first electroweak measurements at the LHC, making the cross section measurement a benchmark of physics performance after the first year of CMS detector and LHC machine operations. It is the first systematic uncertainty limited \\Zee cross section measurement performed at $\\sqrt{s}=7$~TeV. The measured cross section pertaining to the invariant mass window $M_{ee}\\in (60,120)$~GeV is reported as: $\\sigma(pp\\to Z+X) \\times \\mathcal{B}( Z\\to ee ) = 997 \\pm 11 \\mathrm{(sta t)} \\pm 19 \\mathrm{(syst)} \\pm 40 \\mathrm{(lumi)} \\textrm{ pb}$, which agrees with the theoretical prediction calculated to NNLO in QCD. Leveraging \\Zee decays as ``standard candles'' for measuring the absolute luminosity at the LHC is examined; they are produced copiously, are well understood, and have clean detector signatures. Thus the consistency of the inclusive \\Zee production cross section measurement with the theoretical prediction motivates inverting the measurement to instead use the \\Zee signal yield to measure the luminosity. The result, which agrees with the primary relative CMS luminosity measurement calibrated using Van der Meer separation scans, is not only the most precise absolute luminosity measurement performed to date at a hadron collider, but also the first one based on a physics signal at the LHC.

  9. High luminosity polarized proton collisions at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    2001-01-01

    The Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provides the unique opportunity to collide polarized proton beams at a center-of-mass energy of up to 500 GeV and luminosities of up to 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 . Such high luminosity and high energy polarized proton collisions will open up the possibility of studying spin effects in hard processes. However, the acceleration of polarized beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Using a partial Siberian snake and a rf dipole that ensure stable adiabatic spin motion during acceleration has made it possible to accelerate polarized protons to 25 GeV at the Brookhaven AGS. After successful operation of RHIC with gold beams polarized protons from the AGS have been successfully injected into RHIC and accelerated using a full Siberian snakes built from four superconducting helical dipoles. A new high energy proton polarimeter was also successfully commissioned. Operation with two snakes per RHIC ring is planned for next year

  10. Luminosity Measurement at the Compact Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Rina; Levy, Aharon

    The compact linear collider (CLIC) is a proposed high energy accelera- tor, planned to collide electrons with positrons at a maximal center-of-mass energy of 3 TeV, and a peak luminosity of 5.9·1034 cm−2s−1. Complementary to the large hadron collider, CLIC is to provide high precision measurements of both known and new physics processes. The required relative precision of luminosity measurement at the CLIC is 10−2. The measurement will be done by the luminosity calorimeter (Lumi- Cal), designed to measure the rate of low angles Bhabha scattering events, a process with well-known cross-section from electroweak theory. Beam-beam effects, which are of unprecedented intensity at the CLIC, influence the lumi- nosity spectrum shape and create a significant amount of background charge deposits in the LumiCal, thus setting a challenge on the requirement for precision. The ability of the LumiCal to provide accurate luminosity mea- surement depends on its ability to perform accurate energy reconstruction of Bhab...

  11. Luminosity geometric reduction factor from colliding bunches with different lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdu-Andres, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-09-29

    In the interaction point of the future electron-Ion collider eRHIC, the electron beam bunches are at least one order of magnitude shorter than the proton beam bunches. With the introduction of a crossing angle, the actual number of collisions resulting from the bunch collision gets reduced. Here we derive the expression for the luminosity geometric reduction factor when the bunches of the two incoming beams are not equal.

  12. Online calculation of the Tevatron collider luminosity using accelerator instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, A.A.

    1997-07-01

    The luminosity of a collision region may be calculated if one understands the lattice parameters and measures the beam intensities, the transverse and longitudinal emittances, and the individual proton and antiproton beam trajectories (space and time) through the collision region. This paper explores an attempt to make this calculation using beam instrumentation during Run 1b of the Tevatron. The instrumentation used is briefly described. The calculations and their uncertainties are compared to luminosities calculated independently by the Collider Experiments (CDF and D0)

  13. General formulae of luminosity for various types of colliding beam machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshio.

    1976-07-01

    Summarized are the formulae of luminosity for proton-proton, electron-positron and electron-proton colliding beam machines. Both coasting and bunched proton beams are considered. The expressions are derived from the first principle. These formulae will be useful for the design of an intersecting storage accelerator such as TRISTAN. (auth.)

  14. The Fermilab proton-antiproton collider upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriner, J.P.

    1996-10-01

    The plans for increases in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider luminosity in the near future (Run II) and the more distant future (TeV33) are described. While there are many important issues, the fundamental requirement is to produce more antiprotons and to use them more efficiently

  15. Physics at high luminosity muon colliders and a facility overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Physics potentials at future colliders including high luminosity μ + μ - colliders are discussed. Luminosity requirement, estimates for Muon collider energies of interest (0.1 TeV to 100 TeV) are calculated. Schematics and an overview of Muon Collider facility concept are also included

  16. Overview of a high luminosity μ+μ- collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.

    1997-03-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of a 4 TeV high luminosity μ + μ - collider, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. The authors discuss the various systems in such muon colliders

  17. Luminosity Tuning at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmer, W

    2006-01-01

    By measuring and adjusting the beta-functions at the interaction point (IP the luminosity is being optimized. In LEP (Large Electron Positron Collider) this was done with the two closest doublet magnets. This approach is not applicable for the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) and RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) due to the asymmetric lattice. In addition in the LHC both beams share a common beam pipe through the inner triplet magnets (in these region changes of the magnetic field act on both beams). To control and adjust the beta-functions without perturbation of other optics functions, quadrupole groups situated on both sides further away from the IP have to be used where the two beams are already separated. The quadrupoles are excited in specific linear combinations, forming the so-called "tuning knobs" for the IP beta-functions. For a specific correction one of these knobs is scaled by a common multiplier. The different methods which were used to compute such knobs are discussed: (1) matching in MAD, (2)i...

  18. Proton-antiproton collider physics

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido

    1989-01-01

    This volume reviews the physics studied at the CERN proton-antiproton collider during its first phase of operation, from the first physics run in 1981 to the last one at the end of 1985. The volume consists of a series of review articles written by physicists who are actively involved with the collider research program. The first article describes the proton-antiproton collider facility itself, including the antiproton source and its principle of operation based on stochastic cooling. The subsequent six articles deal with the various physics subjects studied at the collider. Each article descr

  19. Detectors and luminosity for hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebold, R.

    1983-01-01

    Three types of very high energy hadron-hadron coliders are discussed in terms of the trade-off between energy and luminosity. The usable luminosity depends both on the physics under study and the rate capabilities of the detector

  20. Polarized proton collider at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, I.; Allgower, C.; Bai, M.; Batygin, Y.; Bozano, L.; Brown, K.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Courant, E.; Erin, S.; Escallier, J.; Fischer, W.; Gupta, R.; Hatanaka, K.; Huang, H.; Imai, K.; Ishihara, M.; Jain, A.; Lehrach, A.; Kanavets, V.; Katayama, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Kelly, E.; Kurita, K.; Lee, S.Y.; Luccio, A.; MacKay, W.W.; Mahler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Mariam, F.; McGahern, W.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Okamura, M.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsin, V.; Ratner, L.; Roser, T.; Saito, N.; Satoh, H.; Shatunov, Y.; Spinka, H.; Syphers, M.; Tepikian, S.; Tominaka, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Underwood, D.; Vasiliev, A.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Wu, H.; Yokosawa, A.; Zelenski, A.N.

    2003-01-01

    In addition to heavy ion collisions (RHIC Design Manual, Brookhaven National Laboratory), RHIC will also collide intense beams of polarized protons (I. Alekseev, et al., Design Manual Polarized Proton Collider at RHIC, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1998, reaching transverse energies where the protons scatter as beams of polarized quarks and gluons. The study of high energy polarized protons beams has been a long term part of the program at BNL with the development of polarized beams in the Booster and AGS rings for fixed target experiments. We have extended this capability to the RHIC machine. In this paper we describe the design and methods for achieving collisions of both longitudinal and transverse polarized protons in RHIC at energies up to √s=500 GeV

  1. Electron - proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiik, B.H.

    1985-01-01

    Electron-proton storage rings allow us to study the interaction between the two basic constituents of matter, electrons and quarks at very short distances. Such machines were first discussed in connection with the ISR but the idea was abandoned because of the anticipated low counting rate. The interest in electron-proton storage rings was rekindeled by the discovery of large pointlike cross sections in lepton-hardon interactions and several/sup 2-15/ projects have been discussed during the past decade. However, despite a glorious past, which includes the discovery of quarks and neutral currents, and a multitude of proposals no electron-proton storage ring has ever been built. What we might learn by studying electron-proton collisions at high energies is discussed. After some brief comments on present proposals the proposed DESY ep project HERA is described as an example of how to realize such a machine

  2. Proton-proton colliding beam facility ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the status of the ISABELLE construction project, which has the objective of building a 400 + 400 GeV proton colliding beam facility. The major technical features of the superconducting accelerators with their projected performance are described. Progress made so far, difficulties encountered, and the program until completion in 1986 is briefly reviewed

  3. Status report of a high luminosity muon collider and future research and development plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.; Tollestrup, A.; Sessler, A.

    1996-11-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV (c-of-m) high luminosity μ + μ - colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in a collider ring. Detector background, polarization, and nonstandard operating conditions are analyzed. Finally, we present an R ampersand D plan to determine whether such machines are practical, and, if they are, lead to the construction of a 0.5 TeV demonstration by 2010, and to a 4 TeV collider by the year 2020

  4. The proton-antiproton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.

    1988-01-01

    The subject of this lecture is the CERN Proton-Antiproton (panti p) Collider, in which John Adams was intimately involved at the design, development, and construction stages. Its history is traced from the original proposal in 1966, to the first panti p collisions in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) in 1981, and to the present time with drastically improved performance. This project led to the discovery of the intermediate vector boson in 1983 and produced one of the most exciting and productive physics periods in CERN's history. (orig.)

  5. Proton-Proton and Proton-Antiproton Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter

    2014-01-01

    In the last five decades, proton–proton and proton–antiproton colliders have been the most powerful tools for high energy physics investigations. They have also deeply catalyzed innovation in accelerator physics and technology. Among the large number of proposed colliders, only four have really succeeded in becoming operational: the ISR, the SppbarS, the Tevatron and the LHC. Another hadron collider, RHIC, originally conceived for ion–ion collisions, has also been operated part-time with polarized protons. Although a vast literature documenting them is available, this paper is intended to provide a quick synthesis of their main features and key performance.

  6. Accelerator physics and technology limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in very large hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bauer et al.

    2002-12-05

    The following presents a study of the accelerator physics and technology limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in very large hadron colliders (VLHCs). The main accelerator physics limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in future energy frontier hadron colliders are synchrotron radiation (SR) power, proton-collision debris power in the interaction regions (IR), number of events-per-crossing, stored energy per beam and beam-stability [1]. Quantitative estimates of these limits were made and translated into scaling laws that could be inscribed into the particle energy versus machine size plane to delimit the boundaries for possible VLHCs. Eventually, accelerator simulations were performed to obtain the maximum achievable luminosities within these boundaries. Although this study aimed at investigating a general VLHC, it was unavoidable to refer in some instances to the recently studied, [2], 200 TeV center-of-mass energy VLHC stage-2 design (VLHC-2). A more thorough rendering of this work can be found in [3].

  7. The feasibility of experiments at high luminosity at the large hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulvey, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The studies reported in this volume extend some of those made during Workshop on Physics at Future Accelerators held at La Thuile and CERN in January 1987 (CERN 87-07, Vol. 1 and 2). They consider the feasibility of performing experiments with a 16 TeV proton-proton collider, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), at luminosities as high as 5.10 34 cm -2 s -1 . To illustrate the difficulties and the extent to which the potential for discovery at the LHC might be improved by such a step, three specific topics were chosen: searches for a) a massive Higgs boson, b) SUSY gluinos and squarks, and c) a new Z'. Following the Summary Report of the High Luminosity Study Group are papers discussing a possible detector system, radiation levels, and the analyses leading to estimated mass-limits for the searches. (orig.)

  8. Electron-cloud effects in high-luminosity colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, F.

    1998-01-01

    Electron-cloud instabilities are expected to be important in most high-luminosity double-ring colliders. In this report, the author describes a few parameter regimes and some critical parameter dependences of this type of instability, and illustrate these with simulation results for the PEP-II and KEK B factories, the LHC, the VLHC, and DAPHNE. In addition, the author studies the possibility and the potential impact of an electron cloud in the interaction region.

  9. RHIC Proton Luminosity and Polarization Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The RHIC proton beam polarization can be improved by raising the Booster scraping, which also helps to reduce the RHIC transverse emittance, and therefore to improve the luminosity. By doing this, the beam-beam effect would be enhanced. Currently, the RHIC working point is constrained between 2/3 and 7/10, the 2/3 resonance would affect intensity and luminosity lifetime, and the working point close to 7/10 would enhance polarization decay in store. Run 2013 shows that average polarization decay is merely 1.8% in 8 hours, and most fills have the luminosity lifetime better than 14 hours, which is not a problem. Therefore, even without beam-beam correction, there is room to improve for RHIC polarization and luminosity. The key to push the Booster scraping is to raise the Booster input intensity; for that, two approaches can be used. The first is to extend the LINAC tank 9 pulse width, which has been successfully applied in run 2006. The second is to raise the source temperature, which has been successfully applied in run 2006 and run 2012.

  10. Attaining high luminosity in linear e+e- colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.

    1990-11-01

    The attainment of high luminosity in linear colliders is a complex problem because of the interdependence of the critical parameters. For instance, changing the number of particles per bunch affects the damping ring design and thus the emittance; it affects the wakefields in the linac and thus the momentum spread; the momentum spread affects the final focus design and thus the final β*; but the emittance change also affects the final focus design; and all these come together to determine the luminosity, disruption and beamstrahlung at the intersection. Changing the bunch length, or almost any other parameter, has a similar chain reaction. Dealing with this problem by simple scaling laws is very difficult because one does not know which parameter is going to be critical, and thus which should be held constant. One can only maximize the luminosity by a process of search and iteration. The process can be facilitated with the aid of a computer program. Examples can then be optimized for maximum luminosity, and compared to the optimized solutions with different approaches. This paper discusses these approaches

  11. Interaction Region for a 100 TeV Proton-Proton Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, R; Dalena, B

    2015-01-01

    As part of its post-LHC high energy physics program, CERN is conducting a study for a new proton-proton collider, FCC-hh, running at center-of-mass energies of up to 100 TeV, pushing the energy frontier of fundamental physics to a new limit. At a circumference of 80-100 km, this machine is planned to use the same tunnel as FCC-ee, a proposed 90-350 GeV high luminosity electron-positron collider. This paper presents the design progress and technical challenges for the interaction region of FCC-hh.

  12. Detector development for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00367854; Gößling, Claus

    To maximise the discovery potential of the Large Hadron Collider, it will be upgraded to the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider in 2024. New detector challenges arise from the higher instantaneous luminosity and the higher particle flux. The new ATLAS Inner Tracker will replace the current tracking detector to be able to cope with these challenges. Many pixel detector technologies exist for particle tracking, but their suitability for the ATLAS Inner Tracker needs to be studied. Active high-voltage CMOS sensors, which are produced in industrialised processes, offer a fast readout and radiation tolerance. In this thesis the HV2FEI4v2 sensor, which is capacitively coupled to the ATLAS Pixel FE-I4 readout chip, is characterised for the usage in the outer layers of the ATLAS Inner Tracker. Key quantities of this prototype module are studied, such as the hit efficiency and the subpixel encoding. The early HV2FEI4v2 prototype shows promising results as a starting point for further module developments. Active CMO...

  13. High luminosity electron-hadron collider eRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptitsyn, V.; Aschenauer, E.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Blaskiewicz, M..; Calaga, R.; Chang, X.; Fedotov, A.; Gassner, D.; Hammons, L.; Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.; He, P.; Hao, Y.; Jackson, W.; Jain, A.; Johnson, E.C.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Luo, Y.; Mahler, G.; McIntyre, G.; Meng, W.; Minty, M.; Parker, B.; Pikin, A.; Rao, T.; Roser, T.; Skaritka, J.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Tepikian, S.; Than, Y.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.; Webb, S.; Wu, Q.; Xu, W.; Pozdeyev, E.; Tsentalovich, E.

    2011-03-28

    We present the design of a future high-energy high-luminosity electron-hadron collider at RHIC called eRHIC. We plan on adding 20 (potentially 30) GeV energy recovery linacs to accelerate and to collide polarized and unpolarized electrons with hadrons in RHIC. The center-of-mass energy of eRHIC will range from 30 to 200 GeV. The luminosity exceeding 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} can be achieved in eRHIC using the low-beta interaction region with a 10 mrad crab crossing. We report on the progress of important eRHIC R&D such as the high-current polarized electron source, the coherent electron cooling, ERL test facility and the compact magnets for recirculation passes. A natural staging scenario of step-by-step increases of the electron beam energy by building-up of eRHIC's SRF linacs is presented.

  14. RHIC spin: The first polarized proton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1994-01-01

    The very successful program of QCD and electroweak tests at the high energy hadron colliders have shown that the perturbative QCD has progressed towards becoming a ''precision'' theory. At the same time, it has been shown that with the help of Siberian Snakes it is feasible to accelerate polarized protons to high enough energies where the proven methods of collider physics can be used to probe the spin content of the proton but also where fundamental tests of the spin effects in the standard model are possible. With Siberian Snakes the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will be the first collider to allow for 250 GeV on 250 GeV polarized proton collisions

  15. Physics Goals and Experimental Challenges of the Proton-Proton High-Luminosity Operation of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, Pierluigi; Wells, Pippa

    2016-01-01

    The completion of Run 1 of the CERN Large Hadron Collider has seen the discovery of the Higgs boson and an unprecedented number of precise measurements of the Standard Model, while Run 2 operation has just started to provide first data at higher energy. Upgrades of the LHC to high luminosity (HL-LHC) and the experiments (ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHCb) will exploit the full potential of the collider to discover and explore new physics beyond the Standard Model. In this article, the experimental challenges and the physics opportunities in proton-proton collisions at the HL-LHC are reviewed.

  16. Physics Goals and Experimental Challenges of the Proton-Proton High-Luminosity Operation of the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, P.; Klute, M.; Wells, P. S.

    2016-10-01

    The completion of Run 1 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has seen the discovery of the Higgs boson and an unprecedented number of precise measurements of the Standard Model, and Run 2 has begun to provide the first data at higher energy. The high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) and the four experiments (ATLAS, CMS, ALICE, and LHCb) will exploit the full potential of the collider to discover and explore new physics beyond the Standard Model. We review the experimental challenges and the physics opportunities in proton-proton collisions at the HL-LHC.

  17. Concept for a Future Super Proton-Proton Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jingyu; et al.

    2015-07-12

    Following the discovery of the Higgs boson at LHC, new large colliders are being studied by the international high-energy community to explore Higgs physics in detail and new physics beyond the Standard Model. In China, a two-stage circular collider project CEPC-SPPC is proposed, with the first stage CEPC (Circular Electron Positron Collier, a so-called Higgs factory) focused on Higgs physics, and the second stage SPPC (Super Proton-Proton Collider) focused on new physics beyond the Standard Model. This paper discusses this second stage.

  18. Concept for a Future Super Proton-Proton Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Jingyu; Chai, Weiping; Chen, Fusan; Chen, Nian; Chou, Weiren; Dong, Haiyi; Gao, Jie; Han, Tao; Leng, Yongbin; Li, Guangrui; Gupta, Ramesh; Li, Peng; Li, Zhihui; Liu, Baiqi; Liu, Yudong; Lou, Xinchou; Luo, Qing; Malamud, Ernie; Mao, Lijun; Palmer, Robert B.; Peng, Quanling; Peng, Yuemei; Ruan, Manqi; Sabbi, GianLuca; Su, Feng; Su, Shufang; Stratakis, Diktys; Sun, Baogeng; Wang, Meifen; Wang, Jie; Wang, Liantao; Wang, Xiangqi; Wang, Yifang; Wang, Yong; Xiao, Ming; Xing, Qingzhi; Xu, Qingjin; Xu, Hongliang; Xu, Wei; Witte, Holger; Yan, Yingbing; Yang, Yongliang; Yang, Jiancheng; Yuan, Youjin; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Yuhong; Zheng, Shuxin; Zhu, Kun; Zhu, Zian; Zou, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Following the discovery of the Higgs boson at LHC, new large colliders are being studied by the international high-energy community to explore Higgs physics in detail and new physics beyond the Standard Model. In China, a two-stage circular collider project CEPC-SPPC is proposed, with the first stage CEPC (Circular Electron Positron Collier, a so-called Higgs factory) focused on Higgs physics, and the second stage SPPC (Super Proton-Proton Collider) focused on new physics beyond the Standard Model. This paper discusses this second stage.

  19. Beam dynamics issues of high-luminosity asymmetric collider rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Machines for use in high-energy physics are advancing along two frontiers. First, there is the frontier of energy, currently being pressed by the Fermilab collider (p bar p), and SLC and LEP (e + e - ) and in the near future by HERA (ep), the LHC, and the SSC (pp). Second, there is the frontier of intensity, currently being pressed by a variety of low-energy machines and, at higher energies, by various linacs such as those at KEK. Fermilab, GSI, and LAMPF (p) and CEBAF (e - ). In the future there should be, along this frontier, various ''factories'' such as those for Kaons at TRIUMF, and those proposed for var-phi mesons, τ-charm particles, and B mesons. It is with the intensity frontier that these proceedings are concerned. The elementary particle motivation to study the nonconservation of PC in the B-stringB system (which topic is not covered in these Proceedings, but is treated extensively in the literature) has motivated the study of very high intensity asymmetric collider rings. It was for this purpose that a Workshop on Beam Dynamics Issues of High-Luminosity Asymmetric Collider Rings was held, in Berkeley, during February 12--16, 1990. A general introduction to the subject has been given in an article which is reprinted here as an Appendix. The nonexpert may wish to start there. The volume consists of four parts. The first part consists of Summaries; first an overall summary of the Workshop and then, second, more detailed summaries from each of the working groups. The second part consists of the Invited Talks at the workshop. The third part contains various Contributed Papers, most of which represent work that came out of the workshop. Finally, there are, in the fourth part, brief Summaries of the Various Proposed B-Factory Projects in the world

  20. Electron cloud studies for the LHC and future proton colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Domínguez Sánchez de la Blanca, César Octavio; Zimmermann, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest and most powerful particle collider. Its main objectives are to explore the validity of the standard model of particle physics and to look for new physics beyond it, at unprecedented collision energies and rates. A good luminosity performance is imperative to attain these goals. In the last stage of the LHC commissioning (2011-2012), the limiting factor to achieving the design bunch spacing of 25 ns has been the electron cloud effects. The electron cloud is also expected to be the most important luminosity limitation after the first Long Shut-Down of the LHC (LS1), when the machine should be operated at higher energy and with 25-ns spacing, as well as for the planned luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC) and future high energy proton colliders (HE-LHC and VHE-LHC). This thesis contributes to the understanding of the electron cloud observations during the first run of the LHC (2010-2012), presents the first beam dynamics analysis for the next generation of high en...

  1. Electron-electron luminosity in the Next Linear Collider -- a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, F.; Thompson, K.A.; Helm, R.H.

    1997-11-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss some operational aspects of electron-electron collisions at the Next Linear Collider (NLC) and estimate the luminosity attainable in such a machine. They also consider the use of two future technologies which could simplify the operation and improve the luminosity in an e - e - collider: polarized rf guns and plasma lenses

  2. Recent results from proton-antiproton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geer, S.

    1990-03-01

    New results from the CERN and Fermilab proton-antiproton colliders are summarised. The areas covered are jet physics, direct photon production, W and Z production and decay, heavy flavor production, the search for the top quark, and the search for more exotic phenomena. 46 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Absolute luminosity and proton-proton total cross section measurement for the ATLAS experiment at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, Matthieu

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva will soon deliver collisions with an energy never reached in a particle accelerator. An energy in the center of mass of 10 and ultimately 14 TeV will allow to go beyond the borders of the physics known so far. ATLAS, the largest detector ever built, will hunt the Higgs boson and search for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Any physical process is described by a cross section that measures its probability to occur. The events resulting from a given process are registered by ATLAS. To determine their according cross section, one has to know the luminosity. For the ATLAS experiment, a relative measurement of the luminosity can be done using the response of several sub-detectors. However to calibrate these detectors, an absolute measurement has to be performed. The ALFA detector has been designed to measure the elastic scattering spectrum that will allow to determine the absolute luminosity and the proton-proton total cross section. This provides an accurate calibration tool at a percent level. These detectors, located 240 m away from the interaction point, are called roman pots, a mechanical system that allows to approach a scintillating fiber tracker a few millimeters to the beam center. The simulation of the measurement requires to use a charged particles transport program. This program has to be carefully chosen because the determination of the protons lost during their travel from the interaction point to the detector has a major impact on the acceptance computation. The systematical uncertainties affecting the luminosity and the total cross section measurements are also determined using the full simulation chain. The ALFA detector operates in a complex environment and consequently its design requires a great care. A large tests campaign has been performed on the front end electronics. The results and the corresponding data analysis have shown that all requirement where fulfilled. A test beam has been

  4. Energy and luminosity requirements for the next generation of linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaldi, U.

    1987-01-01

    In order to gain new knowledge ('new physics') from 'next generation' linear colliders energy and luminosity are important variables when considering the design of these new elementary particle probes. The standard model of the electroweak interaction is reviewed and stipulations for postulated Higgs particle, a new neutral Z particle, and a new quark and a neutral lepton searches with next generation colliders are given

  5. 132 ns Bunch Spacing in the Tevatron Proton-Antiproton Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, S.D.; Holt, J.; Johnstone, J.A.; Marriner, J.; Martens, M.; McGinnis, D.

    1994-12-01

    Following completion of the Fermilab Main Injector it is expected that the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider will be operating at a luminosity in excess of 5x10 3l cm -2 with 36 proton and antiproton bunches spaced at 396 nsec. At this luminosity, each of the experimental detectors will see approximately 1.3 interactions per crossing. Potential improvements to the collider low beta and rf systems could push the luminosity beyond 10x10 3l cm -2 sec -1 , resulting in more than three interactions per crossing if the bunch separation is left unchanged. This paper discusses issues related to moving to ∼100 bunch operation, with bunch spacings of 132 nsec, in the Tevatron. Specific scenarios and associated hardware requirements are described

  6. Electron-positron annihilation at high luminosity colliding beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, G.V.; Khodzhamiryan, A.Yu.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments are discussed, which can be carried out at the electron-positron storage rings with increased luminosity (up to 10 34 cm -2 sec -1 ) and corresponding improvement of detectors at total energy region up to 10 GeV. This improvement of the experimental conditions may provide valuable physical information from the theoretical point of view. The comparison is made with analogous experimental possibilities of the projected high energy e + e - storage rings with luminosity up to 10 32 cm -2 sec -1

  7. Future proton and electron colliders: Dreams for the 1990's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1988-10-01

    In this paper I have reviewed the possibilities for new colliders that might be available in the 1990's. One or more new proton should be available in the late-90s based on plans of Europe, the US and the USSR. The two very high energy machines, LHC and SSC, are quite expensive, and their construction will be more decided by the politicians' view on the availability of resources than by the physicists' view of the need for new machines. Certainly something will be built, but the question is when. New electron colliders beyond LEP II could be available in the late 1990's as well. Most of the people who have looked at this problem believe that at a minimum three years of RandD are required before a proposal can be made, two years will be required to convince the authorities to go ahead, and five years will be required to build such a machine. Thus the earliest time a new electron collider at high energy could be available is around 1988. A strong international RandD program will be required to meet that schedule. In the field of B factories, PSI's proposal is the first serious step beyond the capabilities of CESR. There are other promising techniques but these need more RandD. The least RandD would be required for the asymmetric storage ring systems, while the most would be required for high luminosity linear colliders. For the next decade, high energy physics will be doing its work at the high energy frontier with Tevatron I and II, UNK, SLC, LEP I and II, and HERA. The opportunities for science presented by experiments at these facilities are very great, and it is to be hoped that the pressure for funding to construct the next generation facilities will not badly affect the operating budgets of the ones we now have or which will soon be turning on. 9 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs

  8. On the average luminosity of electron positron collider and positron-producing energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Jialin

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the average luminosity of linac injected electron positron collider is investigated from the positron-producing energy point of view. When the energy of the linac injector is fixed to be less than the operating energy of the storage ring, it has been found that there exists a positron-producing energy to give optimum average luminosity. Two cases have been studied, one for an ideal storage ring with no single-beam instability and the other for practical storage ring with fast head-tail instability. The result indicates that there is a positron-producing energy corresponding to the minimum injection time, but this does not correspond to the optimum average luminosity for the practical storage rings. For Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC), the positron-producing energy corresponding to the optimum average luminosity is about one tenth of the total injector energy

  9. Experimental support at proton--proton colliding beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, K.

    1977-01-01

    Proton--proton colliding beam facilities have a number of special features which increase the importance of support for experiments when compared to fixed target accelerators: (1) the laboratory system is very close to the center-of-mass system; this affects the geometry and general size of the experiments; (2) the primary p--p interaction is inaccessible, that is, it takes place in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber; and (3) the experiment detection system is necessarily inside the machine structure and becomes very closely linked to it in many respects. An overall picture is given of experimental support based on experience at the CERN ISR under the following headings: Experimental Areas, Scheduling, Intersection Vacuum Chambers, Machine Background, and Magnets for Experiments. The first two of these topics concern the requirements in space and time of an experiment, while the last three are all related to the close interaction between experiment and machine

  10. Tracking with CVD diamond radiation sensors at high luminosity colliders (1999-3.1507)

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetzer, S R; Bauer, C; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Da Graca, J; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Jamieson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Plano, R J; Polesello, P; Prawer, S; Pretzl, Klaus P; Procario, M; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Runólfsson, O; Russ, J; Sciortino, S; Somalwar, S V; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    Recent progress on developing diamond-based sensors for vertex detection at high luminosity hadron colliders is described. Measurements of the performance of diamond sensors after irradiation to fluences of up to 5*10/sup 15/ hadrons/cm/sup 2/ are shown. These indicate that diamond sensors will operate at distances as close as 5 cm from the interaction point at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for many years at full luminosity without significant degradation in performance. Measurements of the quality of the signals from diamond sensors as well as spatial uniformity are presented. Test beam results on measurements of diamond-based microstrip and pixels devices are described.

  11. Calculation of integrated luminosity for beams stored in the Tevatron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    A model for calculating the integrated luminosity of beams stored in the Tevatron collider will be presented. The model determines the instantaneous luminosity by calculating the overlap integral of bunched beams passing through the interaction region. The calculation accounts for the variation in beam size due to the beta functions and also for effects due to finite longitudinal emittance and non-zero dispersion in the interaction region. The integrated luminosity is calculated for the beams as they evolve due to processes including collisions and intrabeam scattering. The model has been applied to both the extant and upgraded Tevatron collider, but is not limited to them. The original motivation for developing the computer model was to determine the reduction in luminosity due to beams with non-zero longitudinal emittances. There are two effects: the transverse beam size is increased where the dispersion is non-zero; the finite length of the beam bunch combined with an increasing β function results in an increased transverse beam size at the ends of the bunch. The derivation of a sufficiently useful analytic expression for the luminosity proved to be intractable. Instead, a numerical integration computer program was developed to calculate the luminosity in the presence of a finite longitudinal emittance. The program was then expanded into a model which allows the luminosity to vary due to changes in emittances and reduction in bunch intensities. At that point, it was not difficult to calculate the integrated luminosity. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  12. A high luminosity superconducting mini collider for Phi meson production and particle beam physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, C.; Robin, D.; Cline, D.; Kolonko, J.; Anderson, C.; Barletta, W.; Chargin, A.; Cornacchia, M.; Dalbacka, G.; Halbach, K.; Lueng, E.; Kimball, F.; Madura, D.; Patterson, L.

    1991-01-01

    A 510MeV electron-positron collider has been proposed at UCLA to study particle beam physics and Phi-Meson physics, at luminosities larger than 10 32 cm -2 s -1 . The collider consists of a single compact superconducting storage ring (SMC), with bending field of 4 T and a current larger than 1 A. The authors discuss the main characteristics of this system and its major technical components: superconducting dipoles, RF, vacuum, injection

  13. Investigation of collimator materials for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2085459; Bertarelli, Alessandro; Redaelli, Stefano

    This PhD thesis work has been carried out at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland), in the framework of the High Luminosity (HL) upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The HL-LHC upgrade will bring the accelerator beyond the nominal performance: it is planning to reach higher stored beam energy up to 700 MJ, through more intense proton beams. The present multi-stage LHC collimation system was designed to handle 360 MJ stored beam energy and withstand realistic losses only for this nominal beam. Therefore, the challenging HL-LHC beam parameters pose strong concerns for beam collimation, which call for important upgrades of the present system. The objective of this thesis is to provide solid basis for optimum choices of materials for the different collimators that will be upgraded for the baseline layout of the HL-LHC collimation system. To achieve this goal, material-related limitations of the present system are identified and novel advanced composite materials are se...

  14. A Silicon Strip Detector for the Phase II High Luminosity Upgrade of the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00425747; McMahon, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS is a particle physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that detects proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV. The Semiconductor Tracker is part of the Inner Detector, implemented using silicon microstrip detectors with binary read-out, providing momentum measurement of charged particles with excellent resolution. The operation of the LHC and the ATLAS experiment started in 2010, with ten years of operation expected until major upgrades are needed in the accelerator and the experiments. The ATLAS tracker will need to be completely replaced due to the radiation damage and occupancy of some detector elements and the data links at high luminosities. These upgrades after the first ten years of operation are named the Phase-II Upgrade and involve a re-design of the LHC, resulting in the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). This thesis presents the work carried out in the testing of the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade electronic systems in the future strips tracker a...

  15. Monolithic junction field-effect transistor charge preamplifier for calorimetry at high luminosity hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; Rescia, S.; Rehn, L.A.; Manfredi, P.F.; Speziali, V.

    1991-11-01

    The outstanding noise and radiation hardness characteristics of epitaxial-channel junction field-effect transistors (JFET) suggest that a monolithic preamplifier based upon them may be able to meet the strict specifications for calorimetry at high luminosity colliders. Results obtained so far with a buried layer planar technology, among them an entire monolithic charge-sensitive preamplifier, are described

  16. RD50 Status Report 2008 - Radiation hard semiconductor devices for very high luminosity colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Campabadal, Francesca; Díez, Sergio; Fleta, Celeste; Lozano, Manuel; Pellegrini, Giulio; Rafí, Joan Marc; Ullán, Miguel; Creanza, Donato; De Palma, Mauro; Fedele, Francesca; Manna, Norman; Kierstead, Jim; Li, Zheng; Buda, Manuela; Lazanu, Sorina; Pintilie, Lucian; Pintilie, Ioana; Popa, Andreia-Ioana; Lazanu, Ionel; Collins, Paula; Fahrer, Manuel; Glaser, Maurice; Joram, Christian; Kaska, Katharina; La Rosa, Alessandro; Mekki, Julien; Moll, Michael; Pacifico, Nicola; Pernegger, Heinz; Goessling, Claus; Klingenberg, Reiner; Weber, Jens; Wunstorf, Renate; Roeder, Ralf; Stolze, Dieter; Uebersee, Hartmut; Cihangir, Selcuk; Kwan, Simon; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Bruzzi, Mara; Focardi, Ettore; Menichelli, David; Scaringella, Monica; Breindl, Michael; Eckert, Simon; Köhler, Michael; Kuehn, Susanne; Parzefall, Ulrich; Wiik, Liv; Bates, Richard; Blue, Andrew; Buttar, Craig; Doherty, Freddie; Eklund, Lars; Bates, Alison G; Haddad, Lina; Houston, Sarah; James, Grant; Mathieson, Keith; Melone, J; OShea, Val; Parkes, Chris; Pennicard, David; Buhmann, Peter; Eckstein, Doris; Fretwurst, Eckhart; Hönniger, Frank; Khomenkov, Vladimir; Klanner, Robert; Lindström, Gunnar; Pein, Uwe; Srivastava, Ajay; Härkönen, Jaakko; Lassila-Perini, Katri; Luukka, Panja; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuovinen, Esa; Eremin, Vladimir; Ilyashenko, Igor; Ivanov, Alexandr; Kalinina, Evgenia; Lebedev, Alexander; Strokan, Nikita; Verbitskaya, Elena; Barcz, Adam; Brzozowski, Andrzej; Kaminski, Pawel; Kozlowski, Roman; Kozubal, Michal; Luczynski, Zygmunt; Pawlowski, Marius; Surma, Barbara; Zelazko, Jaroslaw; de Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Frey, Martin; Hartmann, Frank; Zhukov, Valery; Barabash, L; Dolgolenko, A; Groza, A; Karpenko, A; Khivrich, V; Lastovetsky, V; Litovchenko, P; Polivtsev, L; Campbell, Duncan; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Fox, Harald; Hughes, Gareth; Jones, Brian Keith; Sloan, Terence; Samadashvili, Nino; Tuuva, Tuure; Affolder, Anthony; Allport, Phillip; Bowcock, Themis; Casse, Gianluigi; Vossebeld, Joost; Cindro, Vladimir; Dolenc, Irena; Kramberger, Gregor; Mandic, Igor; Mikuž, Marko; Zavrtanik, Marko; Zontar, Dejan; Gil, Eduardo Cortina; Grégoire, Ghislain; Lemaitre, Vincent; Militaru, Otilia; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Kazuchits, Nikolai; Makarenko, Leonid; Charron, Sébastien; Genest, Marie-Helene; Houdayer, Alain; Lebel, Celine; Leroy, Claude; Aleev, Andrey; Golubev, Alexander; Grigoriev, Eugene; Karpov, Aleksey; Martemianov, Alxander; Rogozhkin, Sergey; Zaluzhny, Alexandre; Andricek, Ladislav; Beimforde, Michael; Macchiolo, Anna; Moser, Hans-Günther; Nisius, Richard; Richter, Rainer; Gorelov, Igor; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Metcalfe, Jessica; Seidel, Sally; Toms, Konstantin; Hartjes, Fred; Koffeman, Els; van der Graaf, Harry; Visschers, Jan; Kuznetsov, Andrej; Sundnes Løvlie, Lars; Monakhov, Edouard; Svensson, Bengt G; Bisello, Dario; Candelori, Andrea; Litovchenko, Alexei; Pantano, Devis; Rando, Riccardo; Bilei, Gian Mario; Passeri, Daniele; Petasecca, Marco; Pignatel, Giorgio Umberto; Bernardini, Jacopo; Borrello, Laura; Dutta, Suchandra; Fiori, Francesco; Messineo, Alberto; Bohm, Jan; Mikestikova, Marcela; Popule, Jiri; Sicho, Petr; Tomasek, Michal; Vrba, Vaclav; Broz, Jan; Dolezal, Zdenek; Kodys, Peter; Tsvetkov, Alexej; Wilhelm, Ivan; Chren, Dominik; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Kohout, Zdenek; Pospisil, Stanislav; Solar, Michael; Sopko, Vít; Sopko, Bruno; Uher, Josef; Horisberger, Roland; Radicci, Valeria; Rohe, Tilman; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; Giolo, Kim; Miyamoto, Jun; Rott, Carsten; Roy, Amitava; Shipsey, Ian; Son, SeungHee; Demina, Regina; Korjenevski, Sergey; Grillo, Alexander; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Schumm, Bruce; Seiden, Abraham; Spence, Ned; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Artuso, Marina; Borgia, Alessandra; Lefeuvre, Gwenaelle; Guskov, J; Marunko, Sergey; Ruzin, Arie; Tylchin, Tamir; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian - Franco; Gregori, Paolo; Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina; Zen, Mario; Zorzi, Nicola; Garcia, Carmen; Lacasta, Carlos; Marco, Ricardo; Marti i Garcia, Salvador; Minano, Mercedes; Soldevila-Serrano, Urmila; Gaubas, Eugenijus; Kadys, Arunas; Kazukauskas, Vaidotas; Sakalauskas, Stanislavas; Storasta, Jurgis; Vidmantis Vaitkus, Juozas; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the CERN RD50 Collaboration is the development of radiation hard semiconductor detectors for very high luminosity colliders, particularly to face the requirements of a possible upgrade scenario of the LHC.This document reports the status of research and main results obtained after the sixth year of activity of the collaboration.

  17. RD50 Status Report 2009/2010 - Radiation hard semiconductor devices for very high luminosity colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Moll, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the CERN RD50 Collaboration is the development of radiation hard semiconductor detectors for very high luminosity colliders, particularly to face the requirements for the upgrade of the LHC detectors. This document reports on the status of research and main results obtained in the years 2009 and 2010.

  18. The Quest for High Luminosity in Hadron Colliders (413th Brookhaven Lecture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Wolfram

    2006-01-01

    In 1909, by bombarding a gold foil with alpha particles from a radioactive source, Ernest Rutherford and coworkers learned that the atom is made of a nucleus surrounded by an electron cloud. Ever since, scientists have been probing deeper and deeper into the structure of matter using the same technique. With increasingly powerful machines, they accelerate beams of particles to higher and higher energies, to penetrate more forcefully into the matter being investigated and reveal more about the contents and behavior of the unknown particle world. To achieve the highest collision energies, projectile particles must be as heavy as possible, and collide not with a fixed target but another beam traveling in the opposite direction. These experiments are done in machines called hadron colliders, which are some of the largest and most complex research tools in science. Five such machines have been built and operated, with Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) currently the record holder for the total collision energy. One more such machine is under construction. Colliders have two vital performance parameters on which their success depends: one is their collision energy, and the other, the number of particle collisions they can produce, which is proportional to a quantity known as the luminosity. One of the tremendous achievements in the world's latest collider, RHIC, is the amazing luminosity that it produces in addition to its high energy. To learn about the performance evolution of these colliders and the way almost insurmountable difficulties can be overcome, especially in RHIC, join Wolfram Fischer, a physicist in the Collider-Accelerator (C-A) Department, who will give the next Brookhaven Lecture, on 'The Quest for High Luminosity in Hadron Colliders.'

  19. High-energy high-luminosity electron-ion collider eRHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Hammons, L.; Hao, Y.; Webb, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a future electron-ion collider (EIC), based on the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) hadron facility, with two intersecting superconducting rings, each 3.8 km in circumference. The replacement cost of the RHIC facility is about two billion US dollars, and the eRHIC will fully take advantage and utilize this investment. We plan adding a polarized 5-30 GeV electron beam to collide with variety of species in the existing RHIC accelerator complex, from polarized protons with a top energy of 325 GeV, to heavy fully-striped ions with energies up to 130 GeV/u. Brookhaven's innovative design, is based on one of the RHIC's hadron rings and a multi-pass energy-recovery linac (ERL). Using the ERL as the electron accelerator assures high luminosity in the 10 33 -10 34 cm -2 sec -1 range, and for the natural staging of eRHIC, with the ERL located inside the RHIC tunnel. The eRHIC will provide electron-hadron collisions in up to three interaction regions. We detail the eRHIC's performance in Section 2. Since first paper on eRHIC paper in 2000, its design underwent several iterations. Initially, the main eRHIC option (the so-called ring-ring, RR, design) was based on an electron ring, with the linac-ring (LR) option as a backup. In 2004, we published the detailed 'eRHIC 0th Order Design Report' including a cost-estimate for the RR design. After detailed studies, we found that an LR eRHIC has about a 10-fold higher luminosity than the RR. Since 2007, the LR, with its natural staging strategy and full transparency for polarized electrons, became the main choice for eRHIC. In 2009, we completed technical studies of the design and dynamics for MeRHIC with 3-pass 4 GeV ERL. We learned much from this evaluation, completed a bottom-up cost estimate for this $350M machine, but then shelved the design. In the same year, we turned again to considering the cost-effective, all-in-tunnel six-pass ERL for our design of the high-luminosity eRHIC. In it

  20. Studies on the measurement of differential luminosity using Bhabha events at the International Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, Andre Philippe

    2009-04-15

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is an electron-positron-collider with a variable center-of-mass energy {radical}(2) between 200 and 500 GeV. The small bunch sizes needed to reach the design luminosity of L{sub Peak}=2.10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} necessary for the physics goals of the ILC, cause the particles to radiate beamstrahlung during the bunch crossings. Beamstrahlung reduces the center-of-mass energy from its nominal value to the effective center-of-mass energy {radical}(2'). The spectrum of the effective center-of-mass energy {radical}(2') is the differential luminosity dL/d{radical}(2'), which has to be known to precisely measure particle masses through threshold scans. The differential luminosity can be measured by using Bhabha events. The real differential luminosity is simulated by the GuineaPig software. The energy spectrum of the Bhabha events is measured by the detector and compared to the energy spectrum of Monte Carlo (MC) Bhabha events with a known differential luminosity given by an approximate parameterization. The parameterization is used to assign each MC event a weight. By re-weighting the events, until the energy spectra from the real and the MC Bhabha events match, the differential luminosity can be measured. The approximate parameterization of the differential luminosity is given by the Circe parameterization introduced by T. Ohl (1997), which does not include the correlation between the particle energies due to beamstrahlung. The Circe parameterization is extended to include the correlation and better describe the differential luminosity. With this new parameterization of the differential luminosity it is possible to predict the observed production cross section of a MC toy particle with a mass of 250 GeV/c{sup 2} to a precision better than 0.2%. Using the re-weighting fit with the extended parameterization also allows the measurement of the beam energy spreads of {sigma}{sub E}=0.0014 for electrons and {sigma

  1. Studies on the measurement of differential luminosity using Bhabha events at the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sailer, Andre Philippe

    2009-04-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is an electron-positron-collider with a variable center-of-mass energy √(2) between 200 and 500 GeV. The small bunch sizes needed to reach the design luminosity of L Peak =2.10 34 cm -2 s -1 necessary for the physics goals of the ILC, cause the particles to radiate beamstrahlung during the bunch crossings. Beamstrahlung reduces the center-of-mass energy from its nominal value to the effective center-of-mass energy √(2'). The spectrum of the effective center-of-mass energy √(2') is the differential luminosity dL/d√(2'), which has to be known to precisely measure particle masses through threshold scans. The differential luminosity can be measured by using Bhabha events. The real differential luminosity is simulated by the GuineaPig software. The energy spectrum of the Bhabha events is measured by the detector and compared to the energy spectrum of Monte Carlo (MC) Bhabha events with a known differential luminosity given by an approximate parameterization. The parameterization is used to assign each MC event a weight. By re-weighting the events, until the energy spectra from the real and the MC Bhabha events match, the differential luminosity can be measured. The approximate parameterization of the differential luminosity is given by the Circe parameterization introduced by T. Ohl (1997), which does not include the correlation between the particle energies due to beamstrahlung. The Circe parameterization is extended to include the correlation and better describe the differential luminosity. With this new parameterization of the differential luminosity it is possible to predict the observed production cross section of a MC toy particle with a mass of 250 GeV/c 2 to a precision better than 0.2%. Using the re-weighting fit with the extended parameterization also allows the measurement of the beam energy spreads of σ E =0.0014 for electrons and σ E = 0.0010 for positrons with a precision of a few percent. The total error

  2. Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High Luminosity Colliders

    CERN Multimedia

    Joram, C; Gregor, I; Dierlamm, A H; Wilson, F F; Sloan, T; Tuboltsev, Y V; Marone, M; Artuso, M; Cindro, V; Bruzzi, M; Bhardwaj, A; Bohm, J; Mikestikova, M; Walz, M; Breindl, M A; Ruzin, A; Marunko, S; Guskov, J; Haerkoenen, J J; Pospisil, S; Fadeyev, V; Makarenko, L; Kaminski, P; Zelazko, J; Pintilie, L; Radu, R; Nistor, S V; Ullan comes, M; Storasta, J V; Gaubas, E; Lacasta llacer, C; Kilminster, B J; Garutti, E; Buhmann, P; Khomenkov, V; Poehlsen, J A; Fernandez garcia, M; Buttar, C; Eklund, L M; Munoz sanchez, F J; Eremin, V; Aleev, A; Modi, B; Sicho, P; Gisen, A J; Nikolopoulos, K; Van beuzekom, M G; Kozlowski, R; Lozano fantoba, M; Leroy, C; Pernegger, H; Del burgo, R; Vila alvarez, I; Palomo pinto, F R; Lounis, A; Eremin, I; Fadeeva, N; Rogozhkin, S; Shivpuri, R K; Arsenovich, T; Ott, J; Abt, M; Loenker, J; Savic, N; Monaco, V; Visser, J; Lynn, D; Horazdovsky, T; Solar, M; Dervan, P J; Meng, L; Spencer, E N; Kazuchits, N; Brzozowski, A; Kozubal, M; Nistor, L C; Marti i garcia, S; Gomez camacho, J J; Fretwurst, E; Hoenniger, F; Schwandt, J; Hartmann, F; Marchiori, G; Maneuski, D; De capua, S; Williams, M R J; Mandic, I; Gadda, A; Preiss, J; Macchiolo, A; Nisius, R; Grinstein, S; Gonella, L; Wennloef, H L O; Slavicek, T; Masek, P; Casse, G; Flores, D; Tuuva, T; Jimenez ramos, M D C; Charron, S; Rubinskiy, I; Jansen, H; Eichhorn, T V; Matysek, M; Andersson-lindstroem, G; Donegani, E; Bomben, M; Oshea, V; Muenstermann, D; Holmkvist, C W; Oh, A; Lopez paz, I; Verbitskaya, E; Mitina, D; Grigoriev, E; Zaluzhnyy, A; Mikuz, M; Kramberger, G; Scaringella, M; Ranjeet, R; Jain, A; Luukka, P R; Tuominen, E M; Allport, P P; Cartiglia, N; Brigljevic, V; Kohout, Z; Quirion, D; Lauer, K; Collins, P; Gallrapp, C; Rohe, T V; Chauveau, J; Villani, E G; Fox, H; Parkes, C J; Nikitin, A; Spiegel, L G; Creanza, D M; Menichelli, D; Mcduff, H; Carna, M; Weers, M; Weigell, P; Bortoletto, D; Staiano, A; Bellan, R; Szumlak, T; Sopko, V; Pawlowski, M; Pintilie, I; Pellegrini, G; Rafi tatjer, J M; Moll, M; Eckstein, D; Klanner, R; Gomez, G; Gersabeck, M; Cobbledick, J L; Shepelev, A; Golubev, A; Apresyan, A; Lipton, R J; Borgia, A; Zavrtanik, M; Manna, N; Ranjan, K; Chhabra, S; Beyer, J; Korolkov, I; Heintz, U; Sadrozinski, H; Seiden, A; Surma, B; Esteban, S; Kazukauskas, V; Kalendra, V; Mekys, A; Nachman, B P; Tackmann, K; Steinbrueck, G; Pohlsen, T; Calderini, G; Svihra, P; Murray, D; Bolla, G; Zontar, D; Focardi, E; Seidel, S C; Winkler, A D; Altenheiner, S; Parzefall, U; Moser, H; Sopko, B; Buckland, M D; Vaitkus, J V; Ortlepp, T

    2002-01-01

    The requirements at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN have pushed the present day silicon tracking detectors to the very edge of the current technology. Future very high luminosity colliders or a possible upgrade scenario of the LHC to a luminosity of 10$^{35}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ will require semiconductor detectors with substantially improved properties. Considering the expected total fluences of fast hadrons above 10$^{16}$ cm$^{-2}$ and a possible reduced bunch-crossing interval of $\\approx$10 ns, the detector must be ultra radiation hard, provide a fast and efficient charge collection and be as thin as possible.\\\\ We propose a research and development program to provide a detector technology, which is able to operate safely and efficiently in such an environment. Within this project we will optimize existing methods and evaluate new ways to engineer the silicon bulk material, the detector structure and the detector operational conditions. Furthermore, possibilities to use semiconductor materials othe...

