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Sample records for lumens warm white

  1. 130 LPW 1000 Lm Warm White LED for Illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soer, Wouter [Philips Lumileds Lighting Company LLC, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2012-12-21

    system efficiency by improving the lumen equivalent (LE) and phosphor package efficiency (PPE) through improvement in phosphor-package interactions. The high-power warm-white LED product developed has been proven to have good reliability through extensive reliability tests. The new kilo-lumen package has been commercialized under the product name LUXEON M. As of the end of the program, the LUXEON M product has been released in the following CCT/CRI combinations: 3000K/70, 4000K/70, 5000K/70, 5700K/70, 2700K/80, 3000K/80 and 4000K/80. LM-80 tests for the products with CCTs of 4000 K and higher have reached 8500 hours, and per IESNA TM-21-11 have established an L70 lumen maintenance value of >51,000 hours at A drive current and up to 120 °C board temperature.

  2. Development of Advanced Manufacturing Methods for Warm White LEDs for General Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Anirudha; Kolodin, Boris; Jacob, Cherian; Chowdhury, Ashfaqul; Kuenzler, Glenn; Sater, Karen; Aesram, Danny; Glaettli, Steven; Gallagher, Brian; Langer, Paul; Setlur, Anant; Beers, Bill

    2012-03-31

    GE Lighting Solutions will develop precise and efficient manufacturing techniques for the “remote phosphor” platform of warm-white LED products. In volume, this will be demonstrated to drive significant materials, labor and capital productivity to achieve a maximum possible 53% reduction in overall cost. In addition, the typical total color variation for these white LEDs in production will be well within the ANSI bins and as low as a 4-step MacAdam ellipse centered on the black body curve. Achievement of both of these objectives will be demonstrated while meeting a performance target of > 75 lm/W for a warm-white LED and a reliability target of <30% lumen drop / <2-step MacAdam ellipse shift, estimated over 50,000 hrs.

  3. Achieving high CRI from warm to super white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Edward; Tormey, Ellen S.

    2007-09-01

    Light sources which produce a high color rendering index (CRI) have many applications in the lighting industry today. High color rendering accents the rich color which abounds in nature, interior design, theatrical costumes and props, clothing and fabric, jewelry, and machine vision applications. Multi-wavelength LED sources can pump phosphors at multiple stokes shift emission regimes and when combined with selected direct emission sources can allow for greater flexibility in the production of warm-white and cool white light of specialty interest. Unique solutions to R8 and R14 CRI >95 at 2850K, 4750K, 5250K, and 6750K presented.

  4. Warm white LEDs lighting over Ra=95 and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Katsuya; Taguchi, Tsunemasa

    2007-02-01

    We have for the first time developed warm white LEDs lighting using a combination of near ultraviolet LED and three-band (red, green and blue) white phosphors. This LED has the average color-rendering index Ra=96. Moreover, special color-rendering index R9 (red) and R15 (face color of Japanese) are estimated to be 95 and 97, respectively. We will describe the results of evaluation on the medical lighting applications such as operation, treatment and endoscope experiments, application to the LED fashions and application to the Japanese antique art (ink painting) lighting.

  5. Scalable, Economical Fabrication Processes for Ultra-Compact Warm-White LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowes, Ted [Cree, Inc., Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-01-31

    Conventional warm-white LED component fabrication consists of a large number of sequential steps which are required to incorporate electrical, mechanical, and optical functionality into the component. Each of these steps presents cost and yield challenges which multiply throughout the entire process. Although there has been significant progress in LED fabrication over the last decade, significant advances are needed to enable further reductions in cost per lumen while not sacrificing efficacy or color quality. Cree conducted a focused 18-month program to develop a new low-cost, high-efficiency light emitting diode (LED) architecture enabled by novel large-area parallel processing technologies, reduced number of fabrication steps, and minimized raw materials use. This new scheme is expected to enable ultra-compact LED components exhibiting simultaneously high efficacy and high color quality. By the end of the program, Cree fabricated warm-white LEDs with a room-temperature “instant on” efficacy of >135 lm/W at ~3500K and 90 CRI (when driven at the DOE baseline current density of 35 A/cm2). Cree modified the conventional LED fabrication process flow in a manner that is expected to translate into simultaneously high throughput and yield for ultra-compact packages. Building on its deep expertise in LED wafer fabrication, Cree developed these ultra-compact LEDs to have no compromises in color quality or efficacy compared to their conventional counterparts. Despite their very small size, the LEDs will also be robustly electrically integrated into luminaire systems with the same attach yield as conventional packages. The versatility of the prototype high-efficacy LED architecture will likely benefit solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaire platforms ranging from bulbs to troffers. We anticipate that the prototype LEDs will particularly benefit luminaires with large numbers of distributed compact packages, such as linear and area luminaires (e.g. troffers). The fraction of

  6. Environmentally Benign Technology for Efficient Warm-White Light Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Pin-Chun; Lin, Ming-Shiun; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays efficient down conversion for white light emission is mainly based on rare-earth doped phosphors or cadmium-containing quantum dots. Although they exhibit high luminescence efficiency, the rare-earth mining and cadmium pollution have so far led to extremely high environmental cost, which conflicts the original purpose of pursuing efficient lighting. Here, we explore a new strategy to achieve efficient luminescence conversion based on polymer-decorated nanoparticles. The ZnO and Mn2+ doped ZnS nanoparticles are encapsulated by poly(9,9-di-n- hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl). The resultant core-shell nanocomposites then encompass three UV-to-visible luminescence conversion routes for photon emissions at blue, green, and orange colors, respectively. As a result, the color temperature is widely tunable (2100 K ~ 6000 K), so candle light or pure white light can be generated. The quantum yield up to 91% could also be achieved. Such rare-earth-element free nanocomposites give the bright perspectives for energy-saving, healthy, and environmentally benign lighting.

  7. Physics of lumen growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Sabyasachi; Gupta, Kapish; Zhang, Yue; Viasnoff, Virgile; Prost, Jacques

    2018-05-22

    We model the dynamics of formation of intercellular secretory lumens. Using conservation laws, we quantitatively study the balance between paracellular leaks and the build-up of osmotic pressure in the lumen. Our model predicts a critical pumping threshold to expand stable lumens. Consistently with experimental observations in bile canaliculi, the model also describes a transition between a monotonous and oscillatory regime during luminogenesis as a function of ion and water transport parameters. We finally discuss the possible importance of regulation of paracellular leaks in intercellular tubulogenesis.

  8. Warm White Light-Emitting Diodes Based on a Novel Orange Cationic Iridium(III) Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huaijun; Meng, Guoyun; Chen, Zeyu; Wang, Kaimin; Zhou, Qiang; Wang, Zhengliang

    2017-06-16

    A novel orange cationic iridium(III) complex [(TPTA)₂Ir(dPPOA)]PF₆ (TPTA: 3,4,5-triphenyl-4 H -1,2,4-triazole, dPPOA: N,N-diphenyl-4-(5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)aniline) was synthesized and used as a phosphor in light-emitting diodes (LEDs). [(TPTA)₂Ir(dPPOA)]PF₆ has high thermal stability with a decomposition temperature ( T d ) of 375 °C, and its relative emission intensity at 100 °C is 88.8% of that at 25°C. When only [(TPTA)₂Ir(dPPOA)]PF₆ was used as a phosphor at 6.0 wt % in silicone and excited by a blue GaN (GaN: gallium nitride) chip (450 nm), an orange LED was obtained. A white LED fabricated by a blue GaN chip (450 nm) and only yellow phosphor Y₃Al₅O 12 :Ce 3+ (YAG:Ce) (1.0 wt % in silicone) emitted cold white light, its CIE (CIE: Commission International de I'Eclairage ) value was (0.32, 0.33), color rendering index (CRI) was 72.2, correlated color temperature (CCT) was 6877 K, and luminous efficiency ( η L ) was 128.5 lm∙W -1 . Such a cold white LED became a neutral white LED when [(TPTA)₂Ir(dPPOA)]PF₆ was added at 0.5 wt %; its corresponding CIE value was (0.35, 0.33), CRI was 78.4, CCT was 4896 K, and η L was 85.2 lm∙W -1 . It further became a warm white LED when [(TPTA)₂Ir(dPPOA)]PF₆ was added at 1.0 wt %; its corresponding CIE value was (0.39, 0.36), CRI was 80.2, CCT was 3473 K, and η L was 46.1 lm∙W -1 . The results show that [(TPTA)₂Ir(dPPOA)]PF₆ is a promising phosphor candidate for fabricating warm white LEDs.

  9. Highly efficient blue and warm white organic light-emitting diodes with a simplified structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiang-Long; Chen, Dongcheng; Cai, Xinyi; Liu, Ming; Cao, Yong; Su, Shi-Jian; Ouyang, Xinhua; Ge, Ziyi

    2016-01-01

    Two blue fluorescent emitters were utilized to construct simplified organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and the remarkable difference in device performance was carefully illustrated. A maximum current efficiency of 4.84 cd A"−"1 (corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 4.29%) with a Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) coordinate of (0.144, 0.127) was achieved by using N,N-diphenyl-4″-(1-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-[1, 1′:4′, 1″-terphenyl]-4-amine (BBPI) as a non-doped emission layer of the simplified blue OLEDs without carrier-transport layers. In addition, simplified fluorescent/phosphorescent (F/P) hybrid warm white OLEDs without carrier-transport layers were fabricated by utilizing BBPI as (1) the blue emitter and (2) the host of a complementary yellow phosphorescent emitter (PO-01). A maximum current efficiency of 36.8 cd A"−"1 and a maximum power efficiency of 38.6 lm W"−"1 were achieved as a result of efficient energy transfer from the host to the guest and good triplet exciton confinement on the phosphorescent molecules. The blue and white OLEDs are among the most efficient simplified fluorescent blue and F/P hybrid white devices, and their performance is even comparable to that of most previously reported complicated multi-layer devices with carrier-transport layers. (paper)

  10. Chapter 16 Lumen Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Roger M. Rowell

    2012-01-01

    When wood is vacuum impregnated with liquid vinyl monomers that do not swell wood, and then in situ polymerized either by chemical catalyst-heat, or gamma radiation, the polymer is located almost solely in the lumens of the wood. Figure 16.1 is a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph of unmodified wood showing open cells that are...

  11. Warming drives a front of white spruce establishment near western treeline, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Amy E; Wilson, Tammy L; Sherriff, Rosemary L; Walton, James

    2017-12-01

    Regional warming has led to increased productivity near the boreal forest margin in Alaska. To date, the effects of warming on seedling recruitment have received little attention, in spite of forecasted forest expansion. Here, we used stand structure and environmental data from 95 white spruce (Picea glauca) plots sampled across a longitudinal gradient in southwest Alaska to explore factors influencing spruce establishment and recruitment near western treeline. We used total counts of live seedlings, saplings, and trees, representing five life stages, to evaluate whether geospatial, climate, and measured plot covariates predicted abundance, using current abundance distributions as a surrogate for climate conditions in the past. We used generalized linear models to test the null hypothesis that conditions favorable for recruitment were similar along the environmental gradient represented by longitude, by exploring relationships between per-plot counts of each life stage and the covariates hypothesized to affect abundance. We also examined the relationship between growing degree days (GDD) and seedling establishment over a period of three decades using tree-ring chronologies obtained from cores taken at a subset of our sites (n = 30). Our results indicated that seedling, sapling, and tree abundance were positively correlated with temperature across the study area. The response to longitude was mixed, with earlier life stages (seedlings, saplings) most abundant at the western end of the gradient, and later life stages (trees) most abundant to the east. The differential relationship between longitude and life-stage abundance suggests a moving front of white spruce establishment through time, driven by changes in environmental conditions near the species' western range limit. Likewise, we found a positive relationship between periods of seedling establishment and GDD, suggesting that longer summers and/or greater heat accumulation might enhance establishment

  12. Warming and neighbor removal affect white spruce seedling growth differently above and below treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kyoko; Bret-Harte, M Syndonia

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to be pronounced towards higher latitudes and altitudes. Warming triggers treeline and vegetation shifts, which may aggravate interspecific competition and affect biodiversity. This research tested the effects of a warming climate, habitat type, and neighboring plant competition on the establishment and growth of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) seedlings in a subarctic mountain region. P. glauca seedlings were planted in June 2010 under 4 different treatments (high/control temperatures, with/without competition) in 3 habitats (alpine ridge above treeline/tundra near treeline /forest below treeline habitats). After two growing seasons in 2011, growth, photosynthesis and foliar C and N data were obtained from a total of 156, one-and-a-half year old seedlings that had survived. Elevated temperatures increased growth and photosynthetic rates above and near treeline, but decreased them below treeline. Competition was increased by elevated temperatures in all habitat types. Our results suggest that increasing temperatures will have positive effects on the growth of P. glauca seedlings at the locations where P. glauca is expected to expand its habitat, but increasing temperatures may have negative effects on seedlings growing in mature forests. Due to interspecific competition, possibly belowground competition, the upslope expansion of treelines may not be as fast in the future as it was the last fifty years.

  13. Enabling Lambertian-Like Warm White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with a Yellow Phosphor Embedded Flexible Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate in this report a new constructive method of fabricating white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs with a flexible plastic film embedded with yellow phosphor. The flexible film is composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and fabricated by using spin coating followed by peeling technology. From the results, the resultant electroluminescent spectrum shows the white OLED to have chromatic coordinates of 0.38 and 0.54 and correlated color temperature of 4200 K. The warm white OLED exhibits the yield of 10.3 cd/A and the luminous power efficiency of 5.4 lm/W at a luminance of 1000 cd/m2. A desirable Lambertian-like far-field pattern is detected from the white OLEDs with the yellow phosphor containing PDMS film. This method is simple, reproducible, and cost-effective, proving to be a highly feasible approach to realize white OLED.

  14. Autumn photosynthetic decline and growth cessation in seedlings of white spruce are decoupled under warming and photoperiod manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinziano, Joseph R; Way, Danielle A

    2017-08-01

    Climate warming is expected to increase the seasonal duration of photosynthetic carbon fixation and tree growth in high-latitude forests. However, photoperiod, a crucial cue for seasonality, will remain constant, which may constrain tree responses to warming. We investigated the effects of temperature and photoperiod on weekly changes in photosynthetic capacity, leaf biochemistry and growth in seedlings of a boreal evergreen conifer, white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss]. Warming delayed autumn declines in photosynthetic capacity, extending the period when seedlings had high carbon uptake. While photoperiod was correlated with photosynthetic capacity, short photoperiods did not constrain the maintenance of high photosynthetic capacity under warming. Rubisco concentration dynamics were affected by temperature but not photoperiod, while leaf pigment concentrations were unaffected by treatments. Respiration rates at 25 °C were stimulated by photoperiod, although respiration at the growth temperatures was increased in warming treatments. Seedling growth was stimulated by increased photoperiod and suppressed by warming. We demonstrate that temperature is a stronger control on the seasonal timing of photosynthetic down-regulation than is photoperiod. Thus, while warming can stimulate carbon uptake in boreal conifers, the extra carbon may be directed towards respiration rather than biomass, potentially limiting carbon sequestration under climate change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Vascular lumen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Eckhard; Axnick, Jennifer

    2012-04-01

    The vascular system developed early in evolution. It is required in large multicellular organisms for the transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products to and from tissues. The vascular system is composed of hollow tubes, which have a high level of complexity in vertebrates. Vasculogenesis describes the de novo formation of blood vessels, e.g., aorta formation in vertebrate embryogenesis. In contrast, angiogenesis is the formation of blood vessels from preexisting ones, e.g., sprouting of intersomitic blood vessels from the aorta. Importantly, the lumen of all blood vessels in vertebrates is lined and formed by endothelial cells. In both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, lumen formation takes place in a cord of endothelial cells. It involves a complex molecular mechanism composed of endothelial cell repulsion at the cell-cell contacts within the endothelial cell cords, junctional rearrangement, and endothelial cell shape change. As the vascular system also participates in the course of many diseases, such as cancer, stroke, and myocardial infarction, it is important to understand and make use of the molecular mechanisms of blood vessel formation to better understand and manipulate the pathomechanisms involved.

  16. High performance flexible top-emitting warm-white organic light-emitting devices and chromaticity shift mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Hongying; Deng, Lingling; Chen, Shufen, E-mail: iamsfchen@njupt.edu.cn, E-mail: wei-huang@njupt.edu.cn; Xu, Ying; Zhao, Xiaofei; Cheng, Fan [Key Laboratory for Organic Electronics and Information Displays (KLOEID) and Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 210023 Nanjing (China); Huang, Wei, E-mail: iamsfchen@njupt.edu.cn, E-mail: wei-huang@njupt.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Organic Electronics and Information Displays (KLOEID) and Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 210023 Nanjing (China); Jiangsu-Singapore Joint Research Center for Organic/Bio- Electronics and Information Displays and Institute of Advanced Materials, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 211816 (China)

    2014-04-15

    Flexible warm-white top-emitting organic light-emitting devices (TEOLEDs) are fabricated onto PET substrates with a simple semi-transparent cathode Sm/Ag and two-color phosphors respectively doped into a single host material TCTA. By adjusting the relative position of the orange-red EML sandwiched between the blue emitting layers, the optimized device exhibits the highest power/current efficiency of 8.07 lm/W and near 13 cd/A, with a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 4105 K and a color rendering index (CRI) of 70. In addition, a moderate chromaticity variation of (-0.025, +0.008) around warm white illumination coordinates (0.45, 0.44) is obtained over a large luminance range of 1000 to 10000 cd/m{sup 2}. The emission mechanism is discussed via delta-doping method and single-carrier device, which is summarized that the carrier trapping, the exciton quenching, the mobility change and the recombination zone alteration are negative to color stability while the energy transfer process and the blue/red/blue sandwiched structure are contributed to the color stability in our flexible white TEOLEDs.

  17. Contribution of TADF and exciplex emission for efficient "warm-white" OLEDs

    OpenAIRE

    Grybauskaite-Kaminskiene, Gintare; Ivaniuk, Khrystyna; Bagdziunas, Gintautas; Turyk, Pavlo; Stakhira, Pavlo; Baryshnikov, Gleb V.; Volyniuk, Dmytro; Cherpak, Vladyslav; Minaev, Boris F.; Hotra, Zenon; Ågren, Hans; Grazulevicius, Juozas Vidas

    2018-01-01

    The bicarbazole derivative 4,4'-(9H, 9'H-[3,3'-bicarbazole]-9,9'-diyl) bis(3-(trifluoromethyl) benzonitrile), denoted as pCNBCzoCF(3), was synthesized and tested for white OLED applications. pCNBCzoCF3 demonstrated an extremely small value of the singlet-triplet energy gap that caused intensive thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF). In addition, this compound is able to form exciplex-type excited states at the interface with star-shaped 4,40,400-tris[phenyl(m-tolyl) amino] triphenyl...

  18. Doping chloro boron subnaphthalocyanines and chloro boron subphthalocyanine in simple OLED architectures yields warm white incandescent-like emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plint, Trevor G.; Lessard, Benoît H.; Bender, Timothy P.

    2018-01-01

    We have incorporated chloro boron subphthalocyanine (Cl-BsubPc) and chloro boron subnapthalocyanines (Cl-ClnBsubNcs) into organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) that enabled an overall warm white emission with CIE coordinates close to that of a 60 W incandescent lightbulb. More specifically, we have shown that Cl-BsubPc and Cl-ClnBsubNcs can be used as dopant emitters in a simple host-dopant architecture, and we have compared the use of NPB and Alq3 as potential hosts for these materials. When doped into Alq3, Cl-BsubPc shows a strong orange emission, and Cl-ClnBsubNcs shows a moderately strong red emission. We have further demonstrated that Cl-BsubPc and Cl-ClnBsubNcs can be co-doped into the same layer giving combined orange and red emission peaks. A "cascade" energy transfer mechanism of sequential absorption and re-emission is proposed. Device performance characteristics such as luminance, current efficiency, photoluminescence efficiency, and external quantum efficiency are tabulated. Additionally, in view of ongoing research into white emitting OLEDs for indoor lighting purposes, the Colour Rendering Index (CRI), R9 values, and CIE co-ordinates for these devices are also discussed. We conclude from this study that the BsubNc chromophore has potential application as a red dopant in OLEDs including for indoor lighting. Additionally, given the scope for axial and peripheral derivatization of the BsubNc motif, we believe that this chromophore has many unexplored molecular design handles that will affect its ultimate performance and application in OLEDs and other opto-electronic devices.

  19. On the efficient warm white-light emission from nano-sized Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesaria, M., E-mail: maura.cesaria@le.infn.it [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Lecce (Italy); Collins, J. [Wheaton College, Norton, MA (United States); Di Bartolo, B. [Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We consider the reported emission of white light (WL) in the spectral range from 400 to beyond 900 nm induced by monochromatic infrared light (803.5 and 975 nm) continuous wave excitation of nominally un-doped yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nano-powders. Based on the experimental evidence, such an emission feature is a nano-scale phenomenon, resembles very closely the emission from an incandescent lamp (mimicking the sunlight, i.e., the most comfortable light to human eyes) and exhibits very high efficiency (864 lum/W) and nearly theoretical (i.e., 99) color rendering index. At the fundamental level, the origin of this phenomenon is still unexplained. In this paper we address the fundamental questions raised by the reported occurrence of WL emission from Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders and attempt an interpretation at a more fundamental level. In particular we focus on the multiphoton-absorption and nonexponential decay patterns of the reported WL emission as starting points to formulate models and interpretations of the experimental occurrences still lacking in the literature. Our discussion invokes the electronic dispersion of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and nanoscale effects, which is supported by the experimental evidence according to which the observed warm WL emission is a nanoscale phenomenon with properties that only can be explained by nanoscale physics. - Highlights: • Emission of white light from 400 to beyond 900 nm induced by infrared light of un-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-powders. • The emission feature resembles very closely the emission from an incandescent lamp. • The observed emission properties only can be explained by nanoscale physics.

  20. Highly efficient orange and warm white phosphorescent OLEDs based on a host material with a carbazole-fluorenyl hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaoyang; Huang, Yun; Tao, Silu; Yang, Xiaoxia; Wu, Chuan; Wei, Huaixin; Chan, Mei-Yee; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2014-06-01

    A new carbazole-fluorenyl hybrid compound, 3,3'(2,7-di(naphthaline-2-yl)-9H-fluorene-9,9-diyl)bis(9-phenyl-9H-carbazole) (NFBC) was synthesized and characterized. The compound exhibits blue-violet emission both in solution and in film, with peaks centered at 404 and 420 nm. In addition to the application as a blue emitter, NFBC is demonstrated to be a good host for phosphorescent dopants. By doping Ir(2-phq)3 in NFBC, a highly efficient orange organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with a maximum efficiency of 32 cd A(-1) (26.5 Lm W(-1)) was obtained. Unlike most phosphorescent OLEDs, the device prepared in our study shows little efficiency roll-off at high brightness and maintains current efficiencies of 31.9 and 26.8 cd A(-1) at a luminance of 1000 and 10,000 cd m(-2), respectively. By using NFBC simultaneously as a blue fluorescence emitter and as a host for a phosphorescent dopant, a warm white OLED with a maximum efficiency of 22.9 Lm W(-1) (21.9 cd A(-1)) was also obtained. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Warm white light generation from single phase Sr3Y(PO4)3:Dy3+, Eu3+ phosphors with near ultraviolet excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, B.Y.; Feng, B.L.; Luo, L.; Han, C.L.; He, Y.T.; Qiu, Z.R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel single phase phosphors were synthesized in an ambient air atmosphere. • A direct band gap about 4.5 eV of the host is calculated for the first time. • It is suitable for near UV chip excitation. • It emits warm white light with better CIE and lower CCT over previous reports. • The thermal quenching is similar to that of YAG:0.06Ce 3+ commercial phosphor. - Abstract: Novel Sr 3 Y(PO 4 ) 3 :Dy 3+ , Eu 3+ (SYP:Dy 3+ , Eu 3+ ) phosphors were synthesized by a standard solid-state reaction under an ambient air atmosphere and their structural and optical properties were investigated. XRD and diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) were used to explore structural properties. The former showed that single phase phosphors were obtained and that the rare earth ions entered into the cubic host by substituting the smaller Y 3+ ions and thereby enlarging the unit cell. The DRS indicated that the host has a direct bandgap of 4.5 eV. Under 393 nm excitation, a strong and stable warm white light emission with high color purity was achieved in SY 0.92 P:0.06Dy 3+ , 0.04Eu 3+ . The energy transfer from Dy 3+ to Eu 3+ ions was investigated and the related mechanism was discussed based on the optical spectra and emission decay curves. The thermal quenching of emission is similar to that of YAG:0.06Ce 3+ . The results show the single phase phosphor is potential in warm white LED.

  2. Improving lumen maintenance by nanopore array dispersed quantum dots for on-chip light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quan; Yang, Fan; Wan, Renzhuo; Fang, Dong

    2017-12-01

    The temperature stability of quantum dots (QDs), which is crucial for integrating into high power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in the on-chip configuration, needs to be further improved. In this letter, we report warm white LEDs, where CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were incorporated into a porous anodic alumina (PAA) matrix with a chain structure by the self-assembly method. Experiments demonstrate that the QD concentration range in toluene solvent from 1% mg/μl to 1.2% mg/μl in combination with the PAA matrix shows the best luminous property. To verify the reliability of the as-prepared device, a comparison experiment was conducted. It indicates excellent lumen maintenance of the light source and less chromaticity coordinate shift under accelerated life testing conditions. Experiments also prove that optical depreciation was only up to 4.6% of its initial value after the 1500 h aging test at the junction temperature of 76 °C.

  3. CO2 elevation improves photosynthetic performance in progressive warming environment in white birch seedlings [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouren Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available White birch (Betula paperifera Mash seedlings were exposed to progressively warming in greenhouses under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations for 5 months to explore boreal tree species’ potential capacity to acclimate to global climate warming and CO2 elevation. In situ foliar gas exchange, in vivo carboxylation characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured at temperatures of 26oC and 37oC. Elevated CO2 significantly increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn at both measurement temperatures, and Pn at 37oC was higher than that at 26oC under elevated CO2. Stomatal conductance (gs was lower at 37oC than at 26oC, while transpiration rate (E was higher at 37oC than that at 26oC. Elevated CO2 significantly increased instantaneous water-use efficiency (WUE at both 26oC and 37oC, but WUE was markedly enhanced at 37oC under elevated CO2. The effect of temperature on maximal carboxylation rate (Vcmax, PAR-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax and triose phosphate utilization (TPU varied with CO2, and the Vcmax and Jmax were significantly higher at 37oC than at 26oC under elevated CO2. However, there were no significant interactive effects of CO2 and temperature on TPU. The actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (DF/ Fm’, total photosynthetic linear electron transport rate through PSII (JT and the partitioning of JT to carboxylation (Jc were higher at 37oC than at 26oC under elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 significantly suppressed the partitioning of JT to oxygenation (Jo/JT. The data suggest that the CO2 elevation and progressive warming greatly enhanced photosynthesis in white birch seedlings in an interactive fashion.

  4. Warm-White-Light-Emitting Diode Based on a Dye-Loaded Metal-Organic Framework for Fast White-Light Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiye; Wang, Zi; Lin, Bangjiang; Hu, XueFu; Wei, YunFeng; Zhang, Cankun; An, Bing; Wang, Cheng; Lin, Wenbin

    2017-10-11

    A dye@metal-organic framework (MOF) hybrid was used as a fluorophore in a white-light-emitting diode (WLED) for fast visible-light communication (VLC). The white light was generated from a combination of blue emission of the 9,10-dibenzoate anthracene (DBA) linkers and yellow emission of the encapsulated Rhodamine B molecules. The MOF structure not only prevents dye molecules from aggregation-induced quenching but also efficiently transfers energy to the dye for dual emission. This light-emitting material shows emission lifetimes of 1.8 and 5.3 ns for the blue and yellow components, respectively, which are significantly shorter than the 200 ns lifetime of Y 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce 3+ in commercial WLEDs. The MOF-WLED device exhibited a modulating frequency of 3.6 MHz for VLC, six times that of commercial WLEDs.

  5. Photometric variability in a warm, strongly magnetic DQ white dwarf, SDSS J103655.39+652252.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Kurtis A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce, P.O. Box 3011, Commerce, TX 75429 (United States); Winget, D. E.; Montgomery, M. H.; Hermes, J. J.; Falcon, Ross E.; Winget, K. I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Dufour, Patrick [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Kepler, S. O. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500 Porto Alegre 91501-970, RS (Brazil); Bolte, Michael [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Rubin, Kate H. R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Liebert, James, E-mail: Kurtis.Williams@tamuc.edu, E-mail: jamesliebert@gmail.com [Emeritus, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We present the discovery of photometric variability in the DQ white dwarf SDSS J103655.39+652252.2 (SDSS J1036+6522). Time-series photometry reveals a coherent monoperiodic modulation at a period of 1115.64751(67) s with an amplitude 0.442% ± 0.024%; no other periodic modulations are observed with amplitudes ≳ 0.13%. The period, amplitude, and phase of this modulation are constant within errors over 16 months. The spectrum of SDSS J1036+6522 shows magnetic splitting of carbon lines, and we use Paschen-Back formalism to develop a grid of model atmospheres for mixed carbon and helium atmospheres. Our models, while reliant on several simplistic assumptions, nevertheless match the major spectral and photometric properties of the star with a self-consistent set of parameters: T {sub eff} ≈ 15, 500 K, log g ≈ 9, log (C/He) = –1.0, and a mean magnetic field strength of 3.0 ± 0.2 MG. The temperature and abundances strongly suggest that SDSS J1036+6522 is a transition object between the hot, carbon-dominated DQs and the cool, helium-dominated DQs. The variability of SDSS J1036+6522 has characteristics similar to those of the variable hot carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs (DQVs), however, its temperature is significantly cooler. The pulse profile of SDSS J1036+6522 is nearly sinusoidal, in contrast with the significantly asymmetric pulse shapes of the known magnetic DQVs. If the variability in SDSS J1036+6522 is due to the same mechanism as other DQVs, then the pulse shape is not a definitive diagnostic on the absence of a strong magnetic field in DQVs. It remains unclear whether the root cause of the variability in SDSS J1036+6522 and the other hot DQVs is the same.

  6. Photometric variability in a warm, strongly magnetic DQ white dwarf, SDSS J103655.39+652252.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Kurtis A.; Winget, D. E.; Montgomery, M. H.; Hermes, J. J.; Falcon, Ross E.; Winget, K. I.; Dufour, Patrick; Kepler, S. O.; Bolte, Michael; Rubin, Kate H. R.; Liebert, James

    2013-01-01

    We present the discovery of photometric variability in the DQ white dwarf SDSS J103655.39+652252.2 (SDSS J1036+6522). Time-series photometry reveals a coherent monoperiodic modulation at a period of 1115.64751(67) s with an amplitude 0.442% ± 0.024%; no other periodic modulations are observed with amplitudes ≳ 0.13%. The period, amplitude, and phase of this modulation are constant within errors over 16 months. The spectrum of SDSS J1036+6522 shows magnetic splitting of carbon lines, and we use Paschen-Back formalism to develop a grid of model atmospheres for mixed carbon and helium atmospheres. Our models, while reliant on several simplistic assumptions, nevertheless match the major spectral and photometric properties of the star with a self-consistent set of parameters: T eff ≈ 15, 500 K, log g ≈ 9, log (C/He) = –1.0, and a mean magnetic field strength of 3.0 ± 0.2 MG. The temperature and abundances strongly suggest that SDSS J1036+6522 is a transition object between the hot, carbon-dominated DQs and the cool, helium-dominated DQs. The variability of SDSS J1036+6522 has characteristics similar to those of the variable hot carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs (DQVs), however, its temperature is significantly cooler. The pulse profile of SDSS J1036+6522 is nearly sinusoidal, in contrast with the significantly asymmetric pulse shapes of the known magnetic DQVs. If the variability in SDSS J1036+6522 is due to the same mechanism as other DQVs, then the pulse shape is not a definitive diagnostic on the absence of a strong magnetic field in DQVs. It remains unclear whether the root cause of the variability in SDSS J1036+6522 and the other hot DQVs is the same.

  7. Stationary spiraling eddies in presence of polar amplification of global warming as a governing factor of ecology of Greenland seals White Sea population: results of verification study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melentyev, K.; Chernook, V.; Melentyev, V.

    2003-04-01

    Ice-associated forms of marine mammals are representatives of a high level of fodder chains in the ocean and taxation of population number for different group, as assessment of ecology and animal welfare are the important tasks for marine biology, ecology, fishery and other application uses. Many problems create a global warming and antropogenical impact on marine and coastal ecosystem. In order to investigate ice covered Arctic Ocean and charting the number of seals were performed annual inspections onboard research aircraft PINRO "Arktika". Multi-spectral airborne and satellite observations were fulfilled regularly from Barents and White Sea to the Bering and Okhotsk Sea (1996-2002). A contemporary status of different group of sea mammals was evaluated, where number of adults and pups were checked separately. In situ observations were provided with using helicopter and icebreaker for gathering a water samples and ice cores (with following biochemical and toxicological analysis). A prevailing part of life cycle of Greenland seals (harp seal) is strongly depended from winter hydrology (water masses, stable currents, meandering fronts, stationary eddies) and closely connected with type of ice (pack, fast ice) and other parameters of ice (age, origin, salinity, ice edge.). First-year ice floes which has a specific properties and distinctive features are used by harp seals for pupping, lactation, molting, pairing and resting. Ringed seals, inversely, use for corresponding purposes only fast-ice. Different aspects of ecology, and migration features of harp seals were analyzed in frame of verification study. It was revealed a scale of influence of winter severity and wind regime, but stationary eddies in the White Sea is most effective governing factor (novelty). Following relationship " eddies - ecology of Greenland seal White Sea population " will be discussed: A) regularities of eddies formation and their spatial arrangement, temporal (seasonal and annual

  8. Long-wave UVA radiation excited warm white-light emitting NaGdTiO4: Tm3+/Dy3+/Eu3+ ions tri-doped phosphors: Synthesis, energy transfer and color tunable properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharat, L. Krishna; Du, Peng; Yu, Jae Su

    2016-01-01

    NaGdTiO 4 (NGT) phosphors doped with different activator ions (Tm 3+ , Dy 3+ , and Eu 3+ ) were synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction method in an ambient atmosphere. These phosphors were characterized by scanning electron microscope images, transmission electron microscope images, X-ray diffraction patterns, Fourier transform infrared spectra, and photoluminescence spectra. All the samples were crystallized in an orthorhombic phase with a space group of Pbcm (57). In Tm 3+ /Dy 3+ ions co-doped samples, white-light emission was observed under near-ultraviolet (NUV) excitation. In addition, the energy transfer between Tm 3+ and Dy 3+ ions was proved to be a resonant type via an electric dipole–dipole mechanism and the critical distance of energy transfer was calculated to be 19.91 Å. Furthermore, Tm 3+ /Dy 3+ /Eu 3+ ions tri-doped NGT phosphors demonstrated warm white-light emission by appropriately tuning the activator content, based on the principle of energy transfer. These NUV wavelength excitable phosphors exhibit great potential as a single-phase full-color emitting phosphor for white light-emitting diode applications. - Highlights: • The pebble shaped NaGdTiO 4 particles were prepared by solid-state reaction method. • Tm 3+ and Dy 3+ single doping gives respective blue and cool white light emission. • The Tm 3+ /Dy 3+ ions co-doped samples give CIE values near to standard white light. • Addition of Eu 3+ ions shifts the CIE values towards warm white light region. • This single phase white light emitting phosphors have lower CCT values (<5000 K).

  9. Maximizing Lumen Gain With Directional Atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Gregory A; Winscott, John G

    2016-08-01

    To describe the use of a low-pressure balloon inflation (LPBI) technique to delineate intraluminal plaque and guide directional atherectomy in order to maximize lumen gain and achieve procedure success. The technique is illustrated in a 77-year-old man with claudication who underwent superficial femoral artery revascularization using a HawkOne directional atherectomy catheter. A standard angioplasty balloon was inflated to 1 to 2 atm during live fluoroscopy to create a 3-dimensional "lumenogram" of the target lesion. Directional atherectomy was performed only where plaque impinged on the balloon at a specific fluoroscopic orientation. The results of the LPBI technique were corroborated with multimodality diagnostic imaging, including digital subtraction angiography, intravascular ultrasound, and intra-arterial pressure measurements. With the LPBI technique, directional atherectomy can routinely achieve <10% residual stenosis, as illustrated in this case, thereby broadly supporting a no-stent approach to lower extremity endovascular revascularization. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Polarized protein transport and lumen formation during epithelial tissue morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasky, Alex J; Mangan, Anthony; Prekeris, Rytis

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges in biology is to explain how complex tissues and organs arise from the collective action of individual polarized cells. The best-studied model of this process is the cross talk between individual epithelial cells during their polarization to form the multicellular epithelial lumen during tissue morphogenesis. Multiple mechanisms of apical lumen formation have been proposed. Some epithelial lumens form from preexisting polarized epithelial structures. However, de novo lumen formation from nonpolarized cells has recently emerged as an important driver of epithelial tissue morphogenesis, especially during the formation of small epithelial tubule networks. In this review, we discuss the latest findings regarding the mechanisms and regulation of de novo lumen formation in vitro and in vivo.

  11. Single-phase and warm white-light-emitting phosphors CaLa{sub 2−x−y}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4}: xDy{sup 3+}, yEu{sup 3+}: Synthesis, luminescence and energy transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Li; Liu, Guixia, E-mail: liuguixia22@163.com; Dong, Xiangting; Wang, Jinxian; Yu, Wensheng

    2016-10-15

    A series of single-phase warm white light emitting CaLa{sub 2−x−y}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4}: xDy{sup 3+}, yEu{sup 3+} phosphors were synthesized by a typical sol–gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that the crystal structures of the samples are matched well with the tetragonal CaMoO{sub 4}. Upon ultraviolet (UV) light radiation, the Dy{sup 3+} or Eu{sup 3+} ions singly activated CaLa{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4} phosphors exhibit corresponding emissions originated from the f–f transitions of Dy{sup 3+} or Eu{sup 3+} ions. Under near ultraviolet (n-UV) light excitation, in the Dy{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} ions co-doped samples, the energy transfer (ET) phenomenon from Dy{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} ions can be observed and has been demonstrated to be a quadrupole–quadrupole interaction mechanism. The emission color of CaLa{sub 1.98−y}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4}: 0.02Dy{sup 3+}, yEu{sup 3+} samples can be tuned from cool to warm white light by adjusting the concentration of Eu{sup 3+} ions. In addition, it can be found that CaLa{sub 1.974}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4}: 0.02Dy{sup 3+}, 0.006Eu{sup 3+} samples emit bright white light with the CIE coordinate of (0.348, 0.313) and the color temperature of 5087 K, which is very close to the standard white light. All the results demonstrate that the as-synthesized phosphors have great potential applications in the field of n-UV white light emitting diodes (WLEDs).

  12. Warm white light generation from single phase Sr{sub 3}Y(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Dy{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} phosphors with near ultraviolet excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.Y. [School of Physics & Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Feng, B.L. [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Luo, L., E-mail: luoli@gdut.edu.cn [School of Physics & Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Han, C.L. [School of Physics & Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); He, Y.T.; Qiu, Z.R. [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Novel single phase phosphors were synthesized in an ambient air atmosphere. • A direct band gap about 4.5 eV of the host is calculated for the first time. • It is suitable for near UV chip excitation. • It emits warm white light with better CIE and lower CCT over previous reports. • The thermal quenching is similar to that of YAG:0.06Ce{sup 3+} commercial phosphor. - Abstract: Novel Sr{sub 3}Y(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Dy{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} (SYP:Dy{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}) phosphors were synthesized by a standard solid-state reaction under an ambient air atmosphere and their structural and optical properties were investigated. XRD and diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) were used to explore structural properties. The former showed that single phase phosphors were obtained and that the rare earth ions entered into the cubic host by substituting the smaller Y{sup 3+} ions and thereby enlarging the unit cell. The DRS indicated that the host has a direct bandgap of 4.5 eV. Under 393 nm excitation, a strong and stable warm white light emission with high color purity was achieved in SY{sub 0.92}P:0.06Dy{sup 3+}, 0.04Eu{sup 3+}. The energy transfer from Dy{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} ions was investigated and the related mechanism was discussed based on the optical spectra and emission decay curves. The thermal quenching of emission is similar to that of YAG:0.06Ce{sup 3+}. The results show the single phase phosphor is potential in warm white LED.

  13. An orange emitting phosphor Lu2−xCaMg2Si2.9Ti0.1O12:xCe with pure garnet phase for warm white LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Yaoqing; Zhang, Qinghong; Xu, Jiayue; Li, Yaogang; Wang, Hongzhi

    2015-01-01

    A new silicate garnet phosphor, Lu 2−x CaMg 2 Si 2.9 Ti 0.1 O 12 :xCe was synthesized by a high temperature solid-state reaction under reductive atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the powder was pure garnet phase. The emission and excitation spectrum indicated that the Lu 2−x CaMg 2 Si 2.9 Ti 0.1 O 12 :xCe phosphors could absorb blue light in the spectral range of 400–550 nm efficiently and exhibit bright yellow–orange emission in the range of 520–750 nm. With the increase of Ce 3+ concentration, the emission band of Ce 3+ showed a red shift. Interestingly, the concentration quenching occurred when the Ce 3+ concentration exceeded 4 mol%. The temperature-dependent luminescent properties of the phosphors were discussed and the Lu 1.96 CaMg 2 Si 2.9 Ti 0.1 O 12 :0.04Ce phosphors showed good performances in color temperature (2430 K) and potential applications for warm white LEDs. - Graphical Abstract: This image shows that the phosphor of Lu 1.96 CaMg 2 Si 2.9 Ti 0.1 O 12 :0.04Ce can generate a uniform yellow tint under natural light illumination and emit orange–red light when excited by blue light. With a fixed 467 nm emission light, warm white light can be produced by this phosphor, which indicates that the phosphor is potentially applicable in warm white light emitting diodes based on GaN chips. - Highlights: • A new silicate garnet phosphor was synthesized by solid-state method. • Secondary phases can be avoided when a small amount of Si 4+ were replaced by Ti 4+ . • A broad emission band of Ce 3+ in the phosphors was described. • The phosphors are potentially applicable in warm white light emitting diodes

  14. Evolution of regular geometrical shapes in fiber lumens

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu; Kim, Dooli; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2017-01-01

    of the internal channels or lumens of polymeric hollow fibers, leading to polygonal geometries with increasing number of sides. The elasticity of the incipient channel skin and instabilities during fiber formation are affected by the internal coagulant fluid

  15. Mechanisms of lumen formation during sprouting angiogenesis in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Gebala, V. M.

    2016-01-01

    During development, vascular networks expand following a process known as sprouting angiogenesis. New vascular branches arise from pre-existing vessels through the coordinated migration and proliferation of endothelial cells, and eventually connect to form new vascular loops. The functionality of these new vessel segments is dependent on the opening of a central lumen to allow perfusion. While mechanisms of lumen formation during the establishment of the primary vasculature by vasculogenesis ...

  16. Spermine oxidase promotes bile canalicular lumen formation through acrolein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Takeshi; Takasaka, Tomokazu; Igarashi, Kazuei; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    Spermine oxidase (SMOX) catalyzes oxidation of spermine to generate spermidine, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and 3-aminopropanal, which is spontaneously converted to acrolein. SMOX is induced by a variety of stimuli including bacterial infection, polyamine analogues and acetaldehyde exposure. However, the physiological functions of SMOX are not yet fully understood. We investigated the physiological role of SMOX in liver cells using human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. SMOX localized to the bile canalicular lumen, as determined by F-actin staining. Knockdown of SMOX reduced the formation of bile canalicular lumen. We also found that phospho-Akt (phosphorylated protein kinase B) was localized to canalicular lumen. Treatment with Akt inhibitor significantly reduced the formation of bile canalicular lumen. Acrolein scavenger also inhibited the formation of bile canalicular lumen. PTEN, phosphatase and tensin homolog and an inhibitor of Akt, was alkylated in a SMOX-dependent manner. Our results suggest that SMOX plays a central role in the formation of bile canalicular lumen in liver cells by activating Akt pathway through acrolein production.

  17. Cold and warm white light generation using Zn(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} glasses activated by Ce{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldino, U., E-mail: cald@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Alvarez, E. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora (UNISON), Boulevard Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Speghini, A.; Bettinelli, M. [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Universita di Verona, and INSTM, UdR Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37314 Verona (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    The photoluminescence of zinc metaphosphate glasses activated by Dy{sup 3+}, Ce{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 2+} ions was investigated. Non-radiative energy transfers from Ce{sup 3+} to Dy{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+} to Mn{sup 2+} are observed upon 280 nm excitation. The non-radiative nature of these transfers is inferred from the increase in the decay rate of the Ce{sup 3+} emission when the glass is co-doped with Dy{sup 3+} or Dy{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 2+}. It is demonstrated that zinc metaphosphate glasses can generate cold or warm white light emission when they are doped with Ce{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+} or Ce{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 2+} and pumped at 280 nm (peak emission wavelength of AlGaN-based LEDs). The CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates and color temperature were (0.34, 0.35) and 5250 K for the cold light, and (0.47, 0.43) and 2700 K for the warm light. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-radiative energy transfer from Ce{sup 3+} to Dy{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 2+} takes place in Zn(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} glasses doped with Ce{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 2+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} glasses doped with Ce{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+} can generate 5250 K cold white light emission. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} glasses doped with Ce{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 2+} can generate 2700 K warm yellowish orange light emission.

  18. Global warming on trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeker, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    Jim Hansen, a climatologist at NASA's Goddard Space Institute, is convinced that the earth's temperature is rising and places the blame on the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Unconvinced, John Sununu, former White House chief of staff, doubts that the warming will be great enough to produce serious threat and fears that measures to reduce the emissions would throw a wrench into the gears that drive the Unites States' troubled economy. During his three years at the White House, Sununu's view prevailed, and although his role in the debate has diminished, others continue to cast doubt on the reality of global warming. A new lobbying group called the Climate Council has been created to do just this. Burning fossil fuels is not the only problem; a fifth of emissions of carbon dioxide now come from clearing and burning forests. Scientists are also tracking a host of other greenhouse gases that emanate from a variety of human activities; the warming effect of methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxide combined equals that of carbon dioxide. Although the current warming from these gases may be difficult to detect against the background noise of natural climate variation, most climatologists are certain that as the gases continue to accumulate, increases in the earth's temperature will become evident even to skeptics. If the reality of global warming were put on trial, each side would have trouble making its case. Jim Hansen's side could not prove beyond a reasonable doubt that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have warmed the planet. But neither could John Sununu's side prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the warming expected from greenhouse gases has not occurred. To see why each side would have difficulty proving its case, this article reviews the arguments that might be presented in such a hearing

  19. Tunable luminescence and energy transfer properties of KSr{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}:Dy{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} phosphors for near-UV warm-white LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Zhihua; Li, Linlin; Liu, Yali; Zhang, Nannan; Gan, Shucai, E-mail: gansc@jlu.edu.cn

    2016-05-15

    Dy{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} codoped KSr{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} phosphors were successfully synthesized by solid-state reaction process. Under near-ultraviolet (near-UV) excitation, individual Dy{sup 3+} or Eu{sup 3+} ion activated sample exhibits characteristic emissions in their respective regions. In KSr{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}:Dy{sup 3+}, xEu{sup 3+} phosphors, the energy transfer from Dy{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} was revealed to be resonant type by dipole–dipole mechanism. And the critical distance R{sub Dy–Eu} was calculated to be 13.95 Å. The energy transfer efficiency of KSr{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}:Dy{sup 3+}, xEu{sup 3+} reached about 20% when the concentration of Eu{sup 3+} was 0.035. Moreover, the emitting colors of Dy{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} codoped samples can be adjusted from the edge of white area to warm white via tuning the activator (Eu{sup 3+}) doped concentration. More significantly, the chromaticity coordinates (0.334, 0.351) of KSr{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}:0.005Dy{sup 3+}, 0.015Eu{sup 3+} sample are extremely adjacent to standard white light (0.33, 0.33). The quantum efficiency of the KSr{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}:0.005Dy{sup 3+}, 0.015Eu{sup 3+} phosphor with 389 nm excitation is found to be 42%, demonstrating that the obtained single-component white-emitting phosphor exhibits potential applications for solid state lighting.

  20. Spectral Imaging for Intracranial Stents and Stent Lumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chi-Lun; Tseng, Ying-Chi; Chen, David Yen-Ting; Chen, Chi-Jen; Hsu, Hui-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Application of computed tomography for monitoring intracranial stents is limited because of stent-related artifacts. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of gemstone spectral imaging on the intracranial stent and stent lumen. In vitro, we scanned Enterprise stent phantom and a stent-cheese complex using the gemstone spectral imaging protocol. Follow-up gemstone spectral images of 15 consecutive patients with placement of Enterprise from January 2013 to September 2014 were also retrospectively reviewed. We used 70-keV, 140-keV, iodine (water), iodine (calcium), and iodine (hydroxyapatite) images to evaluate their effect on the intracranial stent and stent lumen. Two regions of interest were individually placed in stent lumen and adjacent brain tissue. Contrast-to-noise ratio was measured to determine image quality. The maximal diameter of stent markers was also measured to evaluate stent-related artifact. Two radiologists independently graded the visibility of the lumen at the maker location by using a 4-point scale. The mean of grading score, contrast/noise ratio and maximal diameter of stent markers were compared among all modes. All results were analyzed by SPSS version 20. In vitro, iodine (water) images decreased metallic artifact of stent makers to the greatest degree. The most areas of cheese were observed on iodine (water) images. In vivo, iodine (water) images had the smallest average diameter of stent markers (0.33 ± 0.17mm; P stent lumen (160.03 ±37.79; P stent-related artifacts of Enterprise and enhance contrast of in-stent lumen. Spectral imaging may be considered a noninvasive modality for following-up patients with in-stent stenosis.

  1. Evaluation of an improved technique for lumen path definition and lumen segmentation of atherosclerotic vessels in CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velsen, Evert F S; Niessen, Wiro J; de Weert, Thomas T; de Monyé, Cécile; van der Lugt, Aad; Meijering, Erik; Stokking, Rik

    2007-07-01

    Vessel image analysis is crucial when considering therapeutical options for (cardio-) vascular diseases. Our method, VAMPIRE (Vascular Analysis using Multiscale Paths Inferred from Ridges and Edges), involves two parts: a user defines a start- and endpoint upon which a lumen path is automatically defined, and which is used for initialization; the automatic segmentation of the vessel lumen on computed tomographic angiography (CTA) images. Both parts are based on the detection of vessel-like structures by analyzing intensity, edge, and ridge information. A multi-observer evaluation study was performed to compare VAMPIRE with a conventional method on the CTA data of 15 patients with carotid artery stenosis. In addition to the start- and endpoint, the two radiologists required on average 2.5 (SD: 1.9) additional points to define a lumen path when using the conventional method, and 0.1 (SD: 0.3) when using VAMPIRE. The segmentation results were quantitatively evaluated using Similarity Indices, which were slightly lower between VAMPIRE and the two radiologists (respectively 0.90 and 0.88) compared with the Similarity Index between the radiologists (0.92). The evaluation shows that the improved definition of a lumen path requires minimal user interaction, and that using this path as initialization leads to good automatic lumen segmentation results.

  2. Evaluation of an improved technique for lumen path definition and lumen segmentation of atherosclerotic vessels in CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velsen, Evert F.S. van; Niessen, Wiro J.; Meijering, Erik; Stokking, Rik; Weert, Thomas T. de; Monye, Cecile de; Lugt, Aad van der

    2007-01-01

    Vessel image analysis is crucial when considering therapeutical options for (cardio-) vascular diseases. Our method, VAMPIRE (Vascular Analysis using Multiscale Paths Inferred from Ridges and Edges), involves two parts: a user defines a start- and endpoint upon which a lumen path is automatically defined, and which is used for initialization; the automatic segmentation of the vessel lumen on computed tomographic angiography (CTA) images. Both parts are based on the detection of vessel-like structures by analyzing intensity, edge, and ridge information. A multi-observer evaluation study was performed to compare VAMPIRE with a conventional method on the CTA data of 15 patients with carotid artery stenosis. In addition to the start- and endpoint, the two radiologists required on average 2.5 (SD: 1.9) additional points to define a lumen path when using the conventional method, and 0.1 (SD: 0.3) when using VAMPIRE. The segmentation results were quantitatively evaluated using Similarity Indices, which were slightly lower between VAMPIRE and the two radiologists (respectively 0.90 and 0.88) compared with the Similarity Index between the radiologists (0.92). The evaluation shows that the improved definition of a lumen path requires minimal user interaction, and that using this path as initialization leads to good automatic lumen segmentation results. (orig.)

  3. Bronchial lumen is the safer route for an airway exchange catheter in double-lumen tube replacement: preventable complication in airway management for thoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiang-Ling; Tai, Ying-Hsuan; Wei, Ling-Fang; Cheng, Hung-Wei; Ho, Chiu-Ming

    2017-10-01

    There is no current consensus on which lumen an airway exchange catheter (AEC) should be passed through in double-lumen endotracheal tube (DLT) to exchange for a single-lumen endotracheal tube (SLT) after thoracic surgery. We report an unusual case to provide possible solution on this issue. A 71-year-old man with lung adenocarcinoma had an event of a broken exchange catheter used during a DLT replacement with a SLT, after a video-assisted thoracic surgery. The exchange catheter was impinged at the distal tracheal lumen and snapped during manipulation. All three segments of the catheter were retrieved without further airway compromises. Placement of airway tube exchanger into the tracheal lumen of double-lumen tube is a potential contributing factor of the unusual complication. We suggest an exchange catheter be inserted into the bronchial lumen in optimal depth with the adjunct of video laryngoscope, as the safe method for double-lumen tube exchange.

  4. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Canada's Green Plan strategy for dealing with global warming is being implemented as a multidepartmental partnership involving all Canadians and the international community. Many of the elements of this strategy are built on an existing base of activities predating the Green Plan. Elements of the strategy include programs to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, such as initiatives to encourage more energy-efficient practices and development of alternate fuel sources; studies and policy developments to help Canadians prepare and adapt to climate change; research on the global warming phenomenon; and stimulation of international action on global warming, including obligations arising out of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All the program elements have been approved, funded, and announced. Major achievements to date are summarized, including improvements in the Energy Efficiency Act, studies on the socioeconomic impacts of global warming, and participation in monitoring networks. Milestones associated with the remaining global warming initiatives are listed

  5. The battle against global warming: an absurd, costly and pointless crusade. White Paper drawn up by the Societe de Calcul Mathematique SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauzamy, Bernard; Haberstich, Cecile; Schmitt, Adrien; Berton, Gottfried; Tournie, Gaelle; Basso, Miriam; Gombero, Marie

    2015-08-01

    All public policies, in France, Europe and throughout the world, find their origin and inspiration in the battle against global warming. The initial credo is simple: temperatures at the surface of the planet have been rising constantly for the past thirty years, and human beings are to blame. This is leading to all sorts of discussions, conferences and regulations, which are having an enormous impact on our economy. Every area of activity is affected: transport, housing, energy - to name just a few. Why do we need to save energy? It is quite simple: we have to reduce human impact on the planet. This is the fundamental credo. The impact on the entire field of scientific research is particularly clear and especially pernicious. No project can be launched, on any subject whatsoever, unless it makes direct reference to global warming. You want to look at the geology of the Garonne Basin? It is, after all, an entirely normal and socially useful subject in every respect. Well, your research will be funded, approved and published only if it mentions the potential for geological storage of CO 2 . It is appalling. The crusade has invaded every area of activity and everyone's thinking: the battle against CO 2 has become a national priority. How have we reached this point, in a country that claims to be rational? At the root lie the declarations made by the IPCC, which have been repeated over the years and taken up by the European Commission and the Member States. France, which likes to see itself as the 'good boy of Europe', adds an extra layer of virtue to every crusade. When others introduce reductions, we will on principle introduce bigger reductions, without ever questioning their appropriateness: a crusade is virtuous by its very nature. And you can never be too virtuous. But mathematicians do not believe in crusades; they look at facts, figures, observations and arguments. (authors)

  6. Selective fabrication of iron oxide particles in halloysite lumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Pengwu; Du, Yuanyuan [School of Pharmacy, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330013 (China); Ma, Xiaofei, E-mail: maxiaofei@tju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-02-01

    As the adsorbents or the supports of photocatalysts, halloysite nanotubes (HNT) were expected to have intact external surface for adsorption or catalyst immobilization, when Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles was introduced to prepare magnetic HNTs for easy separation. The negatively charged urease was loaded inside positively charged HNT lumen, and urease catalyzed the hydrolysis of urea and resulted in the alkaline environment in HNT lumen. When Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} diffused in, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles were selectively synthesized in the lumen of HNT. The obtained Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HNT is characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hysteresis loops. The obtained magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HNT can be magnetically collected with intact external surface, which can support photocatalysts or remove the pollutants. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HNT was prepared. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HNT was characterized. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles were selectively synthesized in the lumen of HNT.

  7. Selective fabrication of iron oxide particles in halloysite lumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Pengwu; Du, Yuanyuan; Ma, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    As the adsorbents or the supports of photocatalysts, halloysite nanotubes (HNT) were expected to have intact external surface for adsorption or catalyst immobilization, when Fe 3 O 4 particles was introduced to prepare magnetic HNTs for easy separation. The negatively charged urease was loaded inside positively charged HNT lumen, and urease catalyzed the hydrolysis of urea and resulted in the alkaline environment in HNT lumen. When Fe 3+ and Fe 2+ diffused in, Fe 3 O 4 particles were selectively synthesized in the lumen of HNT. The obtained Fe 3 O 4 @HNT is characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hysteresis loops. The obtained magnetic Fe 3 O 4 @HNT can be magnetically collected with intact external surface, which can support photocatalysts or remove the pollutants. - Highlights: • Fe 3 O 4 @HNT was prepared. • Fe 3 O 4 @HNT was characterized. • Fe 3 O 4 particles were selectively synthesized in the lumen of HNT

  8. Hollow fiber membrane lumen modified by polyzwitterionic grafting

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu

    2016-08-24

    In this study, we demonstrate an effective way to modify the lumen of polyetherimide hollow fibers by grafting zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine) to increase the membrane resistance to fouling. Surface-selective grafting of the protective hydrogel layers has been achieved in a facile two-step process. The first step is the adsorption of a macromolecular redox co-initiator on the lumen-side surface of the membrane, which in the second step, after flushing the lumen of the membrane with a solution comprising monomers and a complementary redox initiator, triggers the in situ cross-linking copolymerization at room temperature. The success of grafting reaction has been verified by the surface elemental analyses using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the surface charge evaluation using zeta potential measurements. The hydrophilicity of the grafted porous substrate is improved as indicated by the change of contact angle value from 44° to 30°, due to the hydration layer on the surface produced by the zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine). Compared to the pristine polyetherimide (PEI) substrate, the poly(sulfobetaine) grafted substrates exhibit high fouling resistance against bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption, E. coli attachment and cell growth on the surface. Fouling minimization in the lumen is important for the use of hollow fibers in different processes. For instance, it is needed to preserve power density of pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO). In high-pressure PRO tests, a control membrane based on PEI with an external polyamide selective layer was seriously fouled by BSA, leading to a high water flux drop of 37%. In comparison, the analogous membrane, whose lumen was modified with poly(sulfobetaine), not only had a less water flux decline but also had better flux recovery, up to 87% after cleaning and hydraulic pressure impulsion. Clearly, grafting PRO hollow fiber membranes with zwitterionic polymeric hydrogels as a protective layer potentially sustains PRO

  9. Reddish-orange, neutral and warm white emissions in Eu3+, Dy3+ and Dy3+/Eu3+ doped CdO-GeO2-TeO2 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carvajal, David A.; Meza-Rocha, A. N.; Caldiño, U.; Lozada-Morales, R.; Álvarez, E.; Zayas, Ma. E.

