WorldWideScience

Sample records for lumber

  1. Commercial lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent A. McDonald; David E. Kretschmann

    1999-01-01

    In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types, and in various commercial establishments, both wholesale and retail. Most commercial lumber is graded by standardized rules that make purchasing more or less uniform throughout the country...

  2. Drying of building lumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washimi, Hiroshi

    1988-08-20

    Dried lumber is classified into air dried and kiln-dried lumber. The water content of kiln-dried lumber is specified by the Japan Agricultural Standards. However, since building lumber varies in such factors as the location where it was growing, species and shape, the standards, though relaxed, are not being observed. In fact, lumbered products which are not ''Kiln-dried'' frequently bear ''kiln-dried lumber'' marks. In an attempt to correct the situation, the Forestry Agency has set up voluntary standards, but problems still remain. The conventional drying method consists of first subjecting the lumber to optimum drying, then letting bending and deformations to freely and fully appear, and follow this with corrective sawing to produce planks straight from end to end. Compared with air dried lumber in terms of moisture content, kiln-dried lumber remains much with same with minimal shrinkage and expansion. For oil-containing resin, such normal treatments as drying by heating, steaming and boiling seem to be quite effective. Kiln drying, which is becoming more and more important with changes in the circulation system, consists of the steaming-drying-heating method and the dehumidizing type drying method. The major factor which determines the drying cost is the number of days required for drying, which depends largely on the kind of lumber and moisture content. The Forestry Angency is promoting production of defoiled lumber. (2 figs, 2 tables)

  3. Drying hardwood lumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, A T

    1988-11-14

    Dried lumber is a high-value-added product, especially when it is of high quality. Lumber damaged during the drying operation can represent substantial lost revenue. It has been demonstrated that dehumidification kilns can improve lumber quality, and reduce energy consumption over conventional drying methods. A summary of the literature on drying hardwood lumber, particularly using heat pump dehumidification, has been prepared to allow the information to be readily accessible to Ontario Hydro personnel who work with customers in the lumber industry. For that purpose, this summary has been prepared from the perspective of the customer, a dry kiln operator. Included are brief descriptions of drying schedules, precautions needed to minimize drying defects in the lumber, and rules-of-thumb for selecting and estimating the capital cost of the drying equipment. A selection of drying schedules and moisture contents of green lumber, a glossary of lumber defects and brief descriptions of the possible preventive measures are also included. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Pierce Lumber, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Pierce Lumber, Inc. (“Respondent”), located at 1629 13th Street, Belle Plaine, IA for alleged violations of its National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit (perm

  5. Laminated lumber may be more profitable than sawn lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Koch

    1976-01-01

    By laminating 1/4-in. rotary-cut veneer into structural lumber, manufacturers can expand lumber output by at least 30% without increasing volume logged. The idea merits intensive study. Manufacturing plus raw material costs should total about $142/Mbf; sales price for desirable widths and lengths of the strong laminated product should approach or exceed $200/Mbf.

  6. The automatic lumber planing mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1957-01-01

    It is probable that a truly automatic planning operation could be devised if some of the variables commonly present in the mill-run lumber were eliminated and the remaining variables kept under close control. This paper will deal with the more general situation faced by mostl umber manufacturing plants. In other words, it will be assumed that the incoming lumber has...

  7. Lumber defect detection by ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. A. McDonald

    1978-01-01

    Ultrasonics, the technology of high-frequency sound, has been developed as a viable means for locating most defects In lumber for use in digital form in decision-making computers. Ultrasonics has the potential for locating surface and internal defects in lumber of all species, green or dry, and rough sawn or surfaced.

  8. Commercial lumber, round timbers, and ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann

    2010-01-01

    When sawn, a log yields round timber, ties, or lumber of varying quality. This chapter presents a general discussion of grading, standards, and specifications for these commercial products. In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types...

  9. Quality drying of hardwood lumber : guidebook -- checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Boone; M. R. Milota; J. D. Danielson; D. W. Huber

    The IMPROVE Lumber Drying Program is intended to increase awareness of the lumber drying system as a critical component in the manufacture of quality lumber. One objective of the program is to provide easy-to-use tools that a kiln operator can use to maintain an efficient kiln operation and therefore improve lumber drying quality. This report is one component of the...

  10. Quality drying of softwood lumber : guidebook - checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. R. Milota; J. D. Danielson; R. S. Boone; D. W. Huber

    The IMPROVE Lumber Drying Program is intended to increase awareness of the lumber drying system as a critical component in the manufacture of quality lumber. One objective of the program is to provide easy-to-use tools that a kiln operator can use to maintain an efficient kiln operation and therefore contribute to lumber drying quality. This report is one component of...

  11. Hardwood log grades and lumber grade yields for factory lumber logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland F. Hanks; Glenn L. Gammon; Robert L. Brisbin; Everette D. Rast

    1980-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Standard Grades for Hardwood Factory Lumber Logs are described, and lumber grade yields for 16 species and 2 species groups are presented by log grade and log diameter. The grades enable foresters, log buyers, and log sellers to select and grade those log suitable for conversion into standard factory grade lumber. By using the apropriate lumber...

  12. Trends in lumber processing in the Western United States. Part II: Overrun and lumber recovery factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Keith A. Blatner; Jean M. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    This article describes trends in three measures of lumber recovery for sawmills in the western United States: lumber overrun (LO), lumber recovery factor (LRF), and cubic lumber recovery (CLR). All states and regions showed increased LO during the last three decades. Oregon and Montana had the highest LO at 107 and 100 percent, respectively. Alaska had the lowest LO at...

  13. 78 FR 15053 - Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Shelton, Washington; Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Tacoma, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ...,372B] Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Shelton, Washington; Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Tacoma, Washington; Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Longview, Washington; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration On... Reconsideration for the workers and former workers of Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Shelton, Washington (TA-W-81...

  14. Evolution of tensile design stresses for lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    William L. Galligan; C. C. Gerhards; R. L. Ethington

    1979-01-01

    Until approximately 1965, allowable design stresses for lumber in tension were taken as equal to those assigned for bending. As interest in tensile properties increased, testing machines were designed specifically to stress lumber in tension. Research results that accumulated on tensile tests of full-size lumber suggested lower design stresses for tension than for...

  15. Machine grading of lumber : practical concerns for lumber producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    William L. Galligan; Kent A. McDonald

    2000-01-01

    Machine lumber grading has been applied in commercial operations in North America since 1963, and research has shown that machine grading can improve the efficient use of wood. However, industry has been reluctant to apply research findings without clear evidence that the change from visual to machine grading will be a profitable one. For instance, mill managers need...

  16. Lumber Cost Minimization through Optimum Grade-Mix Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoqiu Zuo; Urs Buehlmann; R. Edward Thomas; R. Edward Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Rough mills process kiln-dried lumber into components for the furniture and wood products industries, Lumber is a significant portion of total rough mill costs and lumber quality can have a serious impact on mill productivity. Lower quality lumber is less expensive yet is harder to process. Higher quality lumber is more expensive yet easier to process. The problem of...

  17. Automatic Edging and Trimming of Hardwood Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Eugene M. Wengert; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    Studies have shown that there is a potential to increase hardwood lumber value by more than 20 percent through optimum edging and trimming. Even a small portion of this percentage can boost the profitability of hardwood lumber manufacturers substantially. The objective of this research project is to develop an automated system which would assist in correct edging and...

  18. Lumber stress grades and design properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann; David W. Green

    1999-01-01

    Lumber sawn from a log, regardless of species and size, is quite variable in mechanical properties. Pieces may differ in strength by several hundred percent. For simplicity and economy in use, pieces of lumber of similar mechanical properties are placed in categories called stress grades, which are characterized by (a) one or more sorting criteria, (b) a set of...

  19. What's ahead in automated lumber grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Philip A. Araman

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses how present scanning technologies are being applied to automatic lumber grading. The presentation focuses on 1) what sensing and scanning devices are needed to measure information for accurate grading feature detection, 2) the hardware and software needed to efficiently process this information, and 3) specific issues related to softwood lumber...

  20. Factors determining lumber recovery in sawmilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele

    1984-01-01

    Lumber volume recovery in sawmilling is determined by a confusing interaction of several factors. The more one knows about each individual factor, the more one can understand how the factors interact. The author identifies and discusses in detail seven factors influencing lumber recovery. Past and current research is cited, and examples are given to illustrate the...

  1. Factors affecting regional changes in hardwood lumber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Gilbert P. Dempsey; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1994-01-01

    Hardwood lumber production increased by nearly 1.8 billion board feet between 1986 and 1990 and decreased sharply in 1991. However, not all areas of the country experienced the same growth in hardwood lumber production during the 1980s. While lumber production in inland regions of the eastern United States and the west increased during the 1980s, lumber output in...

  2. An assessment of the industrial markets for softwood clearwood lumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan L. Eastin; Christine L. Lane; Roger D. Fight; Jamie Barbour

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to assess market opportunities for second growth clearwood lumber by identifying industry segments that currently utilize clearwood lumber and determining whether alternative markets will continue to exist for clearwood lumber produced from intensively managed forests in the Pacific Northwest. A survey of industrial lumber...

  3. Quality drying in a hardwood lumber predryer : guidebook--checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. M. Wengert; R. S. Boone

    The IMPROVE Lumber Drying Program is intended to increase awareness of the lumber drying system as a critical component in the manufacture of quality lumber. One objective of the program is to provide easy-to-use tools that a kiln/predryer operator can use to maintain an efficient drying operation and therefore improve lumber drying quality. This report is one...

  4. Quality Characteristics of Appalachian Red Oak Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K Wiedenbeck; Charles J. Gatchell; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1995-01-01

    Red oak lumber defect information derived from a well-constructed board data bank was analyzed. The potential utility of No. 1 Common and No. 2A Common lumber is indicated by the finding that 23 percent of the No. 1 Common boards and 35 percent of the No. 2A Common boards in the data bank contain clear-face cutting percentages that meet the minimum requirement for the...

  5. The state of hardwood lumber markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert P. Dempsey; William G. Luppold

    1992-01-01

    Although the 1990-91 recession has temporarily dampened the demand for hardwood lumber, the decade of the 1980s was a period of strong growth in the hardwood market. After experiencing a flat market in 1980 and a decline in 1982, the demand for hardwood lumber by both the domestic industry and the export market increased strongly—from 8 billion board feet in 1982 to 11...

  6. Mechanical properties: wood lumber versus plastic lumber and thermoplastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Zandomenico Dias

    Full Text Available Abstract Plastic lumber and thermoplastic composites are sold as alternatives to wood products. However, many technical standards and scientific studies state that the two materials cannot be considered to have the same structural behaviour and strength. Moreover, there are many compositions of thermoplastic-based products and plenty of wood species. How different are their mechanical properties? This study compares the modulus of elasticity and the flexural, compressive, tensile and shear strengths of such materials, as well as the materials' specific mechanical properties. It analyses the properties of wood from the coniferae and dicotyledon species and those of commercialized and experimental thermoplastic-based product formulations. The data were collected from books, scientific papers and manufacturers' websites and technical data sheets, and subsequently compiled and presented in Ashby plots and bar graphs. The high values of the compressive strength and specific compressive and tensile strengths perpendicular to the grain (width direction shown by the experimental thermoplastic composites compared to wood reveal their great potential for use in compressed elements and in functions where components are compressed or tensioned perpendicularly to the grain. However, the low specific flexural modulus and high density of thermoplastic materials limit their usage in certain civil engineering and building applications.

  7. An econometric model of the hardwood lumber market

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold

    1982-01-01

    A recursive econometric model with causal flow originating from the demand relationship is used to analyze the effects of exogenous variables on quantity and price of hardwood lumber. Wage rates, interest rates, stumpage price, lumber exports, and price of lumber demanders' output were the major factors influencing quantities demanded and supplied and hardwood...

  8. Growth and shifts in eastern hardwood lumber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of recent trends in eastern U.S. hardwood lumber production indicates that total output increased sharply between 1977 and 1991. The increase, however, was much more pronounced in the East's northern tier of states than in the southern. This paper first examines recent hardwood lumber usage trends and historic hardwood lumber production trends. Changes...

  9. Dimension yields from yellow-poplar lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. Gilmore; J. D. Danielson

    1984-01-01

    The available supply of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), its potential for new uses, and its continuing importance to the furniture industry have created a need to accumulate additional information about this species. As an aid to better utilization of this species, charts for determining cutting stock yields from yellow poplar lumber are presented for each...

  10. Burst fracture of the fifth lumber vertebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Hetao; Hu Zhenmin; Shi Yuxin

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the stability of the fifth lumber vertebra after burst fracture. Methods: 7 patients with burst fracture of the fifth lumber vertebra were examined by X-ray and CT, and followed for 6-36 months. The changes of wedge index, lordosis, degree of spinal canal stenosis and neurological features were observed during the episode and followed up. Results: The three spinal column structure was disrupted in 6 of 7 patients. The anterior and mid columns were involved in 1 case. Spinal stenosis of first and second degrees was seen in 3 cases, and in one case, there was no spinal canal stenosis. Lower lumber motor-root deficits were found in 2 of 7 patients and resolved in follow up. There was no tendency of progressive collapse of the vertebral body and spinal stenosis. Conclusions: Burst fracture of the fifth lumber vertebra was specific, most of them were stable fractures, although two or three columns of the spine were disrupted and accompanied by spinal canal stenosis

  11. Burst fracture of the fifth lumber vertebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetao, Cao; Zhenmin, Hu; Yuxin, Shi [Affiliated Hosptial of Nantong Medical College, JS, Nantong (China). Dept. of Radiology

    1999-04-01

    Objective: To investigate the stability of the fifth lumber vertebra after burst fracture. Methods: 7 patients with burst fracture of the fifth lumber vertebra were examined by X-ray and CT, and followed for 6-36 months. The changes of wedge index, lordosis, degree of spinal canal stenosis and neurological features were observed during the episode and followed up. Results: The three spinal column structure was disrupted in 6 of 7 patients. The anterior and mid columns were involved in 1 case. Spinal stenosis of first and second degrees was seen in 3 cases, and in one case, there was no spinal canal stenosis. Lower lumber motor-root deficits were found in 2 of 7 patients and resolved in follow up. There was no tendency of progressive collapse of the vertebral body and spinal stenosis. Conclusions: Burst fracture of the fifth lumber vertebra was specific, most of them were stable fractures, although two or three columns of the spine were disrupted and accompanied by spinal canal stenosis

  12. Durability of wood-plastic composite lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    2010-01-01

    Wood-plastic composite (WPC) lumber has been marketed as a low-maintenance, high-durability product. Retail sales in the United States were slightly less than $1 billion in 2008. Applications include docking, railing, windows, doors, fencing, siding, moldings, landscape timbers, car interior parts, and furniture. The majority of these products are used outdoors and...

  13. INDUSTRIAL EVALUATION OF RE-DRY STRATEGY FOR SOFTWOOD LUMBER

    OpenAIRE

    Elustondo, Diego; Avramidis, Stavros

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental evaluation of the first commercial scale dry-sort-redry (DSRD) strategy for drying of 2x4 Pacific coast hemlock (PCH) lumber. The DSRD strategy is a methodology designed to reduce final moisture content variability in kiln dried lumber by complementing conventional drying with radio frequency vacuum (RFV) drying technology. The strategy′s objective is to avoid producing over-dried lumber in conventional drying by setting the target moisture content to...

  14. Accelerated conventional temperature drying of 30mm thick rubberwood lumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthon Srivaro1,

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Lumber drying is the most energy and time consuming process within the rubberwood lumber industry. The aim ofthis study was to develop an effective drying schedule for rubberwood lumber by accelerating the moisture movement out oflumber without degrading the lumber during drying. The study explored the effect of dry bulb temperature (60oC, 75oC and90oC, steaming at the beginning of drying, predrying of lumber prior to drying, and top loading of lumber on the dryingcharacteristics and lumber quality (bow, crook, twist, end splitting and color of 30mm thick rubberwood lumber under thetarget EMC at 4% and air velocity of 4m/s. Accelerated conventional temperature drying of lumber at 90oC reduced thedrying time by ~50% from 117 hours to 54 hours but increased the energy consumption by 22% with respect to the conventionaltemperature drying at 60oC. The average activation energy for drying was 26 kJ/mol. Drying temperature had verylittle effect on quality of lumber after drying (bow, crook, twist, end splitting and color. Steaming at the beginning of dryingand predrying of lumber prior to drying reduced and increased the percentage of end splitting, respectively. A top load ofabout 300 kg/m2 slightly decreased twist. Drying at higher temperatures produced more casehardening within the lumber butconditioning at higher temperatures was more effective in releasing the residual stress generated by drying. After conditioningat high temperatures prong of less than 0.5° casehardening was obtained.

  15. 1992 Data Bank for Red Oak Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles J. Gatchell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Elizabeth S. Walker; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Data Bank for Red Oak Lumber is a collection of fully described FAS, Selects, No. 1 Common, and No. 2A Common boards (a total of 1,578 at present). The data bank has two unique features to aid in sample selection. The first feature is the double grading of FAS, No. 1 Common, and No. 2A Common boards to reflect the surface area in grading cuttings when grading...

  16. Evolution of allowable stresses in shear for lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Ethington; William L. Galligan; Henry M. Montrey; Alan D. Freas

    1979-01-01

    This paper surveys research leading to allowable shear stress parallel to grain for lumber. In early flexure tests of lumber, some pieces failed in shear. The estimated shear stress at time of failure was generally lower than shear strength measured on small, clear, straight-grained specimens. This and other engineering observations gave rise to adjustments that...

  17. Automatic scanning of rough hardwood lumber for edging and trimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman; Sang-Mook Lee

    2001-01-01

    Scanning of unplaned, green hardwood lumber has received relatively little attention in the research community. This has been due in part to the difficulty of clearly imaging fresh-cut boards whose fibrous surfaces mask many wood features. Nevertheless, it is important to improve lumber processing early in the manufacturing stream because much wood material is...

  18. Match Your Hardwood Lumber to Current Market Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Steven A. Sinclair; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    This article explains how hardwood lumber producers can best market their product. The study included four segments of the market for hardwood lumber. These segments were: furniture, cabinet, dimension and flooring, and molding/millwork manufacturers. The article explains how the study was conducted and the characteristics of companies (i.e., potential customers) that...

  19. Regional analysis of hardwood lumber production: 1963 - 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner

    2008-01-01

    Between 1963 and 2005 hardwood lumber production in the eastern United States increased by more than 50%. Production more than doubled in the northeastern and north central regions while increasing by less than 25% in the southeastern and south central regions. Increased lumber production in the northern regions was facilitated by an expanding sawtimber inventory,...

  20. 40 years of hardwood lumber comsumption: 1963 to 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of hardwood lumber consumption found that demand has changed dramatically over the past four decades as a result of material substitution, changes in construction and remodeling products markets, and globalization. In 1963 furniture producers consumed 36 percent of the hardwood products lumber used by domestic manufacturers. Producers of hardwood...

  1. Low-grade hardwood lumber production, markets, and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Cumbo; Robert Smith; Philip A. Araman

    2003-01-01

    Due to recent downturn in the economy and changes in traditional hardwood markets. U.S. hardwood manufacturers are facing significant difficulties. In particular, markets for low-grade lumber have been diminishing, while increased levels of the material are being produced at hardwood sawmills in the United States. A nationwide survey of hardwood lumber manufacturers...

  2. Why do stumpage prices increase more than lumber prices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; John E. Baumgras; John E. Baumgras

    1998-01-01

    Every sawmiller who has been in business more than 5 years realizes that hardwood stumpage prices tend to increase faster than lumber prices, decreasing the margin between these two prices. Although increases in stumpage versus lumber prices are readily apparent, the reason for the decrease in the margin is not. Recent research findings indicate that the stumpage/...

  3. Boron Diffusion in Surface-Treated Framing Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia K. Lebow; Stan T. Lebow; Steven A. Halverson

    2013-01-01

    The extent of boron penetration in framing lumber treated by spray applications during construction is not well quantified. This study evaluated the effect of formulation and concentration on diffusion of boron in lumber specimens that were equilibrated in conditions that produced wood moisture contents of 18 to 21 percent. One set of specimens was pressure treated...

  4. Softwood Lumber – Some Lessons from the Last Softwood (Lumber IV Dispute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Feldman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The checkered history of softwood lumber disputes between Canada and its southern neighbour stretches back to the 1800s, with five of them occurring since 1982. Two years ago, the settlement obtained in 2006 expired and most Canadian softwood lumber exporters now face a combined countervailing and anti-dumping duty rate from the Americans of around 27 per cent. On the surface, the last dispute, known as Lumber IV, appeared to be a squabble over subsidization and dumping of Canadian softwood lumber exports. However, closer scrutiny revealed that this dispute was really about commercial interests triumphing over policy – the U.S. lumber industry wanted to ensure it kept a certain share of the market at the highest price possible. Complicating attempts to resolve any dispute is the fact that Canada is not a single entity in the lumber business; interest in quota or duties varies across regions as do the countervailing (CVD and anti-dumping (AD rates that the U.S. imposes on particular Canadian producers. These variations thus create almost a divide-and-conquer situation in which one group of producers feels others are getting an advantage. The Canadian industry instead should be standing together as much as possible, creating a united front in any dispute with the U.S. Drafting new policy and resorting to litigation to settle Lumber IV failed because the potential settlement got bogged down by the drawbacks of both of those routes. Policy failed because it quickly became clear that the U.S. was going to act with impunity to determine whether there was a subsidy, regardless of what the trade rules permitted. And litigation created an endless loop in which contradictory rulings were handed back and forth between NAFTA panels and the U.S. International Trade Commission, stalling any resolution. Lumber IV also taught the Canadians that taking their complaints to both NAFTA and the World Trade Organization, which does not order a refunding of wrongly

  5. Impacts of changing hardwood lumber consumption and price on stumpage and sawlog prices in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner; T. Eric. McConnell

    2014-01-01

    In the early 2000s, increasing US furniture imports preceded declining US hardwood lumber demand and price. In the summer of 2002, however, hardwood lumber prices started to increase as demand by construction industries increased. By the mid-2000s, hardwood lumber prices hit all-time highs. Lumber prices hit all-time highs for red oak (Quercus spp...

  6. Influence of Lumber Volume Maximization on Value in Sawing Hardwood Sawlogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Francis G. Wagner; Lalit Kumar; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    Research based on applying volume-maximizing sawing solutions to idealized hardwood log forms has shown that average lumber yield can be increased by 6 percent. It is possible, however, that a lumber volume-maximizing solution may result in a decrease in lumber grade and a net reduction in total value of sawn lumber. The objective of this study was to determine the...

  7. The influence of lumber grade on machine productivity in the rough mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Jan Wiedenbeck; Rubin Shmulsky; Anura Perera; Anura Perera

    1999-01-01

    Lumber grade effect on hardwood-part processing time was investigated with a digitally described lumber database in conjunction with a crosscut-first rough mill yield optimization simulator. In this study, the digital lumber sample was subdivided into five hardwood lumber grades. Three cutting bills with varying degrees of difficulty were Cut." The three cutting...

  8. Second-order polynomial model to solve the least-cost lumber grade mix problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Xiaoqiu Zuo; R. Edward. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Material costs when cutting solid wood parts from hardwood lumber for secondary wood products manufacturing account for 20 to 50 percent of final product cost. These costs can be minimized by proper selection of the lumber quality used. The lumber quality selection problem is referred to as the least-cost lumber grade mix problem in the industry. The objective of this...

  9. The Research and Development of COM-PLY Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. McAlister

    1989-01-01

    Between 1974 and 1986, a Southeastern Station Research Work Unit developed standards for composite studs, joists, and truss lumber and manufactured and demonstrated the materials. Economic feasibility was considered in every stage of research. Further development is left to industry.

  10. Pierce Lumber, Inc. - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Pierce Lumber, Inc. (“Respondent”), located at 1629 13th Street, Belle Plaine, IA for alleged violations of its National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit (perm

  11. Data bank for short-length red oak lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Charles J. Gatchell; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1994-01-01

    This data bank for short-length lumber (less than 8 feet long) contains information on board outlines and defect size and quality for 426 414-inch-thick red oak boards. The Selects, 1 Common, 2A Common, and 3A Common grades are represented in the data bank. The data bank provides the kind of detailed lumber description that is required as input by computer programs...

  12. An equipment test for grading lumber by transverse vibration technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigo Carreira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the great variability of its mechanical properties, the rational use of lumber for structural purposes is directly conditioned to its grading. There are several techniques available for grading structural lumber. The most relevant one is the transverse vibration technique which obtained reliable results in non-destructive evaluation of lumber. The purpose of this work is to present the bases for the mechanical grading of lumber and the results of the calibration test of the frst transverse vibration equipment developed in Brazil. In this research 30 beams of cupiúba (Goupia glabra with nominal dimensions of 5 cm X 10 cm X 300 cm, were used. The tests were accomplished at the Wood and Timber Structures Laboratory (LaMEM of the University of São Paulo (USP. The results showed a strong correlation between the elasticity modulus measured by the static bending test and the one obtained with the transverse vibration equipment, showing the high reliability of the vibration method for the grading of structural lumber. A determination coeffcient (R² of 0.896 was obtained with the Brazilian equipment, showing that it can be used in the grading of lumber.

  13. Crook and overlength in hardwood lumber:results from a 14-mill survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; John Brown; Neal Bennett

    2003-01-01

    Data on red oak lumber were collected at 14 furniture and cabinet industry rough mills to identify how crook and overlength are related to lumber grade and size from mill to mill. The amount of crook in a sample of dry, 4/4 thickness, red oak lumber was significantly influenced by lumber grade and length, supply region, and mill. There were no differences in crook...

  14. An ultrasonic technique for predicting tensile strength of southern pine lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Rajeshwar; D.A. Bender; D.E. Bray; K.A. McDonald

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this research was to develop nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology to enhance mechanical stress rating of lumber. An ultrasonic NDE technique was developed that is sensitive to grain angle and edge knots in lumber - two primary determinants of lumber strength. The presence of edge knots increased the acoustic wave travel time and selectively...

  15. Examination of worldwide hardwood lumber production, trade, and apparent consumption: 1995-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide hardwood lumber production fluctuated between 1995 and 2013 and changed considerably with respect to regional market shares. Similarly, worldwide hardwood lumber imports and exports have been constantly changing. Understanding these changes is important because collectively, they define the hardwood lumber consumption of a region or country. In 1995, North...

  16. Characterizing the adoption of low-grade hardwood lumber by the secondary wood processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Smith; Wibke Pohle; Philip Araman; Dan Cumbo

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the adoption of low-grade lumber in the secondary hardwood industry. Factors influencing decisions regarding the utilization of low-grade lumber were identified and value-added opportunities to increase the use of low-grade lumber among manufacturers currently using higher grades were evaluated. Data were collected via a nationwide mail survey...

  17. LamLum : a tool for evaluating the financial feasibility of laminated lumber plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.M. (Ted) Bilek; John F. Hunt

    2006-01-01

    A spreadsheet-based computer program called LamLum was created to analyze the economics of value- added laminated lumber manufacturing facilities. Such facilities manufacture laminations, typically from lower grades of structural lumber, then glue these laminations together to make various types of higher value laminated lumber products. This report provides the...

  18. Regional Changes in the Timber Resources of and Lumber Production in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2005-01-01

    In this study we examine regional differences in the hardwood timber resources of Pennsylvania and explain how the combined changes in this resource and in lumber prices have influenced regional lumber production. Isolation of these relationships is important because shifts in lumber production affect harvesting levels and harvesting activity influences long-term...

  19. Maintenance Procedures for North American Visually-graded Dimension Lumber Design Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Kretschmann; Don DeVisser; Kevin Cheung; Bob Browder; Al Rozek

    2014-01-01

    ASTM International D1990 Standard Practice for Establishing Allowable Properties for Visually-Graded Dimension Lumber from In-Grade Tests of Full-Size Specimens, that governs the development of design values for dimension lumber in North America, was first adopted in 1991with recognition that the resource and manufacturing of lumber could change over time impacting...

  20. Economic analysis of the Canada-United States softwood lumber dispute : playing the quota game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.

    2002-01-01

    The Canada-U.S. Softwood Lumber Agreement (SLA) was the latest measure to restrict Canadian exports of softwood lumber to the United States. Rather than a countervail duty or export tax, SLA employed a quota that provides a large windfall (quota) rent to Canadian lumber producers in addition to

  1. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited. 780.200 Section 780.200 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... Lumbering Operations § 780.200 Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited...

  2. Influence of markets and forest composition on lumber production in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examine regional differences in the hardwood timber resources of Pennsylvania and how the combined changes in inventory volume, forest composition, and lumber prices have influenced regional lumber production. Isolation of these relationships is important because shifts in lumber production reflect changes in harvesting activity. In turn, harvesting...

  3. Automated hardwood lumber grading utilizing a multiple sensor machine vision technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Chris Surak; Philip A. Araman

    2003-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, scientists at the Thomas M. Brooks Forest Products Center, the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and the USDA Forest Service have been working on lumber scanning systems that can accurately locate and identify defects in hardwood lumber. Current R&D efforts are targeted toward developing automated lumber grading...

  4. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Experimental lumber drying kiln. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaman, D.; Irwin, B.

    1989-10-01

    Goals were to demonstrate feasibility of using the geothermal waste effluent from the HGP-A well as a heat source for a kiln operation to dry hardwoods, develop drying schedules, and develop automatic systems to monitor/control the geothermally heated lumber dry kiln systems. The feasibility was demonstrated. Lumber was dried in periods of 2 to 6 weeks in the kiln, compared to 18 months air drying and 6--8 weeks using a dehumidified chamber. Larger, plate-type heat exchangers between the primary fluid and water circulation systems may enable the kiln to reach the planned temperatures (180--185 F). However, the King Koa partnership cannot any longer pursue the concept of geothermal lumber kilns.

  5. Simulations of solid lumber strength property monitoring tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Verrill; David E. Kretschmann; James W. Evans

    2017-01-01

    Dimension lumber, visually graded in accordance with the National Grading Rule and assigned design values derived in accordance with procedures found in ASTM D 1990, has provided satisfactory performance in homes and other structural applications for many years. This ongoing satisfactory performance depends upon a recognition that all standards are living documents...

  6. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Proceedings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas H. Drayer; Joe G. Tront; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1990-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  7. Clearwood quality and softwood lumber prices: what's the real premium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Waggener; Roger D. Fight

    1999-01-01

    Diminishing quantities of appearance grade lumber and rising price premiums for it have accompanied the transition from old-growth to young-growth timber. The price premiums for better grades are an incentive for producers to undertake investments to increase the yield of those higher valued products. Price premiums, however, are also an incentive for users to...