  3. Accelerator-colliders for relativistic heavy ions or in search of luminosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    Some issues pertinent to the design of collider rings for relativistic heavy ions are presented. Experiments at such facilities are felt to offer the best chance for creating in the laboratory a new phase of subatomic matter, the quark-gluon plasma. It appears possible to design a machine with sufficient luminosity, even for the heaviest nuclei in nature, to allow a thorough exploration of the production conditions and decay characteristics of quark-gluon plasma

  4. Beam delivery system tuning and luminosity monitoring in the Compact Linear Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dalena

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Emittance preservation in the beam delivery system (BDS is one of the major challenges in the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC. The fast detuning of the final focus optics requires an on-line tuning procedure in order to keep luminosity close to the maximum. In this paper we discuss different tuning techniques to mitigate the displacement of magnets in the CLIC BDS and in particular in the final focus system. Some of them require a fast luminosity measurement. Here we study the possibility to use beam-beam background processes at CLIC 3 TeV c.m. energy as a fast luminosity signal. In particular, the hadron multiplicity in the detector region is investigated.

  5. Impact of detector solenoid on the Compact Linear Collider luminosity performance

    CERN Document Server

    Inntjore Levinsen, Y.; Tomás, Rogelio; Schulte, Daniel

    2014-05-27

    In order to obtain the necessary luminosity with a reasonable amount of beam power, the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) design includes an unprecedented collision beam size of {\\sigma} = 1 nm vertically and {\\sigma} = 45 nm horizontally. Given the small and very flat beams, the luminosity can be significantly degraded from the impact of the experimental solenoid field in combination with a large crossing angle. Main effects include y-x'-coupling and increase of vertical dispersion. Additionally, Incoherent Synchrotron Radiation (ISR) from the orbit deflection created by the solenoid field, increases the beam emittance. A detailed study of the impact from a realistic solenoid field and the associated correction techniques for the CLIC Final Focus is presented. In particular, the impact of techniques to compensate the beam optics distortions due to the detector solenoid main field and its overlap with the final focus magnets are shown. The unrecoverable luminosity loss due to ISR has been evaluated, and found to...

  6. Muon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.; Sessler, A.; Skrinsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV high luminosity micro + micro - colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in a collider ring. Problems of detector background are also discussed

  7. Operation of the LHC with Protons at High Luminosity and High Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Papotti, Giulia; Alemany-Fernandez, Reyes; Crockford, Guy; Fuchsberger, Kajetan; Giachino, Rossano; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry; Höfle, Wolfgang; Jacquet, Delphine; Lamont, Mike; Nisbet, David; Normann, Lasse; Pojer, Mirko; Ponce, Laurette; Redaelli, Stefano; Salvachua, Belen; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Suykerbuyk, Ronaldus; Uythoven, Jan; Wenninger, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    In 2015 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) entered the first year in its second long Run, after a 2-year shutdown that prepared it for high energy. The first two months of beam operation were dedicated to setting up the nominal cycle for proton-proton operation at 6.5 TeV/beam, and culminated with the first physics with 3 nominal bunches/ring at 13 TeV CoM on 3 June. The year continued with a stepwise intensity ramp up that allowed reaching 2244 bunches/ring for a peak luminosity of ~5·10³³ cm⁻²s^{−1} and a total of just above 4 fb-1 delivered to the high luminosity experiments. Beam operation was shaped by the high intensity effects, e.g. electron cloud and macroparticle-induced fast losses (UFOs), which on a few occasions caused the first beam induced quenches at high energy. This paper describes the operational experience with high intensity and high energy at the LHC, together with the issues that had to be tackled along the way.

  8. Proton-antiproton colliding beam electron cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenev, Ya.S.; Skrinskij, A.N.

    1981-01-01

    A possibility of effective cooling of high-energy pp tilde beams (E=10 2 -10 3 GeV) in the colliding mode by accompanying radiationally cooled electron beam circulating in an adjacent storage ring is studied. The cooling rate restrictions by the pp tilde beam interaction effects while colliding and the beam self-heating effect due to multiple internal scattering are considered. Some techniques permitting to avoid self-heating of a cooling electron beam or suppress its harmful effect on a heavy particle beam cooling are proposed. According to the estimations the cooling time of 10 2 -10 3 s order can be attained [ru

  9. LEP3: A High Luminosity e+e- Collider to Study the Higgs Boson

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, A U; Assmann, R W; Butterworth, A; Janot, P; Jimenez, J M; Grojean, C; Milanese, A; Modena, M; Osborne, J A; Zimmermann, F; Piekarz, H; Oide, K; Yokoya, K; Ellis, J; Klute, M; Zanetti, M; Velasco, M; Telnov, V; Rivkin, L; Cai, Y

    2012-01-01

    The LHC experiments have discovered a new particle with a mass around 125 GeV that is a strong candidate for the scalar Higgs boson expected in the Standard Model. An e+e− collider operating close to the ZH threshold (at a centre-of-mass energy of 240 GeV) could be the tool of choice for studying this unique particle in detail. We present here the concept of a storage ring collider, which we call LEP3. Preliminary studies show that at a centre-of-mass energy of 240 GeV, near-constant luminosities of 1034 cm-2s-1 are possible in up to four collision points, while respecting a number of constraints including beamstrahlung limits. With an integrated luminosity of 100fb-1 per year and per interaction point, 20,000 e+e- - ZH events would be produced per year and per experiment. LEP3 could also operate in multi-bunch mode at the Z resonance, with luminosities of several×1035cm-2s-1, yielding O(1011) Z decays per year, as well as just above the WW threshold, potentially improving our knowledge of W and Z propert...

  10. An Antiproton Ion Collider (AIC) for Measuring Neutron and Proton Distributions in Stable and Radioactive Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienle, Paul

    2005-01-01

    An antiproton-ion collider is proposed to independently determine mean square radii for protons and neutrons in stable and short lived nuclei by means of antiproton absorption at medium energies. The experiment makes use of the electron ion collider complex (ELISE) of the GSI FAIR project with appropriate modifications of the electron ring to store, cool and collide antiprotons of 30 MeV energy with 740A MeV energy ions.The total absorption cross-section of antiprotons by the stored ions will be measured by detecting their loss by means of the Schottky noise spectroscopy method. Cross sections for the absorption on protons and neutrons, respectively, will be studied by detection of residual nuclei with A-1 either by the Schottky method or by analysing them in recoil detectors after the first dipole stage of the NESR following the interaction zone. With a measurement of the A-1 fragment momentum distribution, one can test the momentum wave functions of the annihilated neutron and proton, respectively. Furthermore by changing the incident ion energy the tails of neutron and proton distribution can be measured.The absorption cross section is at asymptotic energies in leading order proportional to the mean square radius of the nucleus. Predicted cross sections and luminosities show that the method is applicable to nuclei with production rates of about 105 s-1 or lower, depending on the lifetime of the ions in the NESR, and for half-lives down to 1 second

  11. Simulations of fast crab cavity failures in the high luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee-Rendon, Bruce; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Barranco, Javier; Calaga, Rama; Marsili, Aurelien; Tomás, Rogelio; Zimmermann, Frank; Bouly, Frédéric

    2014-05-01

    Crab cavities (CCs) are a key ingredient of the high luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) project for increasing the luminosity of the LHC. At KEKB, CCs have exhibited abrupt changes of phase and voltage during a time period of the order of a few LHC turns and considering the significant stored energy in the HL-LHC beam, CC failures represent a serious threat in regard to LHC machine protection. In this paper, we discuss the effect of CC voltage or phase changes on a time interval similar to, or longer than, the one needed to dump the beam. The simulations assume a quasistationary-state distribution to assess the particles losses for the HL-LHC. These distributions produce beam losses below the safe operation threshold for Gaussian tails, while, for non-Gaussian tails are on the same order of the limit. Additionally, some mitigation strategies are studied for reducing the damage caused by the CC failures.

  12. Conceptual design of a high luminosity 510 MeV collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, C.; Robin, D.; Cornacchia, M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss the magnetic lattice design of a high luminosity 510 MeV electron-positron collider, based on high field superconduction bending dipoles. The design criteria are flexibility in the choice of the tune and beta functions at the interaction point, horizontal emittance larger than 1 mm mrad to produce a luminosity larger than 10 32 cm -2 s -1 , large synchrotron radiation damping rate, and large momentum compaction. The RF system parameter are chosen to provide a short bunch length also when the beam energy spread is determined by the microwave instability. A satisfactory ring dynamic aperature, and a simultaneous small value of the horizontal and vertical beta function at the interaction point, the authors expect will be achieved by using Cornacchia-Halbach modified sextupoles

  13. High-luminosity primary vertex selection in top-quark studies using the Collider Detector at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzatu, Adrian; /McGill U.

    2006-08-01

    Improving our ability to identify the top quark pair (t{bar t}) primary vertex (PV) on an event-by-event basis is essential for many analyses in the lepton-plus-jets channel performed by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) Collaboration. We compare the algorithm currently used by CDF (A1) with another algorithm (A2) using Monte Carlo simulation at high instantaneous luminosities. We confirm that A1 is more efficient than A2 at selecting the t{bar t} PV at all PV multiplicities, both with efficiencies larger than 99%. Event selection rejects events with a distance larger than 5 cm along the proton beam between the t{bar t} PV and the charged lepton. We find flat distributions for the signal over background significance of this cut for all cut values larger than 1 cm, for all PV multiplicities and for both algorithms. We conclude that any cut value larger than 1 cm is acceptable for both algorithms under the Tevatron's expected instantaneous luminosity improvements.

  14. Very high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1986-03-01

    The luminosity and energy requirements are considered for both proton colliders and electron-positron colliders. Some of the basic design equations for high energy linear electron colliders are summarized, as well as design constraints. A few examples are given of parameters for very high energy machines. 4 refs., 6 figs

  15. THE ELECTRON ION COLLIDER. A HIGH LUMINOSITY PROBE OF THE PARTONIC SUBSTRUCTURE OF NUCLEONS AND NUCLEI.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDITED BY M.S. DAVIS

    2002-02-01

    By the end of this decade, the advancement of current and planned research into the fundamental structure of matter will require a new facility, the Electron Ion Collider (EIC). The EIC will collide high-energy beams of polarized electrons from polarized protons and neutrons, and unpolarized beams of electrons off atomic nuclei with unprecedented intensity. Research at the EIC will lead to a detailed understanding of the structure of the proton, neutron, and atomic nuclei as described by Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD), the accepted theory of the strong interaction. The EIC will establish quantitative answers to important questions by delivering dramatically increased precision over existing and planned experiments and by providing completely new experimental capabilities. Indeed, the EIC will probe QCD in a manner not possible previously. This document presents the scientific case for the design, construction and operation of the EIC. While realization of the EIC requires a significant advance in the development of efficient means of producing powerful beams of energetic electrons, an important consideration for choosing the site of the EIC is the planned upgrade to the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The upgrade planned for RHIC will fully meet the requirements for the ion beam for the EIC, providing a distinct advantage in terms of cost, schedule and the final operation.

  16. High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) : Preliminary Design Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apollinari, G.; Béjar Alonso, I.; Brüning, O.; Lamont, M.; Rossi, L.

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the largest scientific instruments ever built. Since opening up a new energy frontier for exploration in 2010, it has gathered a global user community of about 7,000 scientists working in fundamental particle physics and the physics of hadronic matter at extreme temperature and density. To sustain and extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade in the 2020s. This will increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of five beyond the original design value and the integrated luminosity (total collisions created) by a factor ten. The LHC is already a highly complex and exquisitely optimised machine so this upgrade must be carefully conceived and will require about ten years to implement. The new configuration, known as High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will rely on a number of key innovations that push accelerator technology beyond its present limits. Among these are cutting-edge 11-12 tesla superconducting magnets, compact superconducting cavities for beam rotation with ultra-precise phase control, new technology and physical processes for beam collimation and 300 metre-long high-power superconducting links with negligible energy dissipation. The present document describes the technologies and components that will be used to realise the project and is intended to serve as the basis for the detailed engineering design of HL-LHC.

  17. High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) : Preliminary Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollinari, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Béjar Alonso, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Brüning, O. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Lamont, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Rossi, L. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-12-17

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the largest scientific instruments ever built. Since opening up a new energy frontier for exploration in 2010, it has gathered a global user community of about 7,000 scientists working in fundamental particle physics and the physics of hadronic matter at extreme temperature and density. To sustain and extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade in the 2020s. This will increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of five beyond the original design value and the integrated luminosity (total collisions created) by a factor ten. The LHC is already a highly complex and exquisitely optimised machine so this upgrade must be carefully conceived and will require about ten years to implement. The new configuration, known as High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will rely on a number of key innovations that push accelerator technology beyond its present limits. Among these are cutting-edge 11-12 tesla superconducting magnets, compact superconducting cavities for beam rotation with ultra-precise phase control, new technology and physical processes for beam collimation and 300 metre-long high-power superconducting links with negligible energy dissipation. The present document describes the technologies and components that will be used to realise the project and is intended to serve as the basis for the detailed engineering design of HL-LHC.

  18. High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) Preliminary Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Apollinari, G; Béjar Alonso, I; Brüning, O; Lamont, M; Rossi, L

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the largest scientific instruments ever built. Since opening up a new energy frontier for exploration in 2010, it has gathered a global user community of about 7,000 scientists working in fundamental particle physics and the physics of hadronic matter at extreme temperature and density. To sustain and extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade in the 2020s. This will increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of five beyond the original design value and the integrated luminosity (total collisions created) by a factor ten. The LHC is already a highly complex and exquisitely optimised machine so this upgrade must be carefully conceived and will require about ten years to implement. The new configuration, known as High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will rely on a number of key innovations that push accelerator technology beyond its present limits. Among these are cutting-edge 11-12 tesla superconducting magnets, compact superconducting cav...

  19. Beam-Beam Effects in the SPS Proton-Anti Proton Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Cornelis, K.

    2014-01-01

    During the proton-anti proton collider run several experiments were carried out in order to understand the effect of the beam-beam interaction on backgrounds and lifetimes. In this talk a selection of these experiments will be presented. From these experiments, the importance of relative beam sizes and tune ripple could be demonstrated.

  20. Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Weiren

    2014-01-01

    The idea of colliding two particle beams to fully exploit the energy of accelerated particles was first proposed by Rolf Wideröe, who in 1943 applied for a patent on the collider concept and was awarded the patent in 1953. The first three colliders — AdA in Italy, CBX in the US, and VEP-1 in the then Soviet Union — came to operation about 50 years ago in the mid-1960s. A number of other colliders followed. Over the past decades, colliders defined the energy frontier in particle physics. Different types of colliers — proton–proton, proton–antiproton, electron–positron, electron–proton, electron-ion and ion-ion colliders — have played complementary roles in fully mapping out the constituents and forces in the Standard Model (SM). We are now at a point where all predicted SM constituents of matter and forces have been found, and all the latest ones were found at colliders. Colliders also play a critical role in advancing beam physics, accelerator research and technology development. It is timel...

  1. Physics at the Fermilab Tevatron Proton-Antiproton Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geer, S.

    1994-08-01

    These lectures discuss a selection of QCD and Electroweak results from the CDF and D0 experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron Proton-Antiproton Collider. Results are presently based on data samples of about 20 pb -1 at a center-of-mass energy of 1.8 TeV. Results discussed include jet production, direct photon production, W mass and width measurements, the triboson coupling, and most exciting of all, evidence for top quark production

  2. Radiation damage considerations in a high luminosity collider: The interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The interaction region in a high luminosity collider will be a source of radiation for all components in the vicinity and will place stringent requirements on their design. The major components in the vicinity and will place stingent requirements on their design. The major components in the vicinity of the interaction region are the physics detectors that surround the beam pipe and the focusing quadrupole magnets nearby. We will present the radiation levels in such a physics detector and the power in the forward direction that will be deposited in the forward calorimeters and quad magnets. The implications of the levels on a variety of detector components and electronics will be presented. The calculational techniques and limitation will be reviewed

  3. Development of prototype luminosity detector modules for future experiments on linear colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081248; Idzik, Marek

    The main objective of this dissertation is to develop and validate the prototype module of the LumiCal luminosity detector. The dissertation presents the works executed from the first detector concept, through all subsequent R&D stages, ending with the test beam results obtained using the complete detector module. Firstly, the linear electron positron colliders and planned experiments are introduced, together with their role in our understanding of the basis of matter and sensing for the New Physics. The signal extraction from radiation sensors and further signal processing techniques are discussed in chapter 2. Besides the commonly accepted techniques of amplitude and time measurements, a novel readout implementation, utilizing digital signal processing and deconvolution principle, is proposed, and its properties are analyzed in details. The architecture, design, and measurements of the LumiCal readout chain components are presented in chapter 3. A dedicated test setups prepared for their parameterizatio...

  4. Theoretical studies of hadronic calorimetry for high luminosity, high energy colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brau, J.E.; Gabriel, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments at the high luminosity, high energy colliders of the future are going to demand optimization of the state of the art of calorimetry design and construction. During the past few years, the understanding of the basic phenomenology of hadron calorimeters has advanced through paralleled theoretical and experimental investigations. The important underlying processes are reviewed to set the framework for the presentation of recent calculations of the expected performance of silicon detector based hadron calorimeters. Such devices employing uranium are expected to achieve the compensation condition (that is, e/h approx. 1.0) based on the understanding that has been derived from the uranium-liquid argon and uranium-plastic scintillator systems. In fact, even lead-silicon calorimeters are found to achieve the attractive value for the e/h ratio of 1.16 at 10 GeV. 62 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Theoretical studies of hadronic calorimetry for high luminosity, high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brau, J.E.; Gabriel, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments at the high luminosity, high energy colliders of the future are going to demand optimization of the state of the art of calorimetry design and construction. During the past few years, the understanding of the basic phenomenology of hadron calorimeters has advanced through paralleled theoretical and experimental investigations. The important underlying processes are reviewed to set the framework for the presentation of recent calculations of the expected performance of silicon detector based hadron calorimeters. Such devices employing uranium are expected to achieve the compensation condition (that is, e/h ∼ 1.0) based on the understanding that has been derived from the uranium-liquid argon and uranium-plastic scintillator systems. In fact, even lead-silicon calorimeters are found to achieve the attractive value for the e/h ratio of 1.16 at 10 GeV. 62 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Current Status of Luminosity Measurement with the CMD-3 Detector at the VEPP-2000 e + e − Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzhenenkov, A E; Amirkhanov, A N; Anisenkov, A V; Aulchenko, V M; Banzarov, V Sh; Bashtovoy, N S; Bondar, A E; Bragin, A V; Eidelman, S I; Epifanov, D A; Epshteyn, L B; Erofeev, A L; Fedotovich, G V; Gayazov, S E; Grebenuk, A A; Gribanov, S S; Grigoriev, D N; Ignatov, F V; Ivanov, V L; Karpov, S V; Kazanin, V F; Korobov, A A; Kovalenko, O A; Kozyrev, A N; Kozyrev, E A; Krokovny, P P; Kuzmenko, A E; Kuzmin, A S; Logashenko, I B; Lukin, P A; Mikhailov, K Yu; Okhapkin, V S; Pestov, Yu N; Popov, A S; Razuvaev, G P; Ruban, A A; Ryskulov, N M; Shebalin, V E; Shemyakin, D N; Shwartz, B A; Sibidanov, A L; Solodov, E P; Talyshev, A A; Titov, V M; Vorobiov, A I; Yudin, Yu V

    2017-01-01

    The CMD-3 detector has taken data at the electron-positron collider VEPP-2000 since december 2010. The collected data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 60 pb-6 in the c.m. energy range from 0.32 up to 2 GeV. Preliminary results of the luminosity measurement are presented for various energy ranges and its accuracy is estimated to be 1%.

  7. Simulations of fast crab cavity failures in the high luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Yee-Rendon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Crab cavities (CCs are a key ingredient of the high luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC project for increasing the luminosity of the LHC. At KEKB, CCs have exhibited abrupt changes of phase and voltage during a time period of the order of a few LHC turns and considering the significant stored energy in the HL-LHC beam, CC failures represent a serious threat in regard to LHC machine protection. In this paper, we discuss the effect of CC voltage or phase changes on a time interval similar to, or longer than, the one needed to dump the beam. The simulations assume a quasistationary-state distribution to assess the particles losses for the HL-LHC. These distributions produce beam losses below the safe operation threshold for Gaussian tails, while, for non-Gaussian tails are on the same order of the limit. Additionally, some mitigation strategies are studied for reducing the damage caused by the CC failures.

  8. High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) Technical Design Report V. 0.1

    CERN Document Server

    Béjar Alonso I.; Brüning O.; Fessia P.; Lamont M.; Rossi L.; Tavian L.

    2017-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the largest scientific instruments ever built. Since opening up a newenergy frontier for exploration in 2010, it has gathered a global user community of about 7,000 scientists work-ing in fundamental particle physics and the physics of hadronic matter at extreme temperature and density. Tosustain and extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade in the 2020s. This will increase itsinstantaneous luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of five beyond the original design value and the integratedluminosity (total collisions created) by a factor ten. The LHC is already a highly complex and exquisitely opti-mised machine so this upgrade must be carefully conceived and will require about ten years to implement. Thenew configuration, known as High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), relies on a number of key innovations that pushaccelerator technology beyond its present limits. Among these are cutting-edge 11-12 tesla superconducting mag-nets, compact superconduc...

  9. High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider A description for the European Strategy Preparatory Group

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the largest scientific instrument ever built. It has been exploring the new energy frontier since 2009, gathering a global user community of 7,000 scientists. It will remain the most powerful accelerator in the world for at least two decades, and its full exploitation is the highest priority in the European Strategy for Particle Physics, adopted by the CERN Council and integrated into the ESFRI Roadmap. To extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade around 2020 to increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of 10 beyond its design value. As a highly complex and optimized machine, such an upgrade of the LHC must be carefully studied and requires about 10 years to implement. The novel machine configuration, called High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will rely on a number of key innovative technologies, representing exceptional technological challenges, such as cutting-edge 13 tesla superconducting magnets, very compact and ultra-precise superconduc...

  10. Superconducting Magnet Technology for Future High Energy Proton Colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlay, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Interest in high field dipoles has been given a boost by new proposals to build a high-energy proton-proton collider to follow the LHC and programs around the world are taking on the task to answer the need. Studies aiming toward future high-energy proton-proton colliders at the 100 TeV scale are now being organized. The LHC and current cost models are based on technology close to four decades old and point to a broad optimum of operation using dipoles with fields between 5 and 12T when site constraints, either geographical or political, are not a factor. Site geography constraints that limit the ring circumference can drive the required dipole field up to 20T, which is more than a factor of two beyond state-of-the-art. After a brief review of current progress, the talk will describe the challenges facing future development and present a roadmap for moving high field accelerator magnet technology forward. This work was supported by the Director, Office of Science, High Energy Physics, US Department of Energy, under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  11. Elementary design of a 30 TeV on 30 TeV proton antiproton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Takahiko

    1984-01-01

    A crude conceptual design was made for a 30TeV on 30TeV antiproton-proton collider. The choice of energy and antiproton-proton (instead of PP) are somewhat arbitrary. The basic parameters of the main ring are listed in a table; the bending radius, ring radius and circumference are 11.1km, 14.4km, and 90.6km, respectively; 7680 dipole magnets with maximum field of 9 Tesla; 1280 quadrupole magnets with maximum gradient of 200Tesla/m. The development of high-field, low-heat loss dipoles and quadrupoles are essential, together with the consideration for their mass production method. On the other hand, the possibility of obtaining antiproton-proton luminosity exceeding 10 32 /cm 2 sec is suggested without any fundamental limitation. With such high luminosity, however, it should be pointed out that particle detectors must face their limitation due to extremely high rate, high multiplicity interaction, requiring large steps of detector research and development efforts. (Aoki, K.)

  12. Ion Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, W

    2014-01-01

    High-energy ion colliders are large research tools in nuclear physics to study the Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP). The range of collision energy and high luminosity are important design and operational considerations. The experiments also expect flexibility with frequent changes in the collision energy, detector fields, and ion species. Ion species range from protons, including polarized protons in RHIC, to heavy nuclei like gold, lead and uranium. Asymmetric collision combinations (e.g. protons against heavy ions) are also essential. For the creation, acceleration, and storage of bright intense ion beams, limits are set by space charge, charge change, and intrabeam scattering effects, as well as beam losses due to a variety of other phenomena. Currently, there are two operating ion colliders, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL, and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.

  13. Development of N+ in P pixel sensors for a high-luminosity large hadron collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Shintaro; Yamamura, Kazuhisa; Unno, Yoshinobu; Ikegami, Yoichi

    2014-11-01

    Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. is developing an N+ in a p planar pixel sensor with high radiation tolerance for the high-luminosity large hadron collider (HL-LHC). The N+ in the p planar pixel sensor is a candidate for the HL-LHC and offers the advantages of high radiation tolerance at a reasonable price compared with the N+ in an n planar sensor, the three-dimensional sensor, and the diamond sensor. However, the N+ in the p planar pixel sensor still presents some problems that need to be solved, such as its slim edge and the danger of sparks between the sensor and readout integrated circuit. We are now attempting to solve these problems with wafer-level processes, which is important for mass production. To date, we have obtained a 250-μm edge with an applied bias voltage of 1000 V. To protect against high-voltage sparks from the edge, we suggest some possible designs for the N+ edge.

  14. Development of N+ in P pixel sensors for a high-luminosity large hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Shintaro; Yamamura, Kazuhisa; Unno, Yoshinobu; Ikegami, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. is developing an N+ in a p planar pixel sensor with high radiation tolerance for the high-luminosity large hadron collider (HL-LHC). The N+ in the p planar pixel sensor is a candidate for the HL-LHC and offers the advantages of high radiation tolerance at a reasonable price compared with the N+ in an n planar sensor, the three-dimensional sensor, and the diamond sensor. However, the N+ in the p planar pixel sensor still presents some problems that need to be solved, such as its slim edge and the danger of sparks between the sensor and readout integrated circuit. We are now attempting to solve these problems with wafer-level processes, which is important for mass production. To date, we have obtained a 250-μm edge with an applied bias voltage of 1000 V. To protect against high-voltage sparks from the edge, we suggest some possible designs for the N+ edge. - Highlights: • We achieved a tolerance of 1000 V with a 250-μm edge by Al2O3 side wall passivation. • Above is a wafer process and suitable for mass production. • For edge-spark protection, we suggest N+ edge with an isolation

  15. The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider the new machine for illuminating the mysteries of Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Brüning, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a broad introduction to the physics and technology of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). This new configuration of the LHC is one of the major accelerator projects for the next 15 years and will give new life to the LHC after its first 15-year operation. Not only will it allow more precise measurements of the Higgs boson and of any new particles that might be discovered in the next LHC run, but also extend the mass limit reach for detecting new particles. The HL-LHC is based on the innovative accelerator magnet technologies capable of generating 11–13 Tesla fields, with effectiveness enhanced by use of the new Achromatic Telescopic Squeezing scheme, and other state-of-the-art accelerator technologies, such as superconducting compact RF crab cavities, advanced collimation concepts, and novel power technology based on high temperature superconducting links. The book consists of a series of chapters touching on all issues of technology and design, and each chapter can be re...

  16. Development of the Continuous Acquisition Pixel (CAP) sensor for high luminosity lepton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varner, G.; Aihara, H.; Barbero, M.; Bozek, A.; Browder, T.; Hazumi, M.; Kennedy, J.; Martin, E.; Mueller, J.; Olsen, S.; Palka, H.; Rosen, M.; Ruckman, L.; Stanic, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uchida, K.; Yang, Q.; Yarema, R.

    2006-01-01

    A future higher luminosity B-factory detector and concept study detectors for the proposed International Linear Collider require precision vertex reconstruction while coping with high track densities and radiation exposures. Compared with current silicon strip and hybrid pixels, a significant reduction in the overall detector material thickness is needed to achieve the desired vertex resolution. Considerable progress in the development of thin CMOS-based Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in recent years makes them a viable technology option and feasibility studies are being actively pursued. The most serious concerns are their radiation hardness and their readout speed. To address these, several prototypes denoted as the Continuous Acquisition Pixel (CAP) sensors have been developed and tested. The latest of the CAP sensor prototypes is CAP3, designed in the TSMC 0.25μm process with a 5-deep Correlated Double Sample (CDS) pair pipeline in each pixel. A setup with several CAP3 sensors is under evaluation to assess the performance of a full-scale pixel readout system running at realistic readout speed. Given the similarity in the occupancy numbers and hit throughput requirements, per unit area, between a Belle vertex detector upgradation and the requirements for a future ILC pixel detector, this effort can be considered a small-scale functioning prototype for such a future system. The results and plans for the next stages of R and D towards a full Belle Pixel Vertex Detector (PVD) are presented

  17. SUSY simplified models at 14, 33, and 100 TeV proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Timothy; Golling, Tobias; Hance, Mike; Henrichs, Anna; Howe, Kiel; Loyal, Joshua; Padhi, Sanjay; Wacker, Jay G.

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented for a variety of SUSY Simplified Models at the 14 TeV LHC as well as a 33 and 100 TeV proton collider. Our focus is on models whose signals are driven by colored production. We present projections of the upper limit and discovery reach in the gluino-neutralino (for both light and heavy flavor decays), squark-neutralino, and gluino-squark Simplified Model planes. Depending on the model a jets + E T miss , mono-jet, or same-sign di-lepton search is applied. The impact of pileup is explored. This study utilizes the Snowmass backgrounds and combined detector. Assuming 3000/,fb −1 of integrated luminosity, a gluino that decays to light flavor quarks can be discovered below 2.3 TeV at the 14 TeV LHC and below 11 TeV at a 100 TeV machine

  18. Fundamental cavity impedance and longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baudrenghien

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between beam dynamics and the radio frequency (rf station in circular colliders is complex and can lead to longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities at high beam currents. The excitation of the cavity higher order modes is traditionally damped using passive devices. But the wakefield developed at the cavity fundamental frequency falls in the frequency range of the rf power system and can, in theory, be compensated by modulating the generator drive. Such a regulation is the responsibility of the low-level rf (llrf system that measures the cavity field (or beam current and generates the rf power drive. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC rf was designed for the nominal LHC parameter of 0.55 A DC beam current. At 7 TeV the synchrotron radiation damping time is 13 hours. Damping of the instability growth rates due to the cavity fundamental (400.789 MHz can only come from the synchrotron tune spread (Landau damping and will be very small (time constant in the order of 0.1 s. In this work, the ability of the present llrf compensation to prevent coupled-bunch instabilities with the planned high luminosity LHC (HiLumi LHC doubling of the beam current to 1.1 A DC is investigated. The paper conclusions are based on the measured performances of the present llrf system. Models of the rf and llrf systems were developed at the LHC start-up. Following comparisons with measurements, the system was parametrized using these models. The parametric model then provides a more realistic estimation of the instability growth rates than an ideal model of the rf blocks. With this modeling approach, the key rf settings can be varied around their set value allowing for a sensitivity analysis (growth rate sensitivity to rf and llrf parameters. Finally, preliminary measurements from the LHC at 0.44 A DC are presented to support the conclusions of this work.

  19. Destination Universe: The Incredible Journey of a Proton in the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    This brochure illustrates the incredible journey of a proton as he winds his way through the CERN accelerator chain and ends up inside the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC is CERN's flagship particle accelerator which can collide protons together at close to the speed of light, creating circumstances like those just seconds after the Big Bang.

  20. Destination Universe: The Incredible Journey of a Proton in the Large Hadron Collider (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    This brochure illustrates the incredible journey of a proton as he winds his way through the CERN accelerator chain and ends up inside the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC is CERN's flagship particle accelerator which can collide protons together at close to the speed of light, creating circumstances like those just seconds after the Big Bang.

  1. Luminosity-Independent Measurement of the Proton-Proton Total Cross Section at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Antchev, G; Atanassov, I; Avati, V; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V; Berretti, M; Bossini, E; Bozzo, M; Bottigli, U; Brucken, E; Buzzo, A; Cafagna, F S; Calicchio, M; Catanesi, M G; Covault, C; Csanad, M; Csorgo, T; Deile, M; Doubek, M; Eggert, K; Eremin, V; Ferretti, R; Ferro, F; Fiergolski, A; Garcia, F; Giani, S; Greco, V; Grzanka, L; Heino, J; Hilden, T; Intonti, R A; Kavspar, J; Kopal, J; Kundrat, V; Kurvinen, K; Lami, S; Latino, G; Lauhakangas, R; Leszko, T; Lippmaa, E; Lokajivcek, M; Lo Vetere, M; Lucas-Rodriguez, F; Macri, M.; Maki, T; Mercadante, A; Minafra, N; Minutoli, S; Nemes, F; Niewiadomski, H; Oliveri, E; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Osterberg, K; Palazzi, P; Prochazka, J; Quinto, M; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Ravotti, F; Robutti, E; Ropelewski, L; Ruggiero, G; Saarikko, H; Santroni, A; Scribano, A; Smajek, J; Snoeys, W; Sziklai, J; Taylor, C; Turini, N; Vacek, V; Vitek, M; Welti, J; Whitmore, J; Wyszkowski, P

    2013-01-01

    TOTEM has measured the proton-proton total cross-section at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV using a luminosity independent method. In LHC fills with dedicated beam optics, the Roman Pots have been inserted very close to the beam allowing the detection of 90% of the nuclear elastic scattering events. Simultaneously the inelastic scattering rate has been measured by the T1 and T2 Telescopes. By applying the optical theorem, the total proton-proton cross-section of (101.7 $\\pm$ 2.9)mb is determined, well in agreement with the extrapolation from lower energies. This method allows also to derive the luminosity-independent elastic and inelastic cross-sections: $\\sigma_{el}$ = (27.1 $\\pm$ 1.4)mb; $\\sigma_{inel}$ = (74.7 $\\pm$ 1.7)mb.

  2. Photoproduction of vector mesons in proton-proton ultraperipheral collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ya-Ping; Chen, Xurong

    2018-05-01

    Photoproduction of vector mesons is computed with dipole model in proton-proton ultraperipheral collisions (UPCs) at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The dipole model framework is employed in the calculations of vector mesons production in diffractive processes. Parameters of the bCGC model are refitted with the latest inclusive deep inelastic scattering experimental data. Employing the bCGC model and boosted Gaussian light-cone wave function for vector mesons, we obtain the prediction of rapidity distributions of J/ψ and ψ(2s) mesons in proton-proton ultraperipheral collisions at the LHC. The predictions give a good description of the experimental data of LHCb. Predictions of ϕ and ω mesons are also evaluated in this paper.

  3. Physics results from the first electron-proton collider HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeck, A de

    1995-03-01

    After two years of experimenting at the new ep collider HERA many new results have been obtained. In this report we have presented results on interactions of high energy photons with matter, and showed that similar to hadronic interactions, hard scattering is observed in these collisions. The different photoproduction processes have been isolated, and a first attempt was made to measure the structure of the photon at HERA. A new region has been explored for deep inelastic scattering interactions. The proton structure is probed to very small values of Bjorken-x, showing a large increase of with decreasing x. Events with a large rapidity gap have been observed and are identified as diffractive scattering. The first electroweak results became available by studying the production of charged current events. Searches for new, exotic phenomena were made, but no evidence for the breakdown of the standard model has been found. (orig.)

  4. Near-Threshold Production of W±, Z0, and H0 at a Fixed-Target Experiment at the Future Ultrahigh-Energy Proton Colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Lansberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We outline the opportunities to study the production of the Standard Model bosons, W±, Z0, and H0, at “low” energies at fixed-target experiments based on possible future ultrahigh-energy proton colliders, that is, the High-Energy LHC, the Super proton-proton Collider, and the Future Circular Collider hadron-hadron. These can be indeed made in conjunction with the proposed future colliders designed to reach up to s=100 TeV by using bent crystals to extract part of the halo of the beam which would then impinge on a fixed target. Without disturbing the collider operation, this technique allows for the extraction of a substantial amount of particles in addition to serving for a beam-cleaning purpose. With this method, high-luminosity fixed-target studies at centre-of-mass energies above the W±, Z0, and H0 masses, s≃170–300 GeV, are possible. We also discuss the possibility offered by an internal gas target, which can also be used as luminosity monitor by studying the beam transverse shape.

  5. ECFA study week on instrumentation technology for high-luminosity hadron colliders. Proceedings. Vol. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, E.; Jarlskog, G.

    1989-01-01

    The main aim of the present ECFA Study Week on 'Instrumentation Technology for High Luminosity Hadron Colliders' was to review the progress made after the La Thuile Workshop (1987) and to critically evaluate which of the detection methods and data handling structures could be suitable for luminosities in the 10 34 cm -2 s -1 range. The Study Week was sponsored by the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, the Comision Interministerial Ciencia y Tecnologia of Spain, CERN, and the Commission of the European Communities. It attracted 220 participants, including 35 from industry and good representation from groups planning experiments at the SSC. The various conveners gathered many excellent and original contributions, which led to intense discussions. Subjects covered include the use of scintillating fibres; silicon, gaseous, and crystal detectors, particle identification; readout and data acquisition systems. A separate session dealt with the contributions of industry to this kind of research. (orig.)

  6. The polarised photon g1γ sum rule at the linear collider and high luminosity B factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The sum rule for the first moment of the polarised (virtual) photon structure function g 1 γ (x,Q 2 ;K 2 ) is revisited in the light of proposals for future e + e - colliders. The sum rule exhibits an array of phenomena characteristic of QCD: for real photons (K 2 =0) electromagnetic gauge invariance constrains the first moment to vanish; the limit for asymptotic photon virtuality (m ρ 2 -bar K 2 -bar Q 2 ) is governed by the electromagnetic U A (1) axial anomaly and the approach to asymptopia by the gluonic anomaly; for intermediate values of K 2 , it reflects the realisation of chiral symmetry and is determined by the off-shell radiative couplings of the pseudoscalar mesons; finally, like many polarisation phenomena in QCD, the first moment of g 1 γ involves the gluon topological susceptibility. In this paper, we review the original sum rule proposed by Narison, Shore and Veneziano and extend the relation with pseudoscalar mesons. The possibility of measuring the sum rule in future polarised e + e - colliders is then considered in detail, focusing on the International Linear Collider (ILC) and high luminosity B factories. We conclude that all the above features of the sum rule should be accessible at a polarised collider with the characteristics of SuperKEKB

  7. Electromagnetic Design and Optimization of Directivity of Stripline Beam Position Monitors for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Draskovic, Drasko; Jones, Owain Rhodri; Lefèvre, Thibaut; Wendt, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary electromagnetic design of a stripline Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for the High Luminosity program of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) at CERN. The design is fitted into a new octagonal shielded Beam Screen for the low-beta triplets and is optimized for high directivity. It also includes internal Tungsten absorbers, required to reduce the energy deposition in the superconducting magnets. The achieved broadband directivity in wakefield solver simulations presents significant improvement over the directivity of the current stripline BPMs installed in the LHC.

  8. Luminosity and beta function measurement at the electron-positron collider ring LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, P

    1996-01-01

    The optimization of luminosity needs a fast signal which is provided with the measurement of the rate of small angle Bhabba scattered e+ and e-. It is shown that, despite the excess of background particles received at the detectors, luminosity measurements are possible by using appropriate techniques. The results presented include examples of luminosity optimization with the adjustment of the vertical beam separation at interaction points. The correlation between changes in measured beam sizes and changes in luminosity is shown. In the second part, a new method to obtain precise optics measurements is presented. The procedure to measure the phase advance using 1000-turn orbit measurements of a horizontally or vertically excited beam is described. Beta, alpha and phase advance functions can be obtained exclusively from the phase advances at beam position monitors. This method has been used to measure optics imperfections at LEP. Results of these experiments are compared with simulation results using MAD Measur...

  9. Beam tube vacuum in future superconducting proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, W.

    1994-10-01

    The beam tube vacuum requirements in future superconducting proton colliders that have been proposed or discussed in the literature -- SSC, LHC, and ELN -- are reviewed. The main beam tube vacuum problem encountered in these machines is how to deal with the magnitude of gas desorption and power deposition by synchrotron radiation while satisfying resistivity, impedance, and space constraints in the cryogenic environment of superconducting magnets. A beam tube vacuum model is developed that treats photodesorption of tightly bound H, C, and 0, photodesorption of physisorbed molecules, and the isotherm vapor pressure of H 2 . Experimental data on cold tube photodesorption experiments are reviewed and applied to model calculations of beam tube vacuum performance for simple cold beam tube and liner configurations. Particular emphasis is placed on the modeling and interpretation of beam tube photodesorpiion experiments at electron synchrotron light sources. The paper also includes discussion of the constraints imposed by beam image current heating, the growth rate of the resistive wall instability, and single-bunch instability impedance limits

  10. Luminosity determination in $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV proton collisions using the LHCf Front Counter at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Taki, K; Bonechi, L; Bongi, M; Castellini, G; D'Alessandro, R; Fukatsu, K; Haguenauer, M; Itow, Y; Kasahara, K; Mase, T; Kawade, K; Ricciarini, S; Macina, D; Masuda, K; Menjo, H; Mitsuka, G; Muraki, Y; Noda, K; Papini, P; Perrot, A L; Sako, T; Shimizu, Y; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, T; Tamura, T; Torii, S; Tricomi, A; Turner, W C

    2012-01-01

    In the Large Hadron Collider forward (LHCf) experiment, the luminosity is determined with the counting rates of detectors called Front Counter. During the LHCf physics operation at √s = 7 TeV in 2010, two series of calibration run in the conversion factors from the counting rate to the luminosity were carried out on 26th of April and 9th of May. Using the luminosities determined in the April and May scans with 5 % and 4 % accuracy, the conversion factors were determined with 5.0 % accuracy, providing the luminosity determination at the LHCf experiment with this accuracy.

  11. Conceptual Design Report. Antiproton - Proton Collider Upgrade 20 GeV Rings. Technical Components and Civil Construction May, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-05-01

    This report contains a description of the design and cost estimate of two new 20 GeV rings which will be required to support the upgrade of the Fermilab Collider with a luminosity goal of 5x10 31 cm-2s-1. The new rings include an antiproton post-accumulator, denoted the Antiproton Super Booster (ASB), and a proton post-booster, denoted the Proton Super Booster (PSB). The siting of the rings is shown in Figure I-1. Both rings are capable of operation at 20 GeV, eliminating the need for ever again injecting beam into the Main Ring below transition, and significantly enhancing Main Ring performance. The Antiproton Super Booster is designed to accept and accumulate up to 4x1012 antiprotons from the existing Antiproton Accumulator, and deliver them to the Main Ring at 20 GeV for acceleration and injection into the Collider. It is also designed to accept diluted antiprotons from the Main Ring at 20 GeV for recooling. The PSB accepts 8.9 GeV protons from the existing Booster and accelerates them to 20 GeV for injection into the Main Ring. The PSB is designed to operate at 5 Hz. The siting shown in Figure I-1 has the attractive feature that it removes all Main Ring injection hardware from the AO straight section, opening the possibility of installing a third proton-antiproton interaction region in the Tevatron Collider.