    2016-11-01

    Eu3+, Dy3+ and Dy3+/Eu3+ doped CdO-GeO2-TeO2 glasses were prepared using the melt-quenching process and analyzed by X-diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, excitation and emission spectra, and emission decay time profiles. The lack of X ray diffraction peaks revealed that all samples are amorphous. Vibrational modes associated with Tesbnd Osbnd Te and Gesbnd Osbnd Ge related bonds and molecular oxygen were detected by Raman spectroscopy. The luminescence characteristics were studied upon excitations that correspond with the emission of InGaN (370-420 nm) based LEDs. The Eu3+ singly doped glass displayed reddish-orange global emission, with x = 0.601 and y = 0.349 CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, upon 393 nm excitation. Neutral emission with x = 0.373 and y = 0.412 CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates and correlated color temperature (CCT) of 4400 K, was achieved in the Dy3+ singly doped glass excited at 388 nm. The Dy3+/Eu3+ co-doped glass exhibited warm, neutral and soft warm white emissions with CCT values of 3435, 4153 and 2740 K, under excitations at 382, 388 and 393 nm, respectively, depending mainly on the Dy3+ and Eu3+ relative excitation. The Dy3+ excitation bands observed in the Dy3+/Eu3+ glass by monitoring the 611 nm Eu3+ emission, suggest that Dy3+ → Eu3+ energy transfer takes place, despite the fact that the Dy3+ emission decays in the Dy3+ and Dy3+/Eu3+ doped glass, remain without changes. The shortening of Eu3+ decay in presence of Dy3+ was attributed to an Eu3+ → Dy3+ non-radiative energy transfer process, which according with the Inokuti-Hirayama model might be dominated through an electric quadrupole-quadrupole interaction, with efficiency and probability of 5.5% and 51.6 s-1, respectively.

  10. Public relations ve firmě LUMEN INTERNATIONAL a.s.

    OpenAIRE

    DICHTLOVÁ, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Goal of the thesis was to assess current significance and usage of public relations in LUMEN INTERNATIONAL a.s. company and to create plan of another development. The author analysed development and current situation of public relations in LUMEN holding. There are a few suggestions in this thesis how to improve public relations in whole LUMEN holding.

  11. ARCOCT: Automatic detection of lumen border in intravascular OCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheimariotis, Grigorios-Aris; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Koutkias, Vassilis G; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Riga, Maria; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Antoniadis, Antonios P; Doulaverakis, Charalambos; Tsamboulatidis, Ioannis; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Giannoglou, George D; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2017-11-01

    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an invaluable tool for the detection of pathological features on the arterial wall and the investigation of post-stenting complications. Computational lumen border detection in OCT images is highly advantageous, since it may support rapid morphometric analysis. However, automatic detection is very challenging, since OCT images typically include various artifacts that impact image clarity, including features such as side branches and intraluminal blood presence. This paper presents ARCOCT, a segmentation method for fully-automatic detection of lumen border in OCT images. ARCOCT relies on multiple, consecutive processing steps, accounting for image preparation, contour extraction and refinement. In particular, for contour extraction ARCOCT employs the transformation of OCT images based on physical characteristics such as reflectivity and absorption of the tissue and, for contour refinement, local regression using weighted linear least squares and a 2nd degree polynomial model is employed to achieve artifact and small-branch correction as well as smoothness of the artery mesh. Our major focus was to achieve accurate contour delineation in the various types of OCT images, i.e., even in challenging cases with branches and artifacts. ARCOCT has been assessed in a dataset of 1812 images (308 from stented and 1504 from native segments) obtained from 20 patients. ARCOCT was compared against ground-truth manual segmentation performed by experts on the basis of various geometric features (e.g. area, perimeter, radius, diameter, centroid, etc.) and closed contour matching indicators (the Dice index, the Hausdorff distance and the undirected average distance), using standard statistical analysis methods. The proposed method was proven very efficient and close to the ground-truth, exhibiting non statistically-significant differences for most of the examined metrics. ARCOCT allows accurate and fully-automated lumen border

  12. Evolution of regular geometrical shapes in fiber lumens

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu

    2017-08-17

    The geometry of polymeric hollow fibers for hemodialysis or desalination is a key factor determining their performance. Deformations are frequently observed, but they are rather random. Here we were able to exactly control the shape evolution of the internal channels or lumens of polymeric hollow fibers, leading to polygonal geometries with increasing number of sides. The elasticity of the incipient channel skin and instabilities during fiber formation are affected by the internal coagulant fluid composition and flow rate; and highly influence the polygonal shape. We propose a holistic explanation by analyzing the thermodynamic, kinetic and rheological aspects involved in the skin formation and their synergy.

  13. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, John

    2005-01-01

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources

  14. Long-wave UVA radiation excited warm white-light emitting NaGdTiO{sub 4}: Tm{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} ions tri-doped phosphors: Synthesis, energy transfer and color tunable properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharat, L. Krishna; Du, Peng; Yu, Jae Su, E-mail: jsyu@khu.ac.kr

    2016-05-05

    NaGdTiO{sub 4} (NGT) phosphors doped with different activator ions (Tm{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, and Eu{sup 3+}) were synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction method in an ambient atmosphere. These phosphors were characterized by scanning electron microscope images, transmission electron microscope images, X-ray diffraction patterns, Fourier transform infrared spectra, and photoluminescence spectra. All the samples were crystallized in an orthorhombic phase with a space group of Pbcm (57). In Tm{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+} ions co-doped samples, white-light emission was observed under near-ultraviolet (NUV) excitation. In addition, the energy transfer between Tm{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} ions was proved to be a resonant type via an electric dipole–dipole mechanism and the critical distance of energy transfer was calculated to be 19.91 Å. Furthermore, Tm{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} ions tri-doped NGT phosphors demonstrated warm white-light emission by appropriately tuning the activator content, based on the principle of energy transfer. These NUV wavelength excitable phosphors exhibit great potential as a single-phase full-color emitting phosphor for white light-emitting diode applications. - Highlights: • The pebble shaped NaGdTiO{sub 4} particles were prepared by solid-state reaction method. • Tm{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} single doping gives respective blue and cool white light emission. • The Tm{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+} ions co-doped samples give CIE values near to standard white light. • Addition of Eu{sup 3+} ions shifts the CIE values towards warm white light region. • This single phase white light emitting phosphors have lower CCT values (<5000 K).

  15. Interspecific Competition and Trade-offs in Resource Allocation are the Key to Successful Growth of Seedlings of White Spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) at Subarctic Treelines in Warming Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, K.; Bret-Harte, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Alpine treelines in Alaska have advanced for the past 50 years in response to the recent climate warming. However, further increases in temperatures may cause treeline species drought stress and increase susceptibility to insect outbreaks and fire. Complex factors such as soil conditions and plant species composition also impact the growth of seedlings, which are essential to sustain boreal forests. Our goals were to assess 1) the current optimal elevation for the treeline species Picea glauca (white spruce) seedlings and how it is altered by climate change, and 2) their growth/survival strategies at each environmental site. We studied the growth response of spruce seedlings along an altitudinal gradient at 6 sites, consisting of tundra, forest, or transitional ecotone in Denali National Park and one forest site in Fairbanks, AK. In May 2012, four-month old seedlings were planted with or without naturally occurring plants to compare the presence or absence of the interspecific interaction. Summer temperatures were increased by one small greenhouse per site. Over 2 growing seasons, growth was measured non-destructively, and then the seedlings were harvested. Relative growth rate (RGR) in height was increased significantly as the altitude was increased. Elevated temperature increased height only in seedlings at a high-altitude forest. Seedlings with neighboring plants had a higher RGR in height than seedlings that had neighbors removed, while significantly wider diameters were measured from the seedlings without neighbors. A weak trend of declining diameter width with increasing altitudes was seen. Seedlings that grew taller did not grow their stems wider, indicating trade-offs in resource allocation. None of the altitudinal sites had a clear advantage for the growth of the seedlings. Habitat microclimate and the interaction with other species could be more important than the altitude or temperatures and hence, key to the survival and growth of spruce seedlings in

  16. Global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Hulme, M

    1998-01-01

    Global warming-like deforestation, the ozone hole and the loss of species- has become one of the late 20the century icons of global environmental damage. The threat, is not the reality, of such a global climate change has motivated governments. businesses and environmental organisations, to take serious action ot try and achieve serious control of the future climate. This culminated last December in Kyoto in the agreement for legally-binding climate protocol. In this series of three lectures I will provide a perspective on the phenomenon of global warming that accepts the scientific basis for our concern, but one that also recognises the dynamic interaction between climate and society that has always exited The future will be no different. The challenge of global warning is not to pretend it is not happening (as with some pressure groups), nor to pretend it threatens global civilisation (as with other pressure groups), and it is not even a challenge to try and stop it from happening-we are too far down the ro...

  17. Multiple versus single lumen umbilical venous catheters for newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabra, N S; Kumar, M; Shah, S S

    2005-07-20

    Multiple lumen umbilical venous catheters (ML-UVCs) instead of single lumen UVCs (SL-UVCs) may decrease the need for additional venous lines. Although it seems self-evident that ML-UVCs would reduce the need of additional venous lines, the rates of associated complications might be different. To compare the effectiveness and the safety of ML-UVCs versus SL-UVCs in terms of need of additional vascular access, rates of complications, morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. Randomized and quasi-randomized trials were identified by searching the MEDLINE (1966 - February 2005), EMBASE (1980- February 2005), CINAHL (1982 - February 2005), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2004) and Science Direct (subject area: medicine, journal and abstract database; 1967 to February 2005). Literature search also included a manual search of the abstracts of scientific meetings published in Pediatric Research (1990-2004). Additional citations were sought using references in articles retrieved from searches. Subject experts were contacted to identify the unpublished and ongoing studies. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled clinical trials comparing safety and efficacy of multiple versus single lumen umbilical venous catheter in neonates (both term and preterm) who were in need of umbilical venous catheter insertion for vascular access in first four weeks of life. Each review author performed data extraction independently and differences were resolved by discussion. The following outcomes were determined: total number of additional peripheral intravenous lines per baby in first week and first four weeks of life, total number of additional percutaneously and surgically placed central venous lines per baby in first four weeks of life, and other safety and efficacy measures. The treatment effect estimators used were RR, RD, and WMD when appropriate along with their 95% CI. If RD was statistically significant, then number

  18. The dual-gate lumen model of renal monoamine transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty Hinz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Marty Hinz1, Alvin Stein2, Thomas Uncini31Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc. Cape Coral, Florida, USA; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, Florida, USA; 3DBS Labs, Duluth, Minnesota, USAAbstract: The three-phase response of urinary serotonin and dopamine in subjects ­simultaneously taking amino acid precursors of serotonin and dopamine has been defined.1,2 No model exists regarding the renal etiology of the three-phase response. This writing outlines a model explaining the origin of the three-phase response of urinary serotonin and dopamine. A “dual-gate lumen transporter model” for the basolateral monoamine transporters of the kidneys is proposed as being the etiology of the three-phase urinary serotonin and dopamine responses.Purpose: The purpose of this writing is to document the internal renal function model that has evolved in research during large-scale assay with phase interpretation of urinary serotonin and dopamine.Patients and methods: In excess of 75,000 urinary monoamine assays from more than 7,500 patients were analyzed. The serotonin and the dopamine phase were determined for specimens submitted in the competitive inhibition state. The phase determination findings were then correlated with peer-reviewed literature.Results: The correlation between the three-phase response of urinary serotonin and dopamine with internal renal processes of the bilateral monoamine transporter and the apical monoamine transporter of the proximal convoluted renal tubule cells is defined.Conclusion: The phase of urinary serotonin and dopamine is dependent on the status of the serotonin gate, dopamine gate, and lumen of the basolateral monoamine transporter while in the competitive inhibition state.Keywords: serotonin, dopamine, basolateral, apical, kidney, proximal

  19. Antarctica: Cooling or Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunde, Armin; Ludescher, Josef; Franzke, Christian

    2013-04-01

    We consider the 14 longest instrumental monthly mean temperature records from the Antarctica and analyse their correlation properties by wavelet and detrended fluctuation analysis. We show that the stations in the western and the eastern part of the Antarctica show significant long-term memory governed by Hurst exponents close to 0.8 and 0.65, respectively. In contrast, the temperature records at the inner part of the continent (South Pole and Vostok), resemble white noise. We use linear regression to estimate the respective temperature differences in the records per decade (i) for the annual data, (ii) for the summer and (iii) for the winter season. Using a recent approach by Lennartz and Bunde [1] we estimate the respective probabilities that these temperature differences can be exceeded naturally without inferring an external (anthropogenic) trend. We find that the warming in the western part of the continent and the cooling at the South Pole is due to a gradually changes in the cold extremes. For the winter months, both cooling and warming are well outside the 95 percent confidence interval, pointing to an anthropogenic origin. In the eastern Antarctica, the temperature increases and decreases are modest and well within the 95 percent confidence interval. [1] S. Lennartz and A. Bunde, Phys. Rev. E 84, 021129 (2011)

  20. Rationale and design of the East-West late lumen loss study: Comparison of late lumen loss between Eastern and Western drug-eluting stent study cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert W; Radhakrishnan, Vaishnavi; Lam, Peter S; Allocco, Dominic J; Brar, Sandeep; Fahy, Martin; Fisher, Rebecca; Ikeno, Fumiaki; Généreux, Philippe; Kimura, Takeshi; Liu, Minglei; Lye, Weng Kit; Mintz, Gary S; Nagai, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Yuka; White, Roseann; Allen, John C; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2016-12-01

    The contemporary evaluation of novel drug-eluting stents (DES) includes mechanistic observations that characterize postdeployment stent behavior. Quantification of late lumen loss due to neointimal hyperplasia 8-13 months after stent implantation, via quantitative coronary angiography (QCA), constitutes such an observation and is required by most regulatory authorities. Late lumen loss, as determined by QCA, has been validated as a surrogate for clinical endpoints such as target vessel revascularization. The mechanistic response to DES has not been directly compared across predominantly Asian or Western populations, whereas understanding their comparability across geographic populations could enhance global DES evaluation. The East-West late lumen loss study is designed to demonstrate whether the residual differences in late lumen loss, as assessed by QCA, is different between Eastern and Western DES recipients from studies with protocol angiography at 8-13 months of follow-up. Data from independent core laboratories that have characterized angiographic late lumen loss in DES clinical trials with protocol follow-up angiography will be compiled and dichotomized into Eastern and Western populations. A prospectively developed propensity score model incorporating clinical and anatomic variables affecting late lumen loss will be used to adjust comparisons of QCA measurements. Documentation of whether there are clinically meaningful differences in mechanistic response to DES implantation across genetically unique geographies could facilitate both the quality and efficiency of global device evaluation requiring invasive follow-up for novel stent designs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Esophageal Motility Utilizing the Functional Lumen Imaging Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dustin A; Kahrilas, Peter J; Lin, Zhiyue; Hirano, Ikuo; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Listernick, Zoe; Ritter, Katherine; Tye, Michael; Ponds, Fraukje A; Wong, Ian; Pandolfino, John E

    2016-12-01

    Esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility and distension-mediated peristalsis can be assessed with the functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) during a sedated upper endoscopy. We aimed to describe esophageal motility assessment using FLIP topography in patients presenting with dysphagia. In all, 145 patients (aged 18-85 years, 54% female) with dysphagia that completed upper endoscopy with a 16-cm FLIP assembly and high-resolution manometry (HRM) were included. HRM was analyzed according to the Chicago Classification of esophageal motility disorders; major esophageal motility disorders were considered "abnormal". FLIP studies were analyzed using a customized program to calculate the EGJ-distensibility index (DI) and generate FLIP topography plots to identify esophageal contractility patterns. FLIP topography was considered "abnormal" if EGJ-DI was esophageal motility and 29 normal motility. In all, 17 (50%) had abnormal FLIP topography including 13 (37%) with abnormal EGJ-DI. FLIP topography provides a well-tolerated method for esophageal motility assessment (especially to identify achalasia) at the time of upper endoscopy. FLIP topography findings that are discordant with HRM may indicate otherwise undetected abnormalities of esophageal function, thus FLIP provides an alternative and complementary method to HRM for evaluation of non-obstructive dysphagia.

  2. Synergy of cell-cell repulsion and vacuolation in a computational model of lumen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Sonja E M; Merks, Roeland M H

    2014-03-06

    A key step in blood vessel development (angiogenesis) is lumen formation: the hollowing of vessels for blood perfusion. Two alternative lumen formation mechanisms are suggested to function in different types of blood vessels. The vacuolation mechanism is suggested for lumen formation in small vessels by coalescence of intracellular vacuoles, a view that was extended to extracellular lumen formation by exocytosis of vacuoles. The cell-cell repulsion mechanism is suggested to initiate extracellular lumen formation in large vessels by active repulsion of adjacent cells, and active cell shape changes extend the lumen. We used an agent-based computer model, based on the cellular Potts model, to compare and study both mechanisms separately and combined. An extensive sensitivity analysis shows that each of the mechanisms on its own can produce lumens in a narrow region of parameter space. However, combining both mechanisms makes lumen formation much more robust to the values of the parameters, suggesting that the mechanisms may work synergistically and operate in parallel, rather than in different vessel types.

  3. Synergy of cell–cell repulsion and vacuolation in a computational model of lumen formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Sonja E. M.; Merks, Roeland M. H.

    2014-01-01

    A key step in blood vessel development (angiogenesis) is lumen formation: the hollowing of vessels for blood perfusion. Two alternative lumen formation mechanisms are suggested to function in different types of blood vessels. The vacuolation mechanism is suggested for lumen formation in small vessels by coalescence of intracellular vacuoles, a view that was extended to extracellular lumen formation by exocytosis of vacuoles. The cell–cell repulsion mechanism is suggested to initiate extracellular lumen formation in large vessels by active repulsion of adjacent cells, and active cell shape changes extend the lumen. We used an agent-based computer model, based on the cellular Potts model, to compare and study both mechanisms separately and combined. An extensive sensitivity analysis shows that each of the mechanisms on its own can produce lumens in a narrow region of parameter space. However, combining both mechanisms makes lumen formation much more robust to the values of the parameters, suggesting that the mechanisms may work synergistically and operate in parallel, rather than in different vessel types. PMID:24430123

  4. Nonvisualization of the gallbladder lumen on sonogram: a sign of acute viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Ko, Young Tae

    1986-01-01

    Six cases of nonvisulization of the gallbladder lumen in patients with acute viral hepatitis are presented. Follow-up ultrasonographic examinations done during the convalescent period in 2 patients showed normal gallbladders and this was correlated with improvement in enzyme levels. It is suggested that acute viral hepatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nonvisualization of the gallbladder lumen on sonogram.

  5. Nonvisualization of the gallbladder lumen on sonogram: a sign of acute viral hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Ko, Young Tae [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-04-15

    Six cases of nonvisulization of the gallbladder lumen in patients with acute viral hepatitis are presented. Follow-up ultrasonographic examinations done during the convalescent period in 2 patients showed normal gallbladders and this was correlated with improvement in enzyme levels. It is suggested that acute viral hepatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nonvisualization of the gallbladder lumen on sonogram.

  6. True-lumen and false-lumen diameter changes in the downstream aorta after frozen elephant trunk implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Tim; Kreibich, Maximilian; Morlock, Julia; Kondov, Stoyan; Scheumann, Johannes; Kari, Fabian A; Rylski, Bartosz; Siepe, Matthias; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Czerny, Martin

    2018-02-19

    To evaluate early and mid-term clinical outcomes and to assess the potential of the frozen elephant trunk technique to induce remodelling of downstream aortic segments in acute and chronic thoracic aortic dissections. Over a 4-year period, 65 patients (48 men, aged 61 ± 12 years) underwent total aortic arch replacement using the frozen elephant trunk technique for acute (n = 31) and chronic (n = 34) thoracic aortic dissections at our institution. We assessed diameter changes at 3 levels: the L1 segment at the stent graft level; the L2 segment at the thoraco-abdominal transition level and the L3 segment at the coeliac trunk level. True-lumen (TL) and false-lumen (FL) diameter changes were assessed at each level. Fifty-six percent of patients had already undergone previous aortic or cardiac surgery. In-hospital mortality was 6%. Symptomatic spinal cord injury was not observed in this series. During a mean follow-up of 12 ± 12 months, late death was observed in 6% of patients. Aortic reinterventions in downstream aortic segments were performed in 28% at a mean of 394 ± 385 days. TL expansion and FL shrinkage were measured in all segments and were observed at each level. This effect was the most pronounced at the level of the stent graft in patients with chronic aortic dissection, TL diameter increased from 15 ± 17 mm before surgery to 28 ± 2 mm (P = 0.001) after 2 years, and the FL diameter decreased from 40 ± 11 mm before surgery to 32 ± 17 mm (P = 0.026). The frozen elephant trunk technique is associated with an excellent clinical outcome in a complex cohort of patients, and also effectively induces remodelling in downstream aortic segments in acute and chronic thoracic aortic dissections. The need for secondary interventions in downstream segments, which mainly depends on the extent of the underlying disease process, remains substantial. Further studies are required to assess the long-term outcome of

  7. Preparation of lumen-loaded kenaf pulp with magnetite (Fe3O4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, S.; Ong, B.H.; Ahmad, S.H.; Abdullah, M.; Yamauchi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic pulps were prepared from unbleached kenaf (hibiscus cannabinus L.) kraft pulps. Fe 3 O 4 or magnetite powder was used to load into the pulp's lumen and pit. Aluminum sulphate [Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ] (alum) and polyethylenimine (PEI), both mainly function as retention aid were used throughout the experiment and found to be beneficial in the preparation of this magnetic pulps. The ash content method was used to determine the amount of magnetite retained in the lumen and pit. The utilization of PEI up to 2% per pulp fibres was found to be the best result on lumen loading. The deposition of magnetite powder in lumen and pit is found decrease as the addition of PEI used is more than 2% per pulp fibres. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) clearly shows the distribution of magnetite deposited in the lumen. Tensile index and folding endurance of the loaded fibre decreased slightly as the percentage of loading pigment increased

  8. Automated quantification of bronchiectasis, airway wall thickening and lumen tapering in chest CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Rovira, Adria; Kuo, Wieying; Petersen, Jens

    thickness and accompanying artery radius), and inter-branch Lumen-Ratio (LR, ratio between a branch's lumen and its parent branch lumen radius, a tapering measurement) were computed. Because CF-related structural abnormalities only affect a portion of branches, the 75th percentile was used as summarising......Purpose: To automatically quantify airway structural properties visualised on CT in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and controls, including: bronchiectasis, airway wall thickening, and lumen tapering. Methods and materials: The 3D surface of the airway lumen, outer wall, and bronchial arteries...... were obtained using a fully automatic, in-house developed, segmentation method. Subsequently, for each detected airway branch, the Airway-Artery Ratio (AAR, ratio between airway outer wall and accompanying artery radius, a bronchiectasis measurement), Wall-Artery Ratio (WAR, ratio between airway wall...

  9. Claudin5a is required for proper inflation of Kupffer's vesicle lumen and organ laterality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Gyun Kim

    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetric organ development is critical to establish a proper body plan of vertebrates. In zebrafish, the Kupffer's vesicle (KV is a fluid-filled sac which controls asymmetric organ development, and a properly inflated KV lumen by means of fluid influx is a prerequisite for the asymmetric signal transmission. However, little is known about the components that support the paracellular tightness between the KV luminal epithelial cells to sustain hydrostatic pressure during KV lumen expansion. Here, we identified that the claudin5a (cldn5a is highly expressed at the apical surface of KV epithelial cells and tightly seals the KV lumen. Downregulation of cldn5a in zebrafish showed a failure in organ laterality that resulted from malformed KV. In addition, accelerated fluid influx into KV by combined treatment of forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine failed to expand the partially-formed KV lumen in cldn5a morphants. However, malformed KV lumen and defective heart laterality in cldn5a morphants were significantly rescued by exogenous cldn5a mRNA, suggesting that the tightness between the luminal epithelial cells is important for KV lumen formation. Taken together, these findings suggest that cldn5a is required for KV lumen inflation and left-right asymmetric organ development.

  10. Claudin5a is required for proper inflation of Kupffer's vesicle lumen and organ laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Gyun; Bae, Sung-Jin; Lee, Hye Shin; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Kim, Kyu-Won

    2017-01-01

    Left-right asymmetric organ development is critical to establish a proper body plan of vertebrates. In zebrafish, the Kupffer's vesicle (KV) is a fluid-filled sac which controls asymmetric organ development, and a properly inflated KV lumen by means of fluid influx is a prerequisite for the asymmetric signal transmission. However, little is known about the components that support the paracellular tightness between the KV luminal epithelial cells to sustain hydrostatic pressure during KV lumen expansion. Here, we identified that the claudin5a (cldn5a) is highly expressed at the apical surface of KV epithelial cells and tightly seals the KV lumen. Downregulation of cldn5a in zebrafish showed a failure in organ laterality that resulted from malformed KV. In addition, accelerated fluid influx into KV by combined treatment of forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine failed to expand the partially-formed KV lumen in cldn5a morphants. However, malformed KV lumen and defective heart laterality in cldn5a morphants were significantly rescued by exogenous cldn5a mRNA, suggesting that the tightness between the luminal epithelial cells is important for KV lumen formation. Taken together, these findings suggest that cldn5a is required for KV lumen inflation and left-right asymmetric organ development.

  11. Improved automated lumen contour detection by novel multifrequency processing algorithm with current intravascular ultrasound system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Teruyoshi; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Waseda, Katsuhisa; Sathyanarayana, Shashidhar; Li, Wenguang; Teo, Tat-Jin; Yock, Paul G; Fitzgerald, Peter J; Honda, Yasuhiro

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a new fully automated lumen border tracing system based on a novel multifrequency processing algorithm. We developed the multifrequency processing method to enhance arterial lumen detection by exploiting the differential scattering characteristics of blood and arterial tissue. The implementation of the method can be integrated into current intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) hardware. This study was performed in vivo with conventional 40-MHz IVUS catheters (Atlantis SR Pro™, Boston Scientific Corp, Natick, MA) in 43 clinical patients with coronary artery disease. A total of 522 frames were randomly selected, and lumen areas were measured after automatically tracing lumen borders with the new tracing system and a commercially available tracing system (TraceAssist™) referred to as the "conventional tracing system." The data assessed by the two automated systems were compared with the results of manual tracings by experienced IVUS analysts. New automated lumen measurements showed better agreement with manual lumen area tracings compared with those of the conventional tracing system (correlation coefficient: 0.819 vs. 0.509). When compared against manual tracings, the new algorithm also demonstrated improved systematic error (mean difference: 0.13 vs. -1.02 mm(2) ) and random variability (standard deviation of difference: 2.21 vs. 4.02 mm(2) ) compared with the conventional tracing system. This preliminary study showed that the novel fully automated tracing system based on the multifrequency processing algorithm can provide more accurate lumen border detection than current automated tracing systems and thus, offer a more reliable quantitative evaluation of lumen geometry. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Technical Note: Measurement of common carotid artery lumen dynamics using black-blood MR cine imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Erpeng; Dong, Li; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Lyu; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Xihai; Wang, Jinnan; Yuan, Chun; Guo, Hua

    2017-03-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the common carotid artery (CCA) lumen dynamics using a black-blood cine (BB-cine) imaging method. Motion-sensitized driven-equilibrium (MSDE) prepared spoiled gradient sequence was used for the BB-cine imaging. CCAs of eleven healthy volunteers were studied using this method. Lumen dynamics, including lumen area evolution waveforms and distension values, were measured and evaluated by comparing this method with bright-blood cine (BrB-cine) imaging. Compared with the BrB-cine images, flow artifacts were effectively suppressed in the BB-cine images. BrB-cine images generally show larger lumen areas than BB-cine images. The lumen area waveforms and distension measurements from BB-cine imaging showed smaller variances among different subjects than BrB-cine imaging. The proposed BB-cine imaging technique can suppress the flow artifacts effectively and reduce the partial volume effects from the vessel wall. This might allow more accurate lumen dynamics measurements than traditional BrB-cine imaging, which may further be valuable for investigating biomechanical and functional properties of the cardiovascular system. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. Sudden Stratospheric Warming Compendium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sudden Stratospheric Warming Compendium (SSWC) data set documents the stratospheric, tropospheric, and surface climate impacts of sudden stratospheric warmings. This...

  14. White Ring; White ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, H.; Yuzawa, H. [Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    White Ring is a citizen`s gymnasium used for figure skating and short track speed skating games of 18th Winter Olympic Games in 1998. White Ring is composed of a main-arena and a sub-arena. For the main-arena with an area 41mtimes66m, an ice link can be made by disengaging the potable floor and by flowing brine in the bridged polystyrene pipes embedded in the concrete floor. Due to the fortunate groundwater in this site, well water is used for the outside air treatment energy in 63% during heating and in 35% during cooling. Ammonia is used as a cooling medium for refrigerating facility. For the heating of audience area in the large space, heat load from the outside is reduced by enhancing the heat insulation performance of the roof of arena. The audience seats are locally heated using heaters. For the White Ring, high quality environment is realized for games through various functions of the large-scale roof of the large space. Success of the big event was expected. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Using a Dual-Lumen Endogastroscope for Patients with Billroth II Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a dual-lumen forward-viewing endoscope for ERCP in patients with prior Billroth II gastrectomy. Methods. The records of 46 patients treated with ERCP by a dual-lumen forward-viewing endoscope after Billroth II gastrectomy from 2007 to 2012 were reviewed. Results. The success rate of selective cannulation was 82.6% (38/46. Of the 38 cases with successful selective cannulation, endoscopic sphincterotomy was achieved in 23 cases by placing the needle knife through the 2nd lumen, while endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation was conducted in the other 15 cases. Of the 8 failed cases of selective cannulation, 6 had failed afferent loop intubation, and 3 of these 6 patients had Braun’s anastomosis. The safety and efficacy of catheter-assisted endoscopic sphincterotomy were increased by placing the needle knife through the 2nd lumen without altering the conventional endoscopic sphincterotomy procedure. Conclusions. A dual-lumen forward-viewing endoscope can be safely and effectively used to perform ERCP in patients with a Billroth II gastrectomy, except for patients with additional Braun’s anastomosis.

  16. Age-Related Changes in Pharyngeal Lumen Size: A Retrospective MRI Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Amin, M R; Branski, R C; Brumm, J D; Hagiwara, M; Roof, S A; Lazarus, C L

    2015-06-01

    Age-related loss of muscle bulk and strength (sarcopenia) is often cited as a potential mechanism underlying age-related changes in swallowing. Our goal was to explore this phenomenon in the pharynx, specifically, by measuring pharyngeal wall thickness and pharyngeal lumen area in a sample of young versus older women. MRI scans of the neck were retrospectively reviewed from 60 women equally stratified into three age groups (20s, 60s, 70+). Four de-identified slices were extracted per scan for randomized, blinded analysis: one mid-sagittal and three axial slices were selected at the anterior inferior border of C2 and C3, and at the pit of the vallecula. Pixel-based measures of pharyngeal wall thickness and pharyngeal lumen area were completed using ImageJ and then converted to metric units. Measures of pharyngeal wall thickness and pharyngeal lumen area were compared between age groups with one-way ANOVAs using Sidak adjustments for post-hoc pairwise comparisons. A significant main effect for age was observed across all variables whereby pharyngeal wall thickness decreased and pharyngeal lumen area increased with advancing age. Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences between 20s versus 70+ for all variables and 20s versus 60s for all variables except those measured at C2. Effect sizes ranged from 0.54 to 1.34. Consistent with existing sacropenia literature, the pharyngeal muscles appear to atrophy with age and consequently, the size of the pharyngeal lumen increases.

  17. Long-term lumen depreciation behavior and failure modes of multi-die array LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Asiri; Marcus, Daniel; Prugue, Ximena; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2013-09-01

    One of the main advantages of multi-die array light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is their high flux density. However, a challenge for using such a product in lighting fixture applications is the heat density and the need for thermal management to keep the junction temperatures of all the dies low for long-term reliable performance. Ten multi-die LED array samples for each product from four different manufacturers were subjected to lumen maintenance testing (as described in IES-LM-80-08), and their resulting lumen depreciation and failure modes were studied. The products were tested at the maximum case (or pin) temperature reported by the respective manufacturer by appropriately powering the LEDs. In addition, three samples for each product from two different manufacturers were subjected to rapid thermal cycling, and the resulting lumen depreciation and failure modes were studied. The results showed that the exponential lumen decay model using long-term lumen maintenance data as recommended in IES TM-21 does not fit for all package types. The failure of a string of dies and single die failure in a string were observed in some of the packages.

  18. Blood in the gastric lumen increases splanchnic blood flow and portal pressure in portal-hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Groszmann, R J

    1996-10-01

    In portal-hypertensive humans, portal blood flow and pressure increase after a meal. These hemodynamic changes may increase variceal rupture risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether blood in the stomach lumen increases splanchnic flow and portal pressure (PP) in portal-hypertensive rats. superior mesenteric artery flow and PP were measured in conscious, unrestrained, fasted partial portal vein-ligated rats with chronically implanted Doppler flow probes or portal vein catheters before and after gavage with heparinized, warmed blood from donor rats, air, standard meal, or empty tube. Percentage of changes in flow and pressure from baseline were significantly greater after gavage with blood (an increase of 22.6% +/- 3.5% and an increase of 16.4% +/- 3.1%, respectively) than empty tube (an increase of 3.4% +/- 0.6% and a decrease of 5.4% +/- 3.5%, respectively) (P empty tube (P calories probably contributes to these hemodynamic changes. In patients with variceal hemorrhage, blood in the stomach may increase the risk of persistent variceal bleeding or rebleeding.

  19. Enlargement of halloysite clay nanotube lumen by selective etching of aluminum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullayev, Elshad; Joshi, Anupam; Wei, Wenbo; Zhao, Yafei; Lvov, Yuri

    2012-08-28

    Halloysite clay tubes have 50 nm diameter and chemically different inner and outer walls (inner surface of aluminum oxide and outer surface of silica). Due to this different chemistry, the selective etching of alumina from inside the tube was realized, while preserving their external diameter (lumen diameter changed from 15 to 25 nm). This increases 2-3 times the tube lumen capacity for loading and further sustained release of active chemical agents such as metals, corrosion inhibitors, and drugs. In particular, halloysite loading efficiency for the benzotriazole increased 4 times by selective etching of 60% alumina within the tubes' lumens. Specific surface area of the tubes increased over 6 times, from 40 to 250 m(2)/g, upon acid treatment.

  20. Evaluation of an improved technique for automated center lumen line definition in cardiovascular image data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratama van Andel, Hugo A.F.; Meijering, Erik; Vrooman, Henri A.; Stokking, Rik; Lugt, Aad van der; Monye, Cecile de

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate a new method for automated definition of a center lumen line in vessels in cardiovascular image data. This method, called VAMPIRE, is based on improved detection of vessel-like structures. A multiobserver evaluation study was conducted involving 40 tracings in clinical CTA data of carotid arteries to compare VAMPIRE with an established technique. This comparison showed that VAMPIRE yields considerably more successful tracings and improved handling of stenosis, calcifications, multiple vessels, and nearby bone structures. We conclude that VAMPIRE is highly suitable for automated definition of center lumen lines in vessels in cardiovascular image data. (orig.)

  1. FACTORS AND COMPLICATIONS AFFECTING CATHETER AND TECHNIQUE SURVIVAL WITH PERMANENT SINGLE-LUMEN DIALYSIS CATHETERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMEESTER, J; VANHOLDER, R; DEROOSE, J; RINGOIR, S

    1994-01-01

    This long-term study on the outcome of permanent silicone single-lumen dialysis catheters consisted of 43 surgically inserted catheters in 33 patients. All catheters were attached to a pressure-pressure single-cannula dialysis system. Technique and catheter survival were 80 and 59% at 1 year, and 63

  2. Thrombosis caused by polyurethane double-lumen subclavian superior vena cava catheter and hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Maria Rørbæk; Frifelt, J J; Smith-Sivertsen, C

    1988-01-01

    During an 18-month period, 82 consecutive patients (37 women and 45 men), with a mean age of 50 yr (range 15 to 74), underwent hemodialysis with 91 polyurethane double-lumen subclavian superior vena cava catheters inserted via the right subclavian vein. Upon catheter removal, venograms were...

  3. Fate of the dissecting lumen by CT study following surgical repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Ando, Taizo; Kawazoe, Kohei; Tomino, Tetsuo; Fujita, Takeshi; Naito, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Toshio

    1983-03-01

    A postoperative follow-up study on the fate of dissecting lumen by means of computer tomography has been evaluated. The materials were 21 patients who underwent surgery for dissection of the aorta, including 8 patients in type 1 of DeBakey classification, 3 in type 11, 8 in type 111 and 2 patients of localized dissection in descending and abdominal aorta. The susceptibility for thrombus formation in dissecting lumen appeared to be related to the background etiology of dissection where poor tendency for thrombus formation was observed in a group of patients with Marfan syndrome and its' incomplete form. On the other hand in the group of patients who had a history of hypertension and atherosclerosis probable, a strong tendency of thrombus formation and eventual occlusion of lumen was obtained. On the basis of above findings, it will be said that the surgical intervention for type 1 of DeBakey classification in Marfan patient is merely creating type 111 dissection, closed observation in the future change of dissecting lumen is of utmost importance especially in those groups of patients.

  4. Fate of the dissecting lumen by CT study following surgical repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Ando, Taizo; Kawazoe, Kohei; Tomino, Tetsuo; Fujita, Takeshi; Naito, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Toshio.

    1983-01-01

    A postoperative follow-up study on the fate of dissecting lumen by mean of computer tomography has been evaluated. The materials were 21 patients who underwent surgery for dissection of the aorta, including 8 patients in type 1 of DeBakey classification, 3 in type 11, 8 in type 111 and 2 patients of localized dissection in descending and abdominal aorta. The susceptibility for thrombus formation in dissecting lumen appeared to be relating to the background etiology of dissection where poor tendency for thrombus formation was observed in group of patients with Marfan syndrome and its' incomplete form. On the other hand in those group of patients who had a history of hypertension and atherosclerosis probable, a strong tendency of thrombus formation and eventual occlusion of lumen was obtained. On the basis of above findings, it will be said that the surgical intervention for type 1 of DeBakey classification in Marfan patient is merely creating type 111 dissection, closed observation in the future change of dissecting lumen is utmost important especially in those group of patients. (author)

  5. Lumen Formation Is an Intrinsic Property of Isolated Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichiro Taniguchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that dissociated human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs are intrinsically programmed to form lumens. PSCs form two-cell cysts with a shared apical domain within 20 hr of plating; these cysts collapse to form monolayers after 5 days. Expression of pluripotency markers is maintained throughout this time. In two-cell cysts, an apical domain, marked by EZRIN and atypical PKCζ, is surrounded by apically targeted organelles (early endosomes and Golgi. Molecularly, actin polymerization, regulated by ARP2/3 and mammalian diaphanous-related formin 1 (MDIA, promotes lumen formation, whereas actin contraction, mediated by MYOSIN-II, inhibits this process. Finally, we show that lumenal shape can be manipulated in bioengineered micro-wells. Since lumen formation is an indispensable step in early mammalian development, this system can provide a powerful model for investigation of this process in a controlled environment. Overall, our data establish that lumenogenesis is a fundamental cell biological property of human PSCs.

  6. Analysis of proteome dynamics inside the silk gland lumen of Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhaoming; Zhao, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Song, Qianru; Zhang, Xiaolu; Guo, Pengchao; Wang, Dandan; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-01-01

    The silk gland is the only organ where silk proteins are synthesized and secreted in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Silk proteins are stored in the lumen of the silk gland for around eight days during the fifth instar. Determining their dynamic changes is helpful for clarifying the secretion mechanism of silk proteins. Here, we identified the proteome in the silk gland lumen using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, and demonstrated its changes during two key stages. From day 5 of the fifth instar to day 1 of wandering, the abundances of fibroins, sericins, seroins, and proteins of unknown functions increased significantly in different compartments of the silk gland lumen. As a result, these accumulated proteins constituted the major cocoon components. In contrast, the abundances of enzymes and extracellular matrix proteins decreased in the silk gland lumen, suggesting that they were not the structural constituents of silk. Twenty-five enzymes may be involved in the regulation of hormone metabolism for proper silk gland function. In addition, the metabolism of other non-proteinous components such as chitin and pigment were also discussed in this study. PMID:27102218

  7. An artificial neural network method for lumen and media-adventitia border detection in IVUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shengran; Hu, Zhenghui; Lin, Qiang; Hau, William Kongto; Gao, Zhifan; Zhang, Heye

    2017-04-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has been well recognized as one powerful imaging technique to evaluate the stenosis inside the coronary arteries. The detection of lumen border and media-adventitia (MA) border in IVUS images is the key procedure to determine the plaque burden inside the coronary arteries, but this detection could be burdensome to the doctor because of large volume of the IVUS images. In this paper, we use the artificial neural network (ANN) method as the feature learning algorithm for the detection of the lumen and MA borders in IVUS images. Two types of imaging information including spatial, neighboring features were used as the input data to the ANN method, and then the different vascular layers were distinguished accordingly through two sparse auto-encoders and one softmax classifier. Another ANN was used to optimize the result of the first network. In the end, the active contour model was applied to smooth the lumen and MA borders detected by the ANN method. The performance of our approach was compared with the manual drawing method performed by two IVUS experts on 461 IVUS images from four subjects. Results showed that our approach had a high correlation and good agreement with the manual drawing results. The detection error of the ANN method close to the error between two groups of manual drawing result. All these results indicated that our proposed approach could efficiently and accurately handle the detection of lumen and MA borders in the IVUS images. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pancreatic Necrosectomy Through a Novel Double-flange Lumen-apposing Covered Metal Stent (Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Sanchez-Yague

    2014-12-01

    A double flange lumen apposing FC-SEMS used as a port for necrosectomy significantly improves management of walled-off pancreatic necrosis. Placement of this stents should be considered when multiple necrosectomy sessions are anticipated. Procedure time can be significantly decreased using a catheter that combines a cautery tip and stent delivery system.

  9. Warm Mix Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-17

    State of Alaska State of Alaska - Warm Mix Project Warm Mix Project: Location - Petersburg, Alaska which is Petersburg, Alaska which is located in the heart of Southeast Alaska located in the heart of Southeast Alaska's Inside Passage at the tip of M...

  10. Ezetimibe Promotes Brush Border Membrane-to-Lumen Cholesterol Efflux in the Small Intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanari Nakano

    Full Text Available Ezetimibe inhibits Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1, an apical membrane cholesterol transporter of enterocytes, thereby reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption. This treatment also increases extrahepatic reverse cholesterol transport via an undefined mechanism. To explore this, we employed a trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE assay, which directly detects circulation-to-intestinal lumen 3H-cholesterol transit in a cannulated jejunal segment, and found an increase of TICE by 45%. To examine whether such increase in efflux occurs at the intestinal brush border membrane(BBM-level, we performed luminal perfusion assays, similar to TICE but the jejunal wall was labelled with orally-given 3H-cholesterol, and determined elevated BBM-to-lumen cholesterol efflux by 3.5-fold with ezetimibe. Such increased efflux probably promotes circulation-to-lumen cholesterol transit eventually; thus increases TICE. Next, we wondered how inhibition of NPC1L1, an influx transporter, resulted in increased efflux. When we traced orally-given 3H-cholesterol in mice, we found that lumen-to-BBM 3H-cholesterol transit was rapid and less sensitive to ezetimibe treatment. Comparison of the efflux and fractional cholesterol absorption revealed an inverse correlation, indicating the efflux as an opposite-regulatory factor for cholesterol absorption efficiency and counteracting to the naturally-occurring rapid cholesterol influx to the BBM. These suggest that the ezetimibe-stimulated increased efflux is crucial in reducing cholesterol absorption. Ezetimibe-induced increase in cholesterol efflux was approximately 2.5-fold greater in mice having endogenous ATP-binding cassette G5/G8 heterodimer, the major sterol efflux transporter of enterocytes, than the knockout counterparts, suggesting that the heterodimer confers additional rapid BBM-to-lumen cholesterol efflux in response to NPC1L1 inhibition. The observed framework for intestinal cholesterol fluxes may provide ways to

  11. Volumetric analysis demonstrates that true and false lumen remodeling persists for 12 months after thoracic endovascular aortic repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga-Young Suh, PhD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A 62-year-old man underwent an elephant trunk procedure followed by thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR. Computed tomography angiography-based models were built to quantify volume of the whole aorta and true and false lumens preoperatively, before TEVAR, after TEVAR, and at follow-up at 3, 6, and 12 months. With TEVAR, descending aortic true lumen volume increased by 54%, then increased additionally by 60% during 12 months. The descending aortic false lumen volume regressed continuously for 12 months following TEVAR, with the most rapid rate from 6 to 12 months at 16 cm3/month. TEVAR immediately increased true lumen volume and continued to remodel the true and false lumens throughout the following 12 months.

  12. Lumen modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; W. Dale Ellis

    2005-01-01

    Wood is used to produce many products (structural and nonstructural) for applications in which its natural properties are adequate. With the decrease of wood availability and the increase of less durable, younger and faster-growing trees, it is possible to modify wood in various ways to improve the properties, depending on the ultimate application. Wood- polymer...

  13. Lumen and calcium characteristics within calcified coronary lesions. Comparison of computed tomography coronary angiography versus intravascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Dariusz; Kruk, Mariusz; Pręgowski, Jerzy; Kaczmarska, Edyta; Kryczka, Karolina; Pracoń, Radosław; Skwarek, Mirosław; Dzielińska, Zofia; Petryka, Joanna; Spiewak, Mateusz; Lubiszewska, Barbara; Norwa-Otto, Bożena; Opolski, Maksymilian; Witkowski, Adam; Demkow, Marcin; Rużyłło, Witold; Kępka, Cezary

    2013-01-01

    Computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) is a diagnostic method used for exclusion of coronary artery disease. However, lower accuracy of CTCA in assessment of calcified lesions is a significant factor impeding applicability of CTCA for assessment of coronary atherosclerosis. To provide insight into lumen and calcium characteristics assessed with CTCA, we compared these parameters to the reference of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Two hundred and fifty-two calcified lesions within 97 arteries of 60 patients (19 women, age 63 ±10 years) underwent assessment with both 2 × 64 slice CT (Somatom Definition, Siemens) and IVUS (s5, Volcano Corp.). Coronary lumen and calcium dimensions within calcified lesions were assessed with CTCA and compared to the reference measurements made with IVUS. On average CTCA underestimated mean lumen diameter (2.8 ±0.7 mm vs. 2.9 ±0.8 mm for IVUS), lumen area (6.4 ±3.4 mm(2) vs. 7.0 ±3.7 mm(2) for IVUS, p < 0.001) and total calcium arc (52 ±35° vs. 83 ±54°). However, analysis of tertiles of the examined parameters revealed that the mean lumen diameter, lumen area and calcium arc did not significantly differ between CTCA and IVUS within the smallest lumens (1(st) tertile of mean lumen diameter at 2.1 mm, and 1(st) tertile of lumen area at 3.7 mm(2)) and lowest calcium arc (mean of 40°). Although, on average, CTCA underestimates lumen diameter and area as well as calcium arc within calcified lesions, the differences are not significant within the smallest vessels and calcium arcs. The low diagnostic accuracy of CTCA within calcified lesions may be attributed to high variance and not to systematic error of measurements.

  14. Global Warming: A Myth?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 7. Global Warming: A Myth? - Credibility of Climate Scenarios Predicted by Systems Simulations. Deepanjan Majumdar. General Article Volume 6 Issue 7 July 2001 pp 13-21 ...

  15. Warm and Cool Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannlein, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of warm and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)

  16. Global warming yearbook: 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arris, L. [ed.

    1999-02-01

    The report brings together a year`s worth of global warming stories - over 280 in all - in one convenient volume. It provides a one-stop report on the scientific, political and industrial implications of global warming. The report includes: detailed coverage of negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol; scientific findings on carbon sources and sinks, coral bleaching, Antarctic ice shelves, plankton, wildlife and tree growth; new developments on fuel economy, wind power, fuel cells, cogeneration, energy labelling and emissions trading.

  17. Media Pembelajaran Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Tham, Fikri Jufri; Liliana, Liliana; Purba, Kristo Radion

    2016-01-01

    Computer based learning media is one of the media has an important role in learning. Learning media will be attractive when packaged through interactive media , such as interactive media created in paper manufacture " instructional media global warming" . The advantage gained is that it can increase knowledge, generally educate people to be more concerned about the environment , and also can be a means of entertainment. This application is focused to learn about global warming and packaged in...

  18. Refrigeration and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Some aspects of global warming in general, and the implications for refrigerants and refrigerator efficiency in particular, are briefly considered in a question and answer format. The concepts of Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) are explained. GWP is an index which allows a simple comparison to be make between the warming effects of different gases on a kg to kg basis relative to carbon. The GWP depends both on the lifetime of a substance in the atmosphere and its infra-red absorption capacity. The overall warming effect of operating a refrigeration system for its entire life is measured by its TEWI. Chloroflourocarbons (CFCs) which have been widely used as refrigerants are powerful greenhouse gases with high GWPs. Because of the bank of CFCs in refrigerating systems, their levels in the atmosphere are still increasing and it will be some time before refrigerant changes will be effective in reducing the warming effects of refrigerant releases. Hydrocarbons, hydroflourocarbons and ammonia all have a part to play as substitute refrigerants. Refrigerator efficiency is very important in terms of reducing CO 2 emissions. (UK)

  19. Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 38 different lamps (32 LED, 2 CFL, 1 ceramic metal halide [CMH], 3 halogen) were monitored in a specially developed automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA2) for nearly 14,000 hours. Five samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at a target ambient temperature between 44°C and 45°C.

  20. WHITE CEMENT IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Y.C.P RAMANA BABU; B.SAI DOONDI; N. M .V .VAMSI KRISHNA; K.PRASANTHI

    2013-01-01

    India is one among the fast developing countries in the world in the areas of Infrastructure. Now a day, Carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are the temporary atmospheric pollutants in the environment chiefly emitted from the fuel burning vehicles and street lights which lead to global warming and pose a major threat tothe survival and sustainable development. This paper deals with the principal purpose of use of white cement in pavement design which will take care of the Green hous...

  1. Selective modification of halloysite lumen with octadecylphosphonic acid: new inorganic tubular micelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yah, Weng On; Takahara, Atsushi; Lvov, Yuri M

    2012-01-25

    Selective fatty acid hydrophobization of the inner surface of tubule halloysite clay is demonstrated. Aqueous phosphonic acid was found to bind to alumina sites at the tube lumen and did not bind the tube's outer siloxane surface. The bonding was characterized with solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance ((29)Si, (13)C, (31)P NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. NMR and FTIR spectroscopy of selectively modified tubes proved binding of octadecylphosphonic acid within the halloysite lumen through bidentate and tridentate P-O-Al linkage. Selective modification of the halloysite clay lumen creates an inorganic micelle-like architecture with a hydrophobic aliphatic chain core and a hydrophilic silicate shell. An enhanced capacity for adsorption of the modified halloysite toward hydrophobic derivatives of ferrocene was shown. This demonstrates that the different inner and outer surface chemistry of clay nanotubes can be used for selective modification, enabling different applications from water purification to drug immobilization and controlled release. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Microbes vs. chemistry in the origin of the anaerobic gut lumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Elliot S; Bittinger, Kyle; Esipova, Tatiana V; Hou, Likai; Chau, Lillian; Jiang, Jack; Mesaros, Clementina; Lund, Peder J; Liang, Xue; FitzGerald, Garret A; Goulian, Mark; Lee, Daeyeon; Garcia, Benjamin A; Blair, Ian A; Vinogradov, Sergei A; Wu, Gary D

    2018-04-17

    The succession from aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria to obligate anaerobes in the infant gut along with the differences between the compositions of the mucosally adherent vs. luminal microbiota suggests that the gut microbes consume oxygen, which diffuses into the lumen from the intestinal tissue, maintaining the lumen in a deeply anaerobic state. Remarkably, measurements of luminal oxygen levels show nearly identical pO 2 (partial pressure of oxygen) profiles in conventional and germ-free mice, pointing to the existence of oxygen consumption mechanisms other than microbial respiration. In vitro experiments confirmed that the luminal contents of germ-free mice are able to chemically consume oxygen (e.g., via lipid oxidation reactions), although at rates significantly lower than those observed in the case of conventionally housed mice. For conventional mice, we also show that the taxonomic composition of the gut microbiota adherent to the gut mucosa and in the lumen throughout the length of the gut correlates with oxygen levels. At the same time, an increase in the biomass of the gut microbiota provides an explanation for the reduction of luminal oxygen in the distal vs. proximal gut. These results demonstrate how oxygen from the mammalian host is used by the gut microbiota, while both the microbes and the oxidative chemical reactions regulate luminal oxygen levels, shaping the composition of the microbial community throughout different regions of the gut.

  3. Long range global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, K.C.; Pulkrabek, W.W.; Fiedler, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores one of the causes of global warming that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global warming concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth's steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global warming that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global warming problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as warming of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global warming also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth's temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global warming problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic

  4. Diffusion MRI for rectal cancer staging: ADC measurements before and after ultrasonographic gel lumen distension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmucci, S., E-mail: spalmucci@sirm.org; Piccoli, M.; Piana, S.; Foti, P.V.; Siverino, R.O.A.; Mauro, L.A.; Milone, P.; Ettorre, G.C.

    2017-01-15

    Objectives: To compare Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) measurements in rectal neoplastic lesions before and after lumen distension obtained with sonography transmission gel. Methods: From January 2014 to July 2016, 25 patients (average age 63.7, range 41–85, 18 males) were studied for pre-treatment rectal cancer staging using a 1.5 T MRI. Diffusion MRI was obtained using echo-planar imaging with b = 800 value; all patients were studied acquiring diffusion sequences with and without rectal lumen distension obtained using sonography transmission gel. In both diffusion sequences, two blinded readers calculated border ADC values and small ADC values, drawing regions of interest respectively along tumour borders and far from tumour borders. Mean ADC values among readers − for each type of ADC measurement − were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test. Correlation was assessed using Pearson analysis. Results: Border ADC mean value for diffusion MR sequences without endorectal contrast was 1.122 mm{sup 2}/sec, with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.02–1.22; using gel lumen distension, higher border ADC mean value of 1.269 mm{sup 2}/s (95% CI = 1.16–1.38) was obtained. Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test revealed statistical difference (p < 0.01); a strong Pearson correlation was reported, with r value of 0.69. Small-ADC mean value was 1.038 mm{sup 2}/s (95% CI = 0.91–1.16) for diffusion sequences acquired without endorectal distension and 1.127 mm{sup 2}/s (95% CI = 0.98–1.27) for diffusion sequences obtained after endorectal gel lumen distension. Wilcoxon analysis did not show statistical difference (p = 0.13). A very strong positive correlation was observed, with r value of 0.81. Conclusions: ADC measurements are slightly higher using endorectal sonographic transmission gel; ROI should be traced far from tumour borders, to minimize gel filled-pixel along the interface between lumen and lesion. Further studies are needed to

  5. Diffusion MRI for rectal cancer staging: ADC measurements before and after ultrasonographic gel lumen distension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmucci, S.; Piccoli, M.; Piana, S.; Foti, P.V.; Siverino, R.O.A.; Mauro, L.A.; Milone, P.; Ettorre, G.C.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To compare Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) measurements in rectal neoplastic lesions before and after lumen distension obtained with sonography transmission gel. Methods: From January 2014 to July 2016, 25 patients (average age 63.7, range 41–85, 18 males) were studied for pre-treatment rectal cancer staging using a 1.5 T MRI. Diffusion MRI was obtained using echo-planar imaging with b = 800 value; all patients were studied acquiring diffusion sequences with and without rectal lumen distension obtained using sonography transmission gel. In both diffusion sequences, two blinded readers calculated border ADC values and small ADC values, drawing regions of interest respectively along tumour borders and far from tumour borders. Mean ADC values among readers − for each type of ADC measurement − were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test. Correlation was assessed using Pearson analysis. Results: Border ADC mean value for diffusion MR sequences without endorectal contrast was 1.122 mm 2 /sec, with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.02–1.22; using gel lumen distension, higher border ADC mean value of 1.269 mm 2 /s (95% CI = 1.16–1.38) was obtained. Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test revealed statistical difference (p < 0.01); a strong Pearson correlation was reported, with r value of 0.69. Small-ADC mean value was 1.038 mm 2 /s (95% CI = 0.91–1.16) for diffusion sequences acquired without endorectal distension and 1.127 mm 2 /s (95% CI = 0.98–1.27) for diffusion sequences obtained after endorectal gel lumen distension. Wilcoxon analysis did not show statistical difference (p = 0.13). A very strong positive correlation was observed, with r value of 0.81. Conclusions: ADC measurements are slightly higher using endorectal sonographic transmission gel; ROI should be traced far from tumour borders, to minimize gel filled-pixel along the interface between lumen and lesion. Further studies are needed to investigate better

  6. White House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Jump to navigation the WHITE HOUSE President Donald J. Trump Get in Touch Home Briefing Room From the ... For All Americans The Administration The Administration President Donald J. Trump Vice President Mike Pence First Lady Melania Trump ...