  8. Predictors of job tenure in a lumber-plywood mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Wolf

    1973-01-01

    Multiple discriminant analysis was used to identify biographic and employment history variables associated with job tenure in a lumber-plywood mill. Several variables-friends and relatives, type of housing, commuting distance, and prior work experience in the wood industry-were found to be significant.

  9. Acoustic analysis of warp potential of green ponderosa pine lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; William T. Simpson

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential of acoustic analysis as presorting criteria to identify warp-prone boards before kiln drying. Dimension lumber, 38 by 89 mm (nominal 2 by 4 in.) and 2.44 m (8 ft) long, sawn from open-grown small-diameter ponderosa pine trees, was acoustically tested lengthwise at green condition. Three acoustic properties (acoustic speed, rate of...

  10. Production of lumber, lath, and shingles in 1917

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin H. Smith; Albert H. Pierson

    1919-01-01

    In this bulletin, which is one of an annual series covering the period 1904 to 1917, inclusive, with the exception of 1914, are detailed statistics of the 1917 production of lumber, lath, and shingles in the continental United States, with comparative figures from previous annual reports. The collection and compilation of the statistics for the Western States was done...

  11. Impact of human error on lumber yield in rough mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; R. Edward Thomas; R. Edward Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Rough sawn, kiln-dried lumber contains characteristics such as knots and bark pockets that are considered by most people to be defects. When using boards to produce furniture components, these defects are removed to produce clear, defect-free parts. Currently, human operators identify and locate the unusable board areas containing defects. Errors in determining a...

  12. Influence of Lumber Volume Maximization in Sawing Hardwood Sawlogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Francis G. Wagner; Lalit Kumar; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    The Best Opening Face (BOF) technology for volume maximization during sawing has been rapidly adopted by softwood sawmills. Application of this technology in hardwood sawmills has been limited because of their emphasis on sawing for the highest possible grade of lumber. The reason for this emphasis is that there is a relatively large difference in price between the...

  13. Hardwood lumber supply chain: current status and market opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Al Schuler; Mark Barford

    2007-01-01

    The membership of the Appalachian Hardwood Manufacturers Association was surveyed in 2005 to determine the current status of large Appalachian sawmills. The primary focus was to assess the impacts of globalization on primary manufacturing, but attention was also paid to general issues affecting the hardwood lumber supply chain-from concerns over forest health and log...

  14. Forest thinnings for integrated lumber and paper production

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; C.T. Scott; R. Gleisner; D. Mann; D.W. Vahey; D.P. Dykstra; G.H. Quinn; L.L. Edwards

    2007-01-01

    Integrated lumber and paper productions using forest thinning materials from U.S. national forests can significantly reduce the cost of prescriptive thinning operations. Many of the trees removed during forest thinnings are in small-diameter classes (diameter at breast height

  15. Chapter 4:Grading and properties of hardwood structural lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green

    2005-01-01

    Structural lumber markets have traditionally been dominated by softwood species. Historically, however, hardwood species have been extensively used for certain structural products such as timbers for railway and highway bridges, railway ties, mine timbers, and for pallets and containers. In the 1920s, when uniform procedures were first developed for structural grading...

  16. Better lumber drying process with a non-greenhouse type solar kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, K C

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary study of using solar energy for lumber drying in NW Ontario is proven applicable and practical by the evidence of data collected. It was found that lumber seasoning using solar energy in the region is more favorable in the summer than in the winter. The most significant advantages of lumber drying with a solar kiln are: (1) low percentage of drying defect lumber produced; (2) higher strength properties of lumber produced; (3) unlimited sources of heat energy from the sun are available. The longer drying periods with a solar kiln as compared to a conventional steam kiln can be overcome by utilizing a supplemental heat system, e.g., wood residue burner to shorten the drying period. However, some improvements and modification of the existing kiln should be done in order to increase the efficiency of the lumber drying system.

  17. ROMI 3.1 Least-cost lumber grade mix solver using open source statistical software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca A. Buck; Urs Buehlmann; R. Edward. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The least-cost lumber grade mix solution has been a topic of interest to both industry and academia for many years due to its potential to help wood processing operations reduce costs. A least-cost lumber grade mix solver is a rough mill decision support system that describes the lumber grade or grade mix needed to minimize raw material or total production cost (raw...

  18. A Computer Vision System for Automated Grading of Rough Hardwood Lumber Using a Knowledge-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai-Hoon Cho; Richard W. Conners; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    A sawmill cuts logs into lumber and sells this lumber to secondary remanufacturers. The price a sawmiller can charge for a volume of lumber depends on its grade. For a number of species the price of a given volume of material can double in going from one grade to the next higher grade. Thus, accurately establishing the grade of a volume of hardwood lumber is very...

  19. 76 FR 24479 - In the Matter of the Taylor Lumber and Treating Superfund Site, Sheridan, Oregon, Amendment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9300-9] In the Matter of the Taylor Lumber and Treating... Taylor Lumber and Treating Site, which PWPO was acquiring, in exchange for several obligations related to...-553- 0705. Comments should reference the Taylor Lumber and Treating Superfund Site in Sheridan, Oregon...

  20. Hardwood lumber widths and grades used by the furniture and cabinet industries: Results of a 14-mill survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; John Brown; Neal Bennett; Everette Rast

    2003-01-01

    Data on red oak lumber width, length, and grade were collected at 14 furniture and cabinet industry rough mills to identify relationships among these lumber attributes and the degree to which they differ from mill to mill. Also, this information is needed to formulate valid lumber size distributions that will improve the quality of theresults obtained in mill and...

  1. Framing Lumber from Building Removal: How do We Best Utilize This Untapped Structural Resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk; Steven Cramer; James Evans

    2013-01-01

    Compared with other construction materials, wood products are environmentally attractive because they sequester carbon, are renewable, and are low in embodied energy. Lumber salvaged from building removal possesses these same qualities but with additional environmental attributes. In spite of the environmental attractiveness of reclaimed lumber, its widespread...

  2. Influence of Product and Supplier Attributes on Hardwood Lumber Purchase Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig L. Forbes; Steven A. Sinclair; Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1994-01-01

    This study determined the influence of product and supplier attributes on hardwood lumber purchases by wood furniture manufacturers and investigated differences across manufacturer type, geographic region, firm size, and kiln ownership. Professional lumber buyers rated the importance and difference across suppliers of various attributes. Purchase influence scores were...

  3. International trade of U.S. hardwood lumber and logs, 1990-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2014-01-01

    United States (U.S.) hardwood log and lumber exports surged in the early- and mid-1970s in response to the adoption of floating exchange rates. However, assessing these changes in international trade became difficult in the 1980s due to increased underreporting of hardwood lumber and log shipments between the U.S. and Canada. By 1990, these data problems were rectified...

  4. Impact of elliptical shaped red oak logs on lumber grade and volume recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick M. Rappold; Brian H. Bond; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Roncs Ese-Etame

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the grade and volume of lumber recovered from red oak logs with elliptical shaped cross sections. The volume and grade of lumber recovered from red oak logs with low (e ≤ 0.3) and high (e ≥ 0.4) degrees of ellipticity was measured at four hardwood sawmills. There was no significant difference (...

  5. The changing structure of the hardwood lumber industry with implications on technology adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; John Baumgras; John Baumgras

    2000-01-01

    The hardwood sawmilling industry has been changing over the last 50 years as a result of changes in hardwood sawtimber inventory and in the demand for hardwood lumber. In 1950 the industry was composed of numerous individual mills, few of which produced more than 3 million board feet of lumber annually. During this time the furniture industry was the major user of...

  6. The international hardwood lumber market and potential impacts on your bottom line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Luppold; Matthew. Bumgardner

    2014-01-01

    Even if you don't sell logs or lumber to foreign customers, the international hardwood market can impact your business in significant ways, and smart business leaders are taking notice so that they are ready for shifting market impacts. Many people believe that lumber exporting is only an opportunity for larger sawmills. However, even if you have a portable mill...

  7. Tensile and dimensional properties of wood strands made from plantation southern pine lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinglin Wu; Zhiyong Cai; Jong N. Lee

    2005-01-01

    Working stresses and performance of strand composite lumber largely depend upon the properties of each individual strand. Southern pine strands from plantation lumber grown in southern Louisiana were investigated in this study in order to understand strand behaviors. The effects of hot-pressing and resin application on tensile modulus, strength, and dimensional...

  8. Drying hard maple (Acer saccharum L.) lumber in a small dehumidification kiln

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal. Bennett

    2013-01-01

    Portable sawmill owners quickly recognize the advantage to kiln drying lumber they produce. Having the ability to provide properly kiln-dried lumber opens new market opportunities and can increase profit margins. However, the construction and operation of a dry kiln must be economical and simple. A small dehumidification dry kiln constructed and tested in Princeton, WV...

  9. Life-cycle inventory of manufacturing hardwood lumber in Southeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2012-01-01

    Environmental impacts associated with the building industry have become of increasing importance. Materials and energy consumed during manufacture of building materials such as lumber affect a building’s environmental performance. This study determined environmental impacts of manufacturing hardwood lumber in the southeastern US using the life-cycle inventory method....

  10. 76 FR 22751 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... 23, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Maureen T. Pello, Marketing Specialist, Research and... procedure, Advertising, Consumer information, Marketing agreements, Softwood lumber, Promotion, Reporting... Vol. 76 Friday, No. 78 April 22, 2011 Part II Department of Agriculture Agricultural Marketing...

  11. 75 FR 61025 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Information Order; Referendum Procedures AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule..., Washington, DC 20503. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Maureen T. Pello, Marketing Specialist, Research and... procedure, Advertising, Consumer information, Marketing agreements, Softwood Lumber, Promotion, Reporting...

  12. Trends in domestic and international markets for ash logs and lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan. Meyer

    2010-01-01

    While ash is a "minor" commercial hardwood species relative to oak, poplar, and maple, it still accounts for roughly 3 percent of all hardwood lumber produced, with an estimated kiln-dried value exceeding $150 million annually.

  13. Political pressure: An examination of U S Senators actions in restricting Canadian softwood lumber imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Godwin; Daowei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 30 years the U.S.–Canadian softwood lumber trade dispute has resulted in three managed trade agreements that have not been voted on in the U.S. Congress. Nevertheless, U.S. Senators have played an important role in shaping the political environment that has nurtured these agreements. In this paper we construct a lumber influence index based on 14 known...

  14. Opportunities for expanded and higher value utilization of No. 3A Common hardwood lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian P. Shepley; Jan Wiedenbeck; Robert L. Smith

    2004-01-01

    The percentage of low-grade material composing the annual hardwood lumber production in the United States is on the rise. As a result, finding markets for low-grade and low-value lumber has been identified as a top priority by researchers and industry associations. This research used the ROMI-RIP and ROMI-CROSS simulation programs to determine specific conditions that...

  15. Life cycle inventory of oil palm lumber production: A gate-to-gate case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsudin, Noor Ainna; Sahid, Ismail; Mokhtar, Anis; Muhamad, Halimah; Ahmad, Shamim

    2018-04-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been applied in the Malaysian oil palm industry since 2010. It is important to ensure that this main industry is ready to meet the demands and expectations of European market on the environmental performance of the oil palm industry. In addition, oil palm biomass, especially oil palm trunk (OPT) are abundantly available after replanting every year. In order to maximize the usage of OPT as a green product, it can be converted to palm lumber as a value-added product. Palm lumber act as a basis product from OPT before it is converted to panel product such as plywood, sandwich board and so on. However, the LCA study on palm lumber production is still scarce in Malaysia. Hence, this paper aims to perform and collect the inventory data for palm lumber production, which is known as Life Cycle Inventory (LCI). A gate-to-gate system boundary and the functional unit of 1 m3 of palm lumber produced have been used in this study. This inventory data was collected from three batches of the production cycle. The inputs are mainly the raw materials which are the OPT and the energy from diesel and electricity from the grid. Generally, each consumption of input such as energy and fossil fuel were different at each stage of palm lumber production. Kiln-drying represents a prominent stage in terms of energy consumption, which electrical use in the dryer represents 94% of total electrical grid consumption as compared to another stage of palm lumber production. By adding the inventory information especially in the downstream sector of biomass industry, hopefully it can improve the sustainability of oil palm industry in Malaysia.

  16. Lumber attributes, characteristics, and species preferences as indicated by secondary wood products firms in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls; Joseph. Roos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate selected lumber attributes, species preferences, and lumber use properties among secondary wood manufacturers in the United States. Our sample included producers of kitchen cabinets, furniture, doors, windows, and molded products who attended regional and national wood manufacturing events. More than 51% of respondents had...

  17. Decline in the U.S. furniture industry: a case study of the impacts to the hardwood lumber supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn T. Grushecky; Urs Buehlmann; Al Schuler; William Luppold; Ed Cesa

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, the wood household furniture industry has accounted for a sizeable portion of total hardwood lumber use in the United States. However, for more than a decade, imports have gained an increasing share of the hardwood furniture market, and lumber consumption by this industry has declined dramatically in the last 5 years. We used a case study methodology to...

  18. Influence of Fiber Bundle Morphology on the Mechanical and Bonding Properties of Cotton Stalk and Mulberry Branch Reconstituted Square Lumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of natural fiber composites can be strengthened in the longitudinal direction if the fiber is formed in a parallel manner. Reconstituted cotton stalk lumber and mulberry branch lumber were fabricated using hot-press technology, and the effects of fiber morphology on their mechanical and bonding properties were investigated. The fiber bundle size had a great influence on the mechanical and bonding properties of the final products. The maximum specific modulus of rupture (MOR and specific modulus of elasticity (MOE of the reconstituted lumber were obtained for medium-size fiber bundles, and the maximum MOR and MOE of reconstituted cotton stalk lumber was 130.3 MPa·g-1·cm-3 and 12.9 GPa·g-1·cm-3, respectively. The maximum MOR and MOE of the mulberry branch lumber was 147.2 MPa·g-1·cm-3 and 14.7 GPa·g-1·cm-3, respectively. Mechanical interlocking structures in the lumber were observed via fluorescence microscopy, showing that phenol-formaldehyde adhesive had penetrated into several cell layers of the fiber bundle under heating and pressure. The adhesive penetration capacity was stronger when the fiber bundles were smaller in size and density. The reconstituted lumber fabricated from both materials exhibited excellent mechanical performance in the parallel direction. Therefore, reconstituted cotton stalk and mulberry branch lumber are attractive potential materials for the construction industry.

  19. 75 FR 16748 - Final Voluntary Product Standard; DOC PS 20-10 “American Softwood Lumber Standard”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ...-0146-02] Final Voluntary Product Standard; DOC PS 20-10 ``American Softwood Lumber Standard'' AGENCY... of Standards and Technology (NIST) announces voluntary product standard DOC PS 20-10 ``American Softwood Lumber Standard'' which will supersede DOC PS 20-05. The Standard establishes standard sizes and...

  20. Employment changes in U.S. hardwood lumber consuming industries during economic expansions and contractions since 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matt Bumgardner

    2016-01-01

    Understanding employment trends is important for discerning the economic vitality of U.S. hardwood lumber users. After a period of growth in the 1990s, employment in industries consuming hardwood lumber has declined in the 21st century. The wood household furniture industry has experienced the greatest decline, with North Carolina, Virginia, and California being the...

  1. Factors influencing changes in U.S. hardwood log and lumber exports from 1990 to 2011. BioResources

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2013-01-01

    Domestic consumption of hardwood products in the United States since 2000 has trended downward, making exports the single most important market for higher grade hardwood lumber and a major market for higher value hardwood logs. Between 1990 and 2011, hardwood lumber exports increased by 46%. During most of this period, Canada was the largest export market for U.S....

  2. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report Number 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, H.; Banerjee, S. [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Conners, T.; Ingram, L.L.; Dalton, A.T.; Templeton, M.C.; Diehl, S.V. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Results from a multi-year study show that a significant part of the extensive variability observed in oriented strand board (OSB) flake dryer emissions can be traced to physiological effects, and the rest can be attributed to handling and other factors. Low-headspace treatment of lumber was scaled up to the 50 kg level. The amount of turpentine collected was of the same magnitude as that released upon drying lumber. For the process to be economical, the wood must first be brought to about 95 C with steam, and then processed with RF. Attempts to remove VOCs from OSB through low-headspace by placing a curtain over the wood failed because of leaks. A more rigid container will be required. RF-treatment does not alter the gas permeability of lumber.

  3. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report Number 9 [January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, H.; Banerjee, S. [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Conners, T.; Ingram, L.L.; Dalton, A.T.; Templeton, M.C.; Diehl, S.V. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Results from a multi-year study show that a significant part of the extensive variability observed in oriented strand board (OSB) flake dryer emissions can be traced to physiological effects, and the rest can be attributed to handling and other factors. Low-headspace treatment of lumber was scaled up to the 50 kg level. The amount of turpentine collected was of the same magnitude as that released upon drying lumber. For the process to be economical, the wood must first be brought to about 95 C with steam, and then processed with RF. Attempts to remove VOCs from OSB through low-headspace by placing a curtain over the wood failed because of leaks. A more rigid container will be required. RF-treatment does not alter the gas permeability of lumber.

  4. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Industrial Metrology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas T. Drayer; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1992-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  5. Automated grading, upgrading, and cuttings prediction of surfaced dry hardwood lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang-Mook Lee; Phil Araman; A.Lynn Abbott; Matthew F. Winn

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns the scanning, sawing, and grading of kiln-dried hardwood lumber. A prototype system is described that uses laser sources and a video camera to scan boards. The system automatically detects defects and wane, searches for optimal sawing solutions, and then estimates the grades of the boards that would result. The goal is to derive maximum commercial...

  6. Value loss from weevil-caused defects in eastern white pine lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myron D. Ostrander; Carl H. Stoltenberg

    1957-01-01

    Owners of eastern white pine stands suffer financially in several ways from attacks by the white-pine weevil (Pissodes strobi). Crooks, forks, and other weevil-caused tree-bole deformities increase bucking, logging, and sawing costs, and they reduce recoverable volumes. The injuries also reduce the average value of the lumber recovered. It is only with this reduction...

  7. Decision Criteria for German Hardwood Lumber Buyers: Market Needs and Purchase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas G. Ponzurick; Robert J. Bush; Dieter Schaupp; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of hardwood exports to the German market. A mail survey was conducted which resulted in a 47.8 percent rate of response. Of those German hardwood buyers responding to the survey, 71 percent purchased hardwood lumber directly from North America.

  8. A summary of modulus of elasticity and knot size surveys for laminating grades of lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. W. Wolfe; R. C. Moody

    1981-01-01

    A summary of modulus of elasticity (MOE) and knot data is presented for grades of lumber commonly used to manufacture glued-laminated (glulam) timber by the laminating Industry. Tabulated values represent 30 different studies covering a time span of over 16 years. Statistical estimates of average and near-maximum knot sizes as well as mean and coefficient of variation...

  9. Effect of moisture content on strength of CCA-treated lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies on the effects of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treatment on lumber design properties have primarily evaluated the effects of such treatment at or near 12% moisture content and at failure times of 1 to 10 min. The influence of various moisture contents and faster loading rates is unknown. This report discusses the influence of moisture content and its...

  10. Evolution of standardized procedures for adjusting lumber properties for change in moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; James W. Evans

    2001-01-01

    This paper documents the development of procedures in American Society for Testing and Materials standards for adjusting the allowable properties of lumber for changes in moisture content. The paper discusses the historical context of efforts to establish allowable properties on a consensus basis, beginning in the 19th century. Where possible, the reasons for proposed...

  11. 76 FR 22757 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... concrete dominate larger residential and nonresidential projects. Brick, concrete, and vinyl are often used... products like cement and vinyl has also helped to reduce demand for softwood lumber. \\12\\ Price data was... votes would have to be confirmed in writing and recorded in Board minutes. The proposed Order would...

  12. Variations in productivity and performance in grade lumber industries in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia-1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert P. Dempsey; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1987-01-01

    Sawmill effectiveness is crucial to the growth and development of wood industries among locales, states, regions, and countries. Productivity ratios, structural factors, and other indicators of economic performance were used to measure the relative productive efficiency of the grade hardwood lumber industries in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Despite...

  13. Environmental impact of manufacturing softwood lumber in northeastern and north central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2010-01-01

    Finding the environmental impact of building materials is becoming increasingly more important because of public environmental awareness. Accurate and precise life-cycle inventory data on wood products are needed to meet this demand. This study examined softwood lumber manufacturing in the northeastern and north central US using life-cycle inventory methods. Material...

  14. Deriving allowable properties of lumber : a practical guide for interpretation of ASTM standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Bendtsen; William L. Galligan

    1978-01-01

    The ASTM standards for establishing clear wood mechanical properties and for deriving structural grades and related allowable properties for visually graded lumber can be confusing and difficult for the uninitiated to interpret. This report provides a practical guide to using these standards for individuals not familiar with their application. Sample stress...

  15. Reducing lumber thickness variation using real-time statistical process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Young; Brian H. Bond; Jan Wiedenbeck

    2002-01-01

    A technology feasibility study for reducing lumber thickness variation was conducted from April 2001 until March 2002 at two sawmills located in the southern U.S. A real-time statistical process control (SPC) system was developed that featured Wonderware human machine interface technology (HMI) with distributed real-time control charts for all sawing centers and...

  16. Identifying and locating surface defects in wood: Part of an automated lumber processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; Charles W. McMillin; Kingyao Lin; Ramon E. Vasquez-Espinosa

    1983-01-01

    Continued increases in the cost of materials and labor make it imperative for furniture manufacturers to control costs by improved yield and increased productivity. This paper describes an Automated Lumber Processing System (ALPS) that employs computer tomography, optical scanning technology, the calculation of an optimum cutting strategy, and 1 computer-driven laser...

  17. Performance of a rigid and a flexible adhesive in lumber joints subjected to moisture content changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Krueger; R. F. Blomquist

    1964-01-01

    Experimental work was undertaken to investigate the extent and magnitude of deterioration that can occur in typical plywood-to-lumber glue joints subjected to stresses resulting from changes in the moisture content of the wood, and to compare the performance of a somewhat flexible or deformable adhesive to that of a rigid adhesive in these joints. Results showed that...

  18. 75 FR 61001 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... lumber is used in products like flooring, siding and framing. The program would be financed by an... whether they favor implementation of the program prior to it going into effect. This rule also announces... Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. It is not intended to have retroactive effect. Section 524 of...

  19. Trends in the US hardwood lumber distribution industry: changing products, customers, and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Omar Espinoza; Matthew Bumgardner; Bob. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Efficient and effective supply chains are the backbone of any industry, including the forest products industry. As the US secondary hardwood industry has undergone a profound transformation and large parts of the industry have moved offshore, the supply chain is adapting to these new realities. Remaining and new customers of US hardwood lumber distributors tend to be...

  20. Stress wave techniques for determining quality of dimensional lumber from switch ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. C. Schad; D. E. Kretschmann; K. A. McDonald; R. J. Ross; D. W. Green

    1995-01-01

    Researchers at the Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, have been studying nondestructive techniques for evaluating the strength of wood. This report describes the results of a pilot study on using these techniques to determine the quality of large dimensional lumber cut from switch ties. First, pulse echo and dynamic (transverse vibration) techniques were...

  1. The water footprint of wood for lumber, pulp, paper, fuel and firewood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Joseph Franciscus; Booij, Martijn J.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    This paper presents the first estimate of global water use in the forestry sector related to roundwood production for lumber, pulp, paper, fuel and firewood. For the period 1961-2010, we estimate forest evaporation at a high spatial resolution level and attribute total water consumption to various

  2. Lumber recovery from small-diameter ponderosa pine from Flagstaff, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini C. Lowell; David W. Green

    2001-01-01

    Thousands of acres of densely stocked ponderosa pine forests surround Flagstaff, AZ. These stands are at high risk of fire, insect, and disease outbreak. Stand density management activity can be expensive, but product recovery from the thinned material could help defray removal costs. This project evaluated the yield and economic return of lumber recovered from small-...

  3. 19 CFR 12.140 - Entry of softwood lumber products from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry of softwood lumber products from Canada. 12... products from Canada. The requirements set forth in this section are applicable for as long as the Softwood... and Canada, remains in effect. (a) Definitions. The following definitions apply for purposes of this...

  4. Environmental impact of producing hardwood lumber using life-cycle inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; S.A. Bowe

    2007-01-01

    Using sustainable building materials is gaining a significant presence in the United States therefore proving sustainability claims are becoming increasingly more important. Showing wood products as green building materials is vital for the long-term productivity of the wood building industry. This study examined hardwood lumber manufacturing using Life-Cycle Inventory...

  5. Harem: Hardwood lumber remanufacturing program for maxmizing value based on size, grade and current market prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.J. Schwehm; P. Klinkhachorn; Charles W. McMillin; Henry A. Huber

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an expert system computer program which will determine the optimum way to edge and trim a hardwood board so as to yield the highest dollar value based on the grade, size of each board, and current market prices. The program uses the Automated Hardwood Lumber Grading Program written by Klinkhachorn, et al. for determining the grade of each board...

  6. Moisture meter calibrations for untreated and ACQ-treated southern yellow pine lumber and plywood

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.R. Boardman; Samuel V. Glass; Charles G. Carll

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ) preservative treatment and of plywood glue lines on resistance-based moisture content (MC) measurements. Moisture meter readings using stainless steel screws as electrodes were acquired over a range of moisture conditions in Southern Yellow Pine (SYP) lumber and plywood. Calibration equations are...

  7. Relationships between Loblolly Pine small clear specimens and Dimension Lumber Tested in Static Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Alexander Butler; Joseph Dahlen; Finto Antony; Michael Kane; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Huizhe Jin; Kim Love-Myers; John Paul McTague

    2016-01-01

    Prior to the 1980s, the allowable stresses for lumber in North America were derived from testing of small clear specimens. However, the procedures were changed because these models were found to be inaccurate. Nevertheless, small clear testing continues to be used around the world for allowable stress determinations and in studies that examine forest management impacts...

  8. How clustering dynamics influence lumber utilization patterns in the Amish-based furniture industry in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew S. Bumgardner; Gary W. Graham; P. Charles Goebel; Robert L. Romig

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary studies have suggested that the Amish-based furniture and related products manufacturing cluster located in and around Holmes County, Ohio, uses sizeable quantities of hardwood lumber. The number of firms within the cluster has grown even as the broader domestic furniture manufacturing sector has contracted. The present study was undertaken in 2008 (spring/...

  9. The economic benefits of sorting SPF lumber to be kiln-dried on the basis of initial moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, S.; Johnson, G.

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic benefits of sorting green lumber into moisture content classes before kiln-drying. Laser moisture sensing technology was implemented in the sawmill for sorting purposes. The grade outturn and energy savings resulting from shortened drying times were examined. The final moisture content distribution resulting from moisture sorting did not show overdrying or underdrying. Based on grade outturn, the benefits were as much as $15.94 per thousand board feet (MBF) for 2 by 4 by 16 lumber and $19.66 per MBF for 2 by 6 by 16 lumber; energy savings were $1.88 per thousand board feet

  10. 49 CFR 393.118 - What are the rules for securing dressed lumber or similar building products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... plywood, gypsum board or other materials of similar shape. Lumber or building products which are not... the middle tier that must be secured may not exceed 6 feet about the deck of the trailer; or (ii...

  11. To Make Long Character-Marked Cuttings From Low-Grade Yellow-Poplar Lumber - Rip First

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman

    1979-01-01

    Long, character-marked furniture cuttings are easily obtained when low-grade (2A and 2B Common) yellow-poplar lumber is first ripped into strips and then crosscut to remove objectionable defects. Overall yields of character-marked material using this procedure were 78% from 1 Common and 2A Common and 70% from 2B Common yellow-poplar lumber. Furthermore, 82% of the 1...

  12. Interfacial Adhesion and Damping Characteristics of Laminated Veneer Lumber Intercalated with Rubber Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingquan Han

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Laminated wood veneer lumber intercalated with rubber sheets (LLVR was fabricated using a layered adhesive system composed of polyaryl polymethylene isocyanate (PAPI for wood-rubber inter-bonding and phenol formaldehyde (PF resin to glue the wood veneers. The optimized manufacturing process (chloroprene rubber: CR; PAPI: 80 g/m2; PF: 200 g/m2; and silane: 9.0 wt.% was determined. The process as developed was then utilized to fabricate nine-ply LLVRs of five balanced constructions with two or three CR laminates used as various layers. The physico-mechanical properties of the LLVRs were evaluated, and the results showed that LLVRs had strong shear strength, sound dimensional stability, decent bending strength, and favorable toughening and buffering performances. The newly developed product is an interesting potential alternative to traditional laminated veneer lumber or plywood.

  13. Parametrication of numerical simulation of drying process in atypicall condenzation lumber kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Zejda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deal with modelling of the process of drying, air flow, temperature and moisture distribution in a condensation lumber kiln. This model was made and solved in the computing system ANSYS with the use of the finite element method. There are comparationes of the 2D and 3D models, shape of wood stacks and variability of their parameters (height, width, length, cross section in the work. The flow velocity and orientation, pressure and temperature field were observed.

  14. Flexural properties of laminated veneer lumber manufactured from ultrasonically rated red maple veneer : a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Brian K. Brashaw; Steven A. Verhey; John W. Forsman; John R. Erickson

    2003-01-01

    The study described in this report was conducted to examine the flexural properties of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) manufactured from red maple veneer. Ultrasonically rated veneer, which was peeled from low value red maple saw-logs, was fabricated into 1/2-in.-(1.3-cm-) and 2-in.-(5-cm-) thick LVL billets. The flexural properties of the billets and of corresponding...

  15. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain...

  16. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What...

  17. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3067 How must I monitor opacity for...