  12. Spin Transparency Mode in the NICA Collider with Solenoid Siberian Snakes for Proton and Deuteron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, A. D.; Butenko, A. V.; Mikhaylov, V. A.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Kondratenko, A. M.; Filatov, Yu N.

    2017-12-01

    Two solenoid Siberian Snakes are required to obtain ion polarization in spin transparency mode of the NICA collider. The snake solenoids with a total field integral of 2×50 T·m are placed into the straight sections of the NICA collider. It allows one to control polarization of protons and deuterons up to 13.5 GeV/c and 4 GeV/c respectively. The snakes introduce a strong betatron oscillation coupling. The calculations of orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in the NICA collider with solenoid Snakes are presented.

  13. ISABELLE: a 400 x 400 GeV proton--proton colliding beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual design report is presented for the construction of an Intersecting Storage Accelerator, ISABELLE, to be located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. At this major research facility beams of protons with energies up to 400 GeV will be collided in six experimental areas. At each area particle physicists will install detector apparatus to study the interaction and reaction products for such very high energy collisions. The proposal results from several years of study and development work on such a facility. Topics discussed include: (1) introduction and summary of the proposal; (2) physics at ISABELLE (including physics objectives and typical experiments and detectors); description of ISABELLE (overview; magnetic ring structure and lattice characteristics; performance; beam transfer, stacking, and acceleration; magnet system; refrigeration system; vacuum system; power supplies, instrumentation, and control system; physical plant and experimental halls; and operation and safety); and (3) cost estimate and schedule

  14. ISABELLE: a 400 x 400 GeV proton--proton colliding beam facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual design report is presented for the construction of an Intersecting Storage Accelerator, ISABELLE, to be located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. At this major research facility beams of protons with energies up to 400 GeV will be collided in six experimental areas. At each area particle physicists will install detector apparatus to study the interaction and reaction products for such very high energy collisions. The proposal results from several years of study and development work on such a facility. Topics discussed include: (1) introduction and summary of the proposal; (2) physics at ISABELLE (including physics objectives and typical experiments and detectors); description of ISABELLE (overview; magnetic ring structure and lattice characteristics; performance; beam transfer, stacking, and acceleration; magnet system; refrigeration system; vacuum system; power supplies, instrumentation, and control system; physical plant and experimental halls; and operation and safety); and (3) cost estimate and schedule.

  15. CompAZ Parametrization of the Luminosity Spectra for the Photon Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Zarnecki, A F

    2003-01-01

    A simple model, based on the analytical formula for the Compton scattering, is proposed to describe the realistic photon-energy spectra for the Photon Collider at TESLA. Parameters of the model are obtained from the full simulation of the beam by V. Telnov, which includes nonlinear corrections and contributions of higher order processes. Photon energy distribution and polarization, in the high energy part of the spectra, are well reproduced. Our model can be used for a Monte Carlo simulation of gamma-gamma events at various energies and for direct cross-section calculations.

  16. Development of Muon Drift-Tube Detectors for High-Luminosity Upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bittner, B; Kortner, O.; Kroha, H.; Legger, F.; Richter, R.; Biebel, O.; Engl, A.; Hertenberger, R.; Rauscher, F.

    2016-01-01

    The muon detectors of the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have to cope with unprecedentedly high neutron and gamma ray background rates. In the forward regions of the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector, for instance, counting rates of 1.7 kHz/square cm are reached at the LHC design luminosity. For high-luminosity upgrades of the LHC, up to 10 times higher background rates are expected which require replacement of the muon chambers in the critical detector regions. Tests at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility showed that drift-tube detectors with 15 mm diameter aluminum tubes operated with Ar:CO2 (93:7) gas at 3 bar and a maximum drift time of about 200 ns provide e?cient and high-resolution muon tracking up to the highest expected rates. For 15 mm tube diameter, space charge e?ects deteriorating the spatial resolution at high rates are strongly suppressed. The sense wires have to be positioned in the chamber with an accuracy of better than 50 ?micons in order to achieve the desired spatial...

  17. Industrial Technology for Unprecented Energy and Luminosity The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, P

    2004-01-01

    With over 3 billion Swiss francs procurement contracts under execution in industry and the installation of major technical systems in its first 3.3 km sector, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) construction is now in full swing at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The LHC is not only the most challenging particle accelerator, it is also the largest global project ever for a scientific instrument based on advanced technology. Starting from accelerator performance requirements, we recall how these can be met by an appropriate combination of technologies, such as high-field superconducting magnets, superfluid helium cryogenics, power electronics, with particular emphasis on developments required to meet demanding specifications, and industrialization issues which had to be solved for achieving series production of precision components under tight quality assurance and within limited resources. This provides the opportunity for reviewing the production status of the main systems and the progress ...

  18. Radioactivation of silicon tracker modules in high-luminosity hadron collider radiation environments

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, I; Buttar, C; Cindro, V; Mandic, I

    2003-01-01

    One of the consequences of operating detector systems in harsh radiation environments will be radioactivation of the components. This will certainly be true in experiments such as ATLAS and CMS, which are currently being built to exploit the physics potential at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. If the levels of radioactivity and corresponding dose rates are significant, then there will be implications for any access or maintenance operations. This paper presents predictions for the radioactivation of ATLAS's Semi- Conductor Tracker (SCT) barrel system, based on both calculations and measurements. It is shown that both neutron capture and high-energy hadron reactions must be taken into account. The predictions also show that the SCT barrel-module should not pose any serious radiological problems after operation in high radiation environments.

  19. Final cooling for a high-energy high-luminosity lepton collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuffer, D.; Sayed, H.; Acosta, J.; Hart, T.; Summers, D.

    2017-07-01

    A high-energy muon collider requires a "final cooling" system that reduces transverse emittance by a factor of ~ 10, while allowing the longitudinal emittance to increase. The baseline approach has low-energy transverse cooling within high-field solenoids, with strong longitudinal heating. This approach and its recent simulation are discussed. Alternative approaches, which more explicitly include emittance exchange are also presented. Round-to-flat beam transform, transverse slicing, and longitudinal bunch coalescence are possible components of an alternative approach. Wedge-based emittance exchange could provide much of the required transverse cooling with longitudinal heating. Li-lens and quadrupole focusing systems could also provide much of the required final cooling.

  20. Final Cooling for a High-Energy High-Luminosity Lepton Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermilab; Sayed, H. [Brookhaven; Hart, T. [Mississippi U.; Summers, D. [Mississippi U.

    2015-12-03

    A high-energy muon collider scenario require a “final cooling” system that reduces transverse emittance by a factor of ~10 while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. The baseline approach has low-energy transverse cooling within high-field solenoids, with strong longitudinal heating. This approach and its recent simulation are discussed. Alternative approaches which more explicitly include emittance exchange are also presented. Round-to-flat beam transform, transverse slicing, and longitudinal bunch coalescence are possible components of an alternative approach. Wedge-based emittance exchange could provide much of the required transverse cooling with longitudinal heating. Li-lens and quadrupole focusing systems could also provide much of the required final cooling.

  1. An $ep$ collider based on proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Wing, M.; Mete, O.; Aimidula, A.; Welsch, C.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Mandry, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent simulations have shown that a high-energy proton bunch can excite strong plasma wakefields and accelerate a bunch of electrons to the energy frontier in a single stage of acceleration. This scheme could lead to a future $ep$ collider using the LHC for the proton beam and a compact electron accelerator of length 170 m, producing electrons of energy up to 100 GeV. The parameters of such a collider are discussed as well as conceptual layouts within the CERN accelerator complex. The physics of plasma wakefield acceleration will also be introduced, with the AWAKE experiment, a proof of principle demonstration of proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration, briefly reviewed, as well as the physics possibilities of such an $ep$ collider.

  2. Ion colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    Ion colliders are research tools for high-energy nuclear physics, and are used to test the theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). The collisions of fully stripped high-energy ions create matter of a temperature and density that existed only microseconds after the Big Bang. Ion colliders can reach higher densities and temperatures than fixed target experiments although at a much lower luminosity. The first ion collider was the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR), which collided light ions (77Asb1, 81Bou1). The BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is in operation since 2000 and has collided a number of species at numerous energies. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started the heavy ion program in 2010. Table 1 shows all previous and the currently planned running modes for ISR, RHIC, and LHC. All three machines also collide protons, which are spin-polarized in RHIC. Ion colliders differ from proton or antiproton colliders in a number of ways: the preparation of the ions in the source and the pre-injector chain is limited by other effects than for protons; frequent changes in the collision energy and particle species, including asymmetric species, are typical; and the interaction of ions with each other and accelerator components is different from protons, which has implications for collision products, collimation, the beam dump, and intercepting instrumentation devices such a profile monitors. In the preparation for the collider use the charge state Z of the ions is successively increased to minimize the effects of space charge, intrabeam scattering (IBS), charge change effects (electron capture and stripping), and ion-impact desorption after beam loss. Low charge states reduce space charge, intrabeam scattering, and electron capture effects. High charge states reduce electron stripping, and make bending and acceleration more effective. Electron stripping at higher energies is generally more efficient. Table 2 shows the charge states and energies in the

  3. Ion colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.

    2011-12-01

    Ion colliders are research tools for high-energy nuclear physics, and are used to test the theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). The collisions of fully stripped high-energy ions create matter of a temperature and density that existed only microseconds after the Big Bang. Ion colliders can reach higher densities and temperatures than fixed target experiments although at a much lower luminosity. The first ion collider was the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR), which collided light ions [77Asb1, 81Bou1]. The BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is in operation since 2000 and has collided a number of species at numerous energies. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started the heavy ion program in 2010. Table 1 shows all previous and the currently planned running modes for ISR, RHIC, and LHC. All three machines also collide protons, which are spin-polarized in RHIC. Ion colliders differ from proton or antiproton colliders in a number of ways: the preparation of the ions in the source and the pre-injector chain is limited by other effects than for protons; frequent changes in the collision energy and particle species, including asymmetric species, are typical; and the interaction of ions with each other and accelerator components is different from protons, which has implications for collision products, collimation, the beam dump, and intercepting instrumentation devices such a profile monitors. In the preparation for the collider use the charge state Z of the ions is successively increased to minimize the effects of space charge, intrabeam scattering (IBS), charge change effects (electron capture and stripping), and ion-impact desorption after beam loss. Low charge states reduce space charge, intrabeam scattering, and electron capture effects. High charge states reduce electron stripping, and make bending and acceleration more effective. Electron stripping at higher energies is generally more efficient. Table 2 shows the charge states and energies in the

  4. Luminosity lifetime in the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.; Finley, D.; Johnson, R.P.; Kerns, Q.; McCarthy, J.; Siemann, R.; Zhang, P.

    1988-01-01

    Since the inauguration of colliding proton-antiproton operations in 1987, the Tevatron has exhibited luminosity lifetimes shorter than expected. During a typical colliding beam storage period, called a store, luminosity is calculated periodically by measuring the charge and emittances of each bunch. The growth of the transverse bunch emittances is the dominant cause of luminosity deterioration. Throughout, this period, the position spectrum of the bunches exhibited betatron signals larger than expected from Schottky noise. A model assuming externally driven betatron oscillations explains both the betatron signals and the emittance growth. A program is underway to improve the Tevatron luminosity lifetime. The abort kickers have been identified as sources of emittance growth, and some quadrupole power supplies are further candidates. Because the horizontal dispersion through the RF cavities is nonzero, RF phase noise has been investigated. Noise in the main dipole regulation circuit has also been studied. 13 refs., 4 figs

  5. Possibilities of polarized protons in Sp anti p S and other high energy hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements for collisions with polarized protons in hadron colliders above 200 GeV are listed and briefly discussed. Particular attention is given to the use of the ''Siberan snake'' to eliminate depolarizing resonances, which occur when the spin precession frequency equals a frequency contained in the spectrum of the field seen by the beam. The Siberian snake is a device which makes the spin precession frequency essentially constant by using spin rotators, which precess the spin by 180 0 about either the longitudinal or transverse horizontal axis. It is concluded that operation with polarized protons should be possible at all the high energy hadron colliders

  6. Orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in the NICA collider with solenoid Siberian snakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, A D; Butenko, A V; Kekelidze, V D; Mikhaylov, V A; Kondratenko, M A; Filatov, Yu N; Kondratenko, A M

    2016-01-01

    Two solenoid Siberian snakes are required to obtain ion polarization in the “spin transparency” mode of the NICA collider. The field integrals of the solenoid snakes for protons and deuterons at maximum momentum of 13.5 GeV/c are equal to 2×50 T·m and 2×160 T·m respectively. The snakes introduce strong betatron oscillation coupling. The calculations of orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in NICA collider with solenoid snakes are presented. (paper)

  7. ISABELLE: a proton-proton colliding beam facility. [Proposal for the construction of ISABELLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-04-01

    A proposal is presented for the construction of an Intersecting Storage Accelerator, ISABELLE, to be located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. At this major research facility, colliding beams of protons will be produced and studied by particle physicists. This proposal combines the interests of these particle physicists in exploring a new energy regime with the challenge of building a new research instrument. The proposal results from several years of considering such devices in parallel with extensive developmental work. The proposal is divided into several major parts. Following an introduction is an overall summary of the proposal covering its highlights. Part II contains a thorough discussion of the physics objectives that can be addressed by the storage ring. It begins with an explanation of current theoretical concepts that occupy the curiosity of high energy physicists. Then follows a brief discussion of possible experiments that might be assembled at the interaction regions to test these concepts. The third part of the proposal goes into the details of the design of the intersecting storage accelerators. It begins with a description of the entire facility and the design of the magnet ring structure. The processes of proton beam accumulation and acceleration are thoroughly described. The discussion then turns to the design of the components and subsystems for the accelerator. The accelerator elements are described followed by a description of the physical plant. The cost estimate and time scales are displayed in Part IV. Here the estimate has been based on the experience gained from working with the prototype units at the laboratory. The appendices are an important part of the proposal. The parameter list for the 200 x 200 GeV ISABELLE is carefully documented. An example of a possible research program can be found in an appendix. The performance of prototype units is documented in one of the appendices.

  8. Proton irradiation of CVD diamond detectors for high-luminosity experiments at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, D.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Jany, C.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P. F.; Marshall, R. D.; Mishina, M.; Le Normand, F.; Pan, L. S.; Palmieri, V. G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    1999-04-01

    CVD diamond shows promising properties for use as a position-sensitive detector for experiments in the highest radiation areas at the Large Hadron Collider. In order to study the radiation hardness of diamond we exposed CVD diamond detector samples to 24 Gev/ c and 500 Mev protons up to a fluence of 5×10 15 p/cm 2. We measured the charge collection distance, the average distance electron-hole pairs move apart in an external electric field, and leakage currents before, during, and after irradiation. The charge collection distance remains unchanged up to 1×10 15 p/cm 2 and decreases by ≈40% at 5×10 15 p/cm 2. Leakage currents of diamond samples were below 1 pA before and after irradiation. The particle-induced currents during irradiation correlate well with the proton flux. In contrast to diamond, a silicon diode, which was irradiated for comparison, shows the known large increase in leakage current. We conclude that CVD diamond detectors are radiation hard to 24 GeV/ c and 500 MeV protons up to at least 1×10 15p/cm 2 without signal loss.

  9. Proton irradiation of CVD diamond detectors for high-luminosity experiments at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, D. E-mail: dirk.meier@cern.ch.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Jany, C.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P.F.; Marshall, R.D.; Mishina, M.; Le Normand, F.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M

    1999-04-21

    CVD diamond shows promising properties for use as a position-sensitive detector for experiments in the highest radiation areas at the Large Hadron Collider. In order to study the radiation hardness of diamond we exposed CVD diamond detector samples to 24 Gev/c and 500 Mev protons up to a fluence of 5x10{sup 15} p/cm{sup 2}. We measured the charge collection distance, the average distance electron-hole pairs move apart in an external electric field, and leakage currents before, during, and after irradiation. The charge collection distance remains unchanged up to 1x10{sup 15} p/cm{sup 2} and decreases by {approx}40% at 5x10{sup 15} p/cm{sup 2}. Leakage currents of diamond samples were below 1 pA before and after irradiation. The particle-induced currents during irradiation correlate well with the proton flux. In contrast to diamond, a silicon diode, which was irradiated for comparison, shows the known large increase in leakage current. We conclude that CVD diamond detectors are radiation hard to 24 GeV/c and 500 MeV protons up to at least 1x10{sup 15}p/cm{sup 2} without signal loss.

  10. Proton irradiation of CVD diamond detectors for high-luminosity experiments at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, D.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Jany, C.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P.F.; Marshall, R.D.; Mishina, M.; Le Normand, F.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.

    1999-01-01

    CVD diamond shows promising properties for use as a position-sensitive detector for experiments in the highest radiation areas at the Large Hadron Collider. In order to study the radiation hardness of diamond we exposed CVD diamond detector samples to 24 Gev/c and 500 Mev protons up to a fluence of 5x10 15 p/cm 2 . We measured the charge collection distance, the average distance electron-hole pairs move apart in an external electric field, and leakage currents before, during, and after irradiation. The charge collection distance remains unchanged up to 1x10 15 p/cm 2 and decreases by ∼40% at 5x10 15 p/cm 2 . Leakage currents of diamond samples were below 1 pA before and after irradiation. The particle-induced currents during irradiation correlate well with the proton flux. In contrast to diamond, a silicon diode, which was irradiated for comparison, shows the known large increase in leakage current. We conclude that CVD diamond detectors are radiation hard to 24 GeV/c and 500 MeV protons up to at least 1x10 15 p/cm 2 without signal loss

  11. Exploratory study of a novel low occupancy vertex detector architecture based on high precision timing for high luminosity particle colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orel, Peter, E-mail: porel@hawaii.edu; Varner, Gary S.; Niknejadi, Pardis

    2017-06-11

    Vertex detectors provide space–time coordinates for the traversing charged particle decay products closest to the interaction point. Resolving these increasingly intense particle fluences at high luminosity particle colliders, such as SuperKEKB, is an ever growing challenge. This results in a non-negligible occupancy of the vertex detector using existing low material budget techniques. Consequently, new approaches are being studied that meet the vertexing requirements while lowering the occupancy. In this paper, we introduce a novel vertex detector architecture. Its design relies on an asynchronous digital pixel matrix in combination with a readout based on high precision time-of-flight measurement. Denoted the Timing Vertex Detector (TVD), it consists of a binary pixel array, a transmission line for signal collection, and a readout ASIC. The TVD aims to have a spatial resolution comparable to the existing Belle2 vertex detector. At the same time it offers a reduced occupancy by a factor of ten while decreasing the channel count by almost three orders of magnitude. Consequently, reducing the event size from about 1 MB/event to about 5.9 kB/event.

  12. 4. topical workshop on proton-antiproton collider physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenni, H.; Schacher, J.

    1984-01-01

    The most exciting topic at this Workshop was clearly the experimental hint for new unexpected phenomena, reported by the UA1 and UA2 Collaborations: At the CERN SPS Collider (vs = 540 GeV), a few events were observed with high missing transverse energy in association with an isolated electromagnetic cluster or one or more hard jets (UA1) or an isolated electron and one or two hard jets (UA2). Due to the enhanced data sample, the discovery of the intermediate vector bosons W and Z in 1983 was undoubtedly confirmed, and the nice agreement of their properties with the predictions of the electroweak theory was shown. In addition, many new results on experimental and theoretical jet physics were presented. The Tevatron Collider project and its planned experiments at Fermilab were discussed, and there were contributions about the possible future developments in theory (compositeness, supersymmetry) as well as in experimental high energy physics (Supercollider, Juratron). See hints under the relevant topics. (orig./HSI)

  13. New technologies for a future superconducting proton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malamud, E.; Foster, G.W.

    1996-06-01

    New more economic approaches are required to continue the dramatic exponential rise in particle accelerator energies as represented by the well-known Livingston plot. The old idea of low-cost, low-field iron dominated magnets in a small diameter pipe may become feasible in the next decade with dramatic recent advances in technology: (1) high T c superconductors operating at liquid N 2 or H 2 temperatures, (2) advanced tunneling technologies for small diameter, non human accessible tunnels, (3) accurate remote guidance systems for boring machine steering, (4) industrial applications of remote manipulation and robotics, and (5) digitally multiplexed electronics to minimize cables There is an opportunity for mutually beneficial partnerships between the High Energy Physics community and the commercial sector to develop the necessary technology. This will gain public support, a necessary part of the challenge of building a new, very high energy collider

  14. Proton Irradiation of CVD Diamond Detectors for High Luminosity Experiments at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, D; Bauer, C; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E A; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Jany, C; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Manfredi, P F; Marshall, R D; Mishina, M; Le Normand, F; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Pretzl, Klaus P; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Turchetta, R; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    CVD diamond shows promising properties for use as a position sensitive detector for experiments in the highest radiation areas at the Large Hadron Collider. In order to study the radiation hardn ess of diamond we exposed CVD diamond detector samples to 24~GeV/$c$ and 500~MeV protons up to a fluence of $5\\times 10^{15}~p/{\\rm cm^2}$. We measured the charge collection distance, the ave rage distance electron hole pairs move apart in an external electric field, and leakage currents before, during, and after irradiation. The charge collection distance remains unchanged up to $1\\ times 10^{15}~p/{\\rm cm^2}$ and decreases by $\\approx$40~\\% at $5\\times 10^{15}~p/{\\rm cm^2}$. Leakage currents of diamond samples were below 1~pA before and after irradiation. The particle indu ced currents during irradiation correlate well with the proton flux. In contrast to diamond, a silicon diode, which was irradiated for comparison, shows the known large increase in leakage curren t. We conclude that CVD diamond detectors are radia...

  15. Search for Microscopic Black Holes in Multijet Final States with the ATLAS Detector using 8 TeV Proton-Proton Collisions at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Saddique, Asif

    Microscopic black holes are expected to produce a high multiplicity of Standard Model (SM) particles having large transverse momenta in the final state. In this thesis, a search for microscopic black holes in multijet final states with the ATLAS 2012 data using 8 TeV centre of mass energy of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider is performed in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $20.3$ fb$^{-1}$. The search is simplified to multijet final states because most of the expected SM particles produced from black hole decay would lead to hadronic jets. The data events with high-transverse momenta have been analysed for different exclusive jet multiplicities, i.e. $2,3,...,7$, and inclusive jet multiplicities, i.e. $\\geq 3,4,...,7$. In this multijet analysis, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) multijet production is the main background. For all the multijet final states, the data distributions for the sum of jet transverse momenta ($H_{T}=\\sum p_{T}$) in an event have been observed ...

  16. Next-to-leading-order QCD and electroweak corrections to WWW production at proton-proton colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmaier, Stefan; Huss, Alexander; Knippen, Gernot

    2017-09-01

    Triple-W-boson production in proton-proton collisions allows for a direct access to the triple and quartic gauge couplings and provides a window to the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking. It is an important process to test the Standard Model (SM) and might be background to physics beyond the SM. We present a calculation of the next-to-leading order (NLO) electroweak corrections to the production of WWW final states at proton-proton colliders with on-shell W bosons and combine the electroweak with the NLO QCD corrections. We study the impact of the corrections to the integrated cross sections and to kinematic distributions of the W bosons. The electroweak corrections are generically of the size of 5-10% for integrated cross sections and become more pronounced in specific phase-space regions. The real corrections induced by quark-photon scattering turn out to be as important as electroweak loops and photon bremsstrahlung corrections, but can be reduced by phase-space cuts. Considering that prior determinations of the photon parton distribution function (PDF) involve rather large uncertainties, we compare the results obtained with different photon PDFs and discuss the corresponding uncertainties in the NLO predictions. Moreover, we determine the scale and total PDF uncertainties at the LHC and a possible future 100 TeV pp collider.

  17. Luminosity measurement at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Karacheban, Olena

    2017-01-01

    Luminosity is a key quantity of any collider, since it allows for the determinationof the absolute cross sections from the observed rates in a detector. Since theHiggs boson discovery in 2012, the highest priority at the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) has been given to an accurate understanding of the electroweak scale anda search for new physics. Precise luminosity measurements in such conditions areof crucial importance, as they determine the precision of any physics cross sectionmeasurement.To increase the production of particles of interest, usually of low cross section,the LHC is running at the highest possible luminosity. After the first Long Shutdown (LS1) the original performance goal for the luminosity of 1 × 1034 cm−2 s−1was reached with 1011 protons per bunch and a bunch spacing of 25 ns. In suchconditions radiation hard detectors with extremely fast response time are required,especially for instrumentation near the beam.The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment is equipped with three online luminomet...

  18. Multibunch operation in the Tevatron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, J.A.; Finley, D.A.; Bharadwaj, V.

    1993-05-01

    The Tevatron Collider at Fermilab is the world's highest energy hadron collider, colliding protons with antiprotons at a center of mass energy of 1800 GeV. At present six proton bunches collide with six antiproton bunches to generate luminosities of up to 9 x 10 30 cm -2 s -1 . It is estimated that to reach luminosities significantly greater than 10 31 cm -2 s -1 while minimizing the number of interactions per crossing, the number of bunches will have to be increased. Thirty-six bunch operation looks like the most promising plan. This paper looks at the strategies for increasing the number of particle bunches, the new hardware that needs to be designed and changes to the operating mode in filling the Tevatron. An interactive program which simulates the filling of the Tevatron collider is also presented. The time scale for multibunch operation and progress towards running greater than six bunches is given in this paper

  19. Thermomechanical response of Large Hadron Collider collimators to proton and ion beam impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Cauchi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC is designed to accelerate and bring into collision high-energy protons as well as heavy ions. Accidents involving direct beam impacts on collimators can happen in both cases. The LHC collimation system is designed to handle the demanding requirements of high-intensity proton beams. Although proton beams have 100 times higher beam power than the nominal LHC lead ion beams, specific problems might arise in case of ion losses due to different particle-collimator interaction mechanisms when compared to protons. This paper investigates and compares direct ion and proton beam impacts on collimators, in particular tertiary collimators (TCTs, made of the tungsten heavy alloy INERMET® 180. Recent measurements of the mechanical behavior of this alloy under static and dynamic loading conditions at different temperatures have been done and used for realistic estimates of the collimator response to beam impact. Using these new measurements, a numerical finite element method (FEM approach is presented in this paper. Sequential fast-transient thermostructural analyses are performed in the elastic-plastic domain in order to evaluate and compare the thermomechanical response of TCTs in case of critical beam load cases involving proton and heavy ion beam impacts.

  20. Acceleration of polarized protons and deuterons in the ion collider ring of JLEIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratenko, A. M.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Filatov, Yu N.; Derbenev, Ya S.; Lin, F.; Morozov, V. S.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-07-01

    The figure-8-shaped ion collider ring of Jefferson Lab Electron-Ion Collider (JLEIC) is transparent to the spin. It allows one to preserve proton and deuteron polarizations using weak stabilizing solenoids when accelerating the beam up to 100 GeV/c. When the stabilizing solenoids are introduced into the collider’s lattice, the particle spins precess about a spin field, which consists of the field induced by the stabilizing solenoids and the zero-integer spin resonance strength. During acceleration of the beam, the induced spin field is maintained constant while the resonance strength experiences significant changes in the regions of “interference peaks”. The beam polarization depends on the field ramp rate of the arc magnets. Its component along the spin field is preserved if acceleration is adiabatic. We present the results of our theoretical analysis and numerical modeling of the spin dynamics during acceleration of protons and deuterons in the JLEIC ion collider ring. We demonstrate high stability of the deuteron polarization in figure-8 accelerators. We analyze a change in the beam polarization when crossing the transition energy.

  1. Search for Resonant s-channel Higgs Production at a future high-luminosity e+e- collider (FCC-ee)

    CERN Document Server

    Wojcik, George

    2014-01-01

    In this project, the plausibility of measuring direct resonant s-channel Higgs production at a future high-luminosity e+e- collider machine (of the FCC-ee type) is examined. Using PYTHIA8 to generate expected samples for signal (e+e--->H-->WW*,ZZ*,bbar,gluon-gluon) and backgrounds (e+e- -->Z*,gamma*-->qqbar,tautau,WW,ZZ) in seven possible Higgs decay channels (combining isolated leptons, neutrinos and heavy-quark, light-quark and gluon jets), a total combined statistical significance of 3.6 sigma per experiment is obtained at an integrated luminosity of 10 $ab^{-1}$. This preliminary result, not accounting yet for signal loss from ISR and beam energy spreading, seems to confirm the possibility to access (or at least put strong constraints) on the fundamental Yukawa coupling of the Higgs boson to electrons.

  2. Long-lived sleptons at the LHC and a 100 TeV proton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Iwamoto, Sho; Shadmi, Yael; Tarem, Shlomit

    2015-01-01

    We study the prospects for long-lived charged particle (LLCP) searches at current and future LHC runs and at a 100 TeV pp collider, using Drell-Yan slepton pair production as an example. Because momentum measurements become more challenging for very energetic particles, we carefully treat the expected momentum resolution. At the same time, a novel feature of 100 TeV collisions is the significant energy loss of energetic muons in the calorimeter. We use this to help discriminate between muons and LLCPs. We find that the 14 TeV LHC with an integrated luminosity of 3 ab −1 can probe LLCP slepton masses up to 1.2 TeV, and a 100 TeV pp collider with 3 ab −1 can probe LLCP slepton masses up to 4 TeV, using time-of-flight measurements. These searches will have striking implications for dark matter, with the LHC definitively testing the possibility of slepton-neutralino co-annihilating WIMP dark matter, and with the LHC and future hadron colliders having a strong potential for discovering LLCPs in models with superWIMP dark matter.

  3. On the Significance of the Upcoming Large Hadron Collider Proton-Proton Cross Section Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comay E.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the Regular Charge-Monopole Theory to the proton structure is described. The discussion relies on classicalelectrodynamics and its associated quantum mechanics. Few experimental data are used as a clue to the specific structure of baryons. This basis provides an explanation for the shape of the graph of the pre-LHC proton-proton cross section data. These data also enable a description of the significance of the expected LHC cross section measurements which will be known soon. Problematic QCD issues are pointed out.

  4. Asymmetric collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharadwaj, V.; Colestock, P.; Goderre, G.; Johnson, D.; Martin, P.; Holt, J.; Kaplan, D.

    1993-01-01

    The study of CP violation in beauty decay is one of the key challenges facing high energy physics. Much work has not yielded a definitive answer how this study might best be performed. However, one clear conclusion is that new accelerator facilities are needed. Proposals include experiments at asymmetric electron-positron colliders and in fixed-target and collider modes at LHC and SSC. Fixed-target and collider experiments at existing accelerators, while they might succeed in a first observation of the effect, will not be adequate to study it thoroughly. Giomataris has emphasized the potential of a new approach to the study of beauty CP violation: the asymmetric proton collider. Such a collider might be realized by the construction of a small storage ring intersecting an existing or soon-to-exist large synchrotron, or by arranging collisions between a large synchrotron and its injector. An experiment at such a collider can combine the advantages of fixed-target-like spectrometer geometry, facilitating triggering, particle identification and the instrumentation of a large acceptance, while the increased √s can provide a factor > 100 increase in beauty-production cross section compared to Tevatron or HERA fixed-target. Beams crossing at a non-zero angle can provide a small interaction region, permitting a first-level decay-vertex trigger to be implemented. To achieve large √s with a large Lorentz boost and high luminosity, the most favorable venue is the high-energy booster (HEB) at the SSC Laboratory, though the CERN SPS and Fermilab Tevatron are also worth considering

  5. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Shutov, A; Schmidt, R; Piriz, A R

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding...

  6. Heavy flavour production and heavy flavour mixing at the CERN proton-antiproton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijk, B. van.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis some results of the proton-antiproton-collision experiment UA1 with the CERN Super Proton-Antiproton Synchrotron are presented and interpreted. Ch. 1 contians a general introduction to the physics motivations behind the proton-antiproton-collider project, a brief description of the CERN facilities and a summary of collider and UA1 physics achievements. Furthermore the concept of studying heavy flavours via their weak decays into muons is introduced. Ch. 2 gives a brief overview of the UA1 experimental set-up, while those parts of the detector that are relevant for the analysis, presented in this thesis, is discussed in some more detail. Ch. 3 contains a short introduction to, and motivation for the use of Monte Carlo techniques in event simulations, while Ch. 4 describes the framework of the recently developed 'EUROJET' event generator. In Ch. 5 a treatment is given of the theoretical background and concepts like 'quark-mixing' and 'CP-violation' are explained, also other useful definitions and formulae are introduced on which the later analysis of the same-sign to opposite-sign dimuon ratio is built. Data collection and event reconstruction is the subject of Ch. 6, while a detailed comparison between the theoretical models and experimentally obtained distributions is given in Ch. 7. Finally, in Ch. 8 some concluding remarks are made. 182 refs.; 81 figs.; 9 tabs

  7. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tahir

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider (LHC is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of the target that leads to a reduction in the density. The modified density distribution is used in FLUKA to calculate new energy loss distribution and the two codes are thus run iteratively. A suitable iteration step is considered to be the time interval during which the target density along the axis decreases by 15%–20%. Our simulations suggest that the full LHC proton beam penetrates up to 25 m in solid carbon whereas the range of the shower from a single proton in solid carbon is just about 3 m (hydrodynamic tunneling effect. It is planned to perform experiments at the experimental facility HiRadMat (High Radiation Materials at CERN using the proton beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS, to compare experimental results with the theoretical predictions. Therefore simulations of the response of a solid copper cylindrical target hit by the SPS beam were performed. The particle

  8. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Sancho, J. Blanco; Shutov, A.; Schmidt, R.; Piriz, A. R.

    2012-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of the target that leads to a reduction in the density. The modified density distribution is used in FLUKA to calculate new energy loss distribution and the two codes are thus run iteratively. A suitable iteration step is considered to be the time interval during which the target density along the axis decreases by 15%-20%. Our simulations suggest that the full LHC proton beam penetrates up to 25 m in solid carbon whereas the range of the shower from a single proton in solid carbon is just about 3 m (hydrodynamic tunneling effect). It is planned to perform experiments at the experimental facility HiRadMat (High Radiation Materials) at CERN using the proton beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), to compare experimental results with the theoretical predictions. Therefore simulations of the response of a solid copper cylindrical target hit by the SPS beam were performed. The particle energy in the SPS beam is 440

  9. Electron identification for transverse momentum above 10 GeV/c in UA2' at the proton-antiproton collider at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.P.

    1989-11-01

    The CERN decision to increase the luminosity of the proton-antiproton collider (ACOL) at 630 GeV in the center of mass by about one order of magnitude, has motivated the upgrade of the UA2 detector in order to search for the top quark. The main improvement of the detector consists in a better electron identification and an increase of the hadronic calorimeter coverage. The upgraded central detector uses new techniques to identify electrons, in particular a scintillating fiber detector (SFD). This detector of cylindrical geometry have been built at the CEN Saclay (DPhPE) using ∼ 60,000 fibers arranged in 24 layers. It measures tracks (6 points in space) as well as the position of electromagnetic preshowers. It rejects fake electrons, simulated by the spacial overlap of a π o and a hadron, with the help of a precise measurement of the distance between track and preshower. Using data from a small integrated luminosity 46 nb -1 achieved on 1987, we have studied the UA2 electron identification improvement. Comparing the electron transverse momentum spectra observed both in the old and the new detector we have found that the electron identification of the new UA2 apparatus has improved by an order of magnitude. The expected increase of the luminosity for the coming runs and the good knowledge of the UA2 apparatus will make it possible to improve tests of the standard model and in particular to achieve a better sensitivity for the top quark search [fr

  10. The Large Hadron Collider and the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN as Tools to Generate Warm Dense Matter and Non–Ideal Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, I V; Gryaznov, V; Piriz, A R; Deutsch, C; Fortov, V E

    2011-01-01

    The largest accelerator in the world, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, has entered into commission- ing phase. It is expected that when this impressive machine will become fully operational, it will generate two counter rotating 7 TeV/c proton beams that will be made to collide, leading to an unprecedented luminosity of 1034 cm−2s−1. Total energy stored in each LHC beam is about 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is a very critical issue when working with such extremely powerful beams. It is important to know the consequences of an accidental release of the beam energy in order to design protection system for the equipment. For this purpose we have carried out extensive numerical simulations of the interaction of one full LHC beam with copper and graphite targets which are materials of practical importance. Our calculations have shown that the LHC protons will penetrate up to about 35 m in solid copper and 10 m in solid graphite. A very interesting outcome of this work i...

  11. The Large Hadron Collider and the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN as Tools to Generate Warm Dense Matter and Non-Ideal Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Deutsch, C; Gryaznov, V; Lomonosov, I V; Shutov, A; Piriz, A R; Fortov, V E; Geissel, H; Redmer, R

    2011-01-01

    The largest accelerator in the world, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, has entered into commissioning phase. It is expected that when this impressive machine will become fully operational, it will generate two counter rotating 7 TeV/c proton beams that will be made to collide, leading to an unprecedented luminosity of 10(34) cm(-2)s(-1). Total energy stored in each LHC beam is about 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is a very critical issue when working with such extremely powerful beams. It is important to know the consequences of an accidental release of the beam energy in order to design protection system for the equipment. For this purpose we have carried out extensive numerical simulations of the interaction of one full LHC beam with copper and graphite targets which are materials of practical importance. Our calculations have shown that the LHC protons will penetrate up to about 35 m in solid copper and 10 m in solid graphite. A very interesting outcome of this work i...

  12. The process e-p→γep as a fast luminosity monitor for the HERA-collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaemers, K.J.F.; Horst, M. van der

    1988-09-01

    The process e - →γe - p as a fast luminosity monitor for HERA. Results are given and discussed for the differential cross-sections and the integrated cross-section. It is possible to use expressions derived in the form of an event generator. 7 refs.; 4 figs

  13. Luminosity monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D. G.

    1998-01-01

    Luminosity monitors are needed in each experiment doing spin physics at RHIC. They concentrate on the luminosity aspects here because, for example, with a 10 -3 raw asymmetry in an experiment, an error of 10 -4 in the luminosity is as significant as a 10% polarization error. Because luminosity is a property of how two beams overlap, the luminosity at an interaction region must be measured at that interaction region in order to be relevant to the experiment at that interaction region. The authors will have to do the physics and the luminosity measurements by using labels on the event sums according to the polarization labels on the colliding bunches. Most likely they will not have independent polarization measurement on each bunch, but only on all the filled bunches in a ring, or perhaps all the bunches that are actually used in an experiment. Most analyses can then be handled by using the nine combinations gotten from three kinds of bunches in each ring, +, - and empty bunches. The empty bunches are needed to measure beam-gas background, (and some, like six in a row, are needed for the beam abort). Much of the difficulty comes from the fact that they must use a physics process to represent the luminosity. This process must have kinematic and geometric cuts both to reduce systematics such as beam-gas backgrounds, and to make it representative of the part of the interaction diamond from which the physics events come

  14. Towards Future Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN presently provides proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass (c.m.) energy of 13 TeV. The LHC design was started more than 30 years ago, and its physics programme will extend through the second half of the 2030’s. The global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is now preparing for a post-LHC project. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new ∼100 km tunnel. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee) as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on $Nb_3Sn$ superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton c...

  15. Muon colliders, frictional cooling and universal extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwald, Daniel E.

    2011-07-20

    A muon collider combines the advantages of proton-proton and electron-positron colliders, sidestepping many of their disadvantages, and has the potential to make discoveries and precision measurements at high energies. However, muons bring their own technical challenges, largely relating to their instability. We present a summary of the motivations and R and D efforts for a muon collider. We detail a scheme for preparing high-luminosity muon beams on timescales shorter than the muon lifetime, and an experiment to demonstrate aspects of this scheme at the Max Planck Institute for Physics. We also investigate the potentials to discover physics beyond the standard model at a muon collider. (orig.)

  16. Muon colliders, frictional cooling and universal extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    A muon collider combines the advantages of proton-proton and electron-positron colliders, sidestepping many of their disadvantages, and has the potential to make discoveries and precision measurements at high energies. However, muons bring their own technical challenges, largely relating to their instability. We present a summary of the motivations and R and D efforts for a muon collider. We detail a scheme for preparing high-luminosity muon beams on timescales shorter than the muon lifetime, and an experiment to demonstrate aspects of this scheme at the Max Planck Institute for Physics. We also investigate the potentials to discover physics beyond the standard model at a muon collider. (orig.)

  17. Luminosity monitor at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.D.; Franklin, M.E.B.

    1981-02-01

    The luminosity monitor system utilized by the MKII Detector and by the PEP operators is described. This system processes information from 56 photomultipliers and calculates independent luminosities for each of the 3 colliding bunches in PEP. Design considerations, measurement techniques, and sources of error in the luminosity measurement are discussed

  18. Design considerations and expectations of a very large hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    The ELOISATRON Project is a proton-proton collider at very high energy and very large luminosity. The main goal is to determine the ultimate performance that is possible to achieve with reasonable extrapolation of the present accelerator technology. A complete study and design of the collider requires that several steps of investigations are undertaken. The authors count five of such steps as outlined in the report

  19. Luminosity-independent measurement of the proton-proton total cross section at √ s = 8 TeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antchev, G.; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Kašpar, Jan; Kopal, Josef; Kundrát, Vojtěch; Procházka, Jiří; Lokajíček, Miloš V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 1 (2013), "012001-1"-"012001-6" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : proton-proton elastic and total cross-sections * LHC Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 7.728, year: 2013

  20. Towards future circular colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedikt, Michael; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-09-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) presently provides proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass (c.m.) energy of 13 TeV. The LHC design was started more than 30 years ago, and its physics program will extend through the second half of the 2030's. The global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is now preparing for a post-LHC project. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new ˜100 km tunnel. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCCee) as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb3 S n superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly-efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. Following the FCC concept, the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) in Beijing has initiated a parallel design study for an e + e - Higgs factory in China (CEPC), which is to be succeeded by a high-energy hadron collider (SPPC). At present a tunnel circumference of 54 km and a hadron collider c.m. energy of about 70 TeV are being considered. After a brief look at the LHC, this article reports the motivation and the present status of the FCC study, some of the primary design challenges and R&D subjects, as well as the emerging global collaboration.

  1. Application of International Linear Collider superconducting cavities for acceleration of protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Ostroumov

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Beam acceleration in the International Linear Collider (ILC will be provided by 9-cell 1300 MHz superconducting (SC cavities. The cavities are designed for effective acceleration of charged particles moving with the speed of light and are operated on π-mode to provide a maximum accelerating gradient. A significant research and development effort has been devoted to develop ILC SC technology and its rf system which resulted in excellent performance of ILC cavities. Therefore, the proposed 8-GeV proton driver in Fermilab is based on ILC cavities above ∼1.2  GeV. The efficiency of proton beam acceleration by ILC cavities drops fast for lower velocities and it was proposed to develop squeezed ILC-type (S-ILC cavities operating at 1300 MHz and designed for β_{G}=0.81, geometrical beta, to accelerate protons or H^{-} from ∼420  MeV to 1.2 GeV. This paper discusses the possibility of avoiding the development of new β_{G}=0.81 cavities by operating ILC cavities on 8/9π-mode of standing wave oscillations.

  2. Neutral Higgs production at proton colliders in the CP-conserving NMSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebler, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    We discuss neutral Higgs boson production through gluon fusion and bottom-quark annihilation in the CP-conserving Z 3 -invariant Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) at proton colliders. For gluon fusion we adapt known asymptotic expansions in supersymmetric particles for the inclusion of next-to-leading order contributions of squarks and gluinos from the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and include electro-weak corrections involving light quarks. Together with the resummation of higher order sbottom contributions in the bottom-quark Yukawa coupling for both production processes we thus present accurate cross section predictions implemented in a new release of the code SusHi. We elaborate on the new features of an additional SU(2) L singlet in the production of CP-even and -odd Higgs bosons with respect to the MSSM and include a short discussion of theory uncertainties.

  3. Further properties of high-mass multijet events at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, F.; Akimoto, H.; Akopian, A.; Albrow, M.G.; Amendolia, S.R.; Amidei, D.; Antos, J.; Anway-Wiese, C.; Aota, S.; Apollinari, G.; Asakawa, T.; Ashmanskas, W.; Atac, M.; Azfar, F.; Azzi-Bacchetta, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Badgett, W.; Bagdasarov, S.; Bailey, M.W.; Bao, J.; de Barbaro, P.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V.E.; Barnett, B.A.; Barzi, E.; Bauer, G.; Baumann, T.; Bedeschi, F.; Behrends, S.; Belforte, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Benlloch, J.; Bensinger, J.; Benton, D.; Beretvas, A.; Berge, J.P.; Berryhill, J.; Bertolucci, S.; Bhatti, A.; Biery, K.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Blair, R.E.; Blocker, C.; Bodek, A.; Bokhari, W.; Bolognesi, V.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Breccia, L.; Bromberg, C.; Bruner, N.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Budd, H.S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Byon-Wagner, A.; Byrum, K.L.; Cammerata, J.; Campagnari, C.; Campbell, M.; Caner, A.; Carithers, W.; Carlsmith, D.; Castro, A.; Cauz, D.; Cen, Y.; Cervelli, F.; Chang, P.S.; Chang, P.T.; Chao, H.Y.; Chapman, J.; Cheng, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chikamatsu, T.; Chiou, C.N.; Christofek, L.; Cihangir, S.; Clark, A.G.; Cobal, M.; Contreras, M.; Conway, J.; Cooper, J.; Cordelli, M.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Crane, D.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Culbertson, R.; Cunningham, J.D.; Daniels, T.; DeJongh, F.; Delchamps, S.; DellAgnello, S.; DellOrso, M.; Demina, R.; Demortier, L.; Denby, B.; Deninno, M.; Derwent, P.F.; Devlin, T.; Dittmann, J.R.; Donati, S.; Done, J.; Dorigo, T.; Dunn, A.; Eddy, N.; Einsweiler, K.; Elias, J.E.; Ely, R.; Engels, E. Jr.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Fan, Q.; Fiori, I.; Flaugher, B.; Foster, G.W.; Franklin, M.; Frautschi, M.; Freeman, J.; Friedman, J.; Frisch, H.; Fuess, T.A.; Fukui, Y.; Funaki, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Galeotti, S.; Gallinaro, M.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Gay, C.; Geer, S.; Gerdes, D.W.; Giannetti, P.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Gladney, L.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Gordon, A.; Goshaw, A.T.; Goulianos, K.; Grassmann, H.; Groer, L.

    1996-01-01

    The properties of high-mass multijet events produced at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider are compared with leading order QCD matrix element predictions, QCD parton shower Monte Carlo predictions, and the predictions from a model in which events are distributed uniformly over the available multibody phase space. Multijet distributions corresponding to (4N-4) variables that span the N-body parameter space are found to be well described by the QCD calculations for inclusive three-jet, four-jet, and five-jet events. The agreement between data, QCD matrix element calculations, and QCD parton shower Monte Carlo predictions suggests that 2→2 scattering plus gluon radiation provides a good first approximation to the full LO QCD matrix element for events with three, four, or even five jets in the final state. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. Conceptual Design of the Cryogenic System for the High-luminosity Upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinski, K.; Claudet, S.; Ferlin, G.; Tavian, L.; Wagner, U.; Van Weelderen, R.