  7. White LEDs and modules in chip-on-board technology for general lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Paul; Wenzl, Franz P.; Sommer, Christian; Pachler, Peter; Hoschopf, Hans; Schweighart, Marko; Hartmann, Martin; Kuna, Ladislav; Jakopic, Georg; Leising, Guenther; Tasch, Stefan

    2006-08-01

    At present, light-emitting diode (LED) modules in various shapes are developed and designed for the general lighting, advertisement, emergency lighting, design and architectural markets. To compete with and to surpass the performance of traditional lighting systems, enhancement of Lumen output and the white light quality as well as the thermal management and the luminary integration are key factors for success. Regarding these issues, white LEDs based on the chip-on-board (COB) technology show pronounced advantages. State-of-the-art LEDs exploiting this technology are now ready to enter the general lighting segments. We introduce and discuss the specific properties of the Tridonic COB technology dedicated for general lighting. This technology, in combination with a comprehensive set of tools to improve and to enhance the Lumen output and the white light quality, including optical simulation, is the scaffolding for the application of white LEDs in emerging areas, for which an outlook will be given.

  8. G-warm inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Ramón, E-mail: ramon.herrera@pucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Brasil 2950, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2017-05-01

    A warm inflationary universe in the context of Galileon model or G-model is studied. Under a general formalism we study the inflationary dynamics and the cosmological perturbations considering a coupling of the form G (φ, X )= g (φ) X . As a concrete example, we consider an exponential potential together with the cases in which the dissipation and Galilean coefficients are constants. Also, we study the weak regime given by the condition R <1+3 gH φ-dot , and the strong regime in which 1< R +3 gH φ-dot . Additionally, we obtain constraints on the parameters during the evolution of G-warm inflation, assuming the condition for warm inflation in which the temperature T > H , the conditions or the weak and strong regimes, together with the consistency relation r = r ( n {sub s} ) from Planck data.

  9. G-warm inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Ramón

    2017-05-01

    A warm inflationary universe in the context of Galileon model or G-model is studied. Under a general formalism we study the inflationary dynamics and the cosmological perturbations considering a coupling of the form G(phi,X)=g(phi) X. As a concrete example, we consider an exponential potential together with the cases in which the dissipation and Galilean coefficients are constants. Also, we study the weak regime given by the condition RR+3gHdot phi. Additionally, we obtain constraints on the parameters during the evolution of G-warm inflation, assuming the condition for warm inflation in which the temperature T>H, the conditions or the weak and strong regimes, together with the consistency relation r=r(ns) from Planck data.

  10. The global warming problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In this chapter, a discussion is presented of the global warming problem and activities contributing to the formation of acid rain, urban smog and to the depletion of the ozone layer. Globally, about two-thirds of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions arise from fossil-fuel burning; the rest arise primarily from deforestation. Chlorofluorocarbons are the second largest contributor to global warming, accounting for about 20% of the total. The third largest contributor is methane, followed by ozone and nitrous oxide. A study of current activities in the US that contribute to global warming shows the following: electric power plants account for about 33% of carbon dioxide emissions; motor vehicles, planes and ships (31%); industrial plants (24%); commercial and residential buildings (11%)

  11. Greenhouse Warming Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    2016-01-01

    The changing greenhouse effect caused by natural and anthropogenic causes is explained and efforts to model the behavior of the near-surface constituents of the Earth's land, ocean and atmosphere are discussed. Emissions of various substances and other aspects of human activity influence...... the greenhouse warming, and the impacts of the warming may again impact the wellbeing of human societies. Thus physical modeling of the near-surface ocean-soil-atmosphere system cannot be carried out without an idea of the development of human activities, which is done by scenario analysis. The interactive...

  12. Distinct patterns of inflammation in the airway lumen and bronchial mucosa of children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regamey, Nicolas; Tsartsali, Lemonia; Hilliard, Tom N; Fuchs, Oliver; Tan, Hui-Leng; Zhu, Jie; Qiu, Yu-Sheng; Alton, Eric W F W; Jeffery, Peter K; Bush, Andrew; Davies, Jane C

    2012-02-01

    Studies in cystic fibrosis (CF) generally focus on inflammation present in the airway lumen. Little is known about inflammation occurring in the airway wall, the site ultimately destroyed in end-stage disease. To test the hypothesis that inflammatory patterns in the lumen do not reflect those in the airway wall of children with CF. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and endobronchial biopsies were obtained from 46 children with CF and 16 disease-free controls. BAL cell differential was assessed using May-Gruenwald-stained cytospins. Area profile counts of bronchial tissue immunopositive inflammatory cells were determined. BAL fluid from children with CF had a predominance of neutrophils compared with controls (median 810×10(3)/ml vs 1×10(3)/ml, p<0.0001). In contrast, subepithelial bronchial tissue from children with CF was characterised by a predominance of lymphocytes (median 961 vs 717 cells/mm(2), p=0.014), of which 82% were (CD3) T lymphocytes. In chest exacerbations, BAL fluid from children with CF had more inflammatory cells of all types compared with those with stable disease whereas, in biopsies, only the numbers of lymphocytes and macrophages, but not of neutrophils, were higher. A positive culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was associated with higher numbers of T lymphocytes in subepithelial bronchial tissue (median 1174 vs 714 cells/mm(2), p=0.029), but no changes were seen in BAL fluid. Cell counts in BAL fluid and biopsies were positively correlated with age but were unrelated to each other. The inflammatory response in the CF airway is compartmentalised. In contrast to the neutrophil-dominated inflammation present in the airway lumen, the bronchial mucosa is characterised by the recruitment and accumulation of lymphocytes.

  13. Contura Multi-Lumen Balloon Breast Brachytherapy Catheter: Comparative Dosimetric Findings of a Phase 4 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Douglas W., E-mail: darthur@mcvh-vcu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Vicini, Frank A. [Michigan Healthcare Professionals/21st Century Oncology, Farmington Hills, Michigan (United States); Todor, Dorin A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Julian, Thomas B. [Allegheny General Hospital, Temple University School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Cuttino, Laurie W.; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Final dosimetric findings of a completed, multi-institutional phase 4 registry trial using the Contura Multi-Lumen Balloon (MLB) breast brachytherapy catheter to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in patients with early-stage breast cancer are presented. Methods and Materials: Three dosimetric plans with identical target coverage were generated for each patient for comparison: multilumen multidwell (MLMD); central-lumen multidwell (CLMD); and central-lumen single-dwell (CLSD) loading of the Contura catheter. For this study, a successful treatment plan achieved ideal dosimetric goals and included the following: ≥95% of the prescribed dose (PD) covering ≥95% of the target volume (TV); maximum skin dose ≤125% of the PD; maximum rib dose ≤145% of the PD; and V150 ≤50 cc and V200 ≤10 cc. Results: Between January 2008 and February 2011, 23 institutions participated. A total of 318 patients were available for dosimetric review. Using the Contura MLB, all dosimetric criteria were met in 78.93% of cases planned with MLMD versus 55.38% with the CLMD versus 37.66% with the CLSD (P≤.0001). Evaluating all patients with the full range of skin to balloon distance represented, median maximum skin dose was reduced by 12% and median maximum rib dose by 13.9% when using MLMD-based dosimetric plans compared to CLSD. The dosimetric benefit of MLMD was further demonstrated in the subgroup of patients where skin thickness was <5 mm, where MLMD use allowed a 38% reduction in median maximum skin dose over CLSD. For patients with rib distance <5 mm, the median maximum rib dose reduction was 27%. Conclusions: Use of the Contura MLB catheter produced statistically significant improvements in dosimetric capabilities between CLSD and CLMD treatments. This device approach demonstrates the ability not only to overcome the barriers of limited skin thickness and close rib proximity, but to consistently achieve a higher standard of dosimetric planning goals.

  14. Contura Multi-Lumen Balloon breast brachytherapy catheter: comparative dosimetric findings of a phase 4 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Douglas W; Vicini, Frank A; Todor, Dorin A; Julian, Thomas B; Cuttino, Laurie W; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D

    2013-06-01

    Final dosimetric findings of a completed, multi-institutional phase 4 registry trial using the Contura Multi-Lumen Balloon (MLB) breast brachytherapy catheter to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in patients with early-stage breast cancer are presented. Three dosimetric plans with identical target coverage were generated for each patient for comparison: multilumen multidwell (MLMD); central-lumen multidwell (CLMD); and central-lumen single-dwell (CLSD) loading of the Contura catheter. For this study, a successful treatment plan achieved ideal dosimetric goals and included the following: ≥ 95% of the prescribed dose (PD) covering ≥ 95% of the target volume (TV); maximum skin dose ≤ 125% of the PD; maximum rib dose ≤ 145% of the PD; and V150 ≤50 cc and V200 ≤ 10 cc. Between January 2008 and February 2011, 23 institutions participated. A total of 318 patients were available for dosimetric review. Using the Contura MLB, all dosimetric criteria were met in 78.93% of cases planned with MLMD versus 55.38% with the CLMD versus 37.66% with the CLSD (P ≤.0001). Evaluating all patients with the full range of skin to balloon distance represented, median maximum skin dose was reduced by 12% and median maximum rib dose by 13.9% when using MLMD-based dosimetric plans compared to CLSD. The dosimetric benefit of MLMD was further demonstrated in the subgroup of patients where skin thickness was <5 mm, where MLMD use allowed a 38% reduction in median maximum skin dose over CLSD. For patients with rib distance <5 mm, the median maximum rib dose reduction was 27%. Use of the Contura MLB catheter produced statistically significant improvements in dosimetric capabilities between CLSD and CLMD treatments. This device approach demonstrates the ability not only to overcome the barriers of limited skin thickness and close rib proximity, but to consistently achieve a higher standard of dosimetric planning goals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. Assessment of lumen degradation and remaining useful life of LEDs using particle filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Zhang, Hao [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Davis, Lynn [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    2013-07-16

    With the development of light-emitting diode (LED) technology, light emitting diodes system is becoming a popular light source in daily life and industry area. It has shown that Led from same factory and work under same working condition, may have significantly different behavior. Therefore, it is very important to learn the fail mechanisms, especially in the case of safety critical and harsh environment application. This paper focus on a prognostic health management (PHM) method based on the measurement of forward voltage and forward current of bare LED under harsh environment. In this paper, experiment has been done with ten samples. Ten pristine bare LEDs have been tested at 85°C while simultaneously being subjected to 85% humid environment. Pulse width modulation (PWM) control method has been employed to drive the bare LED in order to reduce the heat effect caused by forward current and high frequency (300HZ) data acquisition has been used to measure the peak forward voltage and forward current. Test to failure (lumen drops to 70 percent) data has been measured to study the effects of high temperature and humid environment loadings on the bare LED. Also, solid state cooling method with peltier cooler has been used to control the temperature of LED in the integrating sphere when take the measurement of lumen flux. The shift of forward voltage forward current curve and lumen degradation has been recorded to help build the fail model and predicted the remaining useful life. In this method, particle filter has been employed to predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of the bare LED and give us a whole picture how Led system fails. Result shows that predication of remaining useful life of Led, made by the particle filter model works under reasonable limit, and hence this method can be employed to predict the failure of Led caused by thermal and humid stress under harsh environment.

  16. Two Automated Techniques for Carotid Lumen Diameter Measurement: Regional versus Boundary Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Tadashi; Kumar, P Krishna; Suri, Harman S; Ikeda, Nobutaka; Gupta, Ajay; Saba, Luca; Rajan, Jeny; Lavra, Francesco; Sharma, Aditya M; Shafique, Shoaib; Nicolaides, Andrew; Laird, John R; Suri, Jasjit S

    2016-07-01

    The degree of stenosis in the carotid artery can be predicted using automated carotid lumen diameter (LD) measured from B-mode ultrasound images. Systolic velocity-based methods for measurement of LD are subjective. With the advancement of high resolution imaging, image-based methods have started to emerge. However, they require robust image analysis for accurate LD measurement. This paper presents two different algorithms for automated segmentation of the lumen borders in carotid ultrasound images. Both algorithms are modeled as a two stage process. Stage one consists of a global-based model using scale-space framework for the extraction of the region of interest. This stage is common to both algorithms. Stage two is modeled using a local-based strategy that extracts the lumen interfaces. At this stage, the algorithm-1 is modeled as a region-based strategy using a classification framework, whereas the algorithm-2 is modeled as a boundary-based approach that uses the level set framework. Two sets of databases (DB), Japan DB (JDB) (202 patients, 404 images) and Hong Kong DB (HKDB) (50 patients, 300 images) were used in this study. Two trained neuroradiologists performed manual LD tracings. The mean automated LD measured was 6.35 ± 0.95 mm for JDB and 6.20 ± 1.35 mm for HKDB. The precision-of-merit was: 97.4 % and 98.0 % w.r.t to two manual tracings for JDB and 99.7 % and 97.9 % w.r.t to two manual tracings for HKDB. Statistical tests such as ANOVA, Chi-Squared, T-test, and Mann-Whitney test were conducted to show the stability and reliability of the automated techniques.

  17. Warm pre-stressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedner, G.

    1983-01-01

    Literature survey and critical evaluation of the phenomenon of warm pre-stressing (WPS) is presented. It is found that the cause of it is not clear and a calculated control is missing. The effect of irradiation is unknown, and the influence of WPS on the behaviour of reactor vessels is discussed. (G.B.)

  18. Being Warm-Hearted

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李函; 任汉鼎

    2017-01-01

    Good morning,ladies and gentlemen.It’s my honor to address[向……致辞] you.My English name is Isabella.I’m a high school student of 17.I have some good personality traits[特点],including being warm-hearted.So here comes my topic:Being

  19. Warm and Cool Cityscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubelirer, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…

  20. The global warming scare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunavala, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    It is argued that the present propaganda about the global warming with its disastrous consequences is a scare spread by some First World countries, especially the United States, to prevent the rapid industrialization of developing third world countries. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  1. Paralyzed warming world

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ač, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2010), s. 81-86 ISSN 1876-8156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : global warming * climate Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://ojs.ubvu.vu.nl/alf/article/view/134/250

  2. Fluoroscopic guidance for placing a double lumen endotracheal tube in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calenda, Emile; Baste, Jean Marc; Hajjej, Ridha; Rezig, Najiba; Moriceau, Jerome; Diallo, Yaya; Sghaeir, Slim; Danielou, Eric; Peillon, Christophe

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the right placement of the double lumen endotracheal tube with fluoroscopic guidance, which is used in first intention prior to the fiberscope in our institution. This was a prospective observational study. The study was conducted in vascular and thoracic operating rooms. We enrolled 205 patients scheduled for thoracic surgery, with ASA physical statuses of I (n = 37), II (n = 84), III (n = 80), and IV (n = 4). Thoracic procedures were biopsy (n = 20), wedge (n = 34), culminectomy (n = 6), lobectomy (n = 82), pneumonectomy (n = 4), sympathectomy (n = 9), symphysis (n = 47), and thymectomy (n = 3). The intubation with a double lumen tube was performed with the help of a laryngoscope. Tracheal and bronchial balloons were inflated and auscultation was performed after right and left exclusions. One shot was performed to locate the position of the bronchial tube and the hook. Fluoroscopic guidance was used to relocate the tube in case of a wrong position. When the fluoroscopic guidance failed to position the tube, a fiberscope was used. Perioperative collapse of the lung was assessed by the surgeon during the surgery. Correct fluoroscopic image was obtained after the first attempt in 58.5% of patients therefore a misplaced position was encountered in 41.5%. The fluoroscopic guidance allowed an exact repositioning in 99.5% of cases, and the mean duration of the procedure was 8 minutes. A fiberscope was required to move the hook for one patient. We did not notice a moving of the double lumen endotracheal tube during the surgery. The surgeon satisfaction was 100%. The fluoroscopy evidenced the right position of the double lumen tube and allowed a right repositioning in 99.5% of patients with a very simple implementation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The microbiota mediates pathogen clearance from the gut lumen after non-typhoidal Salmonella diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Endt

    Full Text Available Many enteropathogenic bacteria target the mammalian gut. The mechanisms protecting the host from infection are poorly understood. We have studied the protective functions of secretory antibodies (sIgA and the microbiota, using a mouse model for S. typhimurium diarrhea. This pathogen is a common cause of diarrhea in humans world-wide. S. typhimurium (S. tm(att, sseD causes a self-limiting gut infection in streptomycin-treated mice. After 40 days, all animals had overcome the disease, developed a sIgA response, and most had cleared the pathogen from the gut lumen. sIgA limited pathogen access to the mucosal surface and protected from gut inflammation in challenge infections. This protection was O-antigen specific, as demonstrated with pathogens lacking the S. typhimurium O-antigen (wbaP, S. enteritidis and sIgA-deficient mice (TCRβ(-/-δ(-/-, J(H (-/-, IgA(-/-, pIgR(-/-. Surprisingly, sIgA-deficiency did not affect the kinetics of pathogen clearance from the gut lumen. Instead, this was mediated by the microbiota. This was confirmed using 'L-mice' which harbor a low complexity gut flora, lack colonization resistance and develop a normal sIgA response, but fail to clear S. tm(att from the gut lumen. In these mice, pathogen clearance was achieved by transferring a normal complex microbiota. Thus, besides colonization resistance ( = pathogen blockage by an intact microbiota, the microbiota mediates a second, novel protective function, i.e. pathogen clearance. Here, the normal microbiota re-grows from a state of depletion and disturbed composition and gradually clears even very high pathogen loads from the gut lumen, a site inaccessible to most "classical" immune effector mechanisms. In conclusion, sIgA and microbiota serve complementary protective functions. The microbiota confers colonization resistance and mediates pathogen clearance in primary infections, while sIgA protects from disease if the host re-encounters the same pathogen. This has

  4. Prediction of L70 lumen maintenance and chromaticity for LEDs using extended Kalman filter models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep; Wei, Junchao; Davis, Lynn

    2013-09-30

    Solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires containing light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures when being transported across country or being stored in non-climate controlled warehouses. They are also being used in outdoor applications in desert environments that see little or no humidity but will experience extremely high temperatures during the day. This makes it important to increase our understanding of what effects high temperature exposure for a prolonged period of time will have on the usability and survivability of these devices. Traditional light sources “burn out” at end-of-life. For an incandescent bulb, the lamp life is defined by B50 life. However, the LEDs have no filament to “burn”. The LEDs continually degrade and the light output decreases eventually below useful levels causing failure. Presently, the TM-21 test standard is used to predict the L70 life of LEDs from LM-80 test data. Several failure mechanisms may be active in a LED at a single time causing lumen depreciation. The underlying TM-21 Model may not capture the failure physics in presence of multiple failure mechanisms. Correlation of lumen maintenance with underlying physics of degradation at system-level is needed. In this paper, Kalman Filter (KF) and Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) have been used to develop a 70-percent Lumen Maintenance Life Prediction Model for LEDs used in SSL luminaires. Ten-thousand hour LM-80 test data for various LEDs have been used for model development. System state at each future time has been computed based on the state space at preceding time step, system dynamics matrix, control vector, control matrix, measurement matrix, measured vector, process noise and measurement noise. The future state of the lumen depreciation has been estimated based on a second order Kalman Filter model and a Bayesian Framework. The measured state variable has been related to the underlying damage using physics-based models. Life

  5. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  6. SAS-6 assembly templated by the lumen of cartwheel-less centrioles precedes centriole duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Chii Shyang; Kim, Minhee; Yang, T Tony; Liao, Jung-Chi; Tsou, Meng-Fu Bryan

    2014-07-28

    Centrioles are 9-fold symmetric structures duplicating once per cell cycle. Duplication involves self-oligomerization of the centriolar protein SAS-6, but how the 9-fold symmetry is invariantly established remains unclear. Here, we found that SAS-6 assembly can be shaped by preexisting (or mother) centrioles. During S phase, SAS-6 molecules are first recruited to the proximal lumen of the mother centriole, adopting a cartwheel-like organization through interactions with the luminal wall, rather than via their self-oligomerization activity. The removal or release of luminal SAS-6 requires Plk4 and the cartwheel protein STIL. Abolishing either the recruitment or the removal of luminal SAS-6 hinders SAS-6 (or centriole) assembly at the outside wall of mother centrioles. After duplication, the lumen of engaged mother centrioles becomes inaccessible to SAS-6, correlating with a block for reduplication. These results lead to a proposed model that centrioles may duplicate via a template-based process to preserve their geometry and copy number. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Utility of dark-lumen MR colonography for the assessment of extra-colonic organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaj, Waleed; Goyen, Mathias; Ruehm, Stefan G.; Ladd, Susanne C.; Gerken, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the utility of dark-lumen MR colonography (MRC) for the assessment of extra-colonic organs. Three hundred seventy-five subjects with suspected colonic disease underwent a complete MRC examination. MRC data were evaluated by two radiologists in a blinded fashion. In addition to the large bowel, the extra-intestinal organs from the lung bases to the pelvis were assessed for the presence of pathologies. All findings were divided into known or unknown findings and therapeutically relevant or irrelevant findings. If deemed necessary, other diagnostic imaging tests to further assess those findings were performed. In total, 510 extra-colonic findings were found in 260 (69%) of the 375 subjects. Known extra-colonic findings were found in 140 subjects (54%) and unknown findings in 120 subjects (46%). Thirty-one (12%) of the 260 subjects had therapeutically relevant findings (45 findings); 229 patients (88%) had irrelevant findings (465 findings). Dark-lumen MRC is a useful tool not only for the assessment of the entire colon, but also for the evaluation of extra-colonic organs. Thus, intra- and extra-colonic pathologies can be diagnosed within the same examination. (orig.)

  8. Proteomics of the chloroplast: systematic identification and targeting analysis of lumenal and peripheral thylakoid proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltier, J B; Friso, G; Kalume, D E

    2000-01-01

    The soluble and peripheral proteins in the thylakoids of pea were systematically analyzed by using two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and N-terminal Edman sequencing, followed by database searching. After correcting to eliminate possible isoforms and post-translational modificati......The soluble and peripheral proteins in the thylakoids of pea were systematically analyzed by using two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and N-terminal Edman sequencing, followed by database searching. After correcting to eliminate possible isoforms and post......-translational modifications, we estimated that there are at least 200 to 230 different lumenal and peripheral proteins. Sixty-one proteins were identified; for 33 of these proteins, a clear function or functional domain could be identified, whereas for 10 proteins, no function could be assigned. For 18 proteins, no expressed...... sequence tag or full-length gene could be identified in the databases, despite experimental determination of a significant amount of amino acid sequence. Nine previously unidentified proteins with lumenal transit peptides are presented along with their full-length genes; seven of these proteins possess...

  9. CT arterial portography and CT arteriography with a triple-lumen balloon catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, T.; Oi, H.; Hori, M.; Kim, T.; Takahashi, S.; Matsushita, M.; Narumi, Y.; Nakamura, H.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of the triple-lumen balloon catheter in the serial performance of CT arterial portography (CT-AP) and CT arteriography (CT-A). Material and Methods: A combined CT-AP and CT-A examination of 58 patients was carried out in which a cobra-type triple-lumen balloon catheter was used. CT-AP was performed by injecting contrast medium either into the splenic artery through a side-hole in the catheter proximal to the balloon inflated in the common hepatic artery, or into the superior mesentric artery through an end-hole in the catheter. Then CT-A was serially performed by delivering contrast medium either to the common hepatic artery or the proper hepatic artery from the end-hole, or to the accessory right hepatic artery through a side-hole proximal to the inflated balloon. Results: Sufficient CT-APs were obtained in 53 of the 58 patients (91%), CT-A in 42 (72%), and both in 42 (72%). Incomplete CT-AP was due to technical failure or anatomical anomaly, as was incomplete CT-A. No complications were seen. (orig.)

  10. Single- and double- lumen silicone breast implant integrity: prospective evaluation of MR and US criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, W A; Caskey, C I; Hamper, U M; Kuhlman, J E; Anderson, N D; Chang, B W; Sheth, S; Zerhouni, E A

    1995-10-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance (MR) and ultrasound (US) criteria for breast implant integrity. One hundred twenty-two single-lumen silicone breast implants and 22 bilumen implants were evaluated with surface coil MR imaging and US and surgically removed. MR criteria for implant failure were a collapsed implant shell ("linguine sign"), foci of silicone outside the shell ("noose sign"), and extracapsular gel, US criteria were collapsed shell, low-level echoes within the gel, and "snowstorm" echoes of extracapsular silicone. Among single-lumen implants, MR imaging depicted 39 of 40 ruptures, 14 of 28 with minimal leakage; 49 of 54 intact implants were correctly interpreted. US depicted 26 of 40 ruptured implants, four of 28 with minimal leakage, and 30 of 54 intact implants. Among bilumen implants, MR imaging depicted four of five implants with rupture of both lumina and nine of 10 as intact; US depicted one rupture and helped identify two of 10 as intact. Mammography accurately depicted the status of 29 of 30 bilumen implants with MR imaging correlation. MR imaging depicts implant integrity more accurately than US; neither method reliably depicts minimal leakage with shell collapse. Mammography is useful in screening bilumen implant integrity.

  11. White Paranoia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørholt, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by Alain Robbe-Grillet’s novel La Jalousie (1957), the essay contends that Michael Haneke’s Caché (2005) takes its viewers inside a postcolonial white paranoia which is, arguably, the root cause of the exclusion, segregation and racist discrimination that many immigrants from the former ...

  12. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  13. Comparison between MDCT and Grayscale IVUS in a Quantitative Analysis of Coronary Lumen in Segments with or without Atherosclerotic Plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcão, João L. A. A.; Falcão, Breno A. A. [Heart Institute (InCor), University of São Paulo Medical School (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gurudevan, Swaminatha V. [Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Los Angeles, California, USA (United States); Campos, Carlos M.; Silva, Expedito R.; Kalil-Filho, Roberto; Rochitte, Carlos E.; Shiozaki, Afonso A.; Coelho-Filho, Otavio R.; Lemos, Pedro A. [Heart Institute (InCor), University of São Paulo Medical School (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    The diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice MDCT in comparison with IVUS has been poorly described and is mainly restricted to reports analyzing segments with documented atherosclerotic plaques. We compared 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with gray scale intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for the evaluation of coronary lumen dimensions in the context of a comprehensive analysis, including segments with absent or mild disease. The 64-slice MDCT was performed within 72 h before the IVUS imaging, which was obtained for at least one coronary, regardless of the presence of luminal stenosis at angiography. A total of 21 patients were included, with 70 imaged vessels (total length 114.6 ± 38.3 mm per patient). A coronary plaque was diagnosed in segments with plaque burden > 40%. At patient, vessel, and segment levels, average lumen area, minimal lumen area, and minimal lumen diameter were highly correlated between IVUS and 64-slice MDCT (p < 0.01). However, 64-slice MDCT tended to underestimate the lumen size with a relatively wide dispersion of the differences. The comparison between 64-slice MDCT and IVUS lumen measurements was not substantially affected by the presence or absence of an underlying plaque. In addition, 64-slice MDCT showed good global accuracy for the detection of IVUS parameters associated with flow-limiting lesions. In a comprehensive, multi-territory, and whole-artery analysis, the assessment of coronary lumen by 64-slice MDCT compared with coronary IVUS showed a good overall diagnostic ability, regardless of the presence or absence of underlying atherosclerotic plaques.

  14. Reconstructing warm inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Ramón

    2018-03-01

    The reconstruction of a warm inflationary universe model from the scalar spectral index n_S(N) and the tensor to scalar ratio r( N) as a function of the number of e-folds N is studied. Under a general formalism we find the effective potential and the dissipative coefficient in terms of the cosmological parameters n_S and r considering the weak and strong dissipative stages under the slow roll approximation. As a specific example, we study the attractors for the index n_S given by nS-1∝ N^{-1} and for the ratio r∝ N^{-2}, in order to reconstruct the model of warm inflation. Here, expressions for the effective potential V(φ ) and the dissipation coefficient Γ (φ ) are obtained.

  15. Thinking About Global Warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.

    2006-01-01

    Attitudes toward global warming are influenced by various heuristics, which may distort policy away from what is optimal for the well-being of people. These possible distortions, or biases, include: a focus on harms that we cause, as opposed to those that we can remedy more easily; a feeling that those who cause a problem should fix it; a desire to undo a problem rather than compensate for its presence; parochial concern with one's own group (nation); and neglect of risks that are not available. Although most of these biases tend to make us attend relatively too much to global warming, other biases, such as wishful thinking, cause us to attend too little. I discuss these possible effects and illustrate some of them with an experiment conducted on the World Wide Web

  16. Climate change - global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciconkov, Risto

    2001-01-01

    An explanation about climate, weather, climate changes. What is a greenhouse effect, i.e. global warming and reasons which contribute to this effect. Greenhouse gases (GHG) and GWP (Global Warming Potential) as a factor for estimating their influence on the greenhouse effect. Indicators of the climate changes in the previous period by known international institutions, higher concentrations of global average temperature. Projecting of likely scenarios for the future climate changes and consequences of them on the environment and human activities: industry, energy, agriculture, water resources. The main points of the Kyoto Protocol and problems in its realization. The need of preparing a country strategy concerning the acts of the Kyoto Protocol, suggestions which could contribute in the preparation of the strategy. A special attention is pointed to the energy, its resources, the structure of energy consumption and the energy efficiency. (Author)

  17. Warm natural inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Hiranmaya; Mohanty, Subhendra; Nautiyal, Akhilesh

    2012-01-01

    In warm inflation models there is the requirement of generating large dissipative couplings of the inflaton with radiation, while at the same time, not de-stabilising the flatness of the inflaton potential due to radiative corrections. One way to achieve this without fine tuning unrelated couplings is by supersymmetry. In this Letter we show that if the inflaton and other light fields are pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons then the radiative corrections to the potential are suppressed and the thermal corrections are small as long as the temperature is below the symmetry breaking scale. In such models it is possible to fulfil the contrary requirements of an inflaton potential which is stable under radiative corrections and the generation of a large dissipative coupling of the inflaton field with other light fields. We construct a warm inflation model which gives the observed CMB-anisotropy amplitude and spectral index where the symmetry breaking is at the GUT scale.

  18. Slowing global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavin, C.

    1990-01-01

    According to the authors, global warming promises to be one of the central environmental issues of the nineties. After a decade of scientific concern but popular neglect, the eighties ended with a growing political as well as scientific consensus that the world can no longer afford to procrastinate about this issue. This paper reports on coping with global warming which, according to the author, will force societies to move rapidly into uncharted terrain, reversing powerful trends that have dominated the industrial age. This challenge cannot be met without a strong commitment on the part of both individual consumers and governments. In terms of the earth's carbon balance, the unprecedented policy changes that have now become urgent include a new commitment to greater energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, a carbon tax on fossil fuels, a reversal of deforestation in tropical countries, and the rapid elimination of CFCs

  19. Military Implications of Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-20

    U.S. environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current U.S. Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate...for military involvement to reduce global warming . Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the U.S. military. As the United

  20. EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Basanti Jain

    2017-01-01

    The abnormal increase in the concentration of the greenhouse gases is resulting in higher temperatures. We call this effect is global warming. The average temperature around the world has increased about 1'c over 140 years, 75% of this has risen just over the past 30 years. The solar radiation, as it reaches the earth, produces "greenhouse effect" in the atmosphere. The thick atmospheric layers over the earth behaves as a glass surface, as it permits short wave radiations from coming in, but ...

  1. Warm natural inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Hiranmaya; Mohanty, Subhendra; Nautiyal, Akhilesh

    2013-01-01

    In warm inflation models there is the requirement of generating large dissipative couplings of the inflation with radiation, while at the same Âătime, not de-stabilising the flatness of the inflation potential due to radiative corrections. One way to achieve this without fine tuning unrelated couplings is by supersymmetry. In this talk we will discuss warm inflation with Pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons (PNGB). In this case inflation and other light fields are PNGB. So, the radiative corrections to the potential are suppressed and the thermal Âăcorrections are small as long as the temperature is below the symmetry breaking scale. In such models it is possible to fulfill the contrary requirements of an inflation potential which is stable under radiative corrections and the generation of a large dissipative coupling of the inflation field with other light fields. This warm inflation model with PNGB gives the observed CMB-anisotropy amplitude and spectral index having the symmetry breaking scale at the GUT scale. (author)

  2. Preparation of lumen-loaded kenaf pulp with magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, S.; Ong, B.H.; Ahmad, S.H.; Abdullah, M.; Yamauchi, T

    2005-02-15

    Magnetic pulps were prepared from unbleached kenaf (hibiscus cannabinus L.) kraft pulps. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} or magnetite powder was used to load into the pulp's lumen and pit. Aluminum sulphate [Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}] (alum) and polyethylenimine (PEI), both mainly function as retention aid were used throughout the experiment and found to be beneficial in the preparation of this magnetic pulps. The ash content method was used to determine the amount of magnetite retained in the lumen and pit. The utilization of PEI up to 2% per pulp fibres was found to be the best result on lumen loading. The deposition of magnetite powder in lumen and pit is found decrease as the addition of PEI used is more than 2% per pulp fibres. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) clearly shows the distribution of magnetite deposited in the lumen. Tensile index and folding endurance of the loaded fibre decreased slightly as the percentage of loading pigment increased.

  3. Dual-Lumen Chest Port Infection Rates in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bos, Aaron, E-mail: abos1210@gmail.com; Ahmed, Osman [University of Chicago Medical Center (United States); Jilani, Danial [Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine (United States); Giger, Maryellen; Funaki, Brian S.; Zangan, Steven M. [University of Chicago Medical Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThe aim of this study was to investigate dual-lumen chest port infection rates in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) compared to those with other malignancies (non-HNC).Materials and MethodsAn IRB-approved retrospective study was performed on 1,094 consecutive chest ports placed over a 2-year period. Patients with poor follow-up (n = 53), no oncologic history (n = 13), or single-lumen ports (n = 183) were excluded yielding a study population of 845 patients. The electronic medical records were queried for demographic information, data regarding ports and infections, and imaging review.ResultsHNC patients experienced more infections (42 vs. 30), an increased infection rate per 1,000 catheter days (0.68 vs. 0.21), and more early infections within 30 days compared to non-HNC patients (10 vs. 6) (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.02, respectively). An existing tracheostomy at the time of port placement was associated with infection in the HNC group (p = 0.02) but was not an independent risk factor for infection in the study population overall (p = 0.06). There was a significant difference in age, male gender, and right-sided ports between the HNC and non-HNC groups (p < 0.01, p < 0.001, and p = 0.01), although these were not found to be independent risk factors for infection (p = 0.32, p = 0.76, p = 0.16).ConclusionHNC patients are at increased risk for infection of dual-lumen chest ports placed via a jugular approach compared to patients with other malignancies. Tracheostomy is associated with infection in HNC patients but is not an independent risk factor for infection in the oncologic population as a whole.

  4. Dual-Lumen Chest Port Infection Rates in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, Aaron; Ahmed, Osman; Jilani, Danial; Giger, Maryellen; Funaki, Brian S.; Zangan, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeThe aim of this study was to investigate dual-lumen chest port infection rates in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) compared to those with other malignancies (non-HNC).Materials and MethodsAn IRB-approved retrospective study was performed on 1,094 consecutive chest ports placed over a 2-year period. Patients with poor follow-up (n = 53), no oncologic history (n = 13), or single-lumen ports (n = 183) were excluded yielding a study population of 845 patients. The electronic medical records were queried for demographic information, data regarding ports and infections, and imaging review.ResultsHNC patients experienced more infections (42 vs. 30), an increased infection rate per 1,000 catheter days (0.68 vs. 0.21), and more early infections within 30 days compared to non-HNC patients (10 vs. 6) (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.02, respectively). An existing tracheostomy at the time of port placement was associated with infection in the HNC group (p = 0.02) but was not an independent risk factor for infection in the study population overall (p = 0.06). There was a significant difference in age, male gender, and right-sided ports between the HNC and non-HNC groups (p < 0.01, p < 0.001, and p = 0.01), although these were not found to be independent risk factors for infection (p = 0.32, p = 0.76, p = 0.16).ConclusionHNC patients are at increased risk for infection of dual-lumen chest ports placed via a jugular approach compared to patients with other malignancies. Tracheostomy is associated with infection in HNC patients but is not an independent risk factor for infection in the oncologic population as a whole

  5. High lumenal chloride in the lysosome is critical for lysosome function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kasturi; Leung, KaHo; Krishnan, Yamuna

    2017-07-25

    Lysosomes are organelles responsible for the breakdown and recycling of cellular machinery. Dysfunctional lysosomes give rise to lysosomal storage disorders as well as common neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we use a DNA-based, fluorescent chloride reporter to measure lysosomal chloride in Caenorhabditis elegans as well as murine and human cell culture models of lysosomal diseases. We find that the lysosome is highly enriched in chloride, and that chloride reduction correlates directly with a loss in the degradative function of the lysosome. In nematodes and mammalian cell culture models of diverse lysosomal disorders, where previously only lysosomal pH dysregulation has been described, massive reduction of lumenal chloride is observed that is ~10 3 fold greater than the accompanying pH change. Reducing chloride within the lysosome impacts Ca 2+ release from the lysosome and impedes the activity of specific lysosomal enzymes indicating a broader role for chloride in lysosomal function.

  6. Further understanding of PbWO4 Scintillator characteristics and their optimisation. LUMEN activity in 1998

    CERN Document Server

    Baccaro, Stefania; Borgia, Bruno; Cecilia, Angelica; Dafinei, Ioan; Diemoz, Marcella; Fabeni, P; Festinesi, Armando; Longo, Egidio; Martini, M; Meinardi, F; Mihoková, E; Montecchi, Marco; Nikl, M; Pazzi, G P; Rosa, J; Sulc, Miroslav

    2000-01-01

    The aim of LUMEN collaboration was the investigation on single crystals of PbWO4 ( PWO): the results performed up to now provide the evidence of the possibility to optimise the optical properties of an intrinsic scintillator such as PWO. The control of essential requirements in the crystal preparation ( raw material purity, growing methods and post-growth annealing) as well as the introduction of selected dopants at suitable concentrations ( particularly trivalent and pentavalent ions) were found to be very successful in lowering the concentration of point defects in the lattice which strongly affect scintillation properties and radiation hardness. The systematic investigation effort to better understand the scintillation characteristics and to improve the quality of PWO crystals is due to their use for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter.

  7. Quantitative coronary CT angiography: absolute lumen sizing rather than %stenosis predicts hemodynamically relevant stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plank, Fabian [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Internal Medicine III - Cardiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Burghard, Philipp; Mayr, Agnes; Klauser, Andrea; Feuchtner, Gudrun [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Friedrich, Guy; Dichtl, Wolfgang [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Internal Medicine III - Cardiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Wolf, Florian [Vienna Medical University, Department of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Vienna (Austria)

    2016-11-15

    To identify the most accurate quantitative coronary stenosis parameter by CTA for prediction of functional significant coronary stenosis resulting in coronary revascularization. 160 consecutive patients were prospectively examined with CTA. Proximal coronary stenosis was quantified by minimal lumen area (MLA) and minimal lumen diameter (MLD), %area and %diameter stenosis. Lesion length (LL) was measured. The reference standard was invasive coronary angiography (ICA) (>70 % stenosis, FFR <0.8). 210 coronary segments were included (59 % positive). MLA of ≤1.8 mm{sup 2} was identified as the optimal cut-off (c = 0.97, p < 0.001; 95 % CI 0.94-0.99) (sensitivity 90.9 %, specificity 89.3 %) for prediction of functional-relevant stenosis (for MLA >2.1 mm{sup 2} sensitivity was 100 %). The optimal cut-off for MLD was 1.2 mm (c = 0.92; p < 0.001; 95 % CI 0.88-95) (sensitivity 90.9, specificity 85.2) while %area and %diameter stenosis were less accurate (c = 0.89; 95 % CI 0.84-93, c = 0.87; 95 % CI 0.82-92, respectively, with thresholds at 73 % and 61 % stenosis). Accuracy for LL was c = 0.74 (95 % CI 0.67-81), and for LL/MLA and LL/MLD ratio c = 0.90 and c = 0.84. MLA ≤1.8 mm{sup 2} and MLD ≤1.2 mm are the most accurate cut-offs for prediction of haemodynamically significant stenosis by ICA, with a higher accuracy than relative % stenosis. (orig.)

  8. Analysis of the intestinal lumen microbiota in an animal model of colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingchao Zhu

    Full Text Available Recent reports have suggested that multiple factors such as host genetics, environment and diet can promote the progression of healthy mucosa towards sporadic colorectal carcinoma. Accumulating evidence has additionally associated intestinal bacteria with disease initiation and progression. In order to examine and analyze the composition of gut microbiota in the absence of confounding influences, we have established an animal model of 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH-induced colon cancer. Using this model, we have performed pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes in this study to determine the diversity and breadth of the intestinal microbial species. Our findings indicate that the microbial composition of the intestinal lumen differs significantly between control and tumor groups. The abundance of Firmicutes was elevated whereas the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Spirochetes was reduced in the lumen of CRC rats. Fusobacteria was not detected in any of the healthy rats and there was no significant difference in observed Proteobacteria species when comparing the bacterial communities between our two groups. Interestingly, the abundance of Proteobacteria was higher in CRC rats. At the genus level, Bacteroides exhibited a relatively higher abundance in CRC rats compared to controls (14.92% vs. 9.22%, p<0.001. Meanwhile, Prevotella (55.22% vs. 26.19%, Lactobacillus (3.71% vs. 2.32% and Treponema (3.04% vs. 2.43%, were found to be significantly more abundant in healthy rats than CRC rats (p<0.001, respectively. We also demonstrate a significant reduction of butyrate-producing bacteria such as Roseburia and Eubacterium in the gut microbiota of CRC rats. Furthermore, a significant increase in Desulfovibrio, Erysipelotrichaceae and Fusobacterium was also observed in the tumor group. A decrease in probiotic species such as Ruminococcus and Lactobacillus was likewise observed in the tumor group. Collectively, we can conclude that a significant

  9. A nonimaging catheter for measurement of coronary artery lumen area: a first in man pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermiller, James; Choy, Jenny S; Svendsen, Mark; Bigelow, Brian; Fouts, Andrew M; Hall, Jack; Parr, Kirk; Ball, Michael; Sinha, Anjan; Bhatt, Deepak L; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this human pilot study was to determine the safety and the level of agreement between a novel nonimaging 2.7 Fr. catheter-based system (LumenRECON, LR) that uses electrical conductance for measurement of lumen cross-sectional area (CSA) with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). Based on previous animal studies, we hypothesized the level of agreement between LR and IVUS to be 13%. Accurate and reproducible vessel sizing is essential for optimal percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A total of 12 patients were studied to evaluate the safety, accuracy, and reproducibility of the system in comparison with IVUS and QCA. The CSA of coronary arteries was determined by IVUS, QCA, and LR in the distal, proximal, and center of a lesion during standard PCI. A Bland-Altman plot of the LR versus IVUS and QCA show a nonsignificant mean difference between the two measurements of 0.04 and 0.07 mm in diameter, respectively. The root mean square error of LR versus IVUS and QCA was 14.3 and 25.8% of the mean IVUS or QCA diameter, respectively. The mean of the difference between two LR duplicate measurements was nearly zero (0.03 mm) and the repeatability coefficient was within 8.7% of the mean of the two measurements. There were no procedural complications nor were any device-related MACE reported within 30 days of the procedure. This proof of concept pilot study establishes the safety and accuracy of the conductance technology for a pivotal trial of coronary sizing. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Global warning, global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benarde, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster

  11. Elephant trunk in a small-calibre true lumen for chronic aortic dissection: cause of haemolytic anaemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Haruna; Kitamura, Tadashi; Horai, Tetsuya; Shibata, Ko; Miyaji, Kagami

    2014-12-01

    The elephant trunk technique for aortic dissection is useful for reducing false lumen pressure; however, a folded vascular prosthesis inside the aorta can cause haemolysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an elephant trunk in a small-calibre lumen can cause haemolysis. Inpatient and outpatient records were retrospectively reviewed. Two cases of haemolytic anaemia after aortic surgery using the elephant trunk technique were identified from 2011 to 2013. A 64-year-old man, who underwent graft replacement of the ascending aorta for acute Stanford type A aortic dissection, presented with enlargement of the chronic dissection of the descending aorta and moderate aortic regurgitation. A two-stage surgery was scheduled. Total arch replacement with an elephant trunk in the true lumen and concomitant aortic valve replacement were performed. Postoperatively, he developed severe haemolytic anaemia because of the folded elephant trunk. The anaemia improved after the second surgery, including graft replacement of the descending aorta. Similarly, a 61-year-old man, who underwent total arch replacement for acute Stanford type A aortic dissection, presented with enlargement of the chronic dissection of the descending aorta. Graft replacement of the descending aorta with an elephant trunk inserted into the true lumen was performed. The patient postoperatively developed haemolytic anaemia because of the folded elephant trunk, which improved after additional stent grafting into the elephant trunk. A folded elephant trunk in a small-calibre lumen can cause haemolysis. Therefore, inserting an elephant trunk in a small-calibre true lumen during surgery for chronic aortic dissection should be avoided. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  12. Global Warming: A Reduced Threat?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Patrick J.; Stooksbury, David E.

    1992-10-01

    One popular and apocalyptic vision of the world influenced by increasing concentrations of infrared-absorbing trace gases is that of ecological disaster brought about by rapidly rising temperatures, sea level, and evaporation rates. This vision developed from a suite of climate models that have since considerably changed in both their dynamics and their estimates of prospective warming. Observed temperatures indicate that much more warming should already have taken place than predicted by earlier models in the Northern Hemisphere, and that night, rather than day, readings in that hemisphere show a relative warming. A high-latitude polar-night warming or a general night warming could be either benign or beneficial. A large number of plant species show both increased growth and greater water-use efficiency under enhanced carbon dioxide.An extensive body of evidence now indicates that anthropo-generated sulfate emissions are mitigating some of the warming, and that increased cloudiness as a result of these emissions will further enhance night, rather than day, warming. The sulfate emissions, though, are not sufficient to explain all of the night warming. However, the sensitivity of climate to anthropogenerated aerosols, and the general lack of previously predicted warming, could drastically alter the debate on global warming in favor of less expensive policies.

  13. A novel lumen-apposing metal stent for endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Daisy; Will, Uwe; Sanchez-Yague, Andres

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: A novel large-diameter, lumen-apposing, self-expanding metal stent with bilateral flanges was recently developed for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided transmural drainage of symptomatic pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effi......BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: A novel large-diameter, lumen-apposing, self-expanding metal stent with bilateral flanges was recently developed for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided transmural drainage of symptomatic pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate...

  14. Daytime warming has stronger negative effects on soil nematodes than night-time warming

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiumin; Wang, Kehong; Song, Lihong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Donghui

    2017-01-01

    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, that is, stronger warming during night-time than during daytime. Here we focus on how soil nematodes respond to the current asymmetric warming. A field infrared heating experiment was performed in the western of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Three warming modes, i.e. daytime warming, night-time warming and diurnal warming, were taken to perform the asymmetric warming condition. Our results showed that the daytime and diurnal warming treatmen...

  15. Global Warming on Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, J. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; McDonald, S. W.; Person, M. J.; Olkin, C. B.; Dunham, E. J.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.; hide

    1998-01-01

    Triton, Neptune's largest moon, has been predicted to undergo significant seasonal changes that would reveal themselves as changes in its mean frost temperature. But whether this temperature should at the present time be increasing, decreasing or constant depends on a number of parameters (such as the thermal properties of the surface, and frost migration patterns) that are unknown. Here we report observations of a recent stellar occultation by Triton which, when combined with earlier results, show that Triton has undergone a period of global warming since 1989. Our most conservative estimates of the rate of temperature and surface-pressure increase during this period imply that the atmosphere is doubling in bulk every 10 years, significantly faster than predicted by any published frost model for Triton. Our result suggests that permanent polar caps on Triton play a c dominant role in regulating seasonal atmospheric changes. Similar processes should also be active on Pluto.

  16. Structure of Warm Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, S.; Uhrenholt, H.

    2009-01-01

    We study the structure of nuclei in the energy region between the ground state and the neutron separation energy, here called warm nuclei. The onset of chaos in the nucleus as excitation energy is increased is briefly reviewed. Chaos implies fluctuations of energies and wave functions qualitatively the same for all chaotic nuclei. On the other hand, large structure effects are seen, e.g. in the level-density function at same excitation energies. A microscopic model for the level density is reviewed and we discuss effects on structure of the total level-density function, parity enhancement, and the spin distribution function. Comparisons to data are performed at the neutron separation energy for all observed nuclei, and structure of the level-density function for a few measured cases. The role of structure effects in the level-density function for fission dynamics is exemplified.

  17. PdNP Decoration of Halloysite Lumen via Selective Grafting of Ionic Liquid onto the Aluminol Surfaces and Catalytic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedzo, Gustave K; Ngnie, Gaëlle; Detellier, Christian

    2016-02-01

    The synthesis of selectively deposited palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) inside tubular halloysite lumens is reported. This specific localization was directed by the selective modification of the aluminol surfaces of the clay mineral through stable Al-O-C bonds. An ionic liquid (1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium) was grafted onto halloysite following the guest displacement method (generally used for kaolinite) using halloysite-DMSO preintercalate. The characterization of this clay nanohybrid material (XRD, NMR, TGA) showed characteristics reminiscent of similar materials synthesized from kaolinite. The grafting on halloysite lumens was also effective without using the DMSO preintercalate. The presence of these new functionalities in halloysite directs the synthesis of uniform PdNPs with size ranging between 3 and 6 nm located exclusively in the lumens. This results from the selective adsorption of PdNPs precursors in functionalized lumens through an anion exchange mechanism followed by in situ reduction. In contrast, the unmodified clay mineral displayed nanoparticles both inside and outside the tubes. These catalysts showed significant catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). The most efficient catalysts were recycled up to three times without reducing significantly the catalytic activities.

  18. Mechanism of lumen gain with a novel rotational aspiration atherectomy system for peripheral arterial disease: examination by intravascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ali H M; Ako, Junya; Waseda, Katsuhisa; Honda, Yasuhiro; Zeller, Thomas; Leon, Martin B; Fitzgerald, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of luminal gain with a novel atheroablation system (Pathway PV) for the treatment of peripheral artery disease using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). The atherectomy system is a rotational atherectomy device, which employs expandable rotating blades with ports that allow flushing and aspiration of the plaque material or thrombus. In this first-in-man clinical study, IVUS analysis was available in 6 patients with lower limb ischemia treated with this device. The treatment results were assessed using IVUS at pre and post atherectomy. Lumen beyond burr size (LBB) was defined as lumen gain divided by the estimated burr area determined by the burr-size. IVUS analysis was available in six patients (superficial femoral artery n=3, popliteal artery n=2, posterior tibial artery n=1). Atheroablation achieved a significant increase in lumen area (LA) (preintervention 3.9+/-0.4, postatheroablation 8.0+/-1.7 mm(2), Patherectomy device achieved significant luminal gain by debulking in the absence of vessel stretching. The LA was greater than burr-sized lumen expectancy at cross-sections along the treated segments, suggesting a complimentary role of aspiration in luminal gain in atherosclerotic peripheral artery lesions.

  19. MRT of carotid stents: influence of stent properties and sequence parameters on visualization of the carotid artery lumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straube, T.; Wolf, S.; Alfke, K.; Jansen, O.; Flesser, A.; Deli, M.; Nabavi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate MR artifacts of carotid artery stents and to optimize stent properties and sequence parameters. Material and Methods: Four carotid artery stents - Wallstent (mediloy), Precise (nitinol), ACCULINK (nitinol) and a stent prototype (nitinol) - were investigated in a flow model of the cervical vessels. The model was made of silicon tubing and a flow pump that produces realistic flow curves of the carotid artery. To investigate the effects of magnetic susceptibility and radiofrequency induced shielding artifacts, turbo spin echo and gradient echo sequences as well as CE-MRAs were measured. To improve the visualization of the stent lumen in a CE-MRA, flip angle as well as geometry and covering of the stent prototype were altered. Results: Susceptibility artifacts in stents of the carotid artery only influence the lumen visualization at the proximal and distal end of the braided mediloy stent. A change of stent coverings has no significant influence on radiofrequency artifacts, whereas a reduction in linking elements between stent segments and a change in diameter of stent struts improves visualization of the stent lumen. By increasing the flip angle in a CE-MRA, visualization of the stent lumen is possible in both mediloy and nitinol stents. Conclusion: The choice of stent material and changes in stent geometry as well as the optimization of the flip angle of the CE-MRA may reduce susceptibility and radiofrequency artifacts, rendering feasible the CE-MRA of a stented carotid artery. (orig.)

  20. Low Iodine in the Follicular Lumen Caused by Cytoplasm Mis-localization of Sodium Iodide Symporter may Induce Nodular Goiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huibin; Shi, Yaxiong; Liang, Bo; Cai, Huiyao; Cai, Qingyan

    2017-10-01

    Iodine is a key ingredient in the synthesis of thyroid hormones and also a major factor in the regulation of thyroid function. A local reduction of iodine content in follicular lumen leads to overexpression of local thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHr), which in turn excessively stimulates the regional thyroid tissue, and result in the formation of nodular goiter. In this study, we investigated the relationship between iodine content and sodium iodide symporter (NIS) expression by using the clinical specimens from patients with nodular goiter and explored the pathogenesis triggered by iodine deficiency in nodular goiter. In total, 28 patients were clinically histopathologically confirmed to have nodular goiter and the corresponding adjacent normal thyroid specimens were harvested simultaneously. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were performed to assay NIS expression and localization in thyrocytes of both nodular goiter and adjacent normal thyroid tissues. NIS expression mediated by iodine in follicular lumen was confirmed by follicular model in vitro. Meanwhile, radioscan with iodine-131were conducted on both nodular goiter and adjacent normal thyroid. Our data showed that NIS expression in nodular goiter was significantly higher than that in adjacent normal tissues, which was associated with low iodine in the follicular lumen. Abnormal localization of NIS and lower amount of radioactive iodine-131 were also found in nodular goiter. Our data implied that low iodine in the follicular lumen caused by cytoplasm mis-localization of NIS may induce nodular goiter.

  1. Interacting warm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David; Avelino, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear λρ m α ρ e β form, where ρ m and ρ e are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters α and β are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (λ,α,β) as well as w m and w e of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a warm dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a warm dark matter – phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ΛCDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (λ,α,β) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used

  2. Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa

    2011-04-01

    Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations.

  3. Influence of a Double-Lumen Extension Tube on Drug Delivery: Examples of Isosorbide Dinitrate and Diazepam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Maiguy-Foinard

    Full Text Available Plastic materials such as polyurethane (PUR, polyethylene (PE, polypropylene (PP and polyvinyl chloride (PVC are widely used in double-lumen extension tubing. The purposes of our study were to 1 compare in vitro drug delivery through the double extension tubes available on the market 2 assess the plastic properties of PUR in infusion devices and their impact on drug delivery.The study compared eight double-lumen extension tubes in PUR, co-extruded (PE/PVC plastic and plasticised PVC from different manufacturers. Isosorbide dinitrate and diazepam were used as model compounds to evaluate their sorption on the internal surface of the infusion device. Control experiments were performed using norepinephrine known not to absorb to plastics. Drug concentrations delivered at the egress of extension tubes were determined over time by an analytical spectrophotometric UV-Vis method. The main characteristics of plastics were also determined.Significant differences in the sorption phenomenon were observed among the eight double-lumen extension tubes and between pairs of extension tubes. Mean concentrations of isosorbide dinitrate delivered at the egress of double-lumen extension tubes after a 150-minute infusion (mean values ± standard deviation in percentage of the initial concentrations in the prepared syringes ranged between 80.53 ± 1.66 (one of the PUR tubes and 92.84 ± 2.73 (PE/PVC tube. The same parameters measured during diazepam infusion ranged between 48.58 ± 2.88 (one of the PUR tubes and 85.06 ± 3.94 (PE/PVC tube. The double-lumen extension tubes in PUR were either thermosetting (resin or thermoplastic according to reference.Clinicians must be aware of potential drug interactions with extension tube materials and so must consider their nature as well as the sterilisation method used before selecting an infusion device.

  4. The challenge of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryner, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    The chapter outlines the science of global warming, the likely consequences of global warming and some of the major challenges in dealing with global climate change. Some of the major international organisations concerned with environmental issues are listed. International agreements might be used to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. 32 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Global warming and prairie wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poiani, K.A.; Johnson, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss current understanding and projections of global warming; review wetland vegetation dynamics to establish the strong relationship among climate, wetland hydrology, vegetation patterns and waterfowl habitat; discuss the potential effects of a greenhouse warming on these relationships; and illustrate the potential effects of climate change on wetland habitat by using a simulation model

  6. Warm Bodies: A Student Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schario, Tracy A.

    A participant in forensic tournament competition presents her perspective as well as overall student reaction to the function of "warm bodies," competitors who are entered in a tournament by the coach or tournament director only to meet qualifying requirements. Overall, participants in an informal survey believed that the warm body…

  7. Dark-lumen magnetic resonance colonography in patients with suspected sigmoid diverticulitis: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaj, Waleed; Lauenstein, Thomas; Goehde, Susanne; Kuehle, Christiane; Herborn, Christoph U.; Ruehm, Stefan G.; Langhorst, Jost; Zoepf, Thomas; Gerken, Guido; Goyen, Mathias

    2005-01-01

    To assess dark-lumen magnetic resonance colonography (MRC) for the evaluation of patients with suspected sigmoid diverticulitis. Forty patients with suspected sigmoid diverticulitis underwent MRC within 72 h prior to conventional colonoscopy (CC). A three-dimensional T1-weighted volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination sequence was acquired after an aqueous enema and intravenous administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents. All MRC data were evaluated by two radiologists. Based on wall thickness and focal uptake of contrast material and pericolic reaction including mesenteric infiltration on T1-weighted sequence the sigmoid colon was assessed for the presence of diverticulitis. MRC classified 17 of the 40 patients as normal with regard to sigmoid diverticulitis. However, CC confirmed the presence of light inflammatory signs in four patients which were missed in MRC. MRC correctly identified wall thickness and contrast uptake of the sigmoid colon in the other 23 patients. In three of these patients false-positive findings were observed, and MRC classified the inflammation of the sigmoid colon as diverticulitis whereas CC and histopathology confirmed invasive carcinoma. MRC detected additionally relevant pathologies of the entire colon and could be performed in cases where CC was incomplete. MRC may be considered a promising alternative to CC for the detection of sigmoid diverticulitis. (orig.)