  18. The organizational implications of smokeless tobacco use in the lumber mill industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, S I; Dent, C W; Sussman, S; Stoddard, J L; Severson, H H

    1996-01-01

    Although much is known about the characteristics of employees who smoke cigarettes, very little is known about workers who use smokeless tobacco. The current study was designed to understand the characteristics of smokeless tobacco users in relation to their performance at work and compare them with smokers and former tobacco users. Data were collected via interviews and questionnaires from a random sample of employees working at Pacific Lumber Company (N = 146), the largest single-site lumber mill in California. A total of 63 smokeless tobacco users (21 of whom also smoked cigarettes), 43 cigarette smokers, and 40 employees who had successfully quit using tobacco (34 of whom previously used cigarettes only) provided information about their health behavior, quality of work life, and performance at work. Analyses revealed that smokeless tobacco users reported less healthful sleep patterns, drank alcohol more often, were intoxicated more often, reported less job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and reported that both chewers and smokers do not work as hard and take more breaks than do tobacco-free employees (quitters). Specific differences among chewers-only, smokers-only, smokers-and-chewers, and quitters are presented. Results suggest the organizational value of developing worksite cessation programs for smokeless tobacco users.

  19. Domestic market opportunities for Alaska lumber-species preferences by secondary wood products manufacturers in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Roos; David L. Nicholls

    2006-01-01

    New equipment, technology, and marketing efforts have allowed Alaska’s wood products producers to consider opportunities previously unavailable to them. Until recently, the primary product produced by Alaska firms was rough, unseasoned lumber sold primarily within local markets. Given the purchase and installation of new drying and planing equipment, Alaska producers...

  20. Life Cycle Primary Energy and Carbon Analysis of Recovering Softwood Framing Lumber and Hardwood Flooring for Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Hongmei Gu; Thomas R. Napier; James Salazar; Robert H. Falk

    2012-01-01

    Recovering wood for reuse in a new house affects energy and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper finds the energy and emissions for recovering softwood framing lumber and hardwood flooring from an old house for installation in a new house. Recovering wood displaces primary production of new wood products and avoids the end-of-life (EOL) burdens for the old house. We...

  1. Form and toxicity of copper released into marine systems from conventionally and nano-sized copper treated lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate and effects of pristine engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in simplified systems have been widely studied; however, little is known about the potential release and impact of ENMs from consumer goods, especially lumber that has been treated with micronized copper. Micronized...

  2. THERMAL DEGRADATION AND MORPHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF FOUR WOOD SPECIES USED IN LUMBER INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Poletto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was characterize four wood waste samples from lumber industry in order to obtain previous information about structure and properties of wood before use it as a biofuel or as reinforcement in composite formulations. The influence of wood components on the thermal degradation stability of different wood species has been investigated using thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Four wood species, Eucalyptus grandis (EUG, Pinus elliottii (PIE, Dipteryx odorata (DIP and Mezilaurus itauba (ITA, were used in this study. The results showed that higher extractives contents may form a thin film on the wood fiber surface which can accelerate the degradation process and reduce the wood thermal stability

  3. Thick-target Pixe analysis of chromium, copper and arsenic impregnated lumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarela, K-E.; Harju, L.; Lill, J-O.; Rajander, J.; Lindroos, A.; Heselius, S-J.

    1999-01-01

    Chromium, copper and arsenic (CCA) have for decades been used for wood preservation. Of these elements especially arsenic is very toxic. As CCA impregnated wood is still today used for many construction purposes, a monitoring of these metal ions is of great environmental importance. Thick-target PIXE is a powerful method for the determination of trace metals in wood. The TTPIXE method enabled study of variations of the elemental concentrations in lumber treated with CCA impregnation solution. Distribution patterns were obtained for both naturally occurring elements and elements introduced in the treatment process. During the impregnation process a desorption of e.g. alkali metal ions takes place from the wood. The sensitivity of the method is improved by dry ashing of the samples prior to PIXE analysis. The TTPIXE method was calibrated and validated using international certified reference materials (CRM) based on wood material

  4. Design of pedestrian truss bridge with Sengon-Rubber laminated veneer lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbudiman, B.; Pranata, Y. A.; Pangestu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Timber bridges are one of the bridge that has long been used, but nowadays, large dimension of sawn timber has limited supply and also it is not environmental-friendly. Laminated veneer lumber (LVL) is a engineered wood that becomes one of the promising alternative, because it is made from lower quality wood that processed to be used as a more quality one. The bridge planned to be a pedestrian truss bridge with length of 9 m, width of 3 m, height of 2.5 m, and using bolt and steel plate as its connection system. Mechanical properties of LVL obtained directly from laboratory test result. Bridge modeling and planning for wood construction refers to SNI 7973:2013, while the loading refers to SNI 1725:2016. Based on the modelling and calculation, the dimension of truss frame and girder beam which are 9 cm x 9 cm and 9 cm x 18 cm have adequate strengths and satisfy deflection requirement.

  5. The effect of curve sawing two-sided cants from small diameter hardwood sawlogs on lumber and pallet part yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Hamner; Marshall S. White; Philip A. Araman

    2006-01-01

    Curve sawing is a primary log breakdown process that incorporates gang-saw technology to allow two-sided cants from logs with sweep to be cut parallel to the log surface or log axis. Since curve-sawn logs with sweep are cut along the grain, the potential for producing high quality straight-grain lumber and cants increases, and strength, stiffness, and dimensional...

  6. Comparison of two kiln-drying schedules for turkish hazel ( Corylus colurna ) lumber of 5-cm thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Korkut, Süleyman; As, Nusret; Büyüksari, Ümit

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Turkish hazel (Corylus colurna) lumber with a nominal thickness of 5 cm from the Kastamonu region, Turkey, was dried through conventional kiln drying using two different programs, a non-protective drying schedule and a protective drying schedule. The goal of the study was to obtain a kiln schedule that would maintain wood quality and also save drying time until a final moisture content of 8 ± 2% was reached. The intensity of warping (twisting, bowing, cupping, crooking), superficial...

  7. Using a standing-tree acoustic tool to identify forest stands for the production of mechanically-graded lumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Normand; Auty, David; Carter, Peter; Achim, Alexis

    2013-03-12

    This study investigates how the use of a Hitman ST300 acoustic sensor can help identify the best forest stands to be used as supply sources for the production of Machine Stress-Rated (MSR) lumber. Using two piezoelectric sensors, the ST300 measures the velocity of a mechanical wave induced in a standing tree. Measurements were made on 333 black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) trees from the North Shore region, Quebec (Canada) selected across a range of locations and along a chronosequence of elapsed time since the last fire (TSF). Logs were cut from a subsample of 39 trees, and sawn into 77 pieces of 38 mm × 89 mm cross-section before undergoing mechanical testing according to ASTM standard D-4761. A linear regression model was developed to predict the static modulus of elasticity of lumber using tree acoustic velocity and stem diameter at 1.3 m above ground level (R2 = 0.41). Results suggest that, at a regional level, 92% of the black spruce trees meet the requirements of MSR grade 1650Fb-1.5E, whilst 64% and 34% meet the 2100Fb-1.8E and 2400Fb-2.0E, respectively. Mature stands with a TSF < 150 years had 11 and 18% more boards in the latter two categories, respectively, and therefore represented the best supply source for MSR lumber.

  8. Mechanical properties of rubberwood oriented strand lumber (OSL: The effect of strand length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhnnum Kyokong

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of strand length on mechanical properties (tension, compression and bending of oriented strand lumber (OSL made of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. was reported. Three strand lengths of 50 mm, 100 mm, and 150 mm with 1 mm thickness and 15 mm width were used. The strands were mixed with 5% pMDI glue (weight basis in a tumble mixer. The OSL specimens were formed by hot pressing process of unidirectionally aligned strands. Average specific gravity and moisture content were 0.76 and 8.34%, respectively. Tension and compression tests were carried out for directions both parallel and perpendicular to grain while bending test was performed only in parallel direction. Ultimate stresses and moduli of elasticity were examined from the stress-strain curves. It was found that for the parallel-to-grain direction, the longer strand OSL gave higher strength. The role of the strand length did not appear for the direction normal to the grain. The relationship between the mechanical properties of OSL and strand length was well described by the modified Hankinson formula.

  9. The effect of power intensity properties of microwave modified oil palm trunk lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzati Ibrahim, Anis; Salim, Nurjannah; Roslan, Rasidi; Ashry Jusoh, Mohammad; Hashim, Rokiah

    2018-04-01

    In the decade, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) in Malaysia is one of the conventional sources that will be rising, and the rate of biomass will considerably increase in yet to come. Presently, oil palm biomass is going through research and development and appears to be the most sustainable alternative. Investigations on oil palm biomass have been conducted to support in draw out waste of oil palm and in the meantime can help economic yield to the country. This study was expected to estimate the effect of power intensity properties of microwave modified oil palm trunk lumber. Microwave treatment of oil palm trunk samples was set of connections by using a microwave operating at 2.45 GHz with the liberated process input power intensity (600-1000W) were studied under the given condition. Impact and compression of the samples were tested. The analysis of properties of the fresh material and dry samples was employed by scanning electron microscopy. Oven drying technique also was involved as a comparison of the conventional drying process in this research. Based on the outcomes of this study, both drying methods improved the characteristics of the specimens.

  10. Production of laminated veneer lumber LVL using veneer of Schizolobium amazonicum, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the quality of laminated veneer lumber - LVL manufactured with veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum (paricá, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda. The LVL panels were manufactured in the laboratory conditions composed by seven veneers, 2,0 mm thickness, with different structural compositions, using phenol-formaldehyde resin. The veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum- paricá- were pre-classified by using stress wave machine. The veneers of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda were disposed in the face layer to reinforce the structural strength of LVL panels. The LVL quality was evaluated using glue line shear strength and static bending test (MOE and MOR, edge and flat. Grading of paricá veneers based on MOEd did not affected significantly the results of the glue line shear strength and MOE and MOR edge. For the MOE and MOR flat, the use of veneers of MOEd grade 1 contributed significantly to increasing the average values of these properties. In the same way, using the Eucalyptus saligna veneers on the face of LVL resulted in higher average values of MOE and MOR, edge and flat.

  11. The water footprint of wood for lumber, pulp, paper, fuel and firewood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyns, Joep F.; Booij, Martijn J.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the first estimate of global water use in the forestry sector related to roundwood production for lumber, pulp, paper, fuel and firewood. For the period 1961-2010, we estimate forest evaporation at a high spatial resolution level and attribute total water consumption to various forest products, including ecosystem services. Global water consumption for roundwood production increased by 25% over 50 years to 961 × 109 m3/y (96% green; 4% blue) in 2001-2010. The water footprint per m3 of wood is significantly smaller in (sub)tropical forests compared to temperate/boreal forests, because (sub)tropical forests host relatively more value next to wood production in the form of other ecosystem services. In terms of economic water productivity and energy yield from bio-ethanol per unit of water, roundwood is rather comparable with major food, feed and energy crops. Recycling of wood products could effectively reduce the water footprint of the forestry sector, thereby leaving more water available for the generation of other ecosystem services. Intensification of wood production can only reduce the water footprint per unit of wood if the additional wood value per ha outweighs the loss of value of other ecosystem services, which is often not the case in (sub)tropical forests. The results of this study contribute to a more complete picture of the human appropriation of water, thus feeding the debate on water for food or feed versus energy and wood.

  12. Lumber intervertebral disk; Correlation with the signal intensity of magnetic resonance imaging and the histological changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Ryusei; Takahashi, Sadao; Ando, Tadashi; Kumano, Kiyoshi; Hiranuma, Kenji; Kanazawa, Yousuke; Konishi, Seiji; Eguchi, Masanobu; Tanioka, Hisaya (KantoRosai Hospital, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    We studied to provide precise correlations between the intensity of MRI signals and the degenerative changes of the nucleus pulposes of the L4/5 intervertebral disk herniations. 23 cases with the L4/5 intervertebral disk herniations having surgical treatment were examined using Magnetom H 15 (1.5 tesla) with surface coil. The images were obtained with T2 images (long TR (1000{approx}1600 msec), TE (60{approx}90 msec)). The intensity was measured using FUJI densitometer FD 101 at the lumber vertebral body and the intervertebral disk. We calculated the L4/5 intervertebral disk degeneration ratio (determined by comparing the modified L4/5 MR signal intensity with the modified L2/3 MR signal itensity). Histological changes were examined in the cellular components of the nucleus pulposus (such as the number of the nucleus cells, nucleus cell nesting and HE stainability of the nucleus cell) and the matrics substance (such as fibrillation, hyaline degeneration and granular degeneration). Histochemical studies were performed using Scott's Method (AB-0.4 M MgCl{sub 2} Alcinophilia, AB-09 M, MgCl{sub 2} Alcinophilia) to investigate glycosaminoglycans of the nucleus pulposus. We compared the histological and histochemical changes with the MR L4/5 intervetebral disk degeneration ratio. The decreasing MRI signal intensity of the nucleous pulposus was (1) corresponded to the pathological changes such as the increasing number of the cell nesting, fibrillation and hyaline degeneration of the nucleus polposus. (2) corresponded to the decrease in the total glycosaminoglycans of the nucleus pulposus. (3) corresponded to the early stage of degeneration of the nucleus polposus, but in aging when all levels of intervertebral disk degeneration appeared, we could not know the degree of the disk degeneration from the signal intensity of MRI. (J.P.N.).

  13. Clinical application of multi-slice helical CT volumetric scanning in lumber spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ling; Ge Yinghui; Zhu Shaocheng; Zhang Ming; Cheng Tianming; Lei Zhidan; Lv Chuanjian; Sun Xiaoping; Wu Minghui; Guo Ying; Ma Qianli; Wen Zeying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application value of multi-slice helical CT volumetric (VH) scanning in lumber spine. Methods: One thousand of patients with back and leg pain who underwent CT examinations were selected as subjects. We simulated the traditional protocol of single-slice(SS) discrete scanning for L3/4, L4/5, and L5/S1 intervertebral discs. The VH scanning mode was performed with 120 kV, 210 mAs, pitch of 1.5 and coverage of 97.5 mm. The simulated SS scanning mode was performed with 120 kV, 240 mAs and coverage of 45.0 mm. The diagnostic outcomes and the radiation doses were compared between the two scanning modes. Two groups doctors observed ten terms, including the osseous spinal stenosis, narrowed intervertebral space and so on in two scanning modes respectively. Then consistency analysis of the data was carded out. Results: The VH scanning mode showed far more features than the SS mode. The detection rates of the VH mode in the osseous spinal stenosis, narrowed intervertebral space, herniated nucleus pulposus, narrowed lateral recess, vertebral lesion, hypertrophy of L5 transverse process, abnormal direction of facet, facet degeneration, lumbar spondyloschisis, and paraspinal soft tissue were 11.8% (n=118), 38.5% (n=385), 9.3% (n=93), 46.8% (n=468), 31.4% (n=314), 5.7% (n= 57), 25.4% (n=254), 49.7% (n=497), 9.9% (n=99), and 0.6% (n=6) respectively, while the detection rates of the SS mode in ten terms were 5.6% (n=56), 0, 0.6% (n=6), 27.9% (n=279), 22.4% (n=224), 1.2% (n=12), 16.7% (n=167), 37.2% (n=372), 0.5% (n=5), and 0.2% (n=2) respectively. The difference between the two groups had statistically significance (average P 0.05). The detection rates of the VH mode were higher than the SS mode in the osseous spinal stenosis, narrowed intervertebral space, herniated nucleus pulposus, lumbar spondyloschisis, being 6.2% (n=62), 38.5% (n=385), 8.7% (n=87), and 9.4% (n=94), respectively. In addition, VH mode only partially showed the articular

  14. The effects of crosscutting before gang-ripping on dimension part yields from no. 1 and 2A common red oak lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, J. Gatchell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Elizabeth S. Walker; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1996-01-01

    Mills should have the option to crosscut red oak lumber prior to gang-ripping to remove crook and worthless material and to take advantage of the quality differences between board ends. At least half of No: 1 and 2A Common red oak boards will have end-to-end yield differences of at least 10 percent. Preprocessing will cause a slight decrease in overall yield but will...

  15. Posterior Decompression, Lumber Interbody Fusion and Internal Fixation in the Treatment of Upper Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG Zhan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the clinical outcomes of posterior decompression, interbody fusion and internal fixationfor the treatment of the upper lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. Methods: Twelve patients with the upper lumbar intervertebral disc herniation were treated by posterior decompression, interbosy fusion and internal fixation. The time of the operation, the amount of bleeding and the clinical efficacy were evaluated. Results: The time of operation was (143±36 min and the amount of bleeding during operation was (331.5±47.9 mL. There was no spinal cord and injuries, nerve injury, epidural damage and leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. All patients were followed up for 10~19 months with the average being 12.6 months. The functional scoring of Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA before the operation was (11.4±3.3 scores and final score after follow-up was (22.9±3.1 scores and there were statistical difference (P<0.01. Lumber interbody fusion of all patients completed successfully and the good rate after the operation was 91.7%. Conclusion: Posterior decompression, interbody fusion and internal fixation for the treatment of the upper lumbar intervertebral disc herniation was characterized by full exposure, safety and significant efficacy.

  16. EFFECTS OF PRESS PRESSURE ON GLUE LINE THICKNESS AND PROPERTIES OF LAMINATED VENEER LUMBER GLUED WITH MELAMINE UREA FORMALDEHYDE ADHESIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Kurt,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Laminated veneer lumbers (LVLs were manufactured from half-round sliced I-214 hybrid poplar clone veneers with MUF adhesives using press pressures ranging from 2.5 to 15 kg cm-2. The results showed that the press pressures affected the glue line thickness (GLT and the physical and mechanical properties of the LVLs. Higher specific gravity (SG and mechanical properties, but lower GLT were developed as a result of using higher press pressures. The optimum press pressure was found to be 10 kg cm-2 in relation to GLT, SG, and mechanical properties. Significant linear correlations were found between GLT and mechanical properties. GLT can be used to determine the quality of wood bonding and may become a valuable tool for this purpose. Reliable data on the optimum GLT and press pressures can be used to design safe wood bonding applications in all aspects of wood based composites, as well as wood constructions when appropriate techniques are adopted to measure the GLT.

  17. On the certification of forest concession: non-governmental organizations, enterprises, and the construction of a new institutional frame for the development of the lumber industry in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Sampaio Carneiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the construction process of forest certification in the Brazilian Amazon, emphasizing its importance for the new frame of lumber industry on that region. We sustain that one of the main results of the promotion of forest certification by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC in Amazon was the constitution of an alliance between the environmentalist Non-Governmental Organizations, representative segments of forest business and members of the state bureaucracy for the promotion of lumber exploration based on forest management. In this perspective, the results produced by certification must be understood as part of a process of promotion of forest resources access policies, such as the approval of the Public Forests Management Law, and the creation of state entities destined to the promotion of lumber extraction on Amazon.

  18. Physical and mechanical properties of parallel strand lumber made from hot pre-pressed long strand oil palm trunk waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridiyanti, Inayah; Massijaya, M. Y.

    2018-03-01

    This research was focused on the utilization of oil palm trunk waste as a Parallel Strand Lumber (PSL) raw material. This research aimed to analyze the effect of adhesive types and glue spreads to the physical and mechanical properties of PSL. The adhesive types used were isocyanate and urea formaldehyde adhesives. The glue spreads used were 150 g/m2 and 300 g/m2. The research results showed that the moisture content of PSL ranged from 9.30% to 11.80%. The PSL density ranged from 0.64 to 0.78 g/cm3. The volume shrinkage ranged from 5.69 to 7.17%. Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) parallel to the grain and edge side ranged from 51.6 × 103 to 98.3 × 103 kg/cm2, and 62.1 × 103 to 99.9 × 103 kg/cm2, respectively. The Modulus of Rupture (MOR) parallel to the grain and edge side ranged from 269 to 724 kg/cm2 and 342 to 728 kg/cm2, respectively. The PSL hardness perpendicular to the grain, parallel to the grain and the edge side ranged from 135 to 300 kg/cm2, 87 to 321 kg/cm2, and 128 to 251 kg/cm2, respectively. The compressive strength ranged from 181 to 231 kg/cm2. The best adhesive and glue spreads of PSL was isocyanate with glue spread 300 g/m2. PSL made from hot pre-pressed long strand of oil palm trunk waste bonded by isocyanate fulfill JAS 1152: 2007. However, those of bonded by urea formaldehyde failed to fulfill the standard. The physical and mechanical properties of PSL made from oil palm trunk were better compared to those of solid oil palm trunk.

  19. Large-Scale Variations in Lumber Value Recovery of Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple in Quebec, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Hassegawa

    Full Text Available Silvicultural restoration measures have been implemented in the northern hardwoods forests of southern Quebec, Canada, but their financial applicability is often hampered by the depleted state of the resource. To help identify sites most suited for the production of high quality timber, where the potential return on silvicultural investments should be the highest, this study assessed the impact of stand and site characteristics on timber quality in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh. and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.. For this purpose, lumber value recovery (LVR, an estimate of the summed value of boards contained in a unit volume of round wood, was used as an indicator of timber quality. Predictions of LVR were made for yellow birch and sugar maple trees contained in a network of more than 22000 temporary sample plots across the Province. Next, stand-level variables were selected and models to predict LVR were built using the boosted regression trees method. Finally, the occurrence of spatial clusters was verified by a hotspot analysis. Results showed that in both species LVR was positively correlated with the stand age and structural diversity index, and negatively correlated with the number of merchantable stems. Yellow birch had higher LVR in areas with shallower soils, whereas sugar maple had higher LVR in regions with deeper soils. The hotspot analysis indicated that clusters of high and low LVR exist across the province for both species. Although it remains uncertain to what extent the variability of LVR may result from variations in past management practices or in inherent site quality, we argue that efforts to produce high quality timber should be prioritized in sites where LVR is predicted to be the highest.

  20. Large-Scale Variations in Lumber Value Recovery of Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassegawa, Mariana; Havreljuk, Filip; Ouimet, Rock; Auty, David; Pothier, David; Achim, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Silvicultural restoration measures have been implemented in the northern hardwoods forests of southern Quebec, Canada, but their financial applicability is often hampered by the depleted state of the resource. To help identify sites most suited for the production of high quality timber, where the potential return on silvicultural investments should be the highest, this study assessed the impact of stand and site characteristics on timber quality in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.). For this purpose, lumber value recovery (LVR), an estimate of the summed value of boards contained in a unit volume of round wood, was used as an indicator of timber quality. Predictions of LVR were made for yellow birch and sugar maple trees contained in a network of more than 22000 temporary sample plots across the Province. Next, stand-level variables were selected and models to predict LVR were built using the boosted regression trees method. Finally, the occurrence of spatial clusters was verified by a hotspot analysis. Results showed that in both species LVR was positively correlated with the stand age and structural diversity index, and negatively correlated with the number of merchantable stems. Yellow birch had higher LVR in areas with shallower soils, whereas sugar maple had higher LVR in regions with deeper soils. The hotspot analysis indicated that clusters of high and low LVR exist across the province for both species. Although it remains uncertain to what extent the variability of LVR may result from variations in past management practices or in inherent site quality, we argue that efforts to produce high quality timber should be prioritized in sites where LVR is predicted to be the highest.

  1. Fabrication and Performance of a Glue-Pressed Engineered Honeycomb Bamboo (GPEHB Structure with Finger-jointed Ends as a Potential Substitute for Wood Lumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Zhou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing scarcity of wood as a natural resource, bamboo has become a popular substitute for wood. The present work developed a high-strength original state multi-reorganization material (GPEHB, without the use of a hot press or traditional assembly. The original bamboo units were polygonized into outer contours and milled into finger-joints on each ending. The GPEHB was organized and assembled under an external press, using industrial adhesives. The mechanical properties and thermal insulation of GPEHB were characterized. Moreover, the overall GPEHB unit bending strength was 73.15 MPa, and the parallel-to-grain compression was 55.22 MPa (higher than that of Pinus sylvestris lumber, though less than that of glued laminated bamboo. The GPEHB unit overall density was 0.24 g/cm³, 76% lower than that of glued laminated bamboo, and 50% lower than Pinus sylvestris lumber. The compressive strength of GPEHB (7 units was 170.5 kN, while the compressive strength of GPEHB for 14 units was 493.5 kN, which meet the requirements of GB 50005 (2003. The bending strength of GPEHB 7 units was 12 kN, while that of 14 units was 37 kN. The heat conductivity coefficient for GPEHB was 0.25 W/mK, which is better than concrete and steel. The GPEHB has taken full advantage of its honeycomb-structured material, which allows it to avoid stress concentration in the regular polygonal corners.

  2. Treatment of adolescent lumber spondylolysis with modified Boston brace. Selection of the patients with bone scintigraphy and repair of the part defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Hiroyuki; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Kaneda, Kiyoshi; Sato, Eishu [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-06-01

    Results of brace treatment of 29 spondylolysis patients were reported. Patients were those who were diagnosed by scout roentgenography and accumulated {sup 99m}Tc at spondylolytic site by bone scintigraphy or by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) which being found more convenient to see the accumulation than the scintigraphy. Coaptation after brace treatment was observed by flat and tomographic roentgenography. Under limited sports activity, the hard brace was used for about 4 months and then soft one, for 2 months. Coaptation and repair were observed for 46 (79%) of 58 part defects in the 29 patients. Since lumber spine spondylolysis is mostly caused by fatigue fracture and bone metabolism is activated at the lesional site, {sup 99m}Tc accumulation can be seen at the spondylolytic site by bone scintigraphy with high frequency. Therefore, the rate of repair can be increased when brace treatment was applied for patients with positive bone scintigraphy findings. The scintigraphy was thus useful far selecting patients suitable for brace treatment. (K.H.)

  3. Treatment of adolescent lumber spondylolysis with modified Boston brace. Selection of the patients with bone scintigraphy and repair of the part defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Hiroyuki; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Kaneda, Kiyoshi; Sato, Eishu

    1996-01-01

    Results of brace treatment of 29 spondylolysis patients were reported. Patients were those who were diagnosed by scout roentgenography and accumulated 99m Tc at spondylolytic site by bone scintigraphy or by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) which being found more convenient to see the accumulation than the scintigraphy. Coaptation after brace treatment was observed by flat and tomographic roentgenography. Under limited sports activity, the hard brace was used for about 4 months and then soft one, for 2 months. Coaptation and repair were observed for 46 (79%) of 58 part defects in the 29 patients. Since lumber spine spondylolysis is mostly caused by fatigue fracture and bone metabolism is activated at the lesional site, 99m Tc accumulation can be seen at the spondylolytic site by bone scintigraphy with high frequency. Therefore, the rate of repair can be increased when brace treatment was applied for patients with positive bone scintigraphy findings. The scintigraphy was thus useful far selecting patients suitable for brace treatment. (K.H.)

  4. Uma análise dos antecedentes da satisfação no trabalho em uma empresa madeireira Aspects of job satisfaction in a lumber company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Afonso Vieira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O tema satisfação no trabalho tem sido considerado nos últimos anos de grande importância tanto pela academia quanto pelos práticos. Estudar os fatores que antecedem a satisfação no trabalho tornou-se um potencial campo de investigação. Diante desse contexto, o objetivo principal deste artigo é verificar os antecedentes da satisfação no trabalho. O método empregou uma pesquisa de tipo conclusiva, caracterizada como quantitativa. Foram entrevistados 182 funcionários de uma grande empresa madeireira do oeste de Santa Catarina. Os resultados, após análise de regressão, identificaram que clima organizacional, benefícios sociais e remuneração para o trabalho foram as variáveis que tiveram uma relação positiva e significativa com a satisfação no trabalho. Considerações finais e sugestões para pesquisas futuras encerram a parte final do artigo.Job satisfaction has been given great importance in recent years not only by scholars but also by professionals. Factors that explain job satisfaction are therefore an interesting subject for investigation. As such, some aspects that contribute to job satisfaction were studied by the conclusive-quantitative method in relation to 182 employees from a large lumber company. Regression analysis of the results substantiated the hypotheses on organizational climate, social benefits and remuneration as having a positive and significant relation with job satisfaction. Suggestions for additional studies were also included.

  5. The Effect of Veneer Layers on the Bending Shear Strength and Delamination of Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) from Oil Palm Trunk (OPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, M. A.; Nordin, K.; Bahari, S. A.; Ahmad, M.

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the number of veneer layers on the bending shear strength and delamination of Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) from oil palm trunk (OPT). Five (5), Six (6) and Seven (7) veneer layers of OPT LVL were manufactured. The dimension of the boards was 45 cm by 45 cm by 1.9 cm. The boards were hot pressed for 13 minutes at a pressure of 31 kgf per m2. Urea formaldehyde (UF) supplied by a local adhesive manufacturer was used as the binder for the boards. The bending shear tests consisted of the edgewise and flatwise tests, whereas the delamination test consisted of the cold and hot water boil tests. The preparation of the test specimens and tests set-up was in accordance to the Japanese Standards, JAS-1991 [1]. Six replications were used for each test. The results were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using the Duncan's Multiple Range Test to test for significant differences. The results indicated that as the number of layers increased the strength also increased. All the boards passed the standard. The difference in strength between the different types of samples was significant at 95 percent confidence level. Bending shear failures were primarily in the veneers. It is possible to use the boards as light weight interior building and furniture components. Over the years, the supply of quality timber resources from the natural forest has decrease as the wood-based industry experienced rapid growth. The supply of rubberwood for the furniture industry is also decreasing as a result of increase latex price. Accordingly, OPT LVL can be an alternative or supplementary raw material for the wood-based industry.

  6. Life cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction : phase II research report: an extension to the 2005 phase I research report. Module D, Life cycle inventory of softwood lumber manufacturing in the Northeastern and North Central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to gain an understanding of the environmental impact for softwood lumber production through a gate-to-gate life-cycle inventory (LCI) of softwood sawmills in the northeastern and north central United States (NE/NC). Primary mill data were collected per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Material (CORRIM) Research Guidelines (...

  7. Life cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction : phase II research report: an extension to the 2005 phase I research report. Module C, Life-cycle inventory of hardwood lumber manufacturing in the Northeast and North Central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to find the environmental impact of hardwood lumber production through a gate-to-gate Life-Cycle Inventory (LCI) on hardwood sawmills in the northeast and northcentral (NE/NC) United States. Primary mill data was collected per CORRIM Research Guidelines (CORRIM 2001). Life-cycle analysis is beyond the scope of the study.

  8. Life cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction : phase II research report: an extension to the 2005 phase I research report. Module L, Life-cycle inventory of hardwood lumber manufacturing in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to gain an understanding of the environmental impact of hardwood lumber production through a gate-to-gate life-cycle inventory (LCI) of hardwood sawmills in the Southeastern United States (SE). Primary mill data were collected per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) Research Guidelines. Life-cycle impact...