    The discovery of a Higgs boson at CERN in 2012 is the start of a major program of work to measure this particle's properties with the highest possible precision for testing the validity of the Standard Model and to search for further new physics at the energy frontier. The LHC is in a unique position to pursue this program. Europe's top priority is the exploitation of the full potential of the LHC, including the high-luminosity upgrade of the machine and detectors with an objective to collect ten times more data than in the initial design, by around 2030. To reach this objective, the LHC cryogenic system must be upgraded to withstand higher beam current and higher luminosity at top energy while keeping the same operation availability by improving the collimation system and the protection of electronics sensitive to radiation. This paper will present the conceptual design of the cryogenic system upgrade with recent updates in performance requirements, the corresponding layout and architecture of the system as well as the main technical challenges which have to be met in the coming years.

  5. Polarized Proton Collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mei; Alekseev, Igor G; Alessi, James; Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bravar, Alessandro; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruno, Donald; Bunce, Gerry; Butler, John J; Cameron, Peter; Connolly, Roger; De Long, Joseph; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Ganetis, George; Gardner, Chris J; Glenn, Joseph; Hayes, Thomas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Ingrassia, Peter; Iriso, Ubaldo; Laster, Jonathan S; Lee, Roger C; Luccio, Alfredo U; Luo, Yun; MacKay, William W; Makdisi, Yousef; Marr, Gregory J; Marusic, Al; McIntyre, Gary; Michnoff, Robert; Montag, Christoph; Morris, John; Nicoletti, Tony; Oddo, Peter; Oerter, Brian; Osamu, Jinnouchi; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Satogata, Todd; Smith, Kevin T; Svirida, Dima; Tepikian, Steven; Tomas, Rogelio; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Vetter, Kurt; Wilinski, Michelle; Zaltsman, Alex; Zelenski, Anatoli; Zeno, Keith; Zhang, S Y

    2005-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider~(RHIC) provides not only collisions of ions but also collisions of polarized protons. In a circular accelerator, the polarization of polarized proton beam can be partially or fully lost when a spin depolarizing resonance is encountered. To preserve the beam polarization during acceleration, two full Siberian snakes were employed in RHIC to avoid depolarizing resonances. In 2003, polarized proton beams were accelerated to 100~GeV and collided in RHIC. Beams were brought into collisions with longitudinal polarization at the experiments STAR and PHENIX by using spin rotators. RHIC polarized proton run experience demonstrates that optimizing polarization transmission efficiency and improving luminosity performance are significant challenges. Currently, the luminosity lifetime in RHIC is limited by the beam-beam effect. The current state of RHIC polarized proton program, including its dedicated physics run in 2005 and efforts to optimize luminosity production in beam-beam limite...

  6. Muon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, David

    1995-01-01

    The increasing interest in the possibility of positive-negative muon colliders was reflected in the second workshop on the Physics Potential and Development of Muon Colliders, held in Sausalito, California, from 16-19 November, with some 60 attendees. It began with an overview of the particle physics goals, detector constraints, the muon collider and mu cooling, and source issues. The major issue confronting muon development is the possible luminosity achievable. Two collider energies were considered: 200 + 200 GeV and 2 + 2 TeV. The major particle physics goals are the detection of the higgs boson(s) for the lower energy collider, together with WW scattering and supersymmetric particle discovery. At the first such workshop, held in Napa, California, in 1992, it was estimated that a luminosity of some 10 30 and 3 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 for the low and high energy collider might be achieved (papers from this meeting were published in the October issue of NIM). This was considered a somewhat conservative estimate at the time. At the Sausalito workshop the goal was to see if a luminosity of 10 32 to 10 34 for the two colliders might be achievable and usable by a detector. There were five working groups - physics, 200 + 200 GeV collider, 2 + 2 TeV collider, detector design and backgrounds, and muon cooling and production methods. Considerable progress was made in all these areas at the workshop.

  7. Low-p proton–proton physics at low luminosity at LHC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for all areas where ALICE is unique or at least competitive with respect to other ... out with proton–proton collisions, which will have the advantage of events ..... ALICE will be able to achieve high precision measurements of minimum bias event.

  8. Physics as a function of energy and luminosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, a new physics in the range of mass up to TeV region is discussed. Most of the discussion concern hadron-hadron (hh) colliders, and also electron-positron colliders are discussed. The cross-sections for new particle production in hh colliders have the general Drell-Yan form, in which the differential luminosity for the collision of partons is included. The formulas with the parton distribution scaled up from present energy using the Altarelli-Parisi equations may be approximately correct within a factor of 2 for the production of particles. Some typical parton-parton luminosity functions for proton-proton and proton-antiproton collisions are presented. From the consideration of luminosity, it can be said that the pp colliders are to be preferred. The case studies of some of the possible new physics discussed by Zakharov, mainly on Higgs bosons and supersymmetric particles, but also a few remarks about technicolor are presented. It seems possible to detect technicolor at a large hh collider. The physics reaches of different possible hh colliders are summarized in tables. In the tables, the observable production of Higgses up to 1 TeV in mass, the observable masses for gluinos (squarks) and the technicolor observability are shown. The cleanliness of electron-positron colliders compared to hadron-hadron colliders is pled, a guess is given as to the appropriate conversion factors between the energy in the electron-positron and hh collisions, the complementarity of electron-positron and hh colliders is urged, and it is argued that a rational mix of world accelerators would include both. (Kato, T.)

  9. The Large Hadron Collider in the LEP tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brianti, G.; Huebner, K.

    1987-01-01

    The status of the studies for the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is described. This collider will provide proton-proton collisions with 16 TeV centre-of-mass energy and a luminosity exceeding 10 33 cm -2 s -1 per interaction point. It can be installed in the tunnel of the Large Electron-Positron Storage Ring (LEP) above the LEP elements. It will use superconducting magnets of a novel, compact design, having two horizontally separated channels for the two counter-rotating bunched proton beams, which can collide in a maximum of seven interaction points. Collisions between protons of the LHC and electrons of LEP are also possible with a centre-of-mass energy of up to 1.8 TeV and a luminosity of up to 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 . (orig.)

  10. ATLAS Future Plans: Upgrade and the Physics with High Luminosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopalan S.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The ATLAS experiment is planning a series of detector upgrades to cope with the planned increases in instantaneous luminosity and multiple interactions per crossing to maintain its physics capabilities. During the coming decade, the Large Hadron Collider will collide protons on protons at a center of mass energy up to 14 TeV with luminosities steadily increasing in a phased approach to over 5 × 1034 cm−2s−1. The resulting large data sets will significantly enhance the physics reach of the ATLAS detector building on the recent discovery of the Higgs-like boson. The planned detector upgrades being designed to cope with the increasing luminosity and its impact on the ATLAS physics program will be discussed.

  11. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.

    1989-01-01

    The conceptual design of a collider capable of accelerating and colliding heavy ions and to be constructed in the existing 3.8 km tunnel at Brookhaven has been developed. The collider has been designed to provide collisions of gold ions at six intersection points with a luminosity of about 2 x 10 26 cm -2 sec -1 at an energy per nucleon of 100 GeV in each beam. Collisions with different ion species, including protons, will be possible. The salient design features and the reasons for major design choices of the proposed machine are discussed in this paper. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Luminosity measurement at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karacheban, Olena

    2017-10-15

    Luminosity is a key quantity of any collider, since it allows for the determination of the absolute cross sections from the observed rates in a detector. Since the Higgs boson discovery in 2012, the highest priority at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been given to an accurate understanding of the electroweak scale and a search for new physics. Precise luminosity measurements in such conditions are of crucial importance, as they determine the precision of any physics cross section measurement. To increase the production of particles of interest, usually of low cross section, the LHC is running at the highest possible luminosity. After the first Long Shutdown (LS1) the original performance goal for the luminosity of 1 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} was reached with 10{sup 11} protons per bunch and a bunch spacing of 25 ns. In such conditions radiation hard detectors with extremely fast response time are required, especially for instrumentation near the beam. The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment is equipped with three online luminometers, which fulfill the listed requirements: the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F), the Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) and the Forward Hadron calorimeter (HF). The BCM1F was upgraded during LS1 from 8 to 24 diamond sensors and is read out by a dedicated fast ASIC. The back-end comprises a deadtime-less histogramming unit, with 6.25 ns bin width and analog-to-digital converters with 2 ns sampling time in the VME standard. A microTCA system with better time resolution is in development. Particles originating from collisions and machine induced background arrive with 12 ns time difference. Because of its excellent time resolution BCM1F measures separately both luminosity and machine induced background particles. The performance of the detector in the first running period and radiation damage monitoring of the sensors and electronics chain form the first part of this thesis. Calibration of the luminometers at the LHC is done using

  13. Luminosity measurement at CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karacheban, Olena

    2017-10-01

    Luminosity is a key quantity of any collider, since it allows for the determination of the absolute cross sections from the observed rates in a detector. Since the Higgs boson discovery in 2012, the highest priority at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been given to an accurate understanding of the electroweak scale and a search for new physics. Precise luminosity measurements in such conditions are of crucial importance, as they determine the precision of any physics cross section measurement. To increase the production of particles of interest, usually of low cross section, the LHC is running at the highest possible luminosity. After the first Long Shutdown (LS1) the original performance goal for the luminosity of 1 x 10 34 cm -2 s -1 was reached with 10 11 protons per bunch and a bunch spacing of 25 ns. In such conditions radiation hard detectors with extremely fast response time are required, especially for instrumentation near the beam. The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment is equipped with three online luminometers, which fulfill the listed requirements: the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F), the Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) and the Forward Hadron calorimeter (HF). The BCM1F was upgraded during LS1 from 8 to 24 diamond sensors and is read out by a dedicated fast ASIC. The back-end comprises a deadtime-less histogramming unit, with 6.25 ns bin width and analog-to-digital converters with 2 ns sampling time in the VME standard. A microTCA system with better time resolution is in development. Particles originating from collisions and machine induced background arrive with 12 ns time difference. Because of its excellent time resolution BCM1F measures separately both luminosity and machine induced background particles. The performance of the detector in the first running period and radiation damage monitoring of the sensors and electronics chain form the first part of this thesis. Calibration of the luminometers at the LHC is done using van der Meer (Vd

  14. Potential performance for Pb-Pb, p-Pb, and p-p collisions in a future circular collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Schaumann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The hadron collider studied in the future circular collider (FCC project could operate with protons and lead ions in similar operation modes as the LHC. In this paper the potential performances in lead-lead, proton-lead, and proton-proton collisions are investigated. Based on average lattice parameters, the strengths of intrabeam scattering and radiation damping are evaluated and their effect on the beam and luminosity evolution is presented. Estimates for the integrated luminosity per fill and per run are given, depending on the turnaround time. Moreover, the beam-beam tune shift and bound free pair production losses in heavy-ion operation are addressed.

  15. submitter Influence of 3D Effects on Field Quality in the Straight Part of Accelerator Magnets for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Emelie; Todesco, Ezio; Enomoto, Shun; Farinon, Stefania; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Sugano, Michinaka; Savary, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    A dedicated D1 beam separation dipole is currently being developed at KEK for the Large Hadron Collider Luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). Four 150 mm aperture, 5.6 T magnetic field and 6.7 m long Nb-Ti magnets will replace resistive D1 dipoles. The development includes fabrication and testing of 2.2 m model magnets. The dipole has a single layer coil and thin spacers between coil and iron, giving a non-negligible impact of saturation on field quality at nominal field. The magnetic design of the straight section coil cross section is based on 2D optimization and a separate optimization concerns the coil ends. However, magnetic measurements of the short model showed a large difference (tens of units) between the sextupole harmonic in the straight part and the 2D calculation. This difference is correctly modelled only by a 3D analysis: 3D calculations show that the magnetic field quality in the straight part is influenced by the coil ends, even for the 6.7 m long magnets. The effect is even more remarkable in the sho...

  16. submitter Influence of 3D Effects on Field Quality in the Straight Part of Accelerator Magnets for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Emelie; Todesco, Ezio; Enomoto, Shun; Farinon, Stefania; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Sugano, Michinaka; Savary, Frederic

    2018-01-01

    A dedicated D1 beam separation dipole is currently being developed at KEK for the Large Hadron Collider Luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). Four 150 mm aperture, 5.6 T magnetic field and 6.7 m long Nb-Ti magnets will replace resistive D1 dipoles. The development includes fabrication and testing of 2.2 m model magnets. The dipole has a single layer coil and thin spacers between coil and iron, giving a non-negligible impact of saturation on field quality at nominal field. The magnetic design of the straight section coil cross section is based on 2D optimization and a separate optimization concerns the coil ends. However, magnetic measurements of the short model showed a large difference (tens of units) between the sextupole harmonic in the straight part and the 2D calculation. This difference is correctly modelled only by a 3D analysis: 3D calculations show that the magnetic field quality in the straight part is influenced by the coil ends, even for the 6.7 m long magnets. The effect is even more remarkable in the sho...

  17. The Very Large Hadron Collider: The farthest energy frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, William A.

    2001-01-01

    The Very Large Hadron Collider (or Eloisatron) represents what may well be the final step on the energy frontier of accelerator-based high energy physics. While an extremely high luminosity proton collider at 100-200 TeV center of mass energy can probably be built in one step with LHC technology, that machine would cost more than what is presently politically acceptable. This talk summarizes the strategies of collider design including staged deployment, comparison with electron-positron colliders, opportunities for major innovation, and the technical challenges of reducing costs to manageable proportions. It also presents the priorities for relevant R and D for the next few years

  18. Search for Microscopic Black Holes in Multi-Jet Final-States using Multiple Single-Jet Triggers with ATLAS Detector with 8 TeV Proton-Proton Collisions at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00286292

    Higher dimensional microscopic black holes may be produced in particle accelerators at high energies which will emit a high multiplicity of Standard Model (SM) particles via thermal decay. This thesis documents a search for higher dimensional microscopic black holes in multi-jet final-states using six single-jet triggers with the ATLAS detector with 8 TeV proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. The ATLAS 2012 data corresponds to a total integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb-1. The background topology in this search consists of all multi-jet final-states from all SM processes. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) processes contribute maximally to the SM multi-jet final-states and dominate this background topology. The invariant mass (M) and scalar sum of transverse momenta of all jets (HT) in events are used as analysis variables. The M and HT distributions for ATLAS data are consistent with QCD predictions of two well known hadronization models (PYTHIA8 and HERWIG++) for each single-jet trigger. Counting ex...

  19. Measurement of Hadronic Event Shapes and Jet Substructure in Proton-Proton Collisions at 7.0 TeV Center-of-Mass Energy with the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David Wilkins

    2012-03-20

    This thesis presents the first measurement of 6 hadronic event shapes in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Results are presented at the particle-level, permitting comparisons to multiple Monte Carlo event generator tools. Numerous tools and techniques that enable detailed analysis of the hadronic final state at high luminosity are described. The approaches presented utilize the dual strengths of the ATLAS calorimeter and tracking systems to provide high resolution and robust measurements of the hadronic jets that constitute both a background and a signal throughout ATLAS physics analyses. The study of the hadronic final state is then extended to jet substructure, where the energy flow and topology within individual jets is studied at the detector level and techniques for estimating systematic uncertainties for such measurements are commissioned in the first data. These first substructure measurements in ATLAS include the jet mass and sub-jet multiplicity as well as those concerned with multi-body hadronic decays and color flow within jets. Finally, the first boosted hadronic object observed at the LHC - the decay of the top quark to a single jet - is presented.

  20. Search for High-Mass Diphoton Resonances in Proton-Proton Collisions at 13 TeV and Radiation Studies for Calorimetry at the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00379436; Wallny, Rainer ETH Zürich

    2017-06-02

    In this dissertation, two different topics are addressed which are part of the main areas of research of modern high-energy physics experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC): a search for new physics and the development of new detectors. The first part of this dissertation presents the search for high mass diphoton resonances in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV with the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. Particular attention is paid to the assessment of the background. The results are interpreted in terms of spin-0 and spin-2 resonances with masses between 0.5 and 4.5 TeV and widths, relative to the mass, between 1.4x10^(-4) and 5.6x10^(-2). Limits are set on scalar resonances produced through gluon-gluon fusion, and on Randall–Sundrum gravitons. Two results are presented, both following the same search strategy, but one employing a dataset of 3.3 1/fb, the other 16.2 1/fb. Both are statistically combined with results obtained by the CMS collaboration at 8 TeV with 19....

  1. Performance Limitations in High-Energy Ion Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Wolfram

    2005-01-01

    High-energy ion colliders (hadron colliders operating with species other than protons) are premier research tools for nuclear physics. The collision energy and high luminosity are important design and operations considerations. However, the experiments also expect flexibility with frequent changes in the collision energy, lattice configuration, and ion species, including asymmetric collisions. For the creation, acceleration, and storage of bright intense ion beams, attention must be paid to space charge, charge exchange, and intra-beam scattering effects. The latter leads to luminosity lifetimes of only a few hours for heavy ions. Ultimately cooling at full energy is needed to overcome this effect. Currently, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL is the only operating high-energy ion collider. The Large Hadron Collider, under construction at CERN, will also run with heavy ions.

  2. Simulation study of electron cloud induced instabilities and emittance growth for the CERN Large Hadron Collider proton beam

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, Elena; Schulte, Daniel; Rumolo, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    The electron cloud may cause transverse single-bunch instabilities of proton beams such as those in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). We simulate these instabilities and the consequent emittance growth with the code HEADTAIL, which models the turn-by-turn interaction between the cloud and the beam. Recently some new features were added to the code, in particular, electric conducting boundary conditions at the chamber wall, transverse feedback, and variable beta functions. The sensitivity to several numerical parameters has been studied by varying the number of interaction points between the bunch and the cloud, the phase advance between them, and the number of macroparticles used to represent the protons and the electrons. We present simulation results for both LHC at injection and SPS with LHC-type beam, for different electron-cloud density levels, chromaticities, and bunch intensities. Two regimes with qualitatively different emittance growth are observed: above th...

  3. Study of beauty photoproduction with the ZEUS experiment at the electron-proton collider HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaguees Molina, Ana Gloria

    2008-02-22

    This thesis presents a measurement of beauty photoproduction in ep interactions at the HERA collider working at a center of mass energy of {radical}(s)=318 GeV. Two goals are followed in this thesis: first the development of a reliable algorithm (secondary vertex b-tagging) to identify jets originating from b quarks by exploiting exclusively the full micro-vertex-detector potential and the properties of the b quark, and second the determination of its performance by obtaining first measurements of inclusive beauty dijet photoproduction. The main result presented here is based on a data set collected in 2004 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35 pb{sup -1}. Events containing at least two jets, each having an identified secondary vertex, are selected. The fraction of events containing b-quarks is extracted using the characteristic distributions of reconstructed decay length and invariant mass of the secondary vertex. The jets are required to be within the pseudorapidity region vertical stroke {eta} vertical stroke <1.5 with transverse momenta p{sub T}>7(6) GeV/c respectively. No requirements are imposed on the b decay final state so that the measurement is kept inclusive. Total and differential cross sections as a function of transverse momentum d{sigma}/dp{sub T} and pseudorapidity d{sigma}/d{eta} of the b-jet are measured. Furthermore, the results on d{sigma}/dp{sub T} were extrapolated to obtain a measurement at the b-quark level. Motivated by the results of this exploratory analysis of beauty quark production using secondary vertex b-tagging and profiting from improvements of the ZEUS tracking software since this first analysis, a more precise measurement became possible. The new analysis, still ongoing, is based on the data set collected in 2005 by the ZEUS detector and profits of higher statistics (L=132.6 pb{sup -1}) as well as of an improved detector alignment and calibration and a better understanding of the tracking/vertexing procedures which

  4. Study of beauty photoproduction with the ZEUS experiment at the electron-proton collider HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaguees Molina, Ana Gloria

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of beauty photoproduction in ep interactions at the HERA collider working at a center of mass energy of √(s)=318 GeV. Two goals are followed in this thesis: first the development of a reliable algorithm (secondary vertex b-tagging) to identify jets originating from b quarks by exploiting exclusively the full micro-vertex-detector potential and the properties of the b quark, and second the determination of its performance by obtaining first measurements of inclusive beauty dijet photoproduction. The main result presented here is based on a data set collected in 2004 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35 pb -1 . Events containing at least two jets, each having an identified secondary vertex, are selected. The fraction of events containing b-quarks is extracted using the characteristic distributions of reconstructed decay length and invariant mass of the secondary vertex. The jets are required to be within the pseudorapidity region vertical stroke η vertical stroke T >7(6) GeV/c respectively. No requirements are imposed on the b decay final state so that the measurement is kept inclusive. Total and differential cross sections as a function of transverse momentum dσ/dp T and pseudorapidity dσ/dη of the b-jet are measured. Furthermore, the results on dσ/dp T were extrapolated to obtain a measurement at the b-quark level. Motivated by the results of this exploratory analysis of beauty quark production using secondary vertex b-tagging and profiting from improvements of the ZEUS tracking software since this first analysis, a more precise measurement became possible. The new analysis, still ongoing, is based on the data set collected in 2005 by the ZEUS detector and profits of higher statistics (L=132.6 pb -1 ) as well as of an improved detector alignment and calibration and a better understanding of the tracking/vertexing procedures which contribute significantly to the reduction of the uncertainties of the measurements

  5. New aspects of the structure of the proton revealed by the collider Hera; Nouveaux aspects de la structure du proton avec le collisionneur HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z

    2000-12-01

    Since its commissioning in 1991, the ep collider HERA has been running successfully for almost a decade without stopping improving its performance. In this report, the inclusive cross section and structure function measurements for the deep inelastic scattering of neutral and charged current processes in the full HERA kinematic domain are reviewed. The results are compared with the Standard Model expectations for the deep inelastic scattering processes. The new insights into the proton structure and on the underlying strong and electroweak interactions are discussed. (author)

  6. Future colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.

    1996-10-01

    The high energy physics advantages, disadvantages and luminosity requirements of hadron (pp, pp), of lepton (e + e - , μ + μ - ) and photon-photon colliders are considered. Technical arguments for increased energy in each type of machine are presented. Their relative size, and the implications of size on cost are discussed

  7. Rare top quark decays at a 100 TeV proton-proton collider: t → bWZ and t→ hc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaefstathiou, Andreas; Tetlalmatzi-Xolocotzi, Gilberto

    2018-03-01

    We investigate extremely rare top quark decays at a future proton-proton collider with centre-of-mass energy of 100 TeV. We focus on two decay modes: radiative decay with a Z boson, t → b WZ, and flavour-changing neutral decay with a Higgs boson, t → h c, the former being kinematically suppressed with a branching ratio of O(10^{-6}) (Altarelli et al., Phys Lett B 502:125-132, 2001), and the latter highly loop-suppressed, with a branching ratio of O(10^{-15}) (Aguilar-Saavedra, Acta Phys Polon B 35:2695-2710, 2004). We find that t → b WZ will be very challenging to observe in top quark pair production, even within well-motivated beyond-the-standard model scenarios. For the mode t→ h c we find a stronger sensitivity than that obtained by any future LHC measurement by at least one order of magnitude.

  8. LHC Luminosity Performance

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091107; Fuchsberger, Kajetan; Papotti, Giulia

    This thesis adresses several approaches with the common goal of assessing, understanding and improving the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). To better exploit existing margins for maximum luminosity while fulfilling the requirements of the LHC experiments, new techniques for luminosity levelling are studied and developed to an operational state, such as changing the crossing angle or $\\beta^*$ (beam size) at the interaction points with the beams in collisions. In 2017 LHC operation, the crossing angle reduction in collisions improved the integrated luminosity by $\\mathrm{\\sim} 2\\,\\mathrm{fb^{-1}}$ ($\\mathrm{\\sim} 4\\,\\mathrm{\\%}$ of the yearly production). For additional diagnostics, a new method for measuring beam sizes and orbits for each circulating bunch using the luminosity measurement during beam separation scans is shown. The results of these Emittance Scans improved the understanding of the LHC luminosity reach and of the orbit offsets introduced by beam-beam long-range effects.

  9. On the Significance of the Upcoming Large Hadron Collider Proton-Proton Cross Section Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comay E.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the Regular Charge-Monopole Theory to the proton structure is de- scribed. The discussion relies on classical electrodynamics and its associated quantum mechanics. Few experimental data are used as a clue to the specific structure of baryons. This basis provides an explanation for the shape of the graph of the pre-LHC proton- proton cross section data. These data also enable a description of the significance of the expected LHC cross section measurements which will be known soon. Problematic QCD issues are pointed out.

  10. Status of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Lyndon R.

    2004-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), due to be commissioned in 2007, will provide particle physics with the first laboratory tool to access the energy frontier above 1 TeV. In order to achieve this, protons must be accelerated and stored at 7 TeV, colliding with an unprecedented luminosity of 10 34 cm -2 s -1 The 8.3 Tesla guide field is obtained using conventional NbTi technology cooled to below the lambda point of helium. The machine is now well into its installation phase, with first beam injection foreseen for spring 2007. A brief status report is given and future prospects are discussed. (orig.)

  11. CLIC Luminosity Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Apyan, Armen; Gschwendtner, Edda; Lefevre, Thibault; Tygier, Sam; Appleby, Robert B

    2012-01-01

    The CLIC post-collision line is designed to transport the un-collided beams and the products of the collided beams with a total power of 14 MW to the main beam dump. Luminosity monitoring for CLIC is based on high energy muons produced by beamstrahlung photons in the main dump. Threshold Cherenkov counters are proposed for the detection of these muons. The expected rates and layout for these detectors is presented. Another method for luminosity monitoring is to directly detect the beamstrahlung photons in the post-collision line. Full Monte Carlo simulation has been performed to address its feasibility.

  12. Effects of Resonant and Random Excitations on the Proton Beam in the Large Hadron Collider, with Applications to the Design of Pulsed Hollow Electron Lenses for Active Halo Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitterer, Miriam; Stancari, Giulio; Valishev, Alexander; Redaelli, Stefano; Valuch, Daniel

    2018-04-19

    We present the results of numerical simulations and experimental studies about the effects of resonant and random excitations on proton losses, emittances, and beam distributions in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In addition to shedding light on complex nonlinear effects, these studies are applied to the design of hollow electron lenses (HEL) for active beam halo control. In the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), a considerable amount of energy will be stored in the beam tails. To control and clean the beam halo, the installation of two hollow electron lenses, one per beam, is being considered. In standard electron-lens operation, a proton bunch sees the same electron current at every revolution. Pulsed electron beam operation (i.e., different currents for different turns) is also considered, because it can widen the range of achievable halo removal rates. For an axially symmetric electron beam, only protons in the halo are excited. If a residual field is present at the location of the beam core, these particles are exposed to time-dependent transverse kicks and to noise. We discuss the numerical simulations and the experiments conducted in 2016 and 2017 at injection energy in the LHC. The excitation patterns were generated by the transverse feedback and damping system, which acted as a flexible source of dipole kicks. Proton beam losses, emittances, and transverse distributions were recorded as a function of excitation patterns and strengths. The resonant excitations induced rich dynamical effects and nontrivial changes of the beam distributions, which, to our knowledge, have not previously been observed and studied in this detail. We conclude with a discussion of the tolerable and achievable residual fields and proposals for further studies.

  13. Inside CERN's Large Hadron Collider from the proton to the Higgs boson

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2051256

    2016-01-01

    The book aims to explain the historical development of particle physics, with special emphasis on CERN and collider physics. It describes in detail the LHC accelerator and its detectors, describing the science involved as well as the sociology of big collaborations, culminating with the discovery of the Higgs boson. Readers are led step-by-step to understanding why we do particle physics, as well as the tools and problems involved in the field. It provides an insider's view on the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider.

  14. All possible lightest supersymmetric particles in proton hexality violating minimal supergravity models and their signals at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grab, Sebastian

    2009-08-01

    The most widely studied supersymmetric scenario is the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) with more than a hundred free parameters. However for detailed phenomenological studies, the minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) model, a restricted and well-motivated framework for the MSSM, is more convenient. In this model, lepton- and baryon-number violating interactions are suppressed by a discrete symmetry, R-parity or proton-hexality, to keep the proton stable. However, it is sufficient to forbid only lepton- or baryon-number violation. We thus extend mSUGRA models by adding a proton-hexality violating operator at the grand unification scale. This can change the supersymmetric spectrum leading on the one hand to a sneutrino, smuon or squark as the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP). On the other hand, a wide parameter region is reopened, where the scalar tau (stau) is the LSP. We investigate in detail the conditions leading to non-neutralino LSP scenarios. We take into account the restrictions from neutrino masses, the muon anomalous magnetic moment, b→sγ, and other precision measurements. We furthermore investigate existing restrictions from direct searches at LEP, the Tevatron, and the CERN p anti p collider. It is vital to know the nature of the LSP, since supersymmetric particles normally cascade decay down to the LSP at collider experiments. We present typical LHC signatures for sneutrino LSP scenarios. Promising signatures are high-p T muons and jets, like-sign muon events and detached vertices from long lived taus. We also classify the stau LSP decays and describe their dependence on the mSUGRA parameters. We then exploit our results for resonant single slepton production at the LHC. We find novel signatures with like-sign muon and three- and four-muon final states. Finally, we perform a detailed analysis for single slepton production in association with a single top quark. We show that the signal can be distinguished from the background at the LHC

  15. Comprehending particle production in proton+proton and heavy-ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Raghunath

    2017-01-01

    In the extreme conditions of temperature and energy density, nuclear matter undergoes a transition to a new phase, which is governed by partonic degrees of freedom. This phase is called Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). The transition to QGP phase was conjectured to take place in central nucleus-nucleus collisions. With the advent of unprecedented collision energy at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), at CERN, it has been possible to create energy densities higher than that was predicted by lattice QCD for a deconfinement transition

  16. Soviet Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchetkov, Dmitri

    2017-01-01

    Rapid growth of the high energy physics program in the USSR during 1960s-1970s culminated with a decision to build the Accelerating and Storage Complex (UNK) to carry out fixed target and colliding beam experiments. The UNK was to have three rings. One ring was to be built with conventional magnets to accelerate protons up to the energy of 600 GeV. The other two rings were to be made from superconducting magnets, each ring was supposed to accelerate protons up to the energy of 3 TeV. The accelerating rings were to be placed in an underground tunnel with a circumference of 21 km. As a 3 x 3 TeV collider, the UNK would make proton-proton collisions with a luminosity of 4 x 1034 cm-1s-1. Institute for High Energy Physics in Protvino was a project leading institution and a site of the UNK. Accelerator and detector research and development studies were commenced in the second half of 1970s. State Committee for Utilization of Atomic Energy of the USSR approved the project in 1980, and the construction of the UNK started in 1983. Political turmoil in the Soviet Union during late 1980s and early 1990s resulted in disintegration of the USSR and subsequent collapse of the Russian economy. As a result of drastic reduction of funding for the UNK, in 1993 the project was restructured to be a 600 GeV fixed target accelerator only. While the ring tunnel and proton injection line were completed by 1995, and 70% of all magnets and associated accelerator equipment were fabricated, lack of Russian federal funding for high energy physics halted the project at the end of 1990s.

  17. CORNELL: Bunch trains provide higher luminosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The new colliding beam technique - ''bunch trains'' - at Cornell's electron-positron Storage Ring (CESR) has led to a new world record for colliding beam luminosity - 3.3 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 . In the bid to increase reaction rate for any particular process, this luminosity is pushed as high as possible. Once all other luminosityincreasing cards have been played, the only practical way of making a large gain in luminosity is to increase the frequency of bunch-bunch collisions by increasing the number of bunches stored in the ring. However this is not without its own problems: • If the two beams travel the same orbit, the n bunches in one beam collide with the n bunches of the other at 2n points around the ring, and the resulting cumulative nonlinear beam-beam effect (tune shift) severely limits the luminosity attainable at any interaction point. • The destabilizing wakefield effects of bunches on each other increase as the number of bunches increases and the spacing between them decreases. • The synchrotron radiation emitted by the beams becomes a severe problem as the total beam current is raised: to overcome these effects means supplying radiofrequency power to maintain the beam energy, carrying away heat from the vacuum chamber walls, pumping out desorbed gases, and controlling Xray backgrounds in the experiment. In 1979, CESR was designed to run with a single bunch of electrons and a single bunch of positrons circulating on the same orbit and colliding head-on at two diametrically opposite points in the ring, where the CLEO and CUSB experiments were then located. Ideally one could store multiple bunches and solve the multiple collision point problem by using separate rings for the two beams, as in the CERN ISR proton-proton collider and in the original DORIS two-ring configuration at DESY, Hamburg, making the two beams intersect only at the experiments. A less expensive version of this two-ring scheme was accomplished at CESR in

  18. CORNELL: Bunch trains provide higher luminosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-09-15

    The new colliding beam technique - ''bunch trains'' - at Cornell's electron-positron Storage Ring (CESR) has led to a new world record for colliding beam luminosity - 3.3 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. In the bid to increase reaction rate for any particular process, this luminosity is pushed as high as possible. Once all other luminosityincreasing cards have been played, the only practical way of making a large gain in luminosity is to increase the frequency of bunch-bunch collisions by increasing the number of bunches stored in the ring. However this is not without its own problems: • If the two beams travel the same orbit, the n bunches in one beam collide with the n bunches of the other at 2n points around the ring, and the resulting cumulative nonlinear beam-beam effect (tune shift) severely limits the luminosity attainable at any interaction point. • The destabilizing wakefield effects of bunches on each other increase as the number of bunches increases and the spacing between them decreases. • The synchrotron radiation emitted by the beams becomes a severe problem as the total beam current is raised: to overcome these effects means supplying radiofrequency power to maintain the beam energy, carrying away heat from the vacuum chamber walls, pumping out desorbed gases, and controlling Xray backgrounds in the experiment. In 1979, CESR was designed to run with a single bunch of electrons and a single bunch of positrons circulating on the same orbit and colliding head-on at two diametrically opposite points in the ring, where the CLEO and CUSB experiments were then located. Ideally one could store multiple bunches and solve the multiple collision point problem by using separate rings for the two beams, as in the CERN ISR proton-proton collider and in the original DORIS two-ring configuration at DESY, Hamburg, making the two beams intersect only at the experiments. A less expensive version of this two-ring scheme was accomplished at CESR in 1983, using

  19. Impact of the 7 TeV/c Large Hadron Collider proton beam on a copper target

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Goddard, B; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Kain, V; Lomonosov, I V; Piriz, A R; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Temporal, M

    2005-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will allow for collision between two 7 TeV/c proton beams, each comprising 2808 bunches with 1.1*10/sup 11 / protons per bunch, traveling in opposite direction. The bunch length is 0.5 ns and two neighboring bunches are separated by 25 ns so that the duration of the entire beam is about 89 mu s. The beam power profile in the transverse direction is a Gaussian with a standard deviation of 0.2 mm. The energy stored in each beam is about 350 MJ that is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper. In case of a failure in the machine protection systems, the entire beam could impact directly onto an accelerator equipment. A first estimate of the scale of damage resulting from such a failure has been assessed for a solid copper target hit by the beam by carrying out three- dimensional energy deposition calculations and two-dimensional numerical simulations of the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic response of the target. This work has shown that the penetration depth of the LHC protons will be be...

  20. 2 x 2 TeV mu(superscript +) mu (superscript) collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhov, N.V.; Noble, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    The scenarios for high-luminosity 2 x 2 TeV and 250 x 250 GeV μ + μ - colliders are presented. Having a high physics potential, such a machine has specific physics and technical advantages and disadvantages when compared with an e + e - collider. Parameters for the candidate designs and the basic components - proton source, pion production and decay channel, cooling, acceleration and collider storage ring - are considered. Attention is paid to the areas mostly affecting the collider performance: targetry, energy spread, superconducting magnet survival, detector backgrounds, polarization, environmental issues. 13 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Regge pole plus cut model for proton-antiproton elastic scattering at collider and tevatron energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleem, Fazal; Saleem, Mohammad

    1988-01-01

    The Regge pole plus cut model has been used to explain the data at the collider energies √=546 and 630 GeV and the most recent differential cross-section results at √=1.8 TeV. Predictions of the model at 1.8 and 40 TeV are compared with those of Bourrely et al. (1984). (author). 22 refs., 7 figs

  2. Operational results from the LHC luminosity monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, R.; Ratti, A.; Matis, H.S.; Stezelberger, T.; Turner, W.C.; Yaver, H.; Bravin, E.

    2011-03-28

    The luminosity monitors for the high luminosity regions in the LHC have been operating to monitor and optimize the luminosity since 2009. The device is a gas ionization chamber inside the neutral particle absorber 140 m from the interaction point and monitors showers produced by high energy neutral particles from the collisions. It has the ability to resolve the bunch-by-bunch luminosity as well as to survive the extreme level of radiation in the nominal LHC operation. We present operational results of the device during proton and lead ion operations in 2010 and make comparisons with measurements of experiments. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN can accelerate proton and lead ion beams to 7 TeV and 547 TeV and produce collisions of these particles. Luminosity measures performance of the LHC and is particularly important for experiments in high luminosity interaction points (IPs), ATLAS (IP1) and CMS (IP5). To monitor and optimize the luminosities of these IPs, BRAN (Beam RAte Neutral) detectors [1, 2] have been installed and operating since the beginning of the 2009 operation [3]. A neutral particle absorber (TAN) protects the D2 separation dipole from high energy forward neutral particles produced in the collisions [4]. These neutral particles produce electromagnetic and hadronic showers inside the TAN and their energy flux is proportional to the collision rate and hence to the luminosity. The BRAN detector is an Argon gas ionization chamber installed inside the TANs on both sides of the IP1 and IP5 and monitors the relative changes in the luminosity by detecting the ionization due to these showers. When the number of collisions per bunch crossing (multiplicity) is small, the shower rate inside the TAN is also proportional to the luminosity. Hence, the detector is designed to operate by measuring either the shower rate (counting mode for low and intermediate luminosities) or the average shower flux (pulse height mode for high luminosities). The detector is

  3. The future of the Large Hadron Collider and CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Rolf-Dieter

    2012-02-28

    This paper presents the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its current scientific programme and outlines options for high-energy colliders at the energy frontier for the years to come. The immediate plans include the exploitation of the LHC at its design luminosity and energy, as well as upgrades to the LHC and its injectors. This may be followed by a linear electron-positron collider, based on the technology being developed by the Compact Linear Collider and the International Linear Collider collaborations, or by a high-energy electron-proton machine. This contribution describes the past, present and future directions, all of which have a unique value to add to experimental particle physics, and concludes by outlining key messages for the way forward.

  4. Measurement of very forward neutron energy spectra for 7 TeV proton--proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; Castellini, G.; D'Alessandro, R.; Del Prete, M.; Haguenauer, M.; Itow, Y.; Kasahara, K.; Kawade, K.; Makino, Y.; Masuda, K.; Matsubayashi, E.; Menjo, H.; Mitsuka, G.; Muraki, Y.; Okuno, Y.; Papini, P.; Perrot, A-L.; Ricciarini, S.; Sako, T.; Sakurai, N.; Sugiura, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Tamura, T.; Tiberio, A.; Torii, S.; Tricomi, A.; Turner, W.C.; Zhou, Q.D.

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider forward (LHCf) experiment is designed to use the LHC to verify the hadronic-interaction models used in cosmic-ray physics. Forward baryon production is one of the crucial points to understand the development of cosmic-ray showers. We report the neutron-energy spectra for LHC $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV proton--proton collisions with the pseudo-rapidity $\\eta$ ranging from 8.81 to 8.99, from 8.99 to 9.22, and from 10.76 to infinity. The measured energy spectra obtained from the two independent calorimeters of Arm1 and Arm2 show the same characteristic feature before unfolding the difference in the detector responses. We unfolded the measured spectra by using the multidimensional unfolding method based on Bayesian theory, and the unfolded spectra were compared with current hadronic-interaction models. The QGSJET II-03 model predicts a high neutron production rate at the highest pseudo-rapidity range similar to our results and the DPMJET 3.04 model describes our results well at the lower pseudo-...

  5. Collider workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The promise of initial results after the start of operations at CERN's SPS proton-antiproton collider and the prospects for high energy hadron collisions at Fermilab (Tevatron) and Brookhaven (ISABELLE) provided a timely impetus for the recent Topical Workshop on Forward Collider Physics', held at Madison, Wisconsin, from 10-12 December. It became the second such workshop to be held, the first having been in 1979 at the College de France, Paris. The 100 or so participants had the chance to hear preliminary results from the UA1, UA4 and UA5 experiments at the CERN SPS collider, together with other new data, including that from proton-antiproton runs at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings

  6. Search for the top quark at the UA2 detector at the CERN proton-antiproton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moniez, M.

    1988-06-01

    The results of a search for the top quark, done in the UA2 experiment at CERN is presented in this thesis. The data from proton-antiproton collisions, at 546 and 630 GeV energy in the centre-of-mass system, representing a total integrated luminosity of 894 nb -1 accumulated by the UA2 detector, has been used. A signal coming from the semi-leptonic decay of the top quark (t decays to b + electron + neutrino) has been searched for in the event sample containing an identified electron associated with 0.1 or 2 jets. A detailed study of the experimental background coming from misidentified electrons has been made; furthermore, the standard sources of real electrons have been estimated using a simulation program. Taking into account these background evaluations, and using a top production Monte-Carlo, a statistical analysis of the events containing one electron and 2 jets allows us to discuss a lower limit on the top quark mass. An upper limit on top production through the process proton-antiproton goes to top-antitop is derived, as a function of the top mass, from our data. Extrapolating the background and production evaluations to UA2'indicates that this experiment should be sensitive to top masses below 70 GeV/c 2 [fr

  7. Upgrade of ATLAS and CMS for High Luminosity LHC: Detector performance and Physics potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, M.

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) is expected to start providing proton-proton collisions by 2026. In the following 10 years it will deliver about 3000 fb −1 of integrated luminosity, more than a factor 10 of the data that will be collected by the end of Run3 at LHC in 2023. For such amount of data, an instantaneous luminosity of ∼ 7.5 × 10 34 cm −2 s −1 is needed. At this luminosity an unprecedented average number of pile-up collision per bunch crossing of 200 is expected. The ATLAS and CMS detectors will be upgraded to fully exploit the HL-LHC potential in this harsh environment. In this document the performances of the ATLAS and CMS upgraded detectors will be described. Their impact on crucial measurements of the Higgs boson sector, of the vector boson fusion process and on new physics searches, will be reported as well.

  8. All possible lightes supersymmetric particles in proton hexality violating minimal supergravity models and their signals at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grab, Sebastian

    2009-08-15

    The most widely studied supersymmetric scenario is the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) with more than a hundred free parameters. However for detailed phenomenological studies, the minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) model, a restricted and well-motivated framework for the MSSM, is more convenient. In this model, lepton- and baryon-number violating interactions are suppressed by a discrete symmetry, R-parity or proton-hexality, to keep the proton stable. However, it is sufficient to forbid only lepton- or baryon-number violation. We thus extend mSUGRA models by adding a proton-hexality violating operator at the grand unification scale. This can change the supersymmetric spectrum leading on the one hand to a sneutrino, smuon or squark as the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP). On the other hand, a wide parameter region is reopened, where the scalar tau (stau) is the LSP. We investigate in detail the conditions leading to non-neutralino LSP scenarios. We take into account the restrictions from neutrino masses, the muon anomalous magnetic moment, b{yields}s{gamma}, and other precision measurements. We furthermore investigate existing restrictions from direct searches at LEP, the Tevatron, and the CERN p anti p collider. It is vital to know the nature of the LSP, since supersymmetric particles normally cascade decay down to the LSP at collider experiments. We present typical LHC signatures for sneutrino LSP scenarios. Promising signatures are high-p{sub T} muons and jets, like-sign muon events and detached vertices from long lived taus. We also classify the stau LSP decays and describe their dependence on the mSUGRA parameters. We then exploit our results for resonant single slepton production at the LHC. We find novel signatures with like-sign muon and three- and four-muon final states. Finally, we perform a detailed analysis for single slepton production in association with a single top quark. We show that the signal can be distinguished from the background

  9. Transverse and Longitudinal Beam Collimation in a High-Energy Proton Collider (LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Catalan-Lasheras, N

    1998-01-01

    In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), particles from the beam halo might potentially impinge on the vacuum chamber, effecting harmful transitions of the superconducting magnets ("quenches"). This can be prevented by the collimation system which confines the particle losses to special, non superconducting sections of the machine. Due to the high energy and intensity of the LHC, any removal system must attain an unprecedented efficiency. The cleaning system was designed on the basis of purely geometric and optical models which neglect non linear effects and assume perfectly absorbing materials. In a second step, true scattering in matter is considered. A series of machine developments (MD) were carried out in 1996-7 with the principal aim of validating the design assumptions. A collimation system comparable to that of the LHC was employed. The predictions of the numerical model used to compute the LHC collimation system efficiency were compared with the data acquired during the measurement sessions. The experimen...

  10. Quantitative constraints on the gluon distribution function in the proton from collider isolated-photon data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Enterria, David, E-mail: dde@cern.ch [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); ICREA and ICC-UB, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Rojo, Juan [CERN, PH Department, TH Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2012-07-21

    The impact of isolated-photon data from proton-(anti)proton collisions at RHIC, Spp{sup Macron }S, Tevatron and LHC energies, on the parton distribution functions of the proton is studied using a recently developed Bayesian reweighting method. The impact on the gluon density of the 35 existing isolated-{gamma} measurements is quantified using next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD calculations complemented with the NNPDF2.1 parton densities. The NLO predictions are found to describe well most of the datasets from 200 GeV up to 7 TeV centre-of-mass energies. The isolated-photon spectra recently measured at the LHC are precise enough to constrain the gluon distribution and lead to a moderate reduction (up to 20%) of its uncertainties around fractional momenta x Almost-Equal-To 0.02. As a particular case, we show that the improved gluon density reduces the PDF uncertainty for the Higgs boson production cross section in the gluon-fusion channel by more than 20% at the LHC. We conclude that present and future isolated-photon measurements constitute an interesting addition to coming global PDF analyses.

  11. Quantitative constraints on the gluon distribution function in the proton from collider isolated-photon data

    CERN Document Server

    d'Enterria, David

    2012-01-01

    The impact of isolated-photon data from proton-(anti)proton collisions at RHIC, SppbarS, Tevatron and LHC energies, on the parton distribution functions of the proton is studied using a recently developed Bayesian reweighting method. The impact on the gluon density of the 35 existing isolated-gamma measurements is quantified using next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD calculations complemented with the NNPDF2.1 parton densities. The NLO predictions are found to describe well most of the datasets from 200 GeV up to 7 TeV centre-of-mass energies. The isolated-photon spectra recently measured at the LHC are precise enough to constrain the gluon distribution and lead to a moderate reduction (up to 20%) of its uncertainties around fractional momenta x~0.02. As a particular case, we show that the improved gluon density reduces the PDF uncertainty for the Higgs boson production cross section in the gluon-fusion channel by more than 20% at the LHC. We conclude that present and future isolated-photon measuremen...

  12. Muon Collider Progress: Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2011-09-10

    A muon collider would be a powerful tool for exploring the energy-frontier with leptons, and would complement the studies now under way at the LHC. Such a device would offer several important benefits. Muons, like electrons, are point particles so the full center-of-mass energy is available for particle production. Moreover, on account of their higher mass, muons give rise to very little synchrotron radiation and produce very little beamstrahlung. The first feature permits the use of a circular collider that can make efficient use of the expensive rf system and whose footprint is compatible with an existing laboratory site. The second feature leads to a relatively narrow energy spread at the collision point. Designing an accelerator complex for a muon collider is a challenging task. Firstly, the muons are produced as a tertiary beam, so a high-power proton beam and a target that can withstand it are needed to provide the required luminosity of ~1 × 10{sup 34} cm{sup –2}s{sup –1}. Secondly, the beam is initially produced with a large 6D phase space, which necessitates a scheme for reducing the muon beam emittance (“cooling”). Finally, the muon has a short lifetime so all beam manipulations must be done very rapidly. The Muon Accelerator Program, led by Fermilab and including a number of U.S. national laboratories and universities, has undertaken design and R&D activities aimed toward the eventual construction of a muon collider. Design features of such a facility and the supporting R&D program are described.