  8. "Detachment of the carinal hook following endobronchial intubation with a double lumen tube"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Ana C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carinal hooks increases difficulty at endotracheal intubation. Amputation of the carinal hook during passage and malpositioning of the tube to the hook are some of the potential problems related with left-sided Carlens double lumen tube (DLT. This article reports an amputation of the hook during a difficult selective intubation and aimed at calling the attention to complications associated with DLTs and the importance of fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Case presentation A 68 year-old woman was scheduled for right-sided thoracotomy in whom blind DLT insertion was performed. Narrowed trachea causes difficulty in rotating the DLT 90° counter-clockwise. After carinal hook was noticed upon visual inspection of the DLT, fiberoptic bronchoscopy was used to remove the missing part (with the use of forceps from the right mainstem bronchus. Conclusion Insertion of DLTs with carinal hook is associated with technical problems and potentially life-threatening hazards have discouraged their use. Fiberoptic evaluation and repositioning solves most of the problems. Although amputation of the carinal hook has not been previously reported, clinicians should be alert. This case report emphasizes the utility of the fiberoptic bronchoscopy in the operating theatre for placement, positioning and inspection of the carinal hook DLT.

  9. Lumen apposing metal stents for pancreatic fluid collections: Recognition and management of complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Michael L; Asombang, Akwi W; Berzin, Tyler M

    2017-09-16

    For patients recovering from acute pancreatitis, the development of a pancreatic fluid collection (PFC) predicts a more complex course of recovery, and introduces difficult management decisions with regard to when, whether, and how the collection should be drained. Most PFCs resolve spontaneously and drainage is indicated only in pseudocysts and walled-off pancreatic necrosis when the collections are causing symptoms and/or local complications such as biliary obstruction. Historical approaches to PFC drainage have included surgical (open or laparoscopic cystgastrostomy or pancreatic debridement), and the placement of percutaneous drains. Endoscopic drainage techniques have emerged in the last several years as the preferred approach for most patients, when local expertise is available. Lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMS) have recently been developed as a tool to facilitate potentially safer and easier endoscopic drainage of pancreatic fluid collections, and less commonly, for other indications, such as gallbladder drainage. Physicians considering LAMS placement must be aware of the complications most commonly associated with LAMS including bleeding, migration, buried stent, stent occlusion, and perforation. Because of the patient complexity associated with severe pancreatitis, management of pancreatic fluid collections can be a complex and multidisciplinary endeavor. Successful and safe use of LAMS for patients with pancreatic fluid collections requires that the endoscopist have a full understanding of the potential complications of LAMS techniques, including how to recognize and manage expected complications.

  10. Rap1 integrates tissue polarity, lumen formation, and tumorigenicpotential in human breast epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Masahiko; Nelson, Celeste M.; Myers, Connie A.; Bissell,Mina J.

    2006-09-29

    Maintenance of apico-basal polarity in normal breast epithelial acini requires a balance between cell proliferation, cell death, and proper cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix signaling. Aberrations in any of these processes can disrupt tissue architecture and initiate tumor formation. Here we show that the small GTPase Rap1 is a crucial element in organizing acinar structure and inducing lumen formation. Rap1 activity in malignant HMT-3522 T4-2 cells is appreciably higher than in S1 cells, their non-malignant counterparts. Expression of dominant-negative Rap1 resulted in phenotypic reversion of T4-2 cells, led to formation of acinar structures with correct apico-basal polarity, and dramatically reduced tumor incidence despite the persistence of genomic abnormalities. The resulting acini contained prominent central lumina not observed when other reverting agents were used. Conversely, expression of dominant-active Rap1 in T4-2 cells inhibited phenotypic reversion and led to increased invasiveness and tumorigenicity. Thus, Rap1 acts as a central regulator of breast architecture, with normal levels of activation instructing apical polarity during acinar morphogenesis, and increased activation inducing tumor formation and progression to malignancy.

  11. Epithelial organization and cyst lumen expansion require efficient Sec13–Sec31-driven secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Anna K.; Schmidt, Katy; Hodgson, Lorna; Stephens, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial morphogenesis is directed by interactions with the underlying extracellular matrix. Secretion of collagen and other matrix components requires efficient coat complex II (COPII) vesicle formation at the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we show that suppression of the outer layer COPII component, Sec13, in zebrafish embryos results in a disorganized gut epithelium. In human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2), Sec13 depletion causes defective epithelial polarity and organization on permeable supports. Defects are seen in the ability of cells to adhere to the substrate, form a monolayer and form intercellular junctions. When embedded in a three-dimensional matrix, Sec13-depleted Caco-2 cells form cysts but, unlike controls, are defective in lumen expansion. Incorporation of primary fibroblasts within the three-dimensional culture substantially restores normal morphogenesis. We conclude that efficient COPII-dependent secretion, notably assembly of Sec13–Sec31, is required to drive epithelial morphogenesis in both two- and three-dimensional cultures in vitro, as well as in vivo. Our results provide insight into the role of COPII in epithelial morphogenesis and have implications for the interpretation of epithelial polarity and organization assays in cell culture. PMID:22331354

  12. Epithelial organization and cyst lumen expansion require efficient Sec13-Sec31-driven secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Anna K; Schmidt, Katy; Hodgson, Lorna; Stephens, David J

    2012-02-01

    Epithelial morphogenesis is directed by interactions with the underlying extracellular matrix. Secretion of collagen and other matrix components requires efficient coat complex II (COPII) vesicle formation at the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we show that suppression of the outer layer COPII component, Sec13, in zebrafish embryos results in a disorganized gut epithelium. In human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2), Sec13 depletion causes defective epithelial polarity and organization on permeable supports. Defects are seen in the ability of cells to adhere to the substrate, form a monolayer and form intercellular junctions. When embedded in a three-dimensional matrix, Sec13-depleted Caco-2 cells form cysts but, unlike controls, are defective in lumen expansion. Incorporation of primary fibroblasts within the three-dimensional culture substantially restores normal morphogenesis. We conclude that efficient COPII-dependent secretion, notably assembly of Sec13-Sec31, is required to drive epithelial morphogenesis in both two- and three-dimensional cultures in vitro, as well as in vivo. Our results provide insight into the role of COPII in epithelial morphogenesis and have implications for the interpretation of epithelial polarity and organization assays in cell culture.

  13. Point-of-care ultrasound versus auscultation in determining the position of double-lumen tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei-Cai; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Quan; Wei, Li; Zhang, Wei

    2018-03-01

    This study was designed to assess the accuracy of point-of-care ultrasound in determining the position of double-lumen tubes (DLTs).A total of 103 patients who required DLT intubation were enrolled into the study. After DLTs were tracheal intubated in the supine position, an auscultation researcher and ultrasound researcher were sequentially invited in the operating room to conduct their evaluation of the DLT. After the end of their evaluation, fiberscope researchers (FRs) were invited in the operating room to evaluate the position of DLT using a fiberscope. After the patients were changed to the lateral position, the same evaluation process was repeated. These 3 researchers were blind to each other when they made their conclusions. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were obtained by statistical analysis.When left DLTs (LDLTs) were used, the accuracy of ultrasound (84.2% [72.1%, 92.5%]) was higher than the accuracy of auscultation (59.7% [45.8%, 72.4%]) (P auscultation (67.4% [52.0%, 80.5%]) (P auscultation (54.4% [40.7%, 67.6%]) (P auscultation (47.8% [32.9%, 63.1%]) (P auscultation in determining the position of DLTs.

  14. Delivery of CSF-1R to the lumen of macropinosomes promotes its destruction in macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jieqiong; Low-Nam, Shalini T.; Kerkvliet, Jason G.; Hoppe, Adam D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Activation of the macrophage colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) by CSF-1 stimulates pronounced macropinocytosis and drives proliferation of macrophages. Although the role of macropinocytosis in CSF-1R signaling remains unknown, we show here that, despite internalizing large quantities of plasma membrane, macropinosomes contribute little to the internalization of the CSF-1–CSF-1R complex. Rather, internalization of the CSF-1R in small endocytic vesicles that are sensitive to clathrin disruption, outcompetes macropinosomes for CSF-1R endocytosis. Following internalization, small vesicles carrying the CSF-1R underwent homotypic fusion and then trafficked to newly formed macropinosomes bearing Rab5. As these macropinosomes matured, acquiring Rab7, the CSF-1R was transported into their lumen and degraded. Inhibition of macropinocytosis delayed receptor degradation despite no disruption to CSF-1R endocytosis. These data indicate that CSF-1-stimulated macropinosomes are sites of multivesicular body formation and accelerate CSF-1R degradation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that macropinocytosis and cell growth have a matching dose dependence on CSF-1, suggesting that macropinosomes might be a central mechanism coupling CSF-1R signaling and macrophage growth. PMID:25335894

  15. Evaluation of esophageal motility utilizing the functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dustin A.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Lin, Zhiyue; Hirano, Ikuo; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Listernick, Zoe; Ritter, Katherine; Tye, Michael; Ponds, Fraukje A.; Wong, Ian; Pandolfino, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility and distension-mediated peristalsis can be assessed with the functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) during a sedated upper endoscopy. We aimed to describe esophageal motility assessment using FLIP topography in patients presenting with dysphagia. Methods 145 patients (ages 18 – 85, 54% female) with dysphagia that completed upper endoscopy with a 16-cm FLIP assembly and high-resolution manometry (HRM) were included. HRM was analyzed according to the Chicago Classification of esophageal motility disorders; major esophageal motility disorders were considered ‘abnormal’. FLIP studies were analyzed using a customized program to calculate the EGJ-distensibility index (DI) and generate FLIP topography plots to identify esophageal contractility patterns. FLIP topography was considered ‘abnormal’ if EGJ-DI was esophageal motility and 29 normal motility. 17 (50%) had abnormal FLIP topography including 13 (37%) with abnormal EGJ-DI. Conclusions FLIP topography provides a well-tolerated method for esophageal motility assessment (especially to identify achalasia) at the time of upper endoscopy. FLIP topography findings that are discordant with HRM may indicate otherwise undetected abnormalities of esophageal function, thus FLIP provides an alternative and complementary method to HRM for evaluation of non-obstructive dysphagia. PMID:27725650

  16. Numerical Investigation of Characteristic of Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity of Natural Fiber Bundle with Numbered Lumens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Yu Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fiber bundle like hemp fiber bundle usually includes many small lumens embedded in solid region; thus, it can present lower thermal conduction than that of conventional fibers. In the paper, characteristic of anisotropic transverse thermal conductivity of unidirectional natural hemp fiber bundle was numerically studied to determine the dependence of overall thermal property of the fiber bundle on that of the solid region phase. In order to efficiently predict its thermal property, the fiber bundle was embedded into an imaginary matrix to form a unit composite cell consisting of the matrix and the fiber bundle. Equally, another unit composite cell including an equivalent solid fiber was established to present the homogenization of the fiber bundle. Next, finite element thermal analysis implemented by ABAQUS was conducted in the two established composite cells by applying proper thermal boundary conditions along the boundary of unit cell, and influences of the solid region phase and the equivalent solid fiber on the composites were investigated, respectively. Subsequently, an optional relationship of thermal conductivities of the natural fiber bundle and the solid region was obtained by curve fitting technique. Finally, numerical results from the obtained fitted curves were compared with the analytic Hasselman-Johnson’s results and others to verify the present numerical model.

  17. High lumenal chloride in the lysosome is critical for lysosome function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kasturi; Leung, KaHo; Krishnan, Yamuna

    2017-01-01

    Lysosomes are organelles responsible for the breakdown and recycling of cellular machinery. Dysfunctional lysosomes give rise to lysosomal storage disorders as well as common neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we use a DNA-based, fluorescent chloride reporter to measure lysosomal chloride in Caenorhabditis elegans as well as murine and human cell culture models of lysosomal diseases. We find that the lysosome is highly enriched in chloride, and that chloride reduction correlates directly with a loss in the degradative function of the lysosome. In nematodes and mammalian cell culture models of diverse lysosomal disorders, where previously only lysosomal pH dysregulation has been described, massive reduction of lumenal chloride is observed that is ~103 fold greater than the accompanying pH change. Reducing chloride within the lysosome impacts Ca2+ release from the lysosome and impedes the activity of specific lysosomal enzymes indicating a broader role for chloride in lysosomal function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.28862.001 PMID:28742019

  18. Whiting in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  19. Forests and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curren, T.

    1991-04-01

    The importance of forests to Canada, both in economic and environmental terms, is indisputable. A warmer global climate may well have profound effects on the Canadian boreal forest, and at least some of the effects will not be beneficial. With the state of the current knowledge of climate processes and climate change it is not possible to predict the extent or rate of projected changes of anthropogenic origin. Given these uncertainties, the appropriate course of action for the Canadian forest sector is to develop policies and strategies which will make good sense under the current climatic regime, and which will also be appropriate for actions in a warmer climate scenario. The business as usual approach is not acceptable in the context of pollution control as it has become clear that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants must be substantially reduced, both to prevent (or at least slow the rate of) possible global warming, and to reduce impacts on the biophysical environment and human health. Effective mitigative actions must be introduced on both a national and global scale. Forest management policies more effectively geared to the sustainability of forests are needed. The programs that are developed out of such policies must be cognizant of the real possibility that climate in the present boreal forest regions may change in the near future. 13 refs

  20. Recent warming of lake Kivu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A; Crowe, Sean A; Hecky, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient.

  1. Recent warming of lake Kivu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Katsev

    Full Text Available Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient.

  2. Narrative Constructions of Whiteness among White Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foste, Zak

    2017-01-01

    This critical narrative inquiry was guided by two overarching research questions. First, this study examined how white undergraduates interpreted and gave meaning to their white racial identities. This line of inquiry sought to understand how participants made sense of their white racial selves, the self in relation to people of color, and the…

  3. Quantification and analysis of color stability based on thermal transient behavior in white LED lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisa Khan, M

    2017-09-20

    We present measurement and analysis of color stability over time for two categories of white LED lamps based on their thermal management scheme, which also affects their transient lumen depreciation. We previously reported that lumen depreciation in LED lamps can be minimized by properly designing the heat sink configuration that allows lamps to reach a thermal equilibrium condition quickly. Although it is well known that lumen depreciation degrades color stability of white light since color coordinates vary with total lumen power by definition, quantification and characterization of color shifts based on thermal transient behavior have not been previously reported in literature for LED lamps. Here we provide experimental data and analysis of transient color shifts for two categories of household LED lamps (from a total of six lamps in two categories) and demonstrate that reaching thermal equilibrium more quickly provides better stability for color rendering, color temperature, and less deviation of color coordinates from the Planckian blackbody locus line, which are all very important characterization parameters of color for white light. We report for the first time that a lamp's color degradation from the turn-on time primarily depends on thermal transient behavior of the semiconductor LED chip, which experiences a wavelength shift as well as a decrease in its dominant wavelength peak value with time, which in turn degrades the phosphor conversion. For the first time, we also provide a comprehensive quantitative analysis that differentiates color degradation due to the heat rise in GaN/GaInN LED chips and subsequently the boards these chips are mounted on-from that caused by phosphor heating in a white LED module. Finally, we briefly discuss why there are some inevitable trade-offs between omnidirectionality and color and luminous output stability in current household LED lamps and what will help eliminate these trade-offs in future lamp designs.

  4. Global warming: the complete briefing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houghton, J

    1994-01-01

    The science of global warming, its impacts, and what action might be taken, are described in this book, in a way which the intelligent non-scientist can understand. It also examines ethical and moral issues of concern about global warming, considering mankind as stewards of the earth. Chapter headings of the book are: global warming and climate change; the greenhouse effect; the greenhouse gases; climates of the past; modelling the climate; climate change and business-as-usual; the impacts of climate change; why should we be concerned ; weighing the uncertainty; action to slow and stabilize climate change; energy and transport for the future; and the global village.

  5. SU-F-T-20: Novel Catheter Lumen Recognition Algorithm for Rapid Digitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dise, J; McDonald, D; Ashenafi, M; Peng, J; Mart, C; Koch, N; Vanek, K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Manual catheter recognition remains a time-consuming aspect of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR) treatment planning. In this work, a novel catheter lumen recognition algorithm was created for accurate and rapid digitization. Methods: MatLab v8.5 was used to create the catheter recognition algorithm. Initially, the algorithm searches the patient CT dataset using an intensity based k-means filter designed to locate catheters. Once the catheters have been located, seed points are manually selected to initialize digitization of each catheter. From each seed point, the algorithm searches locally in order to automatically digitize the remaining catheter. This digitization is accomplished by finding pixels with similar image curvature and divergence parameters compared to the seed pixel. Newly digitized pixels are treated as new seed positions, and hessian image analysis is used to direct the algorithm toward neighboring catheter pixels, and to make the algorithm insensitive to adjacent catheters that are unresolvable on CT, air pockets, and high Z artifacts. The algorithm was tested using 11 HDR treatment plans, including the Syed template, tandem and ovoid applicator, and multi-catheter lung brachytherapy. Digitization error was calculated by comparing manually determined catheter positions to those determined by the algorithm. Results: he digitization error was 0.23 mm ± 0.14 mm axially and 0.62 mm ± 0.13 mm longitudinally at the tip. The time of digitization, following initial seed placement was less than 1 second per catheter. The maximum total time required to digitize all tested applicators was 4 minutes (Syed template with 15 needles). Conclusion: This algorithm successfully digitizes HDR catheters for a variety of applicators with or without CT markers. The minimal axial error demonstrates the accuracy of the algorithm, and its insensitivity to image artifacts and challenging catheter positioning. Future work to automatically place initial seed

  6. The Functional Lumen Imaging Probe Detects Esophageal Contractility not Observed with Manometry in Patients with Achalasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dustin A.; Lin, Zhiyue; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Sternbach, Joel; Donnan, Erica N.; Friesen, Laurel; Listernick, Zoe; Mogni, Benjamin; Pandolfino, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) could improve characterization of achalasia subtypes by detecting non-occlusive esophageal contractions not observed with standard manometry. We aimed to evaluate for esophageal contractions during volumetric distention in patients with achalasia using FLIP topography. Methods Fifty one treatment-naïve patients with achalasia, defined and sub-classified by high-resolution esophageal pressure topography, and 10 asymptomatic individuals (controls) were evaluated with the FLIP during endoscopy. During stepwise distension, simultaneous intra-bag pressures and 16 channels of cross-sectional areas were measured; data were exported to software that generated FLIP topography plots. Esophageal contractility was identified by noting periods of reduced luminal diameter. Esophageal contractions were further characterized by propagation direction, repetitiveness, and based on whether they were occluding or non-occluding. Results Esophageal contractility was detected in all 10 controls: 8/10 had repetitive, antegrade, contractions and 9/10 had occluding contractions. Contractility was detected in 27% (4/15) of patients with type I achalasia and 65% (18/26, including 9 with occluding contractions) of patients with type II achalasia. Contractility was detected in all 10 patients with type III achalasia; 8 of these patients had a pattern of contractility not observed in controls (repetitive, retrograde contractions). Conclusions Esophageal contractility not observed with manometry can be detected in patients with achalasia using FLIP topography. The presence and patterns of contractility detected with FLIP topography may represent variations in pathophysiology, such as mechanisms of pan-esophageal pressurization in patients with type II achalasia. These findings could have implications for additional sub-classification to supplement prediction of the achalasia disease course. PMID:26278501

  7. Computed Tomographic Window Setting for Bronchial Measurement to Guide Double-Lumen Tube Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong-Hwa; Bae, Jinyoung; Paik, Hyesun; Koo, Chang-Hoon; Bahk, Jae-Hyon

    2018-04-01

    The bronchial diameter measured on computed tomography (CT) can be used to guide double-lumen tube (DLT) sizes objectively. The bronchus is known to be measured most accurately in the so-called bronchial CT window. The authors investigated whether using the bronchial window results in the selection of more appropriately sized DLTs than using the other windows. CT image analysis and prospective randomized study. Tertiary hospital. Adults receiving left-sided DLTs. The authors simulated selection of DLT sizes based on the left bronchial diameters measured in the lung (width 1,500 Hounsfield unit [HU] and level -700 HU), bronchial (1,000 HU and -450 HU), and mediastinal (400 HU and 25 HU) CT windows. Furthermore, patients were randomly assigned to undergo imaging with either the bronchial or mediastinal window to guide DLT sizes. Using the underwater seal technique, the authors assessed whether the DLT was appropriately sized, undersized, or oversized for the patient. On 130 CT images, the bronchial diameter (9.9 ± 1.2 mm v 10.5 ± 1.3 mm v 11.7 ± 1.3 mm) and the selected DLT size were different in the lung, bronchial, and mediastinal windows, respectively (p study, oversized tubes were chosen less frequently in the bronchial window than in the mediastinal window (6/110 v 23/111; risk ratio 0.38; 95% CI 0.19-0.79; p = 0.003). No tubes were undersized after measurements in these two windows. The bronchial measurement in the bronchial window guided more appropriately sized DLTs compared with the lung or mediastinal windows. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Photoaffinity labeling of the lumenal K+ site of the gastric (H+ + K+)-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeling, D.J.; Fallowfield, C.; Lawrie, K.M.; Saunders, D.; Richardson, S.; Ife, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A photoaffinity label for the lumenal K+ site of the gastric (H+ + K+)-ATPase has been identified. Seven azido derivatives based upon the reversible K+ site inhibitor SCH 28080 were studied, one of which, m-ATIP (8-(3-azidophenylmethoxy)-1,2,3-trimethylimidazo[1,2-a] pyridinium iodide), was subsequently synthesized in radiolabeled form. In the absence of UV irradiation, m-ATIP inhibited K+ -stimulated ATPase activity in lyophilized gastric vesicles competitively with respect to K+, with a Ki value of 2.4 microM at pH 7.0. Irradiation of lyophilized gastric vesicles at pH 7.0 with [ 14 C]m-ATIP in the presence of 0.2 mM ATP resulted in a time-dependent inactivation of ATPase activity that was associated with an incorporation of radioactivity into a 100-kDa polypeptide representing the catalytic subunit of the (H+ + K+)-ATPase. Both inactivation and incorporation were blocked in the presence of 10 mM KCl but not with 10 mM NaCl, consistent with interaction at the K+ site. The level of incorporation required to produce complete inhibition of ATPase activity was 1.9 +/- 0.2 times the number of catalytic phosphorylation sites in the same preparation. Tryptic digestion of gastric vesicle membranes, labeled with [ 14 C]m-ATIP, failed to release the radioactivity from the membranes suggesting that the site of interaction was close to or within the membrane-spanning sections of this ion pump

  9. Double-lumen tubes and auto-PEEP during one-lung ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, J; Ott, M; Karzai, W; Grimm, A; Wirth, S; Schumann, S; Loop, T

    2016-01-01

    Double-lumen tubes (DLT) are routinely used to enable one-lung-ventilation (OLV) during thoracic anaesthesia. The flow-dependent resistance of the DLT's bronchial limb may be high as a result of its narrow inner diameter and length, and thus potentially contribute to an unintended increase in positive end-expiratory pressure (auto-PEEP). We therefore studied the impact of adult sized DLTs on the dynamic auto-PEEP during OLV. In this prospective clinical study, dynamic auto-PEEP was determined in 72 patients undergoing thoracic surgery, with right- and left-sided DLTs of various sizes. During OLV, air trapping was provoked by increasing inspiration to expiration ratio from 1:2 to 2:1 (five steps). Based on measured flow rate, airway pressure (Paw) and bronchial pressure (Pbronch), the pressure gradient across the DLT (ΔPDLT) and the total auto-PEEP in the respiratory system (i.e. the lungs, the DLT and the ventilator circuit) were determined. Subsequently the DLT's share in total auto-PEEP was calculated. ΔPDLT was 2.3 (0.7) cm H2O over the entire breathing cycle. At the shortest expiratory time the mean total auto-PEEP was 2.9 (1.5) cm H2O (range 0-5.9 cm H2O). The DLT caused 27 to 31% of the total auto-PEEP. Size and side of the DLT's bronchial limb did not impact auto-PEEP significantly. Although the DLT contributes to the overall auto-PEEP, its contribution is small and independent of size and side of the DLT's bronchial limb. The choice of DLT does not influence the risk of auto-PEEP during OLV to a clinically relevant extent. DRKS00005648. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Gastric washing by distilled water can reduce free gastric cancer cells exfoliated into the stomach lumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, Atsuko; Abe, Nobutsugu; Yoshimoto, Eri; Hashimoto, Yoshikazu; Takeuchi, Hirohisa; Nagao, Gen; Masaki, Tadahiko; Mori, Toshiyuki; Ohkura, Yasuo; Sugiyama, Masanori

    2018-04-25

    Intragastric free cancer cells in patients with gastric cancer have rarely been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detection rate of intragastric free cancer cells in gastric washes using two types of solutions during endoscopic examination. We further clarified risk factors affecting the presence of exfoliated free cancer cells. A total of 175 patients with gastric cancer were enrolled. Lactated Ringer's solution (N = 89) or distilled water (DW; N = 86) via endoscopic working channel was sprayed onto the tumor surface, and the resultant fluid was collected for cytological examination. We compared the cancer-cell positivity rate between the two (Ringer and DW) groups. We also tested the correlation between cancer-cell positivity and clinicopathological factors in the Ringer group to identify risk factors for the presence of exfoliated cancer cells. The cancer-cell positivity rate was significantly higher in the Ringer group than that in the DW group (58 vs 6%). Cytomorphology in the Ringer group was well maintained, but not in the DW group. The larger tumor size (≥ 20 mm) and positive lymphatic involvement were significant risk factors of exfoliated free cancer cells. Cancer cells can be highly exfoliated from the tumor surface into the gastric lumen by endoscopic irrigation in large gastric cancer with lymphatic involvement. Gastric washing by DW can lead to cytoclasis of free cancer cells; therefore, it may minimize the possibility of cancer-cell seeding in procedures carrying potential risks of tumor-cell seeding upon transluminal communication, such as endoscopic full-thickness resection and laparoscopy-endoscopy cooperative surgery.

  11. Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor in intestinal immune defense against the lumen-dwelling protozoan parasite Giardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Barbara J; Palm, J E Daniel; Housley, Michael P; Smith, Jennifer R; Andersen, Yolanda S; Martin, Martin G; Hendrickson, Barbara A; Johansen, Finn-Eirik; Svärd, Staffan G; Gillin, Frances D; Eckmann, Lars

    2006-11-01

    The polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR) is conserved in mammals and has an avian homologue, suggesting evolutionarily important functions in vertebrates. It transports multimeric IgA and IgM across polarized epithelia and is highly expressed in the intestine, yet little direct evidence exists for its importance in defense against common enteric pathogens. In this study, we demonstrate that pIgR can play a critical role in intestinal defense against the lumen-dwelling protozoan parasite Giardia, a leading cause of diarrheal disease. The receptor was essential for the eradication of Giardia when high luminal IgA levels were required. Clearance of Giardia muris, in which IgA plays a dominant role, was severely compromised in pIgR-deficient mice despite significant fecal IgA output at 10% of normal levels. In contrast, eradication of the human strain Giardia lamblia GS/M, for which adaptive immunity is less IgA dependent in mice, was unaffected by pIgR deficiency, indicating that pIgR had no physiologic role when lower luminal IgA levels were sufficient for parasite elimination. Immune IgA was greatly increased in the serum of pIgR-deficient mice, conferred passive protection against Giardia, and recognized several conserved giardial Ags, including ornithine carbamoyltransferase, arginine deiminase, alpha-enolase, and alpha- and beta-giardins, that are also detected in human giardiasis. Corroborative observations were made in mice lacking the J chain, which is required for pIgR-dependent transepithelial IgA transport. These results, together with prior data on pIgR-mediated immune neutralization of luminal cholera toxin, suggest that pIgR is essential in intestinal defense against pathogenic microbes with high-level and persistent luminal presence.

  12. SU-F-T-20: Novel Catheter Lumen Recognition Algorithm for Rapid Digitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dise, J; McDonald, D; Ashenafi, M; Peng, J; Mart, C; Koch, N; Vanek, K [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Manual catheter recognition remains a time-consuming aspect of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR) treatment planning. In this work, a novel catheter lumen recognition algorithm was created for accurate and rapid digitization. Methods: MatLab v8.5 was used to create the catheter recognition algorithm. Initially, the algorithm searches the patient CT dataset using an intensity based k-means filter designed to locate catheters. Once the catheters have been located, seed points are manually selected to initialize digitization of each catheter. From each seed point, the algorithm searches locally in order to automatically digitize the remaining catheter. This digitization is accomplished by finding pixels with similar image curvature and divergence parameters compared to the seed pixel. Newly digitized pixels are treated as new seed positions, and hessian image analysis is used to direct the algorithm toward neighboring catheter pixels, and to make the algorithm insensitive to adjacent catheters that are unresolvable on CT, air pockets, and high Z artifacts. The algorithm was tested using 11 HDR treatment plans, including the Syed template, tandem and ovoid applicator, and multi-catheter lung brachytherapy. Digitization error was calculated by comparing manually determined catheter positions to those determined by the algorithm. Results: he digitization error was 0.23 mm ± 0.14 mm axially and 0.62 mm ± 0.13 mm longitudinally at the tip. The time of digitization, following initial seed placement was less than 1 second per catheter. The maximum total time required to digitize all tested applicators was 4 minutes (Syed template with 15 needles). Conclusion: This algorithm successfully digitizes HDR catheters for a variety of applicators with or without CT markers. The minimal axial error demonstrates the accuracy of the algorithm, and its insensitivity to image artifacts and challenging catheter positioning. Future work to automatically place initial seed

  13. Amplified Arctic warming by phytoplankton under greenhouse warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Bader, Jürgen; Rolph, Rebecca; Kwon, Minho

    2015-05-12

    Phytoplankton have attracted increasing attention in climate science due to their impacts on climate systems. A new generation of climate models can now provide estimates of future climate change, considering the biological feedbacks through the development of the coupled physical-ecosystem model. Here we present the geophysical impact of phytoplankton, which is often overlooked in future climate projections. A suite of future warming experiments using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere model that interacts with a marine ecosystem model reveals that the future phytoplankton change influenced by greenhouse warming can amplify Arctic surface warming considerably. The warming-induced sea ice melting and the corresponding increase in shortwave radiation penetrating into the ocean both result in a longer phytoplankton growing season in the Arctic. In turn, the increase in Arctic phytoplankton warms the ocean surface layer through direct biological heating, triggering additional positive feedbacks in the Arctic, and consequently intensifying the Arctic warming further. Our results establish the presence of marine phytoplankton as an important potential driver of the future Arctic climate changes.

  14. Percutaneous Selective Embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter for Pancreas Graft Thrombosis: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izaki, Kenta; Yamaguchi, Masato; Matsumoto, Ippei; Shinzeki, Makoto; Ku, Yonson; Sugimura, Kazuro; Sugimoto, Koji

    2011-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus underwent simultaneous pancreas–kidney transplantation. The pancreaticoduodenal graft was implanted in the right iliac fossa. The donor’s portal vein was anastomosed to the recipient’s inferior vena cava (IVC). Seven days after the surgery, a thrombus was detected in the graft veins. Percutaneous thrombolysis was immediately performed; however, venous congestion was still present. We therefore attempted selective embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter. Thrombi were directed from the graft veins toward the IVC and captured in the IVC filter with complete elimination of the thrombus without any major complications. We present our technique for the successful treatment of pancreas graft thrombosis within a short time period by percutaneous selective embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter.

  15. Linear-regression convolutional neural network for fully automated coronary lumen segmentation in intravascular optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Yan Ling; Tan, Li Kuo; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Chee, Kok Han; Liew, Yih Miin

    2017-12-01

    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging modality commonly used in the assessment of coronary artery diseases during percutaneous coronary intervention. Manual segmentation to assess luminal stenosis from OCT pullback scans is challenging and time consuming. We propose a linear-regression convolutional neural network to automatically perform vessel lumen segmentation, parameterized in terms of radial distances from the catheter centroid in polar space. Benchmarked against gold-standard manual segmentation, our proposed algorithm achieves average locational accuracy of the vessel wall of 22 microns, and 0.985 and 0.970 in Dice coefficient and Jaccard similarity index, respectively. The average absolute error of luminal area estimation is 1.38%. The processing rate is 40.6 ms per image, suggesting the potential to be incorporated into a clinical workflow and to provide quantitative assessment of vessel lumen in an intraoperative time frame.

  16. Activity of LUMEN (1996-97) Understanding of PbWO4 Scintillator Characteristics and their Optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    Baccaro, Stefania; Borgia, Bruno; Cecilia, Angelica; Croci, S; Dafinei, Ioan; Diemoz, Marcella; Fabeni, P; Festinesi, Armando; Jarolímek, O; Longo, Egidio; Martini, M; Mihoková, E; Montecchi, Marco; Nikl, M; Nitsch, K; Organtini, Giovanni; Pazzi, G P; Spinolo, G; Vedda, A

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the LUMEN co-operation, supported by INFN, is to obtain ful experimental characterisation and deep expertise of heavy scintillator for high energy physics. The advantage of this collaboration was mainly in the complementary character of the experimental techniques available in the partner laboratories and in the availability of highly experienced scientists indifferent fields. Furthermore close feedback to technological laboratories preparing on request PWO samples appeared extremely helpful. The present paper reports on the most important results obtained during the LUMEN activity in 1996-97. The aim of the report is to provide also enough useful information for the PWO application and novel ideas to stimulate further interest for new detectors as well as application in different fields.

  17. Linear-regression convolutional neural network for fully automated coronary lumen segmentation in intravascular optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Yan Ling; Tan, Li Kuo; McLaughlin, Robert A; Chee, Kok Han; Liew, Yih Miin

    2017-12-01

    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging modality commonly used in the assessment of coronary artery diseases during percutaneous coronary intervention. Manual segmentation to assess luminal stenosis from OCT pullback scans is challenging and time consuming. We propose a linear-regression convolutional neural network to automatically perform vessel lumen segmentation, parameterized in terms of radial distances from the catheter centroid in polar space. Benchmarked against gold-standard manual segmentation, our proposed algorithm achieves average locational accuracy of the vessel wall of 22 microns, and 0.985 and 0.970 in Dice coefficient and Jaccard similarity index, respectively. The average absolute error of luminal area estimation is 1.38%. The processing rate is 40.6 ms per image, suggesting the potential to be incorporated into a clinical workflow and to provide quantitative assessment of vessel lumen in an intraoperative time frame. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  18. Fewer bacteria in warm water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagh, Lene

    1999-01-01

    There has been many suggestions to how the ideal warm water system should be. Particularly whether warm water containers or heat exchangers in larger houses are the best solutions in order to maintain a water quality with low levels of bacteria. In an investigation made by Statens Byggeforskningsinstitutt (Denmark) regarding ''Bacterial growth in warm water installations with heat exchangers'' there were used several heat exchangers made by Gjelsted and Lund of three of which had HWAT heating cables. The bacterial content was low from these exchangers compared to exchangers with circulation. The article presents promising results from a study where the method was investigated over a longer period in two new larger warm water systems. Some energy conservation aspects are discussed

  19. Warm mix asphalt : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The performance of pavements constructed using warm mix asphalt (WMA) technology were : compared to the performance of conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements placed on the : same project. Measurements of friction resistance, rutting/wear, ride ...

  20. Authropogenic Warming in North Alaska?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Patrick J.; Sappington, David E.; Stooksbury, David E.

    1988-09-01

    Using permafrost boreholes, Lachenbruch and Marshall recently reported evidence for a 2°-4°C warming in North Alaska occurring at some undetermined time during the last century. Popular accounts suggest their findings are evidence for anthropogenic warming caused by trace gases. Analyses of North Alaskan 1000-500 mb thickness onwards back to 1948 indicate that the warming was prior to that date. Relatively sparse thermometric data for the early twentieth century from Jones et al. are too noisy to support any trend since the data record begins in 1910, or to apply to any subperiod of climatic significance. Any warming detected from the permafrost record therefore occurred before the major emissions of thermally active trace gases.

  1. Lumen and calcium characteristics within calcified coronary lesions. Comparison of computed tomography coronary angiography versus intravascular ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Noll, Dariusz; Kruk, Mariusz; Pręgowski, Jerzy; Kaczmarska, Edyta; Kryczka, Karolina; Pracoń, Radosław; Skwarek, Mirosław; Dzielińska, Zofia; Petryka, Joanna; Śpiewak, Mateusz; Lubiszewska, Barbara; Norwa-Otto, Bożena; Opolski, Maksymilian; Witkowski, Adam; Demkow, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) is a diagnostic method used for exclusion of coronary artery disease. However, lower accuracy of CTCA in assessment of calcified lesions is a significant factor impeding applicability of CTCA for assessment of coronary atherosclerosis. Aim To provide insight into lumen and calcium characteristics assessed with CTCA, we compared these parameters to the reference of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Material and methods Two hundred and...

  2. Global warming and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    The problems of pollution, global warming and renewable energy sources are not going to go away. Governments need to act with urgency if they are to produce a long-term energy policy. This paper looks at the current energy situation, and how this would project into the future without the instigation of radical changes. It concludes that nuclear is the best option available for averting a growing energy, pollution and global warming crisis. (author)

  3. Global warming: A vicious circle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, J.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases the planet is already committed to regional droughts, storms, disruption of fisheries and the extinction of many plant and animal species. But current predictions of global warming do not take into account the reactions and interactions of the planet's land, ocean and ice masses to the rise in temperatures. It seems likely that the greenhouse effect will give rise to positive feedback reactions, leading to greater global warming than predicted

  4. Standardized evaluation framework for evaluating coronary artery stenosis detection, stenosis quantification and lumen segmentation algorithms in computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirişli, H A; Schaap, M; Metz, C T; Dharampal, A S; Meijboom, W B; Papadopoulou, S L; Dedic, A; Nieman, K; de Graaf, M A; Meijs, M F L; Cramer, M J; Broersen, A; Cetin, S; Eslami, A; Flórez-Valencia, L; Lor, K L; Matuszewski, B; Melki, I; Mohr, B; Oksüz, I; Shahzad, R; Wang, C; Kitslaar, P H; Unal, G; Katouzian, A; Örkisz, M; Chen, C M; Precioso, F; Najman, L; Masood, S; Ünay, D; van Vliet, L; Moreno, R; Goldenberg, R; Vuçini, E; Krestin, G P; Niessen, W J; van Walsum, T

    2013-12-01

    Though conventional coronary angiography (CCA) has been the standard of reference for diagnosing coronary artery disease in the past decades, computed tomography angiography (CTA) has rapidly emerged, and is nowadays widely used in clinical practice. Here, we introduce a standardized evaluation framework to reliably evaluate and compare the performance of the algorithms devised to detect and quantify the coronary artery stenoses, and to segment the coronary artery lumen in CTA data. The objective of this evaluation framework is to demonstrate the feasibility of dedicated algorithms to: (1) (semi-)automatically detect and quantify stenosis on CTA, in comparison with quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and CTA consensus reading, and (2) (semi-)automatically segment the coronary lumen on CTA, in comparison with expert's manual annotation. A database consisting of 48 multicenter multivendor cardiac CTA datasets with corresponding reference standards are described and made available. The algorithms from 11 research groups were quantitatively evaluated and compared. The results show that (1) some of the current stenosis detection/quantification algorithms may be used for triage or as a second-reader in clinical practice, and that (2) automatic lumen segmentation is possible with a precision similar to that obtained by experts. The framework is open for new submissions through the website, at http://coronary.bigr.nl/stenoses/. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Stanford type A aortic dissection with closed false lumen: Analysis of prognostic factors at initial CT or MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Yohjiro; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Ogawa, Yohji; Sueyoshi, Eijun; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Takagi, Masatake [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Narimatsu, Motoharu

    1997-08-01

    Nineteen patients with Stanford type A acute aortic dissection with closed false lumen were reviewed. In the follow-up examinations, ulcerlike projection (ULP) in the ascending aorta (AA) or aortic arch (AR) was identified in 8 of 19 patients. In 5 of these 8 patients, acute cardiac tamponade occurred and 3 of them died. In the other 11 patients, there was no mortality, and only one patient underwent elective surgery. The appearance of ULP in the AA/AR is considered an indication for urgent surgery because it is regarded as a precursor of lethal complications such as cardiac tamponade. The purpose of this study was to investigate predictors of the appearance of ULP in the AA/AR with early imagings (CT or MRI) before the appearance of ULP. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with ULP in the AA/AR (8 patients) and others (11 patients). Initial CT or MRI findings of the thoracic aorta were retrospectively statistically analyzed in each group. Three predictive factors were statistically significant for the appearance of ULP in the AA/AR (diameter of the AA{>=}5 cm, thickness of the false lumen of the AA{>=}1 cm, thickness of the false lumen of the AA{>=} that of the descending aorta). Close attention should be paid, if any of these 3 factors is observed at initial CT or MRI. (author)

  6. Stanford type A aortic dissection with closed false lumen: Analysis of prognostic factors at initial CT or MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Yohjiro; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Ogawa, Yohji; Sueyoshi, Eijun; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Takagi, Masatake; Narimatsu, Motoharu.

    1997-01-01

    Nineteen patients with Stanford type A acute aortic dissection with closed false lumen were reviewed. In the follow-up examinations, ulcerlike projection (ULP) in the ascending aorta (AA) or aortic arch (AR) was identified in 8 of 19 patients. In 5 of these 8 patients, acute cardiac tamponade occurred and 3 of them died. In the other 11 patients, there was no mortality, and only one patient underwent elective surgery. The appearance of ULP in the AA/AR is considered an indication for urgent surgery because it is regarded as a precursor of lethal complications such as cardiac tamponade. The purpose of this study was to investigate predictors of the appearance of ULP in the AA/AR with early imagings (CT or MRI) before the appearance of ULP. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with ULP in the AA/AR (8 patients) and others (11 patients). Initial CT or MRI findings of the thoracic aorta were retrospectively statistically analyzed in each group. Three predictive factors were statistically significant for the appearance of ULP in the AA/AR (diameter of the AA≥5 cm, thickness of the false lumen of the AA≥1 cm, thickness of the false lumen of the AA≥ that of the descending aorta). Close attention should be paid, if any of these 3 factors is observed at initial CT or MRI. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the conformity of assistential practice in the maintenance of the temporary double-lumen dialysis catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosetti, Késia Alves Gomes; Tronchin, Daisy Maria Rizatto

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate the conformity of the assistential practice in the maintenance of the temporary double-lumen catheter for hemodialysis, by means of the use of the process indicator, in the University Hospital of the University of São Paulo. a quantitative, exploratory-descriptive and observational study. The sample was made up of 155 observations of persons with temporary double-lumen catheters, in the period March-November 2011, using the Indicator of the Maintenance of the Temporary Double Lumen Catheter for Hemodialysis. the rate of general conformity of the assistential practice corresponded to 65.8%. Of the practice's 13 components, 9 (69.2%) attained 100% conformity. The hygienization of hands by the professionals and the use of a mask by the patients during the disconnection from the hemodialysis had the worst rates (83.9%). although the actions evaluated are implemented in the unit, it is necessary to propose and apply educational strategies with the health team, as well as to institute periodical assessments, so as to raise the conformity rates, ensuring the quality of the hemodialysis services.

  8. Regional blood flow analysis and its relationship with arterial branch lengths and lumen volume in the coronary arterial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloi, Sabee; Wong, Jerry T

    2007-01-01

    The limitations of visually assessing coronary artery disease are well known. These limitations are particularly important in intermediate coronary lesions (30-70% diameter stenosis) where it is difficult to determine whether a particular lesion is the cause of ischaemia. Therefore, a functional measure of stenosis severity is needed. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the expected maximum coronary blood flow in an arterial tree is predictable from its sum of arterial branch lengths or lumen volume. Using a computer model of a porcine coronary artery tree, an analysis of blood flow distribution was conducted through a network of millions of vessels that included the entire coronary artery tree down to the first capillary branch. The flow simulation results show that there is a linear relationship between coronary blood flow and the sum of its arterial branch lengths. This relationship holds over the entire arterial tree. The flow simulation results also indicate that there is a 3/4 er relation between coronary blood flow (Q) and the sum of its arterial lumen volume (V). Moreover, there is a linear relationship between normalized Q and normalized V raised to a power of 3/4 over the entire arterial tree. These results indicate that measured arterial branch lengths or lumen volumes can be used to predict the expected maximum blood flow in an arterial tree. This theoretical maximum blood flow, in conjunction with an angiographically measured blood flow, can potentially be used to calculate fractional flow reserve based entirely on angiographic data

  9. In vitro stent lumen visualisation of various common and newly developed femoral artery stents using MR angiography at 1.5 and 3 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syha, R; Ketelsen, D; Kaempf, M; Mangold, S; Sixt, S; Zeller, T; Springer, F; Schick, F; Claussen, C D; Brechtel, K

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate stent lumen assessment of various commonly used and newly developed stents for the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using MR angiography (MRA) at 1.5 and 3 T. Eleven nitinol stents and one cobalt-chromium stent were compared regarding stent lumen visualisation using a common three-dimensional MRA sequence. Maximum visible stent lumen width and contrast ratio were analysed in three representative slices for each stent type. A scoring system for lumen visualisation was applied. Nitinol stents showed significantly better performance than the cobalt chromium stent (P stent lumen ranged between 43.4 and 95.5 %, contrast ratio between 7.2 and 110.6 %. Regarding both field strengths, seven of the nitinol stents were classified as "suitable". Three nitinol stents were "limited", and one nitinol stent and the cobalt chromium stent were "not suitable". Intraluminal loss of signal and artefacts of most of the SFA stents do not markedly limit assessment of stent lumen by MRA at 1.5 and 3 T. MRA can thus be considered a valid technique for detection of relevant in-stent restenosis. Applied field strength does not strongly influence stent lumen assessment in general, but proper choice of field strength might be helpful.

  10. Erick A. White | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 2011 B.S., Chemical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder Research Assistant, Colorado School of Mines, Department of Chemical Engineering, 2006-2011 Field Team Erick A. White Photo of Erick A. White Erick White Chemical Reaction Engineer Erick.White@nrel.gov

  11. Scribble is required for normal epithelial cell–cell contacts and lumen morphogenesis in the mammalian lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Laura L.; Schnatwinkel, Carsten; Hazelwood, Lee; Chessum, Lauren; Paudyal, Anju; Hilton, Helen; Romero, M. Rosario; Wilde, Jonathan; Bogani, Debora; Sanderson, Jeremy; Formstone, Caroline; Murdoch, Jennifer N.; Niswander, Lee A.; Greenfield, Andy; Dean, Charlotte H.

    2013-01-01

    During lung development, proper epithelial cell arrangements are critical for the formation of an arborized network of tubes. Each tube requires a lumen, the diameter of which must be tightly regulated to enable optimal lung function. Lung branching and lumen morphogenesis require close epithelial cell–cell contacts that are maintained as a result of adherens junctions, tight junctions and by intact apical–basal (A/B) polarity. However, the molecular mechanisms that maintain epithelial cohesion and lumen diameter in the mammalian lung are unknown. Here we show that Scribble, a protein implicated in planar cell polarity (PCP) signalling, is necessary for normal lung morphogenesis. Lungs of the Scrib mouse mutant Circletail (Crc) are abnormally shaped with fewer airways, and these airways often lack a visible, ‘open’ lumen. Mechanistically we show that Scrib genetically interacts with the core PCP gene Vangl2 in the developing lung and that the distribution of PCP pathway proteins and Rho mediated cytoskeletal modification is perturbed in ScribCrc/Crc lungs. However A/B polarity, which is disrupted in Drosophila Scrib mutants, is largely unaffected. Notably, we find that Scrib mediates functions not attributed to other PCP proteins in the lung. Specifically, Scrib localises to both adherens and tight junctions of lung epithelia and knockdown of Scrib in lung explants and organotypic cultures leads to reduced cohesion of lung epithelial cells. Live imaging of Scrib knockdown lungs shows that Scrib does not affect bud bifurcation, as previously shown for the PCP protein Celsr1, but is required to maintain epithelial cohesion. To understand the mechanism leading to reduced cell–cell association, we show that Scrib associates with β-catenin in embryonic lung and the sub-cellular distribution of adherens and tight junction proteins is perturbed in mutant lung epithelia. Our data reveal that Scrib is required for normal lung epithelial organisation and lumen

  12. Unexpected Impacts of Global warming on Extreme Warm Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardeshmukh, P. D.; Compo, G. P.; McColl, C.; Penland, C.

    2017-12-01

    It is generally presumed that the likelihood of extreme warm spells around the globe has increased, and will continue to increase, due to global warming. However, we find that this is generally not true in three very different types of global observational datasets and uncoupled atmospheric model simulations of the 1959 to 2012 period with prescribed observed global SSTs, sea ice, and radiative forcing changes. While extreme warm spells indeed became more common in many regions, in many other regions their likelihood remained almost the same or even decreased from the first half to the second half of this period. Such regions of unexpected changes covered nearly 40 percent of the globe in both winter and summer. The basic reason for this was a decrease of temperature variability in such regions that offset or even negated the effect of the mean temperature shift on extreme warm spell probabilities. The possibility of such an impact on extreme value probabilities was highlighted in a recent paper by Sardeshmukh, Compo, and Penland (Journal of Climate 2015). The consistency of the changes in extreme warm spell probabilities among the different observational datasets and model simulations examined suggests that they are robust regional aspects of global warming associated with atmospheric circulation changes. This highlights the need for climate models to represent not just the mean regional temperature signals but also the changes in subseasonal temperature variability associated with global warming. However, current climate models (both CMIP3 and CMIP5) generally underestimate the magnitude of the changes in the atmospheric circulation and associated temperature variability. A likely major cause of this is their continuing underestimation of the magnitude of the spatial variation of tropical SST trends. By generating an overly spatially bland tropical SST warming in response to changes in radiative forcing, the models spuriously mute tropically

  13. The Great Warming Brian Fagan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great Warming is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval Warm Period. Five centuries of irregular warming from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of warming on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great Warming argues that the warm centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global warming, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.

  14. Active Movement Warm-Up Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents warm-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement warm-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active warm-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These warm-up routines can be used with all grade levels…

  15. How warm days increase belief in global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaval, Lisa; Keenan, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Eric J.; Weber, Elke U.

    2014-02-01

    Climate change judgements can depend on whether today seems warmer or colder than usual, termed the local warming effect. Although previous research has demonstrated that this effect occurs, studies have yet to explain why or how temperature abnormalities influence global warming attitudes. A better understanding of the underlying psychology of this effect can help explain the public's reaction to climate change and inform approaches used to communicate the phenomenon. Across five studies, we find evidence of attribute substitution, whereby individuals use less relevant but available information (for example, today's temperature) in place of more diagnostic but less accessible information (for example, global climate change patterns) when making judgements. Moreover, we rule out alternative hypotheses involving climate change labelling and lay mental models. Ultimately, we show that present temperature abnormalities are given undue weight and lead to an overestimation of the frequency of similar past events, thereby increasing belief in and concern for global warming.

  16. Warm measurements of CBA superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, R.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kirk, H.; Willen, E.; Yamin, P.

    1983-01-01

    We present results on magnetic field measurements of CBA dipole magnets in the warm (normal conductor) and cryogenic (superconducting) states. We apply two methods for the warm measurements, a dc and ac method. We find a good correlation between warm and cryogenic measurements which lends itself to a reliable diagnosis of magnet field errors using warm measurements early in the magnet assembly process. We further find good agreement between the two warm measurement methods, both done at low currents

  17. Peranan Environmental Accounting Terhadap Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Martusa, Riki

    2009-01-01

    This article explores about is global warming. The distortion of nature causes global warming. Industrial sector is one of global warming incurred. Some nations create a group to cope this matter. They try to reduce carbon emission as one of global warming causes by controlling industrial carbon emission through financial reporting. This article explores normatively roles of environmental accounting in cope with global warming.  

  18. The politics of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, N.

    1991-01-01

    The probable warming of the world over the next few decades due to human activity presents a unique threat. The threat of global warming has been brought about by the activities of the entire human race, and only action by a large part of the human race can slow down the process or halt it. Other unwanted effects of industrial activity are trans-national, and require international agreements to regulate them, most obviously radioactivity from nuclear power accidents, acid rain and river pollution; but climatic change, unlike these, is global. International negotiations are going on now to deal with the problem of global warming, mostly by reducing the emission of gases that contribute to it. These are preliminary, yet already different perceptions and conflicting interests are emerging. The aim of the present negotiations is a convention for the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) to be held in June 1992, the so-called ''Earth Summit''. (author)

  19. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps in steady-state conditions (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen). The goal of this investigation was to examine the long-term performance of complete LED lamps relative to benchmark halogen and CFL lamps—in this case, A lamps emitting approximately 800 lumens operated continuously at a relatively high ambient temperature of 45°C.

  20. Efficiency, sustainability and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, Richard T.; Bishop, Richard C.

    1995-01-01

    Economic analyses of global warming have typically been grounded in the theory of economic efficiency. Such analyses may be inappropriate because many of the underlying concerns about climate change are rooted not in efficiency, but in the intergenerational allocation of economic endowments. A simple economic model is developed which demonstrates that an efficient economy is not necessarily a sustainable economy. This result leads directly to questions about the policy relevance of several economic studies of the issue. We then consider policy alternatives to address global warming in the context of economies with the dual objectives of efficiency and sustainability, with particular attention to carbon-based taxes

  1. Global Warming: Physics and Facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, B.G.; Hafemeister, D.; Scribner, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth's radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO 2 ; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment

  2. Evaluation of flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumen of chronic aortic dissections using velocity-encoded cine magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Toshihisa; Watanabe, Shigeru; Sakurada, Hideki; Ono, Katsuhiro; Urano, Miharu; Hijikata, Yasuyoshi; Saito, Isao; Masuda, Yoshiaki

    2000-01-01

    In 21 patients with chronic aortic dissections and proven patent false lumens, the flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumens was evaluated using velocity-encoded cine magnetic resonance imaging (VENC-MRI) and the relationship between the flow characteristics and aortic enlargement was retrospectively examined. Flow patterns in the false lumen were divided into 3 groups: pattern A with primarily antegrade flow (n=6), pattern R with primarily retrograde flow (n=3), and pattern B with bidirectional flow (n=12). In group A, the rate of flow volume in the false lumen compared to the total flow volume in true and false lumens (%TFV) and the average rate of enlargement of the maximum diameter of the dissected aorta per year (ΔD) were significantly greater than in groups R and B (%TFV: 74.1±0.07 vs 15.2±0.03 vs 11.8±0.04, p<0.01; ΔD: 3.62±0.82 vs 0 vs 0.58±0.15 mm/year, p<0.05, respectively). There was a significant correlation between %TFV and ΔD (r=0.79, p<0.0001). Evaluation of flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumen using VENC-MRI may be useful for predicting enlargement of the dissected aorta. (author)

  3. Evaluation of flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumen of chronic aortic dissections using velocity-encoded cine magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Toshihisa; Watanabe, Shigeru; Sakurada, Hideki; Ono, Katsuhiro; Urano, Miharu; Hijikata, Yasuyoshi; Saito, Isao; Masuda, Yoshiaki [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    In 21 patients with chronic aortic dissections and proven patent false lumens, the flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumens was evaluated using velocity-encoded cine magnetic resonance imaging (VENC-MRI) and the relationship between the flow characteristics and aortic enlargement was retrospectively examined. Flow patterns in the false lumen were divided into 3 groups: pattern A with primarily antegrade flow (n=6), pattern R with primarily retrograde flow (n=3), and pattern B with bidirectional flow (n=12). In group A, the rate of flow volume in the false lumen compared to the total flow volume in true and false lumens (%TFV) and the average rate of enlargement of the maximum diameter of the dissected aorta per year ({delta}D) were significantly greater than in groups R and B (%TFV: 74.1{+-}0.07 vs 15.2{+-}0.03 vs 11.8{+-}0.04, p<0.01; {delta}D: 3.62{+-}0.82 vs 0 vs 0.58{+-}0.15 mm/year, p<0.05, respectively). There was a significant correlation between %TFV and {delta}D (r=0.79, p<0.0001). Evaluation of flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumen using VENC-MRI may be useful for predicting enlargement of the dissected aorta. (author)

  4. The Effects of Distention and Obstruction on the Accumulation of Fluid in the Lumen of Small Bowel of Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Nand K.; Appert, Hubert E.; Howard, John M.

    1974-01-01

    Fluid accumulation in either the obstructed upper or lower intestinal segments of the dog was found in most animals to be negligible. Distention pressures of 25 cm of water tended to reduce fluid accumulation within the intestinal lumen. These studies suggest that if the dog is comparable to man, the intraluminal accumulation of fluid in the obstructed small bowel of man might be due to alterations in blood supply to the intestine, rather than to obstruction per se, or the accumulated fluid originates proximal to the jejunum. PMID:4419581

  5. 3D time-lapse analysis of Rab11/FIP5 complex: spatiotemporal dynamics during apical lumen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Anthony; Prekeris, Rytis

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent imaging of fixed cells grown in two-dimensional (2D) cultures is one of the most widely used techniques for observing protein localization and distribution within cells. Although this technique can also be applied to polarized epithelial cells that form three-dimensional (3D) cysts when grown in a Matrigel matrix suspension, there are still significant limitations in imaging cells fixed at a particular point in time. Here, we describe the use of 3D time-lapse imaging of live cells to observe the dynamics of apical membrane initiation site (AMIS) formation and lumen expansion in polarized epithelial cells.