  9. Situação das indústrias madeireiras do Estado do Amazonas em 2000 Lumber industries situation in 2000 in Amazonas State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Araújo Lima

    2005-06-01

    industries of the State of Amazonas to better understand the processes of production, industrialization and commercialization, and evaluate their influence on the sustainability of tropical forests. This information is very important in order to establish forest policies for the region. After defining the main forest industry (producers of lumber, plywood and veneer zones of the State, data were collected directly from the forest industries as well as from IBAMA, SUFRAMA, SEFAZ and IBGE. Manaus, Itacoatiara, Manacapuru and Parintins were the main municipalities of sawn products; and Manaus and Itacoatiara for plywood and veneer. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect information such as main tree species, transformation productivity, origin of raw material, transportation, personnel qualification and training, and exportation. In 2000, the annual roundwood production in the State of Amazonas was 323,400m³ (divided equally among sawmill and plywood and veneer industries. More than 50 different tree species are used in the Amazonas sawmills; but only 16 represent 80% of the total volume. Plywood and veneer industries use 17 tree species. Louro inhamui, angelim pedra, amapá, assacu and maçaranduba are the main species for sawmills; while muiratinga, sumaúma, copaíba, assacu and amapá for plywood and veneer industries.

  10. Achievement report in fiscal 2000 on technical development to recycle waste building materials and glasses. Development of waste building material recycling technology (Research and development of wooden board manufacturing technology using demolished building lumbers); 2000 nendo kenchiku glass nado recycle gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kenhciku haizai recycle gijutsu kaihatsu (kenchiku kaitai mokuzai wo mochiita mokushitsu board seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development has been made on a wooden board manufacturing technology re-utilizing demolished building lumbers and waste plastics with an intention of saving resources and reducing wastes. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In developing the technology to re-use demolished building lumbers, a method for removing metals attached to demolished building lumbers was established by using a magnetic separator and a metal detector, with which it was verified that iron can be removed nearly 100%. With regard to waste plastics, simultaneous use of specific gravity separation utilizing centrifugal force and electrostatic separation provided a prospect that metals and plastics of high melting points can be removed from mixed resins in waste household electric appliances, and that polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and ABS can be classified at high accuracy. In manufacturing waste wood and waste plastic boards, pilot plants were built to use the 'melt spray method', 'melt blow method', and 'laminating method' as the means to spray molten resin onto wood raw materials, wherein trials were performed on mixing molten resins with wood flakes, and on board forming. (NEDO)

  11. Desenvolvimento e avaliação de um protótipo classificador de tábuas usando técnicas de visão artificial Development and evaluation of a prototype to classify lumber using artificial vision techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Gomes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A classe de qualidade de uma peça de madeira serrada é determinada pelos defeitos apresentados e por algumas características associadas a eles, como: dimensões da peça e dos defeitos, posição dos defeitos, quantidade e tipo. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram desenvolver e avaliar um protótipo para classificação de tábuas de madeira de eucalipto, com base em imagens digitais, composto por uma esteira rolante onde são inseridas as tábuas para obtenção das imagens de suas faces. O protótipo pode utilizar tanto a norma da Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (ABNT quanto a norma comercial de uma serraria. O processo pode ser acompanhado no microcomputador, que apresenta em seguida a imagem da tábua com o resultado final de sua classificação. A taxa de acerto no processo de classificação foi de 64,3%, usando-se a norma da ABNT, e de 81,0% com o emprego da norma comercial. A produtividade do protótipo desenvolvido foi de 7,9 m³ h-1, na classificação de madeira serrada de eucalipto.Lumber quality is determined by the defects presented and other characteristics such as: size, position, amount and type. The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate a prototype to classify eucalyptus lumber using digital images. This prototype was built with a conveyor belt where the lumbers are inserted for image acquisition. Either the Brazilian standard (ABNT or the commercial rule can be used for classification. The process can be followed in a microcomputer that shows the lumber image with its final grade. The overall accuracy rate in the classification process was 64.3% using the ABNT norm, and 81.0% percent using the commercial norm. Productivity of the developed prototype was 7.9 m³ h-1.

  12. Exportations and competitiveness of the lumber and paper industries in the state of Paraná As exportações e a competitividade dos complexos madeireiro e papeleiro paranaenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Silva Carvalho

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} The article analyzes the behavior and competitiveness of exportations in the State of Paraná of the Lumber and Paper Industries between 1990-2002, as well as the factors that determine the exportations performance and their interaction with the Lumber and Paper Industries international trade. The concentration index Hirschman-Hefindahl (IHH is used to verify the evolution of the exportation markets concentration as well as the Constant Market Share (CMS model that separates the sources of exportations development into four components: world trade increase, constitution of the exportation schedule, destination of exportations and competitiveness. The behavior and exportations trend of both sectors are analyzed from 1990 to 2002, subdivided in three periods: 1990-1993, 1994-1998 and 1999-2002. By means of the separation of the development sources through CMS model, it is verified that the development of the world trade and competitiveness are responsible for the increase of the Lumber industry exportations in two sub-periods: 1994-1998 and 1999-2002, being also responsible for the exportations increase of the Paper industry only in the first sub-period. In the second sub-period, competitiveness was not enough to accomplish an increase of the Paper industry, what shows a fragility of policies for the opening of new markets and dissemination of products of the State of Paraná in foreign markets.   Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso

  13. Cenários típicos de lesões decorrentes de acidentes de trabalho na indústria madeireira Scenarios of typical occupational injuries in lumber industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal de Souza

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os cenários das lesões decorrentes de acidentes de trabalho na indústria madeireira. MÉTODOS: Foram identificados todos os acidentes típicos entre janeiro de 1997 e janeiro de 1999, notificados a um dos postos do Instituto Nacional de Seguro Social, localizado em Lages, Santa Catarina. Trata-se de um estudo transversal descritivo em que foram analisadas 254 Comunicações de Acidentes de Trabalho (CAT. Aplicou-se análise multivariada com Análise Fatorial de Correspondência Múltipla (AFCM, Classificação Hierárquica de Ascendência (CHA e Classificação Não Hierárquica de Partição (CNHP para a identificação dos cenários típicos de lesões decorrentes de acidentes. RESULTADOS: Cinco cenários de lesões decorrentes de acidentes foram agrupados: 1 queda do trabalhador, 40 casos; 2 sobreesforço ao erguer ou empurrar um objeto, 5 casos; 3 objetos ou peças que tenham caído ou saltado de máquinas em movimento, 76 casos; 4 esmagamento de partes moles, 56 casos; e 5 contato com serras em movimento, 77 casos. CONCLUSÕES: A utilização de análise multivariada permitiu definir as lesões mais típicas relacionadas a determinados tipos de acidentes, bem como apreender as circunstâncias em que ocorreram.OBJECTIVE: To describe the scenarios of typical occupational injuries in lumber industry. METHODS: All occupational injuries reported to a INSS (National Institute of Social Security center in Lages, SC, Brazil from January 1997 to January 1999 were identified. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out and 254 injury report forms were analyzed. Multivariate analysis was conducted using Factorial Analysis of Correspondence (FAC, Hierarchical Ascendant Classification (HAC and Partition to identify the scenarios of typical occupational injuries. RESULTS: There were identified five scenarios of occupational injuries: 1 workers' falls (40 reports; 2 overexertion in lifting or pushing objects (5 reports; 3

  14. MR imaging of the lumber spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Kazumasa; Hieda, Hiroshi; Goto, Takeshi; Goto, Hiroshi; Koga, Hiromichi; Hiraoka, Kouji

    1991-01-01

    We studied visualization capability of the nerve root in mainly coronary section pattern using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI was carried out in 91 patients with lumbago and sciatica. Coronary section was additionally photographed in 58 cases of these patients (32 with intervertebral hernia, 20 with spinal canal stenosis, 2 with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis, 2 with compression fracture and the other 2 patients). The visualization capability of the nerve root was studied with photographing 2 pulse systems of the coronary section by using spin echo and field echo methods. The high signal area of the cerebrospinal fluid and nerve root in the normal lumbar vertebra was noted by field echo method, and pattern that is visualized by myelogram was obtained. The coincidence of the main foci (disturbed lesions of the nerve root) in the intervertebral hernia and coronary section pattern was noted in 21 of 32 cases (64.5%) with considerably high ratio. The condition of the nerve root in the blocked lesion was visualized in the spinal canal stenosis. (author)

  15. Achievement report in fiscal 2000 on technological development to recycle waste building materials and glasses. Development of waste building material recycling technology (Research and development of recycling technology corresponding to grades of demolished building lumbers); 2000 nendo kenchiku haizai glass nado recycle gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kenchiku haizai recycle gijutsu kaihatsu (kenchiku kaitai mokuzai no hin'i ni taioshita recycle gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to reduce wastes, and promote effective utilization of wood resources, research and development has been made on a demolished building material recycling technology. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In developing the technology to manufacture high water resistant wood boards, discussions were given on resor type phenolic resin as an adhesive, and on the medium density fiberboard (MDF) being a substitute material for plywood as the wooden board. As a result, a highly water resistant MDF that can clear JIS E0 has been developed. In the research of a technology to enhance durability of wooden boards, the in-liquid roll press method was devised to perform impregnation of chemicals into board raw materials continually and simply, whose device was fabricated on a trial basis. With regard to recycling of medium to low grade wood-based wastes, researches were performed on pulverization of the wastes, fabrication of liquefied woods, and effective utilization of the liquefied woods. Both of a hammer mill and a chip saw crusher fabricated wood powder with nearly uniform grain size regardless of types of the wood-based wastes. Liquefaction of plywood and PB boards required more stringent reaction conditions than liquefaction of such ordinary members as pillar materials and laminated lumbers. (NEDO)

  16. Arthrography of the lumber facet joint and facet block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hee Kyung; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Young Soo; Park, Hyung Chun; Moon, Jae Ho; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-12-15

    In spite of numerous clinical and patho-anatomical studied made in the past, there are still different opinions concerning the mechanism of low back pain. We have focused attention on the posterior structures as an alternative source of low back pain with sciatica. So we have studied and analyzed the finding of arthrography of facet joint and effect of the injection of methyprednisolone acetate suspension (Depomedrol) 20mg into the each facet joint. Our results are as follows: 1. Abnormal findings of facet joint arthrogram were degenerative osteoarthritis of facet joint (70.5%), synovial cyst (11.8%), accessory bone (11.8%), and spondylolysis (5.9%). 2. The mean facet angulations of patients of facet syndrome were abnormal on lower lumbar facet joint in 9 of 13 cases (69.2%). 3. On initial assessment, 11 of 17 cases (64.7%) showed complete relief and one month later, 6 of 11 cases (35.3%) showed continuous relief, after steroid injection.

  17. Arthrography of the lumber facet joint and facet block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hee Kyung; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Young Soo; Park, Hyung Chun; Moon, Jae Ho; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik

    1988-01-01

    In spite of numerous clinical and patho-anatomical studied made in the past, there are still different opinions concerning the mechanism of low back pain. We have focused attention on the posterior structures as an alternative source of low back pain with sciatica. So we have studied and analyzed the finding of arthrography of facet joint and effect of the injection of methyprednisolone acetate suspension (Depomedrol) 20mg into the each facet joint. Our results are as follows: 1. Abnormal findings of facet joint arthrogram were degenerative osteoarthritis of facet joint (70.5%), synovial cyst (11.8%), accessory bone (11.8%), and spondylolysis (5.9%). 2. The mean facet angulations of patients of facet syndrome were abnormal on lower lumbar facet joint in 9 of 13 cases (69.2%). 3. On initial assessment, 11 of 17 cases (64.7%) showed complete relief and one month later, 6 of 11 cases (35.3%) showed continuous relief, after steroid injection.

  18. Design of Multiple Bolted Connections for Laminated Veneer Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjen Yeh; Douglas Rammer; Jeff Linville

    2014-01-01

    The design of multiple bolted connections in accordance with Appendix E of the National Design Specification for Wood Construction (NDS) has incorporated provisions for evaluating localized member failure modes of row and group tear-out when the connections are closely spaced. Originally based on structural glued laminated timber (glulam) members made with all L1...

  19. Computer Vision Systems for Hardwood Logs and Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; Tai-Hoon Cho; D. Zhu; R. Conners

    1991-01-01

    Computer vision systems being developed at Virginia Tech University with the support and cooperation from the U.S. Forest Service are presented. Researchers at Michigan State University, West Virginia University, and Mississippi State University are also members of the research team working on various parts of this research. Our goals are to help U.S. hardwood...

  20. South Carolina Shipyards: Labour, Logistics, Lumber and Ladies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lynn

    2010-10-01

    Southern shipyards, like Hobcaw and Mars Bluff, were established at locations chosen primarily for convenient access to transportation networks, building materials, clientele and labour. The historical record reveals a home front role played by local plantation owners and slaves as shipyard labour. Women served as project fundraisers, shipyard dilettantes, shipwright’s wives and possibly slave mistresses with a paucity of material culture to confirm their presence in the archaeological record. Archaeological investigations on land and underwater yield evidence of artefacts associated with diet, shipbuilding, warfare and ethnicity.

  1. 1998 data bank for kiln-dried red oak lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles J. Gatchell; R. Edward Thomas; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1998-01-01

    A collection of 3,487 fully described, kiln-dried red oak boards totaling 20,021 board feet. The boards, which are straight or contain no more than ? inch of crook, are FAS, FAS ONE FACE (F1F), Selects, No. 1 Common, No. 2A Common, or No. 3A common. The boards were graded with the UGRS (Ultimate Grading and Remanufacturing System) computer program. After the grade was...

  2. Effects of bear damage on Douglas-fir lumber recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini C. Lowell; Dennis Dykstra; George McFadden

    2009-01-01

    Bear activily resulting in injury to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) trees has been documented as early as the mid-1850s in the Pacific Northwest. The study reported in this article was designed to help managers decide whether the common practice of removing the damaged but potentially valuable butt section of the bottom log and...

  3. EVALUATION OF RECYCLED PLASTIC LUMBER FOR MARINE APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents an evaluation of the recycled plastic materials (RPM) produced by California Recycling Company (CRC). This evaluation is performed under the Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program of the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory...

  4. Machine Vision Systems for Processing Hardwood Lumber and Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Tai-Hoon Cho; Dongping Zhu; Richard W. Conners; D. Earl Kline

    1992-01-01

    Machine vision and automated processing systems are under development at Virginia Tech University with support and cooperation from the USDA Forest Service. Our goals are to help U.S. hardwood producers automate, reduce costs, increase product volume and value recovery, and market higher value, more accurately graded and described products. Any vision system is...

  5. 19 CFR 12.142 - Entry of softwood lumber and softwood lumber products from any country into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... purposes of paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the following definitions apply: (A) F.O.B. The term “F.O.B... Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1202 et seq.); and (B) To the best of the person's knowledge and belief: (1) The export price provided is determined in accordance with the definition set forth in...

  6. Review of: Methods to complete watershed analysis on Pacific Lumber lands in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. M. Reid

    1999-01-01

    The three questions of primary concern for this review are: 1) are the WDNR modules adequately and validly modified to suit local conditions, as required by the HCP/SYP? 2) is there an adequate "distinct cumulative effects assessment" method, as required by the HCP/SYP? 3) will the cumulative effects assessment method and the modified WDNR modules be...

  7. MR imaging of the lumber spine; Visualization capability of the nerve root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Kazumasa; Hieda, Hiroshi; Goto, Takeshi; Goto, Hiroshi; Koga, Hiromichi; Hiraoka, Kouji (Moji Rousai Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    We studied visualization capability of the nerve root in mainly coronary section pattern using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI was carried out in 91 patients with lumbago and sciatica. Coronary section was additionally photographed in 58 cases of these patients (32 with intervertebral hernia, 20 with spinal canal stenosis, 2 with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis, 2 with compression fracture and the other 2 patients). The visualization capability of the nerve root was studied with photographing 2 pulse systems of the coronary section by using spin echo and field echo methods. The high signal area of the cerebrospinal fluid and nerve root in the normal lumbar vertebra was noted by field echo method, and pattern that is visualized by myelogram was obtained. The coincidence of the main foci (disturbed lesions of the nerve root) in the intervertebral hernia and coronary section pattern was noted in 21 of 32 cases (64.5%) with considerably high ratio. The condition of the nerve root in the blocked lesion was visualized in the spinal canal stenosis. (author).

  8. Life-Cycle Inventory Analysis of Laminated Veneer Lumber Production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman

    2015-01-01

    Documenting the environmental performance of building products is becoming increasingly common. Developing environmental product declarations (EPDs) based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) data is one way to provide scientific documentation. Many U.S. structural wood products have LCA-based “eco-labels” using the ISO standard. However, the standard requires underlying...

  9. 78 FR 68297 - Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... should reference the docket number and the date and page number of this issue of the Federal Register and... regulatory approaches that maximize net benefits (including potential economic, environmental, public health... cover startup costs of the Order; to invest Board funds pursuant to the Act; to have its books audited...

  10. Evaluation on organ dose and image quality of lumber spine radiography using glass dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Kim, Jeong Koo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide resources for medical exposure reduction through evaluation of organ dose and image resolution for lumbar spine around according to the size of the collimator in DR system. The size of the collimator were varied from 8″×17″ to 14″×17″ by 1″ in AP and lateral projection for the lumbar spine radiography with RANDO phantom. The organ dose measured for liver, stomach, pancreas, kidney and gonad by the glass dosimeter. The image resolution was analyzed using the Image J program. The organ dose of around lumbar spine were reduced as the size of the collimator is decreased in AP projection. There were no significant changes decreasing rate whenever the size of the collimator were reduced 1″ in the gonad. The organ dose showed higher on liver and kidney near the surface in lateral projection. There were decreasing rate of less than 5% in liver and kidney, but decreasing rate was 24.34% in the gonad whenever the size of the collimator were reduced 1″. Organ dose difference for internal and external of collimator measured 549.8 μGy in the liver and 264.6 μGy in the stomach. There were no significant changes organ dose difference that measured 1,135.1 μG in the gonad. Image Quality made no difference because SNR and PSNR were over than 30 dB when the collimator size is less than 9″×17″ on AP projection and 10″×17″ on lateral projection. Therefore, we are considered that the recommendations criterion for control of collimator were suggested in order to reduce unnecessary X-ray exposure and to obtain good image quality because lumbar spine radiography contains a lot of peripheral organs rather than other area radiography

  11. CT scanning of the brain and lumber CSF monoamine metabolites in spinocerebellar degenerative disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hidenao; Kanazawa, Ichiro; Nakanishi, Takao; Kuramoto, Kenmei

    1984-01-01

    Eight patients with parenchymatous cerebellar degeneration (PCD) group (3 with late cortical cerebellar atrophy and 5 with Holmes' hereditary ataxia), 14 with olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy (OPCA) group (4 with Shy-Drager syndrome, 6 with OPCA without family history and 4 with Menzel type SCS), 15 with Parkinson's disease and 44 control with other neurological diseases were studied. In all the spinocerebellar degenerative disorder s (SCD) cases, CVI values corresponding to the cerebellar atrophy were definitely reduced. On the other hand, PVI values corresponding to the pontine atrophy were only significantly decreased in OPCA group. However, since there were several cases showing only questionable pontine atrpphy, it seems difficult to clearly differentiate individual OPCA cases from other SCD cases on CT films alone. Concerning monoamine metabolites in CSF, it was noted that a significant reduction of HVA and total MHPG was found in the OPCA group. Among them, the patients with overt autonomic failure showed the lowest HVA level and the cases of Menzel type of SCD showed a slight reduction of HVA but an unexpected elevation of free MHPG values. The cases of Parkinson's disease showed a definite reduction of HVA. On the other hand, the cases of PCD group showed no significant difference against controls. 5-HIAA levels were not significantly different among the SCD subgroups. (J.P.N.)

  12. Impact of Early Pruning and Thinning on Lumber Grade Yield From Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Clark; Mike Strub; Larry R. Anderson; H. Gwynne Lloyd; Richard F. Daniels; James H. Scarborough

    2004-01-01

    The Sudden Sawlog Study was established in 1954 near Crossett, AR, in a 9-year-old loblolly pine plantation to test the hypothesis that loblolly plantations can produce sawtimber in 30 years. To stimulate diameter and height growth and clear wood production, study plots were heavily thinned, trees pruned to 33 feet by age 24 years, under-story mowed, and growth of...

  13. Brown tumor of lumber spint in patient with chronic renal failure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brown tumors are erosive bone lesions caused by increased osteoclastic activity. They usually occur in the severe forms of secondary hyperparathyroidism, as in patients with hemodialysis-dependent chronic renal disease. Involvement of the lumbar spine with this tumor causing neural compression is extremely rare.

  14. 78 FR 77329 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Changes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ...); adds flexibility for the Board to nominate eligible persons to fill vacancies that occur during a term... operate (U.S. or import); add flexibility for the Board to nominate eligible persons to fill vacancies... and Border Protection. 2010 and 2011 U.S. data is from Forest Economic Advisors. It is noted that for...

  15. 76 FR 46185 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... data was compiled by Henry Spelter of Wood Futures Insight and Forest Economic Advisors. For 2008-2009... the Board indicating their desire to serve or nominating another industry member to serve on the Board... serve or to nominate another industry member to serve on the Board. Interested persons may also submit a...

  16. 78 FR 58956 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Changes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... in any region in which they operate (U.S. or import); add flexibility for the Board to nominate... they operate (U.S. or import); add flexibility for the Board to nominate eligible persons to fill... and Border Protection. 2010 and 2011 U.S. data is from Forest Economic Advisors. It is noted that for...

  17. Hardwood lumber distribution yards: Output, demands, and perceptions of their role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Omar Espinoza; Robert Smith; Matthew Bumgardner

    2011-01-01

    Efficient and effective supply chains strengthen the entire forest products industry value chain. As the secondary wood products industry has been transformed by the decline of large manufacturers in some industry segments, the industry's supply chain has responded to these new realities. Remaining and new customers tend to be smaller and have unique needs and...

  18. Computer Vision System For Locating And Identifying Defects In Hardwood Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Richard W.; Ng, Chong T.; Cho, Tai-Hoon; McMillin, Charles W.

    1989-03-01

    This paper describes research aimed at developing an automatic cutup system for use in the rough mills of the hardwood furniture and fixture industry. In particular, this paper describes attempts to create the vision system that will power this automatic cutup system. There are a number of factors that make the development of such a vision system a challenge. First there is the innate variability of the wood material itself. No two species look exactly the same, in fact, they can have a significant visual difference in appearance among species. Yet a truly robust vision system must be able to handle a variety of such species, preferably with no operator intervention required when changing from one species to another. Secondly, there is a good deal of variability in the definition of what constitutes a removable defect. The hardwood furniture and fixture industry is diverse in the nature of the products that it makes. The products range from hardwood flooring to fancy hardwood furniture, from simple mill work to kitchen cabinets. Thus depending on the manufacturer, the product, and the quality of the product the nature of what constitutes a removable defect can and does vary. The vision system must be such that it can be tailored to meet each of these unique needs, preferably without any additional program modifications. This paper will describe the vision system that has been developed. It will assess the current system capabilities, and it will discuss the directions for future research. It will be argued that artificial intelligence methods provide a natural mechanism for attacking this computer vision application.

  19. Mechanical and chemical properties of CCA-treated lumber removed from spent residential decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Smith; David Bailey; Philip A. Araman

    2007-01-01

    The amount of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)- treated wood being removed from spent residential decks is increasing at a tremendous rate. While most spent CCA-treated wood is being disposed in landfills, further useful and environmentally beneficial alternatives have to be met. If the volume of CCA-treated wood reaching landfills continues to rise, stricter disposal...

  20. 2001 NCFMP Lidar: Phase 1B (Cape Fear and Lumber River Basins)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This airborne LiDAR terrain mapping data was acquired in the spring of 2001. The data were collected for the floodplain mapping program for the state of North...

  1. 29 CFR 779.355 - Classification of lumber and building materials sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or..., telephone poles, and pilings). Such specialized items are of the type which the general consuming public...

  2. Consumer and manufacturer perceptions of hardwood panels made from character-marked lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Nicholls; M. Bumgardner; V. Barber

    2010-01-01

    Hardwood panels made from edge-glued material are a versatile product that could be within the reach of many smaller wood products firms. However, products would need to be accepted throughout the supply chain for this opportunity to be achieved. This study evaluated preferences of consumers and manufacturers towards edge-glued panels from Alaskan red alder and paper...

  3. Duplicate Class IV (Lumber) Ordering Within Defense Logistics Agency and Its Impact in Each Combatant Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    opened up in a foreign country. Over time this can lead to shortages for other requesting units with impact to mission requirements (Wright, Smith...security cameras, barcoding, and manpower that can contribute towards physical accountability measures. Though actions are taken, opportunity costs...position is held by a Staff Sergeant E-6” (U. S. Army, 2014a, p. 1-8). Warehouse supervisor: “Assists the SSA NCOIC in implementing policies

  4. Solar Kilns: Feasibility of Utilizing Solar Energy for Drying Lumber in Developing Countries,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    each additional operation performed in the country. These industries are labor intensiveand "value added" manufacture is significant. There is...Bureau, Climatological Division. 1970. Clima - tological normals (1951-1970) for the Philippines, Manila. 3 Wernstedt, F. L., and J. E. Spencer. 1967...effectiveness. The construction costs, including labor , are based largely on material and labor costs in the Philippines. Where this information was

  5. The early mills, railroads, and logging camps of the Crossett Lumber Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    O.H. Doogie Darling; Don C. Bragg

    2008-01-01

    Form the earliest small-scale logging and milling operations to the multinational conglomerates of today, the timber industry has long shaped the social and economic history of the southern United States. Nowhere is this more true than in Crossett, Arkansas. Born of the axe and saw, oxen and steam engines, and nurtured by the railroad during its infancy, Crossett was...

  6. Do bark beetles and wood borers infest lumber following heat treatment? The role of bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice; Pascal Nzokou

    2007-01-01

    Wood packing material (WPM) is an important pathway for the movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects (Haack 2006). New international standards for treating WPM, often referred to as "ISPM 15," were adopted in 2002 (FAO 2002). The two approved WPM treatments are heat treatment (56? C core temperature for 30 min) and fumigation with methyl bromide. These...

  7. Technology to sort lumber by color and grain for furniture parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic color and grain sorting system for wood edge-glued panel parts. The color sorting system simultaneously examines both faces of a panel part and then determines which face has the "best" color, and sorts the part into one of a number of color classes at plant production speeds. In-plant test results show that the system...

  8. Optimizing Product Attributes to Gain Competitive Advantage in Markets for Hardwood Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    One of the ways in which wood-based companies can gain competitive advantage is to concentrate on a particular segment of the market for their products. By meeting the needs of this segment better than its competitors, a company can create switching costs, develop customer loyalty, and the increase profit margins. This article describes a study that was conducted that...

  9. 78 FR 67979 - Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information Order; Referendum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... submitted on the Internet at: http://www.regulations.gov or to the Promotion and Economics Division, Fruit...: Patricia A. Petrella, Marketing Specialist, Promotion and Economics Division, Fruit and Vegetable Program... promotion programs. Abstract: The information collection requirements in the request are essential to carry...

  10. 78 FR 24152 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... at www.regulations.gov or sent to the Promotion and Economics Division, Fruit and Vegetable Program... assessments. The information collection requirements in the request are essential to carry out the intent of...

  11. Structural lumber from dense stands of small-diameter Douglas-fir trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Eini C. Lowell; Roland Hernandez

    2005-01-01

    Small-diameter trees growing in overstocked dense stands are often targeted for thinning to reduce fire hazard and improve forest health and ecosystem diversity. In the Pacific Northwest and Intermountain regions, Douglas-fir can be a predominant species in such stands. In this study, mechanical properties and grade yield of structural products were estimated for 2 by...

  12. Projecting housing starts and softwood lumber consumption in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David N. Wear; Karen L. Abt; Robert C. Abt

    2018-01-01

    New residential construction is a primary user of wood products in the United States; therefore, wood products projections require understanding the determinants of housing starts. We model quarterly US total, single-family, and multifamily housing starts with several model specifications, using data from 1979 to 2008, and evaluate their...

  13. Interactions between domestic and export markets for softwood lumber and plywood: tests of six hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Darr

    1981-01-01

    Price formation in export markets and available data on export and domestic markets are discussed. The results of tests of several hypotheses about interactions between domestic and export markets are presented and interpreted from the standpoints of trade promotion and trade policy.

  14. Not just lumber--Using wood in the sustainable future of materials, chemicals, and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Jakes; Xavier Arzola; Richard Bergman; Peter Ciesielski; Christopher G. Hunt; Nima Rahbar; Mandla Tshabalala; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2016-01-01

    Forest-derived biomaterials can play an integral role in a sustainable and renewable future. Research across a range of disciplines is required to develop the knowledge necessary to overcome the challenges of incorporating more renewable forest resources in materials, chemicals, and fuels. We focus on wood specifically because in our view, better characterization of...

  15. MRI of the injured spinal cord of the thoracic and lumber spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kenji; Satoh, Tetsurou; Hyodo, Hironori; Ohira, Nobuhiro; Moriai, Norio

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic resonance studies using a 1.5 Tesla superconductive magnet were performed on 23 patients with spinal cord injury of the thoracic and lumbar regions in their chronic stages. Our results were as follows. The MR images were found to well represent the spinal cord lesions except several cases of complex displacement of the spinal cord. The size and the degree of penetration of the MRI abnormalities well correlated with the spinal cord injury; those cases of large and penetrating MRI abnormalities were represented by complete paraplegia and those of small and non-penetrating abnormalities were those of imcomplete paraplegia. However, the neurological levels of the spinal cord injury in cases of complete paraplegia appeared higher than the spinal segments indicated by the MRI. This discrepancy was thought to be explained by a concomitant, additional nerve roots involvement along with the spinal cord injury. Incidentally, the MRI of the cone lesions did not seem to be reproducible presumably as the result of its too small sensitive volume. We also discussed the problem of MRI artifacts and effects from gross anatomical displacement of traumatic origin. (author)

  16. Automated image analysis of lateral lumber X-rays by a form model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnken, A.H.; Kohnen, M.; Steinberg, S.; Wein, B.B.; Guenther, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    Development of a software for fully automated image analysis of lateral lumbar spine X-rays. Material and method: Using the concept of active shape models, we developed a software that produces a form model of the lumbar spine from lateral lumbar spine radiographs and runs an automated image segmentation. This model is able to detect lumbar vertebrae automatically after the filtering of digitized X-ray images. The model was trained with 20 lateral lumbar spine radiographs with no pathological findings before we evaluated the software with 30 further X-ray images which were sorted by image quality ranging from one (best) to three (worst). There were 10 images for each quality. Results: Image recognition strongly depended on image quality. In group one 52 and in group two 51 out of 60 vertebral bodies including the sacrum were recognized, but in group three only 18 vertebral bodies were properly identified. Conclusion: Fully automated and reliable recognition of vertebral bodies from lateral spine radiographs using the concept of active shape models is possible. The precision of this technique is limited by the superposition of different structures. Further improvements are necessary. Therefore standardized image quality and enlargement of the training data set are required. (orig.) [de

  17. Statistical power of intervention analyses: simulation and empirical application to treated lumber prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2009-01-01

    Timber product markets are subject to large shocks deriving from natural disturbances and policy shifts. Statistical modeling of shocks is often done to assess their economic importance. In this article, I simulate the statistical power of univariate and bivariate methods of shock detection using time series intervention models. Simulations show that bivariate methods...