  13. Initial operation of the Tevatron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.

    1987-03-01

    The Tevatron is now the highest energy proton synchrotron and the only accelerator made with superconducting magnets. Operating since 1983 as a fixed-target machine at energies up to 800 GeV, it has now been modified to operate as a 900 GeV antiproton-proton collider. This paper describes the initial operation of the machine in this mode. The new features of the Fermilab complex, including the antiproton source and the Main Ring injector with its two overpasses and new rf requirements, are discussed. Beam characteristics in the Tevatron (including lifetimes, emittances, luminosity, beam-beam tune shifts, backgrounds, and low beta complications), the coordination of the steps in the accelerator chain, and the commissioning history are also discussed. Finally, some plans for the improvement of the collider are presented

  14. Luminosity enhancements at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coward, D.H.

    1984-04-01

    Several ideas are discussed that have been proposed to improve the luminosity at the SPEAR and PEP electron-positron storage rings and to insure good luminosity at the SLAC Linear Collider. There have been two proposals studied recently for SPEAR: a Microbeta insertion using Samarium Cobalt permanent magnets, and a Minibeta insertion using conventional quadrupole magnets. The notations Microbeta and minibeta used here are somewhat arbitrary since the front faces of the first quadrupole magnets for both insertions are at nearly the same distance from the interaction point

  15. Tevatron Collider physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichten, E.J.

    1990-02-01

    The physics of hadron colliders is briefly reviewed. Issues for further study are presented. Particular attention is given to the physics opportunities for a high luminosity (≥ 100 pb -1 /experiment/run) Upgrade of the Tevatron Collider. 25 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Stanford's linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, B.

    1985-01-01

    The peak of the construction phase of the Stanford Linear Collider, SLC, to achieve 50 GeV electron-positron collisions has now been passed. The work remains on schedule to attempt colliding beams, initially at comparatively low luminosity, early in 1987. (orig./HSI).

  17. Constraining the proton structure at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Tricoli, Alessandro; Viehhauser, Georg

    Particle physics is at a pivotal moment: the origin of mass and new physics scenarios beyond the Standard Model or particle physics could be unveiled in the coming year. In 2007 the most powerful particl e accelerator, the Large Hadron Coolider (LHC), will start colliding proton beams reaching the ihghest energy and luminosity ever in collider particle physics. The ATLAS detector is one of two general pu rpose detectors placed along the collider ring to fully exploit the LHC potential. The theoretical uncertainties on most of the LHC physics progream are dominated by the proton structure uncertaintiy. This thesis demonstrates that $W^{\\pm}$ boson productionis an ideal process to constr ain the proton strcuture uncertainty. The rapidity distributions of electrons and positrons originating respectively from the $W^-$ and $W^+$ decays have been analysed. The results show that the current uncertainty on the gluon content of the proton can be reduced by a very significant amount if the total systematic uncertaint...

  18. Charge-charge correlations and the detection of weak vector bosons by hadronic jets in proton-antiproton and proton-proton collisions at collider energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranft, J.; Ritter, S.

    1980-07-01

    The charge properties of quark jets are studied within a chain decay model for quark jet fragmentation. Using the charge properties of quark jets, charge-charge two-jet cross sections and correlations are defined. In proton-antiproton collisions these correlations show significant structure due to the weak vector bosons W +- and Z 0 . (author)

  19. Search for direct top squark pair production in the fully hadronic final state in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 13 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 12.9/fb

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A search for direct production of top squark pairs in events with jets and large transverse momentum imbalance is presented. The data were collected in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 12.9/fb. Two analyses are performed, a ``low $\\Delta m$" analysis that targets scenarios with a very small difference in mass between the top squark and the neutralino, and a ``high $\\Delta m$" analysis that targets topologies typical for larger mass splittings. No significant excess of events above the expected background from standard model processes is observed. Exclusion limits are set in the context of simplified models of top squark pair production under various decay hypotheses, ranging up to 860 GeV in the case of the high $\\Delta m$ analysis and up to 450 GeV in the case of the low $\\Delta m$ analysis.

  20. An energy recovery electron linac-on-ring collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merminga, L.; Krafft, G.A.; Lebedev, V.A.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    2000-01-01

    We present the design of high-luminosity electron-proton/ion colliders in which the electrons are produced by an Energy Recovering Linac (ERL). Electron-proton/ion colliders with center of mass energies between 14 GeV and 100 GeV (protons) or 63 GeV/A (ions) and luminosities at the 10 33 (per nucleon) level have been proposed recently as a means for studying hadronic structure. The linac-on-ring option presents significant advantages with respect to: (1) spin manipulations (2) reduction of the synchrotron radiation load in the detectors (3) a wide range of continuous energy variability. Rf power and beam dump considerations require that the electron linac recover the beam energy. Based on extrapolations from actual measurements and calculations, energy recovery is expected to be feasible at currents of a few hundred mA and multi-GeV energies. Luminosity projections for the linac-ring scenario based on fundamental limitations are presented. The feasibility of an energy recovery electron linac-on-proton ring collider is investigated and four conceptual point designs are shown corresponding to electron to proton energies of: 3 GeV on 15 GeV, 5 GeV on 50 GeV and 10 GeV on 250 GeV, and for gold ions with 100 GeV/A. The last two designs assume that the protons or ions are stored in the existing RHIC accelerator. Accelerator physics issues relevant to proton rings and energy recovery linacs are discussed and a list of required R and D for the realization of such a design is presented

  1. Recent results from E-735 at the Fermilab tevatron proton-antiproton collider with √s=1.8 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexopoulos, T.; Erwin, A.; Findeisen, C.; Nelson, K.; Thompson, M.; Banerjee, S.; Beery, P.D.; Biswas, N.N.; DeBonte, R.; Kenney, V.P.; LoSecco, J.M.; McManus, A.P.; Piekarz, J.; Stampke, S.R.; Carter, T.; Goshaw, A.T.; Oh, S.A.; Walker, W.D.; Wesson, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    E-735 is searching for signs of the quark-gluon-plasma phase transition in minimum bias proton-antiproton events. Results from the 1987 run at the Tevatron Collider at √s=1.8 TeV are presented. Included are distributions of the average p t versus multiplicity dependence for charged particles, and preliminary particle identification analysis using time of flight. (orig.)

  2. Luminosity measurement at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, Jessica Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of the luminosity delivered by the LHC is pivotal for several key physics analyses. During the first three years of running, tremendous steps forwards have been made in the comprehension of the subtleties related to luminosity monitoring and calibration, which led to an unprecedented accuracy at a hadron collider. The detectors and corresponding algorithms employed to estimate online and offline the luminosity in CMS are described. Details are given concerning the procedure based on the Van der Meer scan technique that allowed a very precise calibration of the luminometers from the determination of the LHC beams parameters. What is being prepared in terms of detector and online software upgrades for the next LHC run is also summarized.

  3. Review of scientific and technical options for the Superconducting Super Collider Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombeck, T.

    1993-11-01

    This document is a review of options for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Program. It is the result of an informal study by an ad-hoc working group consisting of Laboratory physicists and engineers who investigated the physics and technical implications of a number of possible alternative SSC programs. Previous studies have shown, and early in this study it was confirmed, that a collider of approximately 20 TeV protons on 20 TeV protons with a luminosity of 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} at each interaction region is needed to support a physics program that is guaranteed to answer existing particle physics questions and make new discoveries. Therefore, all options considered in this document were consistent with attainment of these original goals for the SSC. One promising option considered was a program of colliding anti-protons on protons as a possible means to reduce the cost of the SSC by eliminating one of the Collider rings. However, the luminosity requirements to obtain the SSC physics goals remains the same as for protons colliding with protons and this study confirms that even though progress has been made over the last ten years in obtaining the high intensity anti-proton beams necessary, a luminosity higher than 10{sup 32} cannot be guaranteed. Other options were examined to see what advantages could be derived by departing from the SSC baseline program, either in schedule, in parameters, by staging, or by combinations of these options. Even though we considered re-examination of the cost of the baseline program to be beyond the scope of this document, differential cost savings were estimated. Finally, a brief survey of progress over the last ten years in various technical areas that might lead to more cost effective engineering designs was included in this study, such as higher magnetic field magnets resulting from lower operating temperatures or higher current-carrying superconducting materials.

  4. Review of scientific and technical options for the Superconducting Super Collider Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombeck, T.

    1993-11-01

    This document is a review of options for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Program. It is the result of an informal study by an ad-hoc working group consisting of Laboratory physicists and engineers who investigated the physics and technical implications of a number of possible alternative SSC programs. Previous studies have shown, and early in this study it was confirmed, that a collider of approximately 20 TeV protons on 20 TeV protons with a luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 s -1 at each interaction region is needed to support a physics program that is guaranteed to answer existing particle physics questions and make new discoveries. Therefore, all options considered in this document were consistent with attainment of these original goals for the SSC. One promising option considered was a program of colliding anti-protons on protons as a possible means to reduce the cost of the SSC by eliminating one of the Collider rings. However, the luminosity requirements to obtain the SSC physics goals remains the same as for protons colliding with protons and this study confirms that even though progress has been made over the last ten years in obtaining the high intensity anti-proton beams necessary, a luminosity higher than 10 32 cannot be guaranteed. Other options were examined to see what advantages could be derived by departing from the SSC baseline program, either in schedule, in parameters, by staging, or by combinations of these options. Even though we considered re-examination of the cost of the baseline program to be beyond the scope of this document, differential cost savings were estimated. Finally, a brief survey of progress over the last ten years in various technical areas that might lead to more cost effective engineering designs was included in this study, such as higher magnetic field magnets resulting from lower operating temperatures or higher current-carrying superconducting materials

  5. Physics background in luminosity measurement at ILC and measurement of the proton b-content at H1 using multivariate method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandurovic, Mila

    2011-12-15

    ILC physics program sets the minimal precision of the luminosity measurement to be of order of 10{sup -3}. This may be accomplished by construction of fine granulated electromagnetic calorimeter, which will measure the rate of Bhabha scattering process at small angles at one hand and by the experimental control of various systematic effects at the other. The first part of this thesis is dedicated to the study of four-fermion processes e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}e{sup +}e{sup -}f anti f, as a physics background in the luminosity measurement. This SM process comes as one of the major systematic effects in luminosity measurement at ILC due to the high cross-section and the fact that electron spectators emitted at low polar angles can be misidentified as a signal. It has been demonstrated that the event selection can be performed in a way that the overall relative systematic uncertainty does not exceed 2.3 10{sup -3}. Selection efficiency of the Bhabha signal is maintained to limit the statistical uncertainty of the measurement at 1.2 10{sup -4}. In addition, background suppression potential is discussed for various selection setups. The second part of the thesis is dedicated to the physics of heavy quarks at the H1 experiment at the accelerator HERA at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. The HERA experiments H1 and ZEUS gave an important experimental insight of the proton structure in the wide phase space of photon virtuality and Bjorken scaling variable. In this thesis the b-content of the proton is measured that can be further used for F{sub 2}{sup b} and the corresponding cross-section measurements. With the sample of 54.4 pb{sup -1} of HERA II data the proton b-content is measured, using the e{sup -}p neutral current events of deep inelastic scattering in the kinematic region of Q{sup 2}>6 GeV{sup 2} and the Bjorken scaling variable 0.0002

  6. GPDs at an electron ion collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility for a precise determination of Generalized Parton Distribution (GPDs) functions at an Electron Ion Collider (EIC) has been explored. The high luminosity of the machine, together with the large resolution and rapidity acceptance of the new dedicated detector, will open opportunity for high precision measurements of GPDs. We report on the study of GPDs from deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS). We also point out that such measurements at a proposed EIC provide insight to both, the transverse distribution of sea quarks and gluons as well as the proton spin decomposition.

  7. GPDs at an electron ion collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazio, Salvatore [Brookhaven National Laboratory, 11973 Upton NY (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The feasibility for a precise determination of Generalized Parton Distribution (GPDs) functions at an Electron Ion Collider (EIC) has been explored. The high luminosity of the machine, together with the large resolution and rapidity acceptance of the new dedicated detector, will open opportunity for high precision measurements of GPDs. We report on the study of GPDs from deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS). We also point out that such measurements at a proposed EIC provide insight to both, the transverse distribution of sea quarks and gluons as well as the proton spin decomposition.

  8. OLYMPUS luminosity monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ates, Ozgur [Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia (United States); Collaboration: OLYMPUS-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The OLYMPUS experiment at DESY has been measuring the ratio of positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections to quantify the effect of two-photon exchange, which is widely considered to be responsible for the discrepancy between measurements of the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio with the Rosenbluth and polarization transfer methods. In order to control the systematic uncertainties to the percent level, the luminosities are monitored redundantly with high precision by measuring the rates for symmetric Moller and Bhabha scattering, and by measuring the ep-elastic count rates at forward angles and low momentum transfer with tracking telescopes based on GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) and MWPC (Multi Wire Proportional Chamber) technology. During two data taking periods, performances of GEM and MWPC luminosity monitors are presented.

  9. Transverse Single-Spin Asymmetries in Proton-Proton Collisions at the AFTER@LHC Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kanazawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present results for transverse single-spin asymmetries in proton-proton collisions at kinematics relevant for AFTER, a proposed fixed-target experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. These include predictions for pion, jet, and direct photon production from analytical formulas already available in the literature. We also discuss specific measurements that will benefit from the higher luminosity of AFTER, which could help resolve an almost 40-year puzzle of what causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in proton-proton collisions.

  10. Measurement of the inelastic proton-proton cross section with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenis, Tibor [Comenius University Bratislava (Slovakia); Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration

    2013-04-15

    A measurement of the inelastic proton-proton cross-section at centre-of-mass energy of Central diffraction in proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s) = 7TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider is presented. Events are selected by requiring hits in scintillator counters mounted in the forward region of the ATLAS detector and the dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20{mu}b{sup -1}. In addition, the total cross-section is studied as a function of the rapidity gap size measured with the inner detector and calorimetry.

  11. Heavy-ion performance of the LHC and future colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaumann, Michaela

    2015-04-29

    In 2008 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its experiments started operation at the European Centre of Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva with the main aim of finding or excluding the Higgs boson. Only four years later, on the 4th of July 2012, the discovery of a Higgs-like particle was proven and first published by the two main experiments ATLAS and CMS. Even though proton-proton collisions are the main operation mode of the LHC, it also acts as an heavy-ion collider. Here, the term ''heavy-ion collisions'' refers to the collision between fully stripped nuclei. While the major hardware system of the LHC is compatible with heavy-ion operation, the beam dynamics and performance limits of ion beams are quite different from those of protons. Because of the higher mass and charge of the ions, beam dynamic effects like intra-beam scattering and radiation damping are stronger. Also the electromagnetic cross-sections in the collisions are larger, leading to significantly faster intensity decay and thus shorter luminosity lifetimes. As the production cross-sections for various physics processes under study of the experiments are still small at energies reachable with the LHC and because the heavy-ion run time is limited to a few days per year, it is essential to obtain the highest possible collision rate, i.e. maximise the instantaneous luminosity, in order to obtain enough events and therefore low statistical errors. Within this thesis, the past performance of the LHC in lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions, at a centre-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV per colliding nucleon pair, is analysed and potential luminosity limitations are identified. Tools are developed to predict future performance and techniques are presented to further increase the luminosity. Finally, a perspective on the future of high energy heavy-ion colliders is given.

  12. Muon Muon Collider: Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, J.C.; Palmer, R.B.; /Brookhaven; Tollestrup, A.V.; /Fermilab; Sessler, A.M.; /LBL, Berkeley; Skrinsky, A.N.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Ankenbrandt, C.; Geer, S.; Griffin, J.; Johnstone, C.; Lebrun, P.; McInturff, A.; Mills, Frederick E.; Mokhov, N.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Ng, K.Y.; Noble, R.; Novitski, I.; Popovic, M.; Qian, C.; Van Ginneken, A. /Fermilab /Brookhaven /Wisconsin U., Madison /Tel Aviv U. /Indiana U. /UCLA /LBL, Berkeley /SLAC /Argonne /Sobolev IM, Novosibirsk /UC, Davis /Munich, Tech. U. /Virginia U. /KEK, Tsukuba /DESY /Novosibirsk, IYF /Jefferson Lab /Mississippi U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /MIT /Columbia U. /Fairfield U. /UC, Berkeley

    2012-04-05

    reactions which are open to a muon collider and the physics of such reactions - what one learns and the necessary luminosity to see interesting events - are described in detail. Most of the physics accesible to an e{sup +} - e{sup -} collider could be studied in a muon collider. In addition the production of Higgs bosons in the s-channel will allow the measurement of Higgs masses and total widths to high precision; likewise, t{bar t} and W{sup +}W{sup -} threshold studies would yield m{sub t} and m{sub w} to great accuracy. These reactions are at low center of mass energy (if the MSSM is correct) and the luminosity and {Delta}p/p of the beams required for these measurements is detailed in the Physics Chapter. On the other hand, at 2 + 2 TeV, a luminosity of L {approx} 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} is desirable for studies such as, the scattering of longitudinal W bosons or the production of heavy scalar particles. Not explored in this work, but worth noting, are the opportunities for muon-proton and muon-heavy ion collisions as well as the enormous richness of such a facility for fixed target physics provided by the intense beams of neutrinos, muons, pions, kaons, antiprotons and spallation neutrons. To see all the interesting physics described herein requires a careful study of the operation of a detector in the very large background. Three sources of background have been identified. The first is from any halo accompanying the muon beams in the collider ring. Very carefully prepared beams will have to be injected and maintained. The second is due to the fact that on average 35% of the muon energy appears in its decay electron. The energy of the electron subsequently is converted into EM showers either from the synchrotron radiation they emit in the collider magnetic field or from direct collision with the surrounding material. The decays that occur as the beams traverse the low beta insert are of particular concern for detector backgrounds. A third source of background is

  13. Collider baseline parameters: Milestone M1.5

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The deliverable D1.1 provided a preliminary specification of the layout and target operation parameters for the FCC-hh hadron collider concept. It serves as the basis for the studies in all work packages. Tis milestone summarises the outcome of the first studies of this design. The goal of the FCC hadron collider is to provide proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 100 TeV. The machine is compatible with ion beam operation. Assuming a nominal dipole field of 16 T, such a machine is based on a perimeter of 100 km. The machine is designed to accommodate two main proton experiments that are operated simultaneously. The machine delivers a peak luminosity of 5-30 x 1034 cm-2s-1. The layout allows for two additional special-purpose experiments.

  14. Preliminary accelerator plans for maximizing the integrated LHC luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael; Ruggiero, F; Ostojic, R; Scandale, Walter; Shaposhnikova, Elena; Wenninger, J

    2006-01-01

    A working group on "Proton Accelerators for the Future" (PAF) has been created in May 2005 by the CERN direction to elaborate a baseline scenario of the possible development and upgrade of the present Proton Accelerator Complex. This report is the result of the investigation conducted until the end of 2005, in close connection with the working group on "Physics Opportunities with Future Proton Accelerators" (POFPA) and is consistent with their recommendations. Focused on the goal of maximizing the integrated luminosity for the LHC experiments, a scenario of evolution is proposed, subject to further refinement using the future experience of commissioning and running-in the collider and its injector complex. The actions to be taken in terms of consolidation, R & D and improvement are outlined. The benefits for other types of physics are mentioned and will be investigated in more detail in the future.

  15. A Measurement of Jet Shapes in Proton-Proton Collisions at 7.0 TeV Center-of-Mass Energy with the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Zachary L

    2010-01-01

    A study of jet shapes is presented using 300 nb−1 of proton-proton collision data collected at a center of mass energy of 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The analysis includes jets with rapidity |y| < 2.8 and with calibrated transverse momentum 40< pT <600 GeV. Results are compared with several tuned Monte Carlo programs. Jets are found to be wider than predicted, although the evolution of the jet shape with transverse momentum is well described.

  16. A 4$\\pi$ Solid Angle Detector for the SPS used as a Proton-Antiproton Collider at a Centre of Mass Energy of 540 GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In the first phase of operation of the UA1 experiment, 700 $ nb ^- ^{1} $ of integrated luminosity were accumulated at the Sp$\\bar{p}$S collider up to the end of 1985. Published results include first observation and measurements of W and Z bosons, significant limits on the top quark, heavy lepton and supersymmetric particle masses, observation of $ B \\bar{B} $ mixing, studies of b~quark production and tests of QCD using jet, intermediate boson and photon production.\\\\ \\\\ For the second phase of operation the following items were upgraded for the high luminosity 1988 and 1989 collider runs: the muon detection system was improved by extra iron shielding, partly magnetised and instrumented with Iarocci tubes; the data acquisition system was redesigned using VME to prov speed and second level trigger capacity followed by a farm of 318E emulators for on-line event reconstruction and selection; the central detector was equipped with a laser calibration system. A total of 5 $ pb ^- ^{1} $ of mainly muon-triggered da...

  17. Estimates of Fermilab Tevatron collider performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, G.

    1991-09-01

    This paper describes a model which has been used to estimate the average luminosity performance of the Tevatron collider. In the model, the average luminosity is related quantitatively to various performance parameters of the Fermilab Tevatron collider complex. The model is useful in allowing estimates to be developed for the improvements in average collider luminosity to be expected from changes in the fundamental performance parameters as a result of upgrades to various parts of the accelerator complex

  18. Physics at Future Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John R.

    1999-01-01

    After a brief review of the Big Issues in particle physics, we discuss the contributions to resolving that could be made by various planned and proposed future colliders. These include future runs of LEP and the Fermilab Tevatron collider, B factories, RHIC, the LHC, a linear electron-positron collider, an electron-proton collider in the LEP/LHC tunnel, a muon collider and a future larger hadron collider (FLHC). The Higgs boson and supersymmetry are used as benchmarks for assessing their capabilities. The LHC has great capacities for precision measurements as well as exploration, but also shortcomings where the complementary strengths of a linear electron-positron collider would be invaluable. It is not too soon to study seriously possible subsequent colliders.

  19. Precision luminosity measurement at LHCb with beam-gas imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barschel, Colin

    2014-01-01

    was measured with the beam-gas imaging method. The result is σ Track =60.6±0.9 mb at a center-of-mass energy of √(s)=8 TeV. The same measurement performed at √(s)=2.76 TeV results in a cross-section of σ Track =52.7±1.2 mb. The luminosity measurement at √(s)=8 TeV presented here, with an uncertainty of 1.4%, is to date the most precise luminosity calibration performed at the LHC and at any other bunched-beam proton collider.

  20. Prompt D*+ production in proton-proton and lead-lead collisions, measured with the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, R. S.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the results are presented of the first measurements of the D*+ meson nuclear modification factor RAA in heavy ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) detector at CERN. These open charmed mesons are a useful tool to

  1. Design of the large hadron electron collider interaction region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Alaniz, E.; Newton, D.; Tomás, R.; Korostelev, M.

    2015-11-01

    The large hadron electron collider (LHeC) is a proposed upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) within the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, to provide electron-nucleon collisions and explore a new regime of energy and luminosity for deep inelastic scattering. The design of an interaction region for any collider is always a challenging task given that the beams are brought into crossing with the smallest beam sizes in a region where there are tight detector constraints. In this case integrating the LHeC into the existing HL-LHC lattice, to allow simultaneous proton-proton and electron-proton collisions, increases the difficulty of the task. A nominal design was presented in the the LHeC conceptual design report in 2012 featuring an optical configuration that focuses one of the proton beams of the LHC to β*=10 cm in the LHeC interaction point to reach the desired luminosity of L =1033 cm-2 s-1 . This value is achieved with the aid of a new inner triplet of quadrupoles at a distance L*=10 m from the interaction point. However the chromatic beta beating was found intolerable regarding machine protection issues. An advanced chromatic correction scheme was required. This paper explores the feasibility of the extension of a novel optical technique called the achromatic telescopic squeezing scheme and the flexibility of the interaction region design, in order to find the optimal solution that would produce the highest luminosity while controlling the chromaticity, minimizing the synchrotron radiation power and maintaining the dynamic aperture required for stability.

  2. Design of the large hadron electron collider interaction region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cruz-Alaniz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The large hadron electron collider (LHeC is a proposed upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC within the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC project, to provide electron-nucleon collisions and explore a new regime of energy and luminosity for deep inelastic scattering. The design of an interaction region for any collider is always a challenging task given that the beams are brought into crossing with the smallest beam sizes in a region where there are tight detector constraints. In this case integrating the LHeC into the existing HL-LHC lattice, to allow simultaneous proton-proton and electron-proton collisions, increases the difficulty of the task. A nominal design was presented in the the LHeC conceptual design report in 2012 featuring an optical configuration that focuses one of the proton beams of the LHC to β^{*}=10  cm in the LHeC interaction point to reach the desired luminosity of L=10^{33}  cm^{-2} s^{-1}. This value is achieved with the aid of a new inner triplet of quadrupoles at a distance L^{*}=10  m from the interaction point. However the chromatic beta beating was found intolerable regarding machine protection issues. An advanced chromatic correction scheme was required. This paper explores the feasibility of the extension of a novel optical technique called the achromatic telescopic squeezing scheme and the flexibility of the interaction region design, in order to find the optimal solution that would produce the highest luminosity while controlling the chromaticity, minimizing the synchrotron radiation power and maintaining the dynamic aperture required for stability.

  3. The first ep collider run and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desy, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    After successful machine commissioning in 1991, the new electron-proton collider HERA was ready to start the experimental program in spring last year. Data taking at the ZEUS and H1 experiments began on June 26. The energy of the colliding beams was E e =26.7 GeV and E p = 820 GeV, in accord with the design. The peak luminosity obtained so far was 2.2x10 29 cm -2 s -1 . Until the end of the experimental run in November 1992 an integrated luminosity of 33 nb -1 was delivered to the experiments. Future plans concerning ep operation focus on increasing the number of colliding bunches in order to approach the design goal for the luminosity of 1.5x10 31 cm -2 s -1 . In the electron ring, up to 60% transverse spin polarization have been achieved. It is planned to install a polarized gas target experiment (Hermes, approved as the 3rd HERA experiment) which will require an electron beam with about 50% longitudinal polarization. The machine modifications required for HERMES are scheduled for the 93/94 winter shut down. Furthermore, the possibilities of installing a fixed target experiment for b-quark physics in the proton ring are being studied

  4. Dependence of isospin fractionation process on the neutron-proton ratio of a colliding system in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Yongzhong; Liu Jianye; Fang Yutian; Guo Wenjun

    2004-01-01

    The degree of isospin fractionation is measured by the ratio of saturated neutron-proton: i.e. the ratio of gas phase (nucleon emission) to that of liquid phase (fragment emission) in heavy ion collisions. The authors have studied the dependence of the degree of isospin fractionation on the neutron-proton ratio in the colliding system by using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamical model. The calculated results show that the degree of isospin fractionation depends sensitively on the symmetry potential and weakly on the isospin effect of nucleon-nucleon cross section. In particular, the degree of isospin fractionation increases with increasing neutron-proton ratio in the colliding system for the neutron-rich system, in this process the neutron-rich gas phase and neutron-poor liquid phase are produced. The degree of isospin fractionation is very sensitive to the degree of symmetry potential. On the contrary, for the neutron-poor system the neutron-poor gas phase and neutron-rich liquid phase are produced. In this case, the degree of isospin fractionation is not sensitive to the symmetry potential. The authors also find that the role of momentum dependent interaction in the isospin fractionation process is not obvious. The authors propose that our calculated results can compared directly with the experimental data to get the information about the symmetry potential in the intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions

  5. FERMILAB: Preparing to collide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Against the background of stringent Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) regulations mandated by the US Department of Energy for all national Labs, Fermilab prepared to mount the next major Tevatron proton-antiproton collider run

  6. Introduction to colliding beams at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.

    1994-10-01

    The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is currently the site of the world's highest center-of-mass energy proton-antiproton colliding beam accelerator, the Tevatron. The CDF and D OE detectors each envelop one of two luminous regions in the collider, and are thus wholly dependent on the accelerator for their success. The Tevatron's high operating energy, reliability, and record setting integrated luminosity have allowed both experiments to make world-class measurements and defined the region of physics that each can explore. The following sections are an overview of the highlights of the accelerator operation and are compiled from many sources. The major sources for each section are listed at the beginning of that section

  7. Absolute luminosity measurement at LHCb with beam-gas imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Barschel, C

    2013-01-01

    A novel technique to measure the absolute luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using beam-gas interactions has been successfully used in the LHCb experiment. A gas injection device (SMOG) has been installed in the LHCb experiment to increase the pressure around the interaction point during dedicated fills. The Beam-Gas Imaging method (BGI) has now the potential to surpass the accuracy of the commonly used *van der Meer scan* method (VDM). The technique has been used in 10 LHC fills during 2012 including and also provided a first luminosity measurement for proton-lead collisions. This talk presents the principles of the gas injection and the improvements reached with the increased pressure. Furthermore the gas injection increased the accuracy measurement of the so-called ghost charges and also intensities per bunch. Those uncertainties are becoming the dominating factor because the uncertainty on the total beam current have been reduced.

  8. FCC-hh Hadron Collider - Parameter Scenarios and Staging Options

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael; Schulte, Daniel; Zimmermann, F; Syphers, M J

    2015-01-01

    FCC-hh is a proposed future energy-frontier hadron collider, based on dipole magnets with a field around 16 T installed in a new tunnel with a circumference of about 100 km, which would provide proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 100 TeV, as well as heavy-ion collisions at the equivalent energy. The FCC-hh should deliver a high integrated proton-proton luminosity at the level of several 100 fb−1 per year, or more. The challenges for operating FCC-hh with high beam current and at high luminosity include the heat load from synchrotron radiation in a cold environment, the radiation from collision debris around the interaction region, and machine protection. In this paper, starting from the FCC-hh design baseline parameters we explore different approaches for increasing the integrated luminosity, and discuss the impact of key individual pa- rameters, such as the turnaround time. We also present some injector considerations and options for early hadron-collider operation.

  9. Superconducting linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The advantages of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) for particle accelerators have been demonstrated by successful operation of systems in the TRISTAN and LEP electron-positron collider rings respectively at the Japanese KEK Laboratory and at CERN. If performance continues to improve and costs can be lowered, this would open an attractive option for a high luminosity TeV (1000 GeV) linear collider

  10. Topological and Central Trigger Processor for 2014 LHC luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Simioni, E; The ATLAS collaboration; Bauss, B; Berge, D; Buscher, V; Childers, T; Degele, R; Dobson, E; Ebling, A; Ellis, N; Farthouat, P; Gabaldon, C; Gorini, B; Haas, S; Ji, W; Kaneda, M; Mattig, S; Messina, A; Meyer, C; Moritz, S; Pauly, T; Pottgen, R; Schafer, U; Spiwoks, R; Tapprogge, S; Wengler, T; Wenzel, V

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is located at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. It is designed to observe phenomena that involve highly massive particles produced in the collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC): the world’s largest and highest-energy particle accelerator. Event triggering and Data Acquisition is one of the extraordinary challenges faced by the detectors at the high luminosity LHC collider. During 2011, the LHC reached instantaneous luminosities of 4 10^33 cm−1 s−1 and produced events with up to 24 interactions per colliding proton bunch. This places stringent operational and physical requirements on the ATLAS Trigger in order to reduce the 40MHz collision rate to a manageable event storage rate of 400Hz and, at the same time, selecting those events considered interesting. The Level-1 Trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS Trigger, with an output rate of 75kHz and decision latency of less than 2.5 micro seconds. It is primarily composed of the Calori...

  11. Topological and Central Trigger Processor for 2014 LHC luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Simioni, E; The ATLAS collaboration; Bauss, B; Berge, D; B\\"{u}scher, V; Childers, T; Degele, R; Dobson, E; Ebling, A; Ellis, N; Farthouat, P; Gabaldon, C; Gorini, B; Haas, S; Ji, W; Kaneda, M; M\\"{a}ttig, S; Messina, A; Meyer, C; Moritz, S; Pauly, T; Pottgen, R; Sch\\"{a}fer, U; Spiwoks, R; Tapprogge, S; Wengler, T; Wenzel, V

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is located at the European Center for Nu- clear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. It is designed to observe phe- nomena that involve highly massive particles produced in the collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC): the world’s largest and highest-energy particle accelerator. Event triggering and Data Acquisition is one of the extraordinary challenges faced by the detectors at the high luminosity LHC collider. During 2011, the LHC reached instantaneous luminosities of 4×10^33 cm−1 s−1 and produced events with up to 24 interactions per colliding proton bunch. This places stringent operational and physical requirements on the AT- LAS Trigger in order to reduce the 40MHz collision rate to a manageable event storage rate of 400Hz and, at the same time, selecting those events considered interesting. The Level-1 Trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS Trigger, with an output rate of 75kHz and decision latency of less than 2.5μs. It is primarily composed of the Calorimete...

  12. Status of the Future Circular Collider Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedikt, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Following the 2013 update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the international Future Circular Collider (FCC) Study has been launched by CERN as host institute, to design an energy frontier hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new 80-100 km tunnel with a centre-of-mass energy of about 100 TeV, an order of magnitude beyond the LHC's, as a long-term goal. The FCC study also includes the design of a 90-350 GeV high-luminosity lepton collider (FCC-ee) installed in the same tunnel, serving as Higgs, top and Z factory, as a potential intermediate step, as well as an electron-proton collider option (FCC-he). The physics cases for such machines will be assessed and concepts for experiments will be developed in time for the next update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics by the end of 2018. The presentation will summarize the status of machine designs and parameters and discuss the essential technical components to be developed in the frame of the FCC study. Key elements are superconducting accelerator-dipole magnets with a field of 16 T for the hadron collider and high-power, high-efficiency RF systems for the lepton collider. In addition the unprecedented beam power presents special challenges for the hadron collider for all aspects of beam handling and machine protection. First conclusions of geological investigations and implementation studies will be presented. The status of the FCC collaboration and the further planning for the study will be outlined.

  13. The merging of the Intersecting Storage Rings for a 60 GeV collider with the 400 GeV proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Following the recommendation of the Workshop on Future ISR Physics, 1976, a study has been made of using the existing ISR (Intersecting Storage Rings) equipment at CERN to build a single 60 GeV storage ring (Merged ISR) for beam collision with the 400 GeV Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). At a minimum cost of 103 MSF, a single-intersection physics facility with a 3.55 0 crossing angle, a luminosity of 1.2 10 30 cm -2 s -1 and a centre-of-mass energy of 255 GeV could be built. For a further 7 MSF, the luminosity could be easily raised to 3.8 10 30 cm -2 s -1 . Alternatively, the MISR can be built to give a single, zero-angle crossing with a luminosity of 1.1 10 32 cm -2 s -1 . The last solution is not recommended, however, as the free space around the intersection is extremely limited and the facility becomes very specialized in the type of physics experiments which could be performed. In all cases, the project could be completed in three years and two months with a 9 1/2-month shutdown for the SPS and 18 months between the closing down of the ISR and the start-up of MISR. (Auth.)

  14. Proposal for construction of a proton--proton storage accelerator facility (Isabelle)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    A proposal is made for the construction of proton storage rings at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) using superconducting magnets for which much of the technology has already been developed. This proton-proton colliding beam facility, ''ISABELLE,'' will provide large increases in both the center-of-mass energy and the luminosity, key machine parameters for high energy physics. The physics potential and the general description of the facility are discussed in detail, and the physical plant layout, a cost estimate and schedule, and future options are given.(U.S.)

  15. Polarization Effects at a Muon Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1998-01-01

    For Muon Colliders, Polarization will be a useful tool if high polarization is achievable with little luminosity loss. Formulation and effects of beam polarization and luminosity including polarization effects in Higgs resonance studies are discussed for improving precision measurements and Higgs resonance ''discovery'' capability e.g. at the First Muon Collider (FMC)

  16. Muon collider progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, Robert J. FNAL

    1998-08-01

    Recent progress in the study of muon colliders is presented. An international collaboration consisting of over 100 individuals is involved in calculations and experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of this new type of lepton collider. Theoretical efforts are now concentrated on low-energy colliders in the 100 to 500 GeV center-of-mass energy range. Credible machine designs are emerging for much of a hypothetical complex from proton source to the final collider. Ionization cooling has been the most difficult part of the concept, and more powerful simulation tools are now in place to develop workable schemes. A collaboration proposal for a muon cooling experiment has been presented to the Fermilab Physics Advisory Committee, and a proposal for a targetry and pion collection channel experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory is in preparation. Initial proton bunching and space-charge compensation experiments at existing hadron facilities have occurred to demonstrate proton driver feasibility.

  17. High Luminosity LHC Project Description

    CERN Document Server

    Apollinari, Giorgio; Rossi, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is a novel configuration of the Large Hadron Collider, aiming at increasing the luminosity by a factor five or more above the nominal LHC design, to allow increasing the integrated luminosity, in the high luminosity experiments ATLAS and CMS, from the 300 fb-1 of the LHC original design up to 3000 fb-1 or more. This paper contains a short description of the main machine parameters and of the main equipment that need to be developed and installed. The preliminary cost evaluation and the time plan are presented, too. Finally, the international collaboration that is supporting the project, the governance and the project structure are discussed, too.

  18. Photon-Photon Luminosities in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions at LHC Energies

    OpenAIRE

    Hencken, Kai; Trautmann, Dirk; Baur, Gerhard

    1994-01-01

    Effective photon-photon luminosities are calculated for various realistic hadron collider scenarios. The main characteristics of photon-photon processes at relativistic heavy-ion colliders are established and compared to the corresponding photon-photon luminosities at electron-positron and future Photon Linear Colliders (PLC). Higher order corrections as well as inelastic processes are discussed. It is concluded that feasible high luminosity Ca-Ca collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)...

  19. A Search for Supersymmetry with new kinematic variables in proton-proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV with the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bain, Travis

    A search for Supersymmetry is presented. The search is done with final states containing jets, missing transverse energy and no leptons, using 4.7 $fb^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The analysis is carried out using new kinematic variables in two distinct signal regions with and without $b$-jet tagging. No significant excess above the Standard Model background expectation is observed, and limits are set on the Supersymmetry models. The results are interpreted as limits on the minimal supergravity framework, as well as a simplified Supersymmetry model of gluino pair-production.

  20. High energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.

    1997-02-01

    The authors consider the high energy physics advantages, disadvantages and luminosity requirements of hadron (pp, p anti p), lepton (e + e - , μ + μ - ) and photon-photon colliders. Technical problems in obtaining increased energy in each type of machine are presented. The machines relative size are also discussed

  1. Research and development for a free-running readout system for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters at the high luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hils, Maximilian, E-mail: maximilian.hils@tu-dresden.de

    2016-07-11

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters were designed and built to measure electromagnetic and hadronic energy in proton–proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 10{sup 34} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) programme is now developed for up to 5–7 times the design luminosity, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup −1}. In the HL-LHC phase, the increased radiation levels and an improved ATLAS trigger system require a replacement of the Front-end (FE) and Back-end (BE) electronics of the LAr Calorimeters. Results from research and development of individual components and their radiation qualification as well as the overall system design will be presented.

  2. INTERACTION OF A 24 GeV PROTON BEAM WITH A MUON COLLIDER MERCURY JET TARGET EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND THERMODYNAMIC ASSESSMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMOS, N.; KIRK, H.; FINFROCK, C.; GREENE, G.; LUDEWIG, H.; MCDONALD, K.; MOKHOV, N.

    2001-01-01

    A muon collider or a neutrino factory based on a muon storage ring require intense beams of muons that can be generated by a 1-4 MW proton beam incident on a moving target inside a 20-T solenoid magnet, with a mercury jet as a preferred example. This paper addresses the thermodynamic interaction of the intense proton beam with the proposed mercury jet target, and the consequences of the generated pressure waves on the target integrity. Specifically, a 24 GeV proton beam with approximately 16 TP (1 TP = 10 12 protons) per pulse and a pulse length of 2 ns will interact with a 1 cm diameter mercury jet within the 20-Tesla magnetic field. In one option, a train of six such proton pulses is to be delivered on target within 2 micros, in which case the state of the mercury jet following the interaction with each pulse is critical. Using the equation of state for mercury from the SESAME library, in combination with the energy deposition rates calculated the by the hadron interaction code MARS, the induced 3-D pressure field in the target is estimated. The consequent pressure wave propagation and attenuation in the mercury jet is calculated using a transient analysis based on finite element modeling, and the state of the mercury jet at the time of arrival of the subsequent pulse is assessed. Issues associated with the use of a liquid metal jet as a target candidate are addressed. Lastly, some experimental results from the BNL E951 experiment are presented and discussed

  3. Role of projectile charge state in convoy electron emission by fast protons colliding with LiF(0 0 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldazabal, I. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimicas UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain)]. E-mail: ialdazabal@sq.ehu.es; Gravielle, M.S. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C.C. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Miraglia, J.E. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C.C. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Arnau, A. [Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Ponce, V.H. [Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, San Sebastian (Spain); Centro Atomico Bariloche, Bariloche (Argentina)

    2005-05-01

    Target ionization and projectile ionization differential cross sections are used to calculate the electron emission spectra by fast proton impact on ionic crystal surfaces under grazing incidence conditions. Both bare protons and neutral hydrogen species are considered. We use a planar potential approach to determine the projectile trajectory that later on allows us to calculate the charge state fractions. We show that, although the fraction of protons is significantly higher, the contribution from neutral hydrogen ionization has to be considered. The energy and angular dependence of the spectra is analyzed.

  4. Role of projectile charge state in convoy electron emission by fast protons colliding with LiF(0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldazabal, I.; Gravielle, M.S.; Miraglia, J.E.; Arnau, A.; Ponce, V.H.

    2005-01-01

    Target ionization and projectile ionization differential cross sections are used to calculate the electron emission spectra by fast proton impact on ionic crystal surfaces under grazing incidence conditions. Both bare protons and neutral hydrogen species are considered. We use a planar potential approach to determine the projectile trajectory that later on allows us to calculate the charge state fractions. We show that, although the fraction of protons is significantly higher, the contribution from neutral hydrogen ionization has to be considered. The energy and angular dependence of the spectra is analyzed

  5. Physics at Future Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Baur, U.; Parsons, J.; Albrow, M.; Denisov, D.; Han, T.; Kotwal, A.; Olness, F.; Qian, J.; Belyaev, S.; Bosman, M.; Brooijmans, G.; Gaines, I.; Godfrey, S.; Hansen, J.B.; Hauser, J.; Heintz, U.; Hinchliffe, I.; Kao, C.; Landsberg, G.; Maltoni, F.; Oleari, C.; Pagliarone, C.; Paige, F.; Plehn, T.; Rainwater, D.; Reina, L.; Rizzo, T.; Su, S.; Tait, T.; Wackeroth, D.; Vataga, E.; Zeppenfeld, D.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the physics opportunities and detector challenges at future hadron colliders. As guidelines for energies and luminosities we use the proposed luminosity and/or energy upgrade of the LHC (SLHC), and the Fermilab design of a Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC). We illustrate the physics capabilities of future hadron colliders for a variety of new physics scenarios (supersymmetry, strong electroweak symmetry breaking, new gauge bosons, compositeness and extra dimensions). We also investigate the prospects of doing precision Higgs physics studies at such a machine, and list selected Standard Model physics rates.

  6. Large hadron collider workshop. Proceedings. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, G.; Rein, D.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the LHC workshop at Aachen was to discuss the 'discovery potential' of a high-luminosity hadron collider (the Large Hadron Collider) and to define the requirements of the detectors. Of central interest was whether a Higgs particle with mass below 1 TeV could be seen using detectors potentially available within a few years from now. Other topics included supersymmetry, heavy quarks, excited gauge bosons, and exotica in proton-proton collisions, as well as physics to be observed in electron-proton and heavy-ion collisions. A large part of the workshop was devoted to the discussion of instrumental and detector concepts, including simulation, signal processing, data acquisition, tracking, calorimetry, lepton identification and radiation hardness. The workshop began with parallel sessions of working groups on physics and instrumentation and continued, in the second half, with plenary talks giving overviews of the LHC project and the SSC, RHIC, and HERA programmes, summaries of the working groups, presentations from industry, and conclusions. Vol.1 of these proceedings contains the papers presented at the plenary sessions, Vol.2 the individual contributions to the physics sessions, and Vol.3 those to the instrumentation sessions. (orig.)

  7. Large hadron collider workshop. Proceedings. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, G.; Rein, D.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the LHC workshop at Aachen was to discuss the 'discovery potential' of a high-luminosity hadron collider (the Large Hadron Collider) and to define the requirements of the detectors. Of central interest was whether a Higgs particle with mass below 1 TeV could be seen using detectors potentially available within a few years from now. Other topics included supersymmetry, heavy quarks, excited gauge bosons, and exotica in proton-proton collisions, as well as physics to be observed in electron-proton and heavy-ion collisions. A large part of the workshop was devoted to the discussion of instrumental and detector concepts, including simulation, signal processing, data acquisition, tracking, calorimetry, lepton identification and radiation hardness. The workshop began with parallel sessions of working groups on physics and instrumentaiton and continued, in the second half, with plenary talks giving overviews of the LHC project and the SSC, RHIC, and HERA programmes, summaries of the working groups, presentations from industry, and conclusions. Vol. 1 of these proceedings contains the papers presented at the plenary sessions, Vol. 2 the individual contributions to the physics sessions, and Vol. 3 those to the instrumentation sessions. (orig.)

  8. Large hadron collider workshop. Proceedings. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, G.; Rein, D.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the LCH workshop at Aachen was to discuss the 'discovery potential' of a high-luminosity hadron collider (the Large Hadron Collider) and to define the requirements of the detectors. Of central interest was whether a Higgs particle with mass below 1 TeV could be seen using detectors potentially available within a few years from now. Other topics included supersymmetry, heavy quarks, excited gauge bosons, and exotica in proton-proton collisions, as well as physics to be observed in electron-proton and heavy-ion collisions. A large part of the workshop was devoted to the discussion of instrumental and detector concepts, including simulation, signal processing, data acquisition, tracking, calorimetry, lepton identification and radiation hardness. The workshop began with parallel sessions of working groups on physics and instrumentation and continued, in the second half, with plenary talks giving overviews of the LHC project and the SSC, RHIC, and HERA programmes, summaries of the working groups, presentations from industry, and conclusions. Vol. 1 of these proceedings contains the papers presented at the plenary sessions, Vol. 2 the individual contributions to the physics sessions, and Vol. 3 those to the instrumentation sessions. (orig.)

  9. Very large hadron collider (VLHC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    A VLHC informal study group started to come together at Fermilab in the fall of 1995 and at the 1996 Snowmass Study the parameters of this machine took form. The VLHC as now conceived would be a 100 TeV hadron collider. It would use the Fermilab Main Injector (now nearing completion) to inject protons at 150 GeV into a new 3 TeV Booster and then into a superconducting pp collider ring producing 100 TeV c.m. interactions. A luminosity of {approximately}10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} is planned. Our plans were presented to the Subpanel on the Planning for the Future of US High- Energy Physics (the successor to the Drell committee) and in February 1998 their report stated ``The Subpanel recommends an expanded program of R&D on cost reduction strategies, enabling technologies, and accelerator physics issues for a VLHC. These efforts should be coordinated across laboratory and university groups with the aim of identifying design concepts for an economically and technically viable facility`` The coordination has been started with the inclusion of physicists from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and Cornell University. Clearly, this collaboration must expanded internationally as well as nationally. The phrase ``economically and technically viable facility`` presents the real challenge.