  6. Prediction of Lumen Output and Chromaticity Shift in LEDs Using Kalman Filter and Extended Kalman Filter Based Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep; Wei, Junchao; Davis, J Lynn

    2014-06-24

    Abstract— Solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires containing light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures when being transported across country or being stored in non-climate controlled warehouses. They are also being used in outdoor applications in desert environments that see little or no humidity but will experience extremely high temperatures during the day. This makes it important to increase our understanding of what effects high temperature exposure for a prolonged period of time will have on the usability and survivability of these devices. Traditional light sources “burn out” at end-of-life. For an incandescent bulb, the lamp life is defined by B50 life. However, the LEDs have no filament to “burn”. The LEDs continually degrade and the light output decreases eventually below useful levels causing failure. Presently, the TM-21 test standard is used to predict the L70 life of LEDs from LM-80 test data. Several failure mechanisms may be active in a LED at a single time causing lumen depreciation. The underlying TM-21 Model may not capture the failure physics in presence of multiple failure mechanisms. Correlation of lumen maintenance with underlying physics of degradation at system-level is needed. In this paper, Kalman Filter (KF) and Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) have been used to develop a 70-percent Lumen Maintenance Life Prediction Model for LEDs used in SSL luminaires. Ten-thousand hour LM-80 test data for various LEDs have been used for model development. System state at each future time has been computed based on the state space at preceding time step, system dynamics matrix, control vector, control matrix, measurement matrix, measured vector, process noise and measurement noise. The future state of the lumen depreciation has been estimated based on a second order Kalman Filter model and a Bayesian Framework. Life prediction of L70 life for the LEDs used in SSL luminaires from KF and EKF based models have

  7. Fish energy budget under ocean warming and flame retardant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Patrícia; Figueiredo, Cátia; Baptista, Miguel; Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Camacho, Carolina; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Valente, Luísa M P; Marques, António; Rosa, Rui

    2018-07-01

    Climate change and chemical contamination are global environmental threats of growing concern for the scientific community and regulatory authorities. Yet, the impacts and interactions of both stressors (particularly ocean warming and emerging chemical contaminants) on physiological responses of marine organisms remain unclear and still require further understanding. Within this context, the main goal of this study was to assess, for the first time, the effects of warming (+ 5 °C) and accumulation of a polybrominated diphenyl ether congener (BDE-209, brominated flame retardant) through dietary exposure on energy budget of the juvenile white seabream (Diplodus sargus). Specifically, growth (G), routine metabolism (R), excretion (faecal, F and nitrogenous losses, U) and food consumption (C) were calculated to obtain the energy budget. The results demonstrated that the energy proportion spent for G dominated the mode of the energy allocation of juvenile white seabream (56.0-67.8%), especially under the combined effect of warming plus BDE-209 exposure. Under all treatments, the energy channelled for R varied around 26% and a much smaller percentage was channelled for excretion (F: 4.3-16.0% and U: 2.3-3.3%). An opposite trend to G was observed to F, where the highest percentage (16.0 ± 0.9%) was found under control temperature and BDE-209 exposure via diet. In general, the parameters were significantly affected by increased temperature and flame retardant exposure, where higher levels occurred for: i) wet weight, relative growth rate, protein and ash contents under warming conditions, ii) only for O:N ratio under BDE-209 exposure via diet, and iii) for feed efficiency, ammonia excretion rate, routine metabolic rate and assimilation efficiency under the combination of both stressors. On the other hand, decreased viscerosomatic index was observed under warming and lower fat content was observed under the combined effect of both stressors. Overall, under future

  8. High-fidelity simulation of lung isolation with double-lumen endotracheal tubes and bronchial blockers in anesthesiology resident training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failor, Erin; Bowdle, Andrew; Jelacic, Srdjan; Togashi, Kei

    2014-08-01

    Demonstrate the feasibility of using the AirSim Bronchi airway simulator to teach residents how to manage lung isolation with double-lumen endotracheal tubes and bronchial blockers and evaluate their performance with a detailed checklist. Prospective observational study. University anesthesiology residency training program. Anesthesiology residents taking a cardiothoracic anesthesiology rotation. Residents were instructed in 7 tasks using the AirSim Bronchi: The use of the fiberoptic bronchoscope, methods for placing left and right double-lumen endotracheal tubes and 3 bronchial blockers (Univent, Arndt, and Cohen), and application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to the unventilated lung. Two to 3 weeks later, checklists and a detailed scoring system were used to assess performance. Residents rated the curriculum and their own confidence in performing the tasks using a 5-point Likert scale. Thirteen residents completed the curriculum. Their median Likert scale ratings of the curriculum based on a questionnaire with 6 items ranged from 4 to 5 of 5. Resident confidence scores for each lung isolation technique improved after the simulation training, with the median gain ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 Likert levels depending on the task. The largest improvement occurred with the bronchial blockers (psimulator in a novel simulation curriculum to teach lung-isolation techniques to anesthesiology residents and evaluated performance using a detailed checklist scoring system. This curriculum is a promising educational tool. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Incidental extracolonic findings on bright lumen MR colonography in a population at increased risk for colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, Erlangga; Florie, Jasper; Nio, Chung Yung; Jensch, Sebastian; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Baak, Lubbertus; Stoker, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Incidental extracolonic findings affect patient treatment and cost. Therefore, to consider magnetic resonance colonography (MRC) as a tool for colorectal cancer and polyps screening, more knowledge is needed on extracolonic findings. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence and the spectrum of extracolonic findings in patients with an increased risk colorectal cancer that underwent bright lumen MRC. Materials and methods: MRC examinations were performed in 210 patients. A gadolinium solution was administered rectally for distension of the colon. Extracolonic findings were scored by two radiologists and classified by using C-RADS Reporting System. All findings (with advice regarding work-up) were reported to the patient's physician and followed up for 4.5 years on average. Results: Extracolonic findings were found in 125 (59.5%) patients. Ten (4.8%) had 'potentially important' findings (C-RADS category E4). Twenty-five patients (11.9%) had 'likely unimportant' findings (E3), 90 (42.8%) had 'clinically unimportant' findings (E2) and 85 (40.5%) had a normal exam (E1). In 14 (6.7%) patients additional work-up was performed for their incidentally discovered lesions. In three of them surgery was performed. After work-up, only in two (1.0%) patients a malignancy was found. Conclusion: The number of new relevant extracolonic findings is small and the required additional work-up is limited. This should be considered for implementation of 'bright lumen' MRC as a screening tool.

  10. Molecular cloning and expression of cDNA encoding a lumenal calcium binding glycoprotein from sarcoplasmic reticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leberer, E.; Charuk, J.H.M.; MacLennan, D.H.; Green, N.M.

    1989-01-01

    Antibody screening was used to isolate a cDNA encoding the 160-kDa glycoprotein of rabbit skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. The cDNA is identical to that encoding the 53-kDa glycoprotein except that it contains an in-frame insertion of 1,308 nucleotides near its 5' end, apparently resulting from alternative splicing. The protein encoded by the cDNA would contain a 19-residue NH 2 -terminal signal sequence and a 453-residue COOH-terminal sequence identical to the 53-kDa glycoprotein. It would also contain a 436-amino acid insert between these sequences. This insert would be highly acidic, suggesting that it might bind Ca 2+ . The purified 160-kDa glycoprotein and the glycoprotein expressed in COS-1 cells transfected with cDNA encoding the 160-kDa glycoprotein were shown to bind 45 C 2+ in a gel overlay assay. The protein was shown to be located in the lumen of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and to be associated through Ca 2+ with the membrane. The authors propose that this lumenal Ca 2+ binding glycoprotein of the sarcoplasmic reticulum be designated sarcalumenin

  11. Effects of cryopreservation on excretory function, cellular adhesion molecules and vessel lumen formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guoping; Lai, Binbin; Hong, Huaxing; Lin, Peng; Chen, Weifu; Zhu, Zhong; Chen, Haixiao

    2017-07-01

    Cryopreservation is widely used in regenerative medicine for tissue preservation. In the present study, the effects of cryopreservation on excretory function, cellular adhesion molecules and vessel lumen formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were investigated. After 0, 4, 8, 12 or 24 weeks of cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen, the HUVECs were thawed. The excretory functions markers (endothelin‑1, prostaglandin E1, von Willebrand factor and nitric oxide) of HUVECs were measured by ELISA assay. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule‑1 (ICAM‑1) in HUVECs was analyzed using flow cytometry. An angiogenesis assay was used to determine the angiogeneic capabilities of the thawed HUVECs. The results demonstrated that cryopreserved/thawed and recultivated HUVECs were unsuitable for tissue‑engineered microvascular construction. Specifically, the excretory function of the cells was significantly decreased in the post‑cryopreserved HUVECs at 24 weeks. In addition, the level of ICAM‑1 in HUVECs was significantly upregulated from the fourth week of cryopreservation. Furthermore, the tube‑like structure‑forming potential was weakened with increasing cryopreservation duration, and the numbers of lumen and the length of the pipeline were decreased in the thawed HUVECs, in a time‑dependent manner. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed that prolonged cryopreservation may lead to HUVEC dysfunction and did not create stable cell lines for tissue‑engineered microvascular construction.

  12. Small mammal use of native warm-season and non-native cool-season grass forage fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan L Klimstra,; Christopher E Moorman,; Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Craig A Harper,

    2015-01-01

    Recent emphasis has been put on establishing native warm-season grasses for forage production because it is thought native warm-season grasses provide higher quality wildlife habitat than do non-native cool-season grasses. However, it is not clear whether native warm-season grass fields provide better resources for small mammals than currently are available in non-native cool-season grass forage production fields. We developed a hierarchical spatially explicit capture-recapture model to compare abundance of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and house mice (Mus musculus) among 4 hayed non-native cool-season grass fields, 4 hayed native warm-season grass fields, and 4 native warm-season grass-forb ("wildlife") fields managed for wildlife during 2 summer trapping periods in 2009 and 2010 of the western piedmont of North Carolina, USA. Cotton rat abundance estimates were greater in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields and greater in native warm-season grass fields than in non-native cool-season grass fields. Abundances of white-footed mouse and house mouse populations were lower in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields, but the abundances were not different between the native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields. Lack of cover following haying in non-native cool-season grass and native warm-season grass fields likely was the key factor limiting small mammal abundance, especially cotton rats, in forage fields. Retention of vegetation structure in managed forage production systems, either by alternately resting cool-season and warm-season grass forage fields or by leaving unharvested field borders, should provide refugia for small mammals during haying events.

  13. White Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Kepler, S. O.; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Ourique, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    White dwarf stars are the final stage of most stars, born single or in multiple systems. We discuss the identification, magnetic fields, and mass distribution for white dwarfs detected from spectra obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 13 in 2016, which lead to the increase in the number of spectroscopically identified white dwarf stars from 5000 to 39000. This number includes only white dwarf stars with log g >= 6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dw...

  14. Versions of the Waste Reduction Model (WARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides a brief chronology of changes made to EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM), organized by WARM version number. The page includes brief summaries of changes and updates since the previous version.

  15. Documentation for the Waste Reduction Model (WARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page describes the WARM documentation files and provides links to all documentation files associated with EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM). The page includes a brief summary of the chapters documenting the greenhouse gas emission and energy factors.

  16. Global warming: Clouds cooled the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritsen, Thorsten

    2016-12-01

    The slow instrumental-record warming is consistent with lower-end climate sensitivity. Simulations and observations now show that changing sea surface temperature patterns could have affected cloudiness and thereby dampened the warming.

  17. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease ... of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell count varies from one medical ...

  18. Cosmic rays and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlykin, A.D. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sloan, T. [Lancaster University (United Kingdom); Wolfendale, A.W. [Durham University (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds could contribute to global warming. The argument is that the observed increased solar activity during the last century caused a decrease in the ionization due to cosmic rays since the lower energy cosmic particles are deflected by the magnetic field created by the increasing solar wind. This would lead to a decrease in cloud cover allowing more heating of the earth by the sun. Meteorological data combined to solar activity observations and simulations show that any effect of solar activity on clouds and the climate is likely to be through irradiance rather than cosmic rays. Since solar irradiance transfers 8 orders of magnitude more energy to the atmosphere than cosmic rays it is more plausible that this can produce a real effect. The total contribution of variable solar activity to global warming is shown to be less than 14% of the total temperature rise. (A.C.)

  19. Global Warming and Financial Umbrellas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosi, C.; Moretto, M.

    2001-10-01

    A new instrument for hedging weather risks has made its appearance in the financial arena. Trade in 'weather derivatives' has taken off in the US, and interest is growing elsewhere. Whilst such contracts may be simply interpreted as a new tool for solving a historical problem, the question addressed in this paper is if, besides other factors, the appearance of weather derivatives is somehow related to anthropogenic climate change. Our tentative answer is positive. Since 'global warming' does not simply mean an increase in averaged temperatures, but increased climate variability, and increased frequency and magnitude of weather extremes, derivative contracts may potentially become a useful tool for hedging some weather risks, insofar as they may provide coverage at a lower cost than standard insurance schemes. Keywords: Global warming, climate variability, insurance coverage, weather derivatives

  20. Warm Debris Disks from WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    "The Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has just completed a sensitive all-sky survey in photometric bands at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns. We report on a preliminary investigation of main sequence Hipparcos and Tycho catalog stars with 22 micron emission in excess of photospheric levels. This warm excess emission traces material in the circumstellar region likely to host terrestrial planets and is preferentially found in young systems with ages warm debris disk candidates are detected among FGK stars and a similar number of A stars within 120 pc. We are in the process of obtaining spectra to determine spectral types and activity level of these stars and are using HST, Herschel and Keck to characterize the dust, multiplicity, and substellar companions of these systems. In this contribution, we will discuss source selection methods and individual examples from among the WISE debris disk candidates. "

  1. Global Warming Blame the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, N

    1997-01-01

    Concern about climate change reaches a political peak at a UN conference in Kyoto, 1-10 December, but behind the scenes the science is in turmoil. A challenge to the hypothesis that greenhouse gases are responsible for global warming comes from the discovery that cosmic rays from the Galaxy are involved in making clouds (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, 1997). During the 20th Century the wind from the Sun has grown stronger and the count of cosmic rays has diminished. With fewer clouds, the EarthÕs surface has warmed up. This surprising mechanism explains the link between the Sun and climate change that astronomers and geophysicists have suspected for 200 years.

  2. Plant movements and climate warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Frenne, Pieter; Coomes, David A.; De Schrijver, An

    2014-01-01

    environments can establish in nonlocal sites. •We assess the intraspecific variation in growth responses to nonlocal soils by planting a widespread grass of deciduous forests (Milium effusum) into an experimental common garden using combinations of seeds and soil sampled in 22 sites across its distributional...... range, and reflecting movement scenarios of up to 1600 km. Furthermore, to determine temperature and forest-structural effects, the plants and soils were experimentally warmed and shaded. •We found significantly positive effects of the difference between the temperature of the sites of seed and soil...... collection on growth and seedling emergence rates. Migrant plants might thus encounter increasingly favourable soil conditions while tracking the isotherms towards currently ‘colder’ soils. These effects persisted under experimental warming. Rising temperatures and light availability generally enhanced plant...

  3. White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineke, Sebastian; Lindner, Frank; Schwartz, Gregor; Seidler, Nico; Walzer, Karsten; Lüssem, Björn; Leo, Karl

    2009-05-14

    The development of white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) holds great promise for the production of highly efficient large-area light sources. High internal quantum efficiencies for the conversion of electrical energy to light have been realized. Nevertheless, the overall device power efficiencies are still considerably below the 60-70 lumens per watt of fluorescent tubes, which is the current benchmark for novel light sources. Although some reports about highly power-efficient white OLEDs exist, details about structure and the measurement conditions of these structures have not been fully disclosed: the highest power efficiency reported in the scientific literature is 44 lm W(-1) (ref. 7). Here we report an improved OLED structure which reaches fluorescent tube efficiency. By combining a carefully chosen emitter layer with high-refractive-index substrates, and using a periodic outcoupling structure, we achieve a device power efficiency of 90 lm W(-1) at 1,000 candelas per square metre. This efficiency has the potential to be raised to 124 lm W(-1) if the light outcoupling can be further improved. Besides approaching internal quantum efficiency values of one, we have also focused on reducing energetic and ohmic losses that occur during electron-photon conversion. We anticipate that our results will be a starting point for further research, leading to white OLEDs having efficiencies beyond 100 lm W(-1). This could make white-light OLEDs, with their soft area light and high colour-rendering qualities, the light sources of choice for the future.

  4. Global warming and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    A panel discussion was held to discuss climate change. Six panelists made presentations that summarized ozone depletion and climate change, discussed global responses, argued against the conventional scientific and policy dogmas concerning climate change, examined the effects of ultraviolet radiation on phytoplankton, examined the effects of carbon taxes on Canadian industry and its emissions, and examined the political and strategic aspects of global warming. A question session followed the presentations. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the six presentations

  5. Global warming and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonand, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The macro-economic impacts of climate change and of policies to reduce carbon content should be moderate on a global basis for the planet - a few hundredths of a % of world GDP on an annual basis, but significant for some regions (Asia-Pacific notably). The probability of extreme climatic events justifies with effect from today the implementation of measures that will carry a cost in order to limit global warming. (author)

  6. Nitrous oxide and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeze, C.

    1994-01-01

    The climatic impact of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions is calculated annually for the period 1900-2100, using a globally averaged computer model. Emissions of N 2 O have been increasing up top an estimated 12.7 Tg N/year in 1990 by human activities and global warming. If the current trends continue, emissions are estimated to be 25.7 Tg N/year by 2100, with fossil-fuel use and human food production as major contributors. The resulting equilibrium temperature increase (0.37 degree C) exceeds the forcing derived from climate goals that may be considered environmentally desirable. Limiting equilibrium warming to 0.1 degree C per decade would require anthropogenic-induced and warming-induced N 2 O emissions to be reduced by 80% relative to current trends and to be stabilized from 2050, so that 10.7 Tg N/year is emitted by 2100. To stabilize the current concentration or climate forcing of N 2 , substantially larger cuts are needed. However, even in an optimistic scenario, emissions keep increasing up to 14.4. Tg N/year by 2100. A major reason is the close connection between N 2 O emissions and human food production. Synthetic fertilizer use, land-use change, and production of manure increase almost inevitably as the human population grows. Thus if global warming is to be limited to 0.1 degree C per decade it may be necessary to set emission reductions for other greenhouse gases relatively high to compensate for growth in climatic forcing by N 2 O

  7. [Successful double-lumen endotracheal tube exchange with a soft-tipped extra firm exchange catheter in a patient with severe subcutaneous emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kaori; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Ishio, Junichi; Nakano, Shoko; Tatsumi, Shinichi; Minami, Toshiaki

    2014-07-01

    We report a case of successful double-lumen endotracheal tube exchange with a soft-tipped extra firm exchange catheter in a patient with severe subcutaneous emphysema. A 70-year-old man underwent right lower lobectomy for primary lung cancer under general anesthesia. He developed pneumothorax on postoperative day (POD) 14, which led to subcutaneous emphysema. An emergent operation was performed on POD20 to close the pulmonary fistula under general anesthesia with a single-lumen endotracheal tube and bronchial blocker. Subcutaneous emphysema became worse and pharyngeal emphysema was also suspected; re-operation to close the pulmonary or bronchial fistula was planned. We decided to place a double-lumen tube to precisely detect the fistula. Under the guide of a Pentax-AWS Airwayscope, the single-lumen endotracheal tube was exchanged uneventfully to a 35 Fr double-lumen endotracheal tube with a 110 cm soft-tipped extra firm exchange catheter. The fistula was detected by a leak test and the operation was performed uneventfully, leading to improvement of subcutaneous emphysema.

  8. A Novel Device for True Lumen Re-Entry After Subintimal Recanalization of Superficial Femoral Arteries: First-in-Man Experience and Technical Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airoldi, Flavio; Faglia, Ezio; Losa, Sergio; Tavano, Davide; Latib, Azeem; Mantero, Manuela; Lanza, Gaetano; Clerici, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    Subintimal angioplasty (SAP) is frequently performed for the treatment of critical limb ischemia (CLI) and has been recognized as an effective technique for these patients. Nevertheless, this approach is limited by the lack of controlled re-entry into the true lumen of the target vessel. We describe a novel device for true lumen re-entry after subintimal recanalization of superficial femoral arteries (SFA). We report our experience with six patients treated between April 2009 and January 2010 with a novel system designed to facilitate true lumen re-entry. The device was advanced by ipsilateral antegrade approach through a 6-French sheath. Successful reaccess into the true lumen was obtained in five of six patients without complications. The patient in whom the reaccess to the true lumen was not possible underwent successful bypass surgery. At 30 days follow-up, the SFA was patent in all patients according to echo-Doppler examination. Our preliminary experience indicates that this novel re-entry device increases the success rate of percutaneous revascularization of chronically occluded SFA.

  9. Movement of global warming issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Taishi

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), and the movement of the global warming issues as seen from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Conference of the Parties: COP) and the policy discussions in Japan. From the Fifth Assessment Report published by IPCC, it shows the following items: (1) increasing trends of greenhouse effect gas emissions during 1970 and 2010, (2) trends in world's greenhouse effect gas emissions according to income segment, and (3) factor analysis of changes in greenhouse effect gas emissions. Next, it takes up the greenhouse gas emission scenario of IPCC, shows the scenario due to temperature rise pattern, and introduces the assumption of emission reduction due to BECCS. Regarding the 2 deg. scenario that has become a hot topic in international negotiations, it describes the reason for difficulties in its implementation. In addition, as the international trends of global warming, it describes the agreement of numerical targets for emissions at COP3 (Kyoto Conference) and the subsequent movements. Finally, it introduces Japan's measures against global warming, as well as the future movement. (A.O.)

  10. Global warming: Economic policy responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornbusch, R.; Poterba, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying environmental problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  11. World warms to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, N.

    1989-01-01

    The greenhouse effect and global warming is a major environmental issue. The nuclear industry has taken this opportunity to promote itself as providing clean energy without implication in either the greenhouse effect or acid rain. However, it is acknowledged that nuclear power does have its own environment concerns. Two questions are posed -does nuclear power contribute to carbon dioxide emissions and can nuclear power provide a realistic long-term solution to global warming? Although nuclear power stations do not emit carbon dioxide, emissions occur during the manufacture of reactor components, the operation of the nuclear fuel cycle and especially, during the mining and processing of the uranium ore. It is estimated that the supply of high grade ores will last only 23 years, beyond that the carbon dioxide emitted during the processing is estimated to be as great as the carbon dioxide emitted from an coal-fired reactor. Fast breeder reactors are dismissed as unable to provide an answer, so it is concluded that nuclear technology has only a very limited role to play in countering global warming.(UK)

  12. Greenhouse gases and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    From previous articles we have learned about the complexities of our environment, its atmosphere and its climate system. we have also learned that climate change and, therefore global warm and cool periods are naturally occurring phenomena. Moreover, all scientific evidence suggests that global warming, are likely to occur again naturally in the future. However, we have not yet considered the role of the rates of climate change in affecting the biosphere. It appears that how quickly the climate changes may be more important than the change itself. In light of this concern, let us now consider the possibility that, is due to human activity. We may over the next century experience global warming at rates and magnitudes unparalleled in recent geologic history. The following questions are answered; What can we learn from past climates? What do we know about global climates over the past 100 years? What causes temperature change? What are the greenhouse gases? How much have concentration of greenhouse gases increased in recent years? Why are increases in concentrations of greenhouse of concern? What is the e nhanced greenhouse effect ? How can human activity impact the global climate? What are some reasons for increased concentrations of greenhouse gases? What are fossil fuel and how do they transform into greenhouse gases? Who are the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases? Why are canada per capita emissions of greenhouse gases relatively high? (Author)

  13. Warm Dense Matter: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantar, D H; Lee, R W; Molitoris, J D

    2004-01-01

    This document provides a summary of the ''LLNL Workshop on Extreme States of Materials: Warm Dense Matter to NIF'' which was held on 20, 21, and 22 February 2002 at the Wente Conference Center in Livermore, CA. The warm dense matter regime, the transitional phase space region between cold material and hot plasma, is presently poorly understood. The drive to understand the nature of matter in this regime is sparking scientific activity worldwide. In addition to pure scientific interest, finite temperature dense matter occurs in the regimes of interest to the SSMP (Stockpile Stewardship Materials Program). So that obtaining a better understanding of WDM is important to performing effective experiments at, e.g., NIF, a primary mission of LLNL. At this workshop we examined current experimental and theoretical work performed at, and in conjunction with, LLNL to focus future activities and define our role in this rapidly emerging research area. On the experimental front LLNL plays a leading role in three of the five relevant areas and has the opportunity to become a major player in the other two. Discussion at the workshop indicated that the path forward for the experimental efforts at LLNL were two fold: First, we are doing reasonable baseline work at SPLs, HE, and High Energy Lasers with more effort encouraged. Second, we need to plan effectively for the next evolution in large scale facilities, both laser (NIF) and Light/Beam sources (LCLS/TESLA and GSI) Theoretically, LLNL has major research advantages in areas as diverse as the thermochemical approach to warm dense matter equations of state to first principles molecular dynamics simulations. However, it was clear that there is much work to be done theoretically to understand warm dense matter. Further, there is a need for a close collaboration between the generation of verifiable experimental data that can provide benchmarks of both the experimental techniques and the theoretical capabilities. The conclusion of this

  14. Impact and prevention on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Heon Ryeol

    2003-11-01

    This book deals with impact and prevention on global warming with eight chapters, which introduce the change after the earth was born and natural environment, how is global atmospheric environment under the control of radiant energy? What does global warming look with the earth history like? What's the status of global warming so far? How does climate change happen? What is the impact by global warming and climate change and for preservation of global environment of 21 century with consumption of energy, measure and prospect on global warming. It has reference, index and three appendixes.

  15. Diseases of white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The diagnosis of white matter abnormalities was revolutionized by the advent of computed tomography (CT), which provided a noninvasive method of detection and assessment of progression of a variety of white matter processes. However, the inadequacies of CT were recognized early, including its relative insensitivity to small foci of abnormal myelin in the brain when correlated with autopsy findings and its inability to image directly white matter diseases of the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on the other hand, sensitive to the slight difference in tissue composition of normal gray and white matter and to subtle increase in water content associated with myelin disorders, is uniquely suited for the examination of white matter pathology. Its clinical applications include the evaluation of the normal process of myelination in childhood and the various white matter diseases, including disorders of demyelination and dysmyelination

  16. Methods of patient warming during abdominal surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Keeping abdominal surgery patients warm is common and warming methods are needed in power outages during natural disasters. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-cost, low-power warming methods for maintaining normothermia in abdominal surgery patients. METHODS: Patients (n = 160 scheduled for elective abdominal surgery were included in this prospective clinical study. Five warming methods were applied: heated blood transfusion/fluid infusion vs. unheated; wrapping patients vs. not wrapping; applying moist dressings, heated or not; surgical field rinse heated or not; and applying heating blankets or not. Patients' nasopharyngeal and rectal temperatures were recorded to evaluate warming efficacy. Significant differences were found in mean temperatures of warmed patients compared to those not warmed. RESULTS: When we compared temperatures of abdominal surgery patient groups receiving three specific warming methods with temperatures of control groups not receiving these methods, significant differences were revealed in temperatures maintained during the surgeries between the warmed groups and controls. DISCUSSION: The value of maintaining normothermia in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia is accepted. Three effective economical and practically applicable warming methods are combined body wrapping and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and warmed surgical rinse fluid, with or without heating blanket. These methods are practically applicable when low-cost method is indeed needed.

  17. Global warming and obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, R; Ji, M; Zhang, S

    2018-02-01

    Global warming and the obesity epidemic are two unprecedented challenges mankind faces today. A literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO and Scopus for articles published until July 2017 that reported findings on the relationship between global warming and the obesity epidemic. Fifty studies were identified. Topic-wise, articles were classified into four relationships - global warming and the obesity epidemic are correlated because of common drivers (n = 21); global warming influences the obesity epidemic (n = 13); the obesity epidemic influences global warming (n = 13); and global warming and the obesity epidemic influence each other (n = 3). We constructed a conceptual model linking global warming and the obesity epidemic - the fossil fuel economy, population growth and industrialization impact land use and urbanization, motorized transportation and agricultural productivity and consequently influences global warming by excess greenhouse gas emission and the obesity epidemic by nutrition transition and physical inactivity; global warming also directly impacts obesity by food supply/price shock and adaptive thermogenesis, and the obesity epidemic impacts global warming by the elevated energy consumption. Policies that endorse deployment of clean and sustainable energy sources, and urban designs that promote active lifestyles, are likely to alleviate the societal burden of global warming and obesity. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  18. Accuracy of High-Resolution MRI with Lumen Distention in Rectal Cancer Staging and Circumferential Margin Involvement Prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannicelli, Elsa; Di Renzo, Sara; Ferri, Mario; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Di Girolamo, Marco; Sapori, Alessandra; Ziparo, Vincenzo; David, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with lumen distention for rectal cancer staging and circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement prediction. Seventy-three patients with primary rectal cancer underwent high-resolution MRI with a phased-array coil performed using 60-80 mL room air rectal distention, 1-3 weeks before surgery. MRI results were compared to postoperative histopathological findings. The overall MRI T staging accuracy was calculated. CRM involvement prediction and the N staging, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed for each T stage. The agreement between MRI and histological results was assessed using weighted-kappa statistics. The overall MRI accuracy for T staging was 93.6% (k = 0.85). The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for each T stage were as follows: 91.8%, 86.2%, 95.5%, 92.6% and 91.3% for the group ≤ T2; 90.4%, 94.6%, 86.1%, 87.5% and 94% for T3; 98,6%, 85.7%, 100%, 100% and 98.5% for T4, respectively. The predictive CRM accuracy was 94.5% (k = 0.86); the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 89.5%, 96.3%, 89.5%, and 96.3% respectively. The N staging accuracy was 68.49% (k = 0.4). MRI performed with rectal lumen distention has proved to be an effective technique both for rectal cancer staging and involved CRM predicting

  19. Accuracy of High-Resolution MRI with Lumen Distention in Rectal Cancer Staging and Circumferential Margin Involvement Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannicelli, Elsa; Di Renzo, Sara [Radiology Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Ferri, Mario [Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Pilozzi, Emanuela [Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Di Girolamo, Marco; Sapori, Alessandra [Radiology Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Ziparo, Vincenzo [Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); David, Vincenzo [Radiology Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with lumen distention for rectal cancer staging and circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement prediction. Seventy-three patients with primary rectal cancer underwent high-resolution MRI with a phased-array coil performed using 60-80 mL room air rectal distention, 1-3 weeks before surgery. MRI results were compared to postoperative histopathological findings. The overall MRI T staging accuracy was calculated. CRM involvement prediction and the N staging, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed for each T stage. The agreement between MRI and histological results was assessed using weighted-kappa statistics. The overall MRI accuracy for T staging was 93.6% (k = 0.85). The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for each T stage were as follows: 91.8%, 86.2%, 95.5%, 92.6% and 91.3% for the group ≤ T2; 90.4%, 94.6%, 86.1%, 87.5% and 94% for T3; 98,6%, 85.7%, 100%, 100% and 98.5% for T4, respectively. The predictive CRM accuracy was 94.5% (k = 0.86); the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 89.5%, 96.3%, 89.5%, and 96.3% respectively. The N staging accuracy was 68.49% (k = 0.4). MRI performed with rectal lumen distention has proved to be an effective technique both for rectal cancer staging and involved CRM predicting.

  20. Clinical application of hysterosalpingography with a double-lumen catheter of a contrast media combination consisting iohexol and saline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Jiayuan; Jiang Yong; Cao Xinhua; Zhu Ying; Lv Liang; Zhao Xinxiang; Wei Dingying; Shao Jingxuan; Hua Jian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of hysteosalpingographic diagnosis in infertile women. Methods: After a catheter with a double-lumen saccule was inserted into the uterine cavity, saline or air of 2.5-3.5 ml was injected to fill the saccule. The filled saccule was inserted at the isthmus of uterus for blocking the internal orifice. The contrast medium was injected through the catheter into the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes to undertake hysterosalpingography and fallopian tube reopening. In case of fallopian tube obstruction, the injection pressure could be increased to obtain recanalization. All operations and selective imagings were carried out under TV supervision. Results: 2698 cases including 806 primary infertile women and 1868 secondary infertile women were examined by this method. Technical success rate was 99.5% with 2198 cases (81.9%) having normal uterus, 249 (9.3%) congenital abnormal uterus and 238 (8.9%) uterus diseases. The number of obstructed fallopian tube was 3028 with 117 serious hydropsy (3.8%). Ninety-eight cases had been examined with lipiodol hysterosalpingography in other hospitals with 35 cases still having lipiodol accumulated within the uterine cavities and fallopian tubes. No serious complications or death occurred except slight pain. Conclusions: Double-lumen cather with a contrast media combination of iohexol and saline for hysterosal pinography is safe, easy and effective, outcoming with excellent quality images. More information can be gained with this method than traditional lipiodol hyterosalpinography, and furthermore could have compression during radiogrophy and avoid the long term stasis of lipiodol. (authors)

  1. Computed tomography airway lumen volumetry in patients with acromegaly: Association with growth hormone levels and lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilo, Gustavo Bittencourt; Carvalho, Alysson Roncally Silva; Guimarães, Alan Ranieri Medeiros; Kasuki, Leandro; Gadelha, Mônica Roberto; Mogami, Roberto; de Melo, Pedro Lopes; Lopes, Agnaldo José

    2017-10-01

    The segmentation and skeletonisation of images via computed tomography (CT) airway lumen volumetry provide a new perspective regarding the incorporation of this technique in medical practice. Our aim was to quantify morphological changes in the large airways of patients with acromegaly through CT and, secondarily, to correlate these findings with hormone levels and pulmonary function testing (PFT) parameters. This was a cross-sectional study in which 28 non-smoker patients with acromegaly and 15 control subjects underwent CT analysis of airway lumen volumetry with subsequent image segmentation and skeletonisation. Moreover, all participants were subjected to PFT. Compared with the controls, patients with acromegaly presented higher diameters in the trachea, right main bronchus and left main bronchus. The patients with acromegaly also showed a higher tracheal sinuosity index (the deviation of a line from the shortest path, calculated by dividing total length by shortest possible path) than the controls [1.06 (1.02-1.09) vs. 1.03 (1.02-1.04), P = 0.04], and tracheal stenosis was observed in 25% of these individuals. The tracheal area was correlated with the levels of growth hormone (r s  = 0.45, P = 0.02) and insulin-like growth factor type I (r s  = 0.38, P = 0.04). The ratio between the forced expiratory flow and forced inspiratory flow at 50% of the forced vital capacity was correlated with the tracheal area (r s  = 0.36, P = 0.02) and Δ tracheal diameters (r s  = 0.58, P volumetry, hormone levels and functional parameters of large airway obstruction. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  2. Segmentation of the lumen and media-adventitia boundaries of the common carotid artery from 3D ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukwatta, E.; Awad, J.; Ward, A. D.; Samarabandu, J.; Krasinski, A.; Parraga, G.; Fenster, A.

    2011-03-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) vessel wall volume (VWV) measurements provide high measurement sensitivity and reproducibility for the monitoring and assessment of carotid atherosclerosis. In this paper, we describe a semiautomated approach based on the level set method to delineate the media-adventitia and lumen boundaries of the common carotid artery from 3D US images to support the computation of VWV. Due to the presence of plaque and US image artifacts, the carotid arteries are challenging to segment using image information alone. Our segmentation framework combines several image cues with domain knowledge and limited user interaction. Our method was evaluated with respect to manually outlined boundaries on 430 2D US images extracted from 3D US images of 30 patients who have carotid stenosis of 60% or more. The VWV given by our method differed from that given by manual segmentation by 6.7% +/- 5.0%. For the media-adventitia and lumen segmentations, respectively, our method yielded Dice coefficients of 95.2% +/- 1.6%, 94.3% +/- 2.6%, mean absolute distances of 0.3 +/- 0.1 mm, 0.2 +/- 0.1 mm, maximum absolute distances of 0.8 +/- 0.4 mm, 0.6 +/- 0.3 mm, and volume differences of 4.2% +/- 3.1%, 3.4% +/- 2.6%. The realization of a semi-automated segmentation method will accelerate the translation of 3D carotid US to clinical care for the rapid, non-invasive, and economical monitoring of atherosclerotic disease progression and regression during therapy.

  3. Global warming-setting the stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Most of us have heard or read about global warming. However, the messages we receive are often in conflict, raising more questions than answer. Is global warming a good or a bad thing? has it already started or is it part of our future? Are we, or are we not doing anything about it? Should we be concerned? This primer on Global Warming is designed to clear up some of this confusion by providing basic scientific information on global warming issue. It is clear that there is still much to learn about global warming. However, it is also clear that there is a lot that we already know - and that dose provide cause for concern. We must understand the global warming issue if we are to make wise decisions and take responsible actions in response to the challenges and opportunities posed by global warming. Chapter 1 of 'the primer on global Warming' set the stage with a brief overview of science of global warming within the context of climate change. In addition, it introduces the specific issues that surround the global warming problem. As far as the science of global warming is concerned the following questions are discussed. What is global climate? Is climate change natural? What causes climate to vary on a global scale? How does the composition of the atmosphere relate to climate change. but there are also certain issues discussed here which surround the global warming such as: If climate varies naturally, why is there a concern about 'global warming'? What are the potential consequences of 'global warning'. What human activities contribute to 'global warming'. (Author)

  4. ETS transcription factor ELF5 induces lumen formation in a 3D model of mammary morphogenesis and its expression is inhibited by Jak2 inhibitor TG101348.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chean, Jennifer; Chen, Charng-Jui; Shively, John E

    2017-10-01

    The loss of expression of a single gene can revert normal tissue to a malignant phenotype. For example, while normal breast has high lumenal expression of CEACAM1, the majority of breast cancers exhibit the early loss of this gene with the concurrent loss of their lumenal phenotype. MCF7 cells that lack CEACAM1 expression and fail to form lumena in 3D culture, regain the normal phenotype when transfected with CEACAM1. In order to probe the mechanism of this gain of function, we treated these cells with the clinically relevant Jak2 inhibitor TG101348 (TG), expecting that disruption of the prolactin receptor signaling pathway would interfere with the positive effects of transfection of MCF7 cells with CEACAM1. Indeed, lumen formation was inhibited, resulting in the down regulation of a set of genes, likely involved in the complex process of lumen formation. As expected, inhibition of the expression of many of these genes also inhibited lumen formation, confirming their involvement in a single pathway. Among the genes identified by the inhibition assay, ETS transcription factor ELF5 stood out, since it has been identified as a master regulator of mammary morphogenesis, and is associated with prolactin receptor signaling. When ELF5 was transfected into the parental MCF7 cells that lack CEACAM1, lumen formation was restored, indicating that ELF5 can replace CEACAM1 in this model system of lumenogenesis. We conclude that the event(s) that led to the loss of expression of CEACAM1 is epistatic in that multiple genes associated with a critical pathway were affected, but that restoration of the normal phenotype can be achieved with reactivation of certain genes at various nodal points in tissue morphogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vulnerability of white spruce tree growth in interior Alaska in response to climate variability: dendrochronological, demographic, and experimental perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.D. McGuire; R.W. Ruess; A. Lloyd; J. Yarie; J.S. Clein; G.P. Juday

    2010-01-01

    This paper integrates dendrochronological, demographic, and experimental perspectives to improve understanding of the response of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) tree growth to climatic variability in interior Alaska. The dendrochronological analyses indicate that climate warming has led to widespread declines in white spruce growth...

  6. What to do about greenhouse warming: Look before you leap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, S.F.; Revelle, R.; Starr, C.

    1993-01-01

    Greenhouse warming has emerged as one of the most complex and controversial environmental foreign-policy issues of the 1990s. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), generated from the burning of oil, gas, and coal, is thought to enhance the natural greenhouse effect that has kept the planet warm for billions of years. Some scientists predict drastic climatic changes in the 21st Century. It is a foreign-policy issue because the US has taken a more cautious approach to dealing with CO 2 emissions than have many industrialized nations. Wide acceptance of the Montreal Protocol, which limits and rolls back the manufacture of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) to protect the ozone layer, has encouraged environmental activists at international conferences the past three years to call for similar controls on CO 2 from fossil-fuel burning. These activists are disappointed with the White House for not supporting immediate action. But should the US assume leadership in a hastily-conceived campaign that could cripple the global economy, or would it be more prudent to assure first, through scientific research, that the problem is both real and urgent? The authors sum up their conclusions in a simple message: The scientific base for a greenhouse warming is too uncertain to justify drastic action at this time. There is little risk in delaying policy responses to this century-old problem since there is every expectation that scientific understanding will be substantially improved within the next decade. Instead of premature and likely ineffective controls on fuel use that would only slow down CO 2 , the same resources could be used to increase our economic and technological resilience so that we can apply specific remedies as necessary to reduce climate change or to adapt to it. Prudent steps now include energy conservation and efficiency increases and make economic sense even without the threat of greenhouse warming

  7. A novel Hsp70 of the yeast ER lumen is required for the efficient translocation of a number of protein precursors.

    OpenAIRE

    Craven, R A; Egerton, M; Stirling, C J

    1996-01-01

    The yeast genome sequencing project predicts an open reading frame (YKL073) that would encode a novel member of the Hsp70 family of molecular chaperones. We report that this 881 codon reading frame represents a functional gene expressing a 113-119 kDa glycoprotein localized within the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We therefore propose to designate this gene LHS1 (Lumenal Hsp Seventy). Our studies indicate that LHS1 is regulated by the unfolded protein response pathway, as evidenced...

  8. US demilitarization and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyes, A.G.; Liston-Heyes, C.; Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, London

    1993-01-01

    In the paper input-output methods are used to generate ballpark empirical estimates of the implications for global warming of the projected demilitarization of the US federal budget. The impact is found to be qualitatively ambiguous, and highly sensitive to the manner in which the funds saved are distributed. The effect is adverse where the budgetary savings are used to fund economy-wide cuts in personal taxation and/or deficit reduction. In other cases the effect may be neutral or beneficial. (author)

  9. THE WHITE BLOOD ANCESTOR?

    OpenAIRE

    M.Arulmani; V.R.Hema Latha

    2014-01-01

    This scientific research article focus that “Red colour blood” of human shall be considered as the 3rd generation Blood and the Human on origin shall be considered having white colour Blood. The white colour blood of human Ancestor shall be considered composed of only ions of Photon, Electron, Proton and free from Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Ozone.

  10. Racializing white drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyne, Ragan

    2004-01-01

    While drag is primarily understood as a performance of gender, other performative categories such as race, class, and sexuality create drag meaning as well. Though other categories of identification are increasingly understood as essential elements of drag by performers of color, whiteness remains an unmarked category in the scholarship on drag performances by white queens. In this paper, I argue that drag by white queens must be understood as a performance of race as well as gender and that codes of gender excess are specifically constructed through the framework of these other axes of identity. This essay asks whether white performance by white queens necessarily reinscribes white supremacy through the performance of an unmarked white femininity, or might drag performance complicate (though not necessarily subvert) categories of race as well as gender? In this essay, I will suggest that camp drag performances, through the deployment of class as a crucial category of performative femininity, might indeed be a key site through which whiteness is denaturalized and its power challenged. Specifically, I will read on camp as a politicized mode of race, class and gender performance, focusing on the intersections of these categories of identity in the drag performance of Divine.

  11. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  12. Global warming potential of pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santero, Nicholas J [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 407 McLaughlin Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1712 (United States); Horvath, Arpad, E-mail: njsantero@cal.berkeley.ed, E-mail: horvath@ce.berkeley.ed [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 215B McLaughlin Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1712 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Pavements comprise an essential and vast infrastructure system supporting our transportation network, yet their impact on the environment is largely unquantified. Previous life-cycle assessments have only included a limited number of the applicable life-cycle components in their analysis. This research expands the current view to include eight different components: materials extraction and production, transportation, onsite equipment, traffic delay, carbonation, lighting, albedo, and rolling resistance. Using global warming potential as the environmental indicator, ranges of potential impact for each component are calculated and compared based on the information uncovered in the existing research. The relative impacts between components are found to be orders of magnitude different in some cases. Context-related factors, such as traffic level and location, are also important elements affecting the impacts of a given component. A strategic method for lowering the global warming potential of a pavement is developed based on the concept that environmental performance is improved most effectively by focusing on components with high impact potentials. This system takes advantage of the fact that small changes in high-impact components will have more effect than large changes in low-impact components.

  13. Global warming potential of pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santero, Nicholas J; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-01-01

    Pavements comprise an essential and vast infrastructure system supporting our transportation network, yet their impact on the environment is largely unquantified. Previous life-cycle assessments have only included a limited number of the applicable life-cycle components in their analysis. This research expands the current view to include eight different components: materials extraction and production, transportation, onsite equipment, traffic delay, carbonation, lighting, albedo, and rolling resistance. Using global warming potential as the environmental indicator, ranges of potential impact for each component are calculated and compared based on the information uncovered in the existing research. The relative impacts between components are found to be orders of magnitude different in some cases. Context-related factors, such as traffic level and location, are also important elements affecting the impacts of a given component. A strategic method for lowering the global warming potential of a pavement is developed based on the concept that environmental performance is improved most effectively by focusing on components with high impact potentials. This system takes advantage of the fact that small changes in high-impact components will have more effect than large changes in low-impact components.

  14. Economic approaches to greenhouse warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordhaus, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    Global environmental problems raise a host of major policy questions. They are all scientifically complex and controversial, and no scientific consensus is likely to emerge until irreversible decisions have been made. The costs and benefits of these changes transcend national boundaries, and nations, which cannot appropriate the global costs and benefits of such changes, are unlikely to be able or willing to make efficient decisions on how to combat these global externalities. In addition, these concerns sometimes have impacts over hundreds of years and thereby strain political decision making, which often functions effectively only when the crisis is at hand. This chapter considers some of the economic issues involved in deciding how to react to the threat of global warming. The author first reviews the theory and evidence on the greenhouse effect. He then presents evidence on the impacts of greenhouse warming, the costs of stabilizing climate, and the kinds of adaptations that might be available. In the final section, he reviews the policy initiatives that nations might follow in the near term

  15. Daytime warming has stronger negative effects on soil nematodes than night-time warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiumin; Wang, Kehong; Song, Lihong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Donghui

    2017-03-01

    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, that is, stronger warming during night-time than during daytime. Here we focus on how soil nematodes respond to the current asymmetric warming. A field infrared heating experiment was performed in the western of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Three warming modes, i.e. daytime warming, night-time warming and diurnal warming, were taken to perform the asymmetric warming condition. Our results showed that the daytime and diurnal warming treatment significantly decreased soil nematodes density, and night-time warming treatment marginally affected the density. The response of bacterivorous nematode and fungivorous nematode to experimental warming showed the same trend with the total density. Redundancy analysis revealed an opposite effect of soil moisture and soil temperature, and the most important of soil moisture and temperature in night-time among the measured environment factors, affecting soil nematode community. Our findings suggested that daily minimum temperature and warming induced drying are most important factors affecting soil nematode community under the current global asymmetric warming.

  16. Authority in Cross-Racial Teaching and Learning (Re)considering the Transferability of Warm Demander Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Amy Carpenter; Sassi, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This article compares a White teacher's approach to authority with that of an African American warm demander. Ethnographic methods and discourse analysis illuminated how an African American teacher grounded her authority with African American students in shared culture, history, and frame of reference. A comparative analysis makes visible…

  17. CALiPER Report 20.4: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-12-30

    This CALiPER report focuses on lumen maintenance, chromaticity maintenance, and catastrophic failure in 32 of the Series 20 LED PAR38 lamps and 8 benchmark lamps, which were monitored for nearly 14,000 hours at ambient temperatures between 44°C and 45°C.

  18. Is quantitative coronary angiography reliable in assessing the late lumen loss of the everolimus-eluting bioresorbable polylactide scaffold in comparison with the cobalt-chromium metallic stent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotomi, Yohei; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Miyazaki, Yosuke; Asano, Taku; Katagiri, Yuki; Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Jonker, Hans; Dijkstra, Jouke; de Winter, Robbert J.; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J.; Stone, Gregg W.; Popma, Jeffrey J.; Kozuma, Ken; Tanabe, Kengo; Serruys, Patrick W.; Kimura, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Immediately after stent/scaffold implantation, quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) in comparison to optical coherence tomography (OCT) more severely underestimates the lumen diameter (LD) in Absorb than in XIENCE. This OCT-QCA discrepancy has not been evaluated at long-term follow-up. The

  19. Intracoronary stent implantation: new approach using a monorail system and new large-lumen 7F catheters from the brachial route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, D B; Robert, G P; Fajadet, J C; Cassagneau, B G; Marco, J

    1992-04-01

    In this brief report we describe a case of successful multivessel PTCA with intracoronary stent implantation using a new large-lumen 7F catheter from the left brachial approach. The application of this technique should be considered for intravascular stent implantation when anticoagulation ideally should not be interrupted or in anatomical situations limiting femoral vascular access.

  20. Comparison of coronary arterial lumen dimensions on angiography and plaque characteristics on optical coherence tomography images and their changes induced by statin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Nana; Xie, Zulong; Wang, Wei; Dai, Jiannan; Sun, Meng; Pu, Zhongyue; Tian, Jinwei; Yu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Coronary angiography (CAG) is widely used to assess lumen dimensions, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used to evaluate the characteristics of atherosclerotic plaque. This study was aimed to compare coronary lumen dimensions using CAG and plaque characteristics using OCT and their changes during statin therapy. We identified 97 lipid-rich plaques from 69 statin-naïve patients, who received statin therapy in the following 12 months. CAG and OCT examinations were conducted at baseline and 12-month follow-up period. Lesion length, as measured by CAG, was closely correlated with lipid length by OCT (baseline: r = 0.754, p < 0.001; follow-up: r = 0.639, p < 0.001). However, no significant correlations were found between the other findings on OCT and data on CAG. With 12-month statin therapy, microstructures of lipid-rich plaques were significantly improved, but CAG-derived lumen dimensions were not improved. Moreover, we found no significant relationship between changes in OCT measurements and changes in CAG data over time. Lipid length on OCT and lesion length on CAG were closely correlated. However, plaque microstructural characteristics on OCT showed no significantly statistically correlations with lumen dimensions on CAG, neither did their evolutionary changes induced by statin over time. Clinical trial registry: ClinicalTrial.gov. Registered number: NCT01023607. Registered 1 December 2009

  1. The physics and history of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yongyun

    2012-01-01

    Global warming is not only a hot research area in atmospheric sciences and even all Earth sciences but is also a controversial topic in the international community. The purpose of this paper is not to clarify these controversies, but instead, to address the physical basis on which our understanding of global warming is founded, and to briefly review the nearly 200-year history of global warming sciences. We hope the paper will help readers, who have no background in the atmospheric and climate sciences, understand scientific issues of global warming. (author)

  2. The Embeddedness of White Fragility within White Pre-Service Principals' Reflections on White Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Mack T., III

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the prevalence of white fragility within the six white, pre-service principals' online responses to readings about white privilege. Six white, pre-service principals were asked to provide commentary to class readings on the relevance of white privilege to their preparation for future positions as principals. The findings showed…

  3. Protection of thylakoids against combined light and drought by a lumenal substance in the resurrection plant Haberlea rhodopensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Katya; Sárvári, Éva; Keresztes, Áron

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Haberlea rhodopensis is a perennial, herbaceous, saxicolous, poikilohydric flowering plant that is able to survive desiccation to air-dried state under irradiance below 30 µmol m−2 s−1. However, desiccation at irradiance of 350 µmol m−2 s−1 induced irreversible changes in the photosynthetic apparatus, and mature leaves did not recover after rehydration. The aim here was to establish the causes and mechanisms of irreversible damage of the photosynthetic apparatus due to dehydration at high irradiance, and to elucidate the mechanisms determining recovery. Methods Changes in chloroplast structure, CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, fluorescence imaging and the polypeptide patterns during desiccation of Haberlea under medium (100 µmol m−2 s−1; ML) irradiance were compared with those under low (30 µmol m−2 s−1; LL) irradiance. Key Results Well-watered plants (control) at 100 µmol m−2 s−1 were not damaged. Plants desiccated at LL or ML had similar rates of water loss. Dehydration at ML decreased the quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry, and particularly the CO2 assimilation rate, more rapidly than at LL. Dehydration induced accumulation of stress proteins in leaves under both LL and ML. Photosynthetic activity and polypeptide composition were completely restored in LL plants after 1 week of rehydration, but changes persisted under ML conditions. Electron microscopy of structural changes in the chloroplast showed that the thylakoid lumen is filled with an electron-dense substance (dense luminal substance, DLS), while the thylakoid membranes are lightly stained. Upon dehydration and rehydration the DLS thinned and disappeared, the time course largely depending on the illumination: whereas DLS persisted during desiccation and started to disappear during late recovery under LL, it disappeared from the onset of dehydration and later was completely lost under ML. Conclusions Accumulation of DLS

  4. The lumenal loop M672-P707 of the Menkes protein (ATP7A) transfers copper to peptidylglycine monooxygenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otoikhian, Adenike [Oregon Health & Sciences University; Barry, Amanda N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mayfield, Mary [Oregon Health & Science University; Nilges, Mark [Illinois EPR Center; Huang, Yiping [Johns Hopkins University; Lutsenko, Svetlana [Johns Hopkins University; Blackburn, Ninian [Oregon Health & Science University

    2012-05-14

    Copper transfer to cuproproteins located in vesicular compartments of the secretory pathway depends on activity of the copper translocating ATPase (ATP7A or ATP7B) but the mechanism of transfer is largely unexplored. Copper-ATPase ATP7A is unique in having a sequence rich in histidine and methionine residues located on the lumenal side of the membrane. The corresponding fragment binds Cu(I) when expressed as a chimera with a scaffold protein, and mutations or deletions of His and/or Met residues in its sequence inhibit dephosphorylation of the ATPase, a catalytic step associated with copper release. Here we present evidence for a potential role of this lumenal region of ATP7A in copper transfer to cuproenzymes. Both Cu(II) and Cu(I) forms were investigated since the form in which copper is transferred to acceptor proteins is currently unknown. Analysis of Cu(II) using EPR demonstrated that at Cu:P ratios below 1:1, 15N-substituted protein had Cu(II) bound by 4 His residues, but this coordination changed as the Cu(II) to protein ratio increased towards 2:1. XAS confirmed this coordination via analysis of the intensity of outer-shell scattering from imidazole residues. The Cu(II) complexes could be reduced to their Cu(I) counterparts by ascorbate, but here again, as shown by EXAFS and XANES spectroscopy, the coordination was dependent on copper loading. At low copper Cu(I) was bound by a mixed ligand set of His + Met while at higher ratios His coordination predominated. The copper-loaded loop was able to transfer either Cu(II) or Cu(I) to peptidylglycine monooxygenase in the presence of chelating resin, generating catalytically active enzyme in a process that appeared to involve direct interaction between the two partners. The variation of coordination with copper loading suggests copper-dependent conformational change which in turn could act as a signal for regulating copper release by the ATPase pump.

  5. Warm liquid calorimetry for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Geulig,E; Wallraff,W; Bézaguet, Alain-Arthur; Cavanna, F; Cinnini, P; Cittolin, Sergio; Dreesen, P; Demoulin, M; Dunps, L; Fucci, A; Gallay, G; Givernaud, Alain; Gonidec, A; Jank, Werner; Maurin, Guy; Placci, Alfredo; Porte, J P; Radermacher, E; Samyn, D; Schinzel, D; Schmidt, W F; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1990-01-01

    Results from the beam tests of the U/TMP "warm liquid" calorimeter show that such a technique is very promising for the LHC. Our aim is to extend this programme and design a calorimeter that can satisfy the requirements of high rates, high radiation levels, compensation, uniformity and granularity, as well as fully contain hadronic showers. We propose to construct liquid ionization chambers operated at very high fields, capable of collecting the total charge produced by ionizing particles within times comparable to the bunch crossing time of the future Collider. For this reason we plan to extend the current programme on tetramethylpentane (TMP) to tetramethylsilane (TMSi). An electromagnetic calorimeter consisting of very high field ionization chambers filled with TMSi as sensitive medium with Uranium and/or other high density material as absorber will first be built (to be followed by a full-scale calorimeter module), on which newly designed fast amplifiers and readout electronics will be tested. In addition...

  6. The tragedy of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominique Auverlot

    2014-01-01

    The author first evokes the consequences of global warming: ocean acidity, ice melt, sea level rise, repeated and always more intense extreme climatic events (a list of the main meteorological and climatic events which occurred in 2013 is given). He outlines that these phenomena happen more quickly than foreseen. He notices that these facts confirm the content of the different IPCC reports. The author outlines the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. He discusses the evolutions of these emissions between 1970 and 2010 in the different countries with respect to their level of economic development. It clearly appears that developed countries produce more emissions, and have only stabilized their emission level whereas emerging countries have notably increased their emissions. Developed and emerging countries should therefore act as quickly as possible

  7. Automobility: Global Warming as Symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Backhaus

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The argument of this paper is that sustainability requires a new worldview-paradigm. It critically evaluates Gore’s liberal-based environmentalism in order to show how “shallow ecologies” are called into question by deeper ecologies. This analysis leads to the notion that global warming is better understood as a symptom indicative of the worldview that is the source for environmental crises. Heidegger’s ontological hermeneutics and its critique of modern technology show that the modern worldview involves an enframing (a totalizing technological ordering of the natural. Enframing reveals entities as standing reserve (on demand energy suppliers. My thesis maintains that enframing is geographically expressed as automobility. Because of the energy needs used to maintain automobility, reaching the goal of sustainability requires rethinking the spatial organization of life as a function of stored energy technologies.

  8. Warm anisotropic inflationary universe model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of warm inflation using vector fields in the background of a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I model of the universe. We formulate the field equations, and slow-roll and perturbation parameters (scalar and tensor power spectra as well as their spectral indices) in the slow-roll approximation. We evaluate all these parameters in terms of the directional Hubble parameter during the intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by taking the dissipation factor as a function of the scalar field as well as a constant. In each case, we calculate the observational parameter of interest, i.e., the tensor-scalar ratio in terms of the inflaton. The graphical behavior of these parameters shows that the anisotropic model is also compatible with WMAP7 and the Planck observational data. (orig.)

  9. Warm anisotropic inflationary universe model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2014-02-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of warm inflation using vector fields in the background of a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I model of the universe. We formulate the field equations, and slow-roll and perturbation parameters (scalar and tensor power spectra as well as their spectral indices) in the slow-roll approximation. We evaluate all these parameters in terms of the directional Hubble parameter during the intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by taking the dissipation factor as a function of the scalar field as well as a constant. In each case, we calculate the observational parameter of interest, i.e., the tensor-scalar ratio in terms of the inflaton. The graphical behavior of these parameters shows that the anisotropic model is also compatible with WMAP7 and the Planck observational data. (orig.)

  10. How to stop global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldenberg, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on how to stop global warming. At the Toronto Conference on Climate Change in 1988, the world's industrialized nations agreed on a goal of cutting greenhouse gas emissions 20 percent by the year 2005. This would not stabilize atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases but would at least slow their accumulation. Although difficult to achieve, the Toronto goal is certainly reachable. Newer, more efficient technologies can lower energy consumption without effecting economic output. CFC- substitutes can provide refrigeration. In fact, an international carbon tax of just $1 per barrel of oil, or $6 per ton of coal, would generate more than enough revenue to pay for the necessary fuel-saving measures. This tax could result from an international agreement similar to the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which obliges its signatories to cut down on production of CFCs

  11. The economics of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillet, G.; Hediger, W.; Kypreos, S.; Corbaz, C.

    1993-05-01

    The global warming threat is challenging the world community to both international cooperation and national policy action. This report focuses on the necessity to alternate between ''global and national climate policies''. The Swiss perspective is at issue. The economic rationales for comparing national climate policy options are analyzed. This report explicitly focusses on the fundamental role of the normative framework and the related environmental-economic requisites for establishing an efficient national climate policy and computing a ''carbon tax''. Finally, the latest results of the energy and greenhouse gas scenarios for Switzerland, elaborated on within the network of the IEA/ETSAP Project, Annex IV, ''Greenhouse Gases and National Energy Options: Technologies and Costs for Reducing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases'', illustrate Switzerland's difficulties in reducing greenhouse gas emissions at ''reasonable cost'' compared with other countries. This should make Switzerland very sensitive to the implementation of efficient environmental-policy instruments and international cooperation. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  12. Hypermedicalization in White Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Josef

    2015-09-01

    The Nazis hijacked Germany's medical establishment and appropriated medical language to hegemonize their ideology. In White Noise, shifting medical information stifles the public into docility. In Nazi Germany the primacy of language and medical authority magnified the importance of academic doctors. The muddling of identities caused complex insecurities and the need for psychological doubles. In White Noise, Professor Gladney is driven by professional insecurities to enact a double in Murray. Through the manipulation of language and medical overreach the U.S., exemplified in the novel White Noise, has become a hypermedicalized society where the spirit of the Hippocratic Oath has eroded.