  18. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report number 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooda, U.; Banerjee, S. [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ingram, L.; Conners, T. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This project is based on the finding that brief microwave or RF-treatment of wood under low-headspace conditions leads to the release of VOCs. On occasion the authors have found that prolonged irradiation increases turpentine yield much more than anticipated from a simple mass balance; i.e., more pinene appeared to be released than was present in the wood in the first place. If taken at face value, this suggests that brief low-headspace irradiation removes VOCs, while prolonged exposure creates it. While seemingly improbable, this could follow if dielectric heating exposed regions of wood that were otherwise inaccessible to the solvent used for extraction (unlikely), or if the irradiation induced depolymerization of terpene dimers or higher polymers. In this report the authors attempt to identify the conditions that lead to this apparent enhancement of terpene yield, by constructing relationships between yield and irradiation parameters. The tentative conclusions are that this enhancement only occurs with relatively wet heartwood, and only under prolonged irradiation. An additional conclusion is that continuing analyses of twelve trees in the MSU forest confirm that the absence of a significant seasonal influence on turpentine content. An apparatus for permeability testing has been constructed, and work is underway.

  19. 76 FR 10404 - Stimson Lumber Company Clatskanie, OR; Notice of Revised Determination on Remand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... that, according to the Plaintiffs, are competitors of the subject firm. The expanded customer survey... investigation. The survey conducted of the subject firm's major declining customers revealed a decline in.... The Plaintiffs also claimed that ``the main competitors of the Stimson Mill are TAA certified because...

  20. Effect of wet bulb depression on heat sterilization time of slash pine lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Simpson

    For international trade, heat sterilization of wood products is often required to prevent the spread of insects and pathogens. Application of heat sterilization requires estimates of the time necessary to heat the center of the wood configuration to the temperature required to kill the insect or other pest. The nature of the heating medium was found to have a...

  1. 29 CFR 780.201 - Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or planted Christmas trees are included. (See the related discussion in §§ 780.205 through 780.209... logging operations in which not more than eight employees are employed.) “Wood working” as such is not...

  2. 29 CFR 780.215 - Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., stacking, and storing of all such products. The gathering of wild plants and of wild Christmas trees is... considers the sec. 13(b)(28) exemption for forestry or logging operations in which not more than eight...

  3. Using reclaimed lumber and wood flooring in construction : measuring environmental impact using life-cycle inventory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Hongmei Gu; Robert H. Falk; Thomas R. Napier

    2010-01-01

    With green building concepts becoming widespread in the construction field, building practices and materials are being examined for their environmental impact. Reusing building materials has a distinct advantage over using newly manufactured materials because these reclaimed materials avoid greenhouse gas emissions associated with new (virgin) material manufacturing....

  4. Short-term outcome of fluoroscopic-guided steroid injection therapy of lumber facet cyst-induced radicular pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Mi Ri; Kwon, Jong Won; Lee, Jong Seo; Kim, Eu Sang [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    To determine the short-term effect of fluoroscopic-guided steroid injection therapy of lumbar facet cyst-induced radicular pain. Seventeen patients with radiculopathy due to lumbar synovial cysts, who were treated with fluoroscopically guided injection, were retrospectively evaluated. All plain radiographic images and MR images before the therapy were reviewed. Five patients underwent only the facet joint injection, whereas twelve patients underwent the facet joint injection with perineural injection therapy. The clinical course of pain was evaluated on the first follow-up after therapy. Effective pain relief was achieved in 11 (64.7%) of the 17 patients. Among 12 patients who underwent facet joint injection with perineural injection, 9 patients (75%) had an effective pain relief. Of 5 patients, 2 (40%) patients only took the facet joint injection and had an effective pain relief. Fluoroscopic-guided steroid injection therapy shows a good short-term effect in patients with symptomatic lumbar facet joint synovial cysts.

  5. 75 FR 52453 - Entry Requirements for Certain Softwood Lumber Products Exported From Any Country Into the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ...)(3)(iii)(B)(3), which states that ``the exporter has paid, or committed to pay, all export charges..., to his best knowledge and belief, that the exporter has paid or committed to pay ``all export charges... discrepancies between the export permit date and the entry summary data. The commenter suggests using the...

  6. An Evaluation of the Result of Fenestration and Discectomy for the Treatment of Prolapsed Lumber Intervertrebal Disc (PLID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Akon, S I; Shamsuzzaman, M; Asaduzzaman, M; Akter, S; Awal, M A; Mahboob, A H; Islam, M S; Rahman, M M; Ara, R; Alam, M K; Ali, M R

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to asses the result of fenestration and discectomy for the treatment of PLID. This Prospective quasi experimental study was conducted on 29 Patient of PLID with different ages at Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH), Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2014 to June 2016. Post Operative outcome was assessed through Modified Macnab Criteria & Visual Analogue Score (VAS). The mean age of patient were 38.14±9.20 years and ranging from 24 to 55 years. The mean age of male was 37.21±9.72 years and female patient was 39.90±8.32 years. Overall subjective assessment of this study revealed that 79.2% patients had excellent functional outcome, 13.8% good and 6.9% fair and there was no poor functional outcome a according to modified Macnab criteria.

  7. Validation of accuracy and reliability of a simple measurement device for the lumber range of motion (SMD-L-ROM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Nakayuki; Fujiwara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio; Taneichi, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    It is important to evaluate mobility of the lumbar spine for assessment of lumbar spinal disorders and their therapeutic effects. We developed a simple measurement device for the lumbar range of motion (SMD-L-ROM) which can be installed on the trunk. SMD-L-ROM allows to evaluate mobility of the lumbar spine without x-ray exposure. Accuracy and reliability of the measurement device was assessed in this article. SMD-L-ROM comprises two metallic immobilization plates (IPs) with a vertically installed bar and a rubber band for fixation of IP to the trunk. Two IPs were installed at the level of Th12 and the sacrum. Range of motion (ROM) of the lumbar spine was measured by using SMD-L-ROM and radiographic modalities (X-ray and CT). Consistency of the measured values by both of SMD-L-ROM and radiographic modalities was evaluated. Furthermore, inter- and intra-observer agreement of measured values by SMD-L-ROM was assessed. Regarding measurement of ROM, there was a high correlation between SMD-L-ROM and X-ray/CT especially in the sagittal and axial plane. There was no significant difference in the average values of ROM between the two methods. On the other hand, SMD-L-ROM did not detect accurate position of the lumbar spine in all dimensions. There were no inter- and intra-observer errors of measured values by SMD-L-ROM. ROM of the lumbar spine was simply and economically measured with SMD-L-ROM. Accuracy and reliability of SMD-L-ROM was good enough for ROM measurement in the lumbar spine. (author)

  8. Lumber volume and value recovery from small-diameter black cherry, sugar maple, and red oak logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Matthew Scholl; Paul Blankenhorn; Chuck. Ray

    2017-01-01

    While only a very small percentage of hardwood logs sawn by conventional sawmills in the U.S. have small-end diameters less than 10 in, portable and scragg mills often saw smaller logs. With the closure of regionally important oriented strand board and pulpwood operations, small-diameter logs are considered to have no value in some markets. This study was...

  9. Brace treatment of lumber spondylolysis in growing age. Patient selection by RI scintigraphy and repair of spondylolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Hino, Hiroyuki; Sato, Shigeyoshi; Kaneda, Kiyoshi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-07-01

    From 1987 to 1994, brace treatment was prescribed to 29 patients with lumbar spondylolysis in growing age, ranging from nine to 18 years, in whom {sup 99m}Tc bone scintigraphy showed positive at the pars interarticularis. Single photon emission computed tomography was also conducted an recent cases. Spondylolysis was bilateral in 27 patients and unilateral in two. Polypropylene brace was applied for three to four months with restriction of sport activities. As a result, 46 out of 58 spondylolysis healed with a healing rate of 79%. Selection of patients using bone scintigraphy for brace treatment in lumbar spondylolysis in growing age would help to increase the union rate. (author)

  10. Brace treatment of lumber spondylolysis in growing age. Patient selection by RI scintigraphy and repair of spondylolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Hino, Hiroyuki; Sato, Shigeyoshi; Kaneda, Kiyoshi

    1996-01-01

    From 1987 to 1994, brace treatment was prescribed to 29 patients with lumbar spondylolysis in growing age, ranging from nine to 18 years, in whom 99m Tc bone scintigraphy showed positive at the pars interarticularis. Single photon emission computed tomography was also conducted an recent cases. Spondylolysis was bilateral in 27 patients and unilateral in two. Polypropylene brace was applied for three to four months with restriction of sport activities. As a result, 46 out of 58 spondylolysis healed with a healing rate of 79%. Selection of patients using bone scintigraphy for brace treatment in lumbar spondylolysis in growing age would help to increase the union rate. (author)

  11. Wood-based composite materials : panel products, glued-laminated timber, structural composite lumber, and wood-nonwood composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Zhiyong Cai; Charles Carll

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the general types and composition of wood-based composite products and the materials and processes used to manufacture them. It describes conventional wood-based composite panels and structural composite materials intended for general construction, interior use, or both. This chapter also describes wood–nonwood composites. Mechanical...

  12. The impacts of the Lacey Act Amendment of 2008 on U.S.hardwood lumber and hardwood plywood imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2015-01-01

    The Lacey Act of 1900 was amended on May 22, 2008, to prohibit the import of illegally sourced plant materials and products manufactured from them into the United States and its territories, and to similarly ban their interstate transport. Trade theory suggests that the effect of the new law would be to reduce the flow of illegally sourced fiber into the United States...

  13. Trends in lumber processing in the western United States. Part I: board foot Scribner volume per cubic foot of timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Keith A. Blatner; Jean M. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    This article describes trends in board foot Scribner volume per cubic foot of timber for logs processed by sawmills in the western United States. Board foot to cubic foot (BF/CF) ratios for the period from 2000 through 2006 ranged from 3.70 in Montana to 5.71 in the Four Corners Region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). Sawmills in the Four Corners Region,...

  14. Cryptococcal meningitis management in Tanzania with strict schedule of serial lumber punctures using intravenous tubing sets: an operational research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, John; Kalluvya, Samuel; Downs, Jennifer A; Chofle, Awilly A; Seni, Jeremiah; Kidenya, Benson; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Peck, Robert N

    2014-06-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) has a mortality rate of ∼70% among HIV-infected adults in low-income countries. Controlling intracranial pressure (ICP) is essential in CM, but it is difficult in low-income countries because manometers and practical ICP management protocols are lacking. As part of a continuous quality improvement project, our Tanzanian hospital initiated a new protocol for ICP management for CM. All adult inpatients with CM are included in a prospective patient registry. At the time of analysis, this registry included data from 2 years before the initiation of this new ICP management protocol and for a 9-month period after. ICP was measured at baseline and at days 3, 7, and 14 by both manometer and intravenous (IV) tubing set. All patients were given IV fluconazole according to Tanzanian treatment guidelines and were followed until 30 days after admission. Among adult inpatients with CM, 32 of 35 patients (91%) had elevated ICP on admission. Cerebrospinal fluid pressure measurements using the improvised IV tubing set demonstrated excellent agreement (r = 0.96) with manometer measurements. Compared with historical controls, the new ICP management protocol was associated with a significant reduction in 30-day mortality (16/35 [46%] vs. 48/64 [75%] in historical controls; hazard ratio = 2.1 [95% CI: 1.1 to 3.8]; P = 0.018]. Increased ICP is almost universal among HIV-infected adults admitted with CM in Tanzania. Intensive ICP management with a strict schedule of serial lumbar punctures reduced in-hospital mortality compared with historical controls. ICP measurement with IV tubing sets may be a good alternative in resource-limited health facilities where manometers are not available.

  15. Serial changes on MR imaging of herniated lumber discs treated by percutaneous laser nucleotomy. Correlation with early clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraishi, Kumiko; Ohmori, Naoki; Kosaka, Riya; Yonezawa, Takumi; Onomura, Toshinobu; Adachi, Itaru; Matsuoka, Takae; Honghan, Gong; Narabayashi, Isamu

    1996-01-01

    Percutaneous Laser Nucleotomy (PLN) is a new treatment for disc herniation applying neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd : YAG) laser through inserted needle into the center of the disc, with less invasion and shorter hospitalization than conventional open surgery. Serial MR images were observed in 21 patients before and after PLN. Canal occupying ratio (COR) and signal intensity (S.I.) of herniated disc were measured. Recovery rate of symptoms was 57.2%, based on scoring system proposed by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association for low-back pain (JOA score). The successful group (≥30% improvement in JOA score) showed rapid decrease in signal intensity, though the ineffective group ( 2 -weighted sequence. Increase of signal intensity was observed in some patients whose symptoms had become worse. This may correlate with increase of water content and inner pressure on the disc. There was no significant difference between pre- and post-COR; however, more than 10% COR decrease was observed in 7 patients and symptoms improved in these cases. Thus the prognosis of the patients treated with PLN can be assessed by MR findings. (author)

  16. ECHO: Machine feasibility program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Craig Boden; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    Reductions in saw kerf (the term saw kerf refers to both the sawtooth width as well as the actual sawline made in sawing) on headrigs and resaws can dramatically increase lumber recovery. Research has also shown that lumber target size reductions are even more important than kerf reductions in providing increased lumber recovery. Decreases in either kerf or lumber size...

  17. Economic choice for hardwood sawmill operations (ECHO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.H. Steele; Philip A. Araman; C. Boden

    2002-01-01

    Reductions in sawkerf on headrigs and resaws can dramatically increase lumber recovery. Research has also shown that lumber target size reductions are even more important than kerf reductions in providing increased lumber recovery. Decreases in either sawkerf or lumber size, however, always come at some cost in both capital and variable costs. Determining whether the...

  18. Kiln drying maple for structural uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; William T. Simpson; Brian K. Brashaw; Robert J. Ross

    2002-01-01

    Structural lumber products are traditionally manufactured from softwoods. However, with shrinking supplies of softwood lumber and abundant supplies of hardwood lumber, there is increasing interest in the use of hardwoods for structural applications. One factor that will be important in both the technical and economic feasibility of using hardwoods for structural lumber...

  19. Consumer preferences and willingness to pay for character-marked cabinets from Alaska birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geof Donovan; David. Nicholls

    2003-01-01

    Alaska birch lumber has a higher occurrence of defects (knots, bark pockets, flecks, spalting, etc.) when compared to competing hardwoods. These defects are a disadvantage when birch lumber is graded under standard National Hardwood Lumber Association (NHLA) grading rules. This paper examines whether defects and other character markings found in birch lumber may be an...

  20. Review of: An analysis of flooding in Elk River and Freshwater Creek watersheds, Humboldt County, California (prepared by The Pacific Lumber Company, Scotia, California)

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. M. Reid

    1999-01-01

    The reviewed report (PL 1999) attempts to demonstrate that logging conducted over the past decade or so in Freshwater and Elk watersheds has not caused increased flooding in downstream portions of the watersheds. However, most of the report's sections include information that supports the hypothesis that logging has aggravated flood hazard, produce conclusions...

  1. Life-Cycle Energy and GHG Emissions for New and Recovered Softwood Framing Lumber and Hardwood Flooring Considering End-of-Life Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Robert H. Falk; Hongmei Gu; Thomas R. Napier; Jamie Meil

    2013-01-01

    Within the green building fields is a growing movement to recover and reuse building materials in lieu of demolition and land fill disposal. However, they lack life-cycle data to help quantify environmental impacts. This study quantifies the primary energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions released from the production of wood recovered from an old house and from new...

  2. Life cycle assessment for emerging materials: case study of a garden bed constructed from lumber produced with three different copper treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although important data and methodological challenges facing LCA and emerging materials exist, this LCA captures material and process changes that are important drivers of environmental impacts. LCA methods need to be amended to reflect properties of emerging materials that deter...

  3. Influences of obese (ob/ob and diabetes (db/db genotype mutations on lumber vertebral radiological and morphometric indices: Skeletal deformation associated with dysregulated systemic glucometabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garris David R

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both diabetes and obesity syndromes are recognized to promote lumbar vertebral instability, premature osteodegeneration, exacerbate progressive osteoporosis and increase the propensity towards vertebral degeneration, instability and deformation in humans. Methods The influences of single-gene missense mutations, expressing either diabetes (db/db or obese (ob/ob metabolic syndromes on vertebral maturation and development in C57BL/KsJ mice were evaluated by radiological and macro-morphometric analysis of the resulting variances in osteodevelopment indices relative to control parameters between 8 and 16 weeks of age (syndrome onset @ 4 weeks, and the influences of low-dose 17-B-estradiol therapy on vertebral growth expression evaluated. Results Associated with the indicative genotypic obesity and hyper-glycemic/-insulinemic states, both db/db and ob/ob mutants demonstrated a significant (P ≤ 0.05 elongation of total lumbar vertebrae column (VC regional length, and individual lumbar vertebrae (LV1-5 lengths, relative to control VC and LV parameters. In contrast, LV1-5 width indices were suppressed in db/db and ob/ob mutants relative to control LV growth rates. Between 8 and 16 weeks of age, the suppressed LV1-5 width indices were sustained in both genotype mutant groups relative to control osteomaturation rates. The severity of LV1-5 width osteosuppression correlated with the severe systemic hyperglycemic and hypertriglyceridemic conditions sustained in ob/ob and db/db mutants. Low-dose 17-B-estradiol therapy (E2-HRx: 1.0 ug/ 0.1 ml oil s.c/3.5 days, initiated at 4 weeks of age (i.e., initial onset phase of db/db and ob/ob expressions re-established control LV 1–5 width indices without influencing VC or LV lengths in db/db groups. Conclusion These data demonstrate that the abnormal systemic endometabolic states associated with the expression of db/db and ob/ob genomutation syndromes suppress LV 1–5 width osteomaturation rates, but enhanced development related VC and LV length expression, relative to control indices in a progressive manner similar to recognized human metabolic syndrome conditions. Therapeutic E2 modulation of the hyperglycemic component of diabetes-obesity syndrome protected the regional LV from the mutation-induced osteopenic width-growth suppression. These data suggest that these genotype mutation models may prove valuable for the evaluation of therapeutic methodologies suitable for the treatment of human diabetes- or obesity-influenced, LV degeneration-linked human conditions, which demonstrate amelioration from conventional replacement therapies following diagnosis of systemic syndrome-induced LV osteomaturation-associated deformations.

  4. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1985. Part 3 (Bay Oil Company - Burns Lumber Co. Inc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    rococo 0<<< O CMIOH XOOH B IDHHH...s-aeoeoeaeae fa 0«0>«OC"> ZHHHH«4 HNIONO) HOOOO «mminin 00 OO 00 00 oo fOHHHH OOOOOO OOOOO ooooo HCO rococo OO OO 00 00 oo COCO CO...OOO CO CO CO 00 00 00 in in in co co to rococo co co co ««t- ooooo HHO CMCMO OOO co co in 00 00 00 r-r-H mino to to to coco« CO CO

  5. "Review of the Sustained Yield Plan / Habitat Conservation Plan for the properties of The Pacific Lumber Company, Scotia Pacific Holding Company, and Salmon Creek Corporation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid

    1998-01-01

    Downstream impacts to aquatic environments and property generally occur as cumulative watershed impacts, which are usually caused by changes in the transport of woody debris, water, and sediment through a watershed. The downstream cumulative impacts that are likely to accrue from implementation of the Sustained Yield Plan / Habitat Conservation Plan for the properties...

  6. Bark- and wood-borer colonization of logs and lumber after heat treatment to ISPM 15 specifications: the role of residual bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice

    2009-01-01

    Wood packaging material (WPM) is a major pathway for international movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects. ISPM 15, the first international standard for treating WPM, was adopted in 2002 and first implemented in the United States in 2006. ISPM 15 allows bark to remain on WPM after treatment, raising concerns that insects could infest after treatment, especially...

  7. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY 88. Part 3. (Bakers Constr. Co., Inc.-Burns Lumber Co., Inc.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    4"- -4.4 -ONOOC’J0 NCv ) N 0NOONO(1-4 0 -40 0-4 -4N0.-40 V) I (00M 1 04 0 0 N wt 1- 0 CN1% - ,0 C)-4" Y 04CU NMafl00I1L C WP00 ) o00Ll~u(D 0’ (00 Io C...100f0 f Ř .4 . . . .. . P~- PIN . . .4.. . ... . �t 1 000 �t 1 000 �Oq I I0)00 � 1 000 𔃺I NO ." 4 N04 CN0 C4 NNNN"NNsN"N 0 N C4N NN NCV 4...4440 Nd 41 .. 30000010U 0 U) 0 04 0000 0 0 I 000604I In to 10 10 01A a .441A4 in- r)4 a9 CD a web 4030004 : 4 -4 -8 -I 0404m 41 04049.444 a44 a)& a

  8. Interobserver and test-retest reproducibility of T1ρ and T2 mesurements of lumber intervertebral discs by 3t magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Yeon Hwa; Yoon, Choon Sik; Eun, Na Lae; Kim, Sung Jin; Chung, Tae Sub [Dept. of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Moon Jung [GE Health Care, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Hanna [Biostatistics Collaboration Lab, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Peter, Robert D. [GE Health Care, Milwaukee (United States); Lee, Young Han; Suh, Jin Suck [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    To investigate the interobserver and test-retest reproducibility of T1ρ and T2 measurements of lumbar intervertebral discs using 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study included a total of 51 volunteers (female, 26; male, 25; mean age, 54 ± 16.3 years) who underwent lumbar spine MRI with a 3.0 T scanner. Amongst these subjects, 40 underwent repeat T1ρ and T2 measurement acquisitions with identical image protocol. Two observers independently performed the region of interest measurements in the nuclei pulposi of the discs from L1-2 through L5-S1 levels. Statistical analysis was performed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with a two-way random model of absolute agreement. Comparison of the ICC values was done after acquisition of ICC values using Z test. Statistical significance was defined as p value < 0.05. The ICCs of interobserver reproducibility were 0.951 and 0.672 for T1ρ and T2 mapping, respectively. The ICCs of test-retest reproducibility (40 subjects) for T1ρ and T2 measurements were 0.922 and 0.617 for observer A and 0.914 and 0.628 for observer B, respectively. In the comparison of the aforementioned ICCs, ICCs of interobserver and test-retest reproducibility for T1ρ mapping were significantly higher than T2 mapping (p < 0.001). The interobserver and test-retest reproducibility of T1ρ mapping were significantly higher than those of T2 mapping for the quantitative assessment of nuclei pulposi of lumbar intervertebral discs.

  9. 76 FR 66756 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... received a certification of eligibility to apply for trade adjustment assistance benefits and such supply...; Coastal Lumber Company, Hacker Valley, WV: September 7, 2010 TA-W-80,422F; Coastal Lumber Company...

  10. 76 FR 66328 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... received a certification of eligibility to apply for trade adjustment assistance benefits and such supply...-80,422E; Coastal Lumber Company, Hacker Valley, WV: September 7, 2010 TA-W-80,422F; Coastal Lumber...

  11. Economic implications of manufacturing sawed ties and timbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence D. Garrett; Lawrence D. Garrett

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss those factors that affect the profitability of manufacturing timbers and show that the combined manufacture of both lumber and timbers will provide a greater daily income than the manufacture of lumber alone.

  12. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoping Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  13. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoping Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  14. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoping Zhou; Debra D Warren

    2012-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  15. 7 CFR 301.92-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... chapter; or (ii) The regulated articles are wood products such as firewood, logs, or lumber that are free of bark; 10 or 10 Firewood, logs, lumber of species listed in 301.92-2(d) and marked with an asterisk...

  16. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoping Zhou; Jean M. Daniels

    2018-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  17. General Design and EIS, Humboldt Harbor and Bay, California. Navigation Improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    Bakeries , Inc. 75 Bakery products Halvorsen Lumber Products 65 Sawmill——remanufacturing plant Precision Lumber Cciupany 45 Lumber Bayley Suit , Inc. 40...governments receive revenue from retail sales and use taxes, local property taxes, and city business, license or franchise taxes. The sales tax is levied

  18. Glued structural members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell C. Moody; Jen Y. Liu

    1999-01-01

    Glued structural members are manufactured in a variety of configurations. Structural composite lumber (SCL) products consist of small pieces of wood glued together into sizes common for solid-sawn lumber. Glued-laminated timber (glulam) is an engineered stress-rated product that consists of two or more layers of lumber in which the grain of all layers is oriented...

  19. Method for adjusting warp measurements to a different board dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Simpson; John R. Shelly

    2000-01-01

    Warp in lumber is a common problem that occurs while lumber is being dried. In research or other testing programs, it is sometimes necessary to compare warp of different species or warp caused by different process variables. If lumber dimensions are not the same, then direct comparisons are not possible, and adjusting warp to a common dimension would be desirable so...

  20. Implementation of a real-time statistical process control system in hardwood sawmills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy M. Young; Brian H. Bond; Jan Wiedenbeck

    2007-01-01

    Variation in sawmill processes reduces the financial benefit of converting fiber from a log into lumber. Lumber is intentionally oversized during manufacture to allow for sawing variation, shrinkage from drying, and final surfacing. This oversizing of lumber due to sawing variation requires higher operating targets and leads to suboptimal fiber recovery. For more than...

  1. Preliminary Full-Scale Tests of the Center for Automated Processing of Hardwoods' Auto-Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    1995-01-01

    Automated lumber grading and yield optimization using computer controlled saws will be plausible for hardwoods if and when lumber scanning systems can reliably identify all defects by type. Existing computer programs could then be used to grade the lumber, identify the best cut-up solution, and control the sawing machines. The potential value of a scanning grading...

  2. Test of the Center for Automated Processing of Hardwoods' Auto-Image Detection and Computer-Based Grading and Cutup System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    1995-01-01

    Automated lumber grading and yield optimization using computer controlled saws will be plausible for hardwoods if and when lumber scanning systems can reliably identify all defects by type. Existing computer programs could then be used to grade the lumber, identify the best cut-up solution, and control the sawing machines. The potential value of a scanning grading...

  3. The pallet industry: a changing hardwood market

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.P. Dempsey; D.G. Martens

    1991-01-01

    From its inception during World War II, the wooden pallet industry has grown to become the Nation's largest industrial consumer of hardwood lumber products. Since most of the raw material in wooden pallets is lower grade lumber, the pallet industry's growth, efficiency, and changing raw material inputs must be of concern to the grade hardwood lumber industry...

  4. Regional softwood sawmill processing variables as influenced by productive capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. H. Steele; F. G. Wagner; K. E. Skog

    The relationship between annual softwood sawmill production and lumber processing variables was examined using data from Sawmill Improvement Program (SIP) studies of 650 softwood mills. The variables were lumber recovery factor (LRF); headrig and resaw kerf width; total sawing variation, rough green size, and oversizing-undersizing for 4/4 and 8/4 lumber; planer...

  5. Software analyzes feasibility of saw kerf reduction for hardwood mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele

    2005-01-01

    Reductions in saw kerf on head rigs and resaws can dramatically increase lumber recovery in hardwood sawmills. Research has shown that lumber sawing variation reduction will increase lumber recovery above that obtained solely from kerf reduction. Reductions in sawing machine kerf or variation always come at some cost in both capital and variable costs. Determining...

  6. Loss from variation in sawing precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    A major loss sustained by small mills results from inaccurately cut lumber. Such lumber sells only at reduced prices and encounters stiffer sales resistance than lumber from the more accurately cutting band mills. A less apparent loss is the excessive loss of material that results from inaccurate cutting.

  7. Potential for yield improvement in combined rip-first and crosscut-first rough mill processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ed Thomas; Urs Buehlmann

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, lumber cutting systems in rough mills have either first ripped lumber into wide strips and then crosscut the resulting strips into component lengths (rip-first), or first crosscut the lumber into component lengths, then ripped the segments to the required widths (crosscut-first). Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. Crosscut-first typically...

  8. Design and operation of a solarheated dry kiln for tropical latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Bond; Omar Espinoza; Philip Araman

    2011-01-01

    Lumber is usually dried to a specific moisture content prior to further manufacturing or use. While lumber can be air-dried, the ambient humidity in most localities prevents the lumber from reaching the moisture content necessary for dimensional stability and use, especially for interior use. Solar kilns are an inexpensive alternative to conventional steam-heated kilns...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Within...

  10. Avaliação do teor de umidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis por medidores elétricos resistivos. Evaluation of the Eucalyptus grandis lumber moisture content by resistancetype moisture meters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Eduardo Guarnetti dos SANTOS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivoverificar a precisão de dois tipos de medidoreselétricos de teor de umidade durante o processo desecagem da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Foramretiradas amostras representativas de 14 tábuas deEucalyptus grandis e secas em estufa elétrica a40 ºC de temperatura, até que o material atingisse10% de umidade. Durante a secagem foramdeterminados, periodicamente, o teor de umidadeatravés do método de massas correntes e deverificações simultâneas com um medidor elétricoportátil (EMM e com o sistema de controle de umsecador convencional (KCS. Os resultados mostraramque: (1 o sensor de umidade KCS pode substituiro método gravimétrico durante a secagem damadeira; (2 o medidor do teor de umidade EMMsubestima os reais teores de umidade durante asecagem da madeira e não é indicado parasubstituir o método gravimétrico de determinação de umidade.The aim of the study was to evaluate theprecision of two types of electric moisture metersduring the drying process of Eucalyptus grandisboards. Samples were obtained from 14 boards ofEucalyptus grandis and they were dried in electriclaboratory oven at 40 ºC of temperature, until thewood achieve 10% of moisture content. During thedrying, the moisture content was determined bygravimetric method and simultaneous checks by anelectric moisture meter (EMM and by kilncontrol system (KCS. The results showed that:(1 the KCS can replace the gravimetric methodduring the wood drying; (2 the EMMunderestimate the real moisture content during thedrying of boards and it is not indicate as substituteof the gravimetric method.