  10. Design of the new ATLAS Inner Tracker for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In the high luminosity era of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), the instantaneous luminosity is expected to reach unprecedented values, resulting in about 200 proton-proton interactions in a typical bunch crossing. To cope with this high rate, the ATLAS Inner Detector is being completely redesigned, and will be replaced by an all-silicon system, the Inner Tracker (ITk). This new tracker will have both silicon pixel and silicon strip sub-systems. The components of the Inner Tracker will have to be resistant to the large radiation dose from the particles produced in HL-LHC collisions, and have low mass and sufficient sensor granularity to ensure a good tracking performance over the pseudorapidity range |η|<4. In this talk, first the challenges and second possible solutions to these challenges will be discussed, i.e. designs under consideration for the pixel and strip modules, and the mechanics of local supports in the barrel and endcaps.

  11. Design of the new ATLAS Inner Tracker for the High Luminosity LHC era

    CERN Document Server

    Vickey, Trevor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the high luminosity era of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), the instantaneous luminosity is expected to reach unprecedented values, resulting in about 200 proton-proton interactions in a typical bunch crossing. To cope with this high rate, the ATLAS Inner Detector is being completely redesigned, and will be replaced by an all-silicon system, the Inner Tracker (ITk). This new tracker will have both silicon pixel and silicon strip sub-systems. The components of the Inner Tracker will have to be resistant to the large radiation dose from the particles produced in HL-LHC collisions, and have low mass and sufficient sensor granularity to ensure a good tracking performance over the pseudorapidity range |η|<4. In this talk, first the challenges and second possible solutions to these challenges will be discussed, i.e. designs under consideration for the pixel and strip modules, and the mechanics of local supports in the barrel and endcaps.

  12. Precision luminosity measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-12-05

    Measuring cross-sections at the LHC requires the luminosity to be determined accurately at each centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$. In this paper results are reported from the luminosity calibrations carried out at the LHC interaction point 8 with the LHCb detector for $\\sqrt{s}$ = 2.76, 7 and 8 TeV (proton-proton collisions) and for $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5 TeV (proton-lead collisions). Both the "van der Meer scan" and "beam-gas imaging" luminosity calibration methods were employed. It is observed that the beam density profile cannot always be described by a function that is factorizable in the two transverse coordinates. The introduction of a two-dimensional description of the beams improves significantly the consistency of the results. For proton-proton interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV a relative precision of the luminosity calibration of 1.47% is obtained using van der Meer scans and 1.43% using beam-gas imaging, resulting in a combined precision of 1.12%. Applying the calibration to the full data set determin...

  13. The uses of electrostatic bending and focussing elements for auxiliary storage rings in large proton collider tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors discuss the possibility of using electrostatic elements, instead of magnets, for bending and focusing in auxiliary electron storage rings in the tunnels of large proton accelerators. For example, in the proposed SSC tunnel, electron beam energies of --100 GeV appear to be possible. Benefits of electrostatic systems over conventional magnets in cost, aperture, beam dynamics, radiation hardness, and power are presented. Electrostatic element designs are discussed, as are applications to electron, anti-proton and heavy ion beams

  14. Towards a Muon Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichten, E.

    2011-01-01

    A multi TeV Muon Collider is required for the full coverage of Terascale physics. The physics potential for a Muon Collider at ∼3 TeV and integrated luminosity of 1 ab -1 is outstanding. Particularly strong cases can be made if the new physics is SUSY or new strong dynamics. Furthermore, a staged Muon Collider can provide a Neutrino Factory to fully disentangle neutrino physics. If a narrow s-channel resonance state exists in the multi-TeV region, the physics program at a Muon Collider could begin with less than 10 31 cm -2 s -1 luminosity. Detailed studies of the physics case for a 1.5-4 TeV Muon Collider are just beginning. The goals of such studies are to: (1) identify benchmark physics processes; (2) study the physics dependence on beam parameters; (3) estimate detector backgrounds; and (4) compare the physics potential of a Muon Collider with those of the ILC, CLIC and upgrades to the LHC.

  15. Polarized protons at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1990-12-01

    The Physics case is presented for the use of polarized protons at RHIC for one or two months each year. This would provide a facility with polarizations of approx-gt 50% high luminosity ∼2.0 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 , the possibility of both longitudinal and transverse polarization at the interaction regions, and frequent polarization reversal for control of systematic errors. The annual integrated luminosity for such running (∼10 6 sec per year) would be ∫ Ldt = 2 x 10 38 cm -2 -- roughly 20 times the total luminosity integrated in ∼ 10 years of operation of the CERN Collider (∼10 inverse picobarns, 10 37 cm -2 ). This facility would be unique in the ability to perform parity-violating measurements and polarization test of QCD. Also, the existence of p-p collisions in a new energy range would permit the study of ''classical'' reactions like the total cross section and elastic scattering, etc., and serve as a complement to measurements from p-bar p colliders. 11 refs

  16. Polycrystalline CdTe detectors: A luminosity monitor for the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gschwendtner, E.; Placidia, M.; Schmicklera, H.

    2003-01-01

    The luminosity at the four interaction points of the Large Hadron Collider must be continuously monitored in order to provide an adequate tool for the control and optimization of the collision parameters and the beam optics. At both sides of the interaction points absorbers are installed to protect the super-conducting accelerator elements from quenches caused by the deposited energy of collision products. The luminosity detectors will be installed in the copper core of these absorbers to measure the electromagnetic and hadronic showers caused by neutral particles that are produced at the proton-proton collision in the interaction points. The detectors have to withstand extreme radiation levels (108 Gy/yr at the design luminosity) and their long-term operation has to be assured without requiring human intervention. In addition the demand for bunch-by-bunch luminosity measurements, i.e. 40 MHz detection speed, puts severe constraints on the detectors. Polycrystalline CdTe detectors have a high potential to fulfill the requirements and are considered as LHC luminosity monitors. In this paper the interaction region is shown and the characteristics of the CdTe detectors are presented

  17. Polycrystalline CdTe detectors: A luminosity monitor for the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwendtner, E.; Placidia, M.; Schmicklera, H.

    2003-09-01

    The luminosity at the four interaction points of the Large Hadron Collider must be continuously monitored in order to provide an adequate tool for the control and optimization of the collision parameters and the beam optics. At both sides of the interaction points absorbers are installed to protect the super-conducting accelerator elements from quenches caused by the deposited energy of collision products. The luminosity detectors will be installed in the copper core of these absorbers to measure the electromagnetic and hadronic showers caused by neutral particles that are produced at the proton-proton collision in the interaction points. The detectors have to withstand extreme radiation levels (108 Gy/yr at the design luminosity) and their long-term operation has to be assured without requiring human intervention. In addition the demand for bunch-by-bunch luminosity measurements, i.e. 40 MHz detection speed, puts severe constraints on the detectors. Polycrystalline CdTe detectors have a high potential to fulfill the requirements and are considered as LHC luminosity monitors. In this paper the interaction region is shown and the characteristics of the CdTe detectors are presented.

  18. Luminosity monitoring and measurement at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Beretvas, A.; Derwent, P.F.

    2000-01-01

    Using two telescopes of beam-beam counters, CDF (Collider Detector at Fermilab) has measured the luminosity to an accuracy of 4.1% (3.6%) in run Ib (Ia). For run Ib (Ia) the average luminosity was 9.1(3.3)x10 30 cm -2 s -1 . For a typical data set the integrated luminosity was 86.47 (19.65) pb -1 in run Ib (Ia) resulting in a total integrated luminosity of 106.1±4.1 pb -1 . This paper shows how we have determined the accuracy of our results

  19. Search for W→cs-bar, Z→cc-bar,bb-bar in muon-jet events at the CERN proton-antiproton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransdell, J.

    1988-01-01

    A search for quark decays of the W and Z particles produced in proton-antiproton collisions at √s of 630 GeV in the UA1 experiment at the CERN collider is described. The search was made in the channels W→cs-bar, Z→cc-bar,bb-bar where b and c quarks were identified by the presence of a high-p/sub T/ muon in or near a jet. Although these decay channels avoid the copious background of QCD produced light quark and gluon jets, it was not possible to detect a W or Z signal because of the large cross section for strong cc-bar and bb-bar production

  20. Dedicating Fermilab's Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-01-15

    It was a bold move to have a fullscale dedication ceremony for the new proton-antiproton Collider at the Fermilab Tevatron on 13 October, two days before the first collisions were seen. However the particles dutifully behaved as required, and over the following weekend the Collider delivered its goods at a total energy of 1600 GeV, significantly boosting the world record for laboratory collisions.

  1. FERMILAB: Collider detectors -2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Last month's edition (April, page 12) included a status report on data collection and preliminary physics results from the 'newcomer' DO detector at Fermilab's Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. This time the spotlight falls in the Veteran' CDF detector, in action since 1985 and meanwhile significantly upgraded. Meanwhile the Tevatron collider continues to improve, with record collision rates

  2. The High Luminosity LHC Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Lucio

    The High Luminosity LHC is one of the major scientific project of the next decade. It aims at increasing the luminosity reach of LHC by a factor five for peak luminosity and a factor ten in integrated luminosity. The project, now fully approved and funded, will be finished in ten years and will prolong the life of LHC until 2035-2040. It implies deep modifications of the LHC for about 1.2 km around the high luminosity insertions of ATLAS and CMS and relies on new cutting edge technologies. We are developing new advanced superconducting magnets capable of reaching 12 T field; superconducting RF crab cavities capable to rotate the beams with great accuracy; 100 kA and hundred meter long superconducting links for removing the power converter out of the tunnel; new collimator concepts, etc... Beside the important physics goals, the High Luminosity LHC project is an ideal test bed for new technologies for the next hadron collider for the post-LHC era.

  3. Potential Remedies for the High Synchrotron-Radiation-Induced Heat Load for Future Highest-Energy-Proton Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084568; Baglin, Vincent; Schaefers, Franz

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new method for handling the high synchrotron radiation (SR) induced heat load of future circular hadron colliders (like FCC-hh). FCC-hh are dominated by the production of SR, which causes a significant heat load on the accelerator walls. Removal of such a heat load in the cold part of the machine, as done in the Large Hadron Collider, will require more than 100 MW of electrical power and a major cooling system. We studied a totally different approach, identifying an accelerator beam screen whose illuminated surface is able to forward reflect most of the photons impinging onto it. Such a reflecting beam screen will transport a significant part of this heat load outside the cold dipoles. Then, in room temperature sections, it could be more efficiently dissipated. Here we will analyze the proposed solution and address its full compatibility with all other aspects an accelerator beam screen must fulfill to keep under control beam instabilities as caused by electron cloud formation, impedance, dynamic...

  4. Multi-TeV muon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuffer, D.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility that muons may be used in a future generation of high-energy high-luminosity μ + μ - and μ - p colliders is presented. The problem of collecting and cooling high-intensity muon bunches is discussed and ionization cooling is described. High-energy collider scenarios are outlined; muon colliders may become superior to electron colliders in the multi-TeV energy range

  5. Physics prospects at a linear e+e− collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of various theories, there is need for a high luminosity e+e− collider ... International Technology Recommendation Panel took a decision that the collider ..... the presence of phases can affect the determination of the range of MSSM pa-.

  6. Luminosity Measurements with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Maettig, Stefan; Pauly, T

    For almost all measurements performed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) one crucial ingredient is the precise knowledge about the integrated luminosity. The determination and precision on the integrated luminosity has direct implications on any cross-section measurement, and its instantaneous measurement gives important feedback on the conditions at the experimental insertions and on the accelerator performance. ATLAS is one of the main experiments at the LHC. In order to provide an accurate and reliable luminosity determination, ATLAS uses a variety of different sub-detectors and algorithms that measure the luminosity simultaneously. One of these sub-detectors are the Beam Condition Monitors (BCM) that were designed to protect the ATLAS detector from potentially dangerous beam losses. Due to its fast readout and very clean signals this diamond detector is providing in addition since May 2011 the official ATLAS luminosity. This thesis describes the calibration and performance of the BCM as a luminosity detec...

  7. Z-Z' mixing effects in W±-boson pair production processes at hadron and lepton high-energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobovnikov, I.D.; Pankov, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The potential to search for Z−Z' mixing in the W ± -boson pair production processes in proton-proton and electron-positron collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and International Linear Collider (ILC), respectively, was studied. We found that the W ± -boson pair production processes are very sensitive to Z−Z' mixing angle, and their measurements at current and future collider experiments allow one to improve the present limits on Z−Z' mixing for the investigated models with extended gauge sector. The LHC at nominal energy and integrated luminosity, 14 TeV and 100 fb -1 , can provide a much more precise information on Z-Z' mixing and Z 2 mass, M 2 , with respect to those which can be obtained at the lepton collider ILC (0.5 TeV)

  8. Computing and data handling requirements for SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] and LHC [Large Hadron Collider] experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, A.J.

    1990-05-01

    A number of issues for computing and data handling in the online in environment at future high-luminosity, high-energy colliders, such as the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC), are outlined. Requirements for trigger processing, data acquisition, and online processing are discussed. Some aspects of possible solutions are sketched. 6 refs., 3 figs

  9. Calorimetry for the Future Circular Collider experiments

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00510572; Kisiel, Adam

    2017-11-21

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) Collaboration is preparing the next generation of experiments in high energy physics. The goal is to collide protons at 100 TeV centre–of–mass energy, seven times higher than at the most powerful existing accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Such machine would extend the research carried out at the LHC including the study of the Higgs boson, the search for the origin of the baryon asymmetry, the mass of neutrinos, and the dark matter. The detectors designed for the FCC experiments need to tackle the harsh conditions of the unprecedented collision energy and luminosity. At the same time, they need to provide precise measurements in a wider range of pseudorapidity than the existing experiments. The focus of this thesis is a design and performance studies of one of the sub-detectors, the electromagnetic calorimeter. Its aim is to measure the energy and the position of electrons, positrons, and photons produced in the collisions. The detector proposed in this thesis...

  10. Luminosity Targets for FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F.; Buffat, X.; Schulte, D.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the choice of target values for the peak and integrated luminosity of a future high-energy frontier circular hadron collider (FCC-hh). We review the arguments on the physics reach of a hadron collider. Next we show that accelerator constraints will limit the beam current and the turnaround time. Taking these limits into account, we derive an expression for the ultimate integrated luminosity per year, depending on a possible pile-up limit imposed by the physics experiments. We finally benchmark our result against the planned two phases of FCC-hh [1, 2, 3

  11. Future Circular Collider Study FCC-he Baseline Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Bruning, Oliver; Klein, Max; Pellegrini, Dario; Schulte, Daniel; Zimmermann, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Initial considerations are presented on the FCC-he, the electron-hadron collider con guration within the Future Circular Collider study. This note considers arguments for the choice of the electron beam energy based on physics, ep scattering kinematics and cost. The default con guration for the electron accelerator, as for the LHeC, is chosen to be a multi-turn energy recovery linac external to the proton beam tunnel. The main accelerator parameters of the FCC-he are discussed, assuming the concurrent operation of ep with the 100TeV cms energy pp collider. These are compared with the LHeC design concept, for increased performance as for a Higgs facility using the HL-LHC, and also the high energy HE-LHC ep collider configuration. Initial estimates are also provided for the luminosity performance of electron-ion colliders for the 60 GeV electron ERL when combined with the LHC, the HE-LHC and the FCC ion beams.

  12. Target and collection optimization for muon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhov, N.V.; Noble, R.J.; Van Ginneken, A.

    1996-01-01

    To achieve adequate luminosity in a muon collider it is necessary to produce and collect large numbers of muons. The basic method used in this paper follows closely a proposed scheme which starts with a proton beam impinging on a thick target (∼ one interaction length) followed by a long solenoid which collects muons resulting mainly from pion decay. Production and collection of pions and their decay muons must be optimized while keeping in mind limitations of target integrity and of the technology of magnets and cavities. Results of extensive simulations for 8 GeV protons on various targets and with various collection schemes are reported. Besides muon yields results include-energy deposition in target and solenoid to address cooling requirements for these systems. Target composition, diameter, and length are varied in this study as well as the configuration and field strengths of the solenoid channel. A curved solenoid field is introduced to separate positive and negative pions within a few meters of the target. This permits each to be placed in separate RF buckets for acceleration which effectively doubles the number of muons per bunch available for collisions and increases the luminosity fourfold

  13. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Brisbane, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Caicedo Carvajal, J M; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Constantin, F; Conti, G; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Almagne, B; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Deissenroth, M; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Eames, C; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; d'Enterria, D G; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hofmann, W; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koblitz, S; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kukulak, S; Kumar, R; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Luisier, J; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Mclean, C; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nardulli, J; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Nies, S; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B; Palacios, J; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilar, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; du Pree, T; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shao, B; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skottowe, H P; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Styles, N; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Vervink, K; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wacker, K; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overall precision of 3.5\\% in the absolute lumi...

  14. The large hadron collider project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiani, L.

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge of the fundamental constituents of matter has greatly advanced, over the last decades. The standard theory of fundamental interactions presents us with a theoretically sound picture, which describes with great accuracy known physical phenomena on most diverse energy and distance scales. These range from 10 -16 cm, inside the nucleons, up to large-scale astrophysical bodies, including the early Universe at some nanosecond after the Big-Bang and temperatures of the order of 10 2 GeV. The picture is not yet completed, however, as we lack the observation of the Higgs boson, predicted in the 100-500 GeV range - a particle associated with the generation of particle masses and with the quantum fluctuations in the primordial Universe. In addition, the standard theory is expected to undergo a change of regime in the 10 3 GeV region, with the appearance of new families of particles, most likely associated with the onset of a new symmetry (supersymmetry). In 1994, the CERN Council approved the construction of the large hadron collider (LHC), a proton-proton collider of a new design to be installed in the existing LEP tunnel, with an energy of 7 TeV per beam and extremely large luminosity, of ∝10 34 cm -2 s -1 . Construction was started in 1996, with the additional support of the US, Japan, Russia, Canada and other European countries, making the LHC a really global project, the first one in particle physics. After a short review of the physics scenario, I report on the present status of the LHC construction. Special attention is given to technological problems such as the realization of the super-conducting dipoles, following an extensive R and D program with European industries. The construction of the large LHC detectors has required a vast R and D program by a large international community, to overcome the problems posed by the complexity of the collisions and by the large luminosity of the machine. (orig.)

  15. The Large Hadron Collider: Present Status and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon R

    2000-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), due to be commissioned in 2005, will provide particle physics with the first laboratory tool to access the energy frontier above 1 TeV. In order to achieve this , protons must be accelerated and stored at 7 TeV, colliding with an unprecedented luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The 8.3 Tesla guide field is obtained using conventional NbTi technology cooled to below the lambda point of helium. Considerable modification of the infrastructure around the existing LEP tunnel is needed to house the LHC machine and detectors. The project is advancing according to schedule with most of the major hardware systems including cryogenics and magnets under construction. A brief status report is given and future prospects are discussed.

  16. The Large Hadron Collider Present Status and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon R

    2001-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), due to be commissioned in 2005, will provide particle physics with the first laboratory tool to access the energy frontier above 1 TeV. In order to achieve this , protons must be accelerated and stored at 7 TeV, colliding with an unprecedented luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The 8.3 Tesla guide field is obtained using conventional NbTi technology cooled to below the lambda point of helium. Considerable modification of the infrastructure around the existing LEP tunnel is needed to house the LHC machine and detectors. The project is advancing according to schedule with most of the major hardware systems including cryogenics and magnets under construction. A brief status report is given and future prospects are discussed.

  17. The SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phinney, N.

    1992-01-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has begun a new era of operation with the SLD detector. During 1991 there was a first engineering run for the SLD in parallel with machine improvements to increase luminosity and reliability. For the 1992 run, a polarized electron source was added and more than 10,000 Zs with an average of 23% polarization have been logged by the SLD. This paper discusses the performance of the SLC in 1991 and 1992 and the technical advances that have produced higher luminosity. Emphasis will be placed on issues relevant to future linear colliders such as producing and maintaining high current, low emittance beams and focusing the beams to the micron scale for collisions. (Author) tab., 2 figs., 18 refs

  18. Polycrystalline CdTe Detectors A Luminosity Monitor for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gschwendtner, E; Schmickler, Hermann

    2003-01-01

    The luminosity at the four interaction points of the Large Hadron Collider must be continuously monitored in order to provide an adequate tool for the control and optimization of the collision parameters and the beam optics. At both sides of the interaction points absorbers are installed to protect the super-conducting accelerator elements from quenches causes by the deposited energy of collision products. The luminosity detectors will be installed in the copper core of these absorbers to measure the electromagnetic and hadronic showers caused by neutral particles that are produced at the proton-proton collision in the interaction points. The detectors have to withstand extreme radiation levels (10^8 Gy/yr at the design luminosity) and their long-term operation has to be assured without requiring humain intervention. In addition the demand for bunch-by-bunch luminosity measurements, i.e. 40MHz detection speed, puts severe constraints on the detectors. Polycrystalline CdTe detectors have a high potential to fu...

  19. Theoretical study of the effect of the size of a high-energy proton beam of the Large Hadron Collider on the formation and propagation of shock waves in copper irradiated by 450-GeV proton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ryazanov, A I; Vasilyev, Ya S; Ferrari, A

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of 450GeV protons with copper, which is the material of the collimators of the Large Hadron Collider, has been theoretically studied. A theoretical model for the formation and propagation of shock waves has been proposed on the basis of the anal ysis of the energy released by a proton beam in the electronic subsystem of the material owing to the deceleration of secondary particles appearing in nuclear reactions induced by this beam on the electronic subsy stem of the material. The subsequent transfer of the energy from the excited electronic subsystem to the crystal lattice through the electron–phonon interaction has been described within the thermal spike model [I.M. Lifshitz, M.I. Kaganov, and L.V. Tanatarov, Sov. Phys. JETP 4 , 173 (1957); I.M. Lifshitz, M.I. Kaganov, and L.V. Tanatarov, At. Energ. 6 , 391 (1959); K. Yasui, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 90 , 409 (1994)]. The model of the formation of shock waves involves energy exchange processes between excited electronic an...

  20. Study of double parton scattering using four-jet scenarios in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV with the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078294; Haller, Johannes; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Strikman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of the dierential cross sections for multijet scenarios in proton-proton collisions are presented as a function of the transverse momentum p T and pseudorapi- dity , together with the correlations in azimuthal angle and the p T balance among the jets. Two dierent scenarios are separately studied; in the rst one an exclusive four-jet nal state is selected in j j 50 GeV each, together with two jets of p T > 20 GeV each. No other jets with p T > 20 GeV are allowed in the selected events. In the second one at least four jets with p T > 20 GeV are required: two of the four selected jets are asked to be originated by a b-quark in j j < 2.4, while no requests on the avour of the other two jets, which are selected within j j < 4.7 are applied. The data sample was collected in 2010 at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC, with an integrated luminosity of 36 pb-1. The total cross section is measured to be (pp ! 4j+X) = 330 5 (stat.) 45 (syst.) and (pp ! 2b+2j+X) = 67 : 2...

  1. Selection of jets produced in 13TeV proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Quality criteria for the selection of reconstructed anti-$k_t$ jets with $R = 0.4$ in the ATLAS detector are described. The study is based on data recorded in June 2015 by the ATLAS experiment in $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV protonâproton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider, with a total integrated luminosity of 6.4 pb$^{−1}$. Two selection criteria are introduced. The Loose selection is designed to provide an efficiency of selecting jets from proton-proton collisions above 99.5% (99.9%) for $p_T>$ 20 (100) GeV to be used in most ATLAS physics analyses. A tighter set of selection cuts, called Tight, is designed to further reject background jets for analyses sensitive to non-collision backgrounds with an efficiency of selecting jets from proton-proton collisions above 95% (99.5%) for $p_T>$ 20 (100) GeV.

  2. Future Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In response to a request from the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is preparing the foundation for a next-generation large-scale accelerator infrastructure in the heart of Europe. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh), to be accommodated in a new ∼100 km tunnel near Geneva. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee), which could be installed in the same tunnel as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detector, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb$_{3}$Sn superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. The int...

  3. Future Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In response to a request from the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is preparing the foundation for a next-generation large-scale accelerator infrastructure in the heart of Europe. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh), to be accommodated in a new ∼100 km tunnel near Geneva. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee), which could be installed in the same tunnel as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb$_{3}$Sn superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. The in...

  4. Photon collider at TESLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telnov, Valery

    2001-01-01

    High energy photon colliders (γγ, γe) based on backward Compton scattering of laser light is a very natural addition to e + e - linear colliders. In this report, we consider this option for the TESLA project. Recent study has shown that the horizontal emittance in the TESLA damping ring can be further decreased by a factor of four. In this case, the γγ luminosity in the high energy part of spectrum can reach about (1/3)L e + e - . Typical cross-sections of interesting processes in γγ collisions are higher than those in e + e - collisions by about one order of magnitude, so the number of events in γγ collisions will be more than that in e + e - collisions. Photon colliders can, certainly, give additional information and they are the best for the study of many phenomena. The main question is now the technical feasibility. The key new element in photon colliders is a very powerful laser system. An external optical cavity is a promising approach for the TESLA project. A free electron laser is another option. However, a more straightforward solution is ''an optical storage ring (optical trap)'' with a diode pumped solid state laser injector which is today technically feasible. This paper briefly reviews the status of a photon collider based on the linear collider TESLA, its possible parameters and existing problems

  5. Superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limon, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider is to be a 20 TeV per beam proton-proton accelerator and collider. Physically the SCC will be 52 miles in circumference and slightly oval in shape. The use of superconducting magnets instead of conventional cuts the circumference from 180 miles to the 52 miles. The operating cost of the SCC per year is estimated to be about $200-250 million. A detailed cost estimate of the project is roughly $3 billion in 1986 dollars. For the big collider ring, the technical cost are dominated by the magnet system. That is why one must focus on the cost and design of the magnets. Presently, the process of site selection is underway. The major R and D efforts concern superconducting dipoles. The magnets use niobium-titanium as a conductor stabilized in a copper matrix. 10 figures

  6. A Large Hadron Electron Collider at CERN, Physics, Machine, Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Adolphson, C

    2011-01-01

    The physics programme and the design are described of a new electron-hadron collider, the LHeC, in which electrons of $60$ to possibly $140$\\,GeV collide with LHC protons of $7000$\\,GeV. With an $ep$ design luminosity of about $10^{33}$\\,cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$, the Large Hadron Electron Collider exceeds the integrated luminosity collected at HERA by two orders of magnitude and the kinematic range by a factor of twenty in the four-momentum squared, $Q^2$, and in the inverse Bjorken $x$. The physics programme is devoted to an exploration of the energy frontier, complementing the LHC and its discovery potential for physics beyond the Standard Model with high precision deep inelastic scattering (DIS) measurements. These are projected to solve a variety of fundamental questions in strong and electroweak interactions. The LHeC thus becomes the world's cleanest high resolution microscope, designed to continue the path of deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering into unknown areas of physics and kinematics. The physics ...

  7. Luminosity Monitoring in ATLAS with MPX Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2086061

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS-MPX detectors are based on the Medipix2 silicon devices designed by CERN for the detection of multiple types of radiation. Sixteen such detectors were successfully operated in the ATLAS detector at the LHC and collected data independently of the ATLAS data-recording chain from 2008 to 2013. Each ATLAS-MPX detector provides separate measurements of the bunch-integrated LHC luminosity. An internal consistency for luminosity monitoring of about 2% was demonstrated. In addition, the MPX devices close to the beam are sensitive enough to provide relative-luminosity measurements during van der Meer calibration scans, in a low-luminosity regime that lies below the sensitivity of the ATLAS calorimeter-based bunch-integrating luminometers. Preliminary results from these luminosity studies are presented for 2012 data taken at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV proton-proton collisions.

  8. Beam-loss induced pressure rise of Large Hadron Collider collimator materials irradiated with 158 GeV/u $In^{49+}$ ions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, Edgar; Hansen, Jan; Page, Eric; Vincke, H

    2004-01-01

    During heavy ion operation, large pressure rises, up to a few orders of magnitude, were observed at CERN, GSI, and BNL. The dynamic pressure rises were triggered by lost beam ions that impacted onto the vacuum chamber walls and desorbed about 10/sup 4/ to 10/sup 7/ molecules per ion. The deterioration of the dynamic vacuum conditions can enhance charge-exchange beam losses and can lead to beam instabilities or even to beam abortion triggered by vacuum interlocks. Consequently, a dedicated measurement of heavy-ion induced molecular desorption in the GeV/u energy range is important for Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ion operation. In 2003, a desorption experiment was installed at the super proton synchrotron to measure the beam-loss induced pressure rise of potential LHC collimator materials. Samples of bare graphite, sputter coated (Cu, TiZrV) graphite, and 316 LN (low carbon with nitrogen) stainless steel were irradiated under grazing angle with 158 GeV/u indium ions. After a description of the new experimental ...

  9. Feedback scheme for kink instability in ERL based electron ion collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Y.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Ptitsyn, V.

    2011-01-01

    Kink instability presents one of the limiting factors from achieving higher luminosity in ERL based electron ion collider (EIC). However, we can take advantage of the flexibility of the linac and design a feedback system to cure the instability. This scheme raises the threshold of kink instability dramatically and provides opportunity for higher luminosity. We studied the effectiveness of this system and its dependence on the amplitude and phase of the feedback. In this paper we present results of theses studies of this scheme and describe its theoretical and practical limitations. The main advantage of an energy recovery linac (ERL) based electron ion collider (EIC) over a ring-ring type counterpart is the higher achievable luminosity. In ERL-based version, one electron beam collides with the opposing ion beam only once so that the beam-beam parameter can largely exceed the usual limitation in an electron collider ring, while the beam-beam parameter for the ion beam remains small values. The resulting luminosity may be enhanced by one order of magnitude. The beam dynamics related challenges also arise as the luminosity boost in ERL based EIC due to the significant beam-beam effect on the electron beam. The effects on the electron beam include the additional large beam-beam tune shift and nonlinear emittance growth, which are discussed. The ion beam may develop a head-tail type instability, referred as 'kink instability', through the interaction with the electron beam. In this paper, we discuss the feasibility of an active feedback system to mitigate the kink instability, by taking advantage of the flexibility of ERL. Throughout the paper, we will discuss the collision between proton and electron beam. Any other ion species can be scaled by its charge Z and ion mass A.

  10. Beam-beam observations in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); White, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-06-24

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been operating since 2000. Over the past decade, thanks to the continuously increased bunch intensity and reduced β*s at the interaction points, the maximum peak luminosity in the polarized proton operation has been increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In this article, we first present the beam-beam observations in the previous RHIC polarized proton runs. Then we analyze the mechanisms for the beam loss and emittance growth in the presence of beam-beam interaction. The operational challenges and limitations imposed by beam-beam interaction and their remedies are also presented. In the end, we briefly introduce head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in RHIC.

  11. Towards the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    The broad physics potential of e+e- linear colliders was recognized by the high energy physics community right after the end of LEP in 2000. In 2007, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) now under construction at CERN will obtain its first collisions. The LHC, colliding protons with protons at 14 TeV, will discover a standard model Higgs boson over the full potential mass range, and should be sensitive to new physics into the several TeV range. The program for the Linear Collider (LC) will be set in the context of the discoveries made at the LHC. All the proposals for a Linear Collider will extend the discoveries and provide a wealth of measurements that are essential for giving deeper understanding of their meaning, and pointing the way to further evolution of particle physics in the future. For the mexican groups is the right time to join such an effort

  12. The CMS Pixel Detector Upgrade and R\\&D for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Viliani, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) at CERN is expected to collide protons at a centre-of-mass energy of 14\\,TeV and to reach an unprecedented peak instantaneous luminosity of $5 \\times 10^{34}\\,{\\rm cm}^{-2} {\\rm s}^{-1}$ with an average number of pileup events of 140. This will allow the ATLAS and CMS experiments to collect integrated luminosities of up to $3000\\,{\\rm fb}^{-1}$ during the project lifetime. To cope with this extreme scenario the CMS detector will be substantially upgraded before starting the HL-LHC, a plan known as CMS Phase-2 Upgrade. In the upgrade the entire CMS silicon pixel detector will be replaced and the new detector will feature increased radiation hardness, higher granularity and capability to handle higher data rate and longer trigger latency. In this report the Phase-2 Upgrade of the CMS silicon pixel detector will be reviewed, focusing on the features of the detector layout and on the development of new pixel devices.

  13. Studies of Read-Out Electronics and Trigger for Muon Drift Tube Detectors at High Luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, Sebastian

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Centre for Particle Physics, CERN, collides protons with an unprecedentedly high centre-of-mass energy and luminosity. The collision products are recorded and analysed by four big experiments, one of which is the ATLAS detector. For precise measurements of the properties of the Higgs-Boson and searches for new phenomena beyond the Standard Model, the LHC luminosity of $L=10^{34}cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ is planned to be increased by a factor of ten leading to the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). In order to cope with the higher background and data rates, the LHC experiments need to be upgraded. In this thesis, studies for the upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer are presented with respect to the read-out electronics of the Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) and the small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers and the Level-1 muon trigger. Due to the reduced tube diameter of sMDT chambers, background occupancy and space charge effects are suppressed by an order of magnitude compar...

  14. Kinematics and resolution at future ep colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.; Klein, M.

    1992-01-01

    Limitations due to resolution and kinematics are discussed of the (Q 2 , x) range accessible with electron-proton colliders after HERA. For the time after HERA one may think of two electron-proton colliders: an asymmetric energy machine and a rather symmetric one. Both colliders are compared here in order to study the influence of the different E l /E p ratios on the accessible kinematic range which is restricted due to angular coverage, finite detector resolution and calibration uncertainties

  15. The development of colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1993-02-01

    Don Kerst, Gersh Budker, and Bruno Touschek were the individuals, and the motivating force, which brought about the development of colliders, while the laboratories at which it happened were Stanford, MURA, the Cambridge Electron Accelerator, Orsay, Frascati, CERN, and Novosibirsk. These laboratories supported, during many years, this rather speculative activity. Of course, many hundreds of physicists contributed to the development of colliders but the men who started it, set it in the right direction, and forcefully made it happen, were Don, Gersh, and Bruno. Don was instrumental in the development of proton-proton colliders, while Bruno and Gersh spearheaded the development of electron-positron colliders. In this brief review of the history, I will sketch the development of the concepts, the experiments, and the technological developments which made possible the development of colliders. It may look as if the emphasis is on theoretical concepts, but that is really not the case, for in this field -- the physics of beams -- the theory and experiment go hand in hand; theoretical understanding and advances are almost always motivated by the need to explain experimental results or the desire to construct better experimental devices

  16. Possible limits of plasma linear colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, F.

    2017-07-01

    Plasma linear colliders have been proposed as next or next-next generation energy-frontier machines for high-energy physics. I investigate possible fundamental limits on energy and luminosity of such type of colliders, considering acceleration, multiple scattering off plasma ions, intrabeam scattering, bremsstrahlung, and betatron radiation. The question of energy efficiency is also addressed.

  17. From the LHC to Future Colliders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Roeck, A.; Ellis, J.; Grojean, C.

    2010-01-01

    Discoveries at the LHC will soon set the physics agenda for future colliders. This report of a CERN Theory Institute includes the summaries of Working Groups that reviewed the physics goals and prospects of LHC running with 10 to 300/fb of integrated luminosity, of the proposed sLHC luminosity up...

  18. Status and Challenges of the Future Circular Collider Study

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Following the 2013 update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the international Future Circular Collider (FCC) study has been launched by CERN as host institute, to design an energy frontier hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new 80-100 km tunnel with a centre-of-mass energy of about 100 TeV, an order of magnitude above the LHC's, as a long-term goal. The FCC study also includes the design of a 90-350 GeV high-luminosity lepton collider (FCC-ee) fitting the same tunnel, serving as Higgs, top and Z factory, as a potential intermediate step, as well as an electron-proton collider option (FCC-he). The physics cases for such machines will be assessed, concepts for experiments be worked out, and complete accelerator designs be developed in time for the next update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics by the end of 2018. Beside superconductor improvements and high-field magnet prototyping, the FCC R&D program includes the advancement of SRF cavities based on thin film coating, the development of ...

  19. Photon-photon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1995-04-01

    Since the seminal work by Ginsburg, et at., the subject of giving the Next Linear Collider photon-photon capability, as well as electron-positron capability, has drawn much attention. A 1990 article by V.I. Teinov describes the situation at that time. In March 1994, the first workshop on this subject was held. This report briefly reviews the physics that can be achieved through the photon-photon channel and then focuses on the means of achieving such a collider. Also reviewed is the spectrum of backscattered Compton photons -- the best way of obtaining photons. We emphasize the spectrum actually obtained in a collider with both polarized electrons and photons (peaked at high energy and very different from a Compton spectrum). Luminosity is estimated for the presently considered colliders, and interaction and conversion-point geometries are described. Also specified are laser requirements (such as wavelength, peak power, and average power) and the lasers that might be employed. These include conventional and free-electron lasers. Finally, we describe the R ampersand D necessary to make either of these approaches viable and explore the use of the SLC as a test bed for a photon-photon collider of very high energy

  20. Proton cross-talk and losses in the dispersion suppressor regions at the FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2100784; Appleby, Robert Barrie; Krainer, Alexander; Langner, Andy Sven; Abelleira, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Protons that collide at the interaction points of the FCC-hh may contribute to the background in the subsequent detector. Due to the high luminosity of the proton beams this may be of concern. Using DPMJET-III to model 50 TeV proton-proton collisions, tracking studies have been performed with PTC and MERLIN in order to gauge the elastic and inelastic proton cross-talk. High arc losses, particularly in the dispersion suppressor regions, have been revealed. These losses originate mainly from particles with a momentum deviation, either from interaction with a primary collimator in the betatron cleaning insertion, or from the proton-proton collisions. This issue can be mitigated by introducing additional collimators in the dispersion suppressor region. The specific design, lattice integration, and the effect of these collimators on cross-talk is assessed.

  1. SLAC linear collider conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    The linear collider system is described in detail, including the transport system, the collider lattice, final focusing system, positron production, beam damping and compression, high current electron source, instrumentation and control, and the beam luminosity. The experimental facilities and the experimental uses are discussed along with the construction schedule and estimated costs. Appendices include a discussion of space charge effects in the linear accelerator, emittance growth in the collider, the final focus system, beam-beam instabilities and pinch effects, and detector backgrounds

  2. Electroweak results from hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarteau, Marcel

    1997-01-01

    A review of recent electroweak results from hadron colliders is given. Properties of the W ± and Z 0 gauge bosons using final states containing electrons and muons based on large integrated luminosities are presented. The emphasis is placed on the measurement of the mass of the W boson and the measurement of trilinear gauge boson couplings

  3. Theoretical study of the effect of the size of a high-energy proton beam of the Large Hadron Collider on the formation and propagation of shock waves in copper irradiated by 450-GeV proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryazanov, A. I.; Stepakov, A. V.; Vasilyev, Ya. S.; Ferrari, A.

    2014-02-01

    The interaction of 450-GeV protons with copper, which is the material of the collimators of the Large Hadron Collider, has been theoretically studied. A theoretical model for the formation and propagation of shock waves has been proposed on the basis of the analysis of the energy released by a proton beam in the electronic subsystem of the material owing to the deceleration of secondary particles appearing in nuclear reactions induced by this beam on the electronic subsystem of the material. The subsequent transfer of the energy from the excited electronic subsystem to the crystal lattice through the electron-phonon interaction has been described within the thermal spike model [I.M. Lifshitz, M.I. Kaganov, and L.V. Tanatarov, Sov. Phys. JETP 4, 173 (1957); I.M. Lifshitz, M.I. Kaganov, and L.V. Tanatarov, At. Energ. 6, 391 (1959); K. Yasui, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 90, 409 (1994)]. The model of the formation of shock waves involves energy exchange processes between excited electronic and ionic subsystems of the irradiated material and is based on the hydrodynamic approximation proposed by Zel'dovich [Ya.B. Zel'dovich and Yu.P. Raizer, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Nauka, Moscow, 1966; Dover, New York, 2002)]. This model makes it possible to obtain the space-time distributions of the main physical characteristics (temperatures of the ionic and electronic subsystems, density, pressure, etc.) in materials irradiated by high-energy proton beams and to analyze the formation and propagation of shock waves in them. The nonlinear differential equations describing the conservation laws of mass, energy, and momentum of electrons and ions in the Euler variables in the case of the propagation of shock waves has been solved with the Godunov scheme [S. K. Godunov, A.V. Zabrodin, M.Ya. Ivanov, A.N. Kraiko, and G.P. Prokopov, Numerical Solution of Multidimensional Problems in Gas Dynamics (Nauka, Moscow, 1976) [in Russian

  4. ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition Upgrades for High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00439268; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN is planning a second phase of upgrades to prepare for the "High Luminosity LHC", a 4th major run due to start in 2026. In order to deliver an order of magnitude more data than previous runs, 14 TeV protons will collide with an instantaneous luminosity of 7.5 × 1034 cm−2s−1, resulting in much higher pileup and data rates than the current experiment was designed to handle. While this extreme scenario is essential to realise the physics programme, it is a huge challenge for the detector, trigger, data acquisition and computing. The detector upgrades themselves also present new requirements and opportunities for the trigger and data acquisition system. Initial upgrade designs for the trigger and data acquisition system are shown, including the real time low latency hardware trigger, hardware-based tracking, the high throughput data acquisition system and the commodity hardware and software-based data handling and event filtering. The motivation, overall architecture and expected ...

  5. ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition Upgrades for High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00421104; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN is planning a second phase of upgrades to prepare for the "High Luminosity LHC", a 4th major run due to start in 2026. In order to deliver an order of magnitude more data than previous runs, 14 TeV protons will collide with an instantaneous luminosity of $7.5 \\times 10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$, resulting in much higher pileup and data rates than the current experiment was designed to handle. While this extreme scenario is essential to realise the physics programme, it is a huge challenge for the detector, trigger, data acquisition and computing. The detector upgrades themselves also present new requirements and opportunities for the trigger and data acquisition system. Initial upgrade designs for the trigger and data acquisition system are shown, including the real time low latency hardware trigger, hardware-based tracking, the high throughput data acquisition system and the commodity hardware and software-based data handling and event filtering. The motivation, overall architecture an...

  6. ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition Upgrades for High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    George, Simon; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN is planning a second phase of upgrades to prepare for the "High Luminosity LHC", a 4th major run due to start in 2026. In order to deliver an order of magnitude more data than previous runs, 14 TeV protons will collide with an instantaneous luminosity of 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{−2}s^{−1}, resulting in much higher pileup and data rates than the current experiment was designed to handle. While this extreme scenario is essential to realise the physics programme, it is a huge challenge for the detector, trigger, data acquisition and computing. The detector upgrades themselves also present new requirements and opportunities for the trigger and data acquisition system. Initial upgrade designs for the trigger and data acquisition system are shown, including the real time low latency hardware trigger, hardware-based tracking, the high throughput data acquisition system and the commodity hardware and software-based data handling and event filtering. The motivation, overall architecture and ...

  7. ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition Upgrades for High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Balunas, William Keaton; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN is planning a second phase of upgrades to prepare for the "High Luminosity LHC", a 4th major run due to start in 2026. In order to deliver an order of magnitude more data than previous runs, 14 TeV protons will collide with an instantaneous luminosity of $7.5 × 10^{34}$ cm$^{−2}$s$^{−1}$, resulting in much higher pileup and data rates than the current experiment was designed to handle. While this extreme scenario is essential to realise the physics programme, it is a huge challenge for the detector, trigger, data acquisition and computing. The detector upgrades themselves also present new requirements and opportunities for the trigger and data acquisition system. Initial upgrade designs for the trigger and data acquisition system are shown, including the real time low latency hardware trigger, hardware-based tracking, the high throughput data acquisition system and the commodity hardware and software-based data handling and event filtering. The motivation, overall architectur...

  8. TeV e+e- linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duff, J.

    1987-12-01

    The basic philosophy and performance and technical constraints of linear e + e - colliders at TeV energies are summarized. Collider luminosity, pinch effects due to beam interaction, beam-beam bremsstrahlung, and typical parameters for an e + e - linear collider are discussed. Accelerating structures, HF power sources, electron guns, positron production, and storage rings are considered [fr

  9. Evaluation of the radiation field in the future circular collider detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00211473; Cerutti, Francesco; Ferrari, Alfredo; Riegler, Werner; Vlachoudis, Vasilis; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The radiation load on a detector at a 100 TeV proton-proton collider, that is being investigated within the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study, is presented. A peak luminosity of 30 1034 cm−2s−1 and a total integrated luminosity of 30 ab−1 are assumed for these radiation studies. A first concept of the detector foresees the presence of central and forward sub-detectors that provide acceptance up to |η|=6 inside a magnetic field generated by the combination of a central solenoid and two forward dipoles. This layout has been modelled and relevant fluence and dose distributions have been calculated using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. Distributions of fluence rates are discussed separately for charged particles, neutrons and pho- tons. Dose and 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence, for the accumulated integrated luminosity, are presented. The peak values of these quantities in the different sub-detectors are highlighted, in order to define the radiation tolerance requirements for the choice of possible technol...

  10. ALICE luminosity determination for p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=8.16$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    Luminosity determination in ALICE is based on visible cross sections measured in van der Meer scans. In 2016, the Large Hadron Collider provided proton-lead collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=8.16$ TeV. There were two scans, one with the proton beam traveling towards the ALICE forward muon spectrometer and the second with the proton beam traveling in the opposite direction. During these scans cross sections were measured for two classes of visible interactions, based on particle detection in the ALICE luminometers: the T0 detector with pseudorapidity coverage $4.6<\\eta< 4.9$, $-3.3<\\eta<-3.0$ and the V0 detector covering $2.8<\\eta< 5.1$, $-3.7<\\eta<-1.7$. This document describes the experimental setup for such measurements and reports their results.

  11. Commissioning of the Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jakobsen, Sune; Hansen, Peter; Hansen, Jørgen Beck

    The startup of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) has initialized a new era in particle physics. The standard model of particle physics has for the last 40 years with tremendous success described all measurements with phenomenal precision. The experiments at the LHC are testing the standard model in a new energy regime. To normalize the measurements and understand the potential discoveries of the LHC experiments it is often crucial to know the interaction rate - the absolute luminosity. The ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) detector will measure luminosity by numerous methods. But for most of the methods only the relative luminosity is measured with good precision. The absolute scale has to be provided from elsewhere. ATLAS is like the other LHC experiments mainly relying of absolute luminosity calibration from van der Meer scans (beam separation scans). To cross check and maybe even improve the precision; ATLAS has built a sub-detector to measure the flux of protons scattered under very small angles as this flux...

  12. Research and Development for a Free-Running Readout System for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)758889; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters were designed and built to measure electromagnetic and hadronic energy in proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at centre-of-mass energies up to \\SI{14}{\\tera\\electronvolt} and instantaneous luminosities up to \\SI{d34}{\\per\\centi\\meter\\squared\\per\\second}. The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) programme is now developed for up to 5-7 times the design luminosity, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of \\SI{3000}{\\per\\femto\\barn}. In the HL-LHC phase, the increased radiation levels require a replacement of the front-end (FE) electronics of the LAr Calorimeters. Furthermore, the ATLAS trigger system is foreseen to increase the trigger accept rate and the trigger latency which requires a larger data volume to be buffered. Therefore, the LAr Calorimeter read-out will be exchanged with a new FE and a high bandwidth back-end (BE) system for receiving data from all \

  13. Considerations of bunch-spacing options for multi-bunch operation of the Tevatron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, G.