  13. Keeping cool on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, F.; Hawkins, W.; Nierenberg, W.; Salmon, J.; Jastrow, R.; Moore, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    A number of scientific groups have concluded that the greenhouse effect caused by the man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other bases has produced much or all of the rise in global temperatures. They predict that there will be an increase in greenhouse gases equivalent to a doubling of carbon dioxide by the middle of the 21st century, and that this will cause the temperature of the earth to rise by as much as 5C. According to these scientists, a temperature rise of this magnitude would cause major disruptions in the earth's ecosystem, including severe summer drought in the midwestern US and other agricultural regions. The worst-case scenarios predict a major rise in sea level as a result of the greenhouse warming, inundating areas of New York, Miami and other coastal cities as well as low-lying river deltas and islands. The lives of hundreds of millions of people would be disrupted. The available data on climate change, however, do not support these predictions, nor do they support the idea that human activity has caused, or will cause, a dangerous increase in global temperatures. As the authors make this statement, they are aware that it contradicts widespread popular opinion, as well as the technical judgments of some of their colleagues. But it would be imprudent to ignore the facts on global warming that have accumulated over the last two years. These facts indicate that theoretical estimates of the greenhouse problem have greatly exaggerated its seriousness. Enormous economic stakes ride on forthcoming government decisions regarding carbon taxes and other restrictions on CO 2 emissions. Due attention must therefore be given to the scientific evidence, no matter how contrary to popular opinion its implications appear to be. This article discusses the scientific evidence

  14. Design and performance of combined infrared canopy and belowground warming in the B4WarmED (Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger) experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Roy L; Stefanski, Artur; Montgomery, Rebecca A; Hobbie, Sarah E; Kimball, Bruce A; Reich, Peter B

    2015-06-01

    Conducting manipulative climate change experiments in complex vegetation is challenging, given considerable temporal and spatial heterogeneity. One specific challenge involves warming of both plants and soils to depth. We describe the design and performance of an open-air warming experiment called Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger (B4WarmED) that addresses the potential for projected climate warming to alter tree function, species composition, and ecosystem processes at the boreal-temperate ecotone. The experiment includes two forested sites in northern Minnesota, USA, with plots in both open (recently clear-cut) and closed canopy habitats, where seedlings of 11 tree species were planted into native ground vegetation. Treatments include three target levels of plant canopy and soil warming (ambient, +1.7°C, +3.4°C). Warming was achieved by independent feedback control of voltage input to aboveground infrared heaters and belowground buried resistance heating cables in each of 72-7.0 m(2) plots. The treatments emulated patterns of observed diurnal, seasonal, and annual temperatures but with superimposed warming. For the 2009 to 2011 field seasons, we achieved temperature elevations near our targets with growing season overall mean differences (∆Tbelow ) of +1.84°C and +3.66°C at 10 cm soil depth and (∆T(above) ) of +1.82°C and +3.45°C for the plant canopies. We also achieved measured soil warming to at least 1 m depth. Aboveground treatment stability and control were better during nighttime than daytime and in closed vs. open canopy sites in part due to calmer conditions. Heating efficacy in open canopy areas was reduced with increasing canopy complexity and size. Results of this study suggest the warming approach is scalable: it should work well in small-statured vegetation such as grasslands, desert, agricultural crops, and tree saplings (<5 m tall). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A chloroplast thylakoid lumen protein is required for proper photosynthetic acclimation of plants under fluctuating light environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Last, Robert L

    2017-09-19

    Despite our increasingly sophisticated understanding of mechanisms ensuring efficient photosynthesis under laboratory-controlled light conditions, less is known about the regulation of photosynthesis under fluctuating light. This is important because-in nature-photosynthetic organisms experience rapid and extreme changes in sunlight, potentially causing deleterious effects on photosynthetic efficiency and productivity. Here we report that the chloroplast thylakoid lumenal protein MAINTENANCE OF PHOTOSYSTEM II UNDER HIGH LIGHT 2 (MPH2; encoded by At4g02530 ) is required for growth acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana plants under controlled photoinhibitory light and fluctuating light environments. Evidence is presented that mph2 mutant light stress susceptibility results from a defect in photosystem II (PSII) repair, and our results are consistent with the hypothesis that MPH2 is involved in disassembling monomeric complexes during regeneration of dimeric functional PSII supercomplexes. Moreover, mph2 -and previously characterized PSII repair-defective mutants-exhibited reduced growth under fluctuating light conditions, while PSII photoprotection-impaired mutants did not. These findings suggest that repair is not only required for PSII maintenance under static high-irradiance light conditions but is also a regulatory mechanism facilitating photosynthetic adaptation under fluctuating light environments. This work has implications for improvement of agricultural plant productivity through engineering PSII repair.

  16. Delivery of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Gelatin–Alginate Hydrogels to Stomach Lumen for Treatment of Gastroparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binata Joddar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastroparesis (GP is associated with depletion of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs and enteric neurons, which leads to pyloric dysfunction followed by severe nausea, vomiting and delayed gastric emptying. Regenerating these fundamental structures with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC therapy would be helpful to restore gastric function in GP. MSCs have been successfully used in animal models of other gastrointestinal (GI diseases, including colitis. However, no study has been performed with these cells on GP animals. In this study, we explored whether mouse MSCs can be delivered from a hydrogel scaffold to the luminal surfaces of mice stomach explants. Mouse MSCs were seeded atop alginate–gelatin, coated with poly-l-lysine. These cell–gel constructs were placed atop stomach explants facing the luminal side. MSCs grew uniformly all across the gel surface within 48 h. When placed atop the lumen of the stomach, MSCs migrated from the gels to the tissues, as confirmed by positive staining with vimentin and N-cadherin. Thus, the feasibility of transplanting a cell–gel construct to deliver stem cells in the stomach wall was successfully shown in a mice stomach explant model, thereby making a significant advance towards envisioning the transplantation of an entire tissue-engineered ‘gastric patch’ or ‘microgels’ with cells and growth factors.

  17. Coronary magnetic resonance imaging: visualization of the vessel lumen and the vessel wall and molecular imaging of arteriothrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spuentrup, Elmar; Botnar, Rene M.

    2006-01-01

    Coronary magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has dramatically emerged over the last decade. Technical improvements have enabled reliable visualization of the proximal and midportion of the coronary artery tree for exclusion of significant coronary artery disease. However, current technical developments focus also on direct visualization of the diseased coronary vessel wall and imaging of coronary plaque because plaques without stenoses are typically more vulnerable with higher risk of plaque rupture. Plaque rupture with subsequent thrombosis and vessel occlusion is the main cause of myocardial infarction. Very recently, the first success of molecular imaging in the coronary arteries has been demonstrated using a fibrin-specific contrast agent for selective visualization of coronary thrombosis. This demonstrates in general the high potential of molecular MR imaging in the field of coronary artery disease. In this review, we will address recent technical advances in coronary MR imaging, including visualization of the lumen and the vessel wall and molecular imaging of coronary arteriothrombosis. First results of these new approaches will be discussed. (orig.)

  18. ESCO White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed this white paper to explore energy performance contracting with Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) and its potential to be a best practice for installing solar thermal water heating systems in the commercial and industrial sector.

  19. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  20. White House Communications Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    ...; and the Deputy Secretary of Defense requested the audit. The Deputy Secretary of Defense emphasized that this review should be as thorough as possible of all White House Communications Agency (WHCA...

  1. Progenitors of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drilling, J.S.; Schoenberner, D.

    1985-01-01

    Direct observational evidence is presented which indicates that the immediate progenitors of white dwarfs are the central stars of planetary nebulae (approximately 70%), other post-AGB objects (approximately 30%), and post-HB objects not massive enough to climb the AGB (approximately 0.3%). The combined birth rate for these objects is in satisfactory agreement with the death rate of main-sequence stars and the birth rate of white dwarfs

  2. Using isotopes for global warming observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namata, K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper, based on a literature review, discusses the main aspects of using isotopic techniques to obtain information about global warming. The rapid increase concentration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) in the atmosphere will result in global warming by the greenhouse effect, and the isotopic techniques constitute an efficient tool to explain this complex environmental phenomenon. (author)

  3. Mitigation of global warming through renewable biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhillon, R.S.; Wuehlisch, George von

    2013-01-01

    Rising level of atmospheric CO 2 and consequent global warming is evident. Global surface temperature have already increased by 0.8 °C over the 20th century and is projected to increase by 1.4–5.8 °C during the twenty-first century. The global warming will continue till atmospheric concentrations of the major greenhouse gases are stabilized. Among them, CO 2 is mainly responsible and is expected to account for about 60% of the warming over the next century. This study reviews advances on causes and consequences of global climate change and its impact on nature and society. Renewable biomass has tremendous potential to mitigate the global warming. Renewable biomass is expected to play a multifunctional role including food production, source of energy and fodder, biodiversity conservation, yield of goods and services to the society as well as mitigation of the impact of climate change. The review highlights the different management and research strategies in forestry, agriculture, agroforestry and grasslands to mitigate the global warming. -- Highlights: ► Rising level of atmospheric CO 2 and consequent global warming is evident. ► CO 2 is mainly responsible for global warming. ► Global temperature is predicted to increase by 1.4–5.8 °C during 21st century. ► Renewable biomass has great potential to mitigate the global warming

  4. Strategies for mitigation of global warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the international negotions on climate change leading up to COP15 in Copenhagen. Supplementary policies for mitigation of global warming are proposed.......The paper analyses the international negotions on climate change leading up to COP15 in Copenhagen. Supplementary policies for mitigation of global warming are proposed....

  5. Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Bill

    1994-01-01

    A resource for the teaching of the history and causes of climate change. Discusses evidence of climate change from the Viking era, early ice ages, the most recent ice age, natural causes of climate change, human-made causes of climate change, projections of global warming, and unequal warming. (LZ)

  6. Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    2010-01-01

    My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

  7. National Security Implications of Global Warming Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Although numerous historical examples demonstrate how actual climate change has contributed to the rise and fall of powers, global warming , in and of...become convinced that global warming is universally bad and humans are the primary cause, political leaders may develop ill-advised policies restricting

  8. Exploring the Sociopolitical Dimensions of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Klosterman, Michelle L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present an activity to help high school students conceptualize the sociopolitical complexity of global warming through an exploration of varied perspectives on the issue. They argue that socioscientific issues such as global warming present important contexts for learning science and that the social and political dimensions of these…

  9. Global Warming: How Much and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanouette, William

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the history of the study of global warming and includes a discussion of the role of gases, like carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). Discusses modern research on the global warming, including computer modelling and the super-greenhouse effect. (YP)

  10. Catching a Cold When It's Warm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print this issue Catching a Cold When It’s Warm What’s the Deal with Summertime Sniffles? En español ... more unfair than catching a cold when it’s warm? How can cold symptoms arise when it’s not ...

  11. Turkish Students' Ideas about Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global warming in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global warming were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this…

  12. Awareness And Perception of Global Warming Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Increase in the emission of green house gases and the attendant climatic changes have led to the phenomenon of global warming with all its catastrophic consequences. OBJECTIVE: To assess knowledge and perception of the concept of global warming among undergraduate medical students

  13. Black and white holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, Ya.; Novikov, I.; Starobinskij, A.

    1978-01-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius Rsub(r). At t>>Rsub(r)/c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius. (J.B.)

  14. Black and white holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldovich, Ya; Novikov, I; Starobinskii, A

    1978-07-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius R/sub r/. At t>>R/sub r//c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius.

  15. Development and Performance Assessment of White LED Dimmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Pradip Kr.; Roy, Biswanath

    2017-10-01

    A microcontroller based electronic dimmer is developed using pulse width modulation technique. This dimmer is controllable by infra-red remote within a distance of 4 m and can be electrically connected between LED module and its driver. The performance of a developed LED dimmer is assessed on basis of variation of the photometric parameters of commercially available warm white and cool white LED luminaire used in indoor lighting applications. Four equally spaced dimming levels are considered to measure luminous efficacy, spectral power distribution, CIE 1931 chromaticity coordinates, CIE 1976 CIELUV color difference, correlated color temperature, general color rendering index and one specific color rendering index for saturated red color sample. Variations of above parameters are found out with reference to the values measured at rated voltage without the developed dimmer. Analysis of experimentally measured data shows that the developed LED dimmer is capable to vary light output of the WLED luminaire within a range of 25-100% without appreciable variation of its photometric and color parameters. The only exception is observed for the luminous efficacy parameter where it shows about 17 and 14.7% reduction for warm white and cool white LED luminaire at 25% dimming level.

  16. Terra Data Confirm Warm, Dry U.S. Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    New maps of land surface temperature and snow cover produced by NASA's Terra satellite show this year's winter was warmer than last year's, and the snow line stayed farther north than normal. The observations confirm earlier National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration reports that the United States was unusually warm and dry this past winter. (Click to read the NASA press release and to access higher-resolution images.) For the last two years, a new sensor aboard Terra has been collecting the most detailed global measurements ever made of our world's land surface temperatures and snow cover. The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is already giving scientists new insights into our changing planet. Average temperatures during December 2001 through February 2002 for the contiguous United States appear to have been unseasonably warm from the Rockies eastward. In the top image the coldest temperatures appear black, while dark green, blue, red, yellow, and white indicate progressively warmer temperatures. MODIS observes both land surface temperature and emissivity, which indicates how efficiently a surface absorbs and emits thermal radiation. Compared to the winter of 2000-01, temperatures throughout much of the U.S. were warmer in 2001-02. The bottom image depicts the differences on a scale from dark blue (colder this year than last) to red (warmer this year than last). A large region of warm temperatures dominated the northern Great Plains, while the area around the Great Salt Lake was a cold spot. Images courtesy Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based upon data courtesy Zhengming Wan, MODIS Land Science Team member at the University of California, Santa Barbara's Institute for Computational Earth System Science

  17. Global warming and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, P.E. [Nuclear and Particle Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Oxford Univ., Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is steadily increasing and it is widely believed that this will lead to global warming that will have serious consequences for life on earth. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has estimated that the temperature of the earth will increase by between 1 and 3.5 degrees in the next century. This will melt some of the Antarctic ice cap, raise the sea level and flood many low-lying countries, and also produce unpredictable changes in the earth's climate. The possible ways of reducing carbon dioxide emission are discussed. It is essential to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, but then how are we to obtain the energy we need? We can try to reduce energy use, but we will still need to generate large amounts energy. Some possible ways of doing this are by using wind and solar generators, by hydroelectric and tidal plants, and also by nuclear power. These possibilities will be critically examined. (author)

  18. Global warming and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is steadily increasing and it is widely believed that this will lead to global warming that will have serious consequences for life on earth. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has estimated that the temperature of the earth will increase by between 1 and 3.5 degrees in the next century. This will melt some of the Antarctic ice cap, raise the sea level and flood many low-lying countries, and also produce unpredictable changes in the earth's climate. The possible ways of reducing carbon dioxide emission are discussed. It is essential to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, but then how are we to obtain the energy we need? We can try to reduce energy use, but we will still need to generate large amounts energy. Some possible ways of doing this are by using wind and solar generators, by hydroelectric and tidal plants, and also by nuclear power. These possibilities will be critically examined. (author)

  19. Plastic Response of Tracheids in Pinus pinaster in a Water-Limited Environment: Adjusting Lumen Size instead of Wall Thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carvalho

    Full Text Available The formation of wood results from cambial activity and its anatomical properties reflect the variability of environmental conditions during the growing season. Recently, it was found that wood density variations in conifers growing under cold-limited environment result from the adjustment of cell wall thickness (CWT to temperature. Additionally, it is known that intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs are formed in response to precipitation after the summer drought. Although IADFs are frequent in Mediterranean conifers no study has yet been conducted to determine if these structures result from the adjustment of lumen diameter (LD or CWT to soil water availability. Our main objective is to investigate the intra-ring variation of wood anatomical features (LD and CWT in Pinus pinaster Ait. growing under a water-limited environment. We compared the tracheidograms of LD and CWT for the years 2010-2013 in P. pinaster growing in the west coast of Portugal. Our results suggest a close association between LD and soil moisture content along the growing season, reinforcing the role of water availability in determining tracheid size. Compared with CWT, LD showed a higher intra- and inter-annual variability suggesting its strong adjustment value to variations in water availability. The formation of a latewood IADF appears to be predisposed by higher rates of cell production in spring and triggered by early autumn precipitation. Our findings reinforce the crucial role of water availability on cambial activity and wood formation in Mediterranean conifers, and emphasize the high plasticity of wood anatomical features under Mediterranean climate.

  20. The Functional Lumen Imaging Probe Detects Esophageal Contractility Not Observed With Manometry in Patients With Achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dustin A; Lin, Zhiyue; Kahrilas, Peter J; Sternbach, Joel; Donnan, Erica N; Friesen, Laurel; Listernick, Zoe; Mogni, Benjamin; Pandolfino, John E

    2015-12-01

    The functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) could improve the characterization of achalasia subtypes by detecting nonocclusive esophageal contractions not observed with standard manometry. We aimed to evaluate esophageal contractions during volumetric distention in patients with achalasia using FLIP topography. Fifty-one treatment-naive patients with achalasia, defined and subclassified by high-resolution esophageal pressure topography, and 10 asymptomatic individuals (controls) were evaluated with the FLIP during endoscopy. During stepwise distension, simultaneous intrabag pressures and 16 channels of cross-sectional areas were measured; data were exported to software that generated FLIP topography plots. Esophageal contractility was identified by noting periods of reduced luminal diameter. Esophageal contractions were characterized further by propagation direction, repetitiveness, and based on whether they were occluding or nonoccluding. Esophageal contractility was detected in all 10 controls: 8 of 10 had repetitive antegrade contractions and 9 of 10 had occluding contractions. Contractility was detected in 27% (4 of 15) of patients with type I achalasia and in 65% (18 of 26, including 9 with occluding contractions) of patients with type II achalasia. Contractility was detected in all 10 patients with type III achalasia; 8 of these patients had a pattern of contractility that was not observed in controls (repetitive retrograde contractions). Esophageal contractility not observed with manometry can be detected in patients with achalasia using FLIP topography. The presence and patterns of contractility detected with FLIP topography may represent variations in pathophysiology, such as mechanisms of panesophageal pressurization in patients with type II achalasia. These findings could have implications for additional subclassification to supplement prediction of the achalasia disease course. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. Verso una filosofia della luce e dell’ascolto? Il secondo capitolo dell’enciclica sul Lumen fidei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Giustiniani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind. This phrase, attributed to Albert Einstein, with the implicit metaphor of light, through blindness, would have wanted to emphasize that faith and science are not irreconcilables. This paper means, at the urging of Pope Francis (but also of Pope Benedict XVI, as we shall see, that is possible to reflect on the relationships between religion and science, faith and reason, theology and philosophy, ethics, religion and art, Hellenism and Christianity, biblical message and achievements of the recent reason… in the light of the second chapter of the encyclical Lumen fidei. In this chapter, summarizing some aspects of the life of St. Augustine, the encyclical speaks of the decisive moment in his journey of faith, identifying listening to the voice of God (philosophy of listening  but never he refuse the light and vision (philosophy of light. From this result, can be proposed again a reflection in predominantly philosophical and religious perspective, with much attention to acoustic and visual perception of the divine, by which the ancient pairs of terms between faith and reason, theology - philosophy, faith - science ... /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  2. Plastic Response of Tracheids in Pinus pinaster in a Water-Limited Environment: Adjusting Lumen Size instead of Wall Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana; Nabais, Cristina; Vieira, Joana; Rossi, Sergio; Campelo, Filipe

    2015-01-01

    The formation of wood results from cambial activity and its anatomical properties reflect the variability of environmental conditions during the growing season. Recently, it was found that wood density variations in conifers growing under cold-limited environment result from the adjustment of cell wall thickness (CWT) to temperature. Additionally, it is known that intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) are formed in response to precipitation after the summer drought. Although IADFs are frequent in Mediterranean conifers no study has yet been conducted to determine if these structures result from the adjustment of lumen diameter (LD) or CWT to soil water availability. Our main objective is to investigate the intra-ring variation of wood anatomical features (LD and CWT) in Pinus pinaster Ait. growing under a water-limited environment. We compared the tracheidograms of LD and CWT for the years 2010-2013 in P. pinaster growing in the west coast of Portugal. Our results suggest a close association between LD and soil moisture content along the growing season, reinforcing the role of water availability in determining tracheid size. Compared with CWT, LD showed a higher intra- and inter-annual variability suggesting its strong adjustment value to variations in water availability. The formation of a latewood IADF appears to be predisposed by higher rates of cell production in spring and triggered by early autumn precipitation. Our findings reinforce the crucial role of water availability on cambial activity and wood formation in Mediterranean conifers, and emphasize the high plasticity of wood anatomical features under Mediterranean climate.

  3. Climatic warming destabilizes forest ant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Sarah E; Nichols, Lauren M; Pelini, Shannon L; Penick, Clint A; Barber, Grace W; Cahan, Sara Helms; Dunn, Robert R; Ellison, Aaron M; Sanders, Nathan J; Gotelli, Nicholas J

    2016-10-01

    How will ecological communities change in response to climate warming? Direct effects of temperature and indirect cascading effects of species interactions are already altering the structure of local communities, but the dynamics of community change are still poorly understood. We explore the cumulative effects of warming on the dynamics and turnover of forest ant communities that were warmed as part of a 5-year climate manipulation experiment at two sites in eastern North America. At the community level, warming consistently increased occupancy of nests and decreased extinction and nest abandonment. This consistency was largely driven by strong responses of a subset of thermophilic species at each site. As colonies of thermophilic species persisted in nests for longer periods of time under warmer temperatures, turnover was diminished, and species interactions were likely altered. We found that dynamical (Lyapunov) community stability decreased with warming both within and between sites. These results refute null expectations of simple temperature-driven increases in the activity and movement of thermophilic ectotherms. The reduction in stability under warming contrasts with the findings of previous studies that suggest resilience of species interactions to experimental and natural warming. In the face of warmer, no-analog climates, communities of the future may become increasingly fragile and unstable.

  4. Global warming and climate change: control methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laal, M.; Aliramaie, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper aimed at finding causes of global warming and ways to bring it under control. Data based on scientific opinion as given by synthesis reports of news, articles, web sites, and books. global warming is the observed and projected increases in average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans. Carbon dioxide and other air pollution that is collecting in the atmosphere like a thickening blanket, trapping the sun's heat and causing the planet to warm up. Pollution is one of the biggest man-made problems. Burning fossil fuels is the main factor of pollution. As average temperature increases, habitats, species and people are threatened by drought, changes in rainfall, altered seasons, and more violent storms and floods. Indeed the life cycle of nuclear power results in relatively little pollution. Energy efficiency, solar, wind and other renewable fuels are other weapons against global warming . Human activity, primarily burning fossil fuels, is the major driving factor in global warming . Curtailing the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by reducing use of oil, gasoline, coal and employment of alternate energy, sources are the tools for keeping global warming under control. global warming can be slowed and stopped, with practical actions thal yield a cleaner, healthier atmosphere

  5. High efficient white organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Stefan; Krause, Ralf [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Kozlowski, Fryderyk; Schmid, Guenter; Hunze, Arvid [Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Winnacker, Albrecht [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Due to the rapid progress in the last years the performance of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) has reached a level where general lighting presents a most interesting application target. We demonstrate, how the color coordinates of the emission spectrum can be adjusted using a combinatorial evaporation tool to lie on the desired black body curve representing cold and warm white, respectively. The evaluation includes phosphorescent and fluorescent dye approaches to optimize lifetime and efficiency, simultaneously. Detailed results are presented with respect to variation of layer thicknesses and dopant concentrations of each layer within the OLED stack. The most promising approach contains phosphorescent red and green dyes combined with a fluorescent blue one as blue phosphorescent dopants are not yet stable enough to achieve long lifetimes.

  6. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study RRL3.2 Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McCullough, Jeffrey J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tucker, Joseph C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen) was monitored in the automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA) for more than 7,500 hours. Ten samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at an ambient temperature of 45°C (-1°C). Importantly, the steady-state test conditions were not optimized for inducing catastrophic failure for any of the lamp technologies—to which thermal cycling is a strong contributor— and are not typical of normal use patterns—which usually include off periods where the lamp cools down. Further, the test conditions differ from those used in standardized long-term test methods (i.e., IES LM-80, IES LM-84), so the results should not be directly compared. On the other hand, the test conditions are similar to those used by ENERGY STAR (when elevated temperature testing is called for). Likewise, the conditions and assumptions used by manufacturers to generated lifetime claims may vary; the CALiPER long-term data is informative, but cannot necessarily be used to discredit manufacturer claims. The test method used for this investigation should be interpreted as one more focused on the long-term effects of elevated temperature operation, at an ambient temperature that is not uncommon in luminaires. On average, the lumen maintenance of the LED lamps monitored in the ALTA was better than benchmark lamps, but there was considerable variation from lamp model to lamp model. While three lamp models had average lumen maintenance above 99% at the end of the study period, two products had average lumen maintenance below 65%, constituting a parametric failure. These two products, along with a third, also exhibited substantial color shift, another form of parametric failure. While none of the LED lamps exhibited catastrophic failure—and all of the benchmarks did—the early degradation of performance is concerning, especially with a

  7. Urban warming reduces aboveground carbon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meineke, Emily; Youngsteadt, Elsa; Dunn, Robert Roberdeau

    2016-01-01

    sequestration (carbon stored per year) of mature trees. Urban warming increased herbivorous arthropod abundance on trees, but these herbivores had negligible effects on tree carbon sequestration. Instead, urban warming was associated with an estimated 12% loss of carbon sequestration, in part because...... photosynthesis was reduced at hotter sites. Ecosystem service assessments that do not consider urban conditions may overestimate urban tree carbon storage. Because urban and global warming are becoming more intense, our results suggest that urban trees will sequester even less carbon in the future....

  8. An Analysis of Historical Global Warming and Social Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Train, Joseph; Roizenman, David; Damiani, Seth; Rochwerg, Ronny

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to determine whether there is a correlation between awareness of global warming, and where global warming occurs. This theory is carried out by analyzing maps containing various forms of data that have to do with global warming, such as precipitation and surface temperature, and comparing it with a map of engagement from tweets which mention global warming. This paper found that there is no solid correlation between mentioning global warming in tweets and global warm...

  9. Joint segmentation of lumen and outer wall from femoral artery MR images: Towards 3D imaging measurements of peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukwatta, Eranga; Yuan, Jing; Qiu, Wu; Rajchl, Martin; Chiu, Bernard; Fenster, Aaron

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) measurements of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) plaque burden extracted from fast black-blood magnetic resonance (MR) images have shown to be more predictive of clinical outcomes than PAD stenosis measurements. To this end, accurate segmentation of the femoral artery lumen and outer wall is required for generating volumetric measurements of PAD plaque burden. Here, we propose a semi-automated algorithm to jointly segment the femoral artery lumen and outer wall surfaces from 3D black-blood MR images, which are reoriented and reconstructed along the medial axis of the femoral artery to obtain improved spatial coherence between slices of the long, thin femoral artery and to reduce computation time. The developed segmentation algorithm enforces two priors in a global optimization manner: the spatial consistency between the adjacent 2D slices and the anatomical region order between the femoral artery lumen and outer wall surfaces. The formulated combinatorial optimization problem for segmentation is solved globally and exactly by means of convex relaxation using a coupled continuous max-flow (CCMF) model, which is a dual formulation to the convex relaxed optimization problem. In addition, the CCMF model directly derives an efficient duality-based algorithm based on the modern multiplier augmented optimization scheme, which has been implemented on a GPU for fast computation. The computed segmentations from the developed algorithm were compared to manual delineations from experts using 20 black-blood MR images. The developed algorithm yielded both high accuracy (Dice similarity coefficients ≥ 87% for both the lumen and outer wall surfaces) and high reproducibility (intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.95 for generating vessel wall area), while outperforming the state-of-the-art method in terms of computational time by a factor of ≈ 20. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Combination of intravenous dexmedetomidine with topicalization of airway for placement of double lumen tube in a spontaneously breathing patient of giant lung bullae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Karne

    2016-10-01

    Here we present a patient with giant lung bulla in left lower lobe with severely reduced pulmonary reserves and significant air-trapping posted for VAT assisted bullectomy. Anaesthesia challenges including pathological changes, its effects during induction of anaesthesia, and issues related to placement of double lumen tube in a spontaneously breathing patient are discussed with possible advantages of dexmedetomidine in this special group of patients.

  11. The effect and influence of lumen holmium laser lithotripsy on serum oxidative stress proteins and inflammatory factors of ureteral calculi patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect and influence of lumen holmium laser lithotripsy on treating serum oxidative stress proteins and inflammatory factors of patients with ureteral calculi. Methods: A total of 120 cases of patients with ureteral calculi treated in our hospital from May 2010 to Nov 2014 were enrolled in this research for an analysis study. The effect and influence on serum oxidative stress proteins and inflammatory factors of lumen holmium laser lithotripsy on ureteral calculi patients were assayed. Then 120 cases of healthy subjects in our hospital at the same period were taken as control. Results: Among the 120 cases of ureteral calculi patients, 113 cases of patients showed successful operation, with a success rate of 94.2%. The average calculi-discharged time was (28.4 ± 11.2 d and the average operation time was (58.9 ± 10.7 min, while the postoperative hospital stay is (3.8 ± 1.2 d. The results also showed that the levels of NOX1. NOX3, NOX4 and NOX5, and levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α of patients with ureteral calculi were significantly higher, compared with the control group, and these parameters were normalized greatly after operation with that the levels of them were significantly different from those before operation. Conclusion: Lumen holmium laser lithotripsy exerts a significant effect on ureteral calculi patients and the oxidative stress parameters and inflammatory factor were normalized greatly.

  12. Ecological stability in response to warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fussmann, Katarina E.; Schwarzmueller, Florian; Brose, Ulrich; Jousset, Alexandre|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370632656; Rall, Bjoern C.

    That species' biological rates including metabolism, growth and feeding scale with temperature is well established from warming experiments(1). The interactive influence of these changes on population dynamics, however, remains uncertain. As a result, uncertainty about ecological stability in

  13. Global temperatures and the global warming ``debate''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Gordon

    2009-04-01

    Many ordinary citizens listen to pronouncements on talk radio casting doubt on anthropogenic global warming. Some op-ed columnists likewise cast doubts, and are read by credulous citizens. For example, on 8 March 2009, the Boston Globe published a column by Jeff Jacoby, ``Where's global warming?'' According to Jacoby, ``But it isn't such hints of a planetary warming trend that have been piling up in profusion lately. Just the opposite.'' He goes on to write, ``the science of climate change is not nearly as important as the religion of climate change,'' and blamed Al Gore for getting his mistaken views accepted. George Will at the Washington Post also expressed denial. As a result, 44% of U.S. voters, according to the January 19 2009 Rasmussen Report, blame long-term planetary trends for global warming, not human beings. Is there global cooling, as skeptics claim? We examine the temperature record.

  14. Global Surface Warming Hiatus Analysis Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were used to conduct the study of the global surface warming hiatus, an apparent decrease in the upward trend of global surface temperatures since 1998....

  15. A review of warm mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology, recently developed in Europe, is gaining strong interest in the US. By : lowering the viscosity of asphalt binder and/or increasing the workability of mixture using minimal heat, WMA : technology allows the mixing, ...

  16. Effects of global warming on respiratory diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abe Olugbenga

    and tuberculosis), parasitic lung diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ... Methods: A literature search on global warming and respiratory diseases was carried out through the internet .... (COPD) The main factor to consider here is.

  17. Teaching cases on transportation and global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This project developed a series of three teaching cases that explore the implications of global : warming for transportation policy in the United States. The cases are intended to be used in : graduate and undergraduate courses on transportation poli...

  18. Self-interacting warm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannestad, Steen; Scherrer, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    It has been shown by many independent studies that the cold dark matter scenario produces singular galactic dark halos, in strong contrast with observations. Possible remedies are that either the dark matter is warm so that it has significant thermal motion or that the dark matter has strong self-interactions. We combine these ideas to calculate the linear mass power spectrum and the spectrum of cosmic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations for self-interacting warm dark matter. Our results indicate that such models have more power on small scales than is the case for the standard warm dark matter model, with a CMB fluctuation spectrum which is nearly indistinguishable from standard cold dark matter. This enhanced small-scale power may provide better agreement with the observations than does standard warm dark matter. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  19. Reconciling controversies about the 'global warming hiatus'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhaug, Iselin; Stolpe, Martin B; Fischer, Erich M; Knutti, Reto

    2017-05-03

    Between about 1998 and 2012, a time that coincided with political negotiations for preventing climate change, the surface of Earth seemed hardly to warm. This phenomenon, often termed the 'global warming hiatus', caused doubt in the public mind about how well anthropogenic climate change and natural variability are understood. Here we show that apparently contradictory conclusions stem from different definitions of 'hiatus' and from different datasets. A combination of changes in forcing, uptake of heat by the oceans, natural variability and incomplete observational coverage reconciles models and data. Combined with stronger recent warming trends in newer datasets, we are now more confident than ever that human influence is dominant in long-term warming.

  20. Abrupt warming of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, D. E.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Prihartato, Perdana; Chronis, T.; Triantafyllou, G.; Abualnaja, Y.

    2011-01-01

    marine temperature. The comparisons with Northern Hemisphere temperatures revealed that the observed warming is part of global climate change trends. The hitherto results also raise additional questions regarding other broader climatic impacts over

  1. Global warming and north-south solidarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, S.

    1998-01-01

    The discussion on climate change is based on 'contradictory certainties'. All sides claim to have found the truth. Much has been written and said about the connection between global warming, biodiversity and over population. The impoverished countries of the South se the insatiable intentions of the North as the major threat to the environment; and global warming as an excuse for stopping the economic development of the south

  2. Attribution of polar warming to human influence

    OpenAIRE

    Gillett, NP; Stone, DA; Stott, PA; Nozawa, T; Karpechko, AY; Hegerl, GC; Wehner, MF; Jones, PD

    2008-01-01

    The polar regions have long been expected to warm strongly as a result of anthropogenic climate change, because of the positive feedbacks associated with melting ice and snow. Several studies have noted a rise in Arctic temperatures over recent decades, but have not formally attributed the changes to human influence, owing to sparse observations and large natural variability. Both warming and cooling trends have been observed in Antarctica, which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ...

  3. Scaling Potential Evapotranspiration with Greenhouse Warming (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheff, J.; Frierson, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Potential evapotranspiration (PET) is a supply-independent measure of the evaporative demand of a terrestrial climate, of basic importance in climatology, hydrology, and agriculture. Future increases in PET from greenhouse warming are often cited as key drivers of global trends toward drought and aridity. The present work computes recent and business-as-usual-future Penman-Monteith (i.e. physically-based) PET fields at 3-hourly resolution in 14 modern global climate models. The %-change in local annual-mean PET over the upcoming century is almost always positive, modally low double-digit in magnitude, usually increasing with latitude, yet quite divergent between models. These patterns are understood as follows. In every model, the global field of PET %-change is found to be dominated by the direct, positive effects of constant-relative-humidity warming (via increasing vapor pressure deficit and increasing Clausius-Clapeyron slope.) This direct-warming term very accurately scales as the PET-weighted (warm-season daytime) local warming, times 5-6% per degree (related to the Clausius-Clapeyron equation), times an analytic factor ranging from about 0.25 in warm climates to 0.75 in cold climates, plus a small correction. With warming of several degrees, this product is of low double-digit magnitude, and the strong temperature dependence gives the latitude dependence. Similarly, the inter-model spread in the amount of warming gives most of the spread in this term. Additional spread in the total change comes from strong disagreement on radiation, relative-humidity, and windspeed changes, which make smaller yet substantial contributions to the full PET %-change fields.

  4. WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations Presentation By  Dr. Nyagudi MusanduForensic Criminologist 2nd International Securityand Safety Conference and Exhibition, 16th April, 2010 a forum hosted by Events Management Solutions at the Sarit Centre, Nairobi, Kenya  

  5. Mediterranean climate change and Indian Ocean warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerling, M.; Eischeid, J.; Hurrel, J.

    2006-01-01

    General circulation model (GCM) responses to 20. century changes in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and greenhouse gases are diagnosed, with emphasis on their relationship to observed regional climate change over the Mediterranean region. A major question is whether the Mediterranean region's drying trend since 1950 can be understood as a consequence of the warming trend in tropical SSTs. We focus on the impact of Indian Ocean warming, which is itself the likely result of increasing greenhouse gases. It is discovered that a strong projection onto the positive polarity of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index characterizes the atmospheric response structure to the 1950-1999 warming of Indian Ocean SSTs. This influence appears to be robust in so far as it is reproduced in ensembles of experiments using three different GCMs. Both the equilibrium and transient responses to Indian Ocean warming are examined. Under each scenario, the latitude of prevailing mid latitude westerlies shifts poleward during the November-April period. The consequence is a drying of the Mediterranean region, whereas northern Europe and Scandinavia receive increased precipitation in concert with the poleward shift of storminess. The IPCC (TAR) 20. century coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations forced by observed greenhouse gas changes also yield a post-1950 drying trend over the Mediterranean. We argue that this feature of human-induced regional climate change is the outcome of a dynamical feedback, one involving Indian Ocean warming and a requisite adjustment of atmospheric circulation systems to such ocean warming

  6. Global warming and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, L., LLNL

    1998-07-10

    -fold reduction might be attained. Even the first such halving of carbon intensivity of stationary-source energy production world-wide might permit continued slow power-demand growth in the highly developed countries and rapid development of the other 80% of the world, both without active governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage - while also stabilizing carbon input-rates into the Earth`s atmosphere. The second two-fold reduction might obviate most global warming concerns.

  7. The N-Terminus of Human Lactoferrin Displays Anti-biofilm Activity on Candida parapsilosis in Lumen Catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Roberta; Di Luca, Mariagrazia; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Morici, Paola; Bottai, Daria; Tavanti, Arianna; Lupetti, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is a major cause of hospital-acquired infection, often related to parenteral nutrition administered via catheters and hand colonization of health care workers, and its peculiar biofilm formation ability on plastic surfaces. The mortality rate of 30% points to the pressing need for new antifungal drugs. The present study aimed at analyzing the inhibitory activity of the N-terminal lactoferrin-derived peptide, further referred to as hLF 1-11, against biofilms produced by clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis characterized for their biofilm forming ability and fluconazole susceptibility. hLF 1-11 anti-biofilm activity was assessed in terms of reduction of biofilm biomass, metabolic activity, and observation of sessile cell morphology on polystyrene microtiter plates and using an in vitro model of catheter-associated C. parapsilosis biofilm production. Moreover, fluctuation in transcription levels of genes related to cell adhesion, hyphal development and extracellular matrix production upon peptide exposure were evaluated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. The results revealed that hLF 1-11 exhibits an inhibitory effect on biofilm formation by all the C. parapsilosis isolates tested, in a dose-dependent manner, regardless of their fluconazole susceptibility. In addition, hLF 1-11 induced a statistically significant dose-dependent reduction of preformed-biofilm cellular density and metabolic activity at high peptide concentrations only. Interestingly, when assessed in a catheter lumen, hLF 1-11 was able to induce a 2-log reduction of sessile cell viability at both the peptide concentrations used in RPMI diluted in NaPB. A more pronounced anti-biofilm effect was observed (3.5-log reduction) when a 10% glucose solution was used as experimental condition on both early and preformed C. parapsilosis biofilm. Quantitative real time RT-PCR experiments confirmed that hLF 1-11 down-regulates key biofilm related genes. The overall findings suggest hLF 1-11 as a

  8. A new evaluation of the upper esophageal sphincter using the functional lumen imaging probe: a preliminary report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Regan, J

    2012-03-06

    Objective and reliable evaluation of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening during swallowing based on videofluoroscopy and pharyngeal manometry challenges dysphagia clinicians. The functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) is a portable tool based on impedance planimetry originally designed to measure esophogastric junction compliance. It is hypothesized that FLIP can evaluate UES distensibility, and can provide UES diameter and pressure measurements at rest, during swallowing, and during voluntary maneuvers. Eleven healthy adult subjects consented to FLIP evaluation. The probe was inserted transorally, and the balloon was positioned across the UES. Two 20-mL ramp distensions were completed. Changes in UES diameter and intraballoon pressure were measured during dry and 5-mL liquid swallows, and during voluntary swallow postures and maneuvers employed in clinical practice. The protocol was completed by 10 of 11 healthy subjects. Mean intraballoon pressure increased throughout 5-mL (5.8 mmHg; -4.5-18.6 mmHg), 10-mL (8.7 mmHg; 2.3-28.5 mmHg), 15-mL (17.3 mmHg; 9.5-34.8 mmHg), and 20-mL (31.2 mmHg; 16-46.3 mmHg) balloon volumes. Mean resting UES diameter (4.9 mm) increased during dry swallows (9.2 mm) and 5-mL liquid swallows (7.7 mm). Mean UES diameter increased during 5-mL liquid swallows with head turn to right (8.1 mm) and left (8.3 mm), chin tuck (8.4 mm), effortful swallow (8.5 mm), Mendelsohn maneuver (8.1 mm), and supraglottic swallow (7.8 mm). FLIP was safely inserted and distended in the UES, and provided useful quantitative data regarding UES distensibility and UES diameter changes during swallowing maneuvers. Further research is being conducted to explore the role of FLIP in UES evaluation.

  9. The White Sea, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  10. The importance of warm season warming to western U.S. streamflow changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Cayan, D.R.; Vano, J.A.; Lettenmaier, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Warm season climate warming will be a key driver of annual streamflow changes in four major river basins of the western U.S., as shown by hydrological model simulations using fixed precipitation and idealized seasonal temperature changes based on climate projections with SRES A2 forcing. Warm season (April-September) warming reduces streamflow throughout the year; streamflow declines both immediately and in the subsequent cool season. Cool season (October-March) warming, by contrast, increases streamflow immediately, partially compensating for streamflow reductions during the subsequent warm season. A uniform warm season warming of 3C drives a wide range of annual flow declines across the basins: 13.3%, 7.2%, 1.8%, and 3.6% in the Colorado, Columbia, Northern and Southern Sierra basins, respectively. The same warming applied during the cool season gives annual declines of only 3.5%, 1.7%, 2.1%, and 3.1%, respectively. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - Warm Water Pool is Increasing, Nov. 10, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S./French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean conditions on Nov. 10, 1997. The volume of extra warm surface water (shown in white) in the core of the El Nino continues to increase, especially in the area between 15 degrees south latitude and 15 degrees north latitude in the eastern Pacific Ocean. The area of low sea level (shown in purple) has decreased somewhat from late October. The white and red areas indicate unusual patterns of heat storage; in the white areas, the sea surface is between 14 centimeters and 32 cm (6 inches to 13 inches) above normal; in the red areas, it is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal. The surface area covered by the warm water mass is about one-and-one-half times the size of the continental United States. The added amount of oceanic warm water near the Americas, with a temperature between 21 to 30 degrees Celsius (70 to 85 degrees Fahrenheit), is about 30 times the volume of water in all the U.S. Great Lakes combined. The green areas indicate normal conditions, while purple (the western Pacific) means at least 18 centimeters (7 inches) below normal sea level.The El Nino phenomenon is thought to be triggered when the steady westward blowing trade winds weaken and even reverse direction. This change in the winds allows a large mass of warm water (the red and white areas) that is normally located near Australia to move eastward along the equator until it reaches the coast of South America. The displacement of so much warm water affects evaporation, where rain clouds form and, consequently, alters the typical atmospheric jet stream patterns around the world. Using these global data, limited regional measurements from buoys and ships, and a forecasting model of the ocean-atmospheric system, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric

  12. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF WHITE DWARFS: THE MISSING PLANETARY DEBRIS AROUND DZ STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S.; Jura, M.

    2012-01-01

    We report a Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera search for infrared excesses around white dwarfs, including 14 newly observed targets and 16 unpublished archived stars. We find a substantial infrared excess around two warm white dwarfs—J220934.84+122336.5 and WD 0843+516, the latter apparently being the hottest white dwarf known to display a close-in dust disk. Extending previous studies, we find that the fraction of white dwarfs with dust disks increases as the star's temperature increases; for stars cooler than 10,000 K, even the most heavily polluted ones do not have ∼1000 K dust. There is tentative evidence that the dust disk occurrence is correlated with the volatility of the accreted material. In the Appendix, we modify a previous analysis to clarify how Poynting-Robertson drag might play an important role in transferring materials from a dust disk into a white dwarf's atmosphere.

  13. Freak waves in white dwarfs and magnetars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, R.; Moslem, W. M.; Shukla, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    We report properties of ion acoustic freak waves that propagate in a plasma composed of warm ions and ultrarelativistic electrons and positrons. The dynamics of the nonlinear freak waves is governed by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The possible region for the freak waves to exist is defined precisely for typical parameters of white dwarfs and magnetars corona. It is found that for low wave number, the nonlinear ion-acoustic wave packets are structurally stable in magnetars corona than in white dwarfs. However, for large wave numbers the situation is opposite. The critical wave number threshold (k c ), which indicates where the modulational instability sets in, is defined for both applications. It is seen that near to k c the freak wave amplitude becomes high, but it decreases whenever we stepped away from k c . For the wave numbers close to k c , the increase of the unperturbed density ratio of positrons-to-electrons (β) would lead to increase the freak wave amplitude, but for larger wave numbers the amplitude decreases with the increase of β.

  14. Plato: White and Non-white Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amo Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Plato’s dialogues, the Symposium, and Phaedrus, provide a reasonableexplanation of love. G. Vlastos and M. Nussbaum do not share such anopinion. The former contends that Plato’s view of love is about lovingonly a person’s beauty, but not the entire person; thus, it falls short of anappropriate explanation of love. The latter holds that a theory of love should be complete, and that Plato’s one is incomplete on the grounds that it does not account for personal love. These criticisms will be re-evaluated in light of the duality of love (the white and non-white horses—in Phaedrus as well as participants’ views in the Symposium; a re-assessment will weaken the mentioned objections. This paper contends that from the Symposium and Phaedrus, one can have a fruitful understanding of being in love, being out of love, falling inlove, loving for its own sake and being erotically in love. In order to account for these related issues of love it is important to consider Plato’s works in terms of his “official” and “unofficial” views. The former is construed as the doctrine of the lover or loving for its own sake: this is associates with Diotima’s views which are repeated by Socrates. With reference to the latter, it is possible to explain what personal love or being in love, being out of love, falling in love, and being erotically in love involve. Erotic love will be interpreted as an extension of our philosophical conception of love, related to views of love that are mentioned in the Symposium other than Socrates’ report of Diotima’s conceptions. This paper is divided into two parts: the first one will show views of love in the Symposium. That is, being in love, being out of love, falling in love and loving for its own sake will be discussed. In addition, the forementioned criticisms will be re-evaluated. In the second section, we will show that Aristophanes’ speech expresses erotic love, and then Kant’s objections will be

  15. Efficient and stable laser-driven white lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin A. Denault

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laser-based white lighting offers a viable option as an efficient and color-stable high-power solid-state white light source. We show that white light generation is possible using blue or near-UV laser diodes in combination with yellow-emitting cerium-substituted yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Ce or a mixture of red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors. A variety of correlated color temperatures (CCT are achieved, ranging from cool white light with a CCT of 4400 K using a blue laser diode to a warm white light with a CCT of 2700 K using a near-UV laser diode, with respective color rendering indices of 57 and 95. The luminous flux of these devices are measured to be 252 lm and 53 lm with luminous efficacies of 76 lm/W and 19 lm/W, respectively. An estimation of the maximum efficacy of a device comprising a blue laser diode in combination with YAG:Ce is calculated and the results are used to optimize the device.

  16. Can Global Warming be Stopped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, M.

    2013-12-01

    Earlier this year, the CO2 levels exceeded the 400 ppm level and there is no sign that the 1-2 ppm annual increase is going to slow down. Concerns regarding the danger of global warming have been reported in numerous occasions for more than a generation, ever since CO2 levels reached the 350 ppm range in the mid 1980's. Nevertheless, all efforts to slow down the increase have showed little if any effect. Mobile sources, including surface and marine transportation and aviation, consist of 20% of the global CO2 emission. The only realistic way to reduce the mobile sources' CO2 signature is by improved fuel efficiency. However, any progress in this direction is more than compensated by continuous increased demand. Stationary sources, mostly electric power generation, are responsible for the bulk of the global CO2 emission. The measurements have shown, that the effect of an increase in renewable sources, like solar wind and geothermal, combined with conversion from coal to natural gas where possible, conservation and efficiency improvement, did not compensate the increased demand mostly in developing countries. Increased usage of nuclear energy can provide some relief in carbon emission but has the potential of even greater environmental hazard. A major decrease in carbon emission can be obtained by either significant reduction in the cost of non-carbon based energy sources or by of carbon sequestration. The most economical way to make a significant decrease in carbon emission is to apply carbon sequestration technology at large point sources that use coal. Worldwide there are about 10,000 major sources that burn >7 billion metric tons of coal which generate the equivalent of 30 trillion kwh. There is a limited experience in CO2 sequestration of such huge quantities of CO2, however, it is estimated that the cost would be US$ 0.01-0.1 per kwh. The cost of eliminating this quantity can be estimated at an average of 1.5 trillion dollars annually. The major emitters, US

  17. Continuing Climate Warming Will Result in Failure of Post-Harvest Natural Regeneration across the Landscape in Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, M.; Juday, G. P.; Huettmann, F.

    2016-12-01

    Following forest disturbance, the stand initiation stage decisively influences future forest structure. Understanding post-harvest regeneration, especially under climate change, is essential to predicting future carbon stores in this extensive forest biome. We apply IPCC B1, A1B, and A2 climate scenarios to generate plausible future forest conditions under different management. We recorded presence of white spruce, birch, and aspen in 726 plots on 30 state forest white spruce harvest units. We built spatially explicit models and scenarios of species presence/absence using TreeNet (Stochastic Gradient Boosting). Post-harvest tree regeneration predictions in calibration data closely matched the validation set, indicating tree regeneration scenarios are reliable. Early stage post-harvest regeneration is similar to post-fire regeneration and matches the pattern of long-term natural vegetation distribution, confirming that site environmental factors are more important than management practices. Post-harvest natural regeneration of tree species increases under moderate warming scenarios, but fails under strong warming scenarios in landscape positions with high temperatures and low precipitation. Under all warming scenarios, the most successful regenerating species following white spruce harvest is white spruce. Birch experiences about 30% regeneration failure under A2 scenario by 2050. White spruce and aspen are projected to regenerate more successfully when site preparation is applied. Although white spruce has been the major managed species, birch may require more intensive management. Sites likely to experience regeneration failure of current tree species apparently will experience biome shift, although adaptive migration of existing or new species might be an option. Our scenario modeling tool allows resource managers to forecast tree regeneration on productive managed sites that have made a disproportionate contribution to carbon flux in a critical region.

  18. Asteroseismology of White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Carl J.

    1997-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation has been to study various aspects of multimode pulsations in variable white dwarfs. In particular, nonlinear interactions among pulsation modes in white dwarfs (and, to some extent, in other variable stars), analysis of recent observations where such interactions are important, and preliminary work on the effects of crystallization in cool white dwarfs are reported.

  19. Cerebral white matter hypoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, R.B.; Shields, W.D.; Sankar, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the MR imaging findings in children with cerebral white matter hypoplasia (CWMH). The MR studies of four children, aged 3-7 y (mean age, 2.3 y) with a diagnosis of CWMH were reviewed. In all cases multiplanar T1-weighted and T2-weighted spin-echo images were obtained. All children had similar histories of severe developmental delay and nonprogressive neurologic deficits despite normal gestational and birth histories. In two cases there was a history of maternal cocaine abuse. Autopsy correlation was available in one child. The MR images of all four children demonstrated diffuse lack of white matter and enlarged ventricles but normal-appearing gray matter. The corpus callosum, although completely formed, was severely thinned. There was no evidence of gliosis or porencephaly, and the distribution of myelin deposition was normal for age in all cases. Autopsy finding in one child correlated exactly with the MR finding

  20. White noise on bialgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Schürmann, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Stochastic processes with independent increments on a group are generalized to the concept of "white noise" on a Hopf algebra or bialgebra. The main purpose of the book is the characterization of these processes as solutions of quantum stochastic differential equations in the sense of R.L. Hudsonand K.R. Parthasarathy. The notes are a contribution to quantum probability but they are also related to classical probability, quantum groups, and operator algebras. The Az ma martingales appear as examples of white noise on a Hopf algebra which is a deformation of the Heisenberg group. The book will be of interest to probabilists and quantum probabilists. Specialists in algebraic structures who are curious about the role of their concepts in probablility theory as well as quantum theory may find the book interesting. The reader should havesome knowledge of functional analysis, operator algebras, and probability theory.

  1. Defence White Paper 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    nurtured, particularly in Australia’s highly competitive labour market. The Government recognises that Defence’s approach to its people must be... satisfaction , increase attraction and retention, improve cost-effectiveness and support the contemporary Total Force employment model. Defence White...improve job satisfaction and thereby increase attraction and retention in areas of critical skill. Recruiting 10.13 To ensure that we have the high

  2. White in architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Hašič, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Throughout life, human beings are continuously in contact with colours and shapes. Some people are well aware of and understand their influence, while others are not aware or do not pay attention. Our feelings are often associated with certain colours. We tend to paint our living environment in mood-enhancing shades and cover ourselves with our favourite colours and materials. The colour that attracts my emotions is white, therefore I set out to dedicate my research to its nature and to find ...

  3. Warm Absorber Diagnostics of AGN Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, Timothy

    Warm absorbers and related phenomena are observable manifestations of outflows or winds from active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have great potential value. Understanding AGN outflows is important for explaining the mass budgets of the central accreting black hole, and also for understanding feedback and the apparent co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. In the X-ray band warm absorbers are observed as photoelectric absorption and resonance line scattering features in the 0.5-10 keV energy band; the UV band also shows resonance line absorption. Warm absorbers are common in low luminosity AGN and they have been extensively studied observationally. They may play an important role in AGN feedback, regulating the net accretion onto the black hole and providing mechanical energy to the surroundings. However, fundamental properties of the warm absorbers are not known: What is the mechanism which drives the outflow?; what is the gas density in the flow and the geometrical distribution of the outflow?; what is the explanation for the apparent relation between warm absorbers and the surprising quasi-relativistic 'ultrafast outflows' (UFOs)? We propose a focused set of model calculations that are aimed at synthesizing observable properties of warm absorber flows and associated quantities. These will be used to explore various scenarios for warm absorber dynamics in order to answer the questions in the previous paragraph. The guiding principle will be to examine as wide a range as possible of warm absorber driving mechanisms, geometry and other properties, but with as careful consideration as possible to physical consistency. We will build on our previous work, which was a systematic campaign for testing important class of scenarios for driving the outflows. We have developed a set of tools that are unique and well suited for dynamical calculations including radiation in this context. We also have state-of-the-art tools for generating synthetic spectra, which are

  4. Decoding white coat hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Dennis A; Park, Alex

    2017-01-01

    There is arguably no less understood or more intriguing problem in hypertension that the “white coat” condition, the standard concept of which is significantly blood pressure reading obtained by medical personnel of authoritative standing than that obtained by more junior and less authoritative personnel and by the patients themselves. Using hospital-initiated ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, the while effect manifests as initial and ending pressure elevations, and, in treated patients, a low daytime profile. The effect is essentially systolic. Pure diastolic white coat hypertension appears to be exceedingly rare. On the basis of the studies, we believe that the white coat phenomenon is a common, periodic, neuro-endocrine reflex conditioned by anticipation of having the blood pressure taken and the fear of what this measurement may indicate concerning future illness. It does not change with time, or with prolonged association with the physician, particularly with advancing years, it may be superimposed upon essential hypertension, and in patients receiving hypertensive medication, blunting of the nighttime dip, which occurs in about half the patients, may be a compensatory mechanisms, rather than an indication of cardiovascular risk. Rather than the blunted dip, the morning surge or the widened pulse pressure, cardiovascular risk appears to be related to elevation of the average night time pressure. PMID:28352632

  5. White dwarf planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonsor Amy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The recognition that planets may survive the late stages of stellar evolution, and the prospects for finding them around White Dwarfs, are growing. We discuss two aspects governing planetary survival through stellar evolution to the White Dwarf stage. First we discuss the case of a single planet, and its survival under the effects of stellar mass loss, radius expansion, and tidal orbital decay as the star evolves along the Asymptotic Giant Branch. We show that, for stars initially of 1 − 5 M⊙, any planets within about 1 − 5 AU will be engulfed, this distance depending on the stellar and planet masses and the planet's eccentricity. Planets engulfed by the star's envelope are unlikely to survive. Hence, planets surviving the Asymptotic Giant Branch phase will probably be found beyond ∼ 2 AU for a 1  M⊙ progenitor and ∼ 10 AU for a 5 M⊙ progenitor. We then discuss the evolution of two-planet systems around evolving stars. As stars lose mass, planet–planet interactions become stronger, and many systems stable on the Main Sequence become destabilised following evolution of the primary. The outcome of such instabilities is typically the ejection of one planet, with the survivor being left on an eccentric orbit. These eccentric planets could in turn be responsible for feeding planetesimals into the neighbourhood of White Dwarfs, causing observed pollution and circumstellar discs.

  6. Global warming from an energy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    Global climate change and energy are integrally related. The majority of greenhouse gas emissions are the result of energy production and use; at the same time, warming will affect energy patterns in California through physical increases in energy demand, physical changes in energy supply, and changes in both energy end-use patterns and supplies resulting from climate-change policies. There seems to be a growing political consensus that the world (as well as the state) needs to act soon to minimize further commitment to future warming. While California is not likely to experience the physical changes resulting from a warmer climate for years or perhaps decades, policy responses to the warming issue may cause more immediate impacts. This chapter will discuss how policy response to potential warming may be the most significant early impact of the issue on California's energy system. Makers of energy policy face the dilemma of deciding how to respond to the climate warming issue in the face of scientific uncertainties about its timing and seriousness. The chapter will conclude by presenting a conceptual framework for dealing with this dilemma, along with general recommendations for action

  7. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge.