  11. Global Markets and the Health of American Forests: A Forest Service Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally Collins; David Darr; David Wear; Hutch Brown

    2008-01-01

    The United States is rich in forests, yet about 39% of the softwood lumber used by Americans in 2005 came from other countries (WWPA 2006). In fact, the United States has not been “self-sufficient” in lumber (with exports exceeding imports) for more than 40 years. According to Haynes et al. (2007), the trade deficit in lumber has grown from 4.1 billion board feet (bbf...

  12. Disaggregated Futures and Options Commitments of Traders

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — The Disaggregated Futures and Options Commitments of Traders dataset provides a breakdown of each week's open interest for agriculture, energy, metals, lumber, and...

  13. Disaggregated Futures-Only Commitments of Traders

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — The Disaggregated Futures-Only Commitments of Traders dataset provides a breakdown of each week's open interest for agriculture, energy, metals, lumber, and...

  14. 9 CFR 91.28 - Stanchions and rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF... than 2″×10″ dressed lumber with the top edge placed 3 feet 10 inches from the floor and securely nailed...″ dressed lumber separated by 3 inch spacers and placed on the foot board so that the front of the pen...

  15. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-03-20

    Mar 20, 2014 ... usability and applicability for different purpose. The experiment considered different conditions. Pure plastic lumber and wood plastic composite lumber is initially produced and examined under room temperature and below room temperature. Under each condition, bending, tensile and impact strength ...

  16. Wood products used in constructing conservation and development projects by the Corps of Engineers in the United States, 1962 and 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. H. Reid; D. B. McKeever

    Estimates of the amounts of wood products used in constructing civil conservation and development projects by the Corps of Engineers in the United States are presented for the years 1962 and 1978. Amounts of lumber, laminated lumber, poles and piling, and plywood used in construction are stratified by five construction categories, and three types of uses. Estimates of...

  17. Investment opportunity : the FPL low-cost solar dry kiln

    Science.gov (United States)

    George B. Harpole

    1988-01-01

    Two equations are presented that may be used to estimate a maximum investment limit and working capital requirements for the FPL low-cost solar dry kiln systems. The equations require data for drying cycle time, green lumber cost, and kiln-dried lumber costs. Results are intended to provide a preliminary estimate.

  18. Marketing Hardwoods to Furniture Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven A. Sinclair; Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the many problems in developing marketing programs for small wood products manufacturers. It examines the problems of using price as a dominant means for getting and attracting customers. The marketing of hardwood lumber to furniture producers is then used as an example. Data from 36 furniture lumber buyers is presented to illustrate...

  19. 24 CFR 200.943 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standards and certification program for the grademarking of lumber. 200... Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification program for the... compliance with the U.S. Department of Commerce Voluntary Product Standard PS 20-94 American Softwood Lumber...

  20. Possible Demands for Eastern Hardwoods Resulting from Harvest Restrictions in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to conserve the habitat of the northern spotted owl in the Pacific Northwest have placed softwood timber supplies under a great deal of pressure and driven up the price of softwood lumber. Hardwoods could meet some of the demand for products that have previously been manufactured from softwood species. Hardwood structural lumber may soon become an economically...

  1. 75 FR 66201 - Biomass Crop Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... treatments that are removed to reduce hazardous fuels, to reduce or contain disease or insect infestation, or... Y Y* N Trees and shrubs without timber, lumber or Y Y* N wood pulp value. Trees and shrubs with timber, lumber or wood Y* non-Federal land (N Federal N N pulp value. land). Forbs such as sunflower and...

  2. 40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.265 - Sawmills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... lumber. (27) Log haul. The term log haul means a conveyor for transferring logs to mill. (28) Package... be so designed and arranged that from no position on the rim of the chute shall the distance to the... unloading points. Pickup and unloading points and paths for lumber packages on conveyors and transfers and...

  4. Researchers propose single grade rule for evaluating hardwood pallet cants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hal Mitchell; Marshall White; Philip Araman; Peter Hamner

    2008-01-01

    In "price taker" markets, successful businesses are the low cost producers, and pallet manufacturers are no exception. The single largest cost component of pallet manufacturing is raw material costs. Cants and lumber typically account for over 60% of operating costs. In the last three decades, cants have replaced lumber as the primary raw...

  5. Assessing changes in the U.S. hardwood sawmill industry with a focus on markets and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar Espinoza; Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Bob. Smith

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. hardwood sawmilling industry has experienced significant changes over the past decade. A slowing housing industry, competition from imported products, higher transportation costs, and high stumpage prices have changed the business of manufacturing and marketing hardwood lumber. Also, hardwood lumber buyers are changing their business practices by shortening...

  6. Character-marked furniture made from red alder harvested in southeast Alaska: product perspectives from consumers and retailers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Bumgardner; David Nicholls; Valerie Barber

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades. red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) has become an important Pacific Northwest hardwood in appearance-grade lumber markets, such as exports, furniture, and cabinets. However, red alder generally is a short-lived pioneer species, and small logs can result in proportionally large volumes of lower grade lumber containing numerous visual...

  7. OPTIGRAMI V2 user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny S. Lawson; R. Edward Thomas; Elizabeth S Walker

    1996-01-01

    OPTIGRAMI V2 is a computer program available for IBM persaonl computer with 80286 and higher processors. OPTIGRAMI V2 determines the least-cost lumber grade mix required to produce a given cutting order for clear parts from rough lumber of known grades in a crosscut-first rough mill operation. It is a user-friendly integrated application that includes optimization...

  8. 78 FR 60844 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Furniture Co., Ltd. Dorbest Ltd., Rui Feng Woodwork Co., Ltd. Aka Rui Feng Woodwork (Dongguan) Co., Ltd., Rui Feng Lumber Development Co., Ltd. Aka Rui Feng Lumber Development (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd., Fine... Fung Wooden Factory, Sun Fung Co., Shin Feng Furniture Co., Ltd., Stupendous International Co., Ltd...

  9. Performance of Color Camera Machine Vision in Automated Furniture Rough Mill Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Agus Widoyoko; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Philip A. Araman

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of color camera machine vision for lumber processing in a furniture rough mill. The study used 134 red oak boards to compare the performance of automated gang-rip-first rough mill yield based on a prototype color camera lumber inspection system developed at Virginia Tech with both estimated optimum rough mill...

  10. Potential for forest products in interior Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R. Sampson; Willem W.S. van Hees; Theodore S. Setzer; Richard C. Smith

    1988-01-01

    Future opportunities for producing Alaska forest products were examined from the perspective of timber supply as reported in timber inventory reports and past studies of forest products industry potential. The best prospects for increasing industrial production of forest products in interior Alaska are for softwood lumber. Current softwood lumber production in the...

  11. The Potential of Computer Controlled Optimizing Equipment in the Wooden Furniture Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward Thomas; Urs Buehlmann; Urs Buehlmann

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the wooden furniture industry is to convert lumber into parts by using the most efficient and cost effective processing methods. The key steps in processing lumber arc removing the regions that contain unacceptable defects or character marks and cutting the remaining areas to the widths and lengths of needed parts. Such equipment has been used in furniture...

  12. Development of a Computer Vision Technology for the Forest Products Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this research is to create an automated processing/grading system for hardwood lumber that will be of use to the forest products industry. The objective of creating a full scale machine vision prototype for inspecting hardwood lumber will become a reality in calendar year 1992. Space for the full scale prototype has been created at the Brooks Forest...

  13. 29 CFR (non - mandatory) Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 1926-Scaffold Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements published by the American National Standards Institute; or for 2×10 inch (nominal) or 2×9 inch... members (except planks) of the scaffold are a minimum of 1,500 lb-f/in2 (stress grade) construction grade lumber. All dimensions are nominal sizes as provided in the American Softwood Lumber Standards, dated...

  14. Cost minimization through optimized raw material quality composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; R. Edward Thomas; Xiaoqui Zuo

    2011-01-01

    Lumber, a heterogeneous, anisotropic material produced from sawing logs, contains a varying number of randomly dispersed, unusable areas (defects) distributed over each boards’ surface area. Each board's quality is determined by the frequency and distribution of these defects and the board's dimension. Typically, the industry classifies lumber into five...

  15. Life in Challenge Mills, Yuba County, California, 1875–1915, with emphasis on its people, homes, and businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Lona F. Lahore

    2013-01-01

    A shout of gold, the groan of oxen, the whoosh of lumber down a flume, the shriek of a locomotive whistle, the laughter of children, and the distress of unemployment— all portray the people and their activities in and around Challenge Mills, a small lumber-mill town in the foothills of the northern Sierra Nevada. This report is about the people of...

  16. ROMI 4.0: Updated Rough Mill Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timo Grueneberg; R. Edward Thomas; Urs Buehlmann

    2012-01-01

    In the secondary hardwood industry, rough mills convert hardwood lumber into dimension parts for furniture, cabinets, and other wood products. ROMI 4.0, the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service's ROugh-MIll simulator, is a software package designed to simulate the cut-up of hardwood lumber in rough mills in such a way that a maximum possible component yield...

  17. Use of computer simulation in managing manufacturing systems: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Employing the maximum wane allowance allowed by WWPA grade rules, lumber production increased from the current 393.55 m3 to 416.54 m3. Also, with more wane, the recovery rate and lumber recovery factor increased by 5.9% and 5.7%, respectively. However, regardless of the increases, it was found that there was ...

  18. Gas flow parameters in laser cutting of wood- nozzle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kali Mukherjee; Tom Grendzwell; Parwaiz A.A. Khan; Charles McMillin

    1990-01-01

    The Automated Lumber Processing System (ALPS) is an ongoing team research effort to optimize the yield of parts in a furniture rough mill. The process is designed to couple aspects of computer vision, computer optimization of yield, and laser cutting. This research is focused on optimizing laser wood cutting. Laser machining of lumber has the advantage over...

  19. Effects of drying methods of lamellas used in multilayer parquet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flat sawn green lamellas with 5 and 2 mm thicknesses, which were cut away from Iroko lumber by means of thin cutting frame saw, were dried with 3 different drying methods such as drying in lumber drying kiln, jet ventilated automatic veneer roller dryer and veneer press dryer. Effect of drying temperature on surface ...

  20. 40 CFR 60.3069 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and... and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard...

  1. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? 62.14815... Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or...

  2. 40 CFR 60.3062 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3062 What is... this subpart. (1) 100 percent wood waste. (2) 100 percent clean lumber. (3) 100 percent yard waste. (4...

  3. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the...

  4. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or... for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a...

  5. 40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068...

  6. 29 CFR Appendix B to Subpart M of... - Guardrail Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fall Protection Pt. 1926... § 1926.502. (1) For wood railings: Wood components shall be minimum 1500 lb-ft/in2 fiber (stress grade) construction grade lumber; the posts shall be at least 2-inch by 4-inch (5 cm×10 cm) lumber spaced not more...

  7. 40 CFR 60.3065 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and not... Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60...

  8. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820 Section... Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or...

  9. A Comparison of Market Needs to the Species and Quality Composition of the Eastern Hardwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    Many markets for hardwood lumber have experienced growth in recent years. Eastern and Central hardwood lumber production reached an estimated 11.2 billion board feet in 1988, a twenty year high. Wood furniture, flooring, and exports have also experienced growth in the last ten years. During the same period, annual growth on eastern hardwood forests has exceeded annual...

  10. Effect of Hardwood Sawmill Edging and Trimming Practices on Furniture Part Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Carmen Regalado; Eugene M. Wengert; Fred M. Lamb; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    In a recent edging and trimming study at three hardwood sawmills, it was observed that the lumber volume produced was approximately 10 percent less than would be necessary to make the most valuable lumber. Furthermore, the excess portion of wood that was removed from the edging and trimming process contained a large percentage of clear wood. In light of rising costs...

  11. Rough Mill Improvement Guide for Managers and Supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Mitchell; Jan Wiedenbeck; Bobby Ammerman; Bobby Ammerman

    2005-01-01

    Wood products manufacturers require an efficient recovery of product from lumber to remain profitable. A company's ability to obtain the best yield in lumber cut-up operations (i.e., the rough mill) varies according to the raw material, product, processing equipment, processing environment, and knowledge and skill of the rough mill's employees. This book...

  12. A profile of wood use in nonresidential building construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. N. Spelter; R. G. Anderson

    This report presents estimates of the amounts of lumber, glued-laminated lumber, trusses, plywood, particleboard, hardboard, and wood shingles used in new nonresidential building construction in the United States. Use of wood products is shown for several building types, project sizes, and building components. The estimates are based on a survey of 489 projects under...

  13. The potential of young, green finger-jointed Eucalyptus grandis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drying will occur naturally while the lumber is fixed within the roof truss structure. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the strength and stiffness variation of the finger-jointed E. grandis product in both the green and dry state for different age and dimension lumber, (2) to investigate the variation in density, warp ...

  14. 76 FR 52541 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas and Regulated Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... addition, nursery stock, logs, green lumber, firewood, stumps, roots, branches, and wood debris of half an... listed in Sec. 301.51-2(a) have included green lumber and other material living, dead, cut, or fallen... living, dead, cut, or fallen, inclusive of nursery stock, logs, stumps, roots, branches, and debris of...

  15. 75 FR 34320 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Area and Regulated Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ..., green lumber, firewood, stumps, roots, branches, and wood debris of half an inch or more in diameter are... living, dead, cut, or fallen, inclusive of nursery stock, logs, stumps, roots, branches, and debris of...) Firewood (all hardwood species), and green lumber and other material living, dead, cut, or fallen...

  16. Wood products and other building materials used in new residential construction in Canada, with comparison to previous studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe Elling; David B. McKeever

    2015-01-01

    New residential construction is a critical driver of the demand for lumber, structural panels and engineered wood products in Canada. For the period 2010 through 2013, residential construction accounted for roughly 23 percent of the lumber consumed in Canada and 47 percent of structural panel usage. Insufficient data concerning imports and exports prevent estimates of...

  17. Biomechanical analysis of psoas major muscle by MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagura, Takeo

    1997-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the biomechanical function of the psoas major muscle. First, we carried out anatomical and function-morphological observation of 2 cadavers (46-year-old man and 86-year-old woman). Second, we reconstituted the three-dimensional geometrical models of the psoas major muscle using MR multi-laminograms of the lumber spine regions from 15 normal adult men. Third, we calculated the moment against the lumber hip joint region and the lumber pelvic region. We also examined, the functional change of the psoas major muscle associated with various positional changes by using the model. The psoas major muscle developed the lateroflection moment and the axial compression force against the lumber vertebra and the anterior shear force against the lower lumber vertebra, and posterior shear force against the pelvic at the iliopubic eminence region. The lateroflection moment is largest at the hip joint. We could find no individual differences of the function in the psoas major muscle and a few change in functional activity by the positional change between the lumber and the hip joint. These results suggest that the psoas major muscle has the function to support and stabilize the lumber by compression force and the pelvic-hip joint by posterior shear force, and also the function as an actuator for the hip joint. These suggest that the psoas major muscle has the sufficient function and structure for human to take orthograde by 2 feet. (K.H.)

  18. Decontamination Efficacy of Three Commercial Off-the-Shelf Sporicidal Agents on Medium-Sized Panels Contaminated with Surrogates of Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Pressure-treated (PT) wood lumber All the panels were made with 7/16 in. thick 4 ft2 oriented strand board ( OSB ) as a backing material (Home Depot...No. 2B finish 20 gauge) stainless steel sheets glued to the OSB backing board with construction adhesive to form a single 4 ft2 panel. PT lumber...PT lumber was secured to the OSB with a single VA in. exterior screw (Home Depot [Cat. No. 131-537]) at each end of the board. The brick panels were

  19. Transaction Evidence Appraisal: Competition in British Columbia's Stumpage Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niquidet, K.; Kooten, van G.C.; Cornelis, G.

    2006-01-01

    As a potential resolution to the softwood lumber dispute, the US Department of Commerce recommends that administered stumpage prices in Canada be determined using information from competitive timber auctions. Previous research indicates that the degree of competition significantly influences bidding

  20. Exploring Value-Added Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob Smith; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    This paper looks at various opportunities for sawmills to add value to rough sawn lumber. The paper discusses edge-glued panels and blanks, mouldings and millwork, niche market opportunities, and timber bridge members.

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 351 - 400 of 591 ... Vol 3, No 1 (2005), Lumber recovery efficiency in the Artisanal ... profitability analysis of restaurants in Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria ... Vol 8, No 2 (2010), Perceived influence of the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) ...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 209 - Federal Railroad Administration Guidelines for Initial Hazardous Materials Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of violation—this is generally going to be the consist list for a train.) 6,000. Train crew has... secure, pieces of lumber or other material may not be necessary to achieve the “tight load” requirement...

  3. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-03-20

    Mar 20, 2014 ... Mechanical Property of Plastic Lumber Produced from Recycled. High Density Polyethylene ... polymeric products or to reduce environmental pollution. (Ehrig, 1992). .... recover plastic and reuse them. In this study attempt has.

  4. Assessment of the Bioaccessibility of Micronized Copper Wood on Simulated Stomach Fluid

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The widespread use of copper-treated lumber has increased the potential for human exposure. Moreover, there is a lack of information on the fate and behavior of...

  5. Propagation Techniques for Highland Bamboo (Arundinaria alpina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Forestry Research Center, ... (10 new shoots per propagule), along its stem length (at the upper, middle and butt ... laminated bamboo lumber (LBL), oriented strand board (OSB), medium density ...

  6. Two eras of globalization and hardwood sawtimber demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2006-01-01

    In the early 1970s, the adoption of floating exchange rates resulted in more fluid transfers between international currencies and spurred increased international demand for hardwood lumber produced in the United States.

  7. Harvest, employment, exports, and prices in Pacific Northwest forests, 1965-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debra D. Warren

    2011-01-01

    Provides historical information on log harvest; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and chips; and volume and average prices of sawtimber stumpage sold by national forests.

  8. 40 CFR 60.2245 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction Is Commenced After November 30, 1999 or for....2260). (1) 100 percent wood waste. (2) 100 percent clean lumber. (3) 100 percent mixture of only wood...

  9. Wood and Paper Manufacturing Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find EPA regulatory information for the wood product and paper manufacturing sectors, including paper, pulp and lumber. Information includes NESHAPs and effluent guidelines for pulp and paper rulemaking, and compliance guidelines

  10. 75 FR 68323 - Annual Surveys in the Manufacturing Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... MA321T Lumber Production and Mill Stocks MA325F Paints and Allied Products MA325G Pharmaceutical... Science Foundation (NSF) and the Census Bureau. The NSF publishes the results in its publication series...

  11. 76 FR 24914 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Omaha, NE February 14, 2010. Sector Division Working at Client Sites in Omaha, NE. 75,290N CSC, Managed... India, SLI Lighting Products, Olsten Staffing. 75,026 C & R Lumber Mill, LLC. Charleston, ME........ 75...

  12. Complications of ventriculoperitoneal shunt in hydrocephalic children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on the right inguinal and lumber regions were found. His laboratory ... bowel loops with air–fluid levels and left renal agenesis. The peritoneal ... computed tomography of the brain to assess change in ventricular size .... Laparoscopic versus.

  13. Strategic analysis of International Forest Products Limited

    OpenAIRE

    Modesto, Robin M.

    2005-01-01

    International Forest Products Limited is a sawmilling company that produces softwood lumber for sale in domestic and international markets including the United States and Japan. Production facilities located in British Columbia, Washington and Oregon produce nearly 1.5 billion board feet of lumber annually. Timber is secured through Crown forest tenure holdings and external open market purchases. This paper includes: a strategic analysis of the firm; an industry analysis; a strategic fit anal...

  14. Two-dimensional finite element heat transfer model of softwood. Part II, Macrostructural effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongmei Gu; John F. Hunt

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite element model was used to study the effects of structural features on transient heat transfer in softwood lumber with various orientations. Transient core temperature was modeled for lumber samples “cut” from various locations within a simulated log. The effects of ring orientation, earlywood to latewood (E/L) ratio, and ring density were...

  15. A Red Oak Data Bank for Computer Simulations of Secondary Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles J. Gatchell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1993-01-01

    An extensive data bank for red oak lumber that is compatible with most secondary manufacturing computer simulator tools is now available. Currently, the data bank contains 10,718 board feet in 1,578 boards. The National Hardwood Lumber Associations (NHLA) Special Kiln Dried Rule was used to grade the boards. The percentage of a boardâs surface measure contained in...

  16. Four test-demonstrations of hardwood log grades in the Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    George E. Doverspike; Harry W., Jr. Camp

    1951-01-01

    Farmers don't sell prime steers for the same price per pound as canner cows. Lumber dealers don't sell top-quality boards for the same price as Number 3 Common. If you are a timber owner, why should you sell hardwood trees or logs without considering their quality? Logs that yield a high proportion of their volume in the better grades of lumber are certainly...

  17. ASSESSING CHANGES IN THE U.S. HARDWOOD SAWMILL INDUSTRY WITH A FOCUS ON MARKETS AND DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Espinoza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. hardwood sawmilling industry has experienced significant changes over the past decade. A slowing housing industry, competition from imported products, higher transportation costs, and high stumpage prices have changed the business of manufacturing and marketing hardwood lumber. Also, hardwood lumber buyers are changing their business practices by shortening lead times, requiring a more customized product, and buying smaller lumber quantities to cut costs and increase operational flexibility. A survey of hardwood lumber manufacturers was conducted in the fall of 2009 to assess changes and adaptations within the industry. Among respondents, average hardwood lumber sales decreased by 13.2 percent during the study's focus period from 2004 to 2008. Respondents also identified a change in customer demand with smaller, more frequent orders becoming more common. Moreover, the species mix shifted, with red oak losing considerable market share. Intermediaries, such as hardwood lumber distributors, were able to capture more of the industry's business. Respondents identified the slowing housing market and high energy costs as major factors affecting their businesses. While the survey's responses reflected the extremely challenging economic conditions, industry participants are aggressively adapting their businesses and pursuing new opportunities with the understanding that markets will eventually recover.

  18. Secondary materials: Engineering properties, environmental consequences, and social and economic impacts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breslin, V.; Reaven, S.; Schwartz, M.; Swanson, L.; Zweig, M.; Bortman, M.; Schubel, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report investigates two secondary materials, plastic lumber made from mixed plastic waste, and cement blocks and structures made with incinerator ash. Engineering properties, environmental impacts, and energy costs and savings of these secondary materials are compared to standard lumber products and cement blocks. Market capacity and social acceptance of plastic lumber and stabilized ash products are analyzed. These secondary materials apparently have potential markets; however, their economic value is primarily that they will not take up landfill space. For plastic lumber and stabilized incinerator ash products, marine and highway construction seem ideal public works applications. Incinerator ash may be suitable to use in seawalls, jetties, fishing reefs, highway barriers, and roadbed applications. Docks, piers, highway sound barriers, parking stops, and park furniture may all be made from plastic lumber. To encourage public acceptance and improve the market potential of secondary materials, these activities could be beneficial: industry should emphasize developing useful, long-lived products; industry and governments should create product performance criteria; government should provide rigorous testing and demonstration programs; and government and industry should cooperate to improve public outreach and educational programs.

  19. Impact of technical and technological changes on energy efficiency of production company - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedzka, K.; Gruszka, J.; Szafer, P.

    2016-08-01

    Improving energy efficiency is one of the strategic objectives of the European Union for rational energy economy. To make efforts to improve energy efficiency have been obliged both small and large end-users. This article aims to show the possibilities of improving energy efficiency by introducing technical and technological process changes of pine lumber drying. The object of the research is process of drying lumber implemented in a production company, which is a key supplier of large furniture manufacturer. Pine lumber drying chamber consume about 45% of total electricity in sawmill. According to various sources, drying of 1m3 of lumber uses about 3060kWh and is dependent of inter alia: the drying process itself, the factors affecting the processing time and the desired output moisture content of the timber. The article proposals for changes in the process of drying lumber pine have been positively validated in the company, and as a result their energy consumption per 1 m3 of product declined by 18%.

  20. Building materials. Structure and technology, types and properties, application and handlings. 2. rev. ed. Baustoffkunde. Aufbau und Technologie, Arten und Eigenschaften, Anwendung und Verarbeitung der Baustoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffler, H

    1980-01-01

    Details are given on the large variety of structural and interior building materials. Reference is made to the relation between the structure and technology of building materials on one hand and the properties and handling of building materials on the other hand. The following subjects are dealt with: Fundamentals (historical development, systematy of building materials, regulations, properties, property warranties); natural stone; lumber and derived lumber products (properties, species of lumber, flaws, supply cuts); ceramic building materials and glass (brick, earthenware, refractory materials); building materials with mineral binders added, concrete and mortar (technology, setting); metals (properties, technology); bituminous building materials (technology, properties); plastics (thermoplasts, elastomers, duroplastics, paints, adhesives, synthetic-resin mortar and synthetic-resin concrete); insulating materials, organic floor coverings, papers and paperboard, paints, adhesives and sealing materials; damage to buildings (types, causes, responsibility, avoidance). (HWJ).

  1. A Perspective on the Prowaste Concept: Efficient Utilization of Plastic Waste through Product Design and Process Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Antonio; Frigione, Mariaenrica; Maffezzoli, Alfonso; Marseglia, Alessandro; Passaro, Alessandra

    2014-07-23

    This work is aimed to present an innovative technology for the reinforcement of beams for urban furniture, produced by in-mold extrusion of plastics from solid urban waste. This material, which is usually referred to as "recycled plastic lumber", is characterized by very poor mechanical properties, which results in high deflections under flexural loads, particularly under creep conditions. The Prowaste project, founded by the EACI (European Agency for Competitiveness and Innovation) in the framework of the Eco-Innovation measure, was finalized to develop an innovative technology for selective reinforcement of recycled plastic lumber. Selective reinforcement was carried out by the addition of pultruded glass rods in specific positions with respect to the cross section of the beam, which allowed optimizing the reinforcing efficiency. The reinforcement of the plastic lumber beams with pultruded rods was tested at industrial scale plant, at Solteco SL (Alfaro, Spain). The beams obtained, characterized by low cost and weight, were commercialized by the Spanish company. The present paper presents the most relevant results of the Prowaste project. Initially, an evaluation of the different materials candidates for the reinforcement of recycled plastic lumber is presented. Plastic lumber beams produced in the industrial plant were characterized in terms of flexural properties. The results obtained are interpreted by means of beam theory, which allows for extrapolation of the characteristic features of beams produced by different reinforcing elements. Finally, a theoretical comparison with other approaches which can be used for the reinforcement of plastic lumber is presented, highlighting that, among others, the Prowaste concept maximizes the stiffening efficiency, allowing to significantly reduce the weight of the components.

  2. Oregon's forest products industry: 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin R. Ward

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of primary forest products industries in Oregon for 1994. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of logs consumed,...

  3. Gluing of Eastern Hardwoods: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry Sellers; James R. McSween; William T. Nearn

    1988-01-01

    Over a period of years, inrreasing demand for softwoods in the Eastern United States has led to an increase in the growth of hardwoods on cut-over softwood sites. Unfortunately these hardwood trees are often of a size and shape unsuitable for the production of high-grade lumber and veneer. They do, however, represent a viable, economic soures of raw material for...

  4. Grading options for western hemlock "pulpwood" logs from southeastern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Kent A. McDonald; John Dramm; Kenneth Kilborn

    Properties and grade yield are estimated for structural lumber produced from No. 3, No. 4, and low-end No. 2 grade western hemlock logs of the type previously used primarily for the production of pulp chips. Estimates are given for production in the Structural Framing, Machine Stress Rating, and Laminating Stock grading systems. The information shows that significant...

  5. Pollen gene flow, male reproductive success, and genetic correlations among offspring in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seed orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Alexander; Keith Woeste

    2017-01-01

    Northern red oak is a high-value hardwood used for lumber, furniture and veneer. Intensively managed northern red oak seed orchards are required to obtain genetic gain for trait improvement. Data from conifer seed orchards and natural and managed stands of hardwood trees have shed light on the distance over which pollen can move, and underscore the need for managerial...

  6. Developing contemporary and historical live tree biomass estimates for old pine-hardwood stands of the Midsouth, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg

    2012-01-01

    Calculating stand biomass potential is an increasingly important aspect of silviculture, particularly when attempting to restore forest ecosystems or determining additionality in sequestered carbon. However, the lumbering of the original forests of the Midsouth region of the United States of America, coupled with the accelerating conversion of unmanaged natural-origin...

  7. Produce yellow-poplar furniture dimension at minimum cost by using YELLOPOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    David G. Marten; David G. Marten

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program called YELLOPOP that determines the least-cost combination of lumber grades required to produce a given cutting order of furniture dimension parts. If the least-cost mix is not available, YELLOPOP can be used to determine the next best alternative. The steps involved in using the program are also described.

  8. Status and Trends for the U.S. Forest Products Sector: A Technical Document Supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; David B. McKeever; Peter J. Ince; James L. Howard; Henry N. Spelter; Albert T. Schuler

    2012-01-01

    Forest products sector products and income help sustain the social, economic, and ecological benefits of forestry in the United States. Solidwood products consumption increased with population between 1965 and 2008 and varied with housing starts. Lumber's share declined from 83% to 70%, and structural panels' share increased from 9% to 17%. Paper and...

  9. Translations on Near East and North Africa, Number 1647

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-28

    fac- tories and one lumber factory. It was the founder of mo- dern Iran, Reza Shah the Great who sincerely wanted to see the country...research started in the office of ’Abdullah Fahmi , director of the office of the minister of communications, bringing with me a number of questions on

  10. AFRREV STECH, Vol. 3(1) February, 2014

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    2014-02-06

    Feb 6, 2014 ... Department of Urban & Regional Planning,. Federal University of ... Projects which was introduced in 2008 by the Niger State government. ... identification, monitoring, implementation and evaluation should be encouraged. .... farming, fishing, mining, lumbering and so on, where the per-capita income is ...

  11. 1997 Hardwood Research Award Winner: "Automatic Color Sorting of Hardwood Edge-Glued Panel Parts"

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Qiang Lu; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    The National Hardwood Lumber Association's 1997 Hardwood Research Award was presented to D. Earl Kline, Richard Conners, Qiang Lu and Philip Araman at the 25th Annual Hardwood Symposium for developing an automatic system for color sorting hardwood edge-glued panel parts. The researchers comprise a team from Virginia Tech University and the USDA Forest Service in...