    1989-01-01

    This discussion will consider a number of points relevant to limitations, advantages and disadvantages of various arrangements of bunches in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. The considerations discussed here will be limited to: (a) bunch spacing symmetry and relation to the relative luminosity at B0 and D0 and the beam-beam interaction with separated beams; (b) bunch spacing constraints imposed by Main Ring RF coalescing and the optics of beam separation at B0 and D0; and (c) bunch spacing constraints imposed by injection and abort kicker timing requirements, and by the Antiproton Source RF unstacking process. 20 figs., 17 tabs

  14. Study of double parton scattering using four-jet scenarios in proton-proton collisions at √(s)=7 TeV with the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnellini, Paolo

    2015-03-01

    Measurements of the differential cross sections for multijet scenarios in proton-proton collisions are presented as a function of the transverse momentum p T and pseudorapidity, together with the correlations in azimuthal angle and the p T balance among the jets. Two different scenarios are separately studied; in the first one an exclusive four-jet final state is selected in vertical stroke η vertical stroke <4.7, by requiring two hard jets with p T >50 GeV each, together with two jets of p T >20 GeV each. No other jets with p T >20 GeV are allowed in the selected events. In the second one at least four jets with p T >20 GeV are required: two of the four selected jets are asked to be originated by a b-quark in vertical stroke η vertical stroke <2.4, while no requests on the flavour of the other two jets, which are selected within vertical stroke η vertical stroke <4.7 are applied. The data sample was collected in 2010 at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC, with an integrated luminosity of 36 pb -1 . The total cross section is measured to be σ(pp→ 4j+X)=330±5 (stat.)±4(syst.) and σ(pp→2b+2j+X)=67.2±2.2(stat.)±22.5 (syst.) for, respectively, the two selected multijet scenarios. It is found that fixed-order matrix element calculations including parton showers describe the measured differential cross sections in some regions of phase space only, and that adding contributions from double parton scattering brings the Monte Carlo predictions closer to the data. A new method of extraction of double parton scattering contributions from an experimental measurement is introduced for the first time: it is applied to W+dijet measurements and to both multijet channels. Values of σ eff are measured to be 19.0 +4.6 -3.0 mb and 23.2 +3.3 -2.5 mb for the two examined selections. These values are consistent between each other and compatible with measurements based on different physics channels at 7 TeV.

  15. Collider Physics an Experimental Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvezio Pagliarone, Carmine

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews shortly a small part of the contents of a set of lectures, presented at the XIV International School of Particles and Fields in Morelia, state of Michoacan, Mexico, during November 2010. The main goal of those lectures was to introduce students to some of the basic ideas and tools required for experimental and phenomenological analysis of collider data. In particular, after an introduction to the scientific motivations, that drives the construction of powerful accelerator complexes, and the need of reaching high center of mass energies and luminosities, some basic concept about collider particle detectors will be discussed. A status about the present running colliders and collider experiments as well as future plans and research and development is also given.

  16. Feedback systems for linear colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Hendrickson, L; Himel, Thomas M; Minty, Michiko G; Phinney, N; Raimondi, Pantaleo; Raubenheimer, T O; Shoaee, H; Tenenbaum, P G

    1999-01-01

    Feedback systems are essential for stable operation of a linear collider, providing a cost-effective method for relaxing tight tolerances. In the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), feedback controls beam parameters such as trajectory, energy, and intensity throughout the accelerator. A novel dithering optimization system which adjusts final focus parameters to maximize luminosity contributed to achieving record performance in the 1997-98 run. Performance limitations of the steering feedback have been investigated, and improvements have been made. For the Next Linear Collider (NLC), extensive feedback systems are planned as an intregal part of the design. Feedback requiremetns for JLC (the Japanese Linear Collider) are essentially identical to NLC; some of the TESLA requirements are similar but there are significant differences. For NLC, algorithms which incorporate improvements upon the SLC implementation are being prototyped. Specialized systems for the damping rings, rf and interaction point will operate at hi...

  17. Searching for light Higgs scalar boson in the next generation of electron-positron collider at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukwumah, G.C.

    1985-11-01

    The e + e - -collider facilities at LEP II, with the cm energy √S in the range 100-170 GeV may be able to detect ''light'' Higgs bosons, assuming a high luminosity. In this paper, we have calculated production cross-sections of a light Higgs boson H 0 in association with the neutral gauge boson Z 0 , for varying ranges of the cm energy expected to be available to LEP II and VLEEP (Novosibirsk) and for various values of the light Higgs mass. It is found out that production cross-sections are sizeable in comparison with those for the very massive Higgs bosons in proton-anti(proton) super-colliders, Tevatron, Spp-barS and SSC, respectively. The implication of this feature is pointed out. Further, prospects for light Higgs production in association with the charged gauge boson, W - in ultra energetic neutrino beams are examined. (author)

  18. A development plan for the Fermilab proton source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, S. D.

    1997-01-01

    The present Fermilab Proton Source is composed of a 750 KV ion source, a 400 MeV Linac, and an 8 GeV Booster synchrotron. This facility currently provides proton beams at intensities up to 5 x 10 10 protons/bunch for injection into the Main Ring in support of the current Tevatron fixed target run. Following completion of the Main Injector project in 1999, the Proton Source is expected to provide protons to the Main Injector at an intensity of 6 x 10 10 protons/bunch as required to meet established performance goals for Tevatron Collider Run II. With the advent of the Main Injector the demand for protons in support of a diverse physics research program at Fermilab will grow. This is because the Main Injector creates a new capability for simultaneous operation of the collider and fixed target programs at 120 GeV. It has also been recently appreciated that a physics program based on the utilization of unallocated 8 GeV Booster cycles is potentially very attractive. A variety of experiments are either approved or under consideration including the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NUMI) project, Kaons at the Main Injector (KAMI), and an rf separated K + beam for CPT tests, all utilizing 120 GeV protons, and a low energy neutrino (MiniBooNe) or muon program based on 8 GeV protons from the Booster. In addition significant effort is now being invested in defining paths to a factor of five improvement in Tevatron collider luminosity beyond those expected in Run II and in understanding the possible future siting of either a very large hadron collider or a modest energy ''First Muon Collider'' (FMC) at Fermilab. Support for these varied activities is beyond the capabilities of the current Proton Source--in the case of the FMC by about a factor of ten as measured in delivered protons per second. The purpose of this document is to describe a possible evolution of the Fermilab Proton Source over the next ten years. The goal is to outline a staged plan, with significant

  19. Luminosity with more bunches in PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, W.J.

    1990-12-01

    The near term accelerator physics program for PEP includes experiments in a collider mode with up to 9 bunches in each beam. In this memo, luminosity data from the 3 x 3 configuration is first used to calculate vertical beam size, emittance and tune shift as a function of current. The data is then used to extrapolate to the case with either 6 x 6 or 9 x 9 bunches colliding in PEP. Vertical emittance growth from the separated bunch optics and dispersion at the IP are included in the calculations. The conclusion is that given a 90 mA current drive limitation in PEP, operating with 6 x 6 bunches yields the maximum luminosity. 9 refs., 6 figs

  20. Studies on the impact of an extended Inner Detector tracker and a forward muon tagger on $W^{\\pm}W^{\\pm}$ scattering in $pp$ collisions at the High-Luminosity LHC with the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The impact of an extended silicon tracker and a forward muon tagger on the measurement of the \\ssWW vector boson scattering process is evaluated in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 14 TeV at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. Simulated events with two leptons of the same electric charge, missing transverse momentum, and at least two jets are analysed. The gain in significance and precision obtained with tracking, electron, and muon reconstruction extended up to $|\\eta|$ $\\le$ 4 is reported, with respect to the current coverage of $|\\eta|$ $\\le$ 2.7.

  1. Emittance control in linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    Before completing a realistic design of a next-generation linear collider, the authors must first learn the lessons taught by the first generation, the SLC. Given that, they must make designs fault tolerant by including correction and compensation in the basic design. They must also try to eliminate these faults by improved alignment and stability of components. When these two efforts cross, they have a realistic design. The techniques of generation and control of emittance reviewed here provide a foundation for a design which can obtain the necessary luminosity in a next-generation linear collider

  2. Status of neutrino factory and muon collider R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    A significant worldwide R and D effort is presently directed toward solving the technical challenges of producing, cooling, accelerating, storing, and eventually colliding beams of muons. Its primary thrust is toward issues critical to a Neutrino Factory, for which R and D efforts are under way in the U.S., via the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (MC); in Europe, centered at CERN; and in Japan, at KEK. Under study and experimental development are production targets handling intense proton beams (1-4 MW), phase rotation systems to reduce beam energy spread, cooling channels to reduce transverse beam emittance for the acceleration system, and storage rings where muon decays in a long straight section provide a neutrino beam for a long-baseline (3000 km) experiment. Critical experimental activities include development of very high gradient normal conducting RF (NCRF) and superconducting RF (SCRF) cavities, high-power liquid-hydrogen absorbers, and high-field superconducting solenoids. Components and instrumentation that tolerate the intense decay products of the muon beam are being developed for testing. For a high-luminosity collider, muons must be cooled longitudinally as well as transversely, requiring an emittance exchange scheme. In addition to the experimental R and D effort, sophisticated theoretical and simulation tools are needed for the design. Here, the goals, present status, and future R and D plans in these areas will be described

  3. Tevatron instrumentation: boosting collider performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir; Jansson, Andreas; Moore, Ronald; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with six times more bunches, many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in Run I (1992-1995). Beam diagnostics were crucial for the machine start-up and the never-ending luminosity upgrade campaign. We present the overall picture of the Tevatron diagnostics development for Run II, outline machine needs for new instrumentation, present several notable examples that led to Tevatron performance improvements, and discuss the lessons for the next big machines--LHC and ILC.

  4. Search for New Particles in Two-Jet Final States in 7 TeV Proton-Proton Collisions with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

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Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    A search for new heavy particles manifested as narrow resonances in two-jet final states is presented. The data were produced in 7 TeV proton-proton collisions by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 315 nb^-1 collected by the ATLAS detector. No resonances were observed. Upper limits were set on the product of cross section and detector acceptance for excited-quark (q*) production as a function of q* mass. These exclude at the 95% CL the q* mass interval 0.40 < mq* < 1.26 TeV, extending the reach of previous experiments.

  5. Measurements of four-jet differential cross sections in $\\sqrt(s)$ = 8 TeV proton-proton collisions using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

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Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; 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Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; 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Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2015-12-16

    Differential cross sections for the production of at least four jets have been measured in proton--proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV at the Large Hadron Collider using the ATLAS detector. The dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of $20.3 fb^{-1}$. The cross sections, corrected for detector effects, are compared to leading-order and next-to-leading-order calculations as a function of the jet momenta, invariant masses, minimum and maximum opening angles and other kinematic variables.

  6. Search for Diphoton Events with Large Missing Transverse Energy in 7 TeV Proton-Proton Collisions with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

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Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carpentieri, Carmen; Montoya, German D.Carrillo; Carron Montero, Sebastian; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, Joao; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavallari, Alvise; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Cazzato, Antonio; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerna, Cedric; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Li; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chevallier, Florent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G.; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H.; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Coluccia, Rita; Comune, Gianluca; Conde Muino, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Correard, Sebastien; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, Maria Jose; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Cote, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crepe-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuenca Almenar, Cristobal; Donszelmann, Tulay Cuhadar; Cuneo, Stefano; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Rocha Gesualdi Mello, Aline; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dahlhoff, Andrea; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dallison, Steve; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dankers, Reinier; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Daum, Cornelis; Dauvergne, Jean-Pierre; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; De Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard De; de la Taille, Christophe; De Lotto, Barbara; De Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Oliveira Branco, Miguel; De Pedis, Daniele; de Saintignon, Paul; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; de Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dedes, George; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Deile, Mario; del Papa, Carlo; del Peso, Jose; del Prete, Tarcisio; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delpierre, Pierre; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Dennis, Chris; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietl, Hans; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Yagci, Kamile Dindar; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djilkibaev, Rashid; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, Andre; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Dogan, Ozgen Berkol; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jurgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Drohan, Janice; Dubbert, Jorg; Dubbs, Tim; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duhrssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Dzahini, Daniel; Duren, Michael; Ebke, Johannes; Eckert, Simon; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Ely, Robert; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Facius, Katrine; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falou, Alain; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fasching, Damon; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Ivan; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferguson, Douglas; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernandes, Bruno; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipcic, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Steve; Flammer, Joachim; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fohlisch, Florian; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallas, Manuel; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, K.K.; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Garcia, Carmen; Garcia Navarro, Jose Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Helene; Gentile, Simonetta; Georgatos, Fotios; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghez, Philippe; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gieraltowski, Gerry; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gildemeister, Otto; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Borge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Gopfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gossling, Claus; Gottfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Goldin, Daniel; Golling, Tobias; Gollub, Nils Peter; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Goncalo, Ricardo; Gonella, Laura; Gong, Chenwei; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorisek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Gorski, Boguslaw Tomasz; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouanere, Michel; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grabski, Varlen; Grafstrom, Per; Grah, Christian; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenfield, Debbie; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griesmayer, Erich; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grognuz, Joel; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Gruwe, Magali; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Christian Johan; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hart, John; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heldmann, Michael; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frederic; Hensel, Carsten; Henss, Tobias; Hernandez Jimenez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Hidvegi, Attila; Higon-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmes, Alan; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homer, Jim; Homma, Yasuhiro; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hott, Thomas; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Idzik, Marek; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imhaeuser, Martin; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ionescu, Gelu; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishii, Koji; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Isobe, Tadaaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Itoh, Yuki; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Goran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jez, Pavel; Jezequel, Stephane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joo, Kwang; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Ju, Xiangyang; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Kazi, Sandor Istvan; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kersevan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Ketterer, Christian; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kilvington, Graham; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Guillaume; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kiyamura, Hironori; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Koblitz, Birger; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Koneke, Karsten; Konig, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Konig, Stefan; Kopke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamaki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Serguei; Kotov, Vladislav; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasel, Olaf; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Kruger, Hans; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuykendall, William; Kuze, Masahiro; Kuzhir, Polina; Kvasnicka, Ondrej; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramon; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lapin, Vladimir; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Lau, Wing; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorato, Antonia; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Lazzaro, Alfio; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Leahu, Marius; Lebedev, Alexander; Lebel, Celine; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lehto, Mark; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lellouch, Jeremie; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Leveque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewandowska, Marta; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Lockwitz, Sarah; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Sterzo, Francesco Lo; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lu, Jiansen; Lu, Liang; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dorthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Bjorn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lupi, Anna; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Massen, Michael; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macek, Bostjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mattig, Peter; Mattig, Stefan; Magalhaes Martins, Paulo Jorge; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Magrath, Caroline; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amelia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandic, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, Jose; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchesotti, Marco; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin Dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Mass, Martin; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maxfield, Stephen; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McMahon, Tania; McMahon, Tom; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meinhardt, Jens; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Merkl, Doris; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meuser, Stefan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W.Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijovic, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikulec, Bettina; Mikuz, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitra, Ankush; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjornmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Monig, Klaus; Moser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohn, Bjarte; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Mock, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Moneta, Lorenzo; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morais, Antonio; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morita, Youhei; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morone, Maria-Christina; Morris, John; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Muller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muijs, Sandra; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murakami, Koichi; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nasteva, Irina; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Nesterov, Stanislav; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norniella Francisco, Olga; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozicka, Miroslav; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Odino, Gian Andrea; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohska, Tokio Kenneth; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, Antonio; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Ordonez, Gustavo; Oreglia, Mark; Orellana, Frederik; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Ortega, Eduardo; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Oyarzun, Alejandro; Oye, Ola; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Paoloni, Alessandro; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Su-Jung; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pasztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Cavalcanti, Tiago Perez; Perez Codina, Estel; Perez Garcia-Estan, Maria Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Peric, Ivan; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Perus, Antoine; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Onne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickford, Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, Joao Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Plano, Will; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommes, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Bueso, Xavier Portell; Porter, Robert; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rajek, Silke; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Ramstedt, Magnus; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rensch, Bertram; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieke, Stefan; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodier, Stephane; Rodriguez, Diego; Rodriguez Garcia, Yohany; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Rohne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Maltrana, Diego; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rossi, Lucio; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rottlander, Iris; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Gerald; Ruhr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rulikowska-Zarebska, Elzbieta; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Runolfsson, Ogmundur; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, Jose; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Bjorn Hallvard; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandhu, Pawan; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, Joao; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savva, Panagiota; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; 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Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmidt, Michael; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitz, Martin; Schoning, Andre; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schreiner, Alexander; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, Jose; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; 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Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Sondericker, John; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorbi, Massimo; Sosebee, Mark; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spano, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St. Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stockmanns, Tobias; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Strohmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Siva; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sanchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taga, Adrian; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Gary; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Tennenbaum-Katan, Yaniv-David; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Tevlin, Christopher; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothee; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tic, Tomas; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timmermans, Charles; Tipton, Paul; Viegas, Florbela De Jes Tique Aires; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jurgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokar, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonazzo, Alessandra; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torro Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Traynor, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Treis, Johannes; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocme, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Typaldos, Dimitrios; Tyrvainen, Harri; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urkovsky, Evgeny; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Ferrer, Juan Antonio Valls; Van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; Van Eijk, Bob; van Eldik, Niels; Van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; Van Vulpen, Ivo; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Ventura, Silvia; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Viret, Sebastien; Virzi, Joseph; Vitale, Antonio; Vitells, Ofer; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vovenko, Anatoly; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Anh, Tuan Vu; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C.; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Jens; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yamada, Miho; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Weiming; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zalite, Youris; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zdrazil, Marian; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zema, Pasquale Federico; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Anton; Zenin, Oleg; Zenis, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zilka, Branislav; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Zivkovic, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2011-01-01

    A search for diphoton events with large missing transverse energy is presented. The data were collected with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at √s=7 TeV at the CERN Large Hadron Collider and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 3.1 pb−1. No excess of such events is observed above the Standard Model background prediction. In the context of a specific model with one Universal Extra Dimension with compactification radius R and gravity-induced decays, values of 1/R<728 GeV are excluded at 95% CL, providing the most sensitive limit on this model to date.

  7. Colliding druthers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Johnson, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    Recommendations are made to maximize the usefulness of the colliding beam facility of the Main Ring and Energy Doubler at the Fermilab accelerator. The advantages of the transposed crossing geometry over the kissing geometry are pointed out

  8. Effect of 3D Polarization profiles on polarization measurements and colliding beam experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.; Bazilevsky, A.

    2011-08-18

    The development of polarization profiles are the primary reason for the loss of average polarization. Polarization profiles have been parametrized with a Gaussian distribution. We derive the effect of 3-dimensional polarization profiles on the measured polarization in polarimeters, as well as the observed polarization and the figure of merit in single and double spin experiments. Examples from RHIC are provided. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is the only collider of spin polarized protons. During beam acceleration and storage profiles of the polarization P develop, which affect the polarization measured in a polarimeter, and the polarization and figure of merit (FOM) in colliding beam experiments. We calculate these for profiles in all dimensions, and give examples for RHIC. Like in RHIC we call the two colliding beams Blue and Yellow. We use the overbar to designate intensity-weighted averages in polarimeters (e.g. {bar P}), and angle brackets to designate luminosity-weighted averages in colliding beam experiments (e.g.

    ).

  9. Effect of 3D Polarization profiles on polarization measurements and colliding beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.; Bazilevsky, A.

    2011-01-01

    The development of polarization profiles are the primary reason for the loss of average polarization. Polarization profiles have been parametrized with a Gaussian distribution. We derive the effect of 3-dimensional polarization profiles on the measured polarization in polarimeters, as well as the observed polarization and the figure of merit in single and double spin experiments. Examples from RHIC are provided. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is the only collider of spin polarized protons. During beam acceleration and storage profiles of the polarization P develop, which affect the polarization measured in a polarimeter, and the polarization and figure of merit (FOM) in colliding beam experiments. We calculate these for profiles in all dimensions, and give examples for RHIC. Like in RHIC we call the two colliding beams Blue and Yellow. We use the overbar to designate intensity-weighted averages in polarimeters (e.g. (bar P)), and angle brackets to designate luminosity-weighted averages in colliding beam experiments (e.g. ).

  10. Collider Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Zeppenfeld, D.

    1999-01-01

    These lectures are intended as a pedagogical introduction to physics at $e^+e^-$ and hadron colliders. A selection of processes is used to illustrate the strengths and capabilities of the different machines. The discussion includes $W$ pair production and chargino searches at $e^+e^-$ colliders, Drell-Yan events and the top quark search at the Tevatron, and Higgs searches at the LHC.

  11. Development of a Novel Diamond Based Detector for Machine Induced Background and Luminosity Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Hempel, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the largest particle accelerator and storage ring in the world,used to investigate fundamentals of particle physics and to develop at the same time the technology of accelerators and detectors. Four main experiments, located around the LHC ring, provideinsight into the nature of particles and search for answers to as yet unexplained phenomena in theuniverse. These four experiments are ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus), ALICE (A Large IonCollider Experiment), CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) and LHCb (LHC beauty). Two proton orheavy ion beams circulate in the LHC and are brought into collision in the four experiments.The physics potential of each experiment is determined by the luminosity, which is a ratio of thenumber of the events during a certain time period to the cross section of a physics process. Ameasurement of the luminosity is therefore essential to determine the cross section of interestingphysics processes.In addition, safe and high-quality data-taking requires stable b...

  12. TMDs and GPDs at a future Electron-Ion Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ent, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    In the U.S., an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) of energy √(s) = 20-100 GeV is under design, with two options studied at Brookhaven National Lab and Jefferson Laboratory. The recent 2015 US Nuclear Science Long-Range Planning effort included a future EIC as a recommendation for future construction. The EIC will be unique in colliding polarised electrons off polarised protons and light nuclei, providing the spin degrees of freedom essential to pursue its physics program driven by spin structure, multi-dimensional tomographic images of protons and nuclei, and discovery of the role of collective effects of gluons in nuclei. The foreseen luminosity of the EIC, coupled with its energy variability and reach, will allow unprecedented three-dimensional imaging of the gluon and sea quark distributions, via both TMDs and GPDs, and to explore correlations amongst them. Its hermetic detection capability of correlated fragments promises to similarly allow for precise tomographic images of the quark-gluon landscape in nuclei, transcending from light few-body nuclei to the heaviest nuclei, and could uncover how the TMD and GPD landscape changes when gluons display an anticipated collective behavior at the higher energies. (orig.)

  13. ISABELLE: a 200 + 200 GeV colliding beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.

    1977-01-01

    Plans are under way for the construction of a pair of intersecting storage rings providing for colliding beams of protons of energy at least 200 GeV. The rings (circumference 2.62 km) will contain superconducting magnets constructed with braided Nb--Ti filamentary wire, with a peak field of 4.0 T corresponding to an energy of 200 GeV. A current of 10 A of protons will be injected at 29 GeV from the existing AGS accelerator at Brookhaven, using the energy stacking technique similar to that employed at the CERN ISR; subsequently the stored beam will be accelerated gradually in the storage rings. Six intersection areas will be provided for experiments. They are designed to provide flexibility in beam characteristics for different experiments. The maximum luminosity at full energy is expected to be 1.0 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 , at 29 GeV it will be approximately 10 32 cm -2 s -1 . Recent work with prototype magnets indicates that fields of 5.0 T can be produced. This has led to an alternative design of somewhat larger rings (circumference 3.77 km) that should be capable of providing colliding beams at 400 + 400 GeV

  14. Mighty Murines: Neutrino Physics at very high Energy Muon Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, B.J.

    2000-01-01

    An overview is given of the potential for neutrino physics studies through parasitic use of the intense high energy neutrino beams that would be produced at future many-TeV muon colliders. Neutrino experiments clearly cannot compete with the collider physics. Except at the very highest energy muon colliders, the main thrust of the neutrino physics program would be to improve on the measurements from preceding neutrino experiments at lower energy muon colliders, particularly in the fields of B physics, quark mixing and CP violation. Muon colliders at the 10 TeV energy scale might already produce of order 10 8 B hadrons per year in a favorable and unique enough experimental environment to have some analytical capabilities beyond any of the currently operating or proposed B factories. The most important of the quark mixing measurements at these energies might well be the improved measurements of the important CKM matrix elements |V ub | and |V cb | and, possibly, the first measurements of |V td | in the process of flavor changing neutral current interactions involving a top quark loop. Muon colliders at the highest center-of-mass energies that have been conjectured, 100--1,000 TeV, would produce neutrino beams for neutrino-nucleon interaction experiments with maximum center-of-mass energies from 300--1,000 GeV. Such energies are close to, or beyond, the discovery reach of all colliders before the turn-on of the LHC. In particular, they are comparable to the 314 GeV center-of-mass energy for electron-proton scattering at the currently operating HERA collider and so HERA provides a convenient benchmark for the physics potential. It is shown that these ultimate terrestrial neutrino experiments, should they eventually come to pass, would have several orders of magnitude more luminosity than HERA. This would potentially open up the possibility for high statistics studies of any exotic particles, such as leptoquarks, that might have been previously discovered at these

  15. Il Collisore LHC (Large Hadron Collider)

    CERN Multimedia

    Brianti, Giorgio

    2004-01-01

    In 2007, in a new Collider in the tunnel of 27km, collisions will be made between very powerful beams of protons and ions. The energies will be very high to try to catch the most tiny particle (1 page)

  16. Future Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, Eberhard

    1998-01-01

    Plans for future hadron colliders are presented, and accelerator physics and engineering aspects common to these machines are discussed. The Tevatron is presented first, starting with a summary of the achievements in Run IB which finished in 1995, followed by performance predictions for Run II which will start in 1999, and the TeV33 project, aiming for a peak luminosity $L ~ 1 (nbs)^-1$. The next machine is the Large Hadron Collider LHC at CERN, planned to come into operation in 2005. The last set of machines are Very Large Hadron Colliders which might be constructed after the LHC. Three variants are presented: Two machines with a beam energy of 50 TeV, and dipole fields of 1.8 and 12.6 T in the arcs, and a machine with 100 TeV and 12 T. The discussion of accelerator physics aspects includes the beam-beam effect, bunch spacing and parasitic collisions, and the crossing angle. The discussion of the engineering aspects covers synchrotron radiation and stored energy in the beams, the power in the debris of the p...

  17. The Stanford Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emma, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) is the first and only high-energy e + e - linear collider in the world. Its most remarkable features are high intensity, submicron sized, polarized (e - ) beams at a single interaction point. The main challenges posed by these unique characteristics include machine-wide emittance preservation, consistent high intensity operation, polarized electron production and transport, and the achievement of a high degree of beam stability on all time scales. In addition to serving as an important machine for the study of Z 0 boson production and decay using polarized beams, the SLC is also an indispensable source of hands-on experience for future linear colliders. Each new year of operation has been highlighted with a marked improvement in performance. The most significant improvements for the 1994-95 run include new low impedance vacuum chambers for the damping rings, an upgrade to the optics and diagnostics of the final focus systems, and a higher degree of polarization from the electron source. As a result, the average luminosity has nearly doubled over the previous year with peaks approaching 10 30 cm -2 s -1 and an 80% electron polarization at the interaction point. These developments as well as the remaining identifiable performance limitations will be discussed

  18. Challenges of particle flow reconstruction in the CMS High-Granularity Calorimeter at the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chlebana, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The challenges of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) are driven by the large number of overlapping proton-proton collisions (pileup) in each bunch-crossing and the extreme radiation dose to detectors positioned at high pseudorapidity. To overcome this challenge CMS is designing and implementing an endcap electromagnetic+hadronic sampling calorimeter employing silicon pad devices in the electromagnetic and front hadronic sections, comprising over 6 million channels, and highly-segmented plastic scintillators in the rear part of the hadronic section. This High-Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) will be the first of its kind used in a colliding beam experiment. Clustering deposits of energy over many cells and layers is a complex and challenging computational task, particularly in the high-pileup and high-event-rate environment of HL-LHC. These challenges and their solutions will be discussed in detail, as well as their implementation in the HGCAL offline reconstruction. Baseline detector performance results will be ...

  19. Final focus designs for crab waist colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bogomyagkov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The crab waist collision scheme promises significant luminosity gain. The successful upgrade of the DAΦNE collider proved the principle of crab waist collision and increased luminosity 3 times. Therefore, several new projects try to implement the scheme. The paper reviews interaction region designs with the crab waist collision scheme for already existent collider DAΦNE and SuperKEKB, presently undergoing commissioning, for the projects of SuperB in Italy, CTau in Novosibirsk and FCC-ee at CERN.

  20. Progress on next generation linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, I focus on reviewing the issues and progress on a next generation linear collider with the general parameters of energy, luminosity, length, power, technology. The energy range is dictated by physics with a mass reach well beyond LEP, although somewhat short of SSC. The luminosity is that required to obtain 10 3 /minus/ 10 4 units of R 0 per year. The length is consistent with a site on Stanford land with collisions occurring on the SLAC site. The power was determined by economic considerations. Finally, the technology was limited by the desire to have a next generation linear collider before the next century. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Beam instrumentation for the Tevatron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Ronald S.; Jansson, Andreas; Shiltsev, Vladimir; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with six times more bunches and many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in Run I (1992-1995). Beam diagnostics were crucial for the machine start-up and the never-ending luminosity upgrade campaign. We present the overall picture of the Tevatron diagnostics development for Run II, outline machine needs for new instrumentation, present several notable examples that led to Tevatron performance improvements, and discuss the lessons for future colliders.

  2. Accelerator Physics Challenges for Future Linear Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raubenheimer, Tor O

    1999-08-09

    At the present time, there are a number of future linear collider designs with a center-of-mass energy of 500 GeV or more with luminosities in excess of 10{sup -34}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} . Many of these designs are at an advanced state of development. However, to attain the high luminosity, the colliders require very small beam emittances, strong focusing, and very good stability. In this paper, some of the outstanding issues related to producing and maintaining the small beam sizes are discussed. Although the different designs are based on very different rf technologies, many of these problems are common.

  3. Muon muon collider: Feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-18

    A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 10{sup 35} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice--the authors believe--to allow them to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle physics and, therefore, worthy of R and D support so that the reality of, and interest in, a muon collider can be better assayed. The goal of this support would be to completely assess the physics potential and to evaluate the cost and development of the necessary technology. The muon collider complex consists of components which first produce copious pions, then capture the pions and the resulting muons from their decay; this is followed by an ionization cooling channel to reduce the longitudinal and transverse emittance of the muon beam. The next stage is to accelerate the muons and, finally, inject them into a collider ring which has a small beta function at the colliding point. This is the first attempt at a point design and it will require further study and optimization. Experimental work will be needed to verify the validity of diverse crucial elements in the design.

  4. Muon muon collider: Feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 10 35 cm -2 s -1 . The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice--the authors believe--to allow them to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle physics and, therefore, worthy of R and D support so that the reality of, and interest in, a muon collider can be better assayed. The goal of this support would be to completely assess the physics potential and to evaluate the cost and development of the necessary technology. The muon collider complex consists of components which first produce copious pions, then capture the pions and the resulting muons from their decay; this is followed by an ionization cooling channel to reduce the longitudinal and transverse emittance of the muon beam. The next stage is to accelerate the muons and, finally, inject them into a collider ring which has a small beta function at the colliding point. This is the first attempt at a point design and it will require further study and optimization. Experimental work will be needed to verify the validity of diverse crucial elements in the design

  5. ISABELLE: a proposal for construction of a proton--proton storage accelerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    The construction of an Intersecting Storage Accelerator Facility (ISA or ISABELLE) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is proposed. ISABELLE will permit the exploration of proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energies continuously variable from 60 to 400 GeV and with luminosities of 10 32 to 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 over the entire range. An overview of the physics potential of this machine is given, covering the production of charged and neutral intermediate vector bosons, the hadron production at high transverse momentum, searches for new, massive particles, and the energy dependence of the strong interactions. The facility consists of two interlaced rings of superconducting magnets in a common tunnel about 3 km in circumference. The proton beams will collide at eight intersection regions where particle detectors will be arranged for studying the collision processes. Protons of approximately 30 GeV from the AGS will be accumulated to obtain the design current of 10A prior to acceleration to final energy. The design and performance of existing full-size superconducting dipoles and quadrupoles is described. The conceptual design of the accelerator systems and the conventional structures and buildings is presented. A preliminary cost estimate and construction schedule are given. Possible future options such as proton-antiproton, proton-deuteron and electron-proton collisions are discussed

  6. Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, J.

    2001-01-01

    After several years of study e''+ e''- linear colliders in the TeV range have emerged as the major and optimal high-energy physics projects for the post-LHC era. These notes summarize the present status form the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC era. These notes summarize the present status, from the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC is expected to provide first discoveries in the new energy domain, whereas an e''+ e''- linear collider in the 500 GeV-1 TeV will be able to complement it to an unprecedented level of precision in any possible areas: Higgs, signals beyond the SM and electroweak measurements. It is evident that the Linear Collider program will constitute a major step in the understanding of the nature of the new physics beyond the Standard Model. (Author) 22 refs

  7. Report of the reference designs study group on the superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    In December, 1983, the directors of the US high energy accelerator laboratories chartered the National SSC Reference Designs Study to review in detail the technical and economic feasibility of various options for creating the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) facility, a 20 TeV on 20 TeV proton-proton collider having a luminosity up to 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 . The primary objective of the study was to help the DOE, the high energy physics community, and the scientific community as a whole to decide how best to proceed with SSC R and D directed toward improving the cost effectiveness of applicable accelerator technology. We have concluded that the basic principles of design used successfully for existing accelerators can be conservatively extended to a proton collider having the SSC primary specifications of energy and luminosity. Furthermore, each of the three reference magnet styles studied could serve as the foundation for an SSC facility meeting these specifications. A vigorous R and D program of approximately three years duration will be required to refine the cost estimates for the magnets, to determine their actual performance, to determine their manufacturability and reliability, and to develop cost-effective methods for their assembly and quality assurance. It is anticipated that the magnet options can be narrowed to a single one during an early phase of the R and D program. An important R and D goal will be to produce, using mass-production methods, a significant number of magnets of the chosen style. These magnets would then be thoroughly tested under conditions simulating actual accelerator operations

  8. Upgrade of the ATLAS detectors and trigger at the High Luminosity LHC: tracking and timing for pile-up suppression

    CERN Document Server

    Testa, Marianna; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The High Luminosity-Large Hadron Collider  is expected to start data-taking in 2026 and to provide an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1, giving a factor 10 more data than will be collected by 2023. This high statistics will make it possible to perform precise measurements in the Higgs sector and improve searches of new physics at the TeV scale. The luminosity is expected to be 7.5 ×1034 cm-2 s-1, corresponding to about 200 proton-proton pile-up interactions, which will increase the rates at each level of the trigger and degrade the reconstruction performance. To cope with such a harsh environment some sub-detectors of the ATLAS experiment will be upgraded or completely substituted and the Trigger-DAQ system will be upgraded. In this talk an overview of two new sub-detectors enabling powerful pile-up suppression, a new Inner Tracker and a proposed High Granularity Timing Detector, will be given, describing the two technologies, their performance, and their interplay. Emphasis will also be given to the possi...

  9. Upgrade of the ATLAS detectors and trigger at the High Luminosity LHC: tracking and timing for pile-up suppression

    CERN Document Server

    Testa, Marianna; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The High Luminosity-Large Hadron Collider is expected to start data-taking in 2026 and to provide an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb^{-1}, giving a factor 10 more data than will be collected by 2023. This high statistics will make it possible to perform precise measurements in the Higgs sector and improve searches of new physics at the TeV scale. The luminosity is expected to be 7.5 \\times 10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1}, corresponding to about 200 proton-proton pile-up interactions, which will increase the rates at each level of the trigger and degrade the reconstruction performance. To cope with such a harsh environment some sub-detectors of the ATLAS experiment will be upgraded or completely substituted and the Trigger-DAQ system will be upgraded. In this talk an overview of two new sub-detectors enabling powerful pile-up suppression, a new Inner Tracker and a proposed High Granularity Timing Detector, will be given, describing the two technologies, their performance, and their interplay. Emphasis will also be giv...

  10. Muon collider interaction region design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Alexahin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Design of a muon collider interaction region (IR presents a number of challenges arising from low β^{*}<1  cm, correspondingly large beta-function values and beam sizes at IR magnets, as well as the necessity to protect superconducting magnets and collider detectors from muon decay products. As a consequence, the designs of the IR optics, magnets and machine-detector interface are strongly interlaced and iterative. A consistent solution for the 1.5 TeV center-of-mass muon collider IR is presented. It can provide an average luminosity of 10^{34}  cm^{-2} s^{-1} with an adequate protection of magnet and detector components.

  11. MPX detectors as LHC luminosity monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopczak, Andre; Ali, Babar; Bergmann, Benedikt; Caforio, Davide; Heijne, Erik; Pospisil, Stanislav; Seifert, Frank; Solc, Jaroslav; Suk, Michal; Turecek, Daniel [IEAP CTU in Prague (Czech Republic); Ashba, Nedaa; Leroy, Claude; Soueid, Paul [University of Montreal (Canada); Bekhouche, Khaled [Biskra University (Algeria); Campbell, Michael; Nessi, Marzio [CERN (Switzerland); Lipniacka, Anna [Bergen University (Norway)

    2016-07-01

    A network of 16 Medipix-2 (MPX) silicon pixel devices was installed in the ATLAS detector cavern at CERN. It was designed to measure the composition and spectral characteristics of the radiation field in the ATLAS experiment and its surroundings. This study demonstrates that the MPX network can also be used as a self-sufficient luminosity monitoring system. The MPX detectors collect data independently of the ATLAS data-recording chain, and thus they provide independent measurements of the bunch-integrated ATLAS/LHC luminosity. In particular, the MPX detectors located close enough to the primary interaction point are used to perform van der Meer calibration scans with high precision. Results from the luminosity monitoring are presented for 2012 data taken at √(s) =8 TeV proton-proton collisions. The characteristics of the LHC luminosity reduction rate are studied and the effects of beam-beam (burn-off) and beam-gas (single bunch) interactions are evaluated. The systematic variations observed in the MPX luminosity measurements are below 0.3% for one minute intervals.

  12. The rise of colliding beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1992-06-01

    It is a particular pleasure for me to have this opportunity to review for you the rise of colliding beams as the standard technology for high-energy-physics accelerators. My own career in science has been intimately tied up in the transition from the old fixed-target technique to colliding-beam work. I have led a kind of double life both as a machine builder and as an experimenter, taking part in building and using the first of the colliding-beam machines, the Princeton-Stanford Electron-Electron Collider, and building the most recent advance in the technology, the Stanford Linear Collider. The beginning was in 1958, and in the 34 years since there has been a succession of both electron and proton colliders that have increased the available center-of-mass energy for hard collisions by more than a factor of 1000. For the historians here, I regret to say that very little of this story can be found in the conventional literature. Standard operating procedure for the accelerator physics community has been publication in conference proceedings, which can be obtained with some difficulty, but even more of the critical papers are in internal laboratory reports that were circulated informally and that may not even have been preserved. In this presentation I shall review what happened based on my personal experiences and what literature is available. I can speak from considerable experience on the electron colliders, for that is the topic in which I was most intimately involved. On proton colliders my perspective is more than of an observer than of a participant, but I have dug into the literature and have been close to many of the participants

  13. The super collider revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.; Pato, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors suggest a revised version of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) that employs the planned SSC first stage machine as an injector of 0.5 TeV protons into a power laser accelerator. The recently developed Non-linear Amplification of Inverse Bremsstrahlung Acceleration (NAIBA) concept dictates the scenario of the next stage of acceleration. Post Star Wars lasers, available at several laboratories, can be used for the purpose. The 40 TeV CM energy, a target of the SSC, can be obtained with a new machine which can be 20 times smaller than the planned SSC

  14. Collider Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is summary of the activities of the working group on collider physics in the IXth Workshop on High Energy Physics Phenomenology (WHEPP-9) held at the Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India in January 2006. Some of the work subsequently done on these problems by the subgroups formed during the workshop is ...

  15. Acceleration of electrons by the wake field of proton bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel idea to accelerate low-intensity bunches of electrons (or positrons) by the wake field of intense proton bunches travelling along the axis of a cylindrical rf structure. Accelerating gradients in excess of 100 MeV/m and large ''transformer ratios'', which allow for acceleration of electrons to energies in the TeV range, are calculated. A possible application of the method is an electron-positron linear collider with luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . The relatively low cost and power consumption of the method is emphasized

  16. On the Future High Energy Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir [Fermilab

    2015-09-28

    High energy particle colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics for more than three decades. At present the near term US, European and international strategies of the particle physics community are centered on full exploitation of the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). A number of the next generation collider facilities have been proposed and are currently under consideration for the medium and far-future of accelerator-based high energy physics. In this paper we offer a uniform approach to evaluation of various accelerators based on the feasibility of their energy reach, performance potential and cost range.

  17. SLAC linear collider conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The linear collider system is described in detail, including the transport system, the collider lattice, final focusing system, positron production, beam damping and compression, high current electron source, instrumentation and control, and the beam luminosity. The experimental facilities and the experimental uses are discussed along with the construction schedule and estimated costs. Appendices include a discussion of space charge effects in the linear accelerator, emittance growth in the collider, the final focus system, beam-beam instabilities and pinch effects, and detector backgrounds. (GHT)

  18. Beamstrahlung spectra in next generation linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.; Chen, P. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Kozanecki, W. (DAPNIA-SPP, CEN-Saclay (France))

    1992-04-01

    For the next generation of linear colliders, the energy loss due to beamstrahlung during the collision of the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} beams is expected to substantially influence the effective center-of-mass energy distribution of the colliding particles. In this paper, we first derive analytical formulae for the electron and photon energy spectra under multiple beamstrahlung processes, and for the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {gamma}{gamma} differential luminosities. We then apply our formulation to various classes of 500 GeV e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider designs currently under study.

  19. Probing Anomalous WW γ and WWZ Couplings with Polarized Electron Beam at the LHeC and FCC-Ep Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Turk Cakir, I; Tasci, A T; Cakir, O

    2016-01-01

    We study the anomalous WWγ and WWZ couplings by calculating total cross sections of two processes at the LHeC with electron beam energy Ee=140 GeV and the proton beam energy Ep=7 TeV, and at the FCC-ep collider with the polarized electron beam energy Ee=80 GeV and the proton beam energy Ep=50 TeV. At the LHeC with electron beam polarization, we obtain the results for the difference of upper and lower bounds as (0.975, 0.118) and (0.285, 0.009) for the anomalous (∆κγ, λγ) and (∆κz, λz) couplings, respectively. As for FCC-ep collider, these bounds are obtained as (1.101, 0.065) and (0.320, 0.002) at an integrated luminosity of Lint=100 fb-1.

  20. Luminosity measurement at AMY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A precise measurement of a luminosity is required by experiments with high statistics. The largest sources of a systematic error of a luminosity measurement are an alignment of the tube chambers which measure a polar angle of Bhabha events and a higher order correction for the Bhabha cross section calculation. We describe a resent study for these uncertainties and how to reduce the systematic errors from these sources. The total systematic error of the luminosity measurement of 1.8% can be reduced to 1.0% by this study. (author)

  1. Electron Lenses for the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancari, Giulio [Fermilab; Valishev, Alexander [Fermilab; Bruce, Roderik [CERN; Redaelli, Stefano [CERN; Rossi, Adriana [CERN; Salvachua, Belen [CERN

    2014-07-01

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for bunch-by-bunch compensation of long-range beam-beam tune shifts, for removal of uncaptured particles in the abort gap, for preliminary experiments on head-on beam-beam compensation, and for the demonstration of halo scraping with hollow electron beams. Electron lenses for beam-beam compensation are being commissioned in RHIC at BNL. Within the US LHC Accelerator Research Program and the European HiLumi LHC Design Study, hollow electron beam collimation was studied as an option to complement the collimation system for the LHC upgrades. This project is moving towards a technical design in 2014, with the goal to build the devices in 2015-2017, after resuming LHC operations and re-assessing needs and requirements at 6.5 TeV. Because of their electric charge and the absence of materials close to the proton beam, electron lenses may also provide an alternative to wires for long-range beam-beam compensation in LHC luminosity upgrade scenarios with small crossing angles.

  2. Analysis of test-beam data with hybrid pixel detector prototypes for the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) vertex detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pequegnot, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    The LHC is currently the most powerful accelerator in the world. This proton-proton collider is now stoppped to increase significantly its luminosity and energy, which would provide a larger discovery potential in 2014 and beyond. A high-energy $e^{+}e^{-}$ collider, such as CLIC, is an option to complement and to extend the LHC physics programme. Indeed, a lepton collider gives access to additional physics processes, beyond those observable at the LHC, and therefore provides new discovery potential. It can also provide complementary and/or more precise information about new physics uncovered at the LHC. Many essential features of a detector are required to deliver the full physics potential of this CLIC machine. In this present report, I present my work on the vertex detector R\\&D for this future linear collider, which aims at developping highly granular and ultra-thin position sensitive detection devices with very low power consumption and fast time-stamping capability. We tested here thin silicon pixel...

  3. Super High Energy Colliding Beam Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaziz, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    This lecture presents a review of cyclic accelerators and their energy limitations. A description is given of the phase stability principle and evolution of the synchrotron, an accelerator without energy limitation. Then the concept of colliding beams emerged to yield doubling of the beam energy as in the Tevatron 2 trillion electron volts (TeV) proton collider at Fermilab and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is now planned as a 14-TeV machine in the 27 kilometer tunnel of the Large Electron Positron (LEP) collider at CERN. Then presentation is given of the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC), a giant accelerator complex with energy 40-TeV in a tunnel 87 kilometers in circumference under the country surrounding Waxahachie in Texas, U.S.A. These superhigh energy accelerators are intended to smash protons against protons at energy sufficient to reveal the nature of matter and to consolidate the prevailing general theory of elementary particle.

  4. The spectrometer system for measuring ZEUS luminosity at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helbich, M.; Ning, Y.; Paganis, S.; Ren, Z.; Schmidke, W.B.; Sciulli, F.; Schneekloth, U.; Buettner, C.; Caldwell, A.; Sutiak, J.

    2006-01-01

    The upgrade of the HERA accelerator has provided much increased collider luminosity. In turn, the improvements have necessitated a new design for the ZEUS luminosity measurements. The intense synchrotron radiation field, as well as the high probability of a bremsstrahlung photon in each bunch crossing, posed new experimental constraints. In this report, we describe how these challenges were met with the ZEUS luminosity spectrometer system. The design, testing and commissioning of the device are described, and the results from the initial operational experience are reported

  5. Physics potential of ATLAS detector with high luminosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Bing

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is designed to exploit the full physics potential in the TeV energy region opened up by the Large Hadron Collider at a center of mass energy of 14 TeV with very high luminosities. The physics performance of the ATLAS detector on Higgs, extra-dimension and strong symmetry breaking scenario is summarized in this note. ATLAS experiment has great discovery potential for these new phenomena with high luminosity. Triple gauge couplings are very sensitive for probing new physics at TeV scale. We show that ATLAS can measure these couplings very precisely with high luminosity. (orig.)