  8. Global warming: Towards a strategy for Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    A discussion paper is provided as background to a proposed public review of a strategy for Ontario's response to global warming. Global warming arises from the generation of greenhouse gases, which come from the use of fossil fuels, the use of chlorofluorocarbons, and deforestation. Energy policy is the backbone of achieving climate stability since the burning of fossil fuels releases most of the greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide. Canada is, by international standards, a very energy-intensive country and is among the world's largest emitters of carbon dioxide on a per capita basis. Ontario is the largest energy-using province in Canada, and fossil fuels represent over 80% of provincial energy use. A proposed goal for Ontario is to provide leadership in stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases, while minimizing the social, economic, and environmental costs in Ontario of adapting to global warming. A proposed first step to address global warming is to achieve reductions in expected emissions of the greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide, so that levels by the year 2000 are lower than in 1989. Current policies and regulations helping to reduce the greenhouse effect include some of the current controls on automotive emissions and the adoption by the provincial electric utility of targets to reduce electricity demand. New initiatives include establishment of minimum energy efficiency standards and reduction of peak-day electricity use. Action steps for future consideration are detailed in the categories of greenhouse gas emissions reductions, carbon dioxide absorption, and research and analysis into global warming

  9. Thyroid storm and warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Joseph A; Gliga, Louise; Nagalla, Srikanth

    2017-08-01

    Graves' disease is often associated with other autoimmune disorders, including rare associations with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). We describe a unique presentation of thyroid storm and warm AIHA diagnosed concurrently in a young female with hyperthyroidism. The patient presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and altered mental status. Laboratory studies revealed hemoglobin 3.9g/dL, platelets 171×10 9 L -1 , haptoglobin storm and warm AIHA. She was started on glucocorticoids to treat both warm AIHA and thyroid storm, as well as antithyroid medications, propranolol and folic acid. Due to profound anemia and hemodynamic instability, the patient was transfused two units of uncrossmatched packed red blood cells slowly and tolerated this well. She was discharged on methimazole as well as a prolonged prednisone taper, and achieved complete resolution of the thyrotoxicosis and anemia at one month. Hyperthyroidism can affect all three blood cell lineages of the hematopoietic system. Anemia can be seen in 10-20% of patients with thyrotoxicosis. Several autoimmune processes can lead to anemia in Graves' disease, including pernicious anemia, celiac disease, and warm AIHA. This case illustrates a rarely described presentation of a patient with Graves' disease presenting with concurrent thyroid storm and warm AIHA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. SU-F-T-35: Optimization of Bladder and Rectal Doses Using a Multi-Lumen Intracavitary Applicator for Gynecological Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laoui, S; Dietrich, S; Sehgal, V; Al-Ghazi, M [University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Radiation dose delivery for endometrial cancer using HDR techniques is limited by dose to bladder and rectum. A dosimetric study was performed using Varian Capri vaginal brachytherapy applicator to determine the optimal channel configuration which minimizes dose to bladder and rectum, while providing good target coverage. Methods: A total of 17 patients, 63 plans clinically delivered, and 252 simulated plans using Varian BrachyVision planning system were generated to investigate optimal channel configuration which results in minimum dose to bladder and rectum while providing adequate target coverage. The Capri applicator consists of 13 lumens arranged in two concentric rings, one central lumen and six lumens per ring. Manual dose shaping is invariably required to lower the dose to critical organs. Three-dimensional plans were simulated for 4 channel arrangements, all 13 channels, channel 12 o’clock (close to bladder) and 6 o’clock (close to rectum) deactivated, central channel deactivated, and central channel in addition to 12 o’clock and 6 o’clock deactivated. A relationship between V100, the volume that receives the prescribed dose, and the amount of curie-seconds required to deliver it, was established. Results: Using all 13 channels results in maximum dose to bladder and rectum. Deactivating central channel in addition to 12 o’clock and 6 o’clock resulted in minimizing bladder and rectum doses but compromised target coverage. The relationship between V100, the volume that receives the prescribed dose, and the curie seconds was found to be linear. Conclusion: Deactivating channels 12 o’clock and 6 o’clock was shown to be the optimal configuration leading to minimum dose to bladder and rectum without compromising target coverage. The linear relationship between V100 and the curie- seconds can be used as a verification parameter.

  11. Monte Carlo simulations used to calculate the energy deposited in the coronary artery lumen as a function of iodine concentration and photon energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocine, Nora; Meignan, Michel; Masset, Hélène

    2018-04-01

    To better understand the risks of cumulative medical X-ray investigations and the possible causal role of contrast agent on the coronary artery wall, the correlation between iodinated contrast media and the increase of energy deposited in the coronary artery lumen as a function of iodine concentration and photon energy is investigated. The calculations of energy deposition have been performed using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation codes, namely PENetration and Energy LOss of Positrons and Electrons (PENELOPE) and Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX). Exposure of a cylinder phantom, artery and a metal stent (AISI 316L) to several X-ray photon beams were simulated. For the energies used in cardiac imaging the energy deposited in the coronary artery lumen increases with the quantity of iodine. Monte Carlo calculations indicate a strong dependence of the energy enhancement factor (EEF) on photon energy and iodine concentration. The maximum value of EEF is equal to 25; this factor is showed for 83 keV and for 400 mg Iodine/mL. No significant impact of the stent is observed on the absorbed dose in the artery for incident X-ray beams with mean energies of 44, 48, 52 and 55 keV. A strong correlation was shown between the increase in the concentration of iodine and the energy deposited in the coronary artery lumen for the energies used in cardiac imaging and over the energy range between 44 and 55 keV. The data provided by this study could be useful for creating new medical imaging protocols to obtain better diagnostic information with a lower level of radiation exposure.

  12. The 1.7 Å resolution structure of At2g44920, a pentapeptide-repeat protein in the thylakoid lumen of Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Shuisong; McGookey, Michael E.; Tinch, Stuart L.; Jones, Alisha N.; Jayaraman, Seetharaman; Tong, Liang; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The crystal structure of At2g44920, a pentapeptide repeat protein (PRP) from Arabidopsis thaliana, has been determined at 1.7 Å resolution. The structure represents the first PRP protein whose subcellular localization has been experimentally confirmed to be the thylakoid lumen of a plant species. At2g44920 belongs to a diverse family (Pfam PF00805) of pentapeptide-repeat proteins (PRPs) that are present in all known organisms except yeast. PRPs contain at least eight tandem-repeating sequences of five amino acids with an approximate consensus sequence (STAV)(D/N)(L/F)(S/T/R)(X). Recent crystal structures show that PRPs adopt a highly regular four-sided right-handed β-helical structure consisting mainly of type II and type IV β-turns, sometimes referred to as a repeated five-residue (or Rfr) fold. Among sequenced genomes, PRP genes are most abundant in cyanobacteria, leading to speculation that PRPs play an important role in the unique lifestyle of photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Despite the recent structural characterization of several cyanobacterial PRPs, most of their functions remain unknown. Plants, whose chloroplasts are of cyanobacterial origin, have only four PRP genes in their genomes. At2g44920 is one of three PRPs located in the thylakoid lumen. Here, the crystal structure of a double methionine mutant of residues 81–224 of At2g44920, the naturally processed fragment of one of its full-length isoforms, is reported at 1.7 Å resolution. The structure of At2g44920 consists of the characteristic Rfr fold with five uninterrupted coils made up of 25 pentapeptide repeats and α-helical elements capping both termini. A disulfide bridge links the two α-helices with a conserved loop between the helical elements at its C-terminus. This structure represents the first structure of a PRP protein whose subcellular location has been experimentally confirmed to be the thylakoid lumen in a plant species

  13. IL-17A promotes protective IgA responses and expression of other potential effectors against the lumen-dwelling enteric parasite Giardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Sara M; Manthey, Carolin F; Le, Christine; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Gima, Lauren; Abrahim, Andrew; Cao, Anthony T; Hanson, Elaine M; Kolls, Jay K; Raz, Eyal; Cong, Yingzi; Eckmann, Lars

    2015-09-01

    Giardia lamblia is a leading protozoan cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. It colonizes the lumen and epithelial surface of the small intestine, but does not invade the mucosa. Acute infection causes only minimal mucosal inflammation. Effective immune defenses exist, yet their identity and mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Interleukin (IL)-17A has emerged as an important cytokine involved in inflammation and antimicrobial defense against bacterial pathogens at mucosal surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate that IL-17A has a crucial function in host defense against Giardia infection. Using murine infection models with G. muris and G. lamblia, we observed marked and selective induction of intestinal IL-17A with peak expression after 2 weeks. Th17 cells in the lamina propria and innate immune cells in the epithelial compartment of the small intestine were responsible for the IL-17A response. Experiments in gene-targeted mice revealed that the cytokine, and its cognate receptor IL-17RA, were required for eradication of the parasite. The actions of the cytokine were mediated by hematopoietic cells, and were required for the transport of IgA into the intestinal lumen, since IL-17A deficiency led to marked reduction of fecal IgA levels, as well as for increased intestinal expression of several other potential effectors, including β-defensin 1 and resistin-like molecule β. In contrast, intestinal hypermotility, another major antigiardial defense mechanism, was not impacted by IL-17A loss. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that IL-17A and IL-17 receptor signaling are essential for intestinal defense against the important lumen-dwelling intestinal parasite Giardia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Studies of global warming and global energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Atsushi

    1993-01-01

    Global warming caused by increase in atmospheric CO 2 concentration has been the focus of many recent global energy studies. CO 2 is emitted to the atmosphere mainly from the combustion of fossil fuels. This means that global warming is fundamentally a problem of the global energy system. An analysis of the findings of recent global energy studies is made in this report. The results are categorized from the viewpoint of concern about global warming. The analysis includes energy use and CO 2 emissions, measures taken to restrain CO 2 emissions and the cost of such measure, and suggestions for long term global energy generation. Following this comparative analysis, each of the studies is reviewed in detail. (author) 63 refs

  15. The impacts and costs of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyre, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    There is now a scientific consensus that current rates of accumulation of greenhouses gases in the atmosphere will result in significant global warming and climate change. These changes are likely to have important impacts on a wide range of human activities and the natural environment. There has now been a considerable weight of literature published on the impacts of global warming, much of it very recent. This report seeks to summarise the important results, to analyse the uncertainties and to make a preliminary analysis of the feasibility of monetarising these environmental costs. The impacts of global warming are divided into ten major categories: agriculture, forests and forestry, terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity, hydrology and water resources, sea level rise and coastal zones, energy, infrastructure/transport/industry, human health and air quality, oceans, and cryospheric impacts. The results of major summary reports are analysed, notably the report of Working Group II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (the IPCC). (author)

  16. Stark Broadening and White Dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Milan S.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available White dwarf and pre-white dwarfs are the best types of stars for the application of Stark broadening research results in astrophysics, since in the atmospheres of these stars physical conditions are very favorable for this line broadening mechanism - in hot hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs and pre-white dwarfs Teff = 75 000–180 000 K and log g = 5.5–8 [cgs]. Even for much cooler DA and DB white dwarfs with the typical effective temperatures 10 000-20 000 K, Stark broadening is usually the dominant broadening mechanism. In this review, Stark broadening in white dwarf spectra is considered, and the attention is drawn to the STARK-B database (http://stark-b.obspm.fr/, containing the parameters needed for analysis and synthesis of white dwarf spectra, as well as for the collective efforts to develop the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center.

  17. Warm Inflation with Nonminimal Derivative Coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashidi, N.; Nozari, Kourosh; Shoukrani, M.

    2014-01-01

    We study the effects of the nonminimal derivative coupling on the dissipative dynamics of the warm inflation where the scalar field is nonminimally coupled to gravity via its kinetic term. We present a detailed calculation of the cosmological perturbations in this setup. We use the recent observational data from the joint data set of WMAP9 + BAO + H 0 and also the Planck satellite data to constrain our model parameters for natural and chaotic inflation potentials. We study also the levels of non-Gaussianity in this warm inflation model and we confront the result with recent observational data from the Planck satellite

  18. Is the enhancement of global warming important?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, M.C.R.; Barrett, J.

    2001-01-01

    There is no doubt that global warming is important; without it the Earth's surface would have a mean temperature of 33 o C lower than it has currently. The IPCC maintains that human activities are to blame for the observed increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere since pre-industrial times. There are some doubts about whether global warming is being enhanced by the activities of the human race. This article reviews these doubts and the proposed remedies to the alleged enhancement. (author)

  19. Methane Cycling in a Warming Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyce, G. L.; Megonigal, P.; Rich, R.; Kirwan, M. L.; Herbert, E. R.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal wetlands are global hotspots of carbon (C) storage, but the future of these systems is uncertain. In June 2016, we initiated an in-situ, active, whole-ecosystem warming experiment in the Smithsonian's Global Change Research Wetland to quantify how warming and elevated CO2 affect the stability of coastal wetland soil C pools and contemporary rates of C sequestration. Transects are located in two plant communities, dominated by C3 sedges or C4 grasses. The experiment has a gradient design with air and soil warming treatments ranging from ambient to +5.1 °C and heated plots consistently maintain their target temperature year-round. In April 2017, an elevated CO2 treatment was crossed with temperature in the C3community. Ongoing measurements include soil elevation, C fluxes, porewater chemistry and redox potential, and above- and below-ground growth and biomass. In both years, warming increased methane (CH4) emissions (measured at 3-4 week intervals) from spring through fall at the C3 site, but had little effect on emissions from the C4 site. Winter (Dec-Mar) emissions showed no treatment effect. Stable isotope analysis of dissolved CH4 and DIC also indicated that warming had differing effects on CH4 pathways in the two vegetation communities. To better understand temperature effects on rates of CH4 production and oxidation, 1 m soil cores were collected from control areas of the marsh in summer 2017 and incubated at temperatures ranging from 4 °C to 35 °C. Warming increased CH4 production and oxidation rates in surface samples and oxidation rates in the rooting zone samples from both sites, but temperature responses in deep (1 m) soil samples were minimal. In the surface and rooting zone samples, production rates were also consistently higher in C3 soils compared to C4 soils, but, contrary to our expectations, the temperature response was stronger in the C4 soils. However, oxidation in C3 rooting zone samples did have a strong temperature response. The

  20. Forecasting effects of global warming on biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botkin, D.B.; Saxe, H.; Araújo, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    The demand for accurate forecasting of the effects of global warming on biodiversity is growing, but current methods for forecasting have limitations. In this article, we compare and discuss the different uses of four forecasting methods: (1) models that consider species individually, (2) niche...... and theoretical ecological results suggest that many species could be at risk from global warming, during the recent ice ages surprisingly few species became extinct. The potential resolution of this conundrum gives insights into the requirements for more accurate and reliable forecasting. Our eight suggestions...

  1. Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, L.; Wenzel, H.

    environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global...... warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction....

  2. Global Warming - Are We on Thin Ice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Compton J.

    2007-01-01

    The evidence for global warming is very conclusive for the past 400-500 years. Prior to the 16th century, proxy surface temperature data are regionally good but lack a global distribution. The speaker will review surface temperature reconstruction based upon ice cores, coral cores, tree rings, deep sea sediments, and bore holes and discuss the controversy surrounding global warming. This will be contrasted with the excellent data we have from the satellite era of earth observations the past 30+ years that enables the quantitative study of climate across earth science disciplines.

  3. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  4. A real-time Global Warming Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, K; Allen, M R; Forster, P M; Otto, F E L; Mitchell, D M; Matthews, H D; Frame, D J

    2017-11-13

    We propose a simple real-time index of global human-induced warming and assess its robustness to uncertainties in climate forcing and short-term climate fluctuations. This index provides improved scientific context for temperature stabilisation targets and has the potential to decrease the volatility of climate policy. We quantify uncertainties arising from temperature observations, climate radiative forcings, internal variability and the model response. Our index and the associated rate of human-induced warming is compatible with a range of other more sophisticated methods to estimate the human contribution to observed global temperature change.

  5. Use of emulsion for warm mix asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahabir Panda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to increase in energy costs and emission problems in hot mix asphalt usually used, it brought a great interest to the researchers to develop the warm mix technology for pavement constructions. Commonly known as warm mix asphalt (WMA, it is a typical method in the bituminous paving technology, which allows production and placement of bituminous mixes at lower temperatures than that used for hot mix asphalt (HMA. The WMA involves an environmental friendly production process that utilises organic additives, chemical additives and water based technologies. The organic and chemical additives are normally very costly and still involve certain amount of environmental issues. These factors motivated the authors to take up this technology using simple, environment friendly and somewhat cost effective procedure. In this study, an attempt has been made to prepare warm mixes by first pre-coating the aggregates with medium setting bitumen emulsion (MS and then mixing the semi-coated aggregates with VG 30 bitumen at a lower temperature than normally required. After a number of trials it was observed that mostly three mixing temperatures, namely temperatures 110 °C, 120 °C and 130 °C were appropriate to form the bituminous mixes with satisfactory homogeneity and consistency and as such were maintained throughout this study. Marshall samples for paving mixes were prepared using this procedure for dense bituminous macadam (DBM gradings as per the specifications of Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORTH and subsequently Marshall properties of the resultant mixes were studied with the main objective of deciding the different parameters that were considered for development of appropriate warm mix asphalt. In this study it has been observed that out of three mixing temperatures tried, the mixes prepared at 120 °C with bitumen-emulsion composition of 80B:20E for DBM warm mix, offer highest Marshall stability and highest indirect tensile strength

  6. White thrombus formation in blood tubing lines in a chronic hemodialysis unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watnick, Suzanne; Stooksbury, Michael; Winter, Rolf; Riscoe, Michael; Cohen, David M

    2008-03-01

    Previous reports have described white particulate matter in banked blood components, but no prior public reports describe such matter in blood tubing during the course of routine in-center hemodialysis. This report describes the events, investigations, and preliminary conclusions associated with the spontaneous formation of adherent white thrombus in the venous and arterial blood lines during routine in-center hemodialysis treatments. Design setting, participants, & measurements: This investigation occurred at the Portland Veterans Administration Medical Center (PVAMC) Hemodialysis Unit from October 2006 through April 2007. Sixty-eight variables regarding demographics, medical history and dialysis treatments were collected on our 34 chronic hemodialysis outpatients. Over a 5-wk interval, 62% (21 of 34) of the chronic hemodialysis patients unexpectedly developed a white precipitate adhering to the lumenal surface of their dialysis blood tubing, with 73 of 580 chronic dialysis treatments exhibiting the phenomenon. Microscopic and biochemical analyses were consistent with white thrombus, formed by an aggregation of platelets and fibrin. An alert was issued and other in-center hemodialysis units noted similar findings. This was remedied by the removal of specific tubing. Both patient-specific and tubing-specific factors may have been operative. Although patient safety was not adversely affected, assessment of clinical and manufacturing variables potentially affecting platelet activation is warranted.

  7. Intrinsic white-light emission from layered hybrid perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohner, Emma R; Jaffe, Adam; Bradshaw, Liam R; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2014-09-24

    We report on the second family of layered perovskite white-light emitters with improved photoluminescence quantum efficiencies (PLQEs). Upon near-ultraviolet excitation, two new Pb-Cl and Pb-Br perovskites emit broadband "cold" and "warm" white light, respectively, with high color rendition. Emission from large, single crystals indicates an origin from the bulk material and not surface defect sites. The Pb-Br perovskite has a PLQE of 9%, which is undiminished after 3 months of continuous irradiation. Our mechanistic studies indicate that the emission has contributions from strong electron-phonon coupling in a deformable lattice and from a distribution of intrinsic trap states. These hybrids provide a tunable platform for combining the facile processability of organic materials with the structural definition of crystalline, inorganic solids.

  8. White book on energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, N.

    2003-11-01

    The energy policy in France has to answer two challenges: the first one is the climatic change and the greenhouse effect, the second one is to conceive an energy policy taking into account the evolutions and economical realities. four objectives have to guide the action of the government, the guarantee to the right of access to energy for every citizen, the fight against the climatic warming, the preservation of a national independence, the keeping of a competitive energy. This book includes a summary of works and conclusions of the National Debate on energies, hold during the first semester of 2003, the government propositions, a whole of cards detailing some aspects of government propositions, especially financial propositions. (N.C.)

  9. The White Rabbit project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  10. Humid Heat Waves at different warming levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, S.; Sillmann, J.; Sterl, A.

    2017-12-01

    The co-occurrence of consecutive hot and humid days during a heat wave can strongly affect human health. Here, we quantify humid heat wave hazard in the recent past and at different levels of global warming.We find that the magnitude and apparent temperature peak of heat waves, such as the ones observed in Chicago in 1995 and China in 2003, have been strongly amplified by humidity. Climate model projections suggest that the percentage of area where heat wave magnitude and peak are amplified by humidity increases with increasing warming levels. Considering the effect of humidity at 1.5o and 2o global warming, highly populated regions, such as the Eastern US and China, could experience heat waves with magnitude greater than the one in Russia in 2010 (the most severe of the present era).The apparent temperature peak during such humid-heat waves can be greater than 55o. According to the US Weather Service, at this temperature humans are very likely to suffer from heat strokes. Humid-heat waves with these conditions were never exceeded in the present climate, but are expected to occur every other year at 4o global warming. This calls for respective adaptation measures in some key regions of the world along with international climate change mitigation efforts.

  11. Abrupt warming of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, D. E.

    2011-07-19

    Coral reef ecosystems, often referred to as “marine rainforests,” concentrate the most diverse life in the oceans. Red Sea reef dwellers are adapted in a very warm environment, fact that makes them vulnerable to further and rapid warming. The detection and understanding of abrupt temperature changes is an important task, as ecosystems have more chances to adapt in a slowly rather than in a rapid changing environment. Using satellite derived sea surface and ground based air temperatures, it is shown that the Red Sea is going through an intense warming initiated in the mid-90s, with evidence for an abrupt increase after 1994 (0.7°C difference pre and post the shift). The air temperature is found to be a key parameter that influences the Red Sea marine temperature. The comparisons with Northern Hemisphere temperatures revealed that the observed warming is part of global climate change trends. The hitherto results also raise additional questions regarding other broader climatic impacts over the area.

  12. CERN plans global-warming experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    De Laine, M

    1998-01-01

    A controversial theory that proposes that cosmic rays are responsible for global warming, is going to be tested at CERN. Experimentalists will use a cloud chamber to mimic the Earth's atmosphere in order to try and find out if cloud formation is influenced by solar activity (1 page).

  13. The global warming hiatus: Slowdown or redistribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Hai; Boyer, Tim; Trenberth, Kevin; Karl, Thomas R.; Xie, Shang-Ping; Nieves, Veronica; Tung, Ka-Kit; Roemmich, Dean

    2016-11-01

    Global mean surface temperatures (GMST) exhibited a smaller rate of warming during 1998-2013, compared to the warming in the latter half of the 20th Century. Although, not a "true" hiatus in the strict definition of the word, this has been termed the "global warming hiatus" by IPCC (2013). There have been other periods that have also been defined as the "hiatus" depending on the analysis. There are a number of uncertainties and knowledge gaps regarding the "hiatus." This report reviews these issues and also posits insights from a collective set of diverse information that helps us understand what we do and do not know. One salient insight is that the GMST phenomenon is a surface characteristic that does not represent a slowdown in warming of the climate system but rather is an energy redistribution within the oceans. Improved understanding of the ocean distribution and redistribution of heat will help better monitor Earth's energy budget and its consequences. A review of recent scientific publications on the "hiatus" shows the difficulty and complexities in pinpointing the oceanic sink of the "missing heat" from the atmosphere and the upper layer of the oceans, which defines the "hiatus." Advances in "hiatus" research and outlooks (recommendations) are given in this report.

  14. Qualitative models of global warming amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milošević, U.; Bredeweg, B.; de Kleer, J.; Forbus, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest from ecological experts to create qualitative models of phenomena for which numerical information is sparse or missing. We present a number of successful models in the field of environmental science, namely, the domain of global warming. The motivation behind the effort is

  15. NASA: Black soot fuels global warming

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    New research from NASA's Goddard Space Center scientists suggests emissions of black soot have been altering the way sunlight reflects off Earth's snow. The research indicates the soot could be responsible for as much as 25 percent of global warming over the past century (assorted news items, 1 paragraph each).

  16. Wind changes above warm Agulhas Current eddies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roualt, M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea-surface temperature (SST), altimetry derived sea-level anomalies (SLA) and surface current are used south of the Agulhas Current to identify warm core mesoscale ocean eddies presenting a distinct SST perturbation superior to 1(supo...

  17. Wind changes above warm Agulhas Current eddies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rouault, M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available speeds above the eddies at the instantaneous scale; 20 % of cases had incomplete data due to partial global coverage by the scatterometer for one path. For cases where the wind is stronger above warm eddies, there is no relationship between the increase...

  18. Can warming particles enter global climate discussions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, Tami C

    2007-01-01

    'Soot' or 'black carbon', which comes from incomplete combustion, absorbs light and warms the atmosphere. Although there have been repeated suggestions that reduction of black carbon could be a viable part of decreasing global warming, it has not yet been considered when choosing actions to reduce climatic impact. In this paper, I examine four conceptual barriers to the consideration of aerosols in global agreements. I conclude that some of the major objections to considering aerosols under hemispheric or global agreements are illusory because: (1) a few major sources will be addressed by local regulations, but the remainder may not be addressed by traditional air quality management; (2) climate forcing by carbon particles is not limited to 'hot spots'-about 90% of it occurs at relatively low concentrations; (3) while aerosol science is complex, the most salient characteristics of aerosol behavior can be condensed into tractable metrics including, but not limited to, the global warming potential; (4) despite scientific uncertainties, reducing all aerosols from major sources of black carbon will reduce direct climate warming with a very high probability. This change in climate forcing accounts for at least 25% of the accompanying CO 2 forcing with significant probability (25% for modern diesel engines, 90% for superemitting diesels, and 55% for cooking with biofuels). Thus, this fraction of radiative forcing should not be ignored

  19. Greenhouse warming and changes in sea level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1989-01-01

    It is likely that the anticipated warming due to the effect of increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will lead to a further and faster rise in world mean sea level. There are many processes in the climate system controlling sea level, but the most important

  20. Dynamical Analysis of the Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is a major concern nowadays. Weather conditions are changing, and it seems that human activity is one of the main causes. In fact, since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the burning of fossil fuels has increased the nonnatural emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that absorbs the infrared radiation produced by the reflection of the sunlight on the Earth’s surface, trapping the heat in the atmosphere. Global warming and the associated climate changes are being the subject of intensive research due to their major impact on social, economic, and health aspects of human life. This paper studies the global warming trend in the perspective of dynamical systems and fractional calculus, which is a new standpoint in this context. Worldwide distributed meteorological stations and temperature records for the last 100 years are analysed. It is shown that the application of Fourier transforms and power law trend lines leads to an assertive representation of the global warming dynamics and a simpler analysis of its characteristics.

  1. Laboratory evaluation of warm mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    "Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) has been traditionally produced at a discharge temperature of between : 280F (138C) and 320 F (160C), resulting in high energy (fuel) costs and generation of greenhouse : gases. The goal for Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) is to...

  2. Warm damper for a superconducting rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    A warm damper for a superconducting rotor is described which uses a laminar assembly of a conductive tube and a plurality of support tubes. The conductive tube is soldered to axially adjacent support tubes and the resulting composite tube is explosively welded to two or more support tubes disposed adjacent to its radially inner and outer surfaces

  3. Abrupt warming of the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitsos, D. E.; Hoteit, I.; Prihartato, P. K.; Chronis, T.; Triantafyllou, G.; Abualnaja, Y.

    2011-07-01

    Coral reef ecosystems, often referred to as “marine rainforests,” concentrate the most diverse life in the oceans. Red Sea reef dwellers are adapted in a very warm environment, fact that makes them vulnerable to further and rapid warming. The detection and understanding of abrupt temperature changes is an important task, as ecosystems have more chances to adapt in a slowly rather than in a rapid changing environment. Using satellite derived sea surface and ground based air temperatures, it is shown that the Red Sea is going through an intense warming initiated in the mid-90s, with evidence for an abrupt increase after 1994 (0.7°C difference pre and post the shift). The air temperature is found to be a key parameter that influences the Red Sea marine temperature. The comparisons with Northern Hemisphere temperatures revealed that the observed warming is part of global climate change trends. The hitherto results also raise additional questions regarding other broader climatic impacts over the area.

  4. Can Global Warming Heat Up Environmental Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzatenta, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Bronx Community College (CUNY) launched "Global Warming Campus Awareness and Action Days" in celebration of Earth Day, 2007. The purpose of this program was to raise awareness of environmental issues in the college population, especially students. To let more students have a grasp of what Environmental Education (EE) is all about, the author…

  5. Global warming -- Science and anti-science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preining, O. [Univ. of Vienna, Wien (Austria). Inst. for Experimental Physics]|[Austrian Academy of Sciences, Wien (Austria). Clean Air Commission

    1995-06-01

    The global warming debate has sparked many facts activities in almost all sectors of human endeavors. There are the hard facts, the measurements of the greenhouse gases, the statistics of human activities responsible for emissions, the demographic figures. There are the soft facts, the interpretations of the hard facts requiring additional assumptions. There are the media, the press, television, for whom environmental problems make good stories, these can be used to rise emotions, to make heroes and antiheroes. There are politicians, the global warming debate can be used even in electron campaigns. Global warming is a topic within and beyond science. The judgment (and hence use) of scientific facts is overwhelmingly influenced by the ``Weltbild`` (underlying beliefs how the world operates), and consequently opposing positions of well-known scientists arise. There are the attempts to invent futures of man on Earth: policies, regulations, laws on nation, international, and global levels shall facilitate a change in the basic behavior of all men. The global warming issue has many facets and cannot be successfully discussed without including, e.g., the North-South dialogue, world population, etc.

  6. Warm Hydroforming of Lightweight Metal Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aginagalde, A.; Orus, A.; Esnaola, J. A.; Torca, I.; Galdos, L.; Garcia, C.

    2007-01-01

    Hydroforming is well known in steel applications for automotive industry, where complicated shapes can be get with high strength to weight ratios. Nevertheless, the poor formability of light alloys at room temperature has limited the application of hydroforming technology for aluminum and magnesium parts. Increasing the temperature of these materials allows substantially greater elongation without fracture. Warm forming strategy is applied in conventional processes, such as rolling and forging, in order to get complex shapes, but still rare in hydroforming technology. This is the technical base of this research project: the development of the hydroforming process at warm working temperatures. The main tasks of the initial phases of the research were the material characterization, and the heated fluid and tooling system design and set up for warm hydroforming of lightweight alloys. Once these goals were accomplished the present paper shows the obtained results. The uniaxial tensile deformation of 5754H111, 6082-T6, 6082-O and AZ31B at the temperature range of 25 deg. C - 250 deg. C is presented as the output of the material characterization task. Both the system features and the results obtained for a bulge test geometry carried out with a warm hydroforming system are also presented. The selected alloys show an improvement in formability at the studied temperature range under both uniaxial and biaxial state of stress

  7. National contributions to observed global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, H Damon; Graham, Tanya L; Keverian, Serge; Lamontagne, Cassandra; Seto, Donny; Smith, Trevor J

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in identifying national contributions to global warming as a way of allocating historical responsibility for observed climate change. This task is made difficult by uncertainty associated with national estimates of historical emissions, as well as by difficulty in estimating the climate response to emissions of gases with widely varying atmospheric lifetimes. Here, we present a new estimate of national contributions to observed climate warming, including CO 2 emissions from fossil fuels and land-use change, as well as methane, nitrous oxide and sulfate aerosol emissions While some countries’ warming contributions are reasonably well defined by fossil fuel CO 2 emissions, many countries have dominant contributions from land-use CO 2 and non-CO 2 greenhouse gas emissions, emphasizing the importance of both deforestation and agriculture as components of a country’s contribution to climate warming. Furthermore, because of their short atmospheric lifetime, recent sulfate aerosol emissions have a large impact on a country’s current climate contribution We show also that there are vast disparities in both total and per-capita climate contributions among countries, and that across most developed countries, per-capita contributions are not currently consistent with attempts to restrict global temperature change to less than 2 °C above pre-industrial temperatures. (paper)

  8. Study of the Mn-binding sites in photosystem II using antibodies raised against lumenal regions of the D1 and D2 reaction center proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmasso, Enrique Agustin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The experiments discussed in this thesis focus on identifying the protein segments or specific amino acids which provide ligands to the Mn cluster of photosystem II (PS II). This Mn cluster plays a central role in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PS II. The Mn cluster is thought to be bound by lumenal regions of the PS II reaction center proteins known as D1 and D2. First, several peptides were synthesized which correspond to specific lumenal segments of the D1 and D2 proteins. Next, polyclonal antibodies were successfully elicited using three of these peptides. The peptides recognized by these antibodies correspond to protein segments of the spinach reaction center proteins: Ile-321 to Ala-344 of D1 (D1-a), Asp-319 to Arg-334 of D1 (D1-b), and Val-300 to Asn-319 of D2 (D2-a). These antibodies were then used in assays which were developed to structurally or functionally probe the potential Mn-binding regions of the D1 and D2 proteins.

  9. High-resolution computed tomography evaluation of the bronchial lumen to vertebral body diameter and pulmonary artery to vertebral body diameter ratios in anesthetized ventilated normal cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Fowler, Tekla M; Cole, Robert C; Dillon, A Ray; Tillson, D Michael; Garbarino, Rachel; Barney, Sharron

    2017-10-01

    Objectives Bronchial lumen to pulmonary artery diameter (BA) ratio has been utilized to investigate pulmonary pathology on high-resolution CT images. Diseases affecting both the bronchi and pulmonary arteries render the BA ratio less useful. The purpose of the study was to establish bronchial lumen diameter to vertebral body diameter (BV) and pulmonary artery diameter to vertebral body diameter (AV) ratios in normal cats. Methods Using high-resolution CT images, 16 sets of measurements (sixth thoracic vertebral body [mid-body], each lobar bronchi and companion pulmonary artery diameter) were acquired from young adult female cats and 41 sets from pubertal female cats. Results Young adult and pubertal cat BV ratios were not statistically different from each other in any lung lobe. Significant differences between individual lung lobe BV ratios were noted on combined age group analysis. Caudal lung lobe AV ratios were significantly different between young adult and pubertal cats. All other lung lobe AV ratios were not significantly different. Caudal lung lobe AV ratios were significantly different from all other lung lobes but not from each other in both the young adult and pubertal cats. Conclusions and relevance BV ratio reference intervals determined for individual lung lobes could be applied to both young adult and pubertal cats. Separate AV ratios for individual lung lobes would be required for young adult and pubertal cats. These ratios should allow more accurate evaluation of cats with concurrent bronchial and pulmonary arterial disease.

  10. Akap350 Recruits Eb1 to The Spindle Poles, Ensuring Proper Spindle Orientation and Lumen Formation in 3d Epithelial Cell Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Evangelina; Tonucci, Facundo M; Hidalgo, Florencia; Ferretti, Anabela; Ibarra, Solange; Pariani, Alejandro; Vena, Rodrigo; Favre, Cristián; Girardini, Javier; Kierbel, Arlinet; Larocca, M Cecilia

    2017-11-02

    The organization of epithelial cells to form hollow organs with a single lumen requires the accurate three-dimensional arrangement of cell divisions. Mitotic spindle orientation is defined by signaling pathways that provide molecular links between specific spots at the cell cortex and astral microtubules, which have not been fully elucidated. AKAP350 is a centrosomal/Golgi scaffold protein, implicated in the regulation of microtubule dynamics. Using 3D epithelial cell cultures, we found that cells with decreased AKAP350 expression (AKAP350KD) formed polarized cysts with abnormal lumen morphology. Analysis of mitotic cells in AKAP350KD cysts indicated defective spindle alignment. We established that AKAP350 interacts with EB1, a microtubule associated protein that regulates spindle orientation, at the spindle poles. Decrease of AKAP350 expression lead to a significant reduction of EB1 levels at spindle poles and astral microtubules. Conversely, overexpression of EB1 rescued the defective spindle orientation induced by deficient AKAP350 expression. The specific delocalization of the AKAP350/EB1complex from the centrosome decreased EB1 levels at astral microtubules and lead to the formation of 3D-organotypic structures which resembled AKAP350KD cysts. We conclude that AKAP350 recruits EB1 to the spindle poles, ensuring EB1 presence at astral microtubules and proper spindle orientation during epithelial morphogenesis.

  11. Impact of warm winters on microbial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgander, Johanna; Rousk, Johannes; Axel Olsson, Pål

    2014-05-01

    Growth of soil bacteria has an asymmetrical response to higher temperature with a gradual increase with increasing temperatures until an optimum after which a steep decline occurs. In laboratory studies it has been shown that by exposing a soil bacterial community to a temperature above the community's optimum temperature for two months, the bacterial community grows warm-adapted, and the optimum temperature of bacterial growth shifts towards higher temperatures. This result suggests a change in the intrinsic temperature dependence of bacterial growth, as temperature influenced the bacterial growth even though all other factors were kept constant. An intrinsic temperature dependence could be explained by either a change in the bacterial community composition, exchanging less tolerant bacteria towards more tolerant ones, or it could be due to adaptation within the bacteria present. No matter what the shift in temperature tolerance is due to, the shift could have ecosystem scale implications, as winters in northern Europe are getting warmer. To address the question of how microbes and plants are affected by warmer winters, a winter-warming experiment was established in a South Swedish grassland. Results suggest a positive response in microbial growth rate in plots where winter soil temperatures were around 6 °C above ambient. Both bacterial and fungal growth (leucine incorporation, and acetate into ergosterol incorporation, respectively) appeared stimulated, and there are two candidate explanations for these results. Either (i) warming directly influence microbial communities by modulating their temperature adaptation, or (ii) warming indirectly affected the microbial communities via temperature induced changes in bacterial growth conditions. The first explanation is in accordance with what has been shown in laboratory conditions (explained above), where the differences in the intrinsic temperature relationships were examined. To test this explanation the

  12. Top emitting white OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, Patricia; Luessem, Bjoern; Leo, Karl [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, George-Baehr-Strasse 1, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Top emitting organic light emitting diodes (TOLEDs) provide a number of interesting opportunities for new applications, such as the opportunity to fabricate ITO-free devices by using opaque substrates. This makes it possible to manufacture low cost OLEDs for signage and lighting applications. A general top emitting device consists of highly reflecting metal contacts as anode and semitransparent cathode, the latter one for better outcouling reasons. In between several organic materials are deposited as charge transporting, blocking, and emission layers. Here, we show a top emitting white organic light emitting diode with silver electrodes arranged in a p-i-n structure with p- and n-doped charge transport layers. The centrical emission layer consists of two phosphorescent (red and green) and one fluorescent (blue) emitter systems separated by an ambipolar interlayer to avoid mutual exciton quenching. By adding an additional dielectric capping layer on top of the device stack, we achieve a reduction of the strong microcavity effects which appear due to the high reflection of both metal electrodes. Therefore, the outcoupled light shows broad and nearly angle-independent emission spectra, which is essential for white light emitting diodes.

  13. The White House saga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daković Nevena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Frank Capra expressed his gratitude to the immigrant dream come true by creating a brilliant cinematic myth about the American political system, presenting it as an 'inherently good' when in the hands of honest and good people. His 'morality fairytales', 'fantasies of good will' imbued with belief in restoration of old-new principles, offer complex reflections on an idealised Americanism of the 1930s which have become the foundation of representations of the American political system. The Capraesque narrative - 'a blend of optimism, humor, patriotism, and, to those who really understand his work, (and darkness, despair, and the need to fight for things you care about...' (Bassinger 1982: 48 - as a combination of all-American values, ordinary people and historical figures, a democracy myth - has been extended by an endless network of intertextual echoes in film and TV production. Following the developmental lines - through political melodrama, melodramatic politics and political soap opera - one will be led from Capra to the series The West Wing (1996 - 2006, House of Cards (2013 - 2015 and Madame Secretary (2014 - ; from the comprehensive Washington Postcard (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, 1939 to the focal points at the White House; from Capra's comedy to the saga of the fight against terrorism led by the president and both ordinary and trained American citizens (White House Down, 2013, Roland Emmerich.

  14. White dwarfs and revelations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltas, Ippocratis D.; Sawicki, Ignacy; Lopes, Ilidio

    2018-05-01

    We use the most recent, complete and independent measurements of masses and radii of white dwarfs in binaries to bound the class of non-trivial modified gravity theories, viable after GW170817/GRB170817, using its effect on the mass-radius relation of the stars. We show that the uncertainty in the latest data is sufficiently small that residual evolutionary effects, most notably the effect of core composition, finite temperature and envelope structure, must now accounted for if correct conclusions about the nature of gravity are to be made. We model corrections resulting from finite temperature and envelopes to a base Hamada-Salpeter cold equation of state and derive consistent bounds on the possible modifications of gravity in the stars' interiors, finding that the parameter quantifying the strength of the modification Y< 0.14 at 95% confidence, an improvement of a factor of three with respect to previous bounds. Finally, our analysis reveals some fundamental degeneracies between the theory of gravity and the precise chemical makeup of white dwarfs.

  15. White piedra in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiken, David A; Sekaran, Anand; Antaya, Richard J; Davis, Amy; Imaeda, Suguru; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2006-12-01

    White piedra is a fungal infection of the hair shaft caused by species of Trichosporon. Rarely has this infection been reported in the United States. Historically, infected individuals required shaving of their hair to achieve clearance of the infection. We sought to describe 8 cases of Trichosporon scalp infections seen in the northeastern United States. We conducted chart review and prospective evaluation of 7 girls and 1 boy seen in two dermatology practices in New Haven, Conn, and New York, NY. Seven girls, ages 4 to 16 years old, and one 4-year-old boy were determined to have Trichosporon scalp infection, all through culture. Of the 8 children who were available for follow-up, 7 had clearance of their infection with a combination of oral azole antifungal medication and azole antifungal shampoo, without shaving the scalp hair. This was a sample of patients from a localized region of the United States. White piedra is emerging as a commonly seen hair and scalp infection in the northeastern United States. Contrary to prior publications, scalp and hair infection may be successfully treated with a combination of oral azole antifungals and shampoos without shaving the scalp.

  16. Frequency of Deep Convective Clouds and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Teixeira, Joao

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effect of global warming on the formation of Deep Convective Clouds (DCC). It concludes that nature responds to global warming with an increase in strong convective activity. The frequency of DCC increases with global warming at the rate of 6%/decade. The increased frequency of DCC with global warming alone increases precipitation by 1.7%/decade. It compares the state of the art climate models' response to global warming, and concludes that the parametrization of climate models need to be tuned to more closely emulate the way nature responds to global warming.

  17. Warmed local anesthetic reduces pain of infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, J A; McDougall, E P

    1996-01-01

    The effect of warming local anesthetic on the amount of pain experienced during local infiltration was tested by comparing equal volumes of 40 degrees C- and 21 degrees C-infiltrates in each of 26 subjects. Six subjects were patients undergoing excision of two benign asymptomatic nevi in separate locations, and 20 subjects were healthy adult volunteers who were injected in bilateral antebrachial sites. The warmed and room temperature solutions were randomized to each side, so that each subject received both temperature injections in random order. All subjects and the injector were blinded. The rate of injection was time-controlled (0.05 ml/sec). Following both injections, subjects were asked to rate the pain experienced at each site. In addition, the subject was asked if there was no difference, a slight difference, or a substantial difference between the two sites. A two-tailed paired t-test was used to analyze the mean difference in pain scores for all subjects. Paired analysis of the pain scores for each subject eliminated intersubject variance of pain tolerance. The mean difference in pain score between the room temperature and warmed solutions was +1.5 (p < 0.0001). Of the 21 subjects (81%) who found the warmed solution less painful, 11 (52%) found the difference to be significant, while 10 (48%) found the difference to be slight. Two subjects (8%) found no difference between the two, while 3 subjects (11%) found the colder solution slightly less painful. We conclude that warming local anesthetic to 40 degrees C prior to subcutaneous injection is a simple, inexpensive means of reducing the pain of local infiltration.

  18. Pulsations in white dwarf stars

    OpenAIRE

    Van Grootel, Valérie; Fontaine, Gilles; Brassard, Pierre; Dupret, Marc-Antoine

    2017-01-01

    I will present a description of the six distinct families of pulsating white dwarfs that are currently known. Pulsations are present at various stages of the evolution (from hot, pre-white dwarfs to cool white dwarfs), at various stellar masses, and for various atmospheric compositions. In all of them, a mechanism linked to opacity changes along the evolution drives the oscillations. The existence of these oscillations offers the opportunity to apply asteroseismology for constraining physics ...

  19. Experimental winter warming modifies thermal performance and primes acorn ants for warm weather

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacLean, Heidi J.; Penick, Clint A.; Dunn, Robert R.

    2017-01-01

    The frequency of warm winter days is increasing under global climate change, but how organisms respond to warmer winters is not well understood. Most studies focus on growing season responses to warming. Locomotor performance is often highly sensitive to temperature, and can determine fitness...... outcomes through a variety of mechanisms including resource acquisition and predator escape. As a consequence, locomotor performance, and its impacts on fitness, may be strongly affected by winter warming in winter-active species. Here we use the acorn ant, Temnothorax curvispinosus, to explore how thermal...... performance (temperature-driven plasticity) in running speed is influenced by experimental winter warming of 3–5 °C above ambient in a field setting. We used running speed as a measure of performance as it is a common locomotor trait that influences acquisition of nest sites and food in acorn ants...

  20. Increasing occurrence of cold and warm extremes during the recent global warming slowdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nathaniel C; Xie, Shang-Ping; Kosaka, Yu; Li, Xichen

    2018-04-30

    The recent levelling of global mean temperatures after the late 1990s, the so-called global warming hiatus or slowdown, ignited a surge of scientific interest into natural global mean surface temperature variability, observed temperature biases, and climate communication, but many questions remain about how these findings relate to variations in more societally relevant temperature extremes. Here we show that both summertime warm and wintertime cold extreme occurrences increased over land during the so-called hiatus period, and that these increases occurred for distinct reasons. The increase in cold extremes is associated with an atmospheric circulation pattern resembling the warm Arctic-cold continents pattern, whereas the increase in warm extremes is tied to a pattern of sea surface temperatures resembling the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. These findings indicate that large-scale factors responsible for the most societally relevant temperature variations over continents are distinct from those of global mean surface temperature.

  1. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - El Nino Warm Water Pool Decreasing, Jan, 08, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean conditions on Jan. 8, 1998, and sea surface height is an indicator of the heat content of the ocean. The volume of the warm water pool related to the El Nino has decreased by about 40 percent since its maximum in early November, but the area of the warm water pool is still about one and a half times the size of the continental United States. The volume measurements are computed as the sum of all the sea surface height changes as compared to normal ocean conditions. In addition, the maximum water temperature in the eastern tropical Pacific, as measured by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is still higher than normal. Until these high temperatures diminish, the El Nino warm water pool still has great potential to disrupt global weather because the high water temperatures directly influence the atmosphere. Oceanographers believe the recent decrease in the size of the warm water pool is a normal part of El Nino's natural rhythm. TOPEX/Poseidon has been tracking these fluctuations of the El Nino warm pool since it began in early 1997. These sea surface height measurements have provided scientists with their first detailed view of how El Nino's warm pool behaves because the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite measures the changing sea surface height with unprecedented precision. In this image, the white and red areas indicate unusual patterns of heat storage; in the white areas, the sea surface is between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal; in the red areas, it's about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal. The green areas indicate normal conditions, while purple (the western Pacific) means at least 18 centimeters (7 inches) below normal sea level.The El Nino phenomenon is thought to be triggered when the steady westward blowing trade winds weaken

  2. Intensified Arctic warming under greenhouse warming by vegetation–atmosphere–sea ice interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Linderholm, Hans W; Chen, Deliang; Kim, Baek-Min; Jun, Sang-Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Observations and modeling studies indicate that enhanced vegetation activities over high latitudes under an elevated CO 2 concentration accelerate surface warming by reducing the surface albedo. In this study, we suggest that vegetation-atmosphere-sea ice interactions over high latitudes can induce an additional amplification of Arctic warming. Our hypothesis is tested by a series of coupled vegetation-climate model simulations under 2xCO 2 environments. The increased vegetation activities over high latitudes under a 2xCO 2 condition induce additional surface warming and turbulent heat fluxes to the atmosphere, which are transported to the Arctic through the atmosphere. This causes additional sea-ice melting and upper-ocean warming during the warm season. As a consequence, the Arctic and high-latitude warming is greatly amplified in the following winter and spring, which further promotes vegetation activities the following year. We conclude that the vegetation-atmosphere-sea ice interaction gives rise to additional positive feedback of the Arctic amplification. (letter)

  3. Irrigation enhances local warming with greater nocturnal warming effects than daytime cooling effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Jeong, Su-Jong

    2018-02-01

    To meet the growing demand for food, land is being managed to be more productive using agricultural intensification practices, such as the use of irrigation. Understanding the specific environmental impacts of irrigation is a critical part of using it as a sustainable way to provide food security. However, our knowledge of irrigation effects on climate is still limited to daytime effects. This is a critical issue to define the effects of irrigation on warming related to greenhouse gases (GHGs). This study shows that irrigation led to an increasing temperature (0.002 °C year-1) by enhancing nighttime warming (0.009 °C year-1) more than daytime cooling (-0.007 °C year-1) during the dry season from 1961-2004 over the North China Plain (NCP), which is one of largest irrigated areas in the world. By implementing irrigation processes in regional climate model simulations, the consistent warming effect of irrigation on nighttime temperatures over the NCP was shown to match observations. The intensive nocturnal warming is attributed to energy storage in the wetter soil during the daytime, which contributed to the nighttime surface warming. Our results suggest that irrigation could locally amplify the warming related to GHGs, and this effect should be taken into account in future climate change projections.

  4. White Faculty Transforming Whiteness in the Classroom through Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbeneau, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this qualitative study is to present a conceptual framework of pedagogical practices reported by white faculty that serve to challenge the hegemony of whiteness in the university classroom. These transformative teaching practices surfaced through a review of racialized pedagogies discussed in the literature and in…

  5. Silvicultural guide for northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuelle Boulfroy; Eric Forget; Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Catherine Larouche; Guy Lessard; Jean-Martin Lussier; Fred Pinto; Jean-Claude Ruel; Aaron. Weiskittel

    2012-01-01

    Northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar; Thuja occidentalis L.) is an important tree species in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, occurring both in pure stands and as a minor species in mixed stands of hardwoods or other softwoods. Yet practitioners have little and often contradictory information about cedar ecology and...

  6. White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, giving astronomers a fresh reading on the age of the universe. Located in the globular cluster M4, these small, burned-out stars -- called white dwarfs -- are about 12 to 13 billion years old. By adding the one billion years it took the cluster to form after the Big Bang, astronomers found that the age of the white dwarfs agrees with previous estimates that the universe is 13 to 14 billion years old. The images, including some taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are available online at http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/10/ or http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. In the top panel, a ground-based observatory snapped a panoramic view of the entire cluster, which contains several hundred thousand stars within a volume of 10 to 30 light-years across. The Kitt Peak National Observatory's .9-meter telescope took this picture in March 1995. The box at left indicates the region observed by the Hubble telescope. The Hubble telescope studied a small region of the cluster. A section of that region is seen in the picture at bottom left. A sampling of an even smaller region is shown at bottom right. This region is only about one light-year across. In this smaller region, Hubble pinpointed a number of faint white dwarfs. The blue circles indicate the dwarfs. It took nearly eight days of exposure time over a 67-day period to find these extremely faint stars. Globular clusters are among the oldest clusters of stars in the universe. The faintest and coolest white dwarfs within globular clusters can yield a globular cluster's age. Earlier Hubble observations showed that the first stars formed less than 1 billion years after the universe's birth in the big bang. So, finding the oldest stars puts astronomers within

  7. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    10 cohorts. To assess the relative contribution of genetic factors to progression of WML, we compared in 7 cohorts risk models including demographics, vascular risk factors plus single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have been shown to be associated cross-sectionally with WML in the current......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...... associated with WML progression in elderly participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium. METHODS: Heritability of WML progression was calculated in the Framingham Heart Study. The genome-wide association study included 7773 elderly participants from...

  8. ILC Higgs White Paper

    CERN Document Server

    Asner, D.M.; Calancha, C.; Fujii, K.; Graf, N.; Haber, H.E.; Ishikawa, A.; Kanemura, S.; Kawada, S.; Kurata, M.; Miyamoto, A.; Neal, H.; Ono, H.; Potter, C.; Strube, J.; Suehara, T.; Tanabe, T.; Tian, J.; Tsumura, J.; Watanuki, S.; Weiglein, G.; Yagyu, K.; Yokoya, H.

    2013-01-01

    The ILC Higgs White Paper is a review of Higgs Boson theory and experiment at the International Linear Collider (ILC). Theory topics include the Standard Model Higgs, the two-Higgs doublet model, alternative approaches to electroweak symmetry breaking, and precision goals for Higgs boson experiments. Experimental topics include the measurement of the Higgs cross section times branching ratio for various Higgs decay modes at ILC center of mass energies of 250, 500, and 1000 GeV, and the extraction of Higgs couplings and the total Higgs width from these measurements. Luminosity scenarios based on the ILC TDR machine design are used throughout. The gamma-gamma collider option at the ILC is also discussed.

  9. Alabama warm mix asphalt field study : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The Alabama Department of Transportation hosted a warm mix asphalt field demonstration in August 2007. The warm mix asphalt technology demonstrated was Evotherm Dispersed Asphalt Technology. The WMA and hot mix asphalt produced for the demonstration ...

  10. Eutrophication and warming boost cyanobacterial biomass and microcystins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lurling, Miguel; Oosterhout, Jean; Faassen, Els

    2017-01-01

    Eutrophication and warming are key drivers of cyanobacterial blooms, but their combined effects on microcystin (MC) concentrations are less studied. We tested the hypothesis that warming promotes cyanobacterial abundance in a natural plankton community and that eutrophication enhances cyanobacterial

  11. Effects of Warming on Tree Species’ Recruitment in Deciduous Forests of the Eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melillo, Jerry M. [Marine Biological Lab., Woods Hole, MA (United States); Clark, James S. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Mohan, Jacqueline [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-03-25

    Climate change is restructuring forests of the United States, although the details of this restructuring are currently uncertain. Rising temperatures of 2 to 8oC and associated changes in soil moisture will shift the competitive balance between species that compete for light and water, and so change their abilities to produce seed, germinate, grow, and survive. We have used large-scale experiments to determine the effects of warming on the most sensitive stage of species distributions, i.e., recruitment, in mixed deciduous forests in southern New England and in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. Two questions organized our research: (1) Might temperate tree species near the “warm” end of their range in the eastern United States decline in abundance during the coming century due to projected warming? and (2) Might trees near the “cool” end of their range in the eastern United States increase in abundance, or extend their range, during the coming 100 years because of projected warming? To explore these questions, we exposed seedlings to air and soil warming experiments in two eastern deciduous forest sites; one at the Harvard Forest (HF) in central Massachusetts, and the other at the Duke Forest (DF) in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. We focused on tree species common to both Harvard and Duke Forests (such as red, black, and white oaks), those near northern range limits (black oak, flowing dogwood, tulip poplar), and those near southern range limits (yellow birch, sugar maple, Virginia pine). At each site, we planted seeds and seedlings in common gardens established in temperature-controlled, open-top chambers. The experimental design was replicated and fully factorial and involved three temperature regimes (ambient, +3oC and +5oC) and two light regimes (closed forest canopy (low light) and gap conditions (high light)). Measured variables included Winter/Spring responses to temperature and mid-Summer responses to low soil moisture. This research

  12. Implications of global warming on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.K.; Syam, P.V.S.

    1997-01-01

    Due to the build up of green house gases in atmosphere, less heat escapes through the atmosphere promoting global warming. This may result in world wide droughts, sea-level rise inundating islands and coastal countries, cataclysmic hurricanes etc. Human health as a result of these changes, will be affected both physiologically and psychologically. Physiological effects may be more pronounced in cases occurring due to changes in rainfall and temperature patterns, food production amounts, water availability, etc. Psychological impact may be more in cases of catastrophes like floods, hurricanes or famine. In this paper, an attempt has been made to highlight the implications of global warming on human health due to temperature change. Food production changes and ultra-violet radiation effects and cataclysmic disaster effects. (author)

  13. Magnetic fusion development for global warming suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiangang; Zhang Jie; Duan Xuru

    2010-01-01

    Energy shortage and environmental pollution are two critical issues for human beings in the 21st century. There is an urgent need for new sustainable energy to meet the fast growing demand for clean energy. Fusion is one of the few options which may be able to satisfy the requirement for large scale sustainable energy generation and global warming suppression and therefore must be developed as quickly as possible. Fusion research has been carried out for the past 50 years. It is too long to wait for another 50 years to generate electricity by fusion. A much more aggressive approach should be taken with international collaboration towards the early use of fusion energy to meet the urgent needs for energy and global warming suppression.

  14. Viscous warm inflation: Hamilton-Jacobi formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtari, L.; Mohammadi, A.; Sayar, K.; Saaidi, Kh.

    2017-04-01

    Using Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, the scenario of warm inflation with viscous pressure is considered. The formalism gives a way of computing the slow-rolling parameter without extra approximation, and it is well-known as a powerful method in cold inflation. The model is studied in detail for three different cases of the dissipation and bulk viscous pressure coefficients. In the first case where both coefficients are taken as constant, it is shown that the case could not portray warm inflationary scenario compatible with observational data even it is possible to restrict the model parameters. For other cases, the results shows that the model could properly predicts the perturbation parameters in which they stay in perfect agreement with Planck data. As a further argument, r -ns and αs -ns are drown that show the acquired result could stand in acceptable area expressing a compatibility with observational data.

  15. Is man responsible for global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legendre, A.

    2009-01-01

    According to politicians, ecologists and mass media, it is now certain that with our CO 2 emissions, we are all responsible for a major global warming to come with dramatic consequences. But, is this affirmation indisputable? Are we all responsible for the rise of sea level and the summer thawing of the arctic ice shelf? Is this expected global warming without precedent? And is CO 2 , necessary for life, the cause of our misfortune? The answers commonly claimed are maybe more complex in reality and the climate question more subtle than it looks like. This book tries to decode the wheels of the climate machine and the share of human responsibility in climate change. (J.S.)

  16. Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east–west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean–atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific’s could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries. PMID:23112174

  17. Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-11-13

    It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east-west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean-atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific's could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries.