  12. A Multiple Sensor Machine Vision System for Automatic Hardwood Feature Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard W. Conners; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbin

    1993-01-01

    A multiple sensor machine vision prototype is being developed to scan full size hardwood lumber at industrial speeds for automatically detecting features such as knots holes, wane, stain, splits, checks, and color. The prototype integrates a multiple sensor imaging system, a materials handling system, a computer system, and application software. The prototype provides...

  13. Using Scientific Information to Develop Management Strategies for Commercial Redwood Timberlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey C. Barrett

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, PALCO (Pacific Lumber Company), a private landowner, and the state and federal governments agreed to implement a unique Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) on 89,000 hectares of commercial redwood and Douglas-fir timberlands in Humboldt County, California. The aquatics portion of the PALCO HCP contains a set of "interim" conservation strategies developed...

  14. 48 CFR 652.242-72 - Shipping Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Each packing box shall be of solid construction in accordance with best commercial practices and.../3 of the width of the piece of lumber. Box shall be constructed with three-way corners and diagonal... Contractor shall place the fourth copy of the packing list in packing case number one, which shall be marked...

  15. 78 FR 78325 - National Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Programs; Request for Extension and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... carry out projects relating to research, consumer information, advertising, sales, promotion, producer... Service [Doc.No. AMS-LPS-13-0088] National Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Programs; Request... of Softwood Lumber and National Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Programs...

  16. Coefficient of friction of dry slash pine and southern red oak on three tension-grip facings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truett J. Lemoine; Peter Koch

    1974-01-01

    A urethane material proved to have nine times higher static friction coefficient (0.9) than smooth steel (0.1) on radial and tangential wood surfaces pulled parallel to the grain. It is probably superior to 220-grit garnet paper or sand coatings for tension-grip facings in lumber testing machines.

  17. Small enterprises' importance to the U.S. secondary wood processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Omar Espinoza; Matthew Bumgardner; Michael. Sperber

    2013-01-01

    The past decades have seen numerous U.S. secondary wood processing companies shift their production to overseas locations, mainly in Southeast Asia. The remaining companies have been hit hard by the downturn in housing markets and the following recession. Thus, many large customers of the U.S. hardwood lumber industry have reduced or stopped the purchase of products,...

  18. Wood and Other Materials Used to Construct Nonresidential Buildings - Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever; Joe Elling

    2014-01-01

    Low-rise nonresidential building construction is an important market in Canada for lumber, engineered wood products, structural wood panels, and nonstructural wood panels. This report examines wood products consumption in 2012 for construction of selected low-rise nonresidential buildings types that have six or fewer stories. Buildings with more than six stories are...

  19. Alaska birch for edge-glued panel production—considerations for wood products manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    David. Nicholls

    2010-01-01

    Edge-glued panels could become a natural extension for the birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) lumber industry in Alaska, resulting in greater utilization of the birch resource while allowing producers to explore a wider variety of products and markets. Key advantages of edge-glued panel production include the relatively low cost of equipment, the...

  20. Tree value conversion standards revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul S. DeBald; Martin E. Dale; Martin E. Dale

    1991-01-01

    Updated tree value conversion standards (TVCS) are presented for 12 important hardwood species of the oak-hickory forest. These updated standards-developed for each species by butt-log grade, merchantable height, and diameter at breast height-reflect the changes in lumber prices and in conversion costs which have occurred since 1976 when the original TVCS were...

  1. Coal liquefaction by base-catalyzed hydrolysis with CO.sub.2 capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin

    2014-03-18

    The one-step hydrolysis of diverse biomaterials including coal, cellulose materials such as lumber and forestry waste, non-food crop waste, lignin, vegetable oils, animal fats and other source materials used for biofuels under mild processing conditions which results in the formation of a liquid fuel product along with the recovery of a high purity CO.sub.2 product is provided.

  2. Patterns of Increasing Swiss Needle Cast Impacts on Growth of 20- and 40-year-old Douglas-fir from Tillamook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, Swiss Needle Cast (SNC) is causing an epidemic west of the Oregon Coast Range from Coos Bay to Astoria. The most severely infected Douglas-fir trees are located on BLM land and Stimson Lumber plantations in Tillamook where environmental conditions are highly favorable ...

  3. 75 FR 7244 - Narrow Woven Ribbons with Woven Selvedge from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... the United States at less than fair value (``LTFV''), as provided in section 733 of the Tariff Act of... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Certain Softwood Lumber Products From Canada, 67 FR 15539 (April...: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination, 73 FR...

  4. Investigation on radiation doses to patients in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Zhengshuai; Deng Daping; Li Quantai; Song Gang; Su Xu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the patients' radiation dose received in digital radiography(DR) and provide basic data for developing diagnostic reference levels. Methods: The patient's ESD was estimated using the TLDs and DAP was measured by the dose-area product meter. The E values were then calculated by the DAP using Monte Carlo data and RefDose software. Measurements were made for twelve types of examination: skull PA, skull LAT, chest PA, chest LAT, abdomen AP, pelvis AP, cervix spine PA, cervix spine LAT, thoracic spine PA, thoracic spine LAT, lumber spine PA and lumber spine LAT. Results: Both kV and mAs varied in the same type of examination for ESD, DAP and E(F = 33.47, 24.68, 43.19, P < 0.05). The dose each time for lumber spine LAT was the highest, reached 4.62 mGy in ESD and 2.26 Gy·cm 2 in DAP, respectively. The E of abdomen AP averaged as 0.59 mSv, higher than that of lumber spine LAT. Even for the same type of examination, the dose from each equipment was different. Conclusions: DR has the potential to reduce the patients' radiation doses. The guidance levels suitable for Chinese population should be established as soon as possible. (authors)

  5. Composite materials from forest biomass : a review of current practices, science, and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2007-01-01

    Renewable and sustainable composite materials can be produced using forest biomass if we maintain healthy forests. Small diameter trees and other forest biomass can be processed in the forest into small solid wood pieces, sliced veneers, strands, flakes, chips, particles and fiber that can be used to make construction composite products such as glued-laminated lumber,...

  6. Field performance of timber bridges. 5, Little Salmon Creek stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Ritter; J. A. Kainz; G. J. Porter

    The Little Salmon Creek bridge was constructed in November 1988 on the Allegheny National Forest in Pennsylvania. The bridge is a simple span, single-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure that is approximately 26-ft long and 16-ft wide. The bridge is unique in that it is the first known stress-laminated timber bridge to be constructed of hardwood lumber. The...

  7. Field performance of timber bridges. 6, Hoffman Run stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Ritter; P. D. Hilbrich Lee; G. J. Porter

    The Hoffman Run bridge, located just outside Dahoga, Pennsylvania, was constructed in October 1990. The bridge is a simple-span, single-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure that is approximately 26 ft long and 16 ft wide. It is the second stress-laminated timber bridge to be constructed of hardwood lumber in Pennsylvania. The performance of the bridge was...

  8. Symbiont diversification in ambrosia beetles: Diversity of fungi associated with exotic scolytine beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    In virtually every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying wood. Some introduced ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and can damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody plant t...

  9. Are there regional differences in US hardwood product exports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Scott Bowe; William Luppold

    2016-01-01

    Exporting is a critical component of the product mix for many domestic hardwood firms. Previous research has identified factors associated with hardwood lumber exporting behavior, but less is known about the advantages and disadvantages to exporting associated with the region within which a firm is located, or about exporting of secondary hardwood products. A procedure...

  10. Effects of thinning intensity and crown class on cherrybark oak epicormic branching five years after treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luben D. Dimov; Erika Stelzer; Kristi Wharton; James S. Meadows; Jim L. Chambers; Kenny Ribbeck; E. Barry Moser

    2006-01-01

    Thinning in oak-dominated stands may have many desirable consequences, including increases in tree growth and mast production. One of the potential disadvantages, however, is the proliferation of epicormic branches, which leads to reduction in lumber quality and value. We assessed the effects of thinning intensity and initial crown class on cherrybark oak (...

  11. The economic potential of CT scanners for hardwood sawmills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald G. Hodges; Walter C. Anderson; Charles W. McMillin

    1990-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that a knowledge of internal log defects prior to sawing could improve lumber value yields significantly. This study evaluated the potential economic returns from investments in computerized tomographic (CT) scanners to detect internal defects in hardwood logs at southern sawmills. The results indicate that such investments would be profitable...

  12. Dendroecological analysis of a Fitzroya cupressoides and a Nothofagus nitida stand in the Cordillera Pelada, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret S. Devall; Bernard R. Parresol; Juan J. Armesto

    1998-01-01

    Lumbering of Fitzroya cupressoides in Chile began in 1599 and continued until 1976, when the species was declared a national monument and cutting of live trees was prohibited. Today, F. cupressoides is threatened; many of the remaining stands in the coastal range appear to be declining, with a predominance of standing dead stems and patchy, sparse regeneration. The...

  13. Wood particleboard and flakeboard : types, grades, and uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. G. Carll

    1986-01-01

    This report is for those who use or may want to use wood particleboard. The term bparticleboardc is used as defined in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard D 1554, which includes flakeboards as a subclass of particleboards, and not as used in the lumber trade where the term is usually reserved for panels made of fine wood particles such as...

  14. Pennsylvania hardwood timber bridges : field performance after 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Carlito Calil

    2004-01-01

    Several hardwood demonstration timber bridges were built by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation in the early nineteen nineties. These bridge superstructures are of the recently developed stress-laminated deck design-type using Red Oak lumber laminations that were pressure-treated with creosote preservatives. This paper will describe the data acquisition...

  15. The frequency and level of sweep in mixed hardwood saw logs in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Hamner; Marshall S. White; Philip A. Araman

    2007-01-01

    Hardwood sawmills traditionally saw logs in a manner that either orients sawlines parallel to the log central axis (straight sawing) or the log surface (allowing for taper). Sweep is characterized as uniform curvature along the entire length of a log. For logs with sweep, lumber yield losses from straight and taper sawing increase with increasing levels of sweep. Curve...

  16. Modeling the longitudinal variation in wood specific gravity of planted loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Antony; L. R. Schimleck; R. F. Daniels; Alexander Clark; D. B. Hall

    2010-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is a major plantation species grown in the southern United States, producing wood having a multitude of uses including pulp and lumber production. Specific gravity (SG) is an important property used to measure the quality of wood produced, and it varies regionally and within the tree with height and radius. SG at different height levels...

  17. Some natural factors that govern the management of oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney Weitzman; G. R., Jr. Trimble

    1957-01-01

    The oaks are the most important species group in the Appalachian hardwood forests. In West Virginia, oaks provide more than half of the lumber produced in the State. In addition, they provide a large portion of the mine timbers and specialty products.

  18. Performance of a Press-Lam bridge : a 5-year load-testing and monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. S. Gromala; R. C. Moody; M. M. Sprinkel

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of load tests on an experimental highway bridge erected and put into service on the George Washington National Forest in Virginia in 1977. The bridge, made entirely of Press-Lam, a laminated veneer lumber (LVL) product, was load tested 1 month, 1 year, and 5 years after erection. The bridge continues to perform quite well and,...

  19. PROBLEM FORMULATION REPORT: FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL CHANGE FOR AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer (1995) describes land use as "the way in which, and the purposes for which, human beings employ the land and its resources; for example, farming, mining, or lumbering" and land cover as "the physical state of the land surface: as in cropland, mountains, or forests". The def...

  20. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive... packages of Class 1 (explosive) materials are placed in a “magazine” box made of sound lumber not less than...

  1. Possibilities of breeding weevil-resistant white pine strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Wright; William J. Gabriel

    1959-01-01

    Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) is a highly versatile species. It is easily planted, adaptable to a wide variety of soils and climates, and reproduces itself well. Also it grows rapidly and is capable of producing high-quality lumber. These characteristics once entitled white pine to a top position in the forest economy throughout much of the...

  2. 76 FR 64318 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ...''), high-density fiberboard (``HDF''), stone and/or plastic composite, or strips of lumber placed edge-to... Industry Co., Ltd., (14) Suzhou Dongda Wood Co., Ltd., (15) Guangzhou Pan Yu Kang Da Board Co., Ltd., (16... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Market Value: Synthetic Indigo From the People's Republic of China, 65...

  3. Carbon storage in mangrove and peatland ecosystems: A preliminary account from plots in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Murdiyarso; Daniel Donato; J. Boone Kauffman; Sofyan Kurnianto; Melanie Stidham; Markku. Kanninen

    2009-01-01

    Tropical mangroves and peat swamp forests provide numerous ecosystem services, including nutrient cycling, sediment trapping, protection from cyclones and tsunamis, habitat for numerous organisms (many economically important) and wood for lumber and fuel (Ellison 2008). Among the most important of these functions--but poorly quantified--is ecosystem carbon (C) storage...

  4. Testing and analysis of internal hardwood log defect prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The severity and location of internal defects determine the quality and value of lumber sawn from hardwood logs. Models have been developed to predict the size and position of internal defects based on external defect indicator measurements. These models were shown to predict approximately 80% of all internal knots based on external knot indicators. However, the size...

  5. Basement radon entry and stack driven moisture infiltration reduced by active soil depressurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.R. Boardman; Samuel V. Glass

    2015-01-01

    This case study presents measurements of radon and moisture infiltration from soil gases into the basement of an unoccupied research house in Madison, Wisconsin, over two full years. The basement floor and exterior walls were constructed with preservative-treated lumber and plywood. In addition to continuous radon monitoring, measurements included building air...

  6. China and India, 2025: A Comparative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    in China, see Banister, Bloom, and Rosenberg (2010). 13 For a discussion of inequality in India, see Bardhan (2003). population trends in China and...WorkingPapers/2010/PGDA_WP_53.pdf 132 China and India, 2025: A Comparative Assessment Bardhan , Pranab, “Crouching Tiger, Lumbering Elephant: A China-India

  7. Sawmill "Waste"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred C. Simmons; Adna R. Bond

    1955-01-01

    Sawmills have the reputation of being very wasteful in converting logs and bolts into lumber and timbers. Almost everyone has seen the great heaps of sawdust and slabs that collect at sawmills. Frequently the question is asked, "Why doesn't somebody do something about this terrible waste of wood?"

  8. Is Eastern Hardwood Sawtimber Becoming Scarcer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Gilbert P. Dempsey; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1996-01-01

    In recent years the hardwood lumber industry has become increasingly concerned about the availability and quality of hardwood sawtimber. However, these concerns seem to contradict USDA Forest Service estimates of increased volume and quality of hardwood sawtimber. This paper examines changes in eastern hardwood sawtimber inventories and the apparent contradiction...

  9. GRASP - A Prototype Interactive Graphic Sawing Program - (Forest Products Journal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis G. Occeña; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1996-01-01

    A versatile microcomputer-based interactive graphics sawing program has been developed as a tool for modeling various hardwood processes, from bucking and topping to log sawing, lumber edging, secondary processing, and even veneering. The microcomputer platform makes the tool affordable and accessible. A solid modeling basis provides the tool with a sound geometrical...

  10. Use of Computer Simulation in Designing and Evaluating a Proposed Rough Mill for Furniture Interior Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman

    1977-01-01

    The design of a rough mill for the production of interior furniture parts is used to illustrate a simulation technique for analyzing and evaluating established and proposed sequential production systems. Distributions representing the real-world random characteristics of lumber, equipment feed speeds and delay times are programmed into the simulation. An example is...

  11. American Attitudes Toward the Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Charles A.

    1975-01-01

    The colonial attitude toward land depended on the climate of the area and the culture of the settlers. With independence came a national attitude that land represented economic and political freedom for the individual. Abundant land fostered unregulated lumbering, mining, and farming. Today environmental awareness has created the conservation…

  12. 77 FR 13114 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    .../12 Docket Numbers: ER12-1013-001 Applicants: Physical Systems Integration, LLC Description: Physical Systems Integration, LLC--Amendment to MBR Application to be effective 3/1/2012. Filed Date: 2/24/12... Market-Based Rate Tariff of Hampton Lumber Mills-Washington, Inc. Filed Date: 2/27/12 Accession Number...

  13. Heat sterilization times of five hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Simpson; Xiping Wang; John W. Forsman; John R. Erickson

    2005-01-01

    Heat sterilization of lumber, timbers, and pallets is currently used to kill insects, thus preventing their transfer between countries in international trade. An important factor in this treatment is the time required for the center of any wood configuration to reach the temperature necessary to kill the insect. This study explored the effect of size (1-, 1.5-, and 2.0...

  14. Economic feasibility of products from inland West small-diameter timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelter Henry; Rong Wang; Peter Ince

    1996-01-01

    A large part of the forests located in the Rocky Mountain region of the U.S. West (inland West) is characterized by densely packed, small-diameter stands. The purpose of this study was to examine the economic feasibility of using small-diameter material from this resource to manufacture various wood products: oriented strandboard (OSB), stud lumber, random-length...

  15. Yield and ultrasonic modulus of elasticity of red maple veneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Steven Verhey; John R. Erickson; John W. Forsman; Brian K. Brashaw; Crystal L. Pilon; Xiping Wang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the potential for using red maple sawlogs to manufacture laminated veneer lumber (LVL). The primary objective was to determine the yield of ultrasonically graded veneer from red maple logs. A sample of 48 logs was obtained from six Eastern and Lake States in the United States. The logs were visually graded and shipped to a plywood...

  16. Stress-wave velocity of wood-based panels: effect of moisture, product type, and material direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangping Han; Qinglin Wu; Xiping Wang

    2006-01-01

    The effect of moisture on longitudinal stress-wave velocity (SWV), bending stiffness. and bending strength of commercial oriented strandboard, plywood. particleboard. and southern pine lumber was evaluated. It was shown that the stress-wave verocity decreased in general with increases in panel moisture content (MC). At a given MC level. SWV varied with panel type and...

  17. Estimating air drying times of small-diameter ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Simpson; Xiping. Wang

    2003-01-01

    Because dense stands of softwood trees are causing forest health problems in the western United States, new ways to use this material need to be found. One option is to use this material as logs rather than sawing it into lumber. For many applications, logs require some degree of drying. Even though these logs may be considered small diameter, they are large compared...

  18. Quality index tables for some eastern hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph J. Mendel; William H. Smith; William H. Smith

    1970-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the quality-index concept, presents log-quality index tables for a selected group of eastern hardwood tree species, and explains how timber operators can use Q.I. for evaluating the lumber that can be sawed from logs and trees.

  19. Opportunities for development of local forest markets: the case of Amish furniture manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Gary Graham; Charles. Goebel

    2012-01-01

    A dramatic decline in the production of hardwood furniture in the United States has had profound impacts on employment and hardwood markets. Against this backdrop, the Amish-based furniture manufacturing cluster in Ohio has expanded and hardwood lumber consumption by the cluster is significant. Recent research suggests that 71 percent of firms in the cluster expanded...

  20. 78 FR 15049 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... market disruption or threat thereof under section 421(b)(1); or (C) An affirmative final determination of... Newsprint Company. 82,247 Kincaid Furniture Co., Hudson, NC July 20, 2012. Inc., Plant 9 Lumber Yard, Foothills Temporary Employment. 82,247A Kincaid Furniture Co., Hudson, NC July 22, 2012. Inc., Plant 1...

  1. Marketing low-grade hardwoods for furniture stock - a new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh W. Reynolds; Charles J. Gatchell

    1979-01-01

    A hardwood shortage of high-grade lumber exists while there is a surplus of low-grade hardwood timber. Two things are needed for the surplus to correct the shortage: a new manufacturing system and a new marketing technique. Utilization research at the Princeton Forestry Sciences Laboratory has developed the new system for converting low-grade hardwood for furniture use...

  2. Current status of the U.S. hardwood industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Michael. Sperber

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. manufacturing sector has seen challenging years during the past decades. The major driver behind the decline of U.S. manufacturing prowess has been the ongoing globalization of trade, which has brought market share losses for U.S.-based manufacturing in many hardwood lumber consuming industries. The wood furniture, flooring, and millwork industries, for...

  3. 77 FR 8282 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... 202(b)(1); (B) An affirmative determination of market disruption or threat thereof under section 421(b... Lumber Company, Colville, WA September 27, 2010. Arden Division. 81,039 HDM Furniture Industries, Mt. Airy, NC April 16, 2011. Inc., Henredon Plant 10, Furniture Brands International, Furniture Brands...

  4. The influence of lathe check depth and orientation on the bond quality of phenol-formaldehyde-bonded birch plywood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti Rohumaa; Christopher G. Hunt; Mark Hughes; Charles R. Frihart; Janne Logren

    2013-01-01

    During the rotary peeling of veneer for plywood or the laminated veneer lumber manufacture, checks are formed in the veneer that are as deep as 70 – 80 % of the veneer thickness. The results of this study show that, during adhesive bond testing, deep lathe checks in birch (Betula pendula Roth.) veneer significantly reduce the shear strength and the...

  5. Industrial Art: Mission to Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Mike

    2009-01-01

    This is a story about industrial art. It is certainly not a story about smart studios and fashionable galleries, subtle techniques and aesthetic beauty. This is a story of sheet rock, nails, and low-grade lumber in the hands of unskilled teenage laborers. While this story boasts of no future museum pieces, it tells a heartwarming story of rare…

  6. Recovery, reuse and recycling by the United States wood packaging industry: 1993-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman; E. Bradley Hager

    2007-01-01

    The packaging industry is an important market for wood materials, especially low grade hardwoods. Approximately one-third of U.S. hardwood lumber production is utilized in the production of pallets and containers. The industry recovers significant volumes of pallets and containers from the waste stream for re-use, repair, and recycling. Industry by-products (both wood...

  7. Evaluation of veneer yields and grades from yellow-poplar, white oak, and sweetgum from the southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. McAlister

    1980-01-01

    Dry volume yields and standard grades of veneer are given for yellow-poplar, sweetgum, and white oak by tree diameter and location within the stem. Results show that the typical stands of mixed southern pine and hardwood timer yield enough veneer to utilize almost 90 percent of the stand volume in the production of COM-PLY lumber and panels

  8. Impacts of construction markets on firm performance and behaviors in the secondary woodworking industry, 2010-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew S. Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Albert T. Schuler; Karen M. Koenig

    2014-01-01

    Despite the severe downturn in the housing market that began in 2007, construction-related uses collectively remain the largest source of demand for appearance-grade hardwood lumber in the United States. Therefore, industry practitioners and researchers alike maintain an interest in housing and construction trends. This study investigated market conditions from the...

  9. 40 CFR 247.15 - Landscaping products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hydroseeding and as an over-spray for straw mulch in landscaping, erosion control, and soil reclamation. (b) Compost made from recovered organic materials. (c) Garden and soaker hoses containing recovered plastic or rubber. (d) Lawn and garden edging containing recovered plastic or rubber. (e) Plastic lumber landscaping...

  10. 76 FR 63801 - Fire Prevention Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Proclamation Fires, whether caused by people or nature, can have devastating effects. Hundreds of thousands of... practice fire safety throughout the year. This year's Fire Prevention Week theme, ``Protect Your Family... mowing dry grasses to two inches or less, and by clearing brush, leaves, green grass, and lumber from...

  11. Wood working: planing and moulding in the last frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls

    2007-01-01

    Planing and moulding is an important step in the value-added manufacture of wood products, and recent advances in Alaska have been noteworthy. Just a few years ago, most planing occurred on simple shop planers, producing lumber for retail sale or for wood working uses such as cabinet stock. Currently there are at least 26 planers and 13 moulders in-production at...

  12. Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    other abnormalities detected (Figure 1). The radiological differential diagnoses included RPLS, vasculitis, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis and infective encephalitis. Cerebro-spinal fluid examination obtained by lumber puncture was not diagnostic. Vasculitic screen showed a positive ANA titer of 1/320 with speckled.

  13. Cooperative advanced-generation breeding and testing of coastal Douglas-fir and western hemlock—strategy and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. J.S. Jayawickrama; G.R. Johnson; T. Ye

    2005-01-01

    As in many temperate regions of the world, forest tree improvement got underway in the Pacific Northwest of the USA in the 1950s, with a number of companies and agencies starting independent tree improvement programs. Booth-Kelly Lumber Co., Crown Zellerbach Corp., the Industrial Forestry Association, Port Blakely Mill Co., Simpson Timber Co., Timber Service Co., the...

  14. Mold Susceptibility of Rapidly Renewable Building Materials Used in Wall Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    decisions, they are often disappointed when they do not see a quick and measurable impact that can be advertised to their customers and used to gain an...form of borax or chlorine crystals in order to make them more resilient to mold, similar to how lumber can be treated with copper chromate to make

  15. Exploring Valued-Added Options - Edge-Glued Panels and Blanks Offer Value-Added Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob Smith; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    As sawmills search for new opportunities to add value to rough sawn lumber, many consider producing dimension parts as one solution. Assembling dimension parts into edge-glued panels or standard blanks can add even further value. Blanks are defined as pieces of solid wood (which may be edge-glued) that are manufactured to a predetermined size. This article discusses...

  16. Tangential scanning of hardwood logs: developing an industrial computer tomography scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nand K. Gupta; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Bruce Isaacson

    1999-01-01

    It is generally believed that noninvasive scanning of hardwood logs such as computer tomography (CT) scanning prior to initial breakdown will greatly improve the processing of logs into lumber. This belief, however, has not translated into rapid development and widespread installation of industrial CT scanners for log processing. The roadblock has been more operational...

  17. Ecological interactions of bark beetles with host trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain species of bark beetles in the insect order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae (formerly Scolytidae) are keystone species in forest ecosystems. However, the tree-killing and woodboring bark and ambrosia beetles are also among the most damaging insects of forest products including lumber, paper...

  18. The lack of adequate quality assurance/quality control data hinders the assessment of potential forest degradation in a national forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Brandeis; Stanley Zarnoch; Christopher Oswalt; Jeffery Stringer

    2017-01-01

    Hardwood lumber harvested from the temperate broadleaf and mixed broadleaf/conifer forests of the east-central United States is an important economic resource. Forest industry stakeholders in this region have a growing need for accurate, reliable estimates of high-quality wood volume. While lower-graded timber has an increasingly wide array of uses, the forest products...

  19. Primary lumbar hernia in an elderly woman: case report | Ouma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical dissection revealed a large hernial sac, which contained retro peritoneal fat, protruding through a 3-4 centimetres defect in the transversalis fascia lining the floor of the superior lumbar triangle. The hernia sac was reduced and the defect closed. There was no recurrence four months post-operative. Lumber hernias ...

  20. Utilization of the Eastern Hardwood Resource by the Hardwood Sawmilling Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; John Baumgras; John Baumgras

    2001-01-01

    The eastern hardwood resource contains numerous species that differ in grain, color, texture, and workability. Because the value of hardwoods is derived from appearance, these variations in physical attributes can cause the price for identical grades of hardwood lumber to vary by as much as 600% between species. As a result, there is incentive for primary processors to...

  1. Integrated biomass technologies: future vision for optimally using wood and biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy; Alan W. Rudie; R. Sam Williams; Theodore H. Wegner

    2008-01-01

    Exciting new opportunities are emerging for sustainably meeting many global energy needs and simultaneously creating high value biobased consumer and construction products from wood, forest and agricultural residues, and other biobased materials. In addition to traditional value added biobased products, such as lumber, paper, paperboard, and composites, opportunities...

  2. HOW to Identify and Control Sugar Maple Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Hoffard; Philip T. Marshall

    1978-01-01

    The sugar maple borer, Glycobius speciosus (Say), a long-horned wood boring beetle, is a common pest of sugar maple (the only known host) throughout the range of the tree. Although borer-caused mortality is rare, infestations lead to value loss through lumber defect caused by larval galleries, discoloration, decay, and twisted grain.

  3. Validation of an internal hardwood log defect prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The type, size, and location of internal defects dictate the grade and value of lumber sawn from hardwood logs. However, acquiring internal defect knowledge with x-ray/computed-tomography or magnetic-resonance imaging technology can be expensive both in time and cost. An alternative approach uses prediction models based on correlations among external defect indicators...

  4. Statistical process control for residential treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia K. Lebow; Timothy M. Young; Stan Lebow

    2017-01-01

    This paper is the first stage of a study that attempts to improve the process of manufacturing treated lumber through the use of statistical process control (SPC). Analysis of industrial and auditing agency data sets revealed there are differences between the industry and agency probability density functions (pdf) for normalized retention data. Resampling of batches of...

  5. To what do firms attribute success? An application of attribution theory to the secondary woodworking industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Bumgardner; Urs. Buehlmann

    2015-01-01

    Small firms are a critical component of the secondary woodworking industry and are important to hardwood lumber demand in the US. Understanding managers' perceptions of competitiveness in these firms is important to those working with the industry to help maintain a viable wood manufacturing base. One area of interest relative to the overall business environment...

  6. Rupture with Concurrent Splenic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. The dog kidneys are elongated and are located retroperitonealy between the thirteen thoracic vertebrae and the third lumber vertebrae. The right kidney is usually more cranial than the left. (Feeney and Johnston, 200?). Each kidney consists of an outer cortex and an inner medulla which projects into the ...

  7. Science + Technology = Intelligence on Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    that now it includes almost all states in the West except for perhaps California. Th is is caused by a prion. Prion is a protein with no nucleic acid...kind of a dinosaur or a pachyderm, kind of lumbering along that blue shallow curve where we may invest ten years and $10 billion to get a ten percent

  8. 36 CFR 223.187 - Determinations of unprocessed timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... generally recognized by the industry as setting a selling standard; and, (ii) A statement by the... setting a selling standard. (3) Lumber, construction timbers, or cants for remanufacture, except western... or better, with a maximum cross section of 2,000 square centimeters (310 square inches) for any...

  9. Composition of the heartwood essential oil of incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens Torr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeba Veluthoor; Rick G. Kelsey; M.P. Gonzalez-Hernandez; Nicholas Panella; Marc Dolan; Joe. Karchesy

    2011-01-01

    Incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens) is a tree native to Oregon and California, perhaps best known for its aromatic wood and use in the manufacturing of pencils. The wood is also highly valued for its decorative appearance and durability in lumber, related sawmill products, and fence posts. Chemical investigations of heartwood extracts have shown...

  10. Epidemiology of Low Back Pain in Enugu, Nigeria | Eyichukwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most frequently reported chronic health problems affecting the adult population. It is the most prevalent musculoskeletal condition in ... Patients with vertebral fractures and spinal cord injuries in the lumber region were excluded. Results: Three thousand two hundred patients' ...

  11. The Value Versus Volume Yield Problem for Live-Sawn Hardwood Sawlogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Francis G. Wagner; Lalit Kumar; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    The potential conflict between value and volume maximization in sawing hardwood sawlogs by the live sawing method was analyzed. Twenty-four digitally described red oak sawlogs were sawn at the log orientation of highest value yield. Five opening face sawlines were iteratively placed in the sawlog a 1/4-inch intervals and lumber grades, volumes, and values from...

  12. Band vs. Circular Sawmills: Relative Labor & Maintenance Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    Substantial sawmill lumber yield increases from kerf and sawing variation reductions can be realized by employing band rather than circular headrigs. Softwood sawmills rapidly adopted bandsaw headrig technology to the extent that it is currently unusual to find circular saw headrigs in a softwood sawmill. Hardwood sawmills, faced with a different economic situation,...

  13. Genetic improvement of fiber length and coarseness based on paper product performance and material variability - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian K. Via; Michael Stine; Todd F. Shupe; Chi-Leung So; Leslie Groom

    2004-01-01

    Improvement of specific gravity through tree breeding was an early choice made in the mid 20th century due to its ease of measurement and impact on pulp yield and lumber strength and stiffness. This was often the first, and in many cases, the only wood quality trait selected for. However, from a product standpoint, increased specific gravity has shown to lower many...

  14. Linking log quality with product performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. W. Green; Robert Ross

    1997-01-01

    In the United States, log grading procedures use visual assessment of defects, in relation to the log scaling diameter, to estimate the yield of lumber that maybe expected from the log. This procedure was satisfactory when structural grades were based only on defect size and location. In recent years, however, structural products have increasingly been graded using a...

  15. Shear design of wood beams : state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence A. Soltis; Terry D. Gerhardt

    1988-01-01

    Current shear design technology in the United States for lumber or glued- laminated beams is confusing. This report summarizes shear stress and strength research including both analytical and experimental approaches. Both checked and unchecked beams are included. The analytical work has been experimentally verified for only limited load conditions and span-to- depth...

  16. Behavior of an epoxy-polysulfide adhesive in wood joints exposed to moisture content changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon P. Krueger

    1965-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of a flexible epoxy-resin adhesive system was observed in joints of plywood to lumber. The joints were subjected to internal swelling stresses caused by an increase in moisture content. Previous experimental work at the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory has shown that this adhesive system acts as a strain-absorbing cushion and thus has a...

  17. Variation in natural durability of seven Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.J.N. Franca; T.S.F.A. Franca; R.A Arango; B.M. Woodward; G.B. Vidaurre

    2017-01-01

    Programs aimed at developing clones of hybrid trees are commonly established in Brazil to meet the demands of various forest-based industries. These programs have continually improved the quality of eucalyptus wood, which has the potential to reduce deforestation by lowering demand for other high-value species. This is particularly true in the lumber market, but little...

  18. Product costing guide for wood dimension and component manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jeff Palmer; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Steve. Lawser

    2014-01-01

    The North American hardwood dimension and components industry plays a critical role in the hardwood forest products industry as the industry is a user of high-value hardwood lumber. Customer expectations, global markets, and international competition, however, require hardwood dimension and components manufacturers to continuously improve their ability to manage their...

  19. California's hardwood resource: history and reasons for lack of a sustained hardwood industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean W. Huber; Philip M. McDonald

    1992-01-01

    Interest in utilizing California's forest-zone hardwoods for lumber and wood products has waxed and waned for more than 140 years. In spite of many unsuccessful ventures, strong interest is once again evident from landowners, processors, consumers, and policy makers. Their interest suggests a need to know past pitfalls, to recognize some realities of hardwood...

  20. Epicormic branching of California black oak: effect of stand and tree characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Martin W. Ritchie

    1994-01-01

    Young California black oak (Quercus kelloggii Newb.) stands usually require thinning to increase production of acorns and wood products, but epicormic branches, which yield no acorns and constitute a serious lumber degrade. often result. A crown thinning in 60-year-old hardwood stands on a south exposure at the Challenge Experimental Forest in thenorthern Sierra Nevada...

  1. Method and apparatus for dismantling mechanical anchors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubovskiy, Yu P; Chendev, F S; Gritsayuk, B I; Gubin, N I; Osipov, S P

    1982-01-01

    This apparatus is designed to reduce the amount of labor required to dismantle mechanical anchors while at the same time lowering expenditures for lumber. Longwall beams and timber skips are used to support the cap and any fractured rock faces. The apparatus itself has grooves, vertical guides, and a drive system to position the longwall beams.

  2. Grading timber and glued structural members

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann; Roland Hernandez

    2006-01-01

    Because of its biological nature, which is influenced by many factors as discussed in Chapter 6, the quality of timber is enormously variable. Therefore, some sort of arrangement or classification must be undertaken prior to its use, in order to get the most out of this valuable resource. It is obvious that not all lumber can be used for the same purposes because not...

  3. 49 CFR 387.301 - Surety bond, certificate of insurance, or other securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in bulk. Cement, building blocks. Charcoal. Chemical fertilizer. Cinder blocks. Cinders, coal. Coal... limestone. Liquid fertilizer solutions, in bulk, in tank vehicles. Lumber. Manure. Meat scraps. Mud drilling..., unglazed and unmanufactured, including ground agricultural limestone. Sugar beet pulp. Sulphate of ammonia...

  4. Determination of Calorific Values of Some Nigerian Bio-Mass Solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian biomass for thermal energy generation can be classified into field wastes, such as straw and corn cob; processing by products, such as rice husk, cocoa pods and palm kernel husk; and products from the lumber industry, such as saw dust, fire wood and wood shavings. These materials are produced in sufficiently ...

  5. An Integrated Management Support and Production Control System for Hardwood Forest Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermo A. Mendoza; Roger J. Meimban; William Sprouse; William G. Luppold; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    Spreadsheet and simulation models are tools which enable users to analyze a large number of variables affecting hardwood material utilization and profit in a systematic fashion. This paper describes two spreadsheet models; SEASaw and SEAIn, and a hardwood sawmill simulator. SEASaw is designed to estimate the amount of conversion from timber to lumber, while SEAIn is a...

  6. Environmental Impact Assessment of Selected Sawmills in Ile-Ife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The estimated Lumber Recovery Factor (LRF) differ based on the sawmill and timber species. The observed plant indicator of the waste dumpsite was Bidens pilosa. Perceived health ailments associated with sawmilling operations by the respondents are Catarrh (66.7%), Headache and Fatigue (14.3%) and cornea ...

  7. Solar-powered hot-air system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Solar-powered air heater supplies part or all of space heating requirements of residential or commercial buildings and is interfaced with air to water heat exchanger to heat domestic hot water. System has potential application in drying agricultural products such as cotton, lumber, corn, grains, and peanuts.

  8. Evaluating a Small Structural Insulated Panel (SIP) Designed Solar Kiln in Southwestern New Mexico - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Ted E.M. Bilek

    2012-01-01

    With increasing energy costs, using small dry kilns for drying lumber for small-volume value-added wood products has become more of an option when compared with conventional drying. Small solar kilns are one such option, and a number of solar kiln designs exist and are in use. However, questions remain about the design and operation of solar kilns, particularly during...

  9. Effect of processing method on surface and weathering characteristics of wood-flour/HDPE composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Laurent M. Matuana; Craig M. Clemons

    2004-01-01

    Wood-plastic lumber is promoted as a low maintenance high-durability product. When exposed to accelerated weathering, however, wood-plastic composites may experience a color change and/or loss in mechanical properties. Different methods of manufacturing wood-plastic composites lead to different surface characteristics, which can influence weathering, In this study, 50...

  10. Effect of processing method on accelerated weathering of wood-flour/HDPE composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Laurent M. Matuana; Craig M. Clemons

    2003-01-01

    Wood-plastic lumber is promoted as a low maintenance high-durability product. When exposed to accelerated weathering, however, wood-plastic composites may experience a color change and/or loss in mechanical properties. Different methods of manufacturing wood-plastic composites lead to different surface characteristics, which can influence weathering, In this study, 50...

  11. Changes in wood flour/HDPE composites after accelerated weathering with and without water spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark

    2005-01-01

    Wood-plastic lumber is promoted as a low-maintenance high-durability product. After weathering, however, wood-plasticcomposites (WPCs) often fide and lose mechanical properties. In the first part ofthis study, 50%wood-flour-filled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composite samples were injection molded or extruded. Composites were exposed to two accelerated weathering...

  12. Investigation of Historic Equilibrium Moisture Content Data from the Forest Products Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka; Jay A. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    The Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) has provided equilibrium moisture content (EMC) values of wood for given temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions in various forms over the course of its history, primarily for practical purposes related to drying lumber and controlling moisture content. The FPL EMC data have been widely cited and reprinted, not only in...

  13. MODELING AGGREGATE EXPOSURE AND DOSE OF CHILDREN TO A WOOD TREATMENT PRESERVATIVE FROM PLAYSETS AND HOME DECKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressure- or non-pressure- treated lumber may pose a potential health hazard to children if the children contact certain chemicals in soils around leaching wood structures and/or in dislodgeable residues that may form on the wood surfaces of the structures. A physically-based,...

  14. 76 FR 4285 - Certain Cased Pencils From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... respondents China First, Three Star, and Shandong Rongxin Import & Export Co., Ltd. (``Rongxin''), with publicly available, published U.S. prices for American basswood lumber.\\1\\ In China First, the CIT.../ CVD Operations, Office 1, Import Administration--International Trade Administration, U.S. Department...

  15. Resistance of borax–copper treated wood in aboveground exposure to attack by Formosan subterranean termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Lebow; Bessie Woodward; Douglas Crawford; William Abbott

    2005-01-01

    The spread of Formosan subterranean termites (FSTs) in the southern United States has increased public interest in finding a preservative treatment to protect framing lumber from termite attack. This study evaluated the use of a borax-based preservative to protect wood from FST attack. Southern Pine and Douglas-fir specimens were pressure-treated with three...

  16. 15 CFR 30.54 - Special provisions for imports from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Canada. 30.54 Section 30.54 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Special provisions for imports from Canada. (a) When certain softwood lumber products described under HTSUSA subheadings 4407.1001, 4409.1010, 4409.1090, and 4409.1020 are imported from Canada, import entry...

  17. Environmental Assessment: Anti-Terrorism/Force Protection McConnell Air Force Base, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    handled, stored, transported, disposed, or recycled in accordance with these regulations. The potential for hazardous waste generation from gate...Loader (rubber tire) Concrete Truck Concrete Finisher Crane Asphalt Spreader Roller Flat Bed Truck (18 wheel) Scraper Trenching Machine 1...plastics, and lumber. These materials would be placed in the appropriate construction materials landfill or recycled when possible. These wastes

  18. Forest research notes, Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station, No. 23, November 27, 1937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Elton Lodewick; P.A. Briegleb; F.L. Moravets; Leo A. Isaac; William G. Morris; Wade. DeVries

    1937-01-01

    Douglas fir, the most abundant and most used lumber species in the forests of the Pacific Northwest, is being pulped on a commercial scale by the sulfate and soda processes. The markets for unbleached pulps are limited, and there has been much speculation as to the possibilities of developing pulping processes whereby the enormous quantities of otherwise unutilized...

  19. Changes and Trends in the Pallet Industry: The Use of New Wood Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1998-01-01

    Wood has dominated the pallet industry as its principal raw material since palletized material handling began. Pallet production and use grew dramatically after World War II and wood remained the material of choice. Throughout this period the pallet industry has been an important market for lower grades of hardwood lumber and cants. Today, the demand for pallet grade...

  20. U.S. Hardwood Imports Grow as World Supplies Expand

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Siegel; Clark Row

    1965-01-01

    Rapidly increasing imports have captured a significant share of America's hardwood markets. Total imports of hardwood raw materials and building products are now four times as large as exports. Before World War II the U. S. was a net exporter of hardwoods, and imports were limited to high-quality mahogany and specialty logs and lumber. Availability of large...

  1. A new method of determining moisture gradient in wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai

    2008-01-01

    Moisture gradient in wood and wood composites is one of most important factors that affects both physical stability and mechanical performance. This paper describes a method for measuring moisture gradient in lumber and engineering wood composites as it varies across material thickness. This innovative method employs a collimated radiation beam (x rays or [gamma] rays...

  2. Gate-to-Gate Life-Cycle Inventory on Hardwood Sawmills in the Northeastern Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman

    2007-01-01

    Using sustainable building materials is gaining a significant presence in the United States therefore proving sustainability claims are becoming increasingly more important. Certifying wood products as green building materials is vital for the long-term productivity of the wood building industry and for forest management. This study examined hardwood lumber...

  3. California’s forest products industry and timber harvest, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Morgan; Jason P. Brandt; Kathleen E. Songster; Charles E. Keegan; Glenn A. Christensen

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of California’s 2006 timber harvest through the primary wood products industry (i.e., firms that process timber into manufactured products such as lumber, as well as facilities such as pulp mills and particleboard plants, which use the wood fiber or mill residue directly from timber processors) and provides a description of the structure,...

  4. Tradeoffs and interdependence in the Alaska cant and log markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald Flora; Una Woller; Michael. Neergaard

    1990-01-01

    During the 1980s, log exports from Alaska have risen while cant (lumber) exports have declined. Eight explanations for the difference between cant and log market behavior are explored. It seems that declining demand for wood products in Japan and a surge of private-sector log harvests in Alaska are enough to account for the apparent substitution of logs for cants. It...

  5. 49 CFR 176.137 - Portable magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) It must be weather-tight, constructed of wood or metal lined with wood at least 2 cm (0.787... wood, a portable magazine must be framed of nominal 5 cm × 10 cm (2×4 inch) lumber, and sheathed with... used for the stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials under such construction, handling, and stowage...

  6. Determining stocks and flows of structural wood products in single family homes in the United States between 1950 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sianchuk, Robert A.; McFarlane, Paul N.; Ackom, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    The stocks and flows of six major structural wood products (SWPs)-lumber, plywood, oriented strand board [OSB], glue laminated timber, I-joists, and laminated veneer lumber (LVL)-in US single family homes were modeled from 1950 to 2010. The consumption of these products in US single family homes...... and their emissions as construction and demolition wastes were estimated. The net consumption of SWPs decreased from 119 kg/m2 constructed in 1986 to 82 kg/m2 in 2010. Softwood lumber was consistently the predominant SWP, but its usage intensity decreased from 95 kg/m2 in 1986 to 52 kg/ m2 in 2010. Since the 1980s......, modern SWPs, such as I-joists, LVL, and OSB, have replaced lumber and plywood products. The needs of the US single family housing industry have been met by a smaller mass of SWPs per unit area constructed. The mass of SWP present in construction wastes was influenced strongly by building cycles...

  7. A Comparison of Market Needs to the Species and Quality Composition of the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman; J. Muench

    1992-01-01

    The production and consumption of hardwood lumber increased during the 1980âs and is predicted to remain at high levels during the 1990's. In recent years, annual growth has exceeded annual removals on hardwood forests. However, much of the growth has been in species that are relatively underutilized in high value markets such as furniture and cabinets. Volumes of...

  8. Nonparametric Bayesian predictive distributions for future order statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Johnson; James W. Evans; David W. Green

    1999-01-01

    We derive the predictive distribution for a specified order statistic, determined from a future random sample, under a Dirichlet process prior. Two variants of the approach are treated and some limiting cases studied. A practical application to monitoring the strength of lumber is discussed including choices of prior expectation and comparisons made to a Bayesian...

  9. Summary of some feasibility studies for site-specific solar industrial process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Some feasibility studies for several different site specific solar industrial process heat applications are summarized. The followng applications are examined. Leather Tanning; Concrete Production: Lumber and Paper Processing; Milk Processing; Molding, Curing or Drying; Automobile Manufacture; and Food Processing and Preparation. For each application, site and process data, system design, and performance and cost estimates are summarized.

  10. Potential Dimension Yields From Direct Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjie Lin; D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    1994-01-01

    As the price of timber increases and environmental leigslation limits harvestable log volumes, the process of converting logs directly into dimension parts needs further exploration. Direct processing converts logs directly into rough green dimension parts without the intermediate steps of lumber manufacturing, grading, trading, shipping and drying. A major attraction...

  11. In a Bookless Society, Why Start With Books? | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-22

    Dec 22, 2010 ... A digital camera, a portable colour printer — and the first "sign" was produced in Nakaseke. Christopher had put his lumber and concrete blocks on sale and used the proceeds to pay for ... Teachers design lesson plans. Students write papers. Businesspeople produce signs for their stores. And Christopher ...

  12. 19 CFR 113.62 - Basic importation and entry bond conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and charges by § 24.1(a) of this chapter is returned unpaid by a financial institution, or if a... exportation to Canada or Mexico or for entry into a duty-deferral program in Canada or Mexico, the obligors... export fees. In the case of a softwood lumber product imported from Canada that is subject to the...

  13. Estimating the board foot to cubic foot ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve P. Verrill; Victoria L. Herian; Henry N. Spelter

    2004-01-01

    Certain issues in recent softwood lumber trade negotiations have centered on the method for converting estimates of timber volumes reported in cubic meters to board feet. Such conversions depend on many factors; three of the most important of these are log length, diameter, and taper. Average log diameters vary by region and have declined in the western United States...

  14. 33 CFR 203.31 - Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... debris blockages of critical water supply intakes, sewer outfalls, etc.; clearance of the minimum amounts... intended to prevent imminent loss of life or significant public property, or to protect against significant... following: technical advice and assistance; lending of flood fight supplies, e.g., sandbags, lumber...

  15. Pallet re-use and recycling saves high value material from landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Philip Araman; Robert Bush

    2010-01-01

    Pallets move the world. In the United States, an estimated 4 billion pallets are in daily service. Nationwide, on an annual basis, an estimated 441 million new pallets are manufactured and 357 million pallets are repaired or rebuilt from discarded pallets. Manufacturing these pallets consumes more than seven billion bd ft1 of lumber annually, roughly two-thirds...

  16. Wood products used for residential repair and remodeling in the United States, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. B. McKeever; R. G. Anderson

    Large amounts of lumber and wood panel products are used annually for the repair and remodeling of residential structures and properties in the United States. In response to the need by government and industry for detailed information on this important market for timber products, a study was conducted by the Timber Demand and Technology...

  17. Adhesives with wood materials : bond formation and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Christopher G. Hunt

    2010-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of wood plays an increasing role in the forest products industry and is a key factor for efficiently utilizing our timber resource. The main use of adhesives is in the manufacture of building materials, including plywood, oriented strandboard, particleboard, fiberboard, structural composite lumber, doors, windows and frames, and factory-laminated wood...

  18. A procedure for selection on marking in hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R., Jr. Trimble; Joseph J. Mendel; Richard A. Kennell

    1974-01-01

    This method of applying individual-tree selection silviculture to hardwood stands combines silvicultural considerations with financial maturity guidelines into a tree-marking system. To develop this system it was necessary to determine rates of return based on 4/4 lumber, for many of the important Appalachian species. Trees were viewed as capital investments that...

  19. Redwoods: a population model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, C A

    1971-04-23

    The chief conclusion to be drawn from the results of this study is that redwoods are amazingly vigorous. The results support both the lumber companies and the conservationists. There is no question that old growth giant redwoods must be preserved. Only commercial greed could be a basis for refuting that stand. On the other hand, the lumber companies seem to be supported in their contention that redwoods can be farmed without driving them to extinction. The central issue revolves around the old trees. And here profit is the big factor. Lumbering is an important industry in California, and redwood lumbering represents about 20 percent of the industry (l). Most of the big names in timber, such as Weyerhaeuser and Georgia-Pacific, are involved in logging the California redwood. At the current rate of logging, particularly of old growth stands, the Bank of America estimates that employment in Humboldt County will be down significantly by 1975 (4). It has been argued that tourism would more than compensate for the lower employment in logging. But not if the trees that the tourists come to see are gone. Why can't young and mature trees be harvested at a reasonable rate, the old trees saved, and both tourism and logging flourish? The question posed earlier has been answered. Redwood growth and survival can be modeled, using matrix methods in a new context. Meaningful conclusions may be drawn. And the results are sufficiently tantalizing to inspire further research.

  20. Using TPO data to estimate timber demand in support of planning on the Tongass National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean M. Daniels; Michael D. Paruszkiewicz; Susan J. Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Projections of Alaska timber products output, the derived demand for logs, lumber, residues, and niche products, and timber harvest by owner are developed by using a trend-based analysis. This is the fifth such analysis performed since 1990 to assist planners in meeting statutory requirements for estimating planning cycle demand for timber from the Tongass National...

  1. Moisture meter calibration for untreated and ACQ-treated southern yellow pine plywood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Charles G. Carll

    2009-01-01

    Conductance moisture meter readings using stainless steel screws as electrodes were compared with gravimetric moisture content for 1) southern yellow pine (SYP) dimensioned lumber, 2) untreated (underlayment grade) SYP plywood, and 3) SYP plywood treated with alkaline copper quaternary. Meter readings were taken with the meter set to the manufacturer-provided species...

  2. THE USE OF THE MANGROVE OYSTER ( CROSSOSTREA GASAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR NWAGBOJE

    mangrove oyster (Crossostrea gasar) and water from Golubo creek in the Niger ... did not exceed the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) maximum ... the area include farming, local gin production, lumbering and palm wine production. ..... Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Ogba River, Benin City, Nigeria.

  3. An examination of the feasibility of using time-of-flight based non-destructive evaluation to assess the soundness of standing Acacia koa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Eini. Lowell

    2011-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) trees are native to the islands of Hawaii but occur nowhere else in the world. It is the most important timber species for the manufacture of wood products in Hawaii and one of the most valuable species worldwide. Most koa trees harvested today are standing dead or are already on the ground (relic logs). Lumber recovery in milling...

  4. 16 CFR 1302.1 - Scope and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... use by, consumers. For example, contact adhesives available in retail stores, such as lumber yards or hardware stores, for sale to consumers would be included in the scope of the ban even though such outlets may sell such products primarily to industrial or professional users. The manufacturer who markets an...

  5. Commentary on factors affecting transverse vibration using an idealized theoretical equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph F. Murphy

    2000-01-01

    An idealized theoretical equation to calculate flexural stiffness using transverse vibration of a simply end-supported beam is being considered by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) Wood Committee D07 to determine lumber modulus of elasticity. This commentary provides the user a quantitative view of six factors that affect the accuracy of using the...

  6. Wood and Other Materials Used to Construct Nonresidential Buildings in the United States 2011 Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever

    2013-01-01

    The construction of low-rise nonresidential buildings is an important market for lumber, engineered wood products, and structural and nonstructural wood panels in the United States. This report examines low-rise nonresidential buildings of six or fewer stories. Those with more than six stories are normally severely restricted by building codes from being wood framed....

  7. Craftsmen say "we want edge-glued, standard-size panels"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; Hugh W. Reynolds

    1983-01-01

    Wood craftsmen would like an alternative to hardwood lumber and plywood and softwood products. They are very interested in edge-glued, standard-size panels. These conclusions are based on interviews with craftsmen at two trade shows, and the results are included in this report along with our recommendations for optimum acceptance by craftsmen of this new product.

  8. Technological advances in temperate hardwood tree improvement including breeding and molecular marker applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut; Keith E. Woeste; G. Vengadesan

    2007-01-01

    Hardwood forests and plantations are an important economic resource for the forest products industry worldwide and to the international trade of lumber and logs. Hardwood trees are also planted for ecological reasons, for example, wildlife habitat, native woodland restoration, and riparian buffers. The demand for quality hardwood from tree plantations will continue to...

  9. De novo genome assembly of Geosmithia morbida, the causal agent of thousand cankers disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruna A. Schuelke; Anthony Westbrook; Kirk Broders; Keith Woeste; Matthew D. MacManes

    2016-01-01

    Geosmithia morbida is a filamentous ascomycete that causes thousand cankers disease in the eastern black walnut tree. This pathogen is commonly found in the western U.S.; however, recently the disease was also detected in several eastern states where the black walnut lumber industry is concentrated. G. morbida is one of two...

  10. Carbon sequestration and natural longleaf pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph S. Meldahl; John S. Kush

    2006-01-01

    A fire-maintained longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem may offer the best option for carbon (C) sequestration among the southern pines. Longleaf is the longest living of the southern pines, and products from longleaf pine will sequester C longer than most since they are likely to be solid wood products such as structural lumber and poles....

  11. The dawn of sustainable forestry in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett; Mason C. Carter

    2017-01-01

    In the late 19th century, virgin southern pine forests in the West Gulf Coast Region remained virtually untouched. After the Civil War, this land was made available by the government for homesteading and sale. Pine timberland was offered for sale at $1.25 per acre. Primarily northern lumbermen and land speculators purchased the land. Lumbering then became the economic...

  12. Provenance variability in nursery growth of subalpine fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlie Cartwright; Cheng Ying

    2011-01-01

    Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa [Hook] Nutt.) is a wide-ranging, high-elevation species in the interior of British Columbia. It is commonly harvested for lumber, but replanting of it is limited. Some reticence is based upon wood quality and rate of growth, but there are also seed and nursery culturing difficulties. This study investigated seedling growth traits of 111...

  13. Reliability formulation for the strength and fire endurance of glued-laminated beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. A. Bender

    A model was developed for predicting the statistical distribution of glued-laminated beam strength and stiffness under normal temperature conditions using available long span modulus of elasticity data, end joint tension test data, and tensile strength data for laminating-grade lumber. The beam strength model predictions compared favorably with test data for glued-...

  14. Grading sugar pine saw logs in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Henley

    1972-01-01

    Small limbs and small overgrown limbs cause problems when grading saw logs in sugar pine trees. Surface characteristics and lumber recovery information for 426 logs from 64 sugar pine trees were examined. Resulting modifications in the grading specification that allow a grader to ignore small limbs and small limb indicators do not appear to decrease the performance of...

  15. Survive or Thrive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Helen

    2011-01-01

    With local lumber mills shutting down, Robert Kenning, an instructor at Salish Kootenai College in western Montana, and the tribe's forestry director, came up with an idea. Kenning landed a $200,000 Department of Agriculture grant in 2010 to explore the possibility of turning logging scraps and smaller trees into chips or pellets that could be…

  16. Wood and Other Materials Used to Construct Nonresidential Buildings in the United States 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Adair; David B. McKeever; Chris Gaston; Margaret. Stewart

    2013-01-01

    The construction of low-rise nonresidential buildings is an important market for lumber, engineered wood products, and structural and nonstructural wood panels in the United States. This report examines low-rise nonresidential buildings of six or fewer stories. Those with more than six stories are normally severely restricted by building codes from being wood framed....

  17. Surplus biomass through energy efficient kilns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Jan-Olof; Westerlund, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The magnitude of the national heat demand for drying lumber in kilns is established. → Each part of the total heat consumption is divided and shown between the main drying conditions. → The potential to increase the energy efficiency in kilns with available techniques is presented. → The market demand for the biomass, available with increase kiln energy efficiency, is reviled. -- Abstract: The use of biomass in the European Union has increased since the middle of the 1990s, mostly because of high subsidies and CO 2 emission regulation through the Kyoto protocol. The sawmills are huge biomass suppliers to the market; out of the Swedish annual lumber production of 16.4 Mm 3 , 95% is produced by medium to large-volume sawmills with a lumber quotient of 47%. The remaining part is produced as biomass. An essential part (12%) of the entering timber is used for supply of heat in their production processes, mostly in the substantial drying process. The drying process is the most time and heat consuming process in the sawmill. This study was undertaken to determine the sawmills' national use of energy and potential magnitude of improvements. If the drying process can be made more effective, sawmills' own use of biomass can be decreased and allow a considerably larger supply to the biomass market through processed or unprocessed biomass, heat or electricity production. The national electricity and heat usage when drying the lumber have been analysed by theoretical evaluation and experimental validation at a batch kiln. The main conclusion is that the heat consumption for drying lumber among the Swedish sawmills is 4.9 TW h/year, and with available state-of-the-art techniques it is possible to decrease the national heat consumption by approximately 2.9 TW h. This additional amount of energy corresponds to the market's desire for larger energy supply.

  18. Economic analysis of wood energy valorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, Juliana.

    1988-01-01

    Companies linked to the lumber activities began to concern about the valorization of their industrial residues: either by creating new products or by utilizing them for energy generation. At the same time, companies from other sectors began investing in reforestations dedicated to energy generation (mainly eucalyptus), induced by the possibility of obtaining tax incentives and by the need of assuring their own provisions of wood, thus minimizing this raw-material, as well as its sensibility to the variation of its price in the market. However almost nothing have been researched, either about the economical feasibility of energetic valorization of the lumber in the form of industrial residues or as wood supplied by reforestation dedicated to energy generation. This dissertation propose to examine those cases analysing the concerned costs and their economical feasibility. (author). 20 refs., 19 figs., 32 tabs

  19. Percutaneous treatment of lumbar disc herniation by oxygen-ozone injection -clinical study with indication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhuying; Jiang Caimei; Wang Zhimin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical effect and the range of indications of oxygen-ozone treatment for lumber disc herniation. Methods: 6-15 ml of oxygen-ozone (35-45 μg/ml) were injected percutaneously into lumbar disc. In case of multiple disc herniations, the procedure could be taken with two discs for once. Results: 323 patients with 433 discs were treated by oxygen-ozone injection procedure. Total effective rate was 77.7%. Conclusions: The treatment of lumber disc herniation by oxygen-ozone injection is simple, safe and effective with mild trauma. Oxygen-ozone not only can oxidize the proteoglycan in the nucleus leading to the contraction of nucleus, but also provide anti-inflammation effect with pain relief and without complication yet. (authors)

  20. The State Investment and Innovation Policy for Development of Forest Sector: the Ecological-Economic Aspects and Mechanisms for Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzyubenko Oleksandr M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available he need for formation of the State investment and innovation policy for development of forest sector has been substantiated as an important prerequisite for overcoming investment deficits in both the public and the corporate sectors of forest and wood processing production. The main tendencies in the implementation of capital investments by the entities of forestry entrepreneurship, dynamics of involvement of credit resources by forestry enterprises, and shifts in the structure of capital investments in 2016 were analyzed as compared to 2013. It has been found that an important part of the State investment and innovation policy for development of forest sector should be incentives to accelerate the modernization and upgrading of the material-technical base of lumbering and wood processing. The need to form an institutional framework for partnership between the State and business entities in the part of financing the projects of modernization of lumbering and wood processing equipment has been substantiated.