  6. Luminosity Optimization With Offset, Crossing Angle, and Distortion

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Juhao

    2005-01-01

    In a linear collider, sources of beam jitter due to kicker noise, quadrupole vibration and long-range transverse wakefields will lead to beam offsets and tilts at the Intersection Point (IP). In addition, sources of emittance dilution such as short-range transverse wakefields or dispersive errors will lead to internal beam distortions. When the IP disruption parameter is large, these beam imperfections will be amplified by a single bunch kink instability which will lead to luminosity loss. In this paper, we study the luminosity loss and then the optimization required to cancel the luminosity loss first analytically and then with simulation.

  7. Radiation protection considerations in the design of the LHC, CERN's large hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.; Huhtinen, M.; Moritz, L.E.; Nakashima, H.; Potter, K.M.; Rollet, S.; Stevenson, G.R.; Zazula, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the radiological concerns which are being taken into account in the design of the LHC (CERN's future Large Hadron Collider). The machine will be built in the 27 km circumference ring tunnel of the existing LEP collider at CERN. The high intensity of the circulating beams (each containing more than 10 14 protons at 7 TeV) determines the thickness specification of the shielding of the main-ring tunnel, the precautions to be taken in the design of the beam dumps and their associated caverns and the radioactivity induced by the loss of protons in the main ring by inelastic beam-gas interactions. The high luminosity of the collider is designed to provide inelastic collision rates of 10 9 per second in each of the two principal detector installations, ATLAS and CMS. These collisions determine the shielding of the experimental areas, the radioactivity induced in both the detectors and in the machine components on either side of the experimental installations and, to some extent, the radioactivity induced in the beam-cleaning (scraper) systems. Some of the environmental issues raised by the project will be discussed. (author)

  8. A luminosity measurement at LEP using the L3 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koffeman, E.N.

    1996-06-25

    To perform high precision measurements at particle colliders it is crucial to know the exact intensity of the colliding beams. In particle physics this quantity is generally referred to as the luminosity. The determination of the luminosity in one of the experiments (L3) is the topic of this thesis. The implementation and the use of a silicon strip detector in L3, will be described in detail. In chapter one the most important parameters measured at LEP are discussed, preceded by a short introduction to the Standard Model. The process generally used for luminosity measurements in electron positron colliders is small angle Bhabha scattering. This process is discussed at the end of chapter one. In chapter two the characteristics of the collider and the L3 experiment are given. Together with the signature of the small angle Bhabha scattering, these experimental conditions determine the specifications for the design of the luminosity monitor. The general features of silicon strip detectors for their application in high energy physics are presented in chapter three. Some special attention is given to the behaviour of the sensors used for the tracking detector in the luminosity monitor. The more specific design details of the luminosity monitor are constricted to chapter four. In chapter five the conversion from detector signals into ccordinates relevant for the analysis is explained. The selection of the small angle Bhabha scattering events and the subsequent determination of the luminosity, are presented in chapter six. Systematic uncertainties are carefully studied. Important for a good understanding of the Bhabha selection are the events where a photon is produced in the scattering process. These events are separately studied. In chapter seven a comparison is presented between the radiative events observed in the data and their modelling in the Bhlumi Monte Carlo programme. (orig.).

  9. A luminosity measurement at LEP using the L3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koffeman, E.N.

    1996-01-01

    To perform high precision measurements at particle colliders it is crucial to know the exact intensity of the colliding beams. In particle physics this quantity is generally referred to as the luminosity. The determination of the luminosity in one of the experiments (L3) is the topic of this thesis. The implementation and the use of a silicon strip detector in L3, will be described in detail. In chapter one the most important parameters measured at LEP are discussed, preceded by a short introduction to the Standard Model. The process generally used for luminosity measurements in electron positron colliders is small angle Bhabha scattering. This process is discussed at the end of chapter one. In chapter two the characteristics of the collider and the L3 experiment are given. Together with the signature of the small angle Bhabha scattering, these experimental conditions determine the specifications for the design of the luminosity monitor. The general features of silicon strip detectors for their application in high energy physics are presented in chapter three. Some special attention is given to the behaviour of the sensors used for the tracking detector in the luminosity monitor. The more specific design details of the luminosity monitor are constricted to chapter four. In chapter five the conversion from detector signals into ccordinates relevant for the analysis is explained. The selection of the small angle Bhabha scattering events and the subsequent determination of the luminosity, are presented in chapter six. Systematic uncertainties are carefully studied. Important for a good understanding of the Bhabha selection are the events where a photon is produced in the scattering process. These events are separately studied. In chapter seven a comparison is presented between the radiative events observed in the data and their modelling in the Bhlumi Monte Carlo programme. (orig.)

  10. Colliding muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Is a muon-muon collider really practical? That is the question being asked by Bob Palmer. Well known in particle physics, Palmer, with Nick Samios and Ralph Shutt, recently won the American Physical Society's Panofsky Prize for their 1964 discovery of the omega minus. As well as contributing to other major experiments, both at CERN and in the US, he has contributed ideas to stochastic cooling and novel acceleration schemes

  11. Search for supersymmetric particles in events with lepton pairs and large missing transverse momentum in √s = 7 TeV proton-proton collisions at the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Akesson, Torsten Paul; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amoros, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Asman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Galtieri, Angela Barbaro; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jurg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Boser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Booth, Peter; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, Andre; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Brett, Nicolas; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brubaker, Erik; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Buscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Buira-Clark, Daniel; Buis, Ernst-Jan; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, Francois; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Byatt, Tom; Cabrera Urban, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camard, Arnaud; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Cammin, Jochen; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Garrido, Maria Del Mar Capeans; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carpentieri, Carmen; Montoya, German D.Carrillo; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, Joao; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavallari, Alvise; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Cazzato, Antonio; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Li; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G.; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H.; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Comune, Gianluca; Conde Muino, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, Maria Jose; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Cote, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crepe-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuenca Almenar, Cristobal; Donszelmann, Tulay Cuhadar; Cuneo, Stefano; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Rocha Gesualdi Mello, Aline; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dahlhoff, Andrea; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dallison, Steve; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dankers, Reinier; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Daum, Cornelis; Dauvergne, Jean-Pierre; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; De Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; de la Taille, Christophe; de la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; De Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Oliveira Branco, Miguel; De Pedis, Daniele; de Saintignon, Paul; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; de Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Deile, Mario; del Papa, Carlo; del Peso, Jose; del Prete, Tarcisio; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delpierre, Pierre; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietl, Hans; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Yagci, Kamile Dindar; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djilkibaev, Rashid; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, Andre; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Dogan, Ozgen Berkol; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jurgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Drohan, Janice; Dubbert, Jorg; Dubbs, Tim; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duhrssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Dzahini, Daniel; Duren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckert, Simon; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Ely, Robert; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Facius, Katrine; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falou, Alain; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fasching, Damon; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Ivan; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernandes, Bruno; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipcic, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Steve; Flammer, Joachim; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fohlisch, Florian; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallas, Manuel; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, K.K.; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Garcia, Carmen; Garcia Navarro, Jose Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniel Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Helene; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghez, Philippe; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gieraltowski, Gerry; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Borge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Gopfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gossling, Claus; Gottfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Goldin, Daniel; Golling, Tobias; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Goncalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorisek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouanere, Michel; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grabski, Varlen; Grafstrom, Per; Grah, Christian; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenfield, Debbie; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griesmayer, Erich; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grognuz, Joel; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Gruwe, Magali; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Christian Johan; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heldmann, Michael; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frederic; Hensel, Carsten; Henss, Tobias; Hernandez Jimenez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Hidvegi, Attila; Higon-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmes, Alan; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Idzik, Marek; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imhaeuser, Martin; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ionescu, Gelu; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishii, Koji; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Itoh, Yuki; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Goran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jez, Pavel; Jezequel, Stephane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Ju, Xiangyang; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Kazi, Sandor Istvan; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kersevan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Ketterer, Christian; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kilvington, Graham; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Guillaume; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kiyamura, Hironori; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith B F G; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Koblitz, Birger; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Koneke, Karsten; Konig, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Kopke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamaki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Henri; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasel, Olaf; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Kruger, Hans; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuykendall, William; Kuze, Masahiro; Kuzhir, Polina; Kvasnicka, Ondrej; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramon; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lapin, Vladimir; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Lau, Wing; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorato, Antonia; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Lazzaro, Alfio; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebedev, Alexander; Lebel, Celine; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lellouch, Jeremie; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Leveque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewandowska, Marta; Lewis, George; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Lockwitz, Sarah; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Sterzo, Francesco Lo; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lu, Liang; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dorthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Bjorn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lupi, Anna; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macek, Bostjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mattig, Peter; Mattig, Stefan; Magalhaes Martins, Paulo Jorge; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amelia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandic, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, Jose; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin Dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Mass, Martin; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meinhardt, Jens; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meuser, Stefan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W.Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijovic, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikulec, Bettina; Mikuz, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjornmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Monig, Klaus; Moser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohn, Bjarte; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Mock, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Moneta, Lorenzo; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morais, Antonio; Morange, Nicolas; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morita, Youhei; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morone, Maria-Christina; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Muller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muijs, Sandra; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murakami, Koichi; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Nesterov, Stanislav; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozicka, Miroslav; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohska, Tokio Kenneth; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, Antonio; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Orellana, Frederik; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Ortega, Eduardo; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; 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Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Onne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickford, Andrew; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, Joao Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Plano, Will; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommes, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Bueso, Xavier Portell; Porter, Robert; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; 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Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, Jose; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Bjorn Hallvard; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandhu, Pawan; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, Joao; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Savva, Panagiota; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schafer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmidt, Michael; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitz, Martin; Schoning, Andre; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, Jose; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Christian; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siebel, Anca-Mirela; Siegert, Frank; Siegrist, James; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, Jose; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjolin, Jorgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloan, Terrence; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Sondericker, John; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorbi, Massimo; Sosebee, Mark; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spano, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St. Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockmanns, Tobias; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Strohmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sanchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taga, Adrian; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Tevlin, Christopher; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothee; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tic, Tomas; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timmermans, Charles; Tipton, Paul; Viegas, Florbela De Jes Tique Aires; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jurgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokar, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torro Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Traynor, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Treis, Johannes; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocme, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tyrvainen, Harri; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urkovsky, Evgeny; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Ferrer, Juan Antonio Valls; Van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; van der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; Van Eijk, Bob; van Eldik, Niels; Van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; Van Vulpen, Ivo; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Viret, Sebastien; Virzi, Joseph; Vitale, Antonio; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vovenko, Anatoly; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Anh, Tuan Vu; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C.; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Jens; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yamada, Miho; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Weiming; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zalite, Youris; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zema, Pasquale Federico; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Anton; Zenin, Oleg; Zenis, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Zivkovic, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2011-01-01

    Results are presented of searches for the production of supersymmetric particles decaying into final states with missing transverse momentum and exactly two isolated leptons in sqrt{s}=7 TeV proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Search strategies requiring lepton pairs with identical sign or opposite sign electric charges are described. In a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35 pb-1 collected with the ATLAS detector, no significant excesses are observed. Based on specific benchmark models, limits are placed on the squark mass between 450 and 690 GeV for squarks approximately degenerate in mass with gluinos, depending on the supersymmetric mass hierarchy considered.

  12. Search for squarks and gluinos using final states with jets and missing transverse momentum with the ATLAS experiment in 20.3 fb-1 of √s=8 TeV proton-proton collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Consorti, V; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    A search for squarks and gluinos in final states containing high-pT jets, missing transverse momentum and no electrons or muons is presented. The data were recorded in 2012 by the ATLAS experiment in √s=8 TeV proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider, with a total integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb−1. No significant excess above the Standard Model expectation is observed. Results are interpreted by setting limits in several simplified and complex SUSY scenarios.

  13. Beam dynamics issues for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, R.D.

    1987-09-01

    In this paper we discuss various beam dynamics issues for linear colliders. The emphasis is to explore beam dynamics effects which lead to an effective dilution of the emittance of the beam and thus to a loss of luminosity. These considerations lead to various tolerances which are evaluated for a particular parameter set

  14. Review of heavy ion collider proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper we review proposals for heavy-ion colliders generated during the last few years for several national laboratories. The proposals span over a large range of energy and luminosity to accommodate the experimental needs of both the nuclear and the high-energy physicists. We report also briefly efforts in the same field happening in Europe

  15. Physics of a high-luminosity Tau-Charm Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.E.

    1992-10-01

    This paper highlights the physics capabilities of a Tau-Charm Factory; i.e., high luminosity (∼10 33 cm -2 s -1 ) e + e - collider operating in the center-of-mass energy range of 3-5 GeV, with a high-precision, general-purpose detector. Recent developments in τ and charm physics are emphasized

  16. Robust Tracking at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, Natasha Lee; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) aims to increase the LHC data-set by an order of magnitude in order to increase its potential for discoveries. Starting from the middle of 2026, the HL-LHC is expected to reach the peak instantaneous luminosity of 7.5×10^34cm^-2s^-1 which corresponds to about 200 inelastic proton-proton collisions per beam crossing. To cope with the large radiation doses and high pileup, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced with a new all-silicon Inner Tracker. In this talk the expected performance of tracking and vertexing with the HL-LHC tracker is presented. Comparison is made to the performance with the Run2 detector. Ongoing developments of the track reconstruction for the HL-LHC are also discussed.

  17. Recent luminosity improvements at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimondi, P.; Usher, T.; Akre, R.

    1998-07-01

    The luminosity of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) has been increased by more than a factor of three during the 1997--98 run. Improved alignment and emittance tuning techniques throughout the accelerator resulted in minimal emittance growth from the damping rings to the final focus. In particular, a revised strategy for wakefield cancellation using precision beam size measurements at the entrance of the final focus proved effective for optimizing emittance. The final focus lattice was modified to provide stronger demagnification near the interaction point and to remove residual higher-order aberrations. Beam sizes as small as 1.5 by 0.65 microns were achieved at full beam intensity of 4 10 10 particles per pulse. With these parameters, the mutual focusing of the beams in collision becomes significant, resulting in a further increase in the luminosity. Recorded SLD event rates confirmed the theoretical calculations of the disruption enhancement which was typically 50 to 100%

  18. MPX Detectors as LHC Luminosity Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Sopczak, Andre; Asbah, Nedaa; Bergmann, Benedikt; Bekhouche, Khaled; Caforio, Davide; Campbell, Michael; Heijne, Erik; Leroy, Claude; Lipniacka, Anna; Nessi, Marzio; Pospisil, Stanislav; Seifert, Frank; Solc, Jaroslav; Soueid, Paul; Suk, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Vykydal, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    A network of 16 Medipix-2 (MPX) silicon pixel devices was installed in the ATLAS detector cavern at CERN. It was designed to measure the composition and spectral characteristics of the radiation field in the ATLAS experiment and its surroundings. This study demonstrates that the MPX network can also be used as a self-sufficient luminosity monitoring system. The MPX detectors collect data independently of the ATLAS data-recording chain, and thus they provide independent measurements of the bunch-integrated ATLAS/LHC luminosity. In particular, the MPX detectors located close enough to the primary interaction point are used to perform van der Meer calibration scans with high precision. Results from the luminosity monitoring are presented for 2012 data taken at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV proton-proton collisions. The characteristics of the LHC luminosity reduction rate are studied and the effects of beam-beam (burn-off) and beam-gas (single bunch) interactions are evaluated. The systematic variations observed in the MPX lum...

  19. The BRAN luminosity detectors for the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matis, H.S.; Placidi, M.; Ratti, A.; Turner, W.C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bravin, E. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Miyamoto, R. [European Spallation Source, ESS AB, P.O. Box 176, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2017-03-11

    This paper describes the several phases which led, from the conceptual design, prototyping, construction and tests with beam, to the installation and operation of the BRAN (Beam RAte of Neutrals) relative luminosity monitors for the LHC. The detectors have been operating since 2009 to contribute, optimize and maintain the accelerator performance in the two high luminosity interaction regions (IR), the IR1 (ATLAS) and the IR5 (CMS). The devices are gas ionization chambers installed inside a neutral particle absorber 140 m away from the Interaction Points in IR1 and IR5 and monitor the energy deposited by electromagnetic showers produced by high-energy neutral particles from the collisions. The detectors have the capability to resolve the bunch-by-bunch luminosity at the 40 MHz bunch rate, as well as to survive the extreme level of radiation during the nominal LHC operation. The devices have operated since the early commissioning phase of the accelerator over a broad range of luminosities reaching 1.4×10{sup 34} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} with a peak pileup of 45 events per bunch crossing. Even though the nominal design luminosity of the LHC has been exceeded, the BRAN is operating well. After describing how the BRAN can be used to monitor the luminosity of the collider, we discuss the technical choices that led to its construction and the different tests performed prior to the installation in two IRs of the LHC. Performance simulations are presented together with operational results obtained during p-p operations, including runs at 40 MHz bunch rate, Pb-Pb operations and p-Pb operations.

  20. Stochastic cooling in muon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.A.; Sessler, A.M.

    1993-09-01

    Analysis of muon production techniques for high energy colliders indicates the need for rapid and effective beam cooling in order that one achieve luminosities > 10 30 cm -2 s -1 as required for high energy physics experiments. This paper considers stochastic cooling to increase the phase space density of the muons in the collider. Even at muon energies greater than 100 GeV, the number of muons per bunch must be limited to ∼10 3 for the cooling rate to be less than the muon lifetime. With such a small number of muons per bunch, the final beam emittance implied by the luminosity requirement is well below the thermodynamic limit for beam electronics at practical temperatures. Rapid bunch stacking after the cooling process can raise the number of muons per bunch to a level consistent with both the luminosity goals and with practical temperatures for the stochastic cooling electronics. A major advantage of our stochastic cooling/stacking scheme over scenarios that employ only ionization cooling is that the power on the production target can be reduced below 1 MW

  1. CLIC crab cavity design optimisation for maximum luminosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexter, A.C., E-mail: a.dexter@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Burt, G.; Ambattu, P.K. [Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Dolgashev, V. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Jones, R. [University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-21

    The bunch size and crossing angle planned for CERN's compact linear collider CLIC dictate that crab cavities on opposing linacs will be needed to rotate bunches of particles into alignment at the interaction point if the desired luminosity is to be achieved. Wakefield effects, RF phase errors between crab cavities on opposing linacs and unpredictable beam loading can each act to reduce luminosity below that anticipated for bunches colliding in perfect alignment. Unlike acceleration cavities, which are normally optimised for gradient, crab cavities must be optimised primarily for luminosity. Accepting the crab cavity technology choice of a 12 GHz, normal conducting, travelling wave structure as explained in the text, this paper develops an analytical approach to optimise cell number and iris diameter.

  2. Recent results from E-735 at the Fermilab tevatron proton-antiproton collider at √s=1.8 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, N.K.; Allen, C.; Bujak, A.; Carmony, D.D.; Cole, P.; Choi, Y.; Gutay, L.J.; Hirsch, A.S.; Koltick, D.; Lindsey, C.S.; McMahon, T.; Porile, N.T.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Stringfellow, B.C.; Banerjee, S.; Bishop, J.; Biswas, N.N.; Debonte, R.; Kenney, V.P.; Losecco, J.M.; McManus, A.P.; Piekarz, J.; Stampke, S.R.; Zuong, H.; Bhat, P.; Carter, T.; Goshaw, A.T.; Loomis, C.; Oh, S.H.; Robertson, W.R.; Walker, W.D.; Wesson, D.K.; Alexopoulos, T.; Erwin, A.; Findeisen, C.; Nelson, K.; Thompson, M.

    1990-01-01

    E-735 is designed to study charged particle production in the central region of rapidity in proton-antiproton collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV. Variations in transverse momentum and particle production ratios versus particle density are measured as a possible signature for a quark-gluon-plasma (QGP) phase transition. Preliminary results from the 1987 run are presented. (orig.)

  3. properties and luminosity functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hektor Monteiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present an investigation of a sample of 1072 stars extracted from the Villanova Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs (2005 on-line version, studying their distribution in the Galaxy, their physical properties and their luminosity functions. The distances and physical properties of the white dwarfs are determined through interpolation of their (B-V or (b-y colors in model grids. The solar position relative to the Galactic plane, luminosity function, as well as separate functions for each white dwarf spectral type are derived and discussed. We show that the binary fraction does not vary significantly as a function of distance from the Galactic disk out to 100 pc. We propose that the formation rates of DA and non-DAs have changed over time and/or that DAs evolve into non-DA types. The luminosity functions for DAs and DBs have peaks possibly related to a star burst event.

  4. Search for exotic phenomena in association with W/sup +-/ and Z/sup 0/ decays at the CERN proton antiproton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubbia, C.

    1984-01-01

    Using a sample of 66 charged Intermediate Vector Boson events (W/sup +-/ → iota/sup +-/ν/sub iota/) and 9 neutral Intermediate Vector Boson events (Z 0 → iota/sup +/iota/sup -/) produced at the CERN SPS Collider the properties of the underlying event, and the properties of jets produced in association with the Intermediate Vector Bosons have been compared with the corresponding properties from minimum-bias and hadronic-multijet events. The underlying events associated with Intermediate Vector Boson production are similar to the minimum-bias data with the additional occurrence of an occasional jet. The properties of these jets suggest they arise from initial-state gluon bremsstrahlung. The Z 0 events however sometimes contain some jet excess beyond expectation

  5. Considerations on Energy Frontier Colliders after LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir [Fermilab

    2016-11-15

    Since 1960’s, particle colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics, 29 total have been built and operated, 7 are in operation now. At present the near term US, European and international strategies of the particle physics community are centered on full exploitation of the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). The future of the world-wide HEP community critically depends on the feasibility of possible post-LHC colliders. The concept of the feasibility is complex and includes at least three factors: feasibility of energy, feasibility of luminosity and feasibility of cost. Here we overview all current options for post-LHC colliders from such perspective (ILC, CLIC, Muon Collider, plasma colliders, CEPC, FCC, HE-LHC) and discuss major challenges and accelerator R&D required to demonstrate feasibility of an energy frontier accelerator facility following the LHC. We conclude by taking a look into ultimate energy reach accelerators based on plasmas and crystals, and discussion on the perspectives for the far future of the accelerator-based particle physics. This paper largely follows previous study [1] and the presenta ion given at the ICHEP’2016 conference in Chicago [2].

  6. The Nuclotron-based Ion Collider Facility Project. The Physics Programme for the Multi-Purpose Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraksiev, N. S.; MPD Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    The Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) is a new accelerator complex being constructed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR). The general objective of the project is to provide beams for the experimental study of hot and dense strongly interacting QCD matter. The heavy ion programme includes two planned detectors: BM@N (Baryonic Matter at Nuclotron) a fixed target experiment with extracted Nuclotron beams; and MPD (MultiPurpose Detector) a collider mode experiment at NICA. The accelerated particles can range from protons and light nuclei to gold ions. Beam energies will span\\sqrt{s}=12-27 GeV with luminosity L ≥ 1 × 1030 cm‑2s‑1 and \\sqrt{{s}NN}=4-11 GeV and average luminosity L = 1 × 1027cm‑2 s ‑1(for 197Au79+), respectively. A third experiment for spin physics is planned with the SPD (Spin Physics Detector) at the NICA collider in polarized beams mode. A brief overview of the MPD is presented along with several observables in the MPD physics programme.

  7. Search for heavy lepton resonances decaying to a Z boson and a lepton in proton-proton collisions at √(s)=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector and investigations of radiation tolerant silicon-strip detectors for the high-luminosity LHC upgrade of the ATLAS inner detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiik-Fuchs, Liv

    2017-03-09

    The success of particle physics experiments, like those at the Large Hardon Collider (LHC) at CERN, relies on a worldwide interdisciplinary collaboration in a variety of different fields. This thesis contributes to two vital aspects in this area of research:in the first part of a search for heavy trilepton resonances decaying to a Z boson and an electron or muon is presented, while the second part focusses on research and development of radiation tolerant silicon tracking detectors designed for the upgrade of the ATLAS detector for the future luminosity upgrade of the LHC. The search for trilepton resonances is based on pp collision data taken at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb{sup -1}. To reconstruct the narrow resonance, events with at least three leptons (electrons or muons) with a high-transverse momentum are selected. Two of these leptons are required to be consistent with originating from a Z boson decay. Since no significant excess above Standard Model background predictions is observed, 95% confidence level upper limits on the production cross section of trilepton resonances beyond the Standard Model are derived. The results of this analysis are interpreted in the context of vector-like lepton and type-III seesaw models. For the vector-like lepton model, most heavy lepton mass values in the range 113-176 GeV are excluded. For the type-III seesaw model, most mass values in the range 100-474 GeV are excluded. The second part of this thesis focusses on the development of radiation-tolerant silicon strip detectors for the luminosity upgrade of the ATLAS detector envisaged to commence in the year 2016. This thesis includes the results of several studies which contribute to multiple key aspects required for a successful upgrade of the silicon strip detector of the ATLAS Inner Tracker. Among these are the results of a beam test providing the first comparative results between

  8. Search for heavy lepton resonances decaying to a Z boson and a lepton in proton-proton collisions at √(s)=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector and investigations of radiation tolerant silicon-strip detectors for the high-luminosity LHC upgrade of the ATLAS inner detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiik-Fuchs, Liv

    2017-01-01

    The success of particle physics experiments, like those at the Large Hardon Collider (LHC) at CERN, relies on a worldwide interdisciplinary collaboration in a variety of different fields. This thesis contributes to two vital aspects in this area of research:in the first part of a search for heavy trilepton resonances decaying to a Z boson and an electron or muon is presented, while the second part focusses on research and development of radiation tolerant silicon tracking detectors designed for the upgrade of the ATLAS detector for the future luminosity upgrade of the LHC. The search for trilepton resonances is based on pp collision data taken at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb"-"1. To reconstruct the narrow resonance, events with at least three leptons (electrons or muons) with a high-transverse momentum are selected. Two of these leptons are required to be consistent with originating from a Z boson decay. Since no significant excess above Standard Model background predictions is observed, 95% confidence level upper limits on the production cross section of trilepton resonances beyond the Standard Model are derived. The results of this analysis are interpreted in the context of vector-like lepton and type-III seesaw models. For the vector-like lepton model, most heavy lepton mass values in the range 113-176 GeV are excluded. For the type-III seesaw model, most mass values in the range 100-474 GeV are excluded. The second part of this thesis focusses on the development of radiation-tolerant silicon strip detectors for the luminosity upgrade of the ATLAS detector envisaged to commence in the year 2016. This thesis includes the results of several studies which contribute to multiple key aspects required for a successful upgrade of the silicon strip detector of the ATLAS Inner Tracker. Among these are the results of a beam test providing the first comparative results between

  9. Perspectives on large linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1987-11-01

    Three main items in the design of large linear colliders are presented. The first is the interrelation of energy and luminosity requirements. These two items impose severe constraints on the accelerator builder who must design a machine to meet the needs of experimentl high energy physics rather than designing a machine for its own sake. An introduction is also given for linear collider design, concentrating on what goes on at the collision point, for still another constraint comes here from the beam-beam interaction which further restricts the choices available to the accelerator builder. The author also gives his impressions of the state of the technology available for building these kinds of machines within the next decade. The paper concludes with a brief recommendation for how we can all get on with the work faster, and hope to realize these machines sooner by working together. 10 refs., 9 figs

  10. First experimental evidence of hydrodynamic tunneling of ultra-relativistic protons in extended solid copper target at the CERN HiRadMat facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R.; Blanco Sancho, J.; Burkart, F.; Grenier, D.; Wollmann, D.; Tahir, N. A.; Shutov, A.; Piriz, A. R.

    2014-08-01

    A novel experiment has been performed at the CERN HiRadMat test facility to study the impact of the 440 GeV proton beam generated by the Super Proton Synchrotron on extended solid copper cylindrical targets. Substantial hydrodynamic tunneling of the protons in the target material has been observed that leads to significant lengthening of the projectile range, which confirms our previous theoretical predictions [N. A. Tahir et al., Phys. Rev. Spec. Top.-Accel. Beams 15, 051003 (2012)]. Simulation results show very good agreement with the experimental measurements. These results have very important implications on the machine protection design for powerful machines like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the future High Luminosity LHC, and the proposed huge 80 km circumference Future Circular Collider, which is currently being discussed at CERN. Another very interesting outcome of this work is that one may also study the field of High Energy Density Physics at this test facility.

  11. First experimental evidence of hydrodynamic tunneling of ultra–relativistic protons in extended solid copper target at the CERN HiRadMat facility

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R; Sancho, J Blanco; Burkart, F; Grenier, D; Wollmann, D; Tahir, N A; Shutov, A; Piriz, A R

    2014-01-01

    A novel experiment has been performed at the CERN HiRadMat test facility to study the impact of the 440 GeV proton beam generated by the Super Proton Synchrotron on extended solid copper cylindrical targets. Substantial hydrodynamic tunneling of the protons in the target material has been observed that leads to significant lengthening of the projectile range, which confirms our previous theoretical predictions [N. A. Tahir et al., Phys. Rev. Spec. Top.-Accel. Beams 15, 051003 (2012)]. Simulation results show very good agreement with the experimental measurements. These results have very important implications on the machine protection design for powerful machines like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the future High Luminosity LHC, and the proposed huge 80 km circumference Future Circular Collider, which is currently being discussed at CERN. Another very interesting outcome of this work is that one may also study the field of High Energy Density Physics at this test facility.

  12. An Anthropology of Luminosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2007-01-01

    of luminosity in the practice of day-to-day activities. The article surveys an array of past conceptions of light within philosophy, natural science and more recent approaches to light in the fields of anthropology and material culture studies. A number of implications are discussed, and by way of three case...

  13. Feedback Systems for Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Feedback systems are essential for stable operation of a linear collider, providing a cost-effective method for relaxing tight tolerances. In the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), feedback controls beam parameters such as trajectory, energy, and intensity throughout the accelerator. A novel dithering optimization system which adjusts final focus parameters to maximize luminosity contributed to achieving record performance in the 1997-98 run. Performance limitations of the steering feedback have been investigated, and improvements have been made. For the Next Linear Collider (NLC), extensive feedback systems are planned as an integral part of the design. Feedback requirements for JLC (the Japanese Linear Collider) are essentially identical to NLC; some of the TESLA requirements are similar but there are significant differences. For NLC, algorithms which incorporate improvements upon the SLC implementation are being prototyped. Specialized systems for the damping rings, rf and interaction point will operate at high bandwidth and fast response. To correct for the motion of individual bunches within a train, both feedforward and feedback systems are planned. SLC experience has shown that feedback systems are an invaluable operational tool for decoupling systems, allowing precision tuning, and providing pulse-to-pulse diagnostics. Feedback systems for the NLC will incorporate the key SLC features and the benefits of advancing technologies

  14. Beam dynamics in linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, R.D.

    1990-09-01

    In this paper, we discuss some basic beam dynamics issues related to obtaining and preserving the luminosity of a next generation linear collider. The beams are extracted from a damping ring and compressed in length by the first bunch compressor. They are then accelerated in a preaccelerator linac up to an energy appropriate for injection into a high gradient linac. In many designs this pre-acceleration is followed by another bunch compression to reach a short bunch. After acceleration in the linac, the bunches are finally focused transversely to a small spot. 27 refs., 1 fig

  15. Perspectives on large Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1987-01-01

    The accelerator community now generally agrees that the Linear Collider is the most cost-effective technology for reaching much higher energies in the center-of-mass than can be attained in the largest of the e + e - storage rings, LEP. Indeed, even as the first linear collider, the SLC at SLAC, is getting ready to begin operations groups, at SLAC, Novosibirsk, CERN and KEK are doing R and D and conceptual design studies on a next generation machine in the 1 TeV energy region. In this perspectives talk I do not want to restrict my comments to any particular design, and so I will talk about a high-energy machine as the NLC, which is shorthand for the Next Linear Collider, and taken to mean a machine with a center-of-mass energy someplace in the 0.5 to 2 TeV energy range with sufficient luminosity to carry out a meaningful experimental program. I want to discuss three main items with you. The first is the interrelation of energy and luminosity requirements. These two items impose severe constraints on the accelerator builder. Next, I will give an introduction to linear collider design, concentrating on what goes on at the collision point, for still another constraint comes here from the beam-beam interaction which further restricts the choices available to the accelerator builder.Then, I want to give my impressions of the state of the technology available for building these kinds of machines within the next decade

  16. Klystron switching power supplies for the Internation Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraioli, Andrea; /Cassino U. /INFN, Pisa

    2009-12-01

    The International Linear Collider is a majestic High Energy Physics particle accelerator that will give physicists a new cosmic doorway to explore energy regimes beyond the reach of today's accelerators. ILC will complement the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a proton-proton collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, by producing electron-positron collisions at center of mass energy of about 500 GeV. In particular, the subject of this dissertation is the R&D for a solid state Marx Modulator and relative switching power supply for the International Linear Collider Main LINAC Radio Frequency stations.

  17. Numerical calculation of ion polarization in the NICA collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, A. D.; Butenko, A. V.; Kekelidze, V. D.; Mikhaylov, V. A.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Kondratenko, A. M.; Filatov, Yu N.

    2016-02-01

    The NICA Collider with two solenoid Siberian snakes is “transparent” to the spin. The collider transparent to the spin provides a unique capability to control any polarization direction of protons and deuterons using additional weak solenoids without affecting orbital parameters of the beam. The spin tune induced by the control solenoids must significantly exceed the strength of the zero-integer spin resonance, which contains a coherent part associated with errors in the collider's magnetic structure and an incoherent part associated with the beam emittances. We present calculations of the coherent part of the resonance strength in the NICA collider for proton and deuteron beams.

  18. Numerical calculation of ion polarization in the NICA collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, A D; Butenko, A V; Kekelidze, V D; Mikhaylov, V A; Filatov, Yu N; Kondratenko, M A; Kondratenko, A M

    2016-01-01

    The NICA Collider with two solenoid Siberian snakes is “transparent” to the spin. The collider transparent to the spin provides a unique capability to control any polarization direction of protons and deuterons using additional weak solenoids without affecting orbital parameters of the beam. The spin tune induced by the control solenoids must significantly exceed the strength of the zero-integer spin resonance, which contains a coherent part associated with errors in the collider's magnetic structure and an incoherent part associated with the beam emittances. We present calculations of the coherent part of the resonance strength in the NICA collider for proton and deuteron beams. (paper)

  19. Colliding nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, Roger; Remaud, Bernard; Suraud, E.; Durand, Dominique; Tamain, Bernard; Gobbi, A.; Cugnon, J.; Drapier, Olivier; Govaerts, Jan; Prieels, Rene

    1995-09-01

    This 14. international school Joliot-Curie of nuclear physic deals with nuclei in collision at high energy. Nine lectures are included in the proceedings of this summer school: 1 - From statistical mechanics outside equilibrium to transport equations (Balian, R.); 2 - Modeling of heavy ions reactions (Remaud, B.); 3 - Kinetic equations in heavy ions physics (Suraud, E.); 4 - Colliding nuclei near the Fermi energy (Durand, D.; Tamain, B.); 5 - From the Fermi to the relativistic energy domain: which observable? For which physics? (Gobbi, A.); 6 - Collisions at relativistic and ultra relativistic energies, Theoretical aspects (Cugnon, J.); 7 - Quark-gluon plasma: experimental signatures (Drapier, O.); 8 - Electroweak interaction: a window on physics beyond the standard model (Govaerts, J.); 9 - Symmetry tests in β nuclear process: polarization techniques (Prieels, R.)

  20. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.A.

    1987-11-01

    The final focus system of a linear collider must perform two primary functions, it must focus the two opposing beams so that their transverse dimensions at the interaction point are small enough to yield acceptable luminosity, and it must steer the beams together to maintain collisions. In addition, the final focus system must transport the outgoing beams to a location where they can be recycled or safely dumped. Elementary optical considerations for linear collider final focus systems are discussed, followed by chromatic aberrations. The design of the final focus system of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) is described. Tuning and diagnostics and steering to collision are discussed. Most of the examples illustrating the concepts covered are drawn from the SLC, but the principles and conclusions are said to be generally applicable to other linear collider designs as well. 26 refs., 17 figs

  1. Parameters of the SLAC Next Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, T.; Adolphsen, C.; Burke, D.

    1995-05-01

    In this paper, the authors present the parameters and layout of the Next Linear Collider (NLC). The NLC is the SLAC design of a future linear collider using X-band RF technology in the main linacs. The collider would have an initial center-of-mass energy of 0.5 TeV which would be upgraded to 1 TeV and then 1.5 TeV in two stages. The design luminosity is > 5 x 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 at 0.5 TeV and > 10 34 cm -2 sec -1 at 1.0 and 1.5 TeV. They briefly describe the components of the collider and the proposed energy upgrade scenario

  2. The future e+e- colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    At present, the highest energy e + e - colliders are the SLC and LEP. In this paper their future improvement programs for increasing luminosity and/or energy, and the use of longitudinally polarized beams at the interaction point (IP) are discussed. An e + e - collider in the SSC tunnel does not seem to be an attractive option, on both technical and economical grounds, and with LEP, circular colliders have reached the sensible limit of size and cost. Linear colliders which have, in principle, no high energy limit, must overcome a new set of technical problems having to do with beam power limitations, emittance control, superstrong focusing at the IP, strong bunch-bunch interactions at the IP and related backgrounds

  3. Dedicating Fermilab's Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    It was a bold move to have a fullscale dedication ceremony for the new proton-antiproton Collider at the Fermilab Tevatron on 13 October, two days before the first collisions were seen. However the particles dutifully behaved as required, and over the following weekend the Collider delivered its goods at a total energy of 1600 GeV, significantly boosting the world record for laboratory collisions

  4. The Latest from the LHC: hitting the target luminosity for 2010!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to a significant increase in the number of bunches in each beam, the 2010 target peak luminosity of 1032 cm-2 s-1 was reached on 14 October 2010, with further progress made in the following days. Soon, the attention of the LHC operators will turn to operation with lead ions throughout November.   In the last two weeks the number of bunches injected in each beam has steadily increased to reach 312, of which 295 collide in points 1 (ATLAS experiment), 5 (CMS experiment) and 8 (LHCb experiment). This has allowed the operators to reach a luminosity of 1.48x1032 cm-2 s-1, comfortably exceeding the target for 2010. With the present number of bunches, there are over 3.5x1013 protons per beam and around 20MJ of stored energy per beam. Since 4 October, when 204 bunches per beam were injected into the LHC, some intensity-related effects have started to be observed, notably, a significant rise in the ATLAS background. This is linked to an increase in pressure in the beam vacuum about 60m either s...

  5. Model of a 80 K liner vacuum system for the 4.2 K cold bore of the SSCL 20 TeV proton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, W.

    1993-09-01

    In this paper we discuss a model for an 80 K liner system for the beam tube vacuum of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The liner is a coaxial perforated tube fitting inside the ∼4.2 K bore tube of the SSC magnet cryostats. A liner of this type is useful for pumping the gas desorbed by synchrotron radiation out of the view of the radiation and for decoupling the beam current from the 4.2 K refrigeration plant capacity. Addition of cryosorber on the bore tube (e.g., charcoal) greatly increases the H 2 sorption capacity compared to the bare metal surface, thus lengthening the time between beam tube warmups. The model equations are useful for estimating the performance of the beam tube vacuum and for defining the experimental information necessary to make a prediction. Some analysis is also presented for 4.2 K and 20 K liners and a simple 4.2 K beam tube without a liner

  6. The CMS Outer Tracker Upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Luetic, Jelena

    2017-01-01

    The era of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider will pose unprecedented challenges for detector design and operation. The planned luminosity of the upgraded machine is $5$x$10^{34} $ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$, reaching an integrated luminosity of more than 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by the end of 2037. The CMS Tracker detector will have to be replaced in order to fully exploit the delivered luminosity and cope with the demanding operating conditions. The new detector will provide robust tracking as well as input for the first level trigger. This report is focusing on the replacement of the CMS Outer Tracker system, describing the new layout and technological choices together with some highlights of research and development activities.

  7. Study of Collective Effects in the FCC-ee Collider

    OpenAIRE

    Zobov, Mikhail; Belli, Eleonora; Castorina, Giovanni; Migliorati, Mauro; Persichelli, Serena; Rumolo, Giovanni; Spataro, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) study aims at designing different options of a post-LHC collider. The high luminosity electron-positron collider FCC-ee based on the crab waist concept is considered as an intermediate step on the way towards FCC-hh, a 100 TeV hadron collider using the same tunnel of about 100 km. Due to a high intensity of circulating beams the impact of collective effects on FCC-ee performance has to be carefully analyzed. In this paper we evaluate beam coupling impedance ...

  8. The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the design principles of the LHC, which gives access to the TeV energy scale for the first time. To achieve this, a number of technological innovations have been necessary. Two counter-rotating proton beams are guided and focused by superconducting magnets with a two-in-one structure allowing the machine to be installed in an existing tunnel. The very high field (>8 T) in the dipoles can only be achieved by cooling them below the superfluid transition temperature of liquid helium. More than 80 tons of superfluid helium is needed to cool the machine. In its first year of operation, the LHC has behaved very reliably and predictably. Single-bunch currents 30% above the design value have already been achieved, and the luminosity has increased by five orders of magnitude in the first 200 days of operation. Some of the results of commissioning and first operation are also discussed.

  9. Measuring the contribution of low Bjorken-x gluons to the proton spin with polarized proton-proton collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolin, Scott Justin

    The PHENIX experiment is one of two detectors located at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, NY. Understanding the spin structure of the proton is a central goal at RHIC, the only polarized proton-on-proton collider in existence. The PHENIX spin program has two primary objectives. The first is to improve the constraints on the polarized parton distributions of the anti-u and anti-d quarks within the proton. The second objective is to improve the constraint on the gluon spin contribution to the proton spin, DeltaG. The focus of this thesis is the second objective. PHENIX experiment has been successful at providing the first meaningful constraints on DeltaG, along with STAR, the other detector located at RHIC. These constraints have, in fact, eliminated the extreme scenarios for gluon polarization through measurements of the double spin asymmetry, ALL, between the cross section of like and unlike sign helicity pp interactions. ALL measurements can be performed with a variety of final states at PHENIX. Until 2009, these final states were only measured for pseudo-rapidities of |eta| Piston Calorimeter (MPC) was installed in 2006 and 2007 at forward rapidity, 3.1 < |eta| < 3.9, with the intention of giving PHENIX the ability to constrain Delta g(x) for x < 0.05. Following this, an electronics upgrade to the MPC will be described which enables the selection of events with two hadrons detected in the MPC. This requirement favors gluons at even lower x than the single hadron event selection. The di-hadron measurement that this upgrade makes possible will allow PHENIX to produce an ALL measurement that constrains Deltag(x) in the range of 5 x 10-4 < x < 0.01. Finally, we discuss the most important systematic uncertainty common to all ALL measurements which arises from the determination of the relative luminosity. A precision ALLL measurement requires measuring the final state yield from the portions of the proton beams that

  10. Large Area Silicon Tracking Detectors with Fast Signal Readout for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Köstner, S

    2005-01-01

    The Standard Model of elementary particles, which is summarized briefly in the second chapter, incorporates a number of successful theories to explain the nature and consistency of matter. However not all building blocks of this model could yet be tested by experiment. To confirm existing theories and to improve nowadays understanding of matter a new machine is currently being built at CERN, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), described in the third chapter. LHC is a proton-proton collider which will reach unprecedented luminosities and center of mass energies. Five experiments are attached to it to give answers to questions like the existence of the Higgs meson, which allows to explain the mass content of matter, and the origin of CP-violation, which plays an important role in the baryogenesis of the universe. Supersymmetric theories, proposing a bosonic superpartner for each fermion and vice versa, will be tested. By colliding heavy ions, high energy and particle densities can be achieved and probed. This stat...

  11. Plans for the Future of Proton Accelerators at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R; High Intensity Frontier Workshop (HIF04)

    2005-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider, presently in construction at CERN, will be filled through a set of high performance proton accelerators providing the high brightness beam needed to reach the foreseen luminosity. Although this difficult project has top priority and uses most of the CERN resources, it is nevertheless time investigating improvements of the proton accelerator complex for physical cases beyond the LHC expectations. The needs of multiple physics communities have to be taken into account, as well as the necessity of consolidating the installations while keeping high reliability. This paper starts from the analysis and proposals made by the “High Intensity Proton” (HIP) working group [1, 2] to improve the performances of the PS and the SPS complex and better match the users requests in a staged scenario at short and medium term, and complement it, addressing the main possibilities beyond that horizon.

  12. High Luminosity LHC Studies with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, Anna Kathryn; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC aims to provide a total integrated luminosity of 3000fb$^{-1}$ from proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 14 TeV over the course of $\\sim$ 10 years, reaching instantaneous luminosities of up to L = 7.5 $\\times$ 1034cm$^{-2}s$^{-1}$, corresponding to an average of 200 inelastic p-p collisions per bunch crossing ($\\mu$ = 200). Fast simulation studies have been carried out to evaluate the prospects of various benchmark physics analyses to be performed using the upgraded ATLAS detector with the full HL-LHC dataset. The performance of the upgrade has been estimated in full simulation studies, assuming expected HL-LHC conditions. This talk will focus on the results of physics prospects studies for benchmark analyses involving in particular boosted hadronic objects (e.g. ttbar resonances, HH resonances), and on results of Jet/EtMiss studies of jet performance and pileup mitigation techniques that will be critical in HL-LHC analyses.

  13. Status of the SLAC Linear Collider Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiening, R.

    1983-01-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider Project has two principal goals. The first is to serve as a prototype for a future very high energy linear electron-positron collider. The second is to quickly, at low cost, achieve sufficient luminosity at 100 GeV center-of-mass energy to explore the physics of the Z 0 . The first goal is important to the future of electron-positron physics because the rapid increase of synchrotron radiation with energy causes the cost of circular storage ring colliders to whereas the cost of linear colliders increases only in proportion to the center-of-mass energy. The second is important because the existance at SLAC of a linear accelerator which can be converted at low cost to collider operation makes possible a unique opportunity to quickly achieve 100 GeV center-of-mass collisions. At the design luminosity of 6.0 x 10 30 many thousands of Z 0 decays should be observed in each day of operation

  14. Beam-loss induced pressure rise of Large Hadron Collider collimator materials irradiated with 158  GeV/u In^{49+} ions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mahner

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available During heavy ion operation, large pressure rises, up to a few orders of magnitude, were observed at CERN, GSI, and BNL. The dynamic pressure rises were triggered by lost beam ions that impacted onto the vacuum chamber walls and desorbed about 10^{4} to 10^{7} molecules per ion. The deterioration of the dynamic vacuum conditions can enhance charge-exchange beam losses and can lead to beam instabilities or even to beam abortion triggered by vacuum interlocks. Consequently, a dedicated measurement of heavy-ion induced molecular desorption in the GeV/u energy range is important for Large Hadron Collider (LHC ion operation. In 2003, a desorption experiment was installed at the Super Proton Synchrotron to measure the beam-loss induced pressure rise of potential LHC collimator materials. Samples of bare graphite, sputter coated (Cu, TiZrV graphite, and 316 LN (low carbon with nitrogen stainless steel were irradiated under grazing angle with 158  GeV/u indium ions. After a description of the new experimental setup, the results of the pressure rise measurements are presented, and the derived desorption yields are compared with data from other experiments.

  15. Development of a novel diamond based detector for machine induced background and luminosity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, Maria

    2017-07-15

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the largest particle accelerator and storage ring in the world, used to investigate fundamentals of particle physics and to develop at the same time the technology of accelerators and detectors. Four main experiments, located around the LHC ring, provide insight into the nature of particles and search for answers to as yet unexplaine