  18. Warm Debris Disk Candidates from WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Deborah; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Liu, Wilson; Leisawitz, David

    2011-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has just completed a sensitive all-sky survey in photometric bands at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns. We report on a preliminary investigation of main sequence Hipparcos and Tycho catalog stars with 22 micron emission in excess of photospheric levels. This warm excess emission traces material in the circumstellar region likely to host terrestrial planets and is preferentially found in young systems with ages warm debris disk candidates are detected among FGK stars and 150 A stars within 120 pc. We are in the process of obtaining spectra to determine spectral types and activity level of these stars and are using HST, Herschel and Keck to characterize the dust, multiplicity, and substellar companions of these systems. In this contribution, we will discuss source selection methods and individual examples from among the WISE debris disk candidates.

  19. White coat hypertension in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurko, Alexander; Minarik, Milan; Jurko, Tomas; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid

    2016-01-15

    The article summarizes current information on blood pressure changes in children during clinic visit. White coat as a general dressing of physicians and health care personnel has been widely accepted at the end of the 19th century. Two problems can be associated with the use of white coat: white coat phenomenon and white coat hypertension. Children often attribute pain and other unpleasant experience to the white coat and refuse afterwards cooperation with examinations. Definition of white coat hypertension in the literature is not uniform. It has been defined as elevated blood pressure in the hospital or clinic with normal blood pressure at home measured during the day by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system. White coat effect is defined as temporary increase in blood pressure before and during visit in the clinic, regardless what the average daily ambulatory blood pressure values are. Clinical importance of white coat hypertension is mainly because of higher risk for cardiovascular accidents that are dependent on end organ damage (heart, vessels, kidney). Current data do not allow any clear recommendations for the treatment. Pharmacological therapy is usually started in the presence of hypertrophic left ventricle, changes in intimal/medial wall thickness of carotic arteries, microalbuminuria and other cardiovascular risk factors. Nonpharmacological therapy is less controversial and certainly more appropriate. Patients have to change their life style, need to eliminate as much cardiovascular risk factors as possible and sustain a regular blood pressure monitoring.

  20. Axion cooling of white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Isern, J.; Catalan, S.; Garcia--Berro, E.; Salaris, M.; Torres, S.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs is a simple gravothermal process. This process can be tested in two ways, through the luminosity function of these stars and through the secular variation of the period of pulsation of those stars that are variable. Here we show how the mass of the axion can be constrained using the white dwarf luminosity function.

  1. Optical appearance of white holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, K.; Roeder, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    The detailed optical properties of white holes are examined within the framework of geometrical optics. It is shown that the appearance of the objects most likely to be observed at late times is in fact determined by their early histories. These ccalculations indicate that one cannot invoke the simple concept of a stable white hole as a ''natural'' explanation of highly energetic astrophysical phenomena

  2. Book ReviewL Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Astriani

    2015-01-01

    Global Warming is part of Greenhaven’s Contemporary Issues Companion series published by, Thomson Gale on 2005. Each volume of the anthologyseries focuses on a topic of current interest, presenting informative and thought-provoking selection written from wide-variety viewpoints. It is an ideal launching point for research on a particular topic. Each anthology in the series is composed of readings taken from an extensive gamut of resources, including periodical, newspapers, books, governmentdo...

  3. Global warming : a guide to the science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon, W.; Baliunas, S.L.; Robinson, A.B.; Robinson, Z.W.

    2001-01-01

    This guide dispels the popular hypothesis that increases in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from increased industrial activity have caused global warming. The report suggests that there is no evidence of catastrophic anthropogenic global warming and that temperature changes over the last 100 years has been due mostly to natural phenomena. The global temperature has increased by about 0.5 to 0.6 degrees C in the past 100 years, and this, before most of the greenhouse gases were added to the air by human activities such as burning of fossil fuels. The initial major rise in temperature was in 1940, before the rise in carbon dioxide levels, therefore, it was suggested that this warming must have been natural in origin. Computer based simulations of the climate system forecast disastrous rises in global temperature. But it was argued that current climate models are not accurate in forecasting future climate change because it is not possible to isolate the effect of an increased concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide on climate because about 5 million different variables have to be considered with all their important impacts and interactions. Science indicates that at most, a little warming will occur and certainly better plant grown which should be of great benefit to mankind. It was concluded that the human condition can be improved through unconstrained access to energy, but use of energy may also produce local unwanted pollutants as a by product. The sources of true environmental pollution can be mitigated based on rational considerations of the risks of pollutants and benefits of energy use. refs., figs

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions increase global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the greenhouse gas emissions which cause the global warming in the atmosphere. In the 20th century global climate change becomes more sever which is due to greenhouse gas emissions. According to International Energy Agency data, the USA and China are approximately tied and leading global emitters of greenhouse gas emissions. Together they emit approximately 40% of global CO2 emissions, and about 35% of total greenhouse gases. The developed and developing industrialized co...

  5. Climate change and global warming potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vate, J.F. van de

    1996-01-01

    Climate change and the global budgets of the two main energy consumption related greenhouse gases, CO 2 and CH 4 , are discussed. The global warming potential (GWP) of the non-CO 2 greenhouse gases is defined and the large range of GWPs of CH 4 in the literature is discussed. GWPs are expected to play an important role in energy policies and negotiations concerning lowering greenhouse gas emissions. (author). 20 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  6. Soft radiative strength in warm nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Garrett, P E; Nelson, R O; Schiller, A; Voinov, A; Agvaanluvsan, U; Algin, E; Belgya, T; Chankova, R; Guttormsen, M; Mitchell, G E; Rekstad, J; Siem, S

    2004-01-01

    Unresolved transitions in the nuclear γ-ray cascade produced in the decay of excited nuclei are best described by statistical concepts: a continuous radiative strength function (RSF) and level density yield mean values of transition matrix elements. Data on the soft (E γ < 3-4 MeV) RSF for transitions between warm states (i.e. states several MeV above the yrast line) have, however, remained elusive

  7. Global warming: Sea ice and snow cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    In spite of differences among global climate simulations under scenarios where atmospheric CO 2 is doubled, all models indicate at least some amplification of greenouse warming at the polar regions. Several decades of recent data on air temperature, sea ice, and snow cover of the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere are summarized to illustrate the general compatibility of recent variations in those parameters. Despite a data void over the Arctic Ocean, some noteworthy patterns emerge. Warming dominates in winter and spring, as projected by global climate models, with the warming strongest over subpolar land areas of Alaska, northwestern Canada, and northern Eurasia. A time-longitude summary of Arctic sea ice variations indicates that timescales of most anomalies range from several months to several years. Wintertime maxima of total sea ice extent contain no apparent secular trends. The statistical significance of trends in recent sea ice variations was evaluated by a Monte Carlo procedure, showing a statistically significant negative trend in the summer. Snow cover data over the 20-y period of record show a noticeable decrease of Arctic snow cover in the late 1980s. This is of potential climatic significance since the accompanying decrease of surface albedo leads to a rapid increase of solar heating. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Global Warming: Claims, Science, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Laurence I.

    2007-04-01

    Widespread (and seemingly dominant) claims about the dire consequences of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) have been propagated by both scientists and politicians and have been prominently featured by much of the mass media. This talk will examine some of those claims --- such as those made in the popular pro-AGW film, An Inconvenient Truth^1 --- from the perspectives of science^2 and scientific methodology^3. Some of the issues considered will be: What are the major ``greenhouse gases''? To what extent is global warming a result of human influences through an increase of ``greenhouse gases''? Is an increase in (1) global temperature and (2) carbon dioxide bad/good? What are some meanings that can be given to the term ``consensus'' in science? What are the estimated financial and other costs of governments implementing the Kyoto accords? Links to readings and videos will be given at the conclusion of the talk. ^1Gore, Al, An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It -- (Rodale Press, May, 2006). ^2Marlo Lewis, ``A Skeptic's Guide to An Inconvenient Truth'' http://www.cei.org/pages/aitresponse-book.cfm ^3Aaron Wildavsky, But Is It True? A Citizen's Guide to Environmental Health and Safety Issues (Harvard University Press, 1995), Intro. and Chap. 11. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NES07.C1.6

  9. Climate. Meeting the challenge of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Mann, Michael; Greene, Charles; Salas y Melia, David; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Journe, Venance; Guegan, Jean-Francois; ); Bopp, Laurent; Magnan, Alexandre; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Bally, Rene; Duponnois, Robin; Giodda, Alain; MOATTI, JEAN-PAUL; Recio, Carlos; Santana, Luis; Hulot, Nicolas; Criqui, Patrick; Meritet, Sophie; Jacobson, Mark; Delucchi, Mark; Julliard, Romain; Balibar, Sebastien; Prevot, Anne-Caroline; Colleony, Agathe; Mangin, Loic

    2015-01-01

    The contributions of this publication first discuss and comment the cost of inaction in front of global warming. The authors deny the existence of a climate pause, explain the existence of harsh winters in Europe in the context of global warming, outline that models developed and used in the 1960 already predicted the present trend, discuss the complex relationships between climate change and health, outline the threats on the oceans (acidification, impact on marine species, level rise) and consequently on mankind. A second set of contributions addresses opportunities to be implemented now: to plant trees along the Sahara, the example of an ecologic island (El Hierro, Canaries Islands), the commitment of communities, associations and citizens, the necessary energy transition, innovation at the service of climate, the role of finances and investments. The third set of contributions addresses perspectives: to do without fossil energies, how to reduce the impact of global warming in cities (by planting trees and closing shutters), the emergence of participative science, arguments against climate sceptics, a difficult change of behaviours

  10. Is global warming mostly at night?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukla, G.; Quayle, R.G.; Karl, T.

    1994-01-01

    The release of greenhouse gases is expected to lead to substantial future warming. The global mean temperature has indeed risen in recent decades. The causes of the observed warming, and its relation to the greenhouse gas buildup are, however, still debated. One important aspect of the observed temperature change relates to its asymmetry during the day and night. The day-night temperature difference over land in North America, most of Eurasia, Oceania, and portions of Africa and Australia shows a decrease since about 1950. The changes of the daily mean temperature in these areas are principally due to the rising night or early morning temperature, and are accompanied by increasing cloudiness. Their results support the notion that the increase of cloud cover, possibly due to industrial sulfur emissions, mitigates the greenhouse warming. The causes of the changing diurnal temperature range and of the increasing cloudiness will have to be clarified and the future SO 2 emissions reliably projected before any trustworthy prediction of future climates can be made. 37 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Toward international law on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, E.B. Jr.; Johns, C.; Pauken, M.T.

    1991-01-01

    Legal precedent in the history of international environmental law is considered. Then, the legal principles, rights and obligations related to transboundary environmental interference are drawn from the precedent. From this legal and historical background, and a brief overview of the principal technical aspects of the emerging global warming problem, the authors suggest a number of possible international protocols. These include outlines of multilateral treaties on energy efficiency, reduction in utilization of coal, increased adoption efficiency, reduction in utilization of coal, increased adoption of renewable and solar energy, and stimulation of several types of forestation, with creation of practical regimes and remedies. Each protocol has its own environmental social and economic merits and urgency, apart from the prevention of global warming. In each suggested protocol, the political obstacles are analyzed. Suggestions are presented for reduction of levels of disagreement standing in the way of obtaining viable treaties likely to be upheld in practice by the signatories. An agenda for study and action is presented, on the assumption that prudence dictates that international environmental law must be expanded as soon as feasible to regulate global warming

  12. Scientists' views about attribution of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

    2014-08-19

    Results are presented from a survey held among 1868 scientists studying various aspects of climate change, including physical climate, climate impacts, and mitigation. The survey was unique in its size, broadness and level of detail. Consistent with other research, we found that, as the level of expertise in climate science grew, so too did the level of agreement on anthropogenic causation. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), explicitly agreed with anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) being the dominant driver of recent global warming. The respondents' quantitative estimate of the GHG contribution appeared to strongly depend on their judgment or knowledge of the cooling effect of aerosols. The phrasing of the IPCC attribution statement in its fourth assessment report (AR4)-providing a lower limit for the isolated GHG contribution-may have led to an underestimation of the GHG influence on recent warming. The phrasing was improved in AR5. We also report on the respondents' views on other factors contributing to global warming; of these Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) was considered the most important. Respondents who characterized human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having had the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change.

  13. National action strategy on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    A document prepared by a committee of Canadian environmental ministries proposes a strategic framework for a national action plan concerning global warming. The strategy would be carried out jointly by governments and all other sectors of the economy, taking into account the present state of scientific knowledge on global warming. Within this framework, the governments in cooperation with interested parties would take certain measures in their respective areas of competence. The main recommendations of the document include the following. The action strategy should comprise 3 elements: limiting emissions of greenhouse gases; forecasting climatic changes which Canada could undergo due to global warming and preparing for such changes; and improving scientific knowledge and the capacity to predict climatic changes. Limitations on this strategy should take into account such matters as the interaction of greenhouse gases with other pollutants, the importance of the international context, the need to adapt to new discoveries, and the importance of regional differences. Implementation of the strategy should incorporate widespread consultation of all affected sectors, sustained work on establishing international conventions and protocols on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, objectives and schedules for such reductions, and stepwise actions to control emissions in order to enable an adequate evaluation of the consequences and effectiveness of such measures. 10 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Global Warming: Evidence from Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.

    2001-01-01

    Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown on-board sequential, sun-synchronous, polar orbiting NOAA operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by the satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help the onboard warm black body temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically weighted global mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid-troposphere, warmed at the rate of 0.13 K per decade (with an uncertainty of 0.05 K per decade) during 1980 to 1999. The global warming deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite deuced result.

  15. Global warming and allergy in Asia Minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajin, Munir Demir; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Gurbuz, Melek Kezban

    2013-01-01

    The earth is warming, and it is warming quickly. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that global warming is correlated with the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy and allergic diseases. There is a body of evidence suggesting that the prevalence of allergic diseases induced by pollens is increasing in developed countries, a trend that is also evident in the Mediterranean area. Because of its mild winters and sunny days with dry summers, the Mediterranean area is different from the areas of central and northern Europe. Classical examples of allergenic pollen-producing plants of the Mediterranean climate include Parietaria, Olea and Cupressaceae. Asia Minor is a Mediterranean region that connects Asia and Europe, and it includes considerable coastal areas. Gramineae pollens are the major cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Asia Minor, affecting 1.3-6.4 % of the population, in accordance with other European regions. This article emphasizes the importance of global climate change and anticipated increases in the prevalence and severity of allergic disease in Asia Minor, mediated through worsening air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production, from an otolaryngologic perspective.

  16. Effects of Global Warming on Vibrio Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzulli, Luigi; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred; Pruzzo, Carla

    2015-06-01

    Vibrio-related infections are increasing worldwide both in humans and aquatic animals. Rise in global sea surface temperature (SST), which is approximately 1 °C higher now than 140 years ago and is one of the primary physical impacts of global warming, has been linked to such increases. In this chapter, major known effects of increasing SST on the biology and ecology of vibrios are described. They include the effects on bacterial growth rate, both in the field and in laboratory, culturability, expression of pathogenicity traits, and interactions with aquatic organisms and abiotic surfaces. Special emphasis is given to the effect of ocean warming on Vibrio interactions with zooplankters, which represent one of the most important aquatic reservoirs for these bacteria. The reported findings highlight the biocomplexity of the interactions between vibrios and their natural environment in a climate change scenario, posing the need for interdisciplinary studies to properly understand the connection between ocean warming and persistence and spread of vibrios in sea waters and the epidemiology of the diseases they cause.

  17. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - Warm Water Pool is Thinning, Feb, 5, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean conditions on Feb. 5, 1998 and sea surface height is an indicator of the heat content of the ocean. The area and volume of the El Nino warm water pool that is affecting global weather patterns remains extremely large, but the pool has thinned along the equator and near the coast of South America. This 'thinning' means that the warm water is not as deep as it was a few months ago. Oceanographers indicate this is a classic pattern, typical of a mature El Nino condition that they would expect to see during the ocean's gradual transition back to normal sea level. In this image, the white and red areas indicate unusual patterns of heat storage; in the white areas, the sea surface is between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal; in the red areas, it's about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal. The green areas indicate normal conditions, while purple (the western Pacific) means at least 18 centimeters (7 inches) below normal sea level. The El Nino phenomenon is thought to be triggered when the steady westward blowing trade winds weaken and even reverse direction. This change in the winds allows a large mass of warm water (the red and white area) that is normally located near Australia to move eastward along the equator until it reaches the coast of South America. The displacement of so much warm water affects evaporation, where rain clouds form and, consequently, alters the typical atmospheric jet stream patterns around the world. Using satellite imagery, buoy and ship data, and a forecasting model of the ocean-atmosphere system, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, (NOAA), has continued to issue an advisory indicating the so-called El Nino weather conditions that have impacted much of the United States and the world are expected to remain through

  18. Ultraviolet spectra of DA white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelan, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Using the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite, observations of cool to moderately warm DA white dwarfs showed the presence of broad absorption features at lambda 1400 and 1600. The lambda 1600 feature is prominent for T/sub eff/ 0 K and the lambda 1400 feature is visible up to about T/sub eff/ = 18,000 0 K. Proposed mechanisms for absorption at lambda 1400 have included a Si V doublet, H 2 Lyman bands, and the Call ionization edge at lambda 1420. It was recently suggested that the lambda 1600 feature is due to the photoionization edge of Mg I at lambda 1625. None of these has been able to explain all of the observations without invoking some quite unconventional circumstances. On the basis of computer models, this thesis proposes that the absorption in both cases is due to perturbations of the energy level structure of neutral hydrogen atoms undergoing collisions. The lambda 1600 feature is due to absorption by the hydrogen quasi-molecule while that at lambda 1400 arises from a ground state transition of the hydrogen quasi-molecule ion

  19. Warm-up and performance in competitive swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, Henrique P; Marques, Mário C; Barbosa, Tiago M; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marinho, Daniel A

    2014-03-01

    Warm-up before physical activity is commonly accepted to be fundamental, and any priming practices are usually thought to optimize performance. However, specifically in swimming, studies on the effects of warm-up are scarce, which may be due to the swimming pool environment, which has a high temperature and humidity, and to the complexity of warm-up procedures. The purpose of this study is to review and summarize the different studies on how warming up affects swimming performance, and to develop recommendations for improving the efficiency of warm-up before competition. Most of the main proposed effects of warm-up, such as elevated core and muscular temperatures, increased blood flow and oxygen delivery to muscle cells and higher efficiency of muscle contractions, support the hypothesis that warm-up enhances performance. However, while many researchers have reported improvements in performance after warm-up, others have found no benefits to warm-up. This lack of consensus emphasizes the need to evaluate the real effects of warm-up and optimize its design. Little is known about the effectiveness of warm-up in competitive swimming, and the variety of warm-up methods and swimming events studied makes it difficult to compare the published conclusions about the role of warm-up in swimming. Recent findings have shown that warm-up has a positive effect on the swimmer's performance, especially for distances greater than 200 m. We recommend that swimmers warm-up for a relatively moderate distance (between 1,000 and 1,500 m) with a proper intensity (a brief approach to race pace velocity) and recovery time sufficient to prevent the early onset of fatigue and to allow the restoration of energy reserves (8-20 min).

  20. Dosimetric considerations and early clinical experience of accelerated partial breast irradiation using multi-lumen applicators in the setting of breast augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtari, Mani; Pino, Ramiro; Scarboro, Sarah B.; Bass, Barbara L.; Miltenburg, Darlene M.; Butler, E. Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an accepted treatment option in breast-conserving therapy for early stage breast cancer. However, data regarding outcomes of patients treated with multi-lumen catheter systems who have existing breast implants is limited. The purpose of this study was to report treatment parameters, outcomes, and possible dosimetric correlation with cosmetic outcome for this population of patients at our institution. Material and methods We report the treatment and outcome of seven consecutive patients with existing breast implants and early stage breast cancer who were treated between 2009 and 2013 using APBI following lumpectomy. All patients were treated twice per day for five days to a total dose of 34 Gy using a high-dose-rate 192Ir source. Cosmetic outcomes were evaluated using the Harvard breast cosmesis scale, and late toxicities were reported using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) late radiation morbidity schema. Results After a mean follow-up of 32 months, all patients have remained cancer free. Six out of seven patients had an excellent or good cosmetic outcome. There were no grade 3 or 4 late toxicities. The average total breast implant volume was 279.3 cc, received an average mean dose of 12.1 Gy, and a maximum dose of 234.1 Gy. The average percentage of breast implant volume receiving 50%, 75%, 100%, 150%, and 200% of the prescribed dose was 15.6%, 7.03%, 4.6%, 1.58%, and 0.46%, respectively. Absolute volume of breast implants receiving more than 50% of prescribed dose correlated with worse cosmetic outcomes. Conclusions Accelerated partial breast irradiation using a multi-lumen applicator in patients with existing breast implants can safely be performed with promising early clinical results. The presence of the implant did not compromise the ability to achieve dosimetric criteria; however, dose to the implant and the irradiated implant volume may be related with worse cosmetic outcomes. PMID:26816499

  1. The impact of reduced gastric acid secretion on dissolution of salts of weak bases in the fasted upper gastrointestinal lumen: Data in biorelevant media and in human aspirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litou, Chara; Vertzoni, Maria; Xu, Wei; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Reppas, Christos

    2017-06-01

    To propose media for simulating the intragastric environment under reduced gastric acid secretion in the fasted state at three levels of simulation of the gastric environment and evaluate their usefulness in evaluating the intragastric dissolution of salts of weak bases. To evaluate the importance of bicarbonate buffer in biorelevant in vitro dissolution testing when using Level II biorelevant media simulating the environment in the fasted upper small intestine, regardless of gastric acid secretions. Media for simulating the hypochlorhydric and achlorhydric conditions in stomach were proposed using phosphates, maleates and bicarbonates buffers. The impact of bicarbonates in Level II biorelevant media simulating the environment in upper small intestine was evaluated so that pH and bulk buffer capacity were maintained. Dissolution data were collected using two model compounds, pioglitazone hydrochloride and semifumarate cocrystal of Compound B, and the mini-paddle dissolution apparatus in biorelevant media and in human aspirates. Simulated gastric fluids proposed in this study were in line with pH, buffer capacity, pepsin content, total bile salt/lecithin content and osmolality of the fasted stomach under partial and under complete inhibition of gastric acid secretion. Fluids simulating the conditions under partial inhibition of acid secretion were useful in simulating concentrations of both model compounds in gastric aspirates. Bicarbonates in Level III biorelevant gastric media and in Level II biorelevant media simulating the composition in the upper intestinal lumen did not improve simulation of concentrations in human aspirates. Level III biorelevant media for simulating the intragastric environment under hypochlorhydric conditions were proposed and their usefulness in the evaluation of concentrations of two model salts of weak bases in gastric aspirates was shown. Level II biorelevant media for simulating the environment in upper intestinal lumen led to

  2. Investigating steam penetration using thermometric methods in dental handpieces with narrow internal lumens during sterilizing processes with non-vacuum or vacuum processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S; Smith, A; Lappin, D; McDonagh, G; Kirk, B

    2017-12-01

    Dental handpieces are required to be sterilized between patient use. Vacuum steam sterilization processes with fractionated pre/post-vacuum phases or unique cycles for specified medical devices are required for hollow instruments with internal lumens to assure successful air removal. Entrapped air will compromise achievement of required sterilization conditions. Many countries and professional organizations still advocate non-vacuum sterilization processes for these devices. To investigate non-vacuum downward/gravity displacement, type-N steam sterilization of dental handpieces, using thermometric methods to measure time to achieve sterilization temperature at different handpiece locations. Measurements at different positions within air turbines were undertaken with thermocouples and data loggers. Two examples of widely used UK benchtop steam sterilizers were tested: a non-vacuum benchtop sterilizer (Little Sister 3; Eschmann, Lancing, UK) and a vacuum benchtop sterilizer (Lisa; W&H, Bürmoos, Austria). Each sterilizer cycle was completed with three handpieces and each cycle in triplicate. A total of 140 measurements inside dental handpiece lumens were recorded. The non-vacuum process failed (time range: 0-150 s) to reliably achieve sterilization temperatures within the time limit specified by the international standard (15 s equilibration time). The measurement point at the base of the handpiece failed in all test runs (N = 9) to meet the standard. No failures were detected with the vacuum steam sterilization type B process with fractionated pre-vacuum and post-vacuum phases. Non-vacuum downward/gravity displacement, type-N steam sterilization processes are unreliable in achieving sterilization conditions inside dental handpieces, and the base of the handpiece is the site most likely to fail. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement of esophago-gastric junction cross-sectional area and distensibility by an endolumenal functional lumen imaging probe for the diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, E; Sweis, R; Anggiansah, A; Wong, T; Telakis, E; Knowles, K; Wright, J; Fox, M

    2013-11-01

    Measurement of esophago-gastric junction (EGJ) cross-sectional area (CSA) and distensibility by an Endolumenal Functional Lumen Imaging Probe (EndoFLIP®) may distinguish between gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients and healthy volunteers (HV). We aimed to assess the agreement of EndoFLIP® measurements with clinical and physiologic diagnosis of GERD. Twenty-one HV and 18 patients with typical GERD symptoms were studied. After gastroscopy, EGJ CSA, and distensibility were measured by EndoFLIP®. Forty-eight hour esophageal pH monitoring was then performed by a wireless system. The ability of EndoFLIP® to discriminate GERD patient and HVs was assessed. Planned secondary analysis then assessed whether EGJ CSA and distensibility were increased in individuals with pathologic acid exposure. Healthy volunteers were younger and had lower body mass index (BMI; both p < 0.001). Pathologic acid exposure was present in 3/21 (14%) HVs and 9/18 (50%) patients (p = 0.126). At 30 mL EndoFLIP® bag volume, EGJ CSA was higher (p = 0.058) and EGJ distensibility was lower (p = 0.020) in HVs than patients. Secondary analysis showed that EGJ measurements were similar in participants with and without pathologic acid exposure (CSA 98 mm² vs 107 mm²; p = 0.789, distensibility; p = 0.704). An inverse association between BMI and CSA (R² = 0.2758, p = 0.001) and distensibility (R² = 0.2005, p = 0.005) was present. Endolumenal Functional Lumen Imaging Probe is not useful for GERD diagnosis because EGJ CSA and distensibility do not distinguish between HVs and GERD patients defined by clinical presentation or pH measurement. This unexpected result may be due to an important, confounding interaction of obesity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. GLOBAL WARMING: IS A NEW THREAT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayca Eminoglu

    2008-09-30

    In the Post Cold War era, the concepts of ''security'', ''national security'', and ''international security'' have changed with regard to their contents and meanings. Such developments made states to renew their national security policies. Security is a special form of politics as well. All security issues are political problems but not all political conflicts are security issues. In the Post Cold War era, differentiating and increasing numbers of elements that constitutes threat changed the concept of threat and widen the capacity of security. In this term, many elements lost its effect of being a threat but also new threatening elements emerged. Environmental problems, human rights, mass migration, micro nationalism, ethnic conflicts, religious fundamentalism, contagious diseases, international terrorism, economic instabilities, drug and weapon smuggling and human trafficking are the new problems emerged in international security agenda. Environmental problems no longer take place in security issues and can be mentioned as a ''low security'' issue. They are threats to the global commons i.e. the oceans, the seas, the ozone layer and the climate system, which are life supports for mankind as a whole. Global warming is one of the most important environmental issues of our day that effects human life in every field and can be defined as a 'serious threat to international security'. Because of global warming, environmental changes will occur and these changes will cause conflicting issues in international relations. Because of global warming dwindling freshwater supplies, food shortages, political instability and other conflicts may take place. Some IR scholars see a need for global cooperation in order to face the threat. At the background of global warming and its effects, states have to get preventive measures and normally, each state form its own measures, therefore as a

  5. Variation in oxalate and oxalate decarboxylase production by six species of brown and white rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Oliver, Jason; Howell, Caitlin

      Oxalic acid (C2O4H2), the strongest of the organic acids is produced by both brown and white rot decay fungi and has been connected to various aspects of brown- and white rot decay including the Fenton reaction (Green and Highley, 1997; Munir et al.,2001). Oxalic acid is secreted into the wood...... cell lumen where it quickly dissociates into hydrogen ions and oxalate, resulting in a pH decrease of the environment, and oxalate-cation complexes. Generally, brown rot fungi accumulate larger quantities of oxalic acid in the wood than white rot fungi. The amount of oxalic acid has been shown to vary...... of formic acid and CO2 (Makela et al., 2002). So far only a few species of brown rot fungi have been shown to accumulate this enzyme (Micales, 1995, Howell and Jellison, 2006).   The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation in the levels of soluble oxalate and total oxalate, in correlation...

  6. Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D. L.

    2009-12-01

    Since both greenhouse gases and cirrus clouds strongly affect outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) with no affect or less affect on solar radiation, respectively, an attempt to delay global warming to buy time for emission reduction strategies to work might naturally target cirrus clouds. Cirrus having optical depths competition effects, thus increasing OLR and surface cooling. Preliminary estimates of this global net cloud forcing via GCM simulations are more negative than -2.8 W m-2 and could neutralize the radiative forcing due to a CO2 doubling (3.7 W m-2). This cirrus engineered net forcing is due to (1) reduced cirrus coverage and (2) reduced upper tropospheric water vapor, due to enhanced ice sedimentation. The implementation of this climate engineering could use the airline industry to disperse the seeding material. Commercial airliners typically fly at temperatures between -40 and -60 deg. C (where homogeneous freezing nucleation dominates). Weather modification research has developed ice nucleating substances that are extremely effective at these cold temperatures, are non-toxic and are relatively inexpensive. The seeding material could be released in both clear and cloudy conditions to build up a background concentration of efficient ice nuclei so that non-contrail cirrus will experience these nuclei and grow larger ice crystals. Flight corridors are denser in the high- and mid-latitudes where global warming is more severe. A risk with any geoengineering experiment is that it could affect climate in unforeseen ways, causing more harm than good. Since seeding aerosol residence times in the troposphere are 1-2 weeks, the climate might return back to its normal state within a few months after stopping the geoengineering. A drawback to this approach is that it would not stop ocean acidification. It may not have many of the draw-backs that stratospheric injection of sulfur species has, such as ozone destruction, decreased solar radiation possibly altering the

  7. Effects of Green - Emitting Phosphor (La,Ce,TbPO_4:Ce:Tb on Luminous Flux and Color Quality of White LED Lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong Thao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present and analyze the influence of (La,Ce,TbPO_4:Ce:Tb green phosphor (LaTb toward the performance of the multi-chip white LED (MCW-LEDs lamps including color uniformity, lumen output, Color Rendering Index (CRI, and Color Quality Scale (CQS. By mixing the LaTb green phosphor and the YAG:Ce yellow phosphor compounding under condition of 7000 K MCW-LEDs, this new approach can produce a huge meaningful change in lumen output and the angular color distribution of MCW-LEDs. We also study the interaction between the concentration and size of the LaTb particles with output flux, color uniformity, CRI, and CQS. The obtained results demonstrate that the higher lumen output, the higher color uniformity enhancement could be attained by adding the LaTb particles with a size range around 6-8 µm and the concentration around 1.5% in phosphor layer. Meanwhile, the decrease of the color rendering value (CRI and the Color Quality Scale (CQS tend to be stable and insignificant. In other words, the obtained results provide a prospective method which plays an important role in the development of MCW-LED manufacturing technology.

  8. The White Rabbit Project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  9. Why tropical forest lizards are vulnerable to climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Raymond B.; Deutsch, Curtis A.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Vitt, Laurie J.; Hertz, Paul E.; Álvarez Pérez, Héctor J.; Garland, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Biological impacts of climate warming are predicted to increase with latitude, paralleling increases in warming. However, the magnitude of impacts depends not only on the degree of warming but also on the number of species at risk, their physiological sensitivity to warming and their options for behavioural and physiological compensation. Lizards are useful for evaluating risks of warming because their thermal biology is well studied. We conducted macrophysiological analyses of diurnal lizards from diverse latitudes plus focal species analyses of Puerto Rican Anolis and Sphaerodactyus. Although tropical lowland lizards live in environments that are warm all year, macrophysiological analyses indicate that some tropical lineages (thermoconformers that live in forests) are active at low body temperature and are intolerant of warm temperatures. Focal species analyses show that some tropical forest lizards were already experiencing stressful body temperatures in summer when studied several decades ago. Simulations suggest that warming will not only further depress their physiological performance in summer, but will also enable warm-adapted, open-habitat competitors and predators to invade forests. Forest lizards are key components of tropical ecosystems, but appear vulnerable to the cascading physiological and ecological effects of climate warming, even though rates of tropical warming may be relatively low. PMID:19324762

  10. Genetics Home Reference: white sponge nevus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions White sponge nevus White sponge nevus Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description White sponge nevus is a condition characterized by the formation ...

  11. Global warming 2007. An update to global warming: the balance of evidence and its policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Charles F

    2007-03-09

    In the four years since my original review (Keller[25]; hereafter referred to as CFK03), research has clarified and strengthened our understanding of how humans are warming the planet. So many of the details highlighted in the IPCC's Third Assessment Report[21] and in CFK03 have been resolved that I expect many to be a bit overwhelmed, and I hope that, by treating just the most significant aspects of the research, this update may provide a road map through the expected maze of new information. In particular, while most of CFK03 remains current, there are important items that have changed: Most notable is the resolution of the conundrum that mid-tropospheric warming did not seem to match surface warming. Both satellite and radiosonde (balloon-borne sensors) data reduction showed little warming in the middle troposphere (4-8 km altitude). In the CFK03 I discussed potential solutions to this problem, but at that time there was no clear resolution. This problem has now been solved, and the middle troposphere is seen to be warming apace with the surface. There have also been advances in determinations of temperatures over the past 1,000 years showing a cooler Little Ice Age (LIA) but essentially the same warming during medieval times (not as large as recent warming). The recent uproar over the so-called "hockey stick" temperature determination is much overblown since at least seven other groups have made relatively independent determinations of northern hemisphere temperatures over the same time period and derived essentially the same results. They differ on how cold the LIA was but essentially agree with the Mann's hockey stick result that the Medieval Warm Period was not as warm as the last 25 years. The question of the sun's influence on climate continues to generate controversy. It appears there is a growing consensus that, while the sun was a major factor in earlier temperature variations, it is incapable of having caused observed warming in the past quarter

  12. Y WHITE CHITWOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Cervantes-Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la tolerancia de 26 colectas de tomates nativos de México a Meloidogyne incongnita (Kofoid y White Chit- wood, con el fin de identificar aquellas con potencial para su empleo en el mejoramiento genético o como portainjertos. Para ello, plantas de 30 días de edad fueron establecidas en hidroponia bajo invernadero. Diez días después del trasplante (ddt fue aplicada al sustrato una solución con 100,000 huevecillos-larva por planta. Se registraron caracteres de la parte aérea de plantas y a los 210 ddt se cuantificó el desarrollo de poblaciones de nematodos en raíces. M. incognita disminuyó el diámetro de frutos y el porte de planta (altura al primer racimo, peso seco de tallo y número de nudos, e incrementó el número de frutos y flores. Además, redujo la longitud de raíces y aumentó el volumen de éstas por la formación de nó- dulos. Mediante análisis multivariados (agrupamiento y discriminante se definieron cinco grupos de colectas en función de la cantidad de agallas pequeñas y grandes, así como el total de éstas (82 % de variación y por la cantidad de larvas en raíz y huevecillos en sustrato (13 % de variación. Se identificaron tres colectas tolerantes con bajos índices de agallas y menor presencia de huevecillos-larva en raíz y en sustrato. Ocho colectas fueron moderadamente tolerantes; nueve, moderadamente susceptibles, y seis, susceptibles. No se detectaron asociaciones entre orígenes de colectas o forma de fruto con respecto a la tolerancia al nematodo.

  13. Can air pollutant controls change global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strefler, Jessica; Luderer, Gunnar; Kriegler, Elmar; Meinshausen, Malte

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Air pollution policies do not affect long-term climate targets. • Reduction of aerosols counteracts a fraction of the reduction of Kyoto forcing. • Air pollution policies may affect the rate of climate change in the short term. • There is no tradeoff between clean air and climate policies. - Abstract: In this paper we analyze the interaction between climate and air pollution policies using the integrated assessment model REMIND coupled to the reduced-form climate model MAGICC. Since overall, aerosols tend to cool the atmosphere, there is a concern that a reduction of pollutant emissions could accelerate global warming and offset the climate benefits of carbon dioxide emission reductions. We investigate scenarios which independently reduce emissions from either large-scale sources, such as power plants, or small-scale sources, such as cooking and heating stoves. Large-scale sources are likely to be easier to control, but their aerosol emissions are characterized by a relatively high sulfur content, which tends to result in atmospheric cooling. Pollution from small-scale sources, by contrast, is characterized by a high share of carbonaceous aerosol, which is an important contributor to global warming. We find that air pollution policies can significantly reduce aerosol emissions when no climate policies are in place. Stringent climate policies lead to a large reduction of fossil fuel use, and therefore result in a concurrent reduction of air pollutant emissions. These reductions partly reduce aerosol masking, thus initially counteracting the reduction of greenhouse gas forcing, however not overcompensating it. If climate policies are in place, air pollution policies have almost no impacts on medium- and long-term radiative forcing. Therefore there is no conflict of objectives between clean air and limiting global warming. We find that the stringency of air pollution policies may influence the rate of global temperature change in the first decade

  14. Can global warming save nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, D.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear powered electricity generation in the United Kingdom has an uncertain future. The relative costs of generating electricity by nuclear fission compared to other means and the need for a desirable mixture or ''portfolio'' of energy sources in the electricity industry are identified as the key to this uncertainty. The author argues that Government commitments to reducing Carbon Monoxide (CO) emissions, and hence global warming, may strengthen arguments in favour of a firm commitment to nuclear power, as even modern fossil-fuelled power plants emit nearly 90 times as much CO as nuclear plants. (UK)

  15. Marine ecosystems in alteration under global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestrud, Paal

    2004-01-01

    It is commonly thought among fishermen, researchers and in the fishing industries that the administration and harvesting of the fish resources is more important for the stock of fish than are changes in the climate. However, many scientific investigations now link changes in temperature with changes in the spreading, survival and beginning of life processes. There is solid evidence that there are important changes in progress in the North Atlantic marine ecosystem caused by global warming. If the heating of the water masses continues, it will probably have a large impact on the ocean's productivity and consequently for the fishing industry

  16. Resource Letter: GW-1: Global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firor, John W.

    1994-06-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the possibility of a human-induced climate change—a global warming. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: the Greenhouse Effect, sources of infrared-trapping gases, climate models and their uncertainties, verification of climate models, past climate changes, and economics, ethics, and politics of policy responses to climate change. [The letter E after an item indicates elementary level or material of general interest to persons becoming informed in the field. The letter I, for intermediate level, indicates material of somewhat more specialized nature, and the letter A indicates rather specialized or advanced material.

  17. Scientists' Views about Attribution of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

    2015-04-01

    What do scientists think? That is an important question when engaging in science communication, in which an attempt is made to communicate the scientific understanding to a lay audience. To address this question we undertook a large and detailed survey among scientists studying various aspects of climate change , dubbed "perhaps the most thorough survey of climate scientists ever" by well-known climate scientist and science communicator Gavin Schmidt. Among more than 1800 respondents we found widespread agreement that global warming is predominantly caused by human greenhouse gases. This consensus strengthens with increased expertise, as defined by the number of self-reported articles in the peer-reviewed literature. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), agreed that anthropogenic greenhouse gases are the dominant cause of recent global warming, i.e. having contributed more than half of the observed warming. With this survey we specified what the consensus position entails with much greater specificity than previous studies. The relevance of this consensus for science communication will be discussed. Another important result from our survey is that the main attribution statement in IPCC's fourth assessment report (AR4) may lead to an underestimate of the greenhouse gas contribution to warming, because it implicitly includes the lesser known masking effect of cooling aerosols. This shows the importance of the exact wording in high-profile reports such as those from IPCC in how the statement is perceived, even by fellow scientists. The phrasing was improved in the most recent assessment report (AR5). Respondents who characterized the human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change. This shows that contrarian opinions are amplified in the media in relation to their prevalence in the scientific community. This

  18. An observational study on the temperature rising effects in water warming canal and water warming pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, J. B.; Hong, S. B. [Rural Development Cooperation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-09-15

    The power water flowed out from the multipurpose darn influences the ecosystem approximately because of the low water temperature. An appropriate counter measure to the rising water temperature is needed for growing crops especially when the temperature is below 18°C in the source of the irrigation water This observational study is practiced in Yong-Doo water warming canal and pond in the down stream of Choong-Ju multipurpose dam and is practiced for analyse and compare the rising effects in actural water temperature by actual measurement with the rising effects of planned water temperatuer by the basic theoritical method and for the help to present the direction in plan establishment through investigate the results afterwards. The results are as follows. 1. The degree of the rise of the water temperature can be decided by θ{sub x} = θ{sub 0} + K (L/(v * h)) * (T - θ{sub 0}) Then, K values of a factor representing the characteristics of the water warming canal were 0.00002043 for the type I. and 0.0000173 for the type II. respectively. 2. A variation of water temperature which produced by the difference effective temperature and water temperature in the water warming canal was θ{sub x1} = 16.5 + 15.9 (1-e{sup -0.00018x}), θ{sub x2} = 18.8 + 8.4(1-e{sup -0.000298x}) for the type I. and θ{sub x} = 19.6 + 12.8 (1-e{sup -0.00041x}) for the type II. 3. It was shown that the effects of the rise of water temperature for the type I. water warming canal were greater than that of type II. as a resultes of broadening the surface of the canal compared with the depth of water, coloring the surface of water canal and installing the resistance block. 4. In case of the type I. water warming canal, the equation between the air temperature and the degree of the rise of water temprature could be made; Y = 0.4134X + 7.728 In addition, in case of the type II. water warming canal, the correlation was very low. 5. A monthly variation of the water temperature in the water warming

  19. White mold of Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a Native American food plant closely related to the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Tubers of Jerusalem artichoke are increasingly available in retail grocery outlets. White mold (Sclerotinia stem rot), caused by the fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotioru...

  20. The White Adolescent's Drug Odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Douglas S.; Marel, Rozanne

    1980-01-01

    Presents a "typical" case history of a White middle-class teenager who becomes involved with marihuana and subsequently begins to abuse other drugs. Sociological findings from other research are interspersed in the anecdotal account. (GC)

  1. The odour of white bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, E.J.

    1973-01-01

    Volatile constituents of white bread were investigated. Different methods were used for isolating and concentrating components to avoid artefacts as far as possible. Especially good was enlarged vapour analysis. Ninety-four components were identified, including hydrocarbons, alcohols,

  2. Are hills like white elephants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sharma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 'Are Hills Like White Elephants?' is, of course, inspired by Hemingway; the tribute reflects on the abiding relevance of serious art in a changed world and extends the boundaries of his message to other human situations.

  3. White dwarfs in cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sion, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    The physical properties and evolutionary state of the underlying white dwarfs in CVs are explored. Observations of 25 white dwarfs with effective temperature upper limits of 9000-75,000 K are discussed. Correlations between effective temperature, orbital period, accretion rate, and CV type with respect to the CV period gap are considered. Quasi-static and hydrodynamic evolutionary models are used to explain the surface temperature/luminosity distribution ratios. 42 references

  4. Evolution of White Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    L. G. Althaus

    2001-01-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting the main results we have obtained for the study of the evoution of white dwarf stars. The calculations are carried out by means of a detailed evolutionary code based on an updated physical description. In particular, we briefly discuss the results for the evolution of white dwarfs of different stellar masses and chemical composition, and the evolution of whit e dwarfs in the framework of a varying gravitational constant G scenario as well.

  5. Economists and White House Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart E. Eizenstat

    1992-01-01

    While I served in the White House, [as Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs and Policy and Executive Director of the White House Domestic Policy Staff from 1977-81], Ph.D. economists occupied the positions of Secretary of Labor, Secretary of Commerce, Secretary of Treasury, Director of the Council on Wage and Price Stability, the President's anti-inflation adviser, Chairman and Council Members of the Council of Economic Advisers, and many other senior positions throughout the gover...

  6. Uses of warmed water in agriculture. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.E.

    1978-11-01

    Energy in the form of warmed water is available from condenser cooling water from fossil fuel or nuclear-electric power-generating facilities, geothermal power plants, geothermal fluids, or spent steam and cooling water from industrial processes. A re-analysis of the characteristics of possible agricultural uses of warmed water has revealed the need to decouple considerations of warmed water sources from those of warmed water users. Conflicting objectives and managerial requirements seem to preclude an integrated system approach. Rather an interface must be established with separate costs and benefits identified for a reliable warmed water source and for its various potential uses. These costs and benefits can be utilized as a basis for decisions separately by the energy supplier and the prospective energy users. A method of classifying uses of warmed water according to need, volume, objective, temperature, and quality is presented and preliminary classifications are discussed for several potential agricultural uses of warmed water. Specific uses for soil warming, space heating in greenhouses, and irrigation are noted. Specific uses in aquaculture for catfish, lobster, and prawn production are discussed. Warmed water use in animal shelters is mentioned. Low-quality heat is required for methane generation from biomass and warmed water heating could be utilized in this industry. 53 references

  7. The role of perioperative warming in surgery: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafique Sajid

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to systematically analyze the trials on the effectiveness of perioperative warming in surgical patients. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken. Clinical trials on perioperative warming were selected according to specific criteria and analyzed to generate summative data expressed as standardized mean difference (SMD. RESULTS: Twenty-five studies encompassing 3,599 patients in various surgical disciplines were retrieved from the electronic databases. Nineteen randomized trials on 1785 patients qualified for this review. The no-warming group developed statistically significant hypothermia. In the fixed effect model, the warming group had significantly less pain and lower incidence of wound infection, compared with the no-warming group. In the random effect model, the warming group was also associated with lower risk of post-anesthetic shivering. Both in the random and the fixed effect models, the warming group was associated with significantly less blood loss. However, there was significant heterogeneity among the trials. CONCLUSION: Perioperative warming of surgical patients is effective in reducing postoperative wound pain, wound infection and shivering. Systemic warming of the surgical patient is also associated with less perioperative blood loss through preventing hypothermia-induced coagulopathy. Perioperative warming may be given routinely to all patients of various surgical disciplines in order to counteract the consequences of hypothermia.

  8. The mouthfeel of white wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, Richard; Smith, Paul A; Cicerale, Sara; Keast, Russell

    2017-07-05

    White wine mouthfeel which encompasses the tactile, chemosensory and taste attributes of perceived viscosity, astringency, hotness and bitterness is increasingly being recognized as an important component of overall white wine quality. This review summarizes the physiological basis for the perception of white wine mouthfeel and the direct and interactive effects of white wine composition, specifically those of low molecular weight phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, pH, ethanol, glycerol, dissolved carbon dioxide, and peptides. Ethyl alcohol concentration and pH play a direct role in determining most aspects of mouthfeel perception, and provide an overall framework on which the other minor wine components can interact to influence white wine mouthfeel. Phenolic compounds broadly impact on the mouthfeel by contributing to its viscosity, astringency, hotness and bitterness. Their breadth of influence likely results from their structural diversity which would allow them to activate multiple sensory mechanisms involved in mouthfeel perception. Conversely, polysaccharides have a small modulating effect on astringency and hotness perception, and glycerol does not affect perceived viscosity within the narrow concentration range found in white wine. Many of the major sensory attributes that contribute to the overall impression of mouthfeel are elicited by more than one class compound suggesting that different physiological mechanisms may be involved in the construct of mouthfeel percepts.

  9. Let's Talk about Race, Baby: How a White Professor Teaches White Students about White Privilege and Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Peter

    2008-01-01

    There are a variety of methods by which the themes of White privilege and racism can be presented to White students. By using the concept of racial identity a continuum of racism can be considered. Furthermore, addressing White privilege and racism in the context of a multicultural psychology course allows White students to have a greater…

  10. Recently amplified arctic warming has contributed to a continual global warming trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianbin; Zhang, Xiangdong; Zhang, Qiyi; Lin, Yanluan; Hao, Mingju; Luo, Yong; Zhao, Zongci; Yao, Yao; Chen, Xin; Wang, Lei; Nie, Suping; Yin, Yizhou; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Jiansong

    2017-12-01

    The existence and magnitude of the recently suggested global warming hiatus, or slowdown, have been strongly debated1-3. Although various physical processes4-8 have been examined to elucidate this phenomenon, the accuracy and completeness of observational data that comprise global average surface air temperature (SAT) datasets is a concern9,10. In particular, these datasets lack either complete geographic coverage or in situ observations over the Arctic, owing to the sparse observational network in this area9. As a consequence, the contribution of Arctic warming to global SAT changes may have been underestimated, leading to an uncertainty in the hiatus debate. Here, we constructed a new Arctic SAT dataset using the most recently updated global SATs2 and a drifting buoys based Arctic SAT dataset11 through employing the `data interpolating empirical orthogonal functions' method12. Our estimate of global SAT rate of increase is around 0.112 °C per decade, instead of 0.05 °C per decade from IPCC AR51, for 1998-2012. Analysis of this dataset shows that the amplified Arctic warming over the past decade has significantly contributed to a continual global warming trend, rather than a hiatus or slowdown.

  11. Impact of biofuels on contrail warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Fabio; Agarwal, Akshat; Speth, Raymond L.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2017-11-01

    Contrails and contrail-cirrus may be the largest source of radiative forcing (RF) attributable to aviation. Biomass-derived alternative jet fuels are a potentially major way to mitigate the climate impacts of aviation by reducing lifecycle CO2 emissions. Given the up to 90% reduction in soot emissions from paraffinic biofuels, the potential for a significant impact on contrail RF due to the reduction in contrail-forming ice nuclei (IN) remains an open question. We simulate contrail formation and evolution to quantify RF over the United States under different emissions scenarios. Replacing conventional jet fuels with paraffinic biofuels generates two competing effects. First, the higher water emissions index results in an increase in contrail occurrence (~ +8%). On the other hand, these contrails are composed of larger diameter crystals (~ +58%) at lower number concentrations (~ -75%), reducing both contrail optical depth (~ -29%) and albedo (~ -32%). The net changes in contrail RF induced by switching to biofuels range from -4% to +18% among a range of assumed ice crystal habits (shapes). In comparison, cleaner burning engines (with no increase in water emissions index) result in changes to net contrail RF ranging between -13% and +5% depending on habit. Thus, we find that even 67% to 75% reductions in aircraft soot emissions are insufficient to substantially reduce warming from contrails, and that the use of biofuels may either increase or decrease contrail warming—contrary to previous expectations of a significant decrease in warming.

  12. Canada and global warming: Meeting the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Canada accounts for ca 2% of total world emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide emissions are by far the largest greenhouse gas source in Canada, primarily from energy consumption. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks second among industrialized countries in terms of energy related carbon dioxide emissions. Canada's northern geography and climate, its export-oriented economy with energy-intensive resource industries, and its relatively small population dispersed over a wide land mass contribute to this high per-capita value. The effects of global warming induced by greenhouse gases are outlined, including a reduction in water supplies, droughts affecting agriculture and forestry, and large-scale thawing of permafrost. A national strategy to respond to global warming has been developed which includes limiting and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, preparing for potential climatic changes, and improving scientific understanding and predictive capabilities with respect to climate change. Details of this strategy are outlined, including provincial and territorial strategies in partnership with the national strategy. 11 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Climate warming: what we can actually expect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbecq, Denis; Lemarchand, Fabienne; Boucher, Olivier; Dessus, Benjamin; Laponche, Bernard; Le Treut, Herve

    2013-01-01

    As the next IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) report is soon to be published, a paleo-climatologist answers few questions about issues related to climate change (recent climate events, slower temperature increase during the past ten years, lessons learned from the previous IPCC report, evolutions of models, remaining opportunities to limit temperature increase to 2 degrees). A second article comments climate modelling improvements (finer description of oceans, atmosphere and ice field, introduction of new mechanisms in IPCC models such as carbon cycle, vegetation evolution, aerosols and atmospheric chemistry, models relying on greenhouse gas emission principles and not on socioeconomic scenarios any longer). A third article outlines that Earth has never been so warm since 1850 and proposes some explanations about the fact that warming has slowed down during the last ten years. A fourth article discusses how greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced, notices that their accounting underestimates the short-term and medium-term impact of methane emission reduction, and stresses the importance of an increased attention to methane emissions

  14. Identifying the Molecular Origin of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Partha P.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the physical characteristics of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to assess which properties are most important in determining the efficiency of a GHG. Chlorofluorcarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), nitrogen fluorides, and various other known atmospheric trace molecules have been included in this study. Compounds containing the halogens F or Cl have in common very polar X-F or X-Cl bonds, particularly the X-F bonds. It is shown that as more F atoms bond to the same central atom, the bond dipoles become larger as a result of the central atom becoming more positive. This leads to a linear increase in the total or integrated XF bond dipole derivatives for the molecule, which leads to a non-linear (quadratic) increase in infrared (IR) intensity. Moreover, virtually all of the X-F bond stretches occur in the atmospheric IR window as opposed to X-H stretches, which do not occur in the atmospheric window. It is concluded that molecules possessing several F atoms will always have a large radiative forcing parameter in the calculation of their global warming potential. Some of the implications for global warming and climate change are discussed.

  15. What if mankind warms the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, W.W.

    1977-01-01

    There are a variety of human activities that are being pursued on such a large scale that they may influence regional and global climate. Virtually all of these activities, including the addition of carbon dioxide and particles to the atmosphere, are expected on theoretical grounds to cause an increase in mean surface temperature in the decades ahead, and by 2000 AD the total warming effect will probably be larger than any of the natural climate fluctuations during the past 1,000 years or more. It is therefore pertinent ot inquire what a warmer earth might be like; and to obtain a first rough answer we turn to our mathematical models of the atmosphere, and also to the conditions that have been deduced for the period about 4,000 to 8,000 years ago when the earth was apparently several degress warmer the now. Atan now. At that time some areas that are now subtropical deserts received more rainfall, and there were other areas in the middle latitudes that were drier. There are several important implications for society if mankind does succeed in warming the earth - and a number of still unanswered questions as well. (orig.) [de

  16. Anthropogenic warming exacerbates European soil moisture droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego, L.; Thober, S.; Kumar, R.; Wanders, N.; Rakovec, O.; Pan, M.; Zink, M.; Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.; Marx, A.

    2018-05-01

    Anthropogenic warming is anticipated to increase soil moisture drought in the future. However, projections are accompanied by large uncertainty due to varying estimates of future warming. Here, using an ensemble of hydrological and land-surface models, forced with bias-corrected downscaled general circulation model output, we estimate the impacts of 1-3 K global mean temperature increases on soil moisture droughts in Europe. Compared to the 1.5 K Paris target, an increase of 3 K—which represents current projected temperature change—is found to increase drought area by 40% (±24%), affecting up to 42% (±22%) more of the population. Furthermore, an event similar to the 2003 drought is shown to become twice as frequent; thus, due to their increased occurrence, events of this magnitude will no longer be classified as extreme. In the absence of effective mitigation, Europe will therefore face unprecedented increases in soil moisture drought, presenting new challenges for adaptation across the continent.

  17. Dynamics of polynomial Chaplygin gas warm inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawad, Abdul [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Chaudhary, Shahid [Sharif College of Engineering and Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Videla, Nelson [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-11-15

    In the present work, we study the consequences of a recently proposed polynomial inflationary potential in the context of the generalized, modified, and generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas models. In addition, we consider dissipative effects by coupling the inflation field to radiation, i.e., the inflationary dynamics is studied in the warm inflation scenario. We take into account a general parametrization of the dissipative coefficient Γ for describing the decay of the inflaton field into radiation. By studying the background and perturbative dynamics in the weak and strong dissipative regimes of warm inflation separately for the positive and negative quadratic and quartic potentials, we obtain expressions for the most relevant inflationary observables as the scalar power spectrum, the scalar spectral, and the tensor-to-scalar ratio. We construct the trajectories in the n{sub s}-r plane for several expressions of the dissipative coefficient and compare with the two-dimensional marginalized contours for (n{sub s}, r) from the latest Planck data. We find that our results are in agreement with WMAP9 and Planck 2015 data. (orig.)

  18. Acting green elicits a literal warm glow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Environmental policies are often based on the assumption that people only act environmentally friendly if some extrinsic reward is implicated, usually money. We argue that people might also be motivated by intrinsic rewards: doing the right thing (such as acting environmentally friendly) elicits psychological rewards in the form of positive feelings, a phenomenon known as warm glow. Given the fact that people's psychological state may affect their thermal state, we expected that this warm glow could express itself quite literally: people who act environmentally friendly may perceive the temperature to be higher. In two studies, we found that people who learned they acted environmentally friendly perceived a higher temperature than people who learned they acted environmentally unfriendly. The underlying psychological mechanism pertains to the self-concept: learning you acted environmentally friendly signals to yourself that you are a good person. Together, our studies show that acting environmentally friendly can be psychologically rewarding, suggesting that appealing to intrinsic rewards can be an alternative way to encourage pro-environmental actions.

  19. Warm water upwelling in the Cenozoic Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Modern observations show that the occurrence of wind-driven upwelling is often tied to cold sea surface temperatures (SSTs). However, SST reconstructions indicate that globally, the upwelling regions were much warmer in the Miocene and Pliocene. This questions the overall strength of deep-water upwelling in the geological past, with important implications for the associated atmospheric, climatic and biogeochemical processes, and the fate of upwelling regions in a high-CO2 world. We recently showed that the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) was characterized by strong air-sea disequilibrium of CO2 during the late Miocene - Pliocene. Combined with export productivity proxies, we interpreted these as signs of vigorous upwelling. The upwelled waters were nutrient- and CO2-rich, but warm. The cause of the "excess" warming in the upwelling regions is linked to the source waters which originated from the higher latitudes. In other words, the reduced east (upwelling) to west (non-upwelling) temperature gradients along the equator in major ocean basins are rooted in the reduced meridional temperature gradients. To further test this hypothesis, we examine the history of the EEP and temperature gradients during the even-warmer Eocene - middle Miocene.

  20. The carbon cycle and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Five land-use-based approaches can be used to slow the buildup of CO 2 in the atmosphere: slowing or stopping the loss of existing forests, thus preserving current carbon reservoirs; adding to the planet's vegetative cover through reforestation or other means, thus enlarging living terrestrial carbon reservoirs; increasing the carbon stored in nonliving carbon reservoirs such as agricultural soils; increasing the carbon stored in artificial reservoirs, including timber products; and substituting sustainable biomass energy sources for fossil fuel consumption, thus reducing energy-related carbon emissions. These approaches are all based on the same basic premise: adding to the planet's net carbon stores in vegetative cover or soil, or preventing any net loss, will help moderate global warming by keeping atmospheric CO 2 levels lower than they would otherwise be. Because biotic policy options appear capable of contributing significantly to the mitigation of global warming while also furthering many other public policy objectives, their role deserves careful consideration on a country-by-country